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Sample records for institutionalised elderly australians

  1. Dairy food supplementation may reduce malnutrition risk in institutionalised elderly.

    PubMed

    Iuliano, Sandra; Poon, Shirley; Wang, Xiaofang; Bui, Minh; Seeman, Ego

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition in institutionalised elderly increases morbidity and care costs. Meat and dairy foods are high-quality protein sources so adequate intakes may reduce malnutrition risk. We aimed to determine whether inadequate intakes of meat and dairy foods contribute to malnutrition in institutionalised elderly. This cross-sectional study involved 215 elderly residents (70·2 % females, mean age 85·8 years) from twenty-one aged-care facilities in Melbourne, Australia. Dietary intake was assessed using observed plate waste. Food groups and serving sizes were based on the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Nutrient content was analysed using a computerised nutrient analysis software (Xyris). Malnutrition risk was assessed using the Mini Nutrition Assessment (MNA) tool; a score between 24 and 30 indicates normal nutritional status. Data were analysed using robust regression. Mean MNA score was 21·6 (sd 2·7). In total, 68 % of residents were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition (MNA score≤23·5). Protein intake was 87 (sd 28) % of the Australian recommended dietary intake (RDI). Consumption averaged 1 serving each of dairy foods and meat daily. Number of dairy and meat servings related to proportion of protein RDI (both P24 points). Provision of meat and dairy foods did not meet recommended levels. On the basis of current dietary intakes in aged-care residents, increasing consumption of dairy foods to the recommended four servings daily ensures protein adequacy and may reduce malnutrition risk in institutionalised elderly, and so reduce risk of comorbidities and costs associated with malnutrition.

  2. Ricinus communis treatment of denture stomatitis in institutionalised elderly.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, L A P; Montandon, A A B; Corbi, S C T; Moraes, T A; Fais, L M G

    2013-05-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of Ricinus communis (RC) with Nystatin (NYS) and Miconazole (MIC) in the treatment of institutionalised elderly with denture stomatitis (DS). They (n = 30) were randomly distributed into three groups: MIC, NYS or RC. Clinical and mycological evaluations were performed prior to the use of the antifungal (baseline) and repeated after 15 and 30 days of treatment. The sample was clinically examined for oral mucosal conditions. Standard photographs were taken of the palate, and the oral candidiasis was classified (Newton's criteria). Mycological investigation was performed by swabbing the palatal mucosa, and Candida spp. were quantified by counting the number of colony-forming units (cfu mL⁻¹). The clinical and mycological data were analysed, respectively by Wilcoxon and Student's t-test (α = 0.05). Significant improvement in the clinical appearance of DS in the MIC and RC groups was observed between the 1st and 3rd collections (MIC - P = 0.018; RC - P = 0.011) as well as between the 2nd and 3rd collections (MIC - P = 0.018; RC - P = 0.011). Neither groups showed a statistically significant reduction in cfu mL⁻¹ at any time. Although none of the treatments decreased the cfu mL⁻¹, it was concluded that Ricinus communis can improve the clinical condition of denture stomatitis in institutionalised elderly patients, showing similar results to Miconazole.

  3. Oral health and mortality risk in the institutionalised elderly

    PubMed Central

    Sandvik, Leiv; Gil-Montoya, José A.; Willumsen, Tiril

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examining oral health and oral hygiene as predictors of subsequent one-year survival in the institutionalized elderly. Design: It was hypothesized that oral health would be related to mortality in an institutionalized geriatric population. A 12-month prospective study of 292 elderly residing in nine geriatric institutions in Granada, Spain, was thus carried out to evaluate the association between oral health and mortality. Independent samples, T-test, chi-square test and Cox regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Sixty-three participants died during the 12-month follow-up. Results: Mortality was increased in denture users (RR = 2.18, p= 0.007) and in people suffering severe cognitive impairment (RR = 2. 24, p= 0.003). One-year mortality was 50% in participants having both these characteristics. Conclusions: Oral hygiene was not significantly associated with mortality. Cognitive impairment and wearing dentures increased the risk of death. One-year mortality was 50% in cognitively impaired residents wearing dentures as opposed to 10% in patients without dentures and cognitive impairment. Key words:Oral health, mortality risk, institutionalised elderly. PMID:22322487

  4. Antioxidant status in a group of institutionalised elderly people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena; Ortega, Rosa M; Andrés, Pedro; Aparicio, Aránzazu; González-Rodríguez, Liliana G; López-Sobaler, Ana M; Navia, Beatriz; Perea, José M; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Paula

    2016-05-28

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most important and prevalent diseases suffered by the elderly. Evidence exists that its onset and severity might be conditioned by antioxidant status. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between antioxidant status and COPD in institutionalised elderly people. In all, 183 elderly people aged >65 years (twenty-one had COPD and 160 healthy controls) were studied. The subjects' diets were investigated via the use of precise individual weighing for 7 d. Body weight, height, and biceps and triceps skinfold thickness were measured, and body fat (kg) and BMI (kg/m2) were calculated. Serum retinol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene and vitamin C levels were determined. Subjects with COPD ate less fruits than healthy controls (117 (sd 52) v. 192 (sd 161) g/d), their coverage of the recommended intake of vitamin C was smaller (150 (sd 45) v. 191 (sd 88) %; note that both exceeded 100 %) and their diets had a lower antioxidant capacity (6558 (sd 2381) v. 9328 (sd 5367) mmol trolox equivalent/d). Those with COPD had lower serum vitamin C and α-tocopherol concentrations than healthy controls (32·4 (sd 15·3) v. 41·5 (sd 14·8) µmol/l and 12·1 (sd 3·2) v. 13·9 (sd 2·8) µmol/l, respectively). In addition, subjects with α-tocopherol <14·1µmol/l (50th percentile) were at 6·43 times greater risk of having COPD than those subjects with ≥14·1µmol/l (OR 6·43; 95 % CI 1·17, 35·24; P<0·05), taking sex, age, use of tobacco, body fat and vitamin E intake as covariables. Subjects with COPD had diets of poorer antioxidant quality, especially with respect to vitamins C and E, compared with healthy controls.

  5. Dental prosthetic status and prosthetic needs of institutionalised elderly population in oldage homes of jabalpur city, madhya pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Deogade, Suryakant C; Vinay, S; Naidu, Sonal

    2013-12-01

    Oral disorders are cumulative throughout life and hence unfavourable outcomes are likely to be greatest among the elderly. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among institutionalized geriatric population in old-age homes of Jabalpur city, Madhya Pradesh, to assess their prosthetic status and prosthetic needs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in all the four old-age homes of Jabalpur city, Madhya Pradesh state, India. All residents aged 60 years and above formed the study population. The recording of prosthetic status and prosthetic needs was carried out according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) Oral Health Assessment Form (1997). A total of 224 individuals were included in the study of which 123 were females and 101 were males. Seventy five percent of the females and 55 % of the males had no prostheses in their upper arch and 61 % of the females and 76 % of the males had no prostheses in their lower arch. More number of males presented with 'Bridges' in their upper arch when compared to females (P value = 0.006). Highest prosthetic need in males was multi-unit prosthesis (42 % in upper arch and 41 % in lower arch) whereas, females' required full prosthesis (39 % in both the upper arch and lower arches). Ageing presents some formidable challenges, particularly with the institutionalised. This study clearly demonstrates a high insufficiency of prosthetic care among the institutionalized elderly population. Any preparation towards the provision of oral health care should not be limited to treatment alone but, more importantly focus on empowering this elderly community with information and education programmes.

  6. Effect evaluation of a two-year complex intervention to reduce loneliness in non-institutionalised elderly Dutch people

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Public health policy calls for intervention programmes to reduce loneliness in the ageing population. So far, numerous loneliness interventions have been developed, with effectiveness demonstrated for few of these interventions. The loneliness intervention described in this manuscript distinguishes itself from others by including multiple intervention components and targeting individuals and their environment. Intervention components included a mass media campaign, information meetings, psychosocial group courses, social activities organised by neighbours, and training of intermediaries. The aim of this manuscript is to study the effects of this integrated approach on initial and long-term outcomes. Methods A quasi-experimental pre-test post-test intervention study was conducted among non-institutionalised elderly people aged 65 years and over to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention by comparing the intervention community and the control community. Data on outputs, initial and long-term outcomes, and the overall goal were collected by self-administered questionnaires. Data of 858 elderly people were available for the analyses. To assess the effect linear regression analyses with adjustments for age, gender, church attendance, and mental health were used. In addition, the process evaluation provided information about the reach of the intervention components. Results After two years, 39% of the elderly people were familiar with the intervention programme. The intervention group scored more favourably than the control group on three subscales of the initial outcome, motivation (−4.4%, 95% CI−8.3-−0.7), perceived social support (−8.2%, 95% CI−13.6-−2.4), and subjective norm (−11.5%, 95% CI−17.4-−5.4). However, no overall effects were observed for the long-term outcome, social support, and overall goal, loneliness. Conclusions Two years after its initiation the reach of the intervention programme was modest. Though no effect of the

  7. Reduction in hospital admissions for pneumonia in non-institutionalised elderly people as a result of influenza vaccination: a case-control study in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Puig-Barberà, J; Márquez-Calderón, S; Masoliver-Fores, A; Lloria-Paes, F; Ortega-Dicha, A; Gil-Martín, M; Calero-Martínez, M J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in preventing hospital admission for pneumonia in non-institutionalised elderly people. DESIGN: This was a case-control study. SETTING: All three public hospitals in the Castellón area of Spain. PARTICIPANTS: Cases were people aged 65 or more not living in an institution who were admitted to hospital for pneumonia between November 15, 1994 and March 31, 1995. Each case was matched with two sex matched control subjects aged 65 years or older admitted to hospital in the same week for acute abdominal surgical conditions or trauma. The sampling of incident cases was consecutive. Eighty three cases and 166 controls were identified and included in the study. MEASUREMENTS: Trained interviewers completed a questionnaire for each subject on the vaccination status, smoking habits, previous diseases, health care use, social contacts, family background, the vaccination status of the family carer, home characteristics, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: The adjusted odds ratio of the influenza vaccination preventing admission to hospital for pneumonia was 0.21 (95% confidence interval 0.09, 0.55). The variables which best explained the risk of being a case were age, intensity of social contacts, health care use, previous diseases, and the existence of a vaccinated family carer. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccination reduced significantly hospital admissions for pneumonia in non-institutionalised elderly people. PMID:9425463

  8. Institutionalising of public health.

    PubMed

    Karkee, R

    2014-01-01

    Though public health situation in Nepal is under-developed, the public health education and workforce has not been prioritised. Nepal should institutionalise public health education by means of accrediting public health courses, registration of public health graduates in a data bank and increasing job opportunities for public health graduates in various institutions at government sector.

  9. Measurement of Aging Anxiety in an Elderly Australian Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Rochelle E.; Coates, Rosemary; Ferroni, Paola

    1998-01-01

    The Anxiety About Aging Scale (AAS) was modified to produce an instrument designed to assess aging anxiety in an elderly population; specifically, the future orientation of the AAS was modified for use with older adults. Validity testing was done on elderly individuals living in an independent community (N=123). (Author/EMK)

  10. Elder participation and senior power in Australian electoral politics.

    PubMed

    Borowski, Allan; Hudson, Robert B; McCormack, John

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to assess the "goodness of fit" between the social science literature on the impact of older voters on electoral outcomes and the Australian experience of the politics of aging. While the literature suggests that the notion of senior power is a flawed one, Australia's 2004 federal election campaign indicated that this is not quite so. This article offers a possible explanation for the difference between the literature and the Australian experience in terms of the calculus that underpinned the election campaign, namely, capturing the votes of swing voters in marginal seats including "silver" swing voters in seats with a disproportionate number of older voters. The preliminary findings of a small exploratory study of campaign strategists suggest that there may be a real basis to this explanation. Thus, there does appear to be some basis for asserting that "gray power"does play a role in Australian national electoral politics.

  11. The cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination in elderly Australians: an exploratory analysis of the vaccine efficacy required.

    PubMed

    Newall, Anthony T; Dehollain, Juan Pablo

    2014-03-10

    It is important to consider the value for money offered by existing elderly influenza vaccination programs, particularly as doubts persist about the magnitude of the effectiveness of such programs. An informative approach to explore the value of vaccination is to consider what vaccine efficacy would be required for a program to be considered cost-effective. To estimate the cost-effectiveness of the current elderly (65+ years) influenza vaccination program in Australia, we modelled how the hypothetical removal of vaccination would increase current disease burden estimates depending on alternative vaccine efficacy assumptions. The base-case results of the analysis found that the existing elderly vaccination program is likely to be cost-effective (under A$50,000 per quality-adjusted life year gained) if the vaccine efficacy is above ∼30%. This study offers reassurance that the influenza vaccination of elderly Australians is likely to offer value for money.

  12. The use and impact of cancer medicines in routine clinical care: methods and observations in a cohort of elderly Australians

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Sallie-Anne; Schaffer, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Introduction After medicines have been subsidised in Australia we know little about their use in routine clinical practice, impact on resource utilisation, effectiveness or safety. Routinely collected administrative health data are available to address these issues in large population-based pharmacoepidemiological studies. By bringing together cross-jurisdictional data collections that link drug exposure to real-world outcomes, this research programme aims to evaluate the use and impact of cancer medicines in a subset of elderly Australians in the real-world clinical setting. Methods and analysis This ongoing research programme involves a series of retrospective cohort studies of Australian Government Department of Veterans’ Affairs (DVA) clients. The study population includes 104 635 veterans who reside in New South Wales, Australia, and were aged 65 years and over as of 1 July 2004. We will investigate trends in cancer medicines use according to cancer type and other sociodemographic characteristics as well as predictors of the initiation of cancer medicines and other treatment modalities, survival and adverse outcomes among patients with cancer. The programme is underpinned by the linkage of eight health administrative databases under the custodianship of the DVA and the New South Wales Ministry of Health, including cancer notifications, medicines dispensing data, hospitalisation data and health services data. The cancer notifications database is available from 1994 with all other databases available from 2005 onwards. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been granted by the DVA and New South Wales Population and Health Service Research Ethics Committees. Results Results will be reported in peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and policy forums. The programme has high translational potential, providing invaluable evidence about cancer medicines in an elderly population who are under-represented in clinical trials. PMID:24793244

  13. [Effectiveness of training interventions aimed at reducing physical restraints in institutionalised older people: A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Briones-Peralta, María Ángeles; Rodríguez-Martín, Beatriz

    There is some controversy about the use of physical restraints in institutionalised elderly people. The aim of this review is to analyse studies that evaluated the effectiveness of training interventions targeting interdisciplinary teams aimed at preventing, reducing or eliminating the use of physical restraints in nursing homes. A systematic search was performed in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science to find clinical trials, published in English or in Spanish, that examined training sessions for interdisciplinary teams aimed at preventing, minimising or eliminating the use of physical restrains in institutionalised people over 65 years. Ten papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The findings show conflicting results on the effectiveness of training sessions. Furthermore, they lack sufficient empirical evidence to be able to assert that training sessions brought about a reduction in the use of physical restraints. More studies are needed that analyse the effectiveness of these interventions to prevent or eliminate the use of physical restraints in these institutions.

  14. Cost-utility of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-based treatment compared with thiazide diuretic-based treatment for hypertension in elderly Australians considering diabetes as comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Enayet K; Ademi, Zanfina; Moss, John R; Wing, Lindon M H; Reid, Christopher M

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)-based treatment compared with thiazide diuretic-based treatment for hypertension in elderly Australians considering diabetes as an outcome along with cardiovascular outcomes from the Australian government's perspective.We used a cost-utility analysis to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Data on cardiovascular events and new onset of diabetes were used from the Second Australian National Blood Pressure Study, a randomized clinical trial comparing diuretic-based (hydrochlorothiazide) versus ACEI-based (enalapril) treatment in 6083 elderly (age ≥65 years) hypertensive patients over a median 4.1-year period. For this economic analysis, the total study population was stratified into 2 groups. Group A was restricted to participants diabetes free at baseline (n = 5642); group B was restricted to participants with preexisting diabetes mellitus (type 1 or type 2) at baseline (n = 441). Data on utility scores for different events were used from available published literatures; whereas, treatment and adverse event management costs were calculated from direct health care costs available from Australian government reimbursement data. Costs and QALYs were discounted at 5% per annum. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the uncertainty around utilities and cost data.After a treatment period of 5 years, for group A, the ICER was Australian dollars (AUD) 27,698 (&OV0556; 18,004; AUD 1-&OV0556; 0.65) per QALY gained comparing ACEI-based treatment with diuretic-based treatment (sensitive to the utility value for new-onset diabetes). In group B, ACEI-based treatment was a dominant strategy (both more effective and cost-saving). On probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the ICERs per QALY gained were always below AUD 50,000 for group B; whereas for group A, the

  15. Can the elderly handle the heat? A retrospective case-control study of the impact of heat waves on older patients attending an inner city Australian emergency department.

    PubMed

    Dalip, Janelle; Phillips, Georgina A; Jelinek, George A; Weiland, Tracey J

    2015-03-01

    The elderly have a higher mortality rate during heat waves and may, therefore, have higher morbidity. We investigated the effects of high ambient environmental temperature on emergency department (ED) function and patient (age >64 years) morbidity. A retrospective case-control study of ED presentations at an Australian metropolitan hospital from September 2005 to May 2010 was undertaken. Cases comprised 1297 ED presentations surrounding heat threshold days. These were compared with randomly selected presentations on nonthreshold days (3 controls: 1 case), analyzing patient morbidity and ED function variables: triage category, presenting complaint, demographics, arrival mode, time to doctor, ED length of stay (LOS), ED disposition, and discharge diagnoses. A greater proportion of cases presented with "weakness," and were diagnosed with "dehydration." There was little effect on ED function, with ED LOS 24 minutes longer for cases and time to doctor 3 minutes shorter. This study found limited evidence of increased morbidity in the elderly during heat wave conditions.

  16. Role of Dietary Pattern Analysis in Determining Cognitive Status in Elderly Australian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ashby-Mitchell, Kimberly; Peeters, Anna; Anstey, Kaarin J.

    2015-01-01

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to determine the association between dietary patterns and cognitive function and to examine how classification systems based on food groups and food items affect levels of association between diet and cognitive function. The present study focuses on the older segment of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab) sample (age 60+) that completed the food frequency questionnaire at Wave 1 (1999/2000) and the mini-mental state examination and tests of memory, verbal ability and processing speed at Wave 3 (2012). Three methods were used in order to classify these foods before applying PCA. In the first instance, the 101 individual food items asked about in the questionnaire were used (no categorisation). In the second and third instances, foods were combined and reduced to 32 and 20 food groups, respectively, based on nutrient content and culinary usage—a method employed in several other published studies for PCA. Logistic regression analysis and generalized linear modelling was used to analyse the relationship between PCA-derived dietary patterns and cognitive outcome. Broader food group classifications resulted in a greater proportion of food use variance in the sample being explained (use of 101 individual foods explained 23.22% of total food use, while use of 32 and 20 food groups explained 29.74% and 30.74% of total variance in food use in the sample, respectively). Three dietary patterns were found to be associated with decreased odds of cognitive impairment (CI). Dietary patterns derived from 101 individual food items showed that for every one unit increase in ((Fruit and Vegetable Pattern: p = 0.030, OR 1.061, confidence interval: 1.006–1.118); (Fish, Legumes and Vegetable Pattern: p = 0.040, OR 1.032, confidence interval: 1.001–1.064); (Dairy, Cereal and Eggs Pattern: p = 0.003, OR 1.020, confidence interval: 1.007–1.033)), the odds of cognitive impairment decreased. Different results were

  17. Institutionalising Teacher Clusters in South Africa: Dilemmas and Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jita, Loyiso C.; Mokhele, Matseliso L.

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, teacher clusters are being used as a substitute for the more traditional approaches to the professional development of teachers. With this goal in mind, many provincial education departments in South Africa have sought to institutionalise and encourage the formation of teacher clusters as vehicles for the continuing professional…

  18. Child violence experiences in institutionalised/orphanage care.

    PubMed

    Sherr, Lorraine; Roberts, Kathryn J; Gandhi, Natasha

    2017-03-01

    Institutions are not necessarily good environments for children. In the face of challenges such as HIV, Ebola, poverty, conflict and disaster the numbers have grown rather than reduced. Some countries have closed institutions down -driven by findings that cognitive developmental delay is associated with institutional care. Yet insight into abuse and violence within institutionalised settings is neglected. Maltreatment -violence and abuse -may be an issue. This systematic review series addresses violence and abuse experiences in institutionalised care, exploring firstly the frequency of abuse/violence in institutions, secondly any interventions to reduce such violence or abuse and thirdly the perpetrators of such violence or abuse. The final systematic review updates the findings on cognitive delay associated with institutionalised care. With a violence lens, cognitive delay may well be considered under the umbrella of neglect. Maltreatment and abuse may be a driver of cognitive delay. The keyword search covered several electronic databases and studies were included for data abstraction if they met adequacy criteria. Eight studies were identified on the prevalence of abuse in institutions and a further three studies reported on interventions. Only one study was identified documenting peer on peer violence in institutions. Sixty-six studies were identified examining cognitive development for institutionalised children. All but two of these record cognitive deficits associated with institutionalisation. Only two asked about violence or abuse which was found to be higher in institutionalised children. Overall the abuse experiences of children in institutions are poorly recorded, and in one study violence was associated with high suicidal attempts. The major intervention pathway for ameliorating cognitive challenge seems to be placement out of the institutions which shows benefits and redresses some cognitive outcomes - yet not a total panacea. The single study

  19. Elderly Mental Health: Needs*

    PubMed Central

    Parkar, Shubhangi R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights the mental health needs of the elderly. It tackles the issues of their institutionalisation and community care. Rapid urbanisation in Indian society throws up special problems in elderly care. There is great evidence of a raise in morbidity, mortality, hospitalisation and loss of functional status related to common mental disorders in the elderly patients. Overlap of depression and anxiety is very common with up to almost half of the elderly patients reporting significant depressive and anxiety symptoms. Also, depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in late life. Growth in the elderly population means a direct increase in age related diseases such as dementia and poor mental health outcomes such as depression, anxiety, suicide and serious constraints on the quality of life among elderly individuals. The need to identify new and unmet problem areas and develop efficient therapeutic outcomes for this special population is stressed. PMID:25838727

  20. Institutionalising cost sharing for catchment management: lessons from land and water management planning in Australia.

    PubMed

    Marshall, G R

    2002-01-01

    A recurring theme in recent Australian reports on integrated catchment management (ICM) has been the need to institutionalise more formally the cost-sharing commitments made within this domain. This represents a significant departure from earlier visions of ICM as essentially promoting voluntary uptake of resource-conservation measures. Two important questions raised by this nascent policy shift are addressed in this paper. Firstly, how might cost-sharing arrangements be given greater formality without undermining the efforts of ICM to increase the preparedness of civil stakeholders to voluntarily, or informally, accept responsibility for sharing costs? Secondly, how is it possible to formalise cost-sharing arrangements so that the transaction costs of enforcing compliance with them remain affordable? Answers to these questions are explored through a case study of the Land and Water Management Planning Program now being successfully implemented in the irrigation districts of the central-Murray region of southern inland New South Wales (NSW) surrounding Deniliquin. The sophisticated system of institutional arrangements introduced in the program to facilitate monitoring, enforcement and adaptive management of cost-sharing commitments is discussed, and insights into how informally motivated cooperation can enhance the affordability and political feasibility of formal arrangements are presented.

  1. Relationship between Quantity and Frequency of Alcohol Use and Indices of Suicidal Behavior in an Elderly Australian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaff, Jon J.; Almeida, Osvaldo P.; Witte, Tracy K.; Waesche, Matthew C.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Relatively little research has been conducted on the relationship between alcohol misuse and suicidal behavior among the elderly. The current study's aim was to examine whether quantity and frequency of alcohol use and the interaction between these variables are related to current suicidal ideation, previous suicidal ideation/intent, and past…

  2. Reform and community care: has de-institutionalisation delivered for people with intellectual disability?

    PubMed

    Burrell, Beverley; Trip, Henrietta

    2011-06-01

    Reform and community care: has de-institutionalisation delivered for people with intellectual disability? In this paper we provide a post structural analysis of the theoretical shifts informing changes to service delivery over the past 150 years in relation to people with intellectual disability. We utilise the New Zealand experience of reform as it reflected global knowledge at any given period. Firstly, we address the historical modes of treatment and care, with reference to the eugenics movement, the concepts informing 'Prisons of protection' and moral treatment. Secondly the paper traces reforms commencing in the 1960s where changes from institutional care to community care were informed by humanistic ideals, a key driver being the concept of normalisation. Theorists offered competing discourses that formed the bases of arguments for the status quo whilst resistant voices advocated change. Covering such significant changes leads us to assess the state of de-institutionalisation' as it stands today and how it may be perceived in the future. We assert that Foucault's genealogical approach provides analytic tools to uncover the dynamics of changing attitudes and approaches to service delivery. In applying a Foucauldian lens to the trajectory of reforms concerning institutionalisation to de-institutionalisation we question whether a form of re-institutionalisation may be occurring.

  3. The effect of institutionalisation on elevated IgD and IgG levels in patients with Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    McMillan, B C; Hanson, R P; Golubjatnikov, G; Sinha, S K

    1975-01-01

    Serum levels of IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM and levels of secretory IgA (S-IgA) in nasal specimens were quantitated by radial immunodiffusion in a group of forty-one institutionalised patients with Down's syndrome (all non-disjunctive trisomy-G karyotype) and their age, sex and race matched controls, consisting of institutionalised non-mongols and normal non-institutionalised subjects. Analysis of levels of all immunoglobulins by age and sex showed no differences within the populations. However, levels of IgA, IgD and IgG were found significantly higher in mongols than in the other two populations. The concentrations of IgM were lower in mongols than in other institutionalised retardates but higher than non-institutionalised normal controls. Levels of S-IgA or IgE were similar in all populations. It was shown that the length of institutionalisation was associated with elevated levels of IgA and depressed levels of IgM in mongols. However, elevated IgG levels in mongols did not appear to be associated with their length of institutionalisation. Similarly, elevated levels of IgD in mongols were not associated with their length of institutionalisation.

  4. Leadership Challenges of Strategic Research Centres in Relation to Degree of Institutionalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomqvist, Christine; Agrell, Cecilia; Sandahl, Christer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse leadership challenges in the organisation of strategic research centres, focusing on the relationship between organisation and the level of institutionalisation. Four main themes of leadership challenges were identified: (1) the "changing university context," including relationships…

  5. Institutionalisation of Internal Quality Assurance: Focusing on Institutional Work and the Significance of Disciplinary Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukasovic, Martina

    2014-01-01

    The study suggests that institutionalisation of a comprehensive and systematic approach to internal quality assurance of higher education institutions inspired by the Bologna Process has regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive dimensions. It includes development of structures and procedures for quality assurance, as well as boosting of the…

  6. Continuities and Discontinuities in the Origins of the Institutionalisation of Pedagogy in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jover, Gonzalo; Rabazas, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    This article applies the current international interest in the institutionalisation of pedagogic knowledge to the study of its origins as an academic discipline in Spain. The focus of attention lies in the unexplored issues, the ideological tensions and the recurrent discontinuities that surrounded this process. The starting point is a cryptic…

  7. Emotional intelligence and health-related quality of life in institutionalised Spanish older adults.

    PubMed

    Luque-Reca, Octavio; Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther; Augusto-Landa, José María

    2015-06-01

    This study explores the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a sample of Spanish older adults who are institutionalised in long-term care (LTC) facilities. One hundred fifteen institutionalised individuals (47.82% women; 88.3 ± 7.9 years) from southern Spain completed a set of questionnaires that included measures of EI, health and personality. Data were analysed via hierarchical regression. After controlling for personality and sociodemographic variables, the EI dimensions, emotional comprehension and emotional facilitation, accounted for part of the variance in several HRQoL facets. These dimensions could have an important role in the HRQoL of residents in LTC. Moreover, the use of a performance measure addresses the limitations of previous studies that have relied on self-report measures. These aspects underscore the importance of the results of this study.

  8. Australian Defense.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Australia in World Affairs 1966-1970, (Melbourne: Cheshire Publishing Pty Ltd , 1974), p. 258. 6Department of Defence, Australian Defence Review...Pvt, Ltd .: 1977), p. 69. 74 17Desmond Ball, "American Bases: Implications for Australian Securi- ty" The Strategic and Defence Studies Centre...million with aircraft, or 3) a " Woolworth " carrier costing $300-400 million with aircraft.33 Defence planners are now faced with determin- ing which

  9. The prevention of vitamin D deficiency in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Dunnigan, M G; Fraser, S A; McIntosh, W B; Moseley, H; Sumner, D J

    1986-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in the house-bound and institutionalised elderly population of Britain. A study of patients over 65 years discharged with a diagnosis of osteomalacia from Greater Glasgow Health Board hospitals between 1970 and 1981 inclusive showed a low incidence in the 65 to 74 years age group but a steeply rising incidence in older age groups. The majority (83%) of patients were female. The fortification of margarine, butter and milk with concentrations of vitamin D acceptable to the general population does not produce significant elevations in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels in vitamin D-deficient elderly patients. Low intensity background ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and intermittent high intensity UVR produce significant elevations in serum 25-OHD levels in elderly patients but both methods have disadvantages which limit their widespread use. Vitamin D supplements equivalent to 10 micrograms daily produce significant elevations in serum 25-OHD levels in vitamin D-deficient elderly patients. A vitamin D supplement policy for the housebound and institutionalised elderly population of Britain is required.

  10. Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy in three generations, with clinical courses from nearly asymptomatic elderly to severe juvenile, in an Australian family of Macedonian descent.

    PubMed

    Vinton, Anita; Fahey, Michael C; O'Brien, Terence J; Shaw, Janet; Storey, Elsdon; Gardner, R J McKinlay; Mitchell, Peter J; Du Sart, Desirée; King, John O

    2005-07-15

    We report a three-generation Caucasian family of Macedonian origin with dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA), manifesting as very mild elderly onset, severe young adult onset, and severe childhood onset presentations in the three generations. The grandparental trinucleotide expansion size (52 repeats) is the smallest overtly pathogenic mutation yet reported. This 67-year-old man displayed only subtle neurological and cognitive deficits on formal examination and very slight signs on MRI. His son had developed a choreiform disorder at age 32 years, and by his 40s suffered severe dementia and motor decline. The grandson, the proband, presented as a teenager with progressive myoclonic epilepsy, dysarthria, ataxia, and cognitive decline, having manifesting learning difficulties from the age 5 years. Atrophin-1 expansion sizes of 52, 57, and 66 repeats were demonstrated in the three patients, respectively. Given an absence of any other indicative history in the family, we speculate that the mutation may have expanded from a 'high-end' normal allele to a pathogenic size at the grandfather's conception, or that one of his parents may have had a pathogenic mutation at the lowest end of the expanded range.

  11. Australian Extinctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…

  12. Peer Coaching as an Institutionalised Tool for Professional Development: The Perceptions of Tutors in a Nigerian College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aderibigbe, Semiyu Adejare; Ajasa, Folorunso Adekemi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the perceptions of college tutors on peer coaching as a tool for professional development to determine its formal institutionalisation. Design/methodology/approach: A survey questionnaire was used for data collection, while analysis of data was done using descriptive statistics. Findings: The…

  13. Australian Brain Alliance.

    PubMed

    2016-11-02

    A proposal for an Australian Brain Initiative (ABI) is under development by members of the Australian Brain Alliance. Here we discuss the goals of the ABI, its areas of research focus, its context in the Australian research setting, and its necessity for ensuring continued success for Australian brain research.

  14. Communication: Are Australians Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansford, B. C.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the question of the distinctive nature of communication in Australia. Discusses nonverbal messages, gender concerns, historical influences on communication, the Australian accent, communication with indigenous persons, communication apprehension, and classroom communication. Argues that Australians' communication is relatively similar to…

  15. Frailty in elderly people with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Portilla Franco, Maria Eugenia; Tornero Molina, Fernando; Gil Gregorio, Pedro

    In recent years, the concept of frailty as a "state of pre-disability" has been widely accepted by those involved in the care of the elderly. Its importance lies not only in its high prevalence - more than 25% in people over 85 years of age - but it is also considered an independent risk factor of disability, institutionalisation and mortality amongst the elderly. The study of renal function is relevant in patients with major comorbidities. Studies have shown a significant association between chronic kidney disease and the development of adverse clinical outcomes such as heart disease, heart failure, end-stage renal disease, increased susceptibility to infections and greater functional impairment. Frailty can be reversed, which is why a study of frailty in patients with chronic kidney disease is of particular interest. This article aims to describe the association between ageing, frailty and chronic kidney disease in light of the most recent and relevant scientific publications.

  16. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-07-01

    We explore about fifty different Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarize the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses. We show that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, elders or medicine men claimed to be able to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their roles as providers and protectors within their communities. We also show that some Aboriginal groups seem to have understood the motions of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.

  17. Impact of home and community-based services on hospitalisation and institutionalisation among individuals eligible for long-term care insurance in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This population-based retrospective cohort study aimed to clarify the impact of home and community-based services on the hospitalisation and institutionalisation of individuals certified as eligible for long-term care insurance (LTCI) benefits. Methods Health insurance data and LTCI data were combined into a database of 1,020 individuals in two farming communities in Hokkaido who were enrolled in Citizen's Health Insurance. They had not received long-term care services prior to April 1, 2000 and were newly certified as eligible for Long-Term Care Insurance benefits between April 1, 2000 and February 29, 2008. The analysis covered 565 subjects who had not been hospitalised or institutionalised at the time of first certification of LTCI benefits. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of hospitalisation or institutionalisation or death after the initial certification were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model. The predictors were age, sex, eligibility level, area of residence, income, year of initial certification and average monthly outpatient medical expenditures, in addition to average monthly total home and community-based services expenditures (analysis 1), the use or no use of each type of service (analysis 2), and average monthly expenditures for home-visit and day-care types of services, the use or no use of respite care, and the use or no use of rental services for assistive devices (analysis 3). Results Users of home and community-based services were less likely than non-users to be hospitalised or institutionalised. Among the types of services, users of respite care (HR: 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55-0.93) and rental services for assistive devices (HR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.54-0.92) were less likely to be hospitalised or institutionalised than non-users. For those with relatively light needs, users of day care were also less likely to be hospitalised or institutionalized than non-users (HR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.61-0.98). Conclusions

  18. Elder abuse and neglect: challenges and directions for legal reform.

    PubMed

    Breedon, Laura

    2010-09-01

    The last two decades have heralded an increased community and professional awareness of the phenomenon of elder abuse and the challenges it poses to the enjoyment of the human rights of some older people. The contemporary Australian legal system provides many of the components of a framework required to assist in the promotion of the rights of the elderly and in the prevention and remedy of elder abuse. This framework acts in concert with health and community services dedicated to the advancement of health and wellbeing into old age. In the future, the acknowledgment and adoption of international legal principles which are directed to the needs of the elderly, the reform of existing domestic legislation and the development of new elder-specific statutes may all impact upon the incidence and consequences of elder abuse. To date, no Australian jurisdiction has adopted a legislative regime targeted specifically at the issues confronting older Australians who may be vulnerable to abuse and neglect. This column looks at some of the options for legal reform in this area.

  19. Australian Mineral Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides details on the philosophy and operation of the Australian Mineral Foundation, established in 1970 to update professionals in the mining and petroleum industries. Services in continuing education courses and to secondary school teachers and students are described. (CS)

  20. Research Readings. Australian Apprenticeships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Nigel, Ed.

    This volume on apprenticeships in Australia summarizes 11 research studies. After an "Introduction" (Nigel Smart), the reports are: "Apprenticeship in Australia: A Concise History" (John Ray); "Issues and Directions from the Australian Apprenticeship and Traineeship Literature" (Stephen Saunders); "Determinants…

  1. Elderly Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... peaking in the middle adulthood, ages 45-49). • Firearms were the most common means (72.1%) used for completing suicide among the elderly. Men use firearms more often than women. • Alcohol or substance abuse ...

  2. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, and injuries. There ...

  3. Clinicopathological Findings of Suicide in the Elderly: Three Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peisah, Carmelle; Snowdon, John; Kril, Jillian; Rodriguez, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The neuropathological correlates of suicide in older persons have received little research attention. Our recent study of elderly suicide victims from an Australian forensic medicine department (n = 143), unlike a previous case-control study, did not find an increased prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in older persons who committed suicide…

  4. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Carer Stress on Subsequent Institutionalisation of Community-Dwelling Older People

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Nora-Ann; Hickey, Anne; Burns, Annette; Murphy, Paul; Doyle, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background In the caregiving literature there is a common assertion that a higher level of carer stress is a critical determinant of premature ending of homecare. However, this contention has not been systematically assessed. We therefore systematically reviewed and meta-analysed the prospective association between various forms of carer stress and subsequent institutionalisation of community-dwelling older people. Methods Systematic literature search of prospective studies measuring carer stress at baseline and institutionalisation at follow-up. Given substantial interchangeability in the measurement of carer stress, we included a wide number of exposure measures, namely: carer stress, burden, depression, distress, anxiety, burnout, and strain. Institutionalisation included both acute and long-term care utilisation. The standardised mean difference between stressed and non-stressed carers was the primary measure of effect. We assessed study quality with the Crowe Critical Appraisal Tool (CCAT). Pre-planned sensitivity analysis included examination of estimates according to study size; decade published; study quality according to quartiles of CCAT scores; population; follow-up period; study design and impact of adjusted or unadjusted estimates. Results The search yielded 6,963 articles. After exclusions, we analysed data from 54 datasets. The meta-analysis found that while carer stress has a significant effect on subsequent institutionalisation of care recipients, the overall effect size was negligible (SMD=0·05, 95% CI=0·04–0·07). Sensitivity analyses found that, the effect size was higher for measurements of stress than for other measures, though still relatively small (SMD=0·23, 95% CI=0·09–0·38). Thus, whether analysing the association between carer stress, burden, distress, or depression with either acute or long-term care, the effect size remains small to negligible. Concurrently, we found estimates reduce over time and were smaller with larger

  5. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Consequences for Indigenous Australians in North Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine risk and protective factors associated with the consequences of card gambling and commercial gambling for Indigenous Australians in north Queensland. With Indigenous Elders' approval and using qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 Indigenous and 48 non-Indigenous…

  6. Australian Film Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Myles P.

    Although Australia had a vigorous film industry in the silent film era, it was stifled in the 1930s when United States and British interests bought up the Australian distribution channels and closed down the indigenous industry. However, the industry and film study have undergone a renaissance since the advent of the Labor government in 1972,…

  7. Trialling the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashman, Di

    2010-01-01

    In 2010, St. Leonards Primary School in Tasmania, along with other selected schools throughout Australia, trialled the draft Australian Curriculum: Mathematics. Mathematics had been a whole school focus at St. Leonards Primary School for several years, and the school found that the opportunity to be part of the trial strongly connected with their…

  8. Researching Australian Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxby, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    When in 1962 the author began to research the history of Australian children's literature, access to the primary sources was limited and difficult. From a catalogue drawer in the Mitchell Library of hand-written cards marked "Children's books" he could call up from the stacks, in alphabetical order, piles of early publications. His notes…

  9. Numeracy and Australian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgasz, Helen; Leder, Gilah

    2016-01-01

    Australian teachers, recruited via Facebook, completed an online survey about aspects of numeracy. The survey was designed to explore views on numeracy and capacity to respond to numeracy tasks. In this paper, we focus primarily on responses to two numeracy tasks--one numerical, the other requiring critical evaluation. On the first item, 40%…

  10. Music in Australian Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartle, Graham

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a survey of music in Australian schools. The survey included all types of schools, and includes facilities and equipment for musical education, and the use made of them. The courses of study, organization of musical activities, finance, supervision, teacher training, and…

  11. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek

    2013-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, the focus in this issue is on Measurement in the Measurement and Geometry strand. The small unit of work on measurement presented in this article has activities that can be modified to meet the requirements of…

  12. A pilot duplicate diet study on manganese, selenium and chromium intakes in institutionalised children and adolescents from Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Briones, Mercedes; Muros, José Joaquín; Seiquer, Isabel; Sánchez, José Antonio; Rodríguez, Guillermo; Giménez, Rafael

    2015-11-28

    Hidden hunger occurs in the presence of an otherwise nutritionally or energetically appropriate diet that is deficient in essential vitamins and minerals. Guatemala has the highest rate of child malnutrition in Latin America and the prevalence of hidden hunger is high. The aim of this study was to determine the Mn, Se and Cr dietary intakes in Guatemalan institutionalised children (4-14 years), a population group at high risk of mineral deficiency. For this purpose, the contents of Mn, Se and Cr were analysed in a duplicate diet (for 7 consecutive days) by electrothermal atomisation-atomic absorption spectrophotometry following acid digestion. Mn, Se and Cr intakes from the duplicate diets were in the range of 1·3-2·31 mg/d, 58·7-69·6 µg/d and 6·32-27·57 µg/d, respectively. Mn and Cr values were below current recommended daily intakes. A cereal- and legumes-based diet is habitually consumed by this population. Local vegetables, fruits and nutritional supplements are included daily, but the consumption of fish, meat, eggs and dairy products is very infrequent or negligible. Mean daily energy intake from the 7-d diet was 8418·2 kJ (2012 kcal), with a macronutrient energy distribution of carbohydrates 69·4 %, proteins 12·3 % and fats 18·3 %. Correlations between Mn, Se and Cr intakes and energy and other nutrient intakes were also evaluated. The present findings will help establish new nutritional strategies for this and similar population groups.

  13. Potentially inappropriate prescribing in institutionalised older patients in Spain: the STOPP-START criteria compared with the Beers criteria

    PubMed Central

    Ubeda, Amalia; Ferrándiz, Luisa; Maicas, Nuria; Gomez, Cristina; Bonet, Montserrat; Peris, Jose E.

    Objective The aims of this study were to identify potentially inappropriate prescribing using the Beers and STOPP criteria. The START criteria were applied to detect prescription omission in the geriatric population. We compared the utility of these criteria in institutionalised older people. Methods Descriptive study reviewing the medication and clinical records of 81 residents (aged 65 years and more) by pharmacists in a nursing home in the Lleida region (Spain). Results The mean patients’'age was 84 (SD=8) years, with an average of 5 drugs per resident (total prescriptions: 416 medicines). The Beers criteria identified potentially inappropriate medication use in 25% of patients and 48% of patients used at least 1 inappropriate medication according to STOPP criteria. The most frequent potentially inappropriate medications for both criteria were long-acting benzodiazepines and NSAIDs. START detected 58 potential prescribing omissions in 44% of patients. Calcium-vitamin D supplementation in osteoporosis was the most frequent rule (15%), but omissions corresponding to the cardiovascular system implied 23% of patients. Conclusions The STOPP-START criteria reveal that potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) is a highly prevalent problem among Spanish nursing home residents, and a statistically significant positive correlation was found between the number of medicines prescribed and the number of PIP detected in this study. The STOPP criteria detect a larger number of PI medications in this geriatric population than the Beers criteria. The prescribing omissions detected by the START criteria are relevant and require intervention. Pharmacists’ review of medications may help identify potentially inappropriate prescribing and, through an interdisciplinary approach, working with physicians may improve prescribing practices among geriatric residents of nursing homes. PMID:24155822

  14. Isolated Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Lucy Rose; And Others

    The Minnesota Senior Study, the first statewide survey of the elderly in nearly 20 years, was based on a telephone survey with a statewide sample of 1,500 non-institutionalized Minnesotans age 60 and older. Substantial numbers of Minnesotans age 60-plus were found to have low social contacts. Five percent, or about 33,000 older Minnesotans, fell…

  15. Hardening: Australian for Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    ADF towards homeland defense. For further details, see Jeffrey Grey. A Military History of Australia. Melbourne, Australia, Cambridge University...is a simplified explanation of the hardene d force structure proposed by FLW. The hardened concept encompasses other aspects that enhance Army...standardized with three rifle companies. A 196 Leahy “ A Land Force for the Future: The Australian Army in the Early 21st Century.” 2003: 19. 197 See Monk, Paul

  16. [Anthropometric characterization of an institutionalized elderly population from Caracas, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Hérrera, Hector; Rebato, Esther; Rocandio, Ana María; Hernández, Rosa; Rodríguez, Nahir; Barbosa, Johanna; Hernández-Valera, Yolanda

    2005-06-01

    Most of the anthropometric standards are derived from adult populations but not from older subjects, so their use to evaluate the nutritional status in the elderly may not be the most appropriate. In this sense, the anthropometric characteristics and their relationship to sex and age in a cross-sectional sample of 809 Venezuelan subjects (370 males and 439 females), aged 60 to 102 years old, randomly selected from a elderly institution-alised population were studied. The results indicate that anthropometric variables show different degrees and signs of sexual dimorphism. Males presented higher stature, weight, waist and calf circumferences and higher bone diameters, while females have higher hip and thigh perimeters, and bigger trunk and extremities skinfolds. Independently of the changes observed in these variables with age, the difference spread between the sexes tends to stay and even to increase with age in the height and weight, in hip perimeter and in thigh and calf skinfolds; while, on the contrary, they attenuate in waist perimeter and in triceps, subescapular and suprailiac skinfolds. Males and females appear to be more similar for these variables in the advanced ages. In general, these results could be used as reference elements for similar researches in Venezuela, due to the low number of studies developed in the country in older populations

  17. Review of Australian Higher Education: An Australian Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is one of the key foundations that economic prosperity is founded upon. Government policies, funding and strategic planning require a fine balance to stimulate growth, prosperity health and well-being. The key Australian government policies influenced by a Review of Australian Higher Education report include attracting many more…

  18. [Malnutrition in the elderly: clinical features, psychological and social determinants. Preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Morrone, A; Donini, L M; Scardella, P; Piombo, L; Pinto, A; Giusti, A M; Neri, B; Hagedorn, T; Proietti, A R; Cataldi, S; Cucinotta, D; Di Bella, G; Barbagallo, M; Cannella, C

    2011-01-01

    In industrialized Countries malnutrition is a very frequent condition in frail groups of the population, people with low income and elderly subjects above all if institutionalized. The aim of the study is to: analyse the prevalence of malnutrition in a sample of elderly people located in different geographical areas in Italy; identify the psychological, social, economic, environmental, cultural and demographic determinants of malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition (estimated through the MNA) is high in both sexes (28% of F and 21.9% of M. Age, institutionalisation, health status, autonomy status, cognitive status and education level are some of the factors that correlate with the presence of malnutrition. Loneliness and poverty seem to have a negative impact on nutritional status but further data are needed to confirm this hypothesis. The data collected confirm the need to activate services dedicated to assess the nutritional status of elderly people, to implement campaigns in particular on food education for the elderly population, to set tools and guide lines for caregivers.

  19. Towards Inclusion: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the views of the Australian Special Education Principals' Association (ASEPA) on inclusion and the impact this is having on Australian Government Schools from a school based perspective. ASEPA is a relatively young association and was formed in 1997 out of the need to put forward the case to support students with special…

  20. Australian University International Student Finances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2009-01-01

    The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study…

  1. Elder neglect.

    PubMed

    del Carmen, Tessa; LoFaso, Veronica M

    2014-11-01

    Because neglect is the most common form of elder abuse, identifying patients who are vulnerable to neglect allows clinicians to intervene early and potentially prevent situations that can escalate and lead to harm or even death. Health care workers have a unique opportunity to uncover these unfortunate situations and in many cases may be the only other contact isolated vulnerable patients have with the outside world. Responding appropriately and quickly when neglect is suspected and using a team approach can improve the health and well-being of older victims of neglect.

  2. Risk factors for cancer in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Castles, Simon; Wainer, Zoe; Jayasekara, Harindra

    2016-01-01

    Cancer incidence in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population is higher and survival lower compared with non-Indigenous Australians. A proportion of these cancers are potentially preventable if factors associated with carcinogenesis are known and successfully avoided. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature to examine risk factors for cancer in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. Electronic databases Medline, Web of Science and the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Bibliographic Index were searched through August 2014 using broad search terms. Studies reporting a measure of association between a risk factor and any cancer site in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population were eligible for inclusion. Ten studies (1991-2014) were identified, mostly with small sample sizes, showing marked heterogeneity in terms of methods used to assess exposure and capture outcomes, and often using descriptive comparative analyses. Relatively young (as opposed to elderly) and geographically remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders were found to be at increased risk for selected cancers while most modifiable lifestyle and behavioural risk factors were rarely assessed. Further studies examining associations between potential risk factors and cancer will help define public health policy for cancer prevention in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population.

  3. Crime and the Elderly.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    The elderly are differentially affected by crime and the fear of crime due to their increased vulnerability and, as such, warrant a certain degree of...specialized handling and understanding by the police. The information presented in this thesis will enhance police knowledge of the elderly and... elderly and, ideally, result in less elderly victimization and a better living environment and quality of life for the elderly .

  4. Network-based rehabilitation increases formal support of frail elderly home-dwelling persons in Finland: randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ollonqvist, Kirsi; Aaltonen, Tuula; Karppi, Sirkka-Liisa; Hinkka, Katariina; Pöntinen, Seppo

    2008-03-01

    The AGE study is a national randomised, long-term, multicentre research project aimed at comparing a new network-based rehabilitation programme with the use of standard health and social services. The use of home help services is associated with increasing age, living alone and having difficulties with activities of daily living. During a rehabilitation intervention the elderly participants' need for care can be assessed. The focus of this paper is to investigate the possible effects of the network-based rehabilitation programme on the use of informal and formal support among home-dwelling elderly at a high risk of long-term institutionalisation. The randomised controlled trial with a 12-month follow-up was implemented in 7 rehabilitation centres and 41 municipalities in Finland. The participants were recruited between January and October 2002. A total of 708 home-dwelling persons aged 65 years or older with progressively decreasing functional capacity and at the risk of being institutionalised within 2 years participated. Persons with acute or progressive diseases or poor cognitive capacity (Mini Mental State Examination<18 points), and those who had participated in any inpatient rehabilitation during the preceding 5 years, were excluded. Participants were randomly allocated to the intervention group (n=343) or to the control group (n=365). The intervention consisted of a network-based rehabilitation programme specifically designed for frail elderly people. Main outcome measures included the help received from relatives and municipal or private services. The use of municipal services increased more in the intervention group (P<0.05) than in the control group. Support from relatives decreased in the control group. The rehabilitees' ability to manage with daily activities decreased and they received additional help; hence, in this respect the rehabilitation model seems successful. A longer follow-up within the still ongoing AGE study is needed to verify whether the

  5. Australian helminths in Australian rodents: an issue of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Warner, L R

    1998-06-01

    The Australian public as well as Australian funding bodies are generally unsympathetic to native murids, rats and mice, in spite of the fact that 36% have either become extinct or critically endangered since European settlement. The endemic Australian parasites of these rats and mice have been even less sympathetically regarded. Prior to 1958 very little work was carried out on the helminths of Australian rodents and little more is known today. Records are known from only 28% of the extant host species, comprising some 109 species of helminth identified at least to generic level. The rodents invaded Australia from the north, perhaps through New Guinea in at least two separate waves, 5-8 then about 1 million years ago. The parasites they brought with them have adapted and speciated and there has been some host switching between rodent groups and between rodents and the Australian marsupials. This is illustrated particularly in the Trichostrongyloidea. The origins of the rodents from Southeast Asia down the Indonesian island chain are reflected in the presence of the nematode genus Tikusnema in both Australia and Indonesia, and Cyclodontostomum purvisi across Southeast Asia and into New Guinea. Hydromys chrysogaster, the Australian water-rat, illustrates how the biogeographical influences of the host's distribution and lifestyle can affect its parasite fauna. Most of the research to date is merely indicative of where more data are needed. The links between Australian and New Guinean helminth fauna, as well as the links between rodent and marsupial hosts and their fauna, cannot be determined without further research.

  6. Conservation among Elderly Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughston, George A.; Protinsky, Howard O.

    1979-01-01

    The majority of 63 elderly women were able to pass tests in the conservation of mass (98 percent), volume (100 percent), and surface area (65 percent). These results conflict with previous research about Piagetian abilities of elderly people. (RL)

  7. Elder care - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - elder care ... The following organizations are good resources for information on aging and elder care: Administration on Aging -- www.aoa.gov Eldercare Locator -- www.eldercare.gov National Institute on ...

  8. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Marilyn J.; Doyle, Kathleen

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was developed to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect of elderly people in several rural counties in central Illinois. A primary purpose of the study was to survey service providers as to their actual encounters with elder abuse and neglect. Each provider was asked about warning signs or cues that were…

  9. The Civic Mission of Australian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lawrence; Muirhead, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the origins and meaning of civic responsibility in the Australian model of the university, beginning with medieval European universities and progressing through Australian reforms of the 20th century. Warns against the university without a civic mission. (SLD)

  10. "English" in the "Australian Curriculum: English"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This is the text of a paper given at the 2011 Symposium of the Australian Academy of the Humanities on the theme, "Educating the Nation: The Humanities in the New Australian Curriculum", the 42nd Annual Symposium of the Australian Academy of the Humanities at the University of Melbourne, 17 November 2011. It was presented in a session on…

  11. Embracing Babel: The "Framework for Australian Languages"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troy, Jaky; Walsh, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) has been developing language-specific curricula for a range of languages in the "Australian Curriculum: Language"s and has also undertaken development of a "Framework for Australian Languages", to provide guidance for the development of curricula for specific…

  12. Changing Patterns of Governance for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Kay; Treadgold, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with the "corporate" model for university governance, a model advocated by both sides of the Australian parliament and adopted by Australian universities over the past two decades, prompted the Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee (AVCC) in 2003 to suggest an alternative "trusteeship" model. The paper…

  13. Second Languages and Australian Schooling. Australian Education Review No. 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo Bianco, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    It is an underlying principle of Australian Education Review (AER) 54 that active efforts should be made to cultivate the latent bilingual potential within Australia's wider population and that this should be linked to major improvements in the quality of language teaching in schools. A combined approach of this kind will require investment in…

  14. A review of linked health data in Australian nephrology.

    PubMed

    Kotwal, Sradha; Webster, Angela C; Cass, Alan; Gallagher, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Linked health data bring together data about one person from varying sources such as administrative health datasets, death registries and clinical registries using a process that maintains patient privacy. Linked health data have been used for burden of disease estimates and health-care planning and is being increasingly use as a research methodology to study health service utilisation and patient outcomes. Within Australian nephrology, there has been limited understanding and use of linked health data so far, but we expect that with the increasing availability of data and the growing complexity of health care, the use of such data will expand. This is especially pertinent for the growing elderly population with advanced kidney disease, who are poorly represented in other types of research studies. This article summarizes the history of linked health data in Australia, the nature of available datasets in Australia, the methods of access to these data, privacy and ethical issues, along with strengths, limitations and implications for the future.

  15. Promoting Leadership in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Andrew P.; Grice, Tim; Paulsen, Neil

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we review current practices for developing and promoting academic leadership in universities. We consider the forms of leadership that are appropriate for academic organisations, while exploring the types of leadership favoured by recruitment and promotion committees. Using the Australian higher education context as a case study, we…

  16. Australian Circuses as Cooperative Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Beverley J.

    2000-01-01

    Studied how circus personnel of all ages interact in Australian circuses to preserve traditional circus lifestyles and entertainment. Interviews with 30 personnel from 4 circuses show the importance of learning to be a member of a cooperative society through immersion. Results provide information about the education of a community of occupational…

  17. Arabic in Australian Islamic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Presents census data on the Muslim population in Australia and overviews full-time independent Islamic schools offering a comprehensive education across the curriculum. Argues that these schools offer great potential for the successful development of Arabic language and cultural literacy skills required by Australian exporters and diplomats in the…

  18. The Spirituality of Young Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael; Singleton, Andrew; Webber, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    A research project conducted in 2003-2006, the Spirit of Generation Y, using both extended interviews and a nationwide survey, revealed three main strands in the spirituality of young Australians: traditional, alternative and humanist. Their involvement in traditional religions was declining, like that of their parents, and although some adopted…

  19. The 2005 Australian Informatics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the Australian Informatics Competition (AIC), a non-programming competition aimed at identifying students with potential in programming and algorithmic design. It is the first step in identifying students to represent Australia at the International Olympiad in Informatics. The main aim of the AIC is to increase awareness of…

  20. Catalogue of Australian Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A catalogue of all families, subfamilies, genera, and species of Cynipoidea present in Australia is presented here. The Australian cynipoid fauna is very poorly known, with 37 genera cited: one each for Austrocynipidae, Ibaliidae, Liopteridae, two for Cynipidae, and 32 for Figitidae. The first Austr...

  1. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  2. Staff Bullying in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Dan; Duncan, Deirdre J.; Edwards, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of staff bullying in Australian schools, to identify bullies and targets and to examine some implications for school leaders in dealing with staff bullying. Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative research design survey instrument contained 11 demographic items, 44 questions of…

  3. Skills Gaps in Australian Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of more than 2000 managers examining perceptions of skills gaps in a range of Australian firms. It finds that three quarters report a skills gap, and almost one third report skills gaps across the whole organisation. Firm size and industry differences exist in perceptions of the effect of the skills gap…

  4. Big Ideas for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Within weeks of taking office, Australia's new Labor government commissioned two major reviews--one of Australia's innovation system and one of Australian higher education. Taken together, these reviews will have major implications for the future of research and teaching in Australia for decades to come. This paper discusses the main…

  5. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Kathleen; Morrow, Marilyn J.

    1985-01-01

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was undertaken: (1) to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect in seven Illinois counties; and (2) to develop, produce, and distribute educational materials on elder abuse for the service provider and for senior citizens. Results are presented and discussed. (MT)

  6. Elder Abuse in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arai, Mizuho

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…

  7. Cancer and the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Veath, J.M.; Meyer, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book compiles the pages presented at the annual conference on the subject of cancer of elderly patients and radiotherapy and surgery. The topics discussed were: Diagnostic techniques of radiology for elderly patients; cancer of breasts and its management and monitoring. Hormonal dependence of cancer breast was also partly discussed.

  8. [Pneumonia in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Catherinot, Emilie

    2012-01-01

    Pneumonia is a serious medical pathology frequent in elderly people. The physiological changes of the respiratory system linked with age reduce postural drainage capacities and increase the risk of acute respiratory failure. Associated with other comorbidities, chronic inhalation is a major risk factor of pneumonia in elderly people. Prevention is based on vaccination, nutrition, dental care and an adapted diet.

  9. Malnutrition among the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Rauscher, C.

    1993-01-01

    Nutrition is a significant determinant of health. Undernutrition presenting as malnutrition is a serious health concern for frail elderly people with many health problems. Understanding the risk factors for malnutrition helps physicians assess and manage the condition. Primary care physicians are in an excellent position to screen, educate, and manage their elderly malnourished patients. Images p1396-a PMID:8324408

  10. Funding emergency care: Australian style.

    PubMed

    Bell, Anthony; Crilly, Julia; Williams, Ged; Wylie, Kate; Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Burke, John; FitzGerald, Gerry

    2014-08-01

    The ongoing challenge for ED leaders is to remain abreast of system-wide changes that impact on the day-to-day management of their departments. Changes to the funding model creates another layer of complexity and this introductory paper serves as the beginning of a discussion about the way in which EDs are funded and how this can and will impact on business decisions, models of care and resource allocation within Australian EDs. Furthermore it is evident that any funding model today will mature and change with time, and moves are afoot to refine and contextualise ED funding over the medium term. This perspective seeks to provide a basis of understanding for our current and future funding arrangements in Australian EDs.

  11. [Anemia in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Maerevoet, M; Sattar, L; Bron, D; Gulbis, B; Pepersack, T

    2014-09-01

    Anaemia is a problem that affects almost 10% over 65 years and 20% over 85 years. There is no physiological anaemia in the elderly. Any anaemia expresses the existence of a pathological process, regardless of its severity. Anaemia in the elderly is always associated with a poor prognosis that is in terms of mortality, morbidity and risk of fragility. The diagnostic approach to anemia in the elderly is the same as in younger individual. There are many causes of anaemia; anaemia balance is a complex diagnostic process. Most anaemias are due to a deficiency, chronic inflammation or comorbidity. However, in the elderly, the etiology of anaemia is often multifactorial. In a number of cases remain unexplained anaemia. In a number of cases, anemia remain unexplained. Treatment of anaemia is the treatment of the cause, but specific therapeutic aspects to the elderly should be considered, as among other martial substitution or use of erythropoietin (EPO).

  12. [Australian short-beaked echidna].

    PubMed

    Rismiller, P

    1995-12-01

    The Australian short-beaked echidna, a monotreme, is one of the oldest living mammals on earth. It is recorded to be the most widely distributed native mammal on the island continent and classed as 'common'. Yet, little is known about its natural history and biology in the wild. What science has learned about the echidna in the past 200 years and why there are still large gaps is reported here.

  13. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  14. Policy: Australian astronomy looks forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhathal, Ragbir

    2005-12-01

    Over the next decade, a new generation of instruments will come into being for the benefit of astronomers across the world. Australian astronomers hope to build on their strong astronomical heritage and continue to take part in astronomy at the highest international level. To this end, they have prepared a Decadal Plan that envisages building, with international partners, a world-class radio telescope, greater invovlement with 8 metre telescopes, as well as making the most of the Antarctic opportunities that Australia offers.

  15. Australian Defence Force Demographic Data and Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE DEMOGRAPHIC DATA AND CHALLENGES Directorate of Strategic Personnel Planning and Research DSPPR Technical Note 10/2001...DATE 00 OCT 2001 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Australian Defence Force Demographic Data and Challenges 5a...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE DEMOGRAPHIC DATA AND CHALLENGES The findings and views expressed in this report are the results

  16. The Politics Are Personal: "The Australian" vs the Australian Curriculum in History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tony; Collins, Sue

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the relationship between the conservative newspaper "The Australian" and the development of a national history curriculum in Australia. The lead author surveyed the major Australian press in the five-year period between 2007 and 2012 and found clear patterns of difference between "The Australian" and other…

  17. The Australian Science Facilities Program: A Study of Its Influence on Science Education in Australian Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainley, John G.

    This report is a study conducted by the Australian Council for Educational Research to evaluate the influence of science material resources, provided under the Australian Science Facilities Program, on science education in Australia. Under the Australian Science Facilities Program some $123 million was spent, between July 1964 and June 1975, on…

  18. [Stories by the elderly].

    PubMed

    Cintra, Fernanda A; Delboux Diogo, Maria José; Filomena Ceolim, Maria

    2005-10-01

    This Brazilian article bears interest for its qualitative methodology which allows us to get a feeling for the elderly of this country being able to relate the results of their lives and knowledge to our own. The lack of an educational health program for the elderly led the authors to create the Health Care Group for the Elderly (GRASI in Portuguese) in which we developed an educational program based on the social-historical perspective of L. S. Vygotsky. This current study analyzes the dynamic speeches recorded by a group of elderly in the GRASI educational program. A group of seven elderly people, from both sexes, having an age equal to or greater than 60, participated in an analysis of the content from meetings among themselves. To analyze the data obtained, in the underlying text as well as their recorded speech, the feelings and meanings of their conversations and stories were identified and separated into thematic units. The results obtained reveal that the opportunity to express their experiences regarding the transformation the elderly have lived during their lives, and to find new ways to treat health problems or how to carry out self health care, is an important resource for elderly nursing care which can lead to the development of health education programs.

  19. Hypertension in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Hansson, L

    1996-10-01

    TREATMENT OF ELDERLY HYPERTENSIVES: Treatment of hypertension in the elderly is nowadays an accepted and highly effective medical intervention following the positive reports on the benefits of lowering elevated arterial pressure in elderly patients. Most of the intervention studies an antihypertensive treatment in elderly patients have used diuretics or beta-blockers or the two in combination as the therapy by which blood pressure was lowered. However, from a theoretical point of view, novel therapies such as calcium antagonists could offer advantages that would translate into an even greater reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than has been obtained with the traditional antihypertensive therapies used so far. DATA ON CALCIUM ANTAGONISTS IN THE ELDERLY: Some of the studies in elderly hypertensives that are currently in progress are using calcium antagonists as one of the main therapies, e.g. the Swedish Trial in Old patients with hypertension (STOP-Hypertension)-2 study and the Systolic hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) study. Another source of information is a large database on nicardipine, a dihydropyridine-derived calcium antagonist, used in the treatment of elderly hypertensives.

  20. Australian Literature in the Primary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Colleen, Ed.

    This book was designed to supply information on available resources in Australian children's literature and a tradition of teaching which incorporates the Australian experience in an inclusive manner. Essays and their authors consist of the following: (1) "Children's Books in Australia: Two Hundred Years of Social Life" (Maurice Saxby);…

  1. Successful Principal Leadership: Australian Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurr, David; Drysdale, Lawrie; Mulford, Bill

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an Australian perspective on successful school leadership. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on case studies in two Australian states (Tasmania and Victoria). Case studies for each state were developed independently and are reported separately. Findings: The findings show a remarkable degree of…

  2. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  3. A National Australian Curriculum: In Whose Interests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditchburn, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of an Australian curriculum is likely to have a widespread and long-term impact on schools, teachers and students, and yet there has been a swift and an almost unquestioning acceptance of its introduction by the Australian public and by educators. This paper will use theoretical frameworks informed by Gramsci's cultural hegemony…

  4. Career Intentions of Australian Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Whipp, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian physical education (PE) teachers' career intentions and factors influencing their intentions. A sample (N = 234) of Western Australian PE teachers responded to a questionnaire determining PE teachers' work and the primary motivators for intention to leave the profession. Half (51.3%) of the…

  5. Australian Aboriginal Language Early Childhood Education Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Tony

    This report discusses the provision of culturally appropriate early childhood programs in Australian Aboriginal language in Australia, and the education of teachers for these programs. The first section of the report examines the education of indigenous peoples in the context of the current Australian education system. Evidence in support of the…

  6. The Australian Curriculum: Finding the Hidden Narrative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditchburn, Geraldine M.

    2012-01-01

    The Australian curriculum to be introduced in all Australian schools over the next few years provides two competing narratives about curriculum. An overt narrative provides an unproblematic view of curriculum where the rhetoric and discourse that promotes a "world-class curriculum" effectively obscures a second narrative. This second…

  7. Four Management Agendas for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In a new mixed economy of higher learning, Australian universities require more strategic management to compete and collaborate sustainably. However, many scholars argue that new modes of university management are at odds with scholarly aims and values. This article examines how Australian universities frame their missions and communicate their…

  8. Folate and vitamin B12: friendly or enemy nutrients for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Cuskelly, Geraldine J; Mooney, Kathleen M; Young, Ian S

    2007-11-01

    In the UK vitamin B12 deficiency occurs in approximately 20% of adults aged >65 years. This incidence is significantly higher than that among the general population. The reported incidence invariably depends on the criteria of deficiency used, and in fact estimates rise to 24% and 46% among free-living and institutionalised elderly respectively when methylmalonic acid is used as a marker of vitamin B12 status. The incidence of, and the criteria for diagnosis of, deficiency have drawn much attention recently in the wake of the implementation of folic acid fortification of flour in the USA. This fortification strategy has proved to be extremely successful in increasing folic acid intakes pre-conceptually and thereby reducing the incidence of neural-tube defects among babies born in the USA since 1998. However, in successfully delivering additional folic acid to pregnant women fortification also increases the consumption of folic acid of everyone who consumes products containing flour, including the elderly. It is argued that consuming additional folic acid (as 'synthetic' pteroylglutamic acid) from fortified foods increases the risk of 'masking' megaloblastic anaemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. Thus, a number of issues arise for discussion. Are clinicians forced to rely on megaloblastic anaemia as the only sign of possible vitamin B12 deficiency? Is serum vitamin B12 alone adequate to confirm vitamin B12 deficiency or should other diagnostic markers be used routinely in clinical practice? Is the level of intake of folic acid among the elderly (post-fortification) likely to be so high as to cure or 'mask' the anaemia associated with vitamin B12 deficiency?

  9. Elder Abuse FAQS

    MedlinePlus

    ... occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust which causes harm or distress to ... older adults. Long-term care residents are generally female, frail, and cognitively impaired. All forms of elder ...

  10. Pharmacokinetics in the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Mayersohn, M

    1994-01-01

    Animals undergo substantial changes in many physiologic and biochemical functions as a natural consequence of aging. In the absence of disease or other pathologic conditions, these changes occur in a gradual manner with time (generally expressed as a fractional or percentage change in that function per year or decade). Furthermore, for any given function and at any given chronologic age, there is large variation in that function among individuals. Given the increase in life expectancy, the substantial increase in the number of elderly (and aged elderly) in the population, and the escalating costs of health care, there is great interest in learning more about the risks associated with aging as a result of toxic exposure. Are the elderly at greater risk than younger adults to the toxic effects of drugs and environmental exposure? Is the elderly population an inherently more sensitive one? PMID:7737036

  11. Australian developments in marine science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, Millard F.

    2012-07-01

    Australia is an island nation with about two thirds of its jurisdiction underwater. On 25 May 2012, Australia instituted the Seas and Submerged Lands (Limits of Continental Shelf) Proclamation 2012, confirming areas of seabed where Australia has exclusive rights to explore and exploit marine resources. This proclamation follows recommendations by the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, a body established under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, confirming Australia's entitlement to extended continental shelf, i.e., that beyond 200 nautical miles from the coastline, of some 2.56 million square kilometers, excluding Australian Antarctic Territory [Symonds et al., 2009] (Figure 1a).

  12. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  13. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    Australian Aboriginal ethnoastronomical traditions were recorded from a wide variety of sources in different periods. While the corpus of mythology concerning the heavens is diverse, it is unified by beliefs of a Skyworld as land with its own topography, containing plants and animals familiar to those living below. Spirits of the dead reside alongside the Creation Ancestors as celestial bodies in the Skyworld. Aboriginal hunter-gatherers used the regular movement of constellations and planets to measure time and to indicate the season, while unexpected change in the sky was seen as an omen.

  14. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  15. Prosthetic Status, Needs and Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQOL) in the Elderly Population of Aluva, India

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Albin Geo; Mathew, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQOL), being a patient-centred outcome has profound association with the existing prosthetic status and needs. Aim To assess the association between the prosthetic status and needs with OHRQOL in the elderly population of Aluva, Kochi, Kerala, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among the elderly residing in the municipal wards of Aluva municipality, Kochi, Kerala, India. A total of 539 subjects whose age was 60 years or above were considered for the study. Proforma utilizing a validated structured questionnaire of two sections; the first section noted with demographic details with WHO assessment of prosthetic needs and details regarding loss of teeth and denture wear and the second section consisted of Oral Health Impact Proflie (OHIP)-14 questions to measure the OHRQOL which was prepared in the local language. Type III oral examination (WHO Basic Oral Health Assessment 2013) was carried out on selected elderly subjects from house hold survey at municipal wards and recordings were done by the trained local health worker. ANOVA was used to find out the association between different domains of the OHIP and prosthetic status and need. Results The prosthetic status was 18.2% and 14.7% and the prosthetic needs 62.7% and 60.3% of the upper and lower jaws respectively for the population. The prosthetic status was found to have no impact on the OHRQOL. However, the prosthetic need was significantly related to various components of OHRQOL of the study population. Of all the domains in OHRQOL, physical pain was the most affected in this population. Conclusion There is high unmet prosthetic care for non-institutionalised elderly population in Aluva. PMID:28050494

  16. Hypertension in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kendall, M J

    1998-01-01

    In those aged 65-85 years, the major causes of death and disability are cardiovascular diseases (myocardial infarction, sudden death and stroke). Clinical trials in elderly patients have demonstrated unequivocally that effective blood pressure reduction in hypertensive patients up to the age of 85 years significantly reduces this mortality and morbidity. The larger trials are referred to as the SHEP trial (chlorthalidone), the STOP trial (beta-blockers and/or diuretics), the MRC Elderly Trial (atenolol or diuretic) and the SYST-EUR trial (nitrendipine). Patients entered into clinical trials are a selected population; those with serious coexisting diseases and with a poor prognosis are usually excluded. For this reason one has to carefully consider whether the results of these trials would provide the best treatment for the next patient the doctor sees who would probably not meet the entry criteria. Elderly hypertensives may fall into one of three categories. The sick elderly with serious disorders such as cancer or dementia have a poor quality of life and a bad prognosis. They should not be given antihypertensive drugs. The medically complicated elderly have serious disorders, which usually require drug therapy and the medical condition and the drugs used in treatment may complicate the choice of antihypertensive drugs. The potential adverse effects of adding another form of drug treatment may outweigh the potential benefits. The fit elderly do derive considerable benefit from adequate blood pressure control and need an effective, well-tolerated antihypertensive drug. The choice of drug to control blood pressure in the elderly is difficult. An effective, well-tolerated antihypertensive with little potential to interact with coexisting disorders and other drugs is needed.

  17. Riskiness in the Elderly: Attitudes of Young and Elderly Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldstein, Jerome H.; Feldman, Barbara

    Risk-taking attitudes and behaviors among young and elderly adults were investigated. Elderly subjects, from both a nursing home and the community, and college students responded to choice dilemmas involving aged central characters. Each subject responded twice, once under "self" instructions, and once as the "average elderly person" would…

  18. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified as the most frequently cited ... victim and/or the perpetrator who has the substance abuse problem. Substance abuse is believed to be a ...

  19. Meals for the Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA is drawing upon its food-preparation expertise to assist in solving a problem affecting a large segment of the American population. In preparation for manned space flight programs, NASA became experienced in providing astronauts simple, easily-prepared, nutritious meals. That experience now is being transferred to the public sector in a cooperative project managed by Johnson Space Center. Called Meal System for the Elderly, the project seeks to fill a gap by supplying nutritionally balanced meal packages to those who are unable to participate in existing meal programs. Many such programs are conducted by federal, state and private organizations, including congregate hot meal services and home-delivered "meals on wheels." But more than 3.5 million elderly Americans are unable to take advantage of these benefits. In some cases, they live in rural areas away from available services; in others, they are handicapped, temporarily ill, or homebound for other reasons. Meal System for the Elderly, a cooperative program in which the food-preparation expertise NASA acquired in manned space projects is being utilized to improve the nutritional status of elderly people. The program seeks to fill a gap by supplying nutritionally-balanced food packages to the elderly who are unable to participate b existing meal service programs.

  20. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and Alzheimer's disease risk in an Australian population

    PubMed Central

    Gardener, S; Gu, Y; Rainey-Smith, S R; Keogh, J B; Clifton, P M; Mathieson, S L; Taddei, K; Mondal, A; Ward, V K; Scarmeas, N; Barnes, M; Ellis, K A; Head, R; Masters, C L; Ames, D; Macaulay, S L; Rowe, C C; Szoeke, C; Martins, R N

    2012-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet (MeDi), due to its correlation with a low morbidity and mortality for many chronic diseases, has been widely recognised as a healthy eating model. We aimed to investigate, in a cross-sectional study, the association between adherence to a MeDi and risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a large, elderly, Australian cohort. Subjects in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing cohort (723 healthy controls (HC), 98 MCI and 149 AD participants) completed the Cancer Council of Victoria Food Frequency Questionnaire. Adherence to the MeDi (0- to 9-point scale with higher scores indicating higher adherence) was the main predictor of AD and MCI status in multinominal logistic regression models that were adjusted for cohort age, sex, country of birth, education, apolipoprotein E genotype, total caloric intake, current smoking status, body mass index, history of diabetes, hypertension, angina, heart attack and stroke. There was a significant difference in adherence to the MeDi between HC and AD subjects (P<0.001), and in adherence between HC and MCI subjects (P<0.05). MeDi is associated with change in Mini-Mental State Examination score over an 18-month time period (P<0.05) in HCs. We conclude that in this Australian cohort, AD and MCI participants had a lower adherence to the MeDi than HC participants. PMID:23032941

  1. Israeli Perspectives on Elder Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabi, Keren

    2006-01-01

    Despite the prevailing agreement among researchers that the increasing rate of elder abuse in Israel is relatively understudied, not sufficiently identified, and not appropriately addressed, literature on elderly abuse in the Israeli society remains limited. The common discourse on aging, eldercare, and elder abuse and neglect, mainly revolves…

  2. Poverty among Elderly in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Using consumption expenditure data of the National Sample Survey 2004-2005, this paper estimates the size of elderly poor and tests the hypotheses that elderly households are not economically better-off compared to non-elderly households in India. Poverty estimates are derived under three scenarios--by applying the official cut-off point of the…

  3. Elderly Care Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagiman, Aliani; Haja Bava Mohidin, Hazrina; Ismail, Alice Sabrina

    2016-02-01

    The demand for elderly centre has increased tremendously abreast with the world demographic change as the number of senior citizens rose in the 21st century. This has become one of the most crucial problems of today's era. As the world progress into modernity, more and more people are occupied with daily work causing the senior citizens to lose the care that they actually need. This paper seeks to elucidate the best possible design of an elderly care centre with new approach in order to provide the best service for them by analysing their needs and suitable activities that could elevate their quality of life. All these findings will then be incorporated into design solutions so as to enhance the living environment for the elderly especially in Malaysian context.

  4. Pyrogenic carbon in Australian soils.

    PubMed

    Qi, Fangjie; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi S; Dong, Zhaomin; Yan, Yubo; Lamb, Dane; Bucheli, Thomas D; Choppala, Girish; Duan, Luchun; Semple, Kirk T

    2017-02-16

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC), the combustion residues of fossil fuel and biomass, is a versatile soil fraction active in biogeochemical processes. In this study, the chemo-thermal oxidation method (CTO-375) was applied to investigate the content and distribution of PyC in 30 Australian agricultural, pastoral, bushland and parkland soil with various soil types. Soils were sampled incrementally to 50cm in 6 locations and at another 7 locations at 0-10cm. Results showed that PyC in Australian soils typically ranged from 0.27-5.62mg/g, with three Dermosol soils ranging within 2.58-5.62mg/g. Soil PyC contributed 2.0-11% (N=29) to the total organic carbon (TOC), with one Ferrosol as high as 26%. PyC was concentrated either in the top (0-10cm) or bottom (30-50cm) soil layers, with the highest PyC:TOC ratio in the bottom (30-50cm) soil horizon in all soils. Principal component analysis - multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) suggested the silt-associated organic C factor accounted for 38.5% of the variation in PyC. Our findings suggest that PyC is an important fraction of the TOC (2.0-11%, N=18) and chemically recalcitrant organic C (ROC) obtained by chemical C fractionation method accounts for a significant proportion of soil TOC (47.3-84.9%, N=18). This is the first study comparing these two methods, and it indicates both CTO-375 and C speciation methods can determine a fraction of recalcitrant organic C. However, estimated chemically recalcitrant organic carbon pool (ROC) was approximately an order of magnitude greater than that of thermally stable organic carbon (PyC).

  5. Population and Australian development assistance.

    PubMed

    Jones, R

    1992-07-01

    Australia's position on international population issues is consistent with the major international statements on population: the World Population Plan of Action (1974), the Mexico City Declaration (1984), and the Amsterdam Declaration (1989). Australia's policy emphasizes the importance of population policies as an integral part of social, economic, and cultural development aimed at improving the quality of life of the people. Factors that would promote smaller families include improving economic opportunities, old-age security, education and health (particularly for women), as well as improving the accessibility and quality of family planning services. The quality of care approach is directly complementary to the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)'s Women-In-Development Policy and its Health Policy, which stresses the theme of Women And Their Children's Health (WATCH). Australia's support for population programs and activities has increased considerably over the last few years. Total assistance for the year 1990/91 was around $7 million out of a total aid program of $1216 million. In recent years AIDAB has funded family planning activities or health projects with family planning components in a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In the South Pacific region AIDAB has funded a reproductive health video project taking into consideration the cultural sensitivities and customs of the peoples of the region. AIDAB has supported a UN Population Fund project in Thailand that aims to strengthen the capacity of the National Statistical Office to collect population data. The US currently accounts for around 40% of all population-related development assistance to improve the health of women and children through family planning. The other major donors are Japan, the Scandinavian countries, and the Netherlands. Funding for population has been a relatively low percentage of overall development assistance budgets in OECD countries. In the

  6. Unmasking the 'elderly mystique': Why it is time to make the personal political in ageing research.

    PubMed

    Carney, Gemma M; Gray, Mia

    2015-12-01

    This article uses feminist scholarship to investigate 'the elderly mystique'-which contends that the potential of old age is masked by a set of false beliefs about ageing (i.e. ageism) which permeate social, economic, and political life (Cohen, 1988). The article presents a theoretical model which explores the extent to which institutionalised ageism shapes the trajectory of life after 60.(1) The hypothesis underpinning the model is simple: The challenge for ageing societies is not the average age of a given population, but rather, how age is used to structure economic, social and political life. An inter-disciplinary framework is used to examine how biological facts about ageing are used to segregate older from younger people, giving older people the status of 'other'; economically through retirement, politically through assumptions about 'the grey vote,' and socially through ageist stereotyping in the media and through denial and ridicule of the sexuality of older people. Each domain is informed by the achievements of feminist theory and research on sexism and how its successes and failures can inform critical investigations of ageism. The paper recognises the role of ageism in de-politicising the lived experience of ageing. The paper concludes that feminist scholarship, particularly work by feminists in their seventies, eighties, and nineties, has much to offer in terms of re-framing gerontology as an emancipatory project for current and future cohorts of older people.

  7. [Anaemia in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Leischker, Andreas Herbert; Fetscher, Sebastian; Kolb, Gerald Franz

    2016-07-01

    In the elderly, even mild anaemia leads to significantly decreased quality of life and reduced survival rate. Therefore even mild anaemias should be worked up especially in the elderly. More than 75 % of all anaemias have a specific and treatable cause.Differential diagnosis of anaemia in the elderly is much more challenging compared to the differential diagnosis in younger patients: in older patients often more than one dysfunction is responsible for the anaemia simultaneously. Many routine laboratory parameters are changed by ageing and are therefore only of limited value for diagnosis of anaemia. Soluble transferinreceptor and hepcidin are two parameters feasible for differential diagnosis of the causes of anaemia in the elderly.The most common cause of iron deficiency anaemia in the elderly is gastrointestinal bleeding. Many causes for gastrointestinal bleeding -like angiodysplasia of the colon - can readily be treated with endoscopic therapy. For this reason, colonoscopy is part of the standard workup for elderly patients with iron-deficient anaemia (IDA) if no contraindications exist.Therapy of anaemia is based on the specific cause or the causes. In IDA, the first step other than causal treatment is to replace iron orally. If this is not tolerated because of side effects or does not lead to a sufficient rise in the haemoglobin level, intravenous iron replacement therapy is indicated. Folic acid deficiency is generally treated orally, whereas vitamin B12 deficiency is generally treated by the parenteral - preferably subcutaneous - route. In anaemia due to chronic renal failure and anaemia due to myelodysplastic syndromes, the underlying cause must be treated, furthermore erythropoiesis-stimulating agents can be indicated.

  8. Australian Management Education for International Business Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gniewosz, Gerhard

    2000-01-01

    As Australian corporations have increased overseas activity, there has been a significant increase in international business degrees at the undergraduate and graduate levels. The curriculum is balanced between business-technical knowledge courses and cultural knowledge courses. (SK)

  9. Physical Activity in Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164

  10. ANSTO: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization conducts or is engaged in collaborative research and development in the application of nuclear science and associated technology. Through its Australian radio-isotopes unit, it markets radioisotopes, their products and other services for the nuclear medicine industry and research. It also operates national nuclear facilities (HIFAR and Moata research reactors), promotes training, provides advice and disseminates information on nuclear science and technology. The booklet briefly outlines these activities.

  11. Why Do Chinese-Australian Students Outperform Their Australian Peers in Mathematics: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Dacheng; Singh, Michael

    2011-01-01

    International comparative studies and cross-cultural studies of mathematics achievement indicate that Chinese students (whether living in or outside China) consistently outperform their Western counterparts. This study shows that the gap between Chinese-Australian and other Australian students is best explained by differences in motivation to…

  12. Australian Thesaurus of Education Descriptors. A Word-Stock for Indexing and Retrieving Australian Educational Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, G. B.; Findlay, Margaret A.

    This core thesaurus of terms suitable for indexing Australian educational literature was developed by the Australian Council for Educational Research by means of a systematic and thorough revision of the "Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors." Based on the actual terminology of education in Australia, this thesaurus includes: key words and…

  13. Issues and Directions from a Review of the Australian Apprenticeship and Traineeship Literature. Australian Apprenticeships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, S.

    This paper synthesizes issues and directions that a review of Australian apprenticeship and traineeship literature suggested. An overview discusses the paper's basis, which was a survey of 125 Australian references from 1985-99. Chapter 2 categorizes issues into seven groups, discusses them, and draws out salient themes. (The groups concerned…

  14. [Dignity of the elderly].

    PubMed

    Ribera Casado, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A discussion is presented on what is understood by «dignity» when applied to the elderly, highlighting it universal character and contrasting it with the greater risks of suffering «indignities» to which the elderly are exposed. The discussion is divided into 3 sections. In the first, the risk factors in this sense could lead to physiological losses and illnessess, which in in the physical, mental and social sense are associated with ageing. In the second, the question of discrimination of the elderly as a form of aggression due to age, and is so widespread and infrequently studied. Lastly, it is discussed how to interpret the advice of the United Nations on how to promote active ageing as a defence system against indignities. It concludes with the message that neither the limitations that accompany the ageing process, nor the different forms of aggression that the elderly may be subjected to, provide sufficient argument neither for a loss of individual nor collective dignity. This is something which we all must endeavour to achieve and which must be maintained and be respected by individuals and by society at all times.

  15. Alcoholism and Elder Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anetzberger, Georgia J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A comparison group study of abusing and nonabusing caregivers suggested a correlation between alcohol use and violence against elderly parents. Findings reveal that abusers were more likely than nonabusers to drink, to become intoxicated, and to be identified as having a drinking problem. Policy and practice implications are discussed. (Author)

  16. Biology of Elderly Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifai, A. Hind; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes age-related changes in central nervous system pertinent to biology of suicide. Reviews postmortem biological studies of brains of suicides and suicide attempters. As suicide attempts in elderly are characterized by violence, discusses biological studies of impulsive violence. Describes data on effect of degenerative diseases on serotonin…

  17. Hardiness among Elderly Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagnild, Gail; Young, Heather

    Hardiness has been defined as a mediator in life stress and, within the health/illness context, has been conceptualized as a personality characteristic. This study used a descriptive exploratory design to examine the concept of hardiness among elderly women. The Stress, Appraisal, and Coping model developed by Lazarus and Folkman (1986) was the…

  18. Vaccines for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Weinberger, Birgit; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2015-01-01

    The aging of the human population is posing serious challenges to research and to public health authorities in order to prevent diseases that more frequently affect the elderly, a portion of the population that will increase more and more in the coming years. While some vaccines exist and are used in the elderly to effectively fight against some infections (e.g. influenza, pneumococci, varicella-zoster virus, diphtheria, and tetanus), still a lot of work remains to be done to better adapt these vaccines and to develop new ones for this age group. The prevention of infectious diseases affecting the elderly can be successful only through a holistic approach. This approach will aim at the following: (1) a deeper understanding of the mechanisms leading to the senescence of the immune system, (2) a better and broader use of vaccines recommended for the elderly, (3) the use of vaccines currently considered only for other age groups and (4) actively priming the population when they are immunological competent, before the physiological waning of immune responsiveness may affect the beneficial effects of vaccination.

  19. Loneliness among Elderly Widowers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinick, Barbara H.

    The fact that few researchers have studied loneliness in widowhood may be related to the concept itself which spans intellectual perspectives, incorporating elements of affect, cognition, and social structure. To examine loneliness among elderly widowers, 24 adult males (participants in a more comprehensive study of widowed men, aged 63 to 93…

  20. America's elderly: policy implications.

    PubMed

    Barberis, M

    1981-01-01

    Senior citizens, particularly those aged 75 or older, are the fastest growing group in the US today. 25 million strong, the elderly make up 11% of the total population, the proportion ranging from 18.1% in Florida to 2.6% in Alaska. 1/4 of the federal budget, $155 billion in 1980, now goes to their support yet many face difficulty in gaining access to the programs designed to benefit them. The elderly, especially those who rely solely on Social Security, comprise a disproportionate share of all poor households. The retirement system itself is facing financing challenges that promise to grow as the baby boom generation swells the number of senior citizens to 55 million in 2030. Plans to coordinate government programs and improve the method of financing the retirement system are receiving increasing attention. Financing Social Security from revenue funds, or with actuarial reserves, are 2 alternatives to the present pay-as-you-go system. Another area of concern to policymakers is America's health care system, which is now crisis oriented and heavily biased toward institutionalization. Health care must be made more responsive to the long-term needs of the oldest segment of the population, many of whom suffer from chronic illnesses. Impaired elderly receive most of their care from family or friends, and private organizations, but this natural support network largely has been ignored by government. New program initiatives might emphasize homemaker services, geriatric day care, compensation for families that provide for the needs of an elderly relative, and the strengthening of the informal partnership between the elderly themselves, their families and friends, community groups, private organizations, and government at the state and local as well as the federal level.

  1. Marine Biodiversity in the Australian Region

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Alan J.; Rees, Tony; Beesley, Pam; Bax, Nicholas J.

    2010-01-01

    The entire Australian marine jurisdictional area, including offshore and sub-Antarctic islands, is considered in this paper. Most records, however, come from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) around the continent of Australia itself. The counts of species have been obtained from four primary databases (the Australian Faunal Directory, Codes for Australian Aquatic Biota, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums, and the Australian node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System), but even these are an underestimate of described species. In addition, some partially completed databases for particular taxonomic groups, and specialized databases (for introduced and threatened species) have been used. Experts also provided estimates of the number of known species not yet in the major databases. For only some groups could we obtain an (expert opinion) estimate of undiscovered species. The databases provide patchy information about endemism, levels of threat, and introductions. We conclude that there are about 33,000 marine species (mainly animals) in the major databases, of which 130 are introduced, 58 listed as threatened and an unknown percentage endemic. An estimated 17,000 more named species are either known from the Australian EEZ but not in the present databases, or potentially occur there. It is crudely estimated that there may be as many as 250,000 species (known and yet to be discovered) in the Australian EEZ. For 17 higher taxa, there is sufficient detail for subdivision by Large Marine Domains, for comparison with other National and Regional Implementation Committees of the Census of Marine Life. Taxonomic expertise in Australia is unevenly distributed across taxa, and declining. Comments are given briefly on biodiversity management measures in Australia, including but not limited to marine protected areas. PMID:20689847

  2. [Catatonia in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Chiba, Yuhei; Odawara, Toshinari

    2013-10-01

    Catatonia is a syndrome characterized by mutism, stupor, immobility, negativism, posturing, stereotypy, and echophenomena. Not only patients with schizophrenia, but also patients with general medical disease, mood disorder, and substance-related disorder exhibit catatonia. In the patients with catatonia, it is recommended to examine whether they have a general medical disease. We present two catatonic elder patients. Case 1 exhibited catatonia with vascular dementia, and was revealed to have anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome. Case 2 exhibited catatonia with dementia with Lewy bodies, and was revealed to have Hashimoto's encephalopathy. The first recommended treatment for catatonia is benzodiazepines. In case of benzodiazepine resistance or malignant catatonia, it should be considered electroconvulsive therapy, but it needs to be carefully implemented for elder patients.

  3. Therapeutic Issues with Transgender Elders.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Lynne

    2017-03-01

    Research demonstrates that transgender and nonconforming (TGNC) elders face social isolation and discrimination in policies and practices in mental and health care settings. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with practical input about therapeutic issues and interventions for use with TGNC elders. A case vignette describes the challenges and rewards of therapy with an elder trans woman. Her story illustrates the complex interplay between age, life phase, and sociocultural and historical contexts. Recommendations regarding research, practice, and advocacy are offered.

  4. Modelling Choice: Factors Influencing Modes of Delivery in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew; Ling, Peter; Hill, Doug

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study of Multiple Modes of Delivery in Australian universities that was commissioned by Australian Universities Teaching Committee over the period 2001-2004. The project examined and described the various means of educational delivery deployed by Australian universities. It identified the pedagogical,…

  5. Australian Indigenous Perspectives on Quality Assurance in Children's Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Teresa; Frances, Katie; Saggers, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Government has recently committed to the development of an integrated system of assuring national quality standards for Australian childcare and preschool services (Australian Government, 2008). This article addresses two fundamental issues relating to the development of an integrated system as it applies to Indigenous children's…

  6. Drama in the Australian National Curriculum: Decisions, Tensions and Uncertainties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Madonna; Saunders, John Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, the Australian Federal Government endorsed the final version of the Australian Curriculum arts framework a document resulting from nearly seven years of consultation and development. "The Australian Curriculum: The Arts Version 8.0" comprises five subjects: dance, drama, media arts, music and visual arts. This article…

  7. Building Innovation: Learning with Technologies. Australian Education Review Number 56

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyle, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Australian Education Review (AER) 56 explores national and international policy priorities for building students' innovation capabilities through information and communication technologies (ICT) in Australian schools. Section 1 sets out the Australian policy context for digital education and highlights some of the emerging challenges. It provides…

  8. Obesity and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M H

    2012-08-01

    The prevalence of obesity is rising progressively, even among older age groups. By the year 2030 to 2035 over 20% of the adult US population and over 25% of the Europeans will be aged 65 years or older. The predicted prevalence of obesity in Americans, 60 years and older was 37% in 2010. The predicted prevalence of obesity in Europe in 2015 varies between 20% and 30% dependent on the model used. This means 20.9 million obese 60 years or older people in the United States in 2010 and 32 million obese elders in 2015 in EU. Although cutoff values of body mass index, waist circumference, and percentages of fat mass have not been defined for the elderly, it is clear from several meta-analyses that mortality and morbidity associated with overweight and obesity only increases at a body mass index >30 kg/m(2). Thus, treatment should only be offered to patients who are obese rather than overweight and who have functional impairments, metabolic complications, or obesity-related diseases, that can benefit from weight loss. The weight loss therapy should minimize muscle and bone loss and vigilance as regards the development of sarcopenic obesity--a combination of an unhealthy excess of body fat with a detrimental loss of muscle and fat-free mass including bone--is important. Lifestyle intervention should be the first step and consists of a diet with a 500 kcal energy deficit and an adequate intake of protein of high biological quality, together with calcium and vitamin D, behavioral therapy, and multicomponent exercise. Multicomponent exercise includes flexibility training, balance training, aerobic exercise, and resistance training. The adherence rate in most studies is around 75%. Knowledge of constraints and modulators of physical inactivity should be of help to engage the elderly in physical activity. The role of pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery in the elderly is largely unknown as in most studies people aged 65 years and older were excluded.

  9. Evaluation of the elderly driver.

    PubMed

    Craig, Kevin W; Zweig, Steven C

    2007-01-01

    Driving is a daily activity for people across the country. Most Americans, including the elderly, consider it a right. Driving, however, is dangerous and can become more challenging as people age. While evaluating the elderly driver is not a simple task, it is a responsibility that must be shared by Missouri physicians. This paper describes the epidemiology of this problem, common mistakes made by elderly drivers, risk factors that can cause unsafe driving, and strategies physicians can use to evaluate their elderly patients' ability to drive.

  10. Data Convergence - An Australian Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. S.; Howell, B.

    2012-12-01

    Coupled numerical physical, biogeochemical and sediment models are increasingly being used as integrators to help understand the cumulative or far field effects of change in the coastal environment. This reliance on modeling has forced observations to be delivered as data streams ingestible by modeling frameworks. This has made it easier to create near real-time or forecasting models than to try to recreate the past, and has lead in turn to the conversion of historical data into data streams to allow them to be ingested by the same frameworks. The model and observation frameworks under development within Australia's Commonwealth and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) are now feeding into the Australian Ocean Data Network's (AODN's) MARine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) . The sensor, or data stream, brokering solution is centred around the "message" and all data flowing through the gateway is wrapped as a message. Messages consist of a topic and a data object and their routing through the gateway to pre-processors and listeners is determined by the topic. The Sensor Message Gateway (SMG) method is allowing data from different sensors measuring the same thing but with different temporal resolutions, units or spatial coverage to be ingested or visualized seamlessly. At the same time the model output as a virtual sensor is being explored, this again being enabled by the SMG. It is only for two way communications with sensor that rigorous adherence to standards is needed, by accepting existing data in less than ideal formats, but exposing them though the SMG we can move a step closer to the Internet Of Things by creating an Internet of Industries where each vested interest can continue with business as usual, contribute to data convergence and adopt more open standards when investment seems appropriate to that sector or business.Architecture Overview

  11. Encephalization of Australian and New Guinean marsupials.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, K W S

    2008-01-01

    Encephalization of Australian marsupials was analyzed using the endocranial volume (ECV) of 52 species of Dasyuromorphia and Notoryctemorphia, 14 species of Peramelemorphia and 116 species of Diprotodontia from Australia and New Guinea and compared with 16 species of Ameridelphian marsupials and 3 species of native and recently introduced Australian eutherian carnivores (dingo, feral cat and feral fox). Linear regression analysis of the relationship between ECV and body weight for marsupials revealed that allometric parameters for these groups are different from those previously derived for samples of (mainly eutherian) mammals, with higher slopes for Dasyuromorphia and Diprotodontia and lower slopes for Ameridelphians and Peramelemorphia. Absolute ECV for small Australian and New Guinea marsupial carnivores (Antechinus and Sminthopsis) were found to be comparable to eutherians of similar body weight, but large marsupial carnivores such as the Tasmanian devil and thylacine had substantially smaller ECVs than eutherian carnivores of similar body weight. Similarly, members of some superfamilies within Diprotodontia (Burramyoidea, Petauroidea, Tarsipedoidea) had ECVs comparable to prosimians, whereas bandicoots, bilbies and many macropods were found to be poorly encephalized. When both encephalization quotient (EQ) and residuals from regression analysis were used to compare relative ECV of extinct/threatened species with common species there were no significant differences for any of the orders of Australian marsupials, suggesting that encephalization is not a major factor in the current extinction crisis for Australian marsupials. Similarly there were no consistent differences in relative ECV between marsupials from New Guinea and associated islands compared to Australia or between arid and non-arid Australian regions for any of the marsupial orders. The results indicate that marsupials are not uniformly poorly encephalized and that small marsupial carnivores and

  12. Forgetfulness in elders: strategies for protective caregiving.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, S L; Phillips, L R

    1995-01-01

    Nurses working with elders know from experience that an elder being viewed as forgetful negatively affects both the quality and the quantity of elders' social relationships. Avoiding stigmatization, in the presence of increased forgetting, presents a challenge for elders and their caregivers. Gerontologic nurses can assist forgetful elders with their personal impression management. They can protect these elders from being labeled by their social group. However, in order to assist elders in maintaining acceptable social impressions, nurses need to understand the impression management process and effective strategies for assisting forgetful elders in social situations.

  13. Selection of the Australian indicator region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Each Australian state was examined for the availability of LANDSAT data, area, yield, and production characteristics, statistics, crop calendars, and other ancillary data. Agrophysical conditions that could influence labeling and classification accuracies were identified in connection with the highest producing states as determined from available Australian crop statistics. Based primarily on these production statistics, Western Australia and New South Wales were selected as the wheat indicator region for Australia. The general characteristics of wheat in the indicator region, with potential problems anticipated for proportion estimation are considered. The varieties of wheat, the diseases and pests common to New South Wales, and the wheat growing regions of both states are examined.

  14. Successes, challenges and developments in Australian rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Morand, Eric F; Leech, Michelle T

    2015-07-01

    Australia is a geographically vast but sparsely populated country with many unique factors affecting the practice of rheumatology. With a population comprising minority Indigenous peoples, a historically European-origin majority population, and recent large-scale migration from Asia, the effect of ethnic diversity on the phenotype of rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a constant of Australian rheumatology practice. Australia has a strong system of universal healthcare and subsidized access to medications, and clinical and research rheumatology are well developed, but inequitable access to specialist care in urban and regional centres, and the complex disconnected structure of the Australian healthcare system, can hinder the management of chronic diseases.

  15. Phenylphenalenones from the Australian plant Haemodorum simplex.

    PubMed

    Dias, Daniel Anthony; Goble, David James; Silva, Claudio Andres; Urban, Sylvia

    2009-06-01

    Chemical investigation of the Australian plant Haemodorum simplex resulted in the isolation of three new phenylphenalenones, haemodorone (10), haemodorol (11), and haemodorose (12), together with the previously reported compounds 5, dilatrin (6), and xiphidone (8). The first complete 2D NMR characterization for all of the compounds isolated, including several chemical shift reassignments for dilatrin (6), is reported. In addition this is one of the few reports to discuss the isolation of new phenylphenalenones from an Australian medicinal plant. The crude extract of both the bulbaceous and aerial components of the plant exhibited varying degrees of antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activity, and only the bulbs displayed potent cytotoxic activity.

  16. Mercury concentrations in the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus from SE Australian waters

    SciTech Connect

    Bacher, G.J.

    1985-10-01

    Marine carnivores such as seals and sea lions occupy an important position in the upper trophic level of the marine food web and this, together with their longevity, makes these marine mammals useful indicators of mercury accumulation in the marine environment. Little information exists on mercury concentrations in marine mammals from the southern hemisphere. This paper reports total mercury concentrations in the tissues of the Australian Fur Seal Arctocephalus pusillus from southeastern Australian waters.

  17. The Asian currency crisis and the Australian health industry.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, S

    1998-01-01

    This article identifies linkages between the Australian health industry and the global economy. It discusses some of the consequences of the Asian currency crisis of 1997-98 for the Australian economy and health industry, with special emphasis upon exports. Devaluation of the Australian dollar will increase the cost of most pharmaceutical and medical imports, but may offer competitive advantages to some Australian exporters. The nascent engagement with Asia of many health industry enterprises is likely to be stifled. It is therefore important for Australian governments, as well as the Australian health industry, to provide intelligence and encouragement to those enterprises that wish to continue their engagement with Asia or resume it when economic equilibrium returns. Markets throughout the world must also be further developed. The crisis may therefore provide the stimulus for re-thinking and re-stating Australian health export policy.

  18. Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Gheno, Ramon; Cepparo, Juan M.; Rosca, Cristina E.; Cotten, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders are among the most common problems affecting the elderly. The resulting loss of mobility and physical independence can be particularly devastating in this population. The aim of this article is to present some of the most frequent musculoskeletal disorders of the elderly, such as fractures, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, microcrystal disorders, infections, and tumors. PMID:22919553

  19. Vascular imaging in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kalva, Sanjeeva P; Mueller, Peter R

    2008-07-01

    Though a myriad of vascular conditions affect the elderly, atherosclerosis remains the most common vascular disorder, followed by venous thromboembolism and varicose veins. In this article, the authors discuss the imaging of atherosclerosis affecting various vascular territories and pay special attention to the elderly population. The authors also discuss imaging findings of segmental arterial mediolysis, giant cell arteritis, and venous thromboembolism.

  20. The Vulnerability of Elderly Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Jerrie L.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews research on the vulnerability of the elderly to consumer fraud. Patterns of consumption, situational characteristics, education and product knowledge, psychological losses, social isolation, and psychosocial transitions influence the elderly's vulnerability and ability to cope with consumer abuse. Higher educational attainment and greater…

  1. Special Section: Educating Elderly Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Bernice A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Four articles in this special section report on (1) Arizona curriculum for home-based caregivers of the elderly in rural communities (Epstein, Koenig); (2) educational programs for nursing home caregivers (Marsden); (3) extension programs for helping low-income elderly with money management (Koonce); and (4) energy education for the elderly…

  2. Is There Cultural Safety in Australian Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochecouste, Judith; Oliver, Rhonda; Bennell, Debra

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the cultural safety offered to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students within their university environments. In the context of this paper, cultural safety includes cultural competency, as recently subscribed by Universities Australia, and "extends beyond (to) cultural awareness and cultural…

  3. Understanding Australian Aboriginal Tertiary Student Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Bennell, Debra; Anderson, Roz; Cooper, Inala; Forrest, Simon; Exell, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from a study of the experiences of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students, this paper presents an overview of the specific needs of these students as they enter and progress through their tertiary education. Extracts from a set of case studies developed from both staff and student interviews and an online…

  4. Western Australian School Students' Understanding of Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Surveys (n=1116) 15-year-old students from 11 Western Australian schools to determine their understanding of and attitude towards recent advances in modern biotechnology. Discusses reasons for students' over-estimation of the use of biotechnology in society. Provides a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the…

  5. Revitalising Languages in Australian Universities: What Chance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo Bianco, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Institutions of higher education teach fewer languages, in less secure ways, for less time per week, for shorter periods, by an increasingly casually employed staff, in often underfunded, underappreciated and under stress modes, but participants in the Australian Academy of the Humanities' "Beyond the Crisis: Revitalising Languages in…

  6. Australian National University Science Extension Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The first Australian National University (ANU) Science Extension Day was held on September 8, 2015. The ANU Science Extension Day is a project that was initiated by Theodore Primary School (ACT) and developed by Theodore Primary, Calwell High School, Science Educators Association of the ACT (SEA*ACT), and the ANU. The project was developed with a…

  7. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  8. Intergenerational Challenges in Australian Jewish School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Zehavit; Rutland, Suzanne D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the intergenerational changes that have occurred in Australian Jewish day schools and the challenges these pose for religious and Jewish education. Using a grounded theory approach according to the constant comparative method (Strauss 1987), data from three sources (interviews [296], observations [27],…

  9. Brain drain threat to Australian science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Around half of all academics in Australia intend to retire, move to an overseas university or leave Australian higher education within the next 10 years, according to a survey of more than 5500 researchers based at 20 universities in the country.

  10. Linguistic Aspects of Australian Aboriginal English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard…

  11. Professional Standards for Australian Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Ian; Dally, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Although professional standards for Australian teachers were developed several years ago, this country is yet to develop such standards for special education teachers. The lack of standards for the special education profession is associated with the absence of a consistent process of accreditation in Australia and a lack of clarity in the pathways…

  12. Australian University Libraries: Collections Overlap Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missingham, Roxanne; Walls, Robert

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, the Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST), Higher Education Information Infrastructure Advisory Committee commissioned the National Library of Australia to analyse the uniqueness and overlap of Australian university library collections, comparing library collections in each state, using the National Bibliographic Database…

  13. Conversion Disorder in Australian Pediatric Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Nunn, Kenneth P.; Rose, Donna; Morris, Anne; Ouvrier, Robert A.; Varghese, John

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the incidence and clinical features of children presenting to Australian child health specialists with conversion disorder. Method: Active, national surveillance of conversion disorder in children younger than 16 years of age during 2002 and 2003. Results: A total of 194 children were reported on. The average age was 11.8…

  14. Australian Education Journals: Quantitative and Qualitative Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddow, Gaby; Genoni, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that applied citation-based measurements to Australian education journals. Citations data were drawn from two sources, Web of Science and Scopus, and these data were used to calculate each journal's impact factor, "h"-index, and diffusion factor. The rankings resulting from these analyses were compared with…

  15. Education for Sustainability and the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennelly, Julie; Taylor, Neil; Serow, Pep

    2011-01-01

    A national curriculum is presently being developed in Australia with implementation due during 2014. Associated standards for the accreditation of teachers and for teacher education providers have been prepared with the standards describing skills and attributes that teachers are expected to attain. The developing Australian Curriculum, along with…

  16. Markets, Distance Education, and Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, Ted

    2005-01-01

    The paper argues that the Australian university system is unstable. There will be significant change as government implements its reform agenda and even more radical change if it moves to new deregulation. The role of distance education in university education needs to be analyzed against this "market" agenda of government in terms of…

  17. Open Learning: The Unique Australian Option.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latchem, Colin; Pritchard, Tony

    1994-01-01

    Describes Open Learning Australia (OLA), a national program that was developed to widen and facilitate access to undergraduate education by providing open admission. Highlights include other Australian distance education programs; services provided by OLA and those provided by participating universities; electronic support services; fees; and…

  18. Homelessness: An Annotated Bibliography of Australian Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loft, Jenny, Comp.; Davis, Mari, Comp.

    This bibliography, compiled for the International Year of Shelter for the Homeless, lists Australian works published since 1974 about homelessness. It includes definitions of homelessness from the literature and an introductory article looking at different perspectives on homelessness. The entries, mainly taken from FAMILY database, are each…

  19. A survey of Australian haematology reference intervals.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Leanne; Hall, Sara; Badrick, Tony

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to create a snapshot of Australian haematology reference intervals (RIs) in use, in particular red cell parameters. We present an analysis of survey results conducted across Australian laboratories between November 2012 and January 2013.All Australian laboratories enrolled in the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program (RCPA QAP) were invited to participate in the December 2012 Survey Monkey survey, with a response from 85 laboratories (17%) received. The scope included laboratory demographics (location, size/throughput, and network), RIs in use for the full blood count and selected derived parameters, their frequency of revision, source and statistical approach for derivation. Further questions related to uncertainty of measurement, pregnancy values, paediatric/adult cut-off, haematology profiles reported and the use of extended parameters.There is more consistency with some upper and lower limits than others, and wide ranges for reported uncertainty of measurement (UM). There is no apparent consistency with RIs used for particular instruments and technologies. When laboratories change their RIs, most obtain them from a text book, paper or another laboratory and have difficulty in determining the source. If they do determine their own, most don't have a standard operating procedure and calculations are not consistent in terms of sample size and statistical methods used.We have presented evidence of the wide variations in RIs used in Australian laboratories and that arguably these do not differ significantly from each other. The paediatric age cut-off requires standardisation.

  20. Marketing in the Australian Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favaloro, Chrissa

    2015-01-01

    This article examines domestic marketing in the Australian higher education sector, specifically, the marketing investment patterns of universities and their levels of student growth as a return on marketing investment. Marketing expenditure by universities has risen 23 per cent in the five years to 2013, with several institutions allocating in…

  1. Australian Study Cites Low English Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study showing that one-third of all foreign students who studied at Australian universities speak English so poorly that they should never have been granted visas to study in the country in the first place. The study, by Robert Birrell, director of the Centre for Population and Urban Research at Australia's…

  2. OZI: Australian English Communicative Development Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalashnikova, Marina; Schwarz, Iris-Corinna; Burnham, Denis

    2016-01-01

    For more than 20 years, the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) and its adaptations for languages other than English have been used as reliable measures of infants' and toddlers' early receptive and productive vocabulary size. This article introduces the OZI, the Australian English adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates CDI, now…

  3. Citizen Child: Australian Law and Children's Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funder, Kathleen, Ed.

    Ratification by Australia of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1990 acted as a potent stimulus for a series of debates and controversies concerning the place of children in Australian society. The debate has largely taken place in relatively specialized forums involving lawyers, members of the judiciary, social…

  4. Reshaping Australian Education, 1960-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, W. F.

    This book provides an overview of the educational events and ideas that emerged in Australia during the years 1960 to 1985. It offers a comprehensive view of Australian education, covering all levels from kindergarten to university. Focusing on the remodelling of curricula and the teaching process, the book describes and assesses the…

  5. Australian Teachers' Careers. Teachers in Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclean, Rupert, Ed.; McKenzie, Phillip, Ed.

    This book focuses on career patterns and promotion of Australian school teachers. Following an introduction by the editors, the book is divided into 4 parts: Part 1, entitled "Understanding Teachers' Careers" includes 2 chapters: (l) "Teachers' Careers: A Conceptual Framework" (Rupert Maclean); and (2) "Teachers' Work: A…

  6. Native Americans and Aboriginal Australian Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Sharon Pray

    Aboriginal Australians represent 1.5% of Australia's population, nearly double the percentage of native people in the U.S. population. While indigenous peoples throughout the world share common similarities, particularly contemporary issues and their spiritual regard for nature, many aspects of their lifestyles are different, such as governance,…

  7. The Dawkins Reconstruction of Australian Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Grant

    Aspects of recent changes in Australian higher education are explored, with focus on the Dawkins Agenda, which is related to the current political and economic situation. Questions about the success of John Dawkins, Federal Minister for Employment, Education and Training, in regard to higher education are raised (why he has been successful and…

  8. Should there be an Australian Army Association?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-15

    plans. Warnings. Bad news on the economic horizon? The regulatory front? In the courts? Associations serve as "early warning systems" for their...prohibited from having economic activities as their primary purpose. Under Australian state and federal legislation, bodies that seek to be political

  9. Making Space for Multilingualism in Australian Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Marianne; Cross, Russell

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduce the special issue: Language(s) across the curriculum in Australian schools. The special issue includes a focus on English as an additional language in mainstream classes, Indigenous education, heritage languages and foreign languages, and we give background to these different--though frequently overlapping--contexts.…

  10. Voluntary Group Participation by Third Age Australians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Claire; Swindell, Rick

    A study investigated characteristics of retirees and types of voluntary groups they joined after retirement. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and completed questionnaires of 206 Australians over age 50. Five categories of voluntary organizations were studied: intellectually challenging, sporting/exercise, social, helping others,…

  11. Learning Choices, Older Australians and Active Ageing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…

  12. Synergy, 2003. Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network, Parramatta.

    Each issue in the 2002 edition of the Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network (ATMHN) newsletter represents a theme critical to mental health practitioners. The Winter 2002 issue features articles on the psychological consequences of interpreters in relation to working with torture and trauma clients, addressing language issues on mental…

  13. Publications of Australian LIS Academics in Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Concepcion S.; Boell, Sebastian K.; Kennan, Mary Anne; Willard, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines aspects of journal articles published from 1967 to 2008, located in eight databases, and authored or co-authored by academics serving for at least two years in Australian LIS programs from 1959 to 2008. These aspects are: inclusion of publications in databases, publications in journals, authorship characteristics of…

  14. Young Australians: Their Health and Wellbeing 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milnes, Annette; Pegrum, Karen; Nebe, Brett; Topfer, Alex; Gaal, Lisa; Zhang, Jessica; Hunter, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the fourth in a series of national statistical reports on young people aged 12-24 years produced by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). This report provides the latest available information on how Australia's young people are faring according to national indicators of health and wellbeing. Many young Australians…

  15. Locational Issues in New Apprenticeships. Australian Apprenticeships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbrell, T.; Finnegan, W.; de Montfort, R.

    A study examined geographical distribution of Australian apprenticeship commencements (ACs) in the context of various labor force and population statistics by industry, location of jobs by industry, and youth population. Apprenticeship and traineeship statistics between 1995-98 were examined to demonstrate differences in development of the system…

  16. Australian Allograpta Osten Sacken (Diptera, Syrphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mengual, Ximo; Thompson, F. Christian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Allograpta terraenovae sp. n. and Allograpta notiale sp. n. are described from Australia. Notes on the Australian species of Allograpta and an identification key to them are also given. The lectotype of Allograpta javana Wiedemann is designated, and the species Syrphus pallidus Bigot is synonymized under Allograpta australensis (Schiner). PMID:26257569

  17. Commercial Activities and Copyright in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelly, Marita

    2008-01-01

    With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…

  18. Financial Management and Young Australian Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Nicki; Hoiles, Lauren; Corney, Tim; Clark, David

    2008-01-01

    In two studies of young Australian workers, participants generally displayed positive attitudes towards financial management practices; however, a substantial proportion failed to display positive financial management practices, experienced financial problems and dissatisfaction, and reported low rates of seeking financial assistance, particularly…

  19. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge…

  20. Ethnicity and Gender in Australian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Jim

    The Australian education system is denying equity and social justice to ethnic minorities and women. This paper examines the development of Australia's educational policy for those two groups. It argues that the educational disadvantages they have experienced have been enhanced by the marginalization of the issues. Policies such as multicultural…

  1. Inclusion and Equity in Australian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, David; Graham, Lorraine; Stevens, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a large-scale, in-depth study of secondary schools in one Australian state that were achieving exceptional outcomes. The element of that study on which this paper focuses is equity and inclusion. We examine the Equity programs operating in seven sites where schools were including students experiencing some form of…

  2. The Australians--A "Fair Go" People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Herschel

    1984-01-01

    Australians are known for their egalitarian spirit, manifested by a dislike of social pretension and affectation. A brief history of the country from the time of its establishment in 1788 as a dumping ground for Britain's unwanted criminals to the present is presented. (RM)

  3. Sustainability in the Australian Curriculum: Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maude, Alaric

    2014-01-01

    "Sustainability" is one of the seven major concepts in the geography curriculum. It is also one of the three cross-curriculum priorities in the Australian curriculum, together with Asia and Australia's engagement with Asia, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. This paper describes how the concept is explained…

  4. Australian Children's Understanding of Display Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Cultural display rules govern the manifestation of emotional expressions. In compliance with display rules, the facial expressions displayed (i.e. apparent emotion) may be incongruent with the emotion experienced (i.e. real emotion). This study investigates Australian Caucasian children's understanding of display rules. A sample of 80 four year…

  5. After Bureaucracy, What?: An Australian Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Alan

    1983-01-01

    In the Australian state of Victoria, control of academic curriculum has shifted from the bureaucrats to locally based teacher networks and statewide associations which limit subject scope and teaching styles. However, curriculum has not changed significantly, indicating that institutional reforms do not necessarily result in radical alterations of…

  6. Mature Age Students in Australian Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hore, Terry; West, Leo H. T.

    A study was undertaken, in 1976 and for the three following years, of adult students in Australian higher education. The study examined: (1) the phenomenon of adult students and the extent of their involvement in higher education; (2) the politics and practices of institutions towards these students; (3) staff attitudes in the courses; (4) adult…

  7. Developments in Australian Agricultural and Related Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, Peter; Rayner, John

    2011-01-01

    While the calm waters metaphor might explain the changes navigated by Australian agricultural education through most of its history, the last 20 or so years have been very turbulent. Now, the new millennium sees agricultural education in both Australia and the Western world facing a different and less certain future. This paper analyses some of…

  8. Australian orchids and the doctors they commemorate.

    PubMed

    Pearn, John H

    2013-01-21

    Botanical taxonomy is a repository of medical biographical information. Such botanical memorials include the names of some indigenous orchids of Australia. By searching reference texts and journals relating to Australian botany and Australian orchidology, as well as Australian and international medical and botanical biographical texts, I identified 30 orchids indigenous to Australia whose names commemorate doctors and other medical professionals. Of these, 24 have names that commemorate a total of 16 doctors who worked in Australia. The doctors and orchids I identified include: doctor-soldiers Richard Sanders Rogers (1862-1942), after whom the Rogers' Greenhood (Pterostylis rogersii) is named, and Robert Brown (1773-1858), after whom the Purple Enamel Orchid (Elythranthera brunonis) is named; navy surgeon Archibald Menzies (1754-1842), after whom the Hare Orchid (Leptoceras menziesii) is named; radiologist Hugo Flecker (1884-1957) after whom the Slender Sphinx Orchid (Cestichis fleckeri) is named; and general medical practitioner Hereward Leighton Kesteven (1881-1964), after whom the Kesteven's Orchid (Dendrobium kestevenii) is named. Biographic references in scientific names of plants comprise a select but important library of Australian medical history. Such botanical taxonomy commemorates, in an enduring manner, clinicians who have contributed to biology outside clinical practice.

  9. Elder mistreatment: an international narrative.

    PubMed

    Podnieks, Elizabeth; Penhale, Bridget; Goergen, Thomas; Biggs, Simon; Han, Donghee

    2010-01-01

    This eclectic overview of global reports on elder mistreatment reflects both the diversity of the work of the authors and the situations in the countries described. Some nations frame elder mistreatment as a human rights issue; others trace the development of emerging programs and practices as they articulate strategies designed to identify, prevent, and reduce the problem, while recognizing the shifting context in which elder mistreatment takes place. This article sheds light on the way different countries share their stories, policies, and initiatives, which stimulate discussions and debates of various aspects and cultural nuances of elder mistreatment. The data presented provide a platform for increased action toward preventing elder mistreatment and celebrate successes while looking for new ways to address challenges.

  10. Understanding suicide in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Zanni, Guido R; Wick, Jeannette Y

    2010-02-01

    One suicide occurs every 16 minutes. Intentionally killing oneself is distinctly human; other species don't commit suicide. Suicide is an exceedingly complex phenomenon stemming from intolerable stress and the inability to cope. Elders tend to plan their suicides well, choose means of killing themselves that are more violent than younger people do, and are less likely to survive the attempt than others. Numerous factors increase risk for elder suicide: recent bereavement, pain, chronic illness, hopelessness, and despair. Identifying and treating depression early is essential to avoid tragedy. Regardless, many elders are treated with anxiolytics and analgesics in lieu of antidepressants, and some medications may increase suicide risk. Consultant pharmacists need to be aware that suicide is a serious concern for elders. When depression seems to be worsening in an elder, aggressive action is needed.

  11. [Crisis intervention with elderly people].

    PubMed

    Etzersdorfer, E

    2008-02-01

    This paper gives an overview about the most important aspects of crisis intervention, with special emphasis on crisis intervention with elderly people. First a review of the development of crisis intervention is given, including of some of the major concepts, with particular emphasis on psychoanalytic aspects of crisis intervention. Then a clinical case example of a crisis intervention with an elderly woman following a suicide attempt is given and discussed. The focus lies on the description of the transference-countertransference relationship, with attempts of pressing the therapist to comply with superficial, denying and minimizing fantasies. Peculiarities of crisis intervention with elderly people are highlighted: it is necessary to emphasize that elderly people are underrepresented in most crisis services, whereby they represent the group with the highest suicide risk. Peculiarities of elderly people still are not sufficiently met and they are created by a particularly wide range of aspects.

  12. Fire fatalities in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Elder, A T; Squires, T; Busuttil, A

    1996-05-01

    Fatal dwelling-house fires account for 10% of all accidental deaths in the United Kingdom with one-quarter of the deaths being of elderly people. No study had described the characteristics of elderly individuals who die in fires. We report results from a retrospective review of all fatal dwelling-house fires in Scotland from 1980 to 1990. Of 1096 people dying in fires, 243 (23%) were aged over 75. When compared with patients under the age of 75, older patients were significantly less likely to be smokers. Significantly more fires killing elderly people were caused by faulty or misused electrical items in the house, particularly electric blankets. These differences between elderly and younger individuals dying in dwelling-house fires may suggest that preventive strategies for the elderly population require a different emphasis from those for younger people.

  13. [Antidepressants in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Cortajarena García, M C; Ron Martin, S; Miranda Vicario, E; Ruiz de Vergara Eguino, A; Azpiazu Gomez, P J; Lopez Aldana, J

    2016-10-01

    Depression in the elderly is a changing, difficult and common disorder. At this age, there are more relapses and more long-life treatment is required. The pharmacology approach is a challenge because of concurrent factors that make their treatment more difficult. It is very important to have a basic antidepressant scheme, in order to help treat this disorder with efficiency and success from Primary Care. There are no drugs without side effects, and their characteristics have to be known in order to make the right selection depending on effectiveness, safety and tolerance.

  14. Dysphagia in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Elderly patients are inherently predisposed to dysphagia predominately because of comorbid health conditions. With the aging of the population in the United States, along with the increased prevalence of obesity and gastroesophageal reflux disease, healthcare providers will increasingly encounter older patients with either oropharyngeal or esophageal disease and complaints of dysphagia. Useful tests to evaluate dysphagia include the videofluoroscopic swallowing study and the fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Swallow rehabilitation is useful to help patients compensate for swallowing difficulty and ultimately help strengthen the neuromusculature involved in swallowing. PMID:24772045

  15. Elder abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Muehlbauer, Melissa; Crane, Patricia A

    2006-11-01

    Elder abuse and neglect is a critical health care issue that must be brought to the attention of health care providers and older adults' family members. Adults older than 65 who live at home or in long-term care facilities may be at risk for abuse. Nurses should be aware of the causes, screening questions, symptoms of abuse, and resources in the community. Armed with information and a better understanding about the issue, nurses can minimize the devastating effects of abuse on older adults and their families.

  16. Dysphagia in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abraham; Carmona, Richard; Traube, Morris

    2014-02-01

    Dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing, is a common problem in the elderly. Based on the initial clinical history and physical examination, the dysphagia is assessed as either primarily oropharyngeal or esophageal in origin. Most oropharyngeal dysphagia is of neurologic origin, and management is coordinated with a clinical swallow specialist in conjunction with an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) physician if warning signs imply malignancy. Several structural and functional esophageal disorders can cause dysphagia. If a patient has likely esophageal dysphagia, a video barium esophagram is a good initial test, and referral to a gastroenterologist is generally warranted leading to appropriate treatment.

  17. Elder Abuse: The Status of Current Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrick-Cornell, Claire; Gelles, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses problems of definition of elderly abuse. Examines data and research on the rates of elderly abuse and factors found related to elderly abuse. Critiques theories developed to explain the abuse of the elderly. Presents recommendations for research and practice. (RC)

  18. Family caregivers: Russian-speaking Australian women's access to welfare support.

    PubMed

    Team, Victoria; Markovic, Milica; Manderson, Lenore

    2007-09-01

    In Australia, rapid population ageing, and government efforts to support people who are chronically ill, elderly or with disabilities to live in their own homes, has led to the primary responsibility of care being undertaken by families. Through its social policies, the Australian government provides income and other types of support to informal caregivers. This article explores how Australian social policy and women's understanding of their roles impact on their access to welfare support. Qualitative research was conducted in Melbourne between February and June 2006. In-depth interviews were undertaken with eight Russian-speaking women involved in caregiving, purposively recruited through ethnic associations, and with four community service providers. Women based their expectations of the gendered and private nature of their role on the social policies in countries of their origin and, hence, did not attempt to access welfare support unless they were referred by health and welfare professionals. In addition, poor referral by professionals, influenced by past societal attitudes that caregiving is a gendered role, contributed to women's limited access to welfare benefits. Changes in the implementation of social policy are proposed to increase caregivers' access to welfare support and efficient utilisation of existing resources.

  19. Climate impacts of Australian land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, P. J.

    2004-05-01

    Australian land cover has been dramatically altered since European settlement primarily for agricultural utilization, with native vegetation widely replaced or modified for cropping and intensive animal production. While there have been numerous investigations into the regional and near surface climate impacts of Australian land cover change, these investigation have not included the climate impacts of larger-scale changes in atmospheric circulation and their associated feedbacks, or the impacts of longer-term soil moisture feedbacks. In this research the CSIRO General Circulation Model (GCM) was used to investigate the climate impacts of Australian land cover change, with larger-scale and longer-term feedbacks. To avoid the common problem of overstating the magnitude and spatial extent of changes in land surface conditions prescribed in land cover change experiments, the current Australian land surface properties were described from finer-scale, satellite derived land cover datasets, with land surface conditions extrapolating from remnant native vegetation to pre-clearing extents to recreate the pre-clearing land surface properties. Aggregation rules were applied to the fine-scale data to generate the land surface parameters of the GCM, ensuring the equivalent sub-grid heterogeneity and land surface biogeophysics were captured in both the current and pre-clearing land surface parameters. The differences in climate simulated in the pre-clearing and current experiments were analyzed for changes in Australian continental and regional climate to assess the modeled climate impacts of Australian land cover change. The changes in modeled climate were compared to observed changes in Australian precipitation over the last 50 and 100 years to assess whether modeled results could be detected in the historical record. The differences in climate simulation also were analyzed at the global scale to assess the impacts of local changes on larger scale circulation and climate at

  20. USGS analysis of the Australian UNCLOS submission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Rowland, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    In November 2004, the Government of Australia made a submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) for 10 extended continental shelf (ECS) regions, utilizing Article-76 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). With information provided in the Australian Executive Summary, the USGS examined the 10 regions of the submission from geological, morphological, and resource perspectives. By their own request, the Australians asked that CLCS take no action on the Australian-Antarctic Territory. The major limitation in this analysis is that no bathymetric soundings or detailed hydrographic profiles were provided in the Australian Executive Summary that might show why the Foot of the Slope (FOS) was chosen or where the 2,500-m contour is located. This represents a major limitation because more than half of the 4,205 boundary points utilize the bathymetric formula line and more than one-third of them utilize the bathymetric constraint line. CLCS decisions on the components of this submission may set a precedent for how ECSs are treated in future submissions. Some of the key decisions will cover (a) how a 'natural prolongation' of a continental margin is determined, particularly if a bathymetric saddle that appears to determine the prolongation is in deep water and is well outside of the 200-nm limit (Exmouth Plateau), (b) defining to what extent that plateaus, rises, caps, banks and spurs that are formed of oceanic crust and from oceanic processes can be considered to be 'natural prolongations' (Kerguelen Plateau), (c) to what degree UNCLOS recognizes reefs and uninhabited micro-islands (specifically, rocks and/or sand shoals) as islands that can have an EEZ (Middleton and Elizabeth Reefs north of Lord Howe Island), and (d) how the Foot of the Slope (FOS) is chosen (Great Australian Bight). The submission contains situations that are relevant to potential future U.S. submissions and are potentially analogous to certain

  1. Medicine use of elderly Chinese and Vietnamese immigrants and attitudes to home medicines review.

    PubMed

    White, Lesley; Klinner, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    There is a paucity of research into the perceptions of elderly Australian ethnic minorities towards public health services related to quality use of medicines. Among the six fastest growing ethnic groups in Australia, the Mandarin-speaking Chinese and Vietnamese constitute the largest elderly populations with poor English skills. This paper investigates the relationships of elderly Chinese and Vietnamese migrants with medicines, general practitioners and pharmacists, and how these relationships influence their awareness and attitudes of the home medicines review (HMR) program. Two semi-structured focus groups were held with a total of 17 HMR-eligible patients who have never received a HMR, one with Chinese and one with Vietnamese respondents, each in the respective community language. Confusion about medications and an intention to have a HMR were pronounced among all participants although none of them had heard of the program before participating in the focus groups. Respondents reported difficulties locating a pharmacist who spoke their native language, which contributed to an increased unmet need for medicine information. The Chinese group additionally complained about a lack of support from their general practitioners in relation to their medicine concerns and was adamant that they would prefer to have a HMR without the involvement of their general practitioner. Our results indicate a distinct HMR need but not use among elderly Chinese and Vietnamese eligible patients with poor English skills. Home medicines review service use and perceived medication problems are likely to improve with an increasing availability of bilingual and culturally sensitive health care providers.

  2. Renal Cancer in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    González León, Tania; Morera Pérez, Maricela

    2016-01-01

    The increase of the aging population corresponds with the rise of renal cancer in elderly patients. The distinction between functional and chronological age, quality of life, and survival estimate are important issues, among others, that should be considered in the management of renal cancer in elderly patients. We made this review with the purpose of synthesizing the most updated criteria regarding indications and outcomes of the different therapeutic options in the management of elderly patients with renal cancer, beginning from the physiologic considerations that characterize them, their capacity to tolerate different therapeutic possibilities, and the prognosis of the patients' risks and comorbidity assessment.

  3. [Liver diseases in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Bruguera, Miguel

    2014-11-01

    Liver diseases in the elderly have aroused less interest than diseases of other organs, since the liver plays a limited role in aging. There are no specific liver diseases of old age, but age-related anatomical and functional modifications of the liver cause changes in the frequency and clinical behavior of some liver diseases compared with those in younger patients. This review discusses the most important features of liver function in the healthy elderly population, as well as the features of the most prevalent liver diseases in this age group, especially the diagnostic approach to the most common liver problems in the elderly: asymptomatic elevation of serum transaminases and jaundice.

  4. Nature Study, Aborigines and the Australian Kindergarten: Lessons from Martha Simpson's "Australian Programme Based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an experimental kindergarten programme "Work in the Kindergarten: An Australian Programme based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black" developed by Martha Simpson in early twentieth-century Australia. Here Simpson adapted international Revisionist Froebelian approaches to cultural epoch theory and nature…

  5. Ecological Model of Australian Indigenous Men's Health.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Mellor, David; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Mussap, Alexander J; Hallford, David J

    2016-11-01

    This study was designed to examine the health behaviors as well as the enablers and barriers to health behaviors among Indigenous Australian men. One hundred and fifty Indigenous Australian men in rural, regional, and urban locations were interviewed about their health behaviors. The results revealed several themes of importance: (a) role of community activities, (b) the Indigenous man as a leader and role model, (c) negative impact of discrimination/racism, (d) importance of partner and family, (e) positive and negative role of peer relationships, (f) central role of culturally appropriate health care facilities, and (g) association between employment and health care problems. These findings highlight the importance of broad community-based (rather than individualistic) approaches to promoting health behavior in Indigenous men.

  6. Meals for the Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The aim of Skylab's multi-agency cooperative project was to make simple but nutritious space meals available to handicapped and otherwise homebound senior adults, unable to take advantage of existing meal programs sponsored by federal, state and private organizations. As a spinoff of Meal Systems for the Elderly, commercial food processing firms are now producing astronaut type meals for public distribution. Company offers variety of freeze dried foods which are reconstituted by addition of water, and "retort pouch" meals which need no reconstitution, only heating. The retort pouch is an innovative flexible package that combines the advantage of boil-in bag and metal can. Foods retain their flavor, minerals and vitamins can be stored without refrigeration and are lightweight for easy transportation.

  7. Hypertension in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Extremera, Blas; Cía-Gómez, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Background. The incidence of hypertension in the Western countries is continuously increasing in the elderly population and remains the leading cause of cardiovascular and morbidity. Methods. we analysed some significant clinical trials in order to present the relevant findings on those hypertensive population. Results. Several studies (SYST-EUR, HYVET, CONVINCE, VALUE, etc.) have demonstrated the benefits of treatment (nitrendipine, hydrochrotiazyde, perindopril, indapamide, verapamil, or valsartan) in aged hypertensive patients not only concerning blood pressure values but also the other important risk factors. Conclusion. Hypertension is the most prevalent cardiovascular disorder in the Western countries, and the relevance of receiving pharmacological treatment of hypertension in aged patients is crucial; in addition, the results suggest that combination therapy—nitrendipine plus enalapril—could have more benefits than those observed with the use of nitrendipine alone. PMID:21876789

  8. Are there associations between socio-economic status and known diabetes in an elderly Finnish population?

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, L A

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the associations between socio-economic status and type 2 diabetes in a non-institutionalised population aged 70 years or over. Diabetes was assessed on the basis of self-reports and additionally 2-h oral glucose tolerance test for the subjects on diet treatment. Socio-economic status was assessed by questions on marital status, number of residents in household, basic education, self-rated income and economic status. In the population of 379 subjects (141 men), 14% (n = 19) of men and 19% (n = 46) of women had known diabetes. Known diabetes was less common among married compared to unmarried, widowed or divorced subjects. Diabetes was also more common among men with higher compared to lower level of basic education, while a reverse trend was seen among women. Women, who had been engaged in manual labour, had diabetes more often compared to those engaged in administrative work. Diabetes was more common among men who rated their income as good, but the opposite was true of women. Higher income among men and lower income among women were the most powerful variables associated with known diabetes. Known diabetes was more common in elderly women with lower socio-economic status, whereas the opposite was true of men. This finding suggests that the impact of the socio-economic changes that have taken place in Finland in the 20th century on the risk factors for diabetes has been greater among men with higher and women with lower socio-economic status.

  9. Mastocytosis among elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Rouet, Audrey; Aouba, Achille; Damaj, Gandhi; Soucié, Erinn; Hanssens, Katia; Chandesris, Marie-Olivia; Livideanu, Cristina Bulai; Dutertre, Marine; Durieu, Isabelle; Grandpeix-Guyodo, Catherine; Barète, Stéphane; Bachmeyer, Claude; Soria, Angèle; Frenzel, Laurent; Fain, Olivier; Grosbois, Bernard; de Gennes, Christian; Hamidou, Mohamed; Arlet, Jean-Benoit; Launay, David; Lavigne, Christian; Arock, Michel; Lortholary, Olivier; Dubreuil, Patrice; Hermine, Olivier; Georgin-Lavialle, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases with a young median age at diagnosis. Usually indolent and self-limited in childhood, the disease can exhibit aggressive progression in mid-adulthood. Our objectives were to describe the characteristics of the disease when diagnosed among elderly patients, for which rare data are available. The French Reference Center conducted a retrospective multicenter study on 53 patients with mastocytosis >69 years of age, to describe their clinical, biological, and genetic features. The median age of our cohort of patients was 75 years. Mastocytosis variants included were cutaneous (n = 1), indolent systemic (n = 5), aggressive systemic (n = 11), associated with a hematological non-mast cell disease (n = 34), and mast cell leukemia (n = 2). Clinical manifestations were predominantly mast cell activation symptoms (75.5%), poor performance status (50.9%), hepatosplenomegaly (50.9%), skin involvement (49.1%), osteoporosis (47.2%), and portal hypertension and ascites (26.4%). The main biological features were anemia (79.2%), thrombocytopenia (50.9%), leucopenia (20.8%), and liver enzyme abnormalities (32.1%). Of the 40 patients tested, 34 (85%), 2 (5%), and 4 (10%) exhibited the KIT D816V mutant, other KIT mutations and the wild-type form of the KIT gene, respectively. Additional sequencing detected significant genetic defects in 17 of 26 (65.3%) of the patients with associated hematological non-mast cell disease, including TET2, SRSF2, IDH2, and ASLX1 mutations. Death occurred in 19 (35.8%) patients, within a median delay of 9 months, despite the different treatment options available. Mastocytosis among elderly patients has a challenging early detection, rare skin involvement, and/or limited skin disease; it is heterogeneous and has often an aggressive presentation with nonfortuitous associated myeloid lineage malignant clones, and thus a poor overall prognosis. PMID:27310990

  10. Combustion of Australian spent shales compared

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The combustion kinetics of spent oil shales from seven major Australian deposits have been examined using a fluidized bed batch technique. Chemical rate constants were shown to vary between the shales and to be less than extrapolations of data from American spent oil shales. The effective diffusivity also varies widely among the shales. The seven oil shales were from the Condor, Duaringa, Lowmead, Nagoorin, Nagoorin South, Rundle and Stuart deposits in Queensland. Results are briefly described. 1 figure, 1 table.

  11. Farming fit? Dispelling the Australian agrarian myth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rural Australians face a higher mental health and lifestyle disease burden (obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease) than their urban counterparts. Our ongoing research reveals that the Australian farming community has even poorer physical and mental health outcomes than rural averages. In particular, farm men and women have high rates of overweightness, obesity, abdominal adiposity, high blood pressure and psychological distress when compared against Australian averages. Within our farming cohort we observed a significant association between psychological distress and obesity, abdominal adiposity and body fat percentage in the farming population. Presentation of hypothesis This paper presents a hypothesis based on preliminary data obtained from an ongoing study that could potentially explain the complex correlation between obesity, psychological distress and physical activity among a farming population. We posit that spasmodic physical activity, changing farm practices and climate variability induce prolonged stress in farmers. This increases systemic cortisol that, in turn, promotes abdominal adiposity and weight gain. Testing the hypothesis The hypothesis will be tested by anthropometric, biochemical and psychological analysis matched against systemic cortisol levels and the physical activity of the subjects. Implications of the hypothesis tested Previous studies indicate that farming populations have elevated rates of psychological distress and high rates of suicide. Australian farmers have recently experienced challenging climatic conditions including prolonged drought, floods and cyclones. Through our interactions and through the media it is not uncommon for farmers to describe the effect of this long-term stress with feelings of 'defeat'. By gaining a greater understanding of the role cortisol and physical activity have on mental and physical health we may positively impact the current rates of psychological distress in farmers. Trial

  12. Laboratory Evaluation of Australian Ration Packs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    described in Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists ( AOAC , 1980). Fat was determined in sweetened condensed milk...reviewed. 10 7. REFERENCES Anon (1982) "Dietary guidelines for Australians" J. Fd Nutr., 38, 111-119. AOAC , (1980) Official Methods of Analysis of the...Research Council (NH & MRC, 1984). The Reference Man is 70 kg and has the requirements for various grades of activity listed in Table 2. 2. METHODS OF

  13. Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Lahra, Monica M

    2015-03-31

    The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme has continuously monitored antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from all states and territories since 1981. In 2013, 4,897 clinical isolates of gonococci from public and private sector sources were tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility by standardised methods. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC value 0.06-0.125 mg/L) was found nationally in 8.8% of isolates, double that reported in 2012 (4.4%). The highest proportions were reported from New South Wales and Victoria (both states reporting 11.8%), with a high proportion of strains also reported from Tasmania but a low number of isolates were tested. In addition, there was a multi-drug-resistant strain of N. gonorrhoeae isolated from a traveller to Australia, with a ceftraixone MIC value of 0.5 mgL-the highest ever reported in Australia. These antimicrobial resistance data from Australia in 2013 are cause for considerable concern. With the exception of remote Northern Territory where penicillin resistance rates remain low (1.3%) the proportion of strains resistant to penicillin remained high in all jurisdictions ranging from 15.6% in the Australian Capital Territory to 44.1% in Victoria. Quinolone resistance ranged from 16% in the Australian Capital Territory to 46% in Victoria. Azithromycin susceptibility testing was performed in all jurisdictions and resistance ranged from 0.3% in the Northern Territory to 5.7% in Queensland. High level resistance to azithromycin (MIC value was > 256 mg/L) was reported for the first time in Australia, in 4 strains: 2 each from Queensland and Victoria. Azithromycin resistant gonococci were not detected in the Australian Capital Territory, Tasmania or from the remote Northern Territory. Nationally, all isolates remained susceptible to spectinomycin.

  14. Australian Oceanographic Data Centre. Bulletin 15.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    bathythermal data for Coral Sea , Tasman Sea plus other Australian areas 4. Department of Science and the Environment, (Antarctic Division...RAN meteorological/oceanographic officers, of an ocean analysis and forecasting scheme for the Tasman /Coral Sea area. This scheme uses sea -surface...layers are heated up and mixed layer depth is fairly uniform except near fronts. The Tasman Front is the boundary between Coral Sea and Tasman Sea

  15. Would the Formation of a Combat Maneuver Corps Support the Transformation of the Australian Army as Envisaged in the Hardened and Networked Army Concept?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-16

    1978. Australian Armour. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: The Australian War Memorial and the Australian Government Publishing Service. Jones ... Ian . 1987. The Australian Light Horse. Sydney, New South Wales: Time Life Books. Krause, Michael, Lieutenant Colonel. 2004. Lest We Forget

  16. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-03-21

    Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C(∗), present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia.

  17. Origins of the southeastern Australian vegetation.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Robert S

    2004-01-01

    Australia is an ancient continent with an interesting geological history that includes a recent major shift in its position, both globally and compared with neighbouring land masses. This has led to a great deal of confusion over many years about the origins of the Australian biomes. The plant fossil record is now clarifying this, and it is clear that the ancient Gondwanan rainforests that covered Australia while it was still part of that supercontinent contained many of the elements of the modern vegetation. However, major climatic sifting, along with responses to other factors, including soil nutrient levels, disturbance regimes, atmospheric CO2 levels, fire frequency and intensity, glaciations and the arrival of humans, have had profound impacts on the Australian vegetation, which today reflects the sum of all these factors and more. The origins of Australian vegetation and its present-day management cannot be properly understood without an appreciation of this vast history, and the fossil record has a vital role to play in maintaining the health of this continent's vegetation into the future. PMID:15519971

  18. [Nutritional anemias in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Serraj, Khalid; Federici, Laure; Kaltenbach, Georges; Andrès, Emmanuel

    2008-09-01

    Nutritional deficiencies cause one third of the cases of anemia in the elderly. The urgency of anemia management in elderly patients depends on tolerance and repercussions, rather than only on the hemoglobin level. Iron, vitamin B12 and folate are the most common deficiencies, and their levels should be tested. Chronic gastrointestinal bleeding is the principal cause of iron-deficiency anemia. Management is based on supplementation combined with effective etiological treatment.

  19. Elderly-animal postmortem attachment.

    PubMed

    Peretti, P O

    1990-01-01

    Attachment can be strong between people and their pets. The present study was conducted to determine: (1) specific variables associated with the final rite and disposition of the deceased pet, and (2) those criteria associated with emotional and social factors pertaining to elderly-animal postmortem attachment. Results suggested four most frequently stated variables of final rite and disposition, and eight emotional and social factors of elderly-animal postmortem attachment.

  20. [Deglutition disorders in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Menasria, Feriel; Lakroun, Samia; David, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Deglutition disorders are frequent in elderly patients and can lead to serious consequences in terms of morbidity and mortality. Despite an easy screening test with the water, they are ignored or underestimated. Moreover, early detection and treatment focused essentially on the adaptation of textures, postures as well as the provision of information and training to all the people involved in feeding the elderly person require few resources and provide a real benefit.

  1. Naproxen pharmacokinetics in the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Upton, R A; Williams, R L; Kelly, J; Jones, R M

    1984-01-01

    While naproxen pharmacokinetics appear to be altered in the presence of both diminished renal and hepatic function, the degree to which naproxen disposition might be influenced in the elderly by concurrent alteration in these functions is not obvious. Total plasma clearance/bioavailability (CL/F) of naproxen after a single 375 mg oral dose was found to be less in a group of 10 healthy men between 66 and 81 years of age than in 10 healthy men between 22 and 39 years (0.318 +/- 0.078, 0.416 +/- 0.061 l/h). At steady state (375 mg, 12 hourly), however, CL/F was statistically indistinguishable between the two groups. The fraction of naproxen unbound to plasma protein was doubled in elderly subjects, both at peak and trough drug concentrations. The lowered protein binding tended to obscure a 50% decrement in the intrinsic clearance of naproxen in the elderly as estimated by unbound clearance/bioavailability (213 +/- 64, 396 +/- 155 l/h). As a result, mean steady-state plasma concentrations of naproxen were indistinguishable between the elderly and young (64.2 +/- 8.5, 58.2 +/- 8.1 mg/l) but the elderly generated twice the mean steady-state unbound plasma drug concentration (0.157 +/- 0.039, 0.0859 +/- 0.0212 mg/l). Since it is the unbound drug concentration which appears in general to relate more closely to pharmacological and toxic effect, it may be advisable to reduce naproxen doses by half in the elderly, pending plasma drug concentration-response studies in this age group. If a similar perturbation with age occurs in benoxaprofen protein binding as was observed with naproxen, benoxaprofen intrinsic clearance in the elderly might be only one quarter of that in younger individuals; a factor which may contribute to the toxicity of this drug in the elderly. PMID:6487459

  2. Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among urban elderlies: Lucknow elderly study

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, S. C.; Tripathi, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Aditya; Kar, A. M.; Singh, Ragini; Kohli, V. K.; Agarwal, G. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Paucity of systematic studies in elderly mental health in an aging population is an urgent need, which is required to address services and planning issues for health. Aim: The present study aims to investigate the distribution of physical, neuropsychiatric, and cognitive disorders of a community sample of elderlies with certain socioeconomic data. Materials and Methods: A door-to-door household survey was conducted to identify houses with elderlies (≥55 years) in two urban localities of Lucknow. Mini mental state examination (MMSE), Survey Psychiatric Assessment Schedule (SPAS)/Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and physical and neurological examination were used for screening all consenting elderlies. MMSE positive participants were assessed on Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination-Revised for diagnosis of cognitive disorders; SPAS/MDQ positives were assessed on Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry based clinical interview for diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders other than cognitive disorders (using ICD-10 criteria). Routine and indicated laboratory/radiological investigations on all and on MMSE/SPAS (organic section) positive/physically ill participants respectively were done to confirm organic and/or physical illness. Only percentages were calculated to find the distribution of morbidity. Results: The sample had proportionate age structure as that of the surveyed population and had balanced gender representation in each age deciles. Prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders (with/without comorbidities) was 11.8% in the elderlies (60 years and above) highest being in the 60-69 years age group. Being women and of lower socioeconomic status was more commonly associated with a neuropsychiatric diagnosis. 7.6% of the elderlies had cognitive impairment. Overall findings suggest a prevalence rate of 17.34% of total psychiatric morbidity among elderlies. A significant number had comorbid physical illness diagnoses

  3. The role of acculturation in health status and utilization of health services among the iranian elderly in metropolitan Sydney.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh-Khoei, Mahtab; Mathews, R Mark; Hossain, S Zakia

    2011-12-01

    The present study explores the impact of acculturation on health status and use of health and community aged care services among elderly Iranian-born immigrants to Australia. Three hundred two Iranian immigrants aged 65 years and over who had lived in the Sydney Metropolitan area for at least six months participated. Data were collected using a written survey instrument, face-to-face interviews, and telephone interviews. Iranian immigrants had higher levels of psychological distress, more limited physical function, greater need for help or assistance with activities of daily living, lower feelings of wellbeing, and were much less likely to use aged care services than the general population of older Australians. Participants who did not speak English at home were more likely to experience psychological distress and had greater limitations in their physical functioning. Elderly Iranians with better English proficiency had lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms and reported less need for help and supervision in activities of daily living; they were also more likely to access health care services. Elderly Iranian immigrants experience higher levels of psychological distress and lower levels of physical function than the general population of older Australians; those with limited proficiency in English are at greatest risk. These findings contribute to the enrichment of multicultural policy, social fairness, access, and equity for ethnic aged people.

  4. Australian Apprentice & Trainee Statistics: Electrical and Electronics Trades, 1995 to 1999. Australian Vocational Education & Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Statistics regarding Australians participating in apprenticeships and traineeships in the electrical and electronics trades in 1995-1999 were reviewed to provide an indication of where skill shortages may be occurring or will likely occur in relation to the following occupations: electrical engineering associate professional; electronics…

  5. National Statement for Engaging Young Australians with Asia in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Engaging Young Australians with Asia" is a national policy statement which supports "The Adelaide Declaration on National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century." These goals promote understanding of the value of cultural and linguistic diversity, and possessing the knowledge, skills and understanding to contribute…

  6. The Arts and Australian Education: Realising Potential. Australian Education Review No. 58

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    Australian Education Review (AER) 58 surveys the international and national research on the role and effect of arts-rich programming in schools and in the broader community, and examines the policies and practices that inhibit or support these initiatives. It puts the case that embedding the Arts in learning would be a powerful catalyst for…

  7. The Australian-Ness of Curriculum Jigsaws: Where Does Environmental Education Fit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews Australian Government actions related to environmental education, particularly in the past decade, and examines the actions forthcoming from two national action plans (Environment Australia, 2000 and DEWHA, 2009), the implementation strategy for the Decade of ESD (DEWHA, 2006) and developments related to the Australian…

  8. Immigrant Australians and Education. A Review of Research. Australian Education Review Number 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturman, Andrew

    This review examines whether immigrant Australians are disadvantaged educationally or vocationally by the education they receive, and whether their educational experiences are of a high quality and relevant to their needs. First, data is provided on the patterns of post-war immigration, along with information about the changing attitudes of…

  9. New Visions: Exploring Australian Identity through Films Highlighting Experiences of Indigenous Australians: Year 8 Film Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Monika; Wenlock, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Prior to 2011, Year 8 students studied a single film as text, "Yolngu Boy." This had been on the syllabus for several years, and the consensus was that it was time to review the unit, refresh the text and introduce multiple film texts that would present varying visions and perspectives of notions of what it is to be "Australian". The authors aimed…

  10. Elder Abuse and Neglect in Israel: A Comparison between the General Elderly Population and Elderly New Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iecovich, Esther

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated differences between the general elderly population and elderly new immigrants from former Soviet Union countries in regard to the incidence of elder abuse and neglect, victims' characteristics, and perpetrators' characteristics. In addition, the study sought to examine predictors of various types of abuse and…

  11. Diabetes mellitus in elderly

    PubMed Central

    Chentli, Farida; Azzoug, Said; Mahgoun, Souad

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) frequency is a growing problem worldwide, because of long life expectancy and life style modifications. In old age (≥60–65 years old), DM is becoming an alarming public health problem in developed and even in developing countries as for some authors one from two old persons are diabetic or prediabetic and for others 8 from 10 old persons have some dysglycemia. DM complications and co-morbidities are more frequent in old diabetics compared to their young counterparts. The most frequent are cardiovascular diseases due to old age and to precocious atherosclerosis specific to DM and the most bothersome are visual and cognitive impairments, especially Alzheimer disease and other kind of dementia. Alzheimer disease seems to share the same risk factors as DM, which means insulin resistance due to lack of physical activity and eating disorders. Visual and physical handicaps, depression, and memory troubles are a barrier to care for DM treatment. For this, old diabetics are now classified into two main categories as fit and independent old people able to take any available medication, exactly as their young or middle age counterparts, and fragile or frail persons for whom physical activity, healthy diet, and medical treatment should be individualized according to the presence or lack of cognitive impairment and other co-morbidities. In the last category, the fundamental rule is “go slowly and individualize” to avoid interaction with poly medicated elder persons and fatal iatrogenic hypoglycemias in those treated with sulfonylureas or insulin. PMID:26693423

  12. Elder-Abuse Offenders: A Typology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey-Klawsnik, Holly

    2000-01-01

    Addresses some of the perplexing issues involved in understanding and responding to elder-abuse offenders. Offers a typology of offenders to elucidate the dynamics when people mistreat the elderly. (Contains 13 references.) (Author)

  13. Australian Item Bank Program: Science Item Bank. Book 3: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The Australian Science Item Bank consists of three volumes of multiple-choice questions. Book 3 contains questions on the biological sciences. The questions are designed to be suitable for high school students (year 8 to year 12 in Australian schools). The questions are classified by the subject content of the question, the cognitive skills…

  14. Casual Academic Staff in an Australian University: Marginalised and Excluded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Suzanne; Burgess, John; Connell, Julia; Groen, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the Australian workforce has become more casualised, with approximately one-quarter of the workforce in casual employment today. One of the highest users of casual employees is the higher education sector, where casual academics (referred to as sessionals in the Australian context) are estimated to account for 50% of the…

  15. Commonwealth Infrastructure Funding for Australian Universities: 2004 to 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koshy, Paul; Phillimore, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent trends in the provision of general infrastructure funding by the Commonwealth for Australian universities (Table A providers) over the period 2004 to 2011. It specifically examines general infrastructure development and excludes funding for research infrastructure through the Australian Research Council or…

  16. Cultural Patterns of Metacognitive Guidance in Australian Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanagavarapu, Prathyusha

    2008-01-01

    This article provides insight into the cultural patterns of metacognitive guidance that occurs among children and mothers in selected Australian homes. Fourteen Anglo Australian and eight immigrant Indian (Telugu) mothers' interactions with their 4-year-old male and female children on a puzzle-solving task were videotaped. Mother-child dyads'…

  17. Australian Higher Education and the Relevance of Newman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coady, Tony; Miller, Seumas

    1993-01-01

    John Henry Newman's conception of the university as a teaching institution in which the guiding concept is transmission of liberal knowledge is examined as it applies to the Australian context. The theory is seen as a useful starting point for developing a theory of the modern Australian university. (MSE)

  18. Learning for the Future: Developing Information Services in Australian Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian School Library Association, Goulburn.

    This guide is intended to set a context for the development of library and information services in Australian schools. The focus reflects recent changes in Australian education, in particular the development of national curriculum statements. These changes emphasize the processes of learning and the consequent need for information and information…

  19. Educational and Institutional Flexibility of Australian Educational Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurville, Simon; O'Grady, Thomas; Mayall, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide context for papers in this special issue on Australasian e-learning. The paper aims to examine the background to Australian flexible and transnational education and to evaluate the educational and intuitional flexibility of three typical products of the Australian educational software industry.…

  20. Teaching Australian Football in Physical Education: Constraints Theory in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pill, Shane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…

  1. The Shades of Grey of Cyberbullying in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the effects of cyberbullying in relation to a school's duty of care. By examining the impact of cyberbullying through an increasingly common scenario, it becomes apparent that the strategies for Australian schools in maintaining their duty of care may be unclear and uncommunicated. Findings suggest that Australian law in its…

  2. Living Smart Homes: A Pilot Australian Sustainability Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie; Bell, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the rationale and experience of a pilot Australian sustainability education programme, "Living Smart Homes" (LSH) based on a community-based social marketing model. Inspired by the Australian "Land for Wildlife" scheme, LSH is designed to engage homeowners with sustainable practices through face-to-face…

  3. Australian Catholic Schools Today: School Identity and Leadership Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neidhart, Helga; Lamb, Janeen T.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the challenge of faith leadership in Catholic schools. In particular, it reviews Australian research that has aimed to understand how principals conceptualize and enact their role as faith leaders. Consistent with American research, Australian research found that principals saw themselves as playing a leadership role in the…

  4. Some Religious Beliefs and Behaviours of Australian Catholic School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rymarz, Richard; Cleary, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Students in Catholic schools make up a significant sub group of the Australian population. As such, studies of this group provide valuable information about the religious beliefs and practices of some Australian youth. Many students in Catholic schools express traditional religious views and have relatively high levels of religious behaviours.…

  5. Australian Higher Education Reforms--Unification or Diversification?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    The higher education policy of the previous Australian government aimed to achieve an internationally competitive higher education sector while expanding access opportunities to all Australians. This policy agenda closely reflects global trends that focus on achieving both quality and equity objectives. In this paper, the formulation and…

  6. The Future of Religious Freedom in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babie, Paul; Mylius, Ben

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the place of religion within Australian primary and secondary education. It is divided into three parts. The first examines religion within the Australian legal and constitutional structure. The second considers the accommodation of religion in government (public or state) and nongovernment (private) schools, using the State…

  7. Teacher Transculturalism and Cultural Difference: Addressing Racism in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casinader, Niranjan R.; Walsh, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The increasing cultural diversity of students in Australia's schools is one of the salient changes in education over the last 30 years. In 2011, nearly half of all Australians had one or more parents born overseas, with migration from China, the Indian subcontinent and Africa increasing during the early 2000s (Australian Bureau of Statistics,…

  8. Australian Early Childhood Educators: From Government Policy to University Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Sharon; Trinidad, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Australian Federal Government initiatives in the area of early childhood with regard to the provision of early childhood education and care. These changes have influenced a Western Australian university to develop an innovative birth to 8 years preservice educator education curriculum. Using an ecological…

  9. Educational Malpractice: American Trends and Implications for Australian Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalley, P. W. F.

    1986-01-01

    Educational malpractice developments in America may affect legal accountability of Australian teachers and educational institutions. This paper discusses significant American cases and commentators' observations in the context of the Australian legal system. Teachers should embrace their widening legal responsibility in order to advance…

  10. Australian English-Language Textbooks: The Gender Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jackie F. K.; Collins, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the nature and extent of gender stereotyping, both linguistic and pictorial, in a set of 10 Australian English-language textbooks for intermediate learners. In order to determine how accurately the books reflect the status of women in contemporary Australian society a content and linguistic analysis was conducted, focusing on,…

  11. Unit: The Australian Scene, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    As a part of the interim unit materials in the series produced by the Australian Science Education Project, this teachers' guide is composed of five sections: an introduction to nature in the balance, tests, excursion activities, options, and research activities. Options are under the headings: The Changing Face, Australian Soils, Distribution of…

  12. The Sleep Patterns and Well-Being of Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…

  13. An Australian Story: School Sustainability Education in the Lucky Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Zarin; Venville, Grady; Longnecker, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents a case study involving a Perth primary school accompanied on its sustainability journey by Millennium Kids Inc, a local not-for-profit community organisation. Tension between the school's sustainability focus, its prestige as an elite private school and a "lucky country" mentality frames the Australian-ness of this…

  14. Investigating the Validity of the Australian Early Development Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Sally A.; Silburn, Sven; Lawrence, David; Goldfeld, Sharon; Sayers, Mary; Oberklaid, Frank

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to the ongoing evaluation of the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) by investigating its construct and concurrent validity with a subsample of 642 children aged 4 to 5 years drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Construct validity was examined by considering the theoretical…

  15. An annotated checklist of Acanthocephala from Australian fish.

    PubMed

    Smales, Lesley R; Weaver, Haylee J

    2015-07-13

    Thirty one genera, comprising 58 named species, 15 undetermined species and nine species known only as cystacanths from paratenic fish hosts were found infesting 144 marine, esturine and freshwater species of fish from Australian and Australian Antarctic waters. Host habitats are given and the distribution and records of the acanthocephalans are given. A key to these parasites at the generic level is provided.

  16. Teachers' Planning Processes: Seeking Insights from Australian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Peter; Clarke, Doug M.; Albright, James; Clarke, David J.; Farrell, Lesley; Freebody, Peter; Gerrard, Jessica; Michels, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The Australian Curriculum: Mathematics (AC:M) prompts consideration of planning processes teachers typically use (as a whole school, in grade levels, and at the classroom level). In order to gain insights into the nature of the planning decisions teachers make, Australian teachers drawn from every state and territory were invited to respond to a…

  17. Determinants of Successful Training Practices in Large Australian Firms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawe, Susan

    The determinants of successful training practices in large Australian firms were examined. The study's three phases were as follows: (1) a review of existing literature; (2) a meta-analysis of previously conducted case studies of 49 large Australian firms in 14 industrial sectors; and (3) a comparative analysis of the findings of the past studies…

  18. Defining and Assessing Generic Competencies in Australian Universities: Ongoing Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Elaine; O'Neill, Marnie

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss ongoing challenges in defining and assessing generic competencies in Australian universities. The paper begins with a discussion of factors that led to, and later fuelled, the focus on generic competencies in Australian higher education. Broad constructs that have underpinned research and practice in the field are then…

  19. The Role of Further Government Intervention in Australian International Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, Roger; Meek, V. Lynn; Wood, Fiona Q.

    2007-01-01

    Trade in Australian education services has expanded rapidly over recent years. The sector is the third largest exporter of Australian services. In 2001-2002, exports of education were about $A 4.2 billion. Government assistance to the sector includes export market development, regulation of education standards, and funding education activities;…

  20. Civic Engagement and the Arts and Humanities: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    An Australian scholar in the Arts and Humanities responds to recent US models emphasizing civic-engaged learning as a way to renew the humanities in undergraduate education. Policy contexts and curriculum initiatives of kindred trends in recent Australian undergraduate education in the humanities are contrasted in this essay. The Australian…

  1. Competing Issues in Australian Primary Curriculum: Learning from International Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that the increasing politicisation of education in an economically rationalist climate is contributing to less equity, access, participation and, therefore, social justice for many Australian primary children. This article initially explores how the development of the impending national Australian curriculum replete with a high…

  2. Training at the Australian school of nuclear technology

    SciTech Connect

    Culley, D.; Fredsall, J.R.; Toner, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Australian School of Nuclear Technology was founded in 1964 as a joint enterprise of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and the University of New South Wales to support nuclear developments primarily in Australia. However, ASNT has developed into an important century for nuclear science and technology training within the South East Asian Region with participants also attending from countries outside this Region.

  3. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons: The Language of Chance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek

    2015-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the "Australian Curriculum," this issue focuses on the Statistics and probability strand and the sub-strand of Chance. In the Australian Curriculum (ACARA, 2015), students are not asked to list outcomes of chance experiments and represent…

  4. A Reconceptualisation of "Knowing Asia" in Australian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Peta

    2015-01-01

    Since 1969, over 60 Australian government and non-government policies, documents, committees, working parties and organisations have explored the need to "know Asia". In schools, this engagement is conceptualised as "Asia literacy" and disseminated in the emerging Australian Curriculum through the cross-curriculum priority…

  5. Ethics Education in Australian Preservice Teacher Programs: A Hidden Imperative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Helen J.; Maxwell, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a snapshot of the current approach to ethics education in accredited Australian pre-service teacher programs. Methods included a manual calendar search of ethics related subjects required in teacher programs using a sample of 24 Australian universities and a survey of 26 university representatives. Findings show a paucity of…

  6. Internet Services and Academic Work: An Australian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Harry

    1994-01-01

    Describes a pilot study examining how Australian academics are using the Australian Academic and Research Network. Ten tables provide details on network services used in relation to academic role, importance of services used and relationship to academic work, and specific applications for e-mail, remote login, news groups and FTP (file transfer…

  7. Philosophy and Ethics in Western Australian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millett, Stephan; Tapper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of Philosophy and Ethics to the Western Australian Certificate of Education courses in 2008 brought philosophy into the Western Australian secondary school curriculum for the first time. How philosophy came to be included is part of a larger story about the commitment and perseverance of a relatively small number of Australian…

  8. The "Paradox of Interdisciplinarity" in Australian Research Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woelert, Peter; Millar, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This paper identifies what can be called the "paradox of interdisciplinarity" (Weingart 2000) in Australian higher education research governance and explores some of its constitutive dimensions. In the Australian context, the paradox of interdisciplinarity primarily concerns the proliferation of a programmatic discourse of…

  9. Redefining & Leading the Academic Discipline in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkin, Damien G.; Healy, Annah H.

    2013-01-01

    Disciplines have emerged as an alternative administrative structure to departments or schools in Australian universities. We presently investigate the pattern of discipline use and by way of case study examine a role for distributed leadership in discipline management. Over forty per cent of Australian universities currently employ disciplines,…

  10. Eliciting change in at-risk elders (ECARE): evaluation of an elder abuse intervention program.

    PubMed

    Mariam, Lydia Morris; McClure, Regina; Robinson, J B; Yang, Janet A

    2015-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a community-based elder abuse intervention program that assists suspected victims of elder abuse and self-neglect through a partnership with local law enforcement. This program, Eliciting Change in At-Risk Elders, involves building alliances with the elder and family members, connecting the elder to supportive services that reduce risk of further abuse, and utilizing motivational interviewing-type skills to help elders overcome ambivalence regarding making difficult life changes. Risk factors of elder abuse decreased over the course of the intervention and nearly three-quarters of participants made progress on their treatment goal, advancing at least one of Prochaska and DiClemente's (1983) stages of change (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance). Forty-three percent of elders moved into the stages of action and maintenance regarding their goal. The usefulness of eliciting change via longer-term relationships with vulnerable elders in entrenched elder abuse situations is discussed.

  11. Methodological issues associated with collecting sensitive information over the telephone - experience from an Australian non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Collecting population data on sensitive issues such as non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is problematic. Case note audits or hospital/clinic based presentations only record severe cases and do not distinguish between suicidal and non-suicidal intent. Community surveys have largely been limited to school and university students, resulting in little much needed population-based data on NSSI. Collecting these data via a large scale population survey presents challenges to survey methodologists. This paper addresses the methodological issues associated with collecting this type of data via CATI. Methods An Australia-wide population survey was funded by the Australian Government to determine prevalence estimates of NSSI and associations, predictors, relationships to suicide attempts and suicide ideation, and outcomes. Computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) on a random sample of the Australian population aged 10+ years of age from randomly selected households, was undertaken. Results Overall, from 31,216 eligible households, 12,006 interviews were undertaken (response rate 38.5%). The 4-week prevalence of NSSI was 1.1% (95% ci 0.9-1.3%) and lifetime prevalence was 8.1% (95% ci 7.6-8.6). Methodological concerns and challenges in regard to collection of these data included extensive interviewer training and post interview counselling. Ethical considerations, especially with children as young as 10 years of age being asked sensitive questions, were addressed prior to data collection. The solution required a large amount of information to be sent to each selected household prior to the telephone interview which contributed to a lower than expected response rate. Non-coverage error caused by the population of interest being highly mobile, homeless or institutionalised was also a suspected issue in this low prevalence condition. In many circumstances the numbers missing from the sampling frame are small enough to not cause worry, especially when compared with

  12. Evaluation of Walkers for Elderly People

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    speed, acceleration, electromyogram I. INTRODUCTION Walking is a basic everyday activity . In an aging society, elderly people need to walk to promote...Abstract- The aim of this study was to evaluate three types of walkers for elderly people. Four elderly patients participated in the study. The...higher than that in parallel bar. Power-assisted walkers are suitable for patients who are used to using a wheelchair. Keywords - walker, elderly , walking

  13. Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2014.

    PubMed

    Lahra, Monica M

    2015-09-30

    The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme (AGSP) has continuously monitored antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from all states and territories since 1981. In 2014, 4,804 clinical isolates of gonococci from public and private sector sources were tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility by standardised methods. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC value 0.06-0.125 mg/L) was found nationally in 5.4% of isolates, a lower proportion than that reported in the AGSP 2013 annual report (8.8%). The highest proportions were reported from New South Wales and Victoria (7.1% and 6.6% respectively). The proportion of strains resistant to penicillin in urban and rural Australia ranged from 11% in South Australia to 43% in New South Wales. In rural and remote Northern Territory penicillin resistance rates remained low (1.5%). In remote Western Australia relatively low numbers of strains are available for testing, however there is now widespread molecular testing for penicillin resistance in Western Australia to monitor resistance and inform guidelines and, for first time, these data are included in the AGSP annual report. Quinolone resistance ranged from 27% in the urban and rural areas of the Northern Territory, to 44% in the Australian Capital Territory, and quinolone resistance rates remain comparatively low in remote areas of the Northern Territory (3.1%) and remote areas of Western Australia (5.6%). Azithromycin resistance ranged from 0.5% in South Australia to 5.3% in rural and urban Western Australia. High rates were also reported from the Australian Capital Territory but relatively low numbers were tested. High level resistance to azithromycin (MIC value ≥256 mg/L) was again reported in 2014, in 2 strains from New South Wales. No resistance was reported from the Northern Territory, or remote Western Australia.

  14. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoms, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  15. Occupational safety risk management in Australian mining.

    PubMed

    Joy, J

    2004-08-01

    In the past 15 years, there has been a major safety improvement in the Australian mining industry. Part of this change can be attributed to the development and application of risk assessment methods. These systematic, team-based techniques identify, assess and control unacceptable risks to people, assets, the environment and production. The outcomes have improved mine management systems. This paper discusses the risk assessment approach applied to equipment design and mining operations, as well as the specific risk assessment methodology. The paper also discusses the reactive side of risk management, incident and accident investigation. Systematic analytical methods have also been adopted by regulatory authorities and mining companies to investigate major losses.

  16. The last dicynodont: an Australian Cretaceous relict.

    PubMed Central

    Thulborn, Tony; Turner, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Some long-forgotten fossil evidence reveals that a dicynodont (mammal-like reptile of the infraorder Dicynodontia) inhabited Australia as recently as the Early Cretaceous, ca. 110 Myr after the supposed extinction of dicynodonts in the Late Triassic. This remarkably late occurrence more than doubles the known duration of dicynodont history (from ca. 63 Myr to ca. 170 Myr) and betrays the profound impact of geographical isolation on Australian terrestrial faunas through the Mesozoic. Australia's late-surviving dicynodont may be envisaged as a counterpart of the ceratopians (horned dinosaurs) in Cretaceous tetrapod faunas of Asia and North America. PMID:12803915

  17. Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Deverell, Marie; Zurynski, Yvonne A; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2014-12-31

    This report provides an update on the surveillance conducted by the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit (APSU) during the period January to December 2013. The APSU facilitates national active surveillance of uncommon diseases of childhood including selected communicable diseases. This report includes data on the following conditions: acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV), congenital rubella, perinatal exposure to HIV and paediatric HIV infection, neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV), congenital varicella, neonatal varicella, severe complications of varicella and juvenile onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JoRRP). Surveillance of severe complications of influenza was undertaken during the influenza season (July to September 2013).

  18. Tectonic evolution of the Western Australian Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, John S.

    1988-01-01

    Geological and geochronological studies in the Western Australian Shield were updated. This terrane bears many similarities to the Indian Shield since they were neighboring parts of Gondwanaland. Western Australia consists of two cratons (Pilbara and Yilgarn) and four orogenic belts (Capricorn, Pingarra, Albany-Fraser, and Patterson), as well as some relatively young (1.6 to 0.75 Ga) sedimentary rocks. The two cratonic blocks are both older than about 2.5 Ga, and the orogenic belts range in age from 2.0 to 0.65 Ga.

  19. Ciguatera: Australian perspectives on a global problem.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Richard J

    2006-12-01

    Ciguatera is a global disease caused by the consumption of certain warm-water fish that have accumulated orally effective levels of sodium channel activator toxins (ciguatoxins) through the marine food chain. Symptoms of ciguatera arising from the consumption of ciguateric fish include a range of gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. This review examines progress in our understanding of ciguatera from an Australian perspective, especially the laboratory-based research into the problem that was initiated by the late "Bob" Endean at the University of Queensland.

  20. Debrisoquine oxidation in an Australian population.

    PubMed Central

    Peart, G F; Boutagy, J; Shenfield, G M

    1986-01-01

    The standard laboratory method for determination of debrisoquine phenotype has been modified and shortened with no loss of sensitivity. Debrisoquine metabolic ratios (MR) at 4 and 8 h showed excellent correlation indicating that collection time can also be shortened. Same day phenotyping is therefore possible. One hundred normal, Caucasian Australian subjects were phenotyped (46 males, 54 females) and 6% were poor metabolisers (PM) of debrisoquine. Fifty of the original subjects were also acetylation phenotyped and 34% were fast and 66% slow acetylators. One PM of debrisoquine was a fast acetylator of sulphadimidine and four PM were slow acetylators. This was a non-significant association. PMID:3718805

  1. A new era in Australian migration policy.

    PubMed

    Birrell, R

    1984-01-01

    The discussion traces the evolution of Australian migration policy since 1975, arguing that the primary factor shaping policy has been interparty competition for influence within Australia's ethnic communities. Since late 1975 when the Liberal/National Country Party (LibNCP) Conservative Government returned to power, Australian immigration policy has moved in different directions from the previous post World War II experience. The demographic implications have been profound. In 1975 the LibNCP government returned to office committed to restoring an active migration program. By 1980-81 it had largely succeeded in this numerical goal. Australia's migration growth rate at .82% of the total population exceeded almost all other Western society. What was new, in comparison to previous policy, was the migrant selection system and source countries. By the time the government lost office in March 1983, family reunion had become the major migration program souce and Asia was rapidly becoming the dominant place of migrant origin. This emphasis on family reunion was not intended by government immigration planners but was a product of domestic political change and resultant new influences over migration policy. As to the increasing Asian component, it has mainly been an unintended consequence of the expansion in the family reunion program. Although the liberalization of family reunion eligibility has largely been designed to appease the major Southern European ethnic communities, few applications have been forthcoming from these countries. Asian applicants have been numerous. Labor government policy since March 1983 has shown remarkable continuity with that of the LibNCP both in its selection system and in the size of the migrant intake. The motivation for the commitment to immigration derived first from longstanding traditions within the Australian business community that Australia's economic growth and dynamism depended on rapid population growth. More specifically there

  2. Military Retirement Reform: An Australian Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    by Disney and Johnson (2001) and the World Bank (Pordes, 1994). There have also been various papers and reviews about Australian and U.S. military...once they reach a certain age prescribed by the state. As described by Disney and Johnson (2001) there are three main types of publicly supported plans...income and assets. The maximum amount is AU$21,505 per annum for an individual or AU$32,471 for a couple. According to Disney and Johnson (2001) this

  3. Collaborative Elder Abuse Prevention Project Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Garry L.

    The Texas Department of Human Services, in collaboration with 13 other public and private organizations, co-sponsored a statewide collaborative elder abuse prevention project, to prevent abuse of elderly and disabled adults. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive, long-range plan for the prevention of elder abuse, a method for…

  4. Frontiers in the Education of the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, James A.

    Demographic trends indicate a continued population rise among the elderly, suggesting an expanded market for adult education efforts. Early retirement, unemployment due to technological change, as well as the need for older workers to stay current in their fields all point in the direction of education of the elderly. The elderly report great…

  5. Belief Discrepancy Reasoning in the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Robert D.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the development of belief discrepancy reasoning, or how people evaluate disagreeing others, with 44 college and elderly respondents. Results showed the elderly were significantly lower in belief discrepancy reasoning and higher in dogmatism than the college sample. The elderly sample did not evidence intolerance, but rather relativism.…

  6. Correlates of Death Anxiety in Elderly Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Karen Dineen; Lorion, Raymond P.

    1984-01-01

    Studied the variables related to death anxiety in the elderly (N=122). Results indicated that death anxiety response patterns are a function of the population examined, rather than existing as general characteristics of the elderly, which explains the inconsistency of previous literature on death anxiety in elderly persons. (LLL)

  7. Home Energy Education and the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junk, Virginia; Heikkinen, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Identified factors which were significant in predicting familiarity with, and participation in, energy assistance programs for low-income elderly people (N=181). Specific subgroups of elderly people were identified as being most in need of home energy information. Recommendations are made for those providing energy education to elderly people.…

  8. The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Parenting Style: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Australian and Vietnamese Australian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herz, Lara; Gullone, Eleonora

    1999-01-01

    Studied the relationship between self-esteem and parenting style with 118 Vietnamese Australian and 120 Anglo-Australian adolescents. As expected, parenting characterized by high levels of overprotection and low levels of acceptance related negatively with self-esteem for both samples of adolescents. (SLD)

  9. Revisiting the Occupational Aspirations and Destinations of Anglo-Australian and Chinese-Australian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Ranbir Singh

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from Australia lends support to the "Asian high achieving syndrome" in Chinese-Australian students and "self-deprivation syndrome" in Anglo-Australian students. Applying ethnographic case studies approach for doctoral thesis the author collected data on a longitudinal basis from homes and school of these students. All…

  10. Pharmacotherapy considerations in elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Wooten, James M

    2012-08-01

    Life expectancy for Americans has increased dramatically since 1900, as have the available pharmacotherapeutic options. Unfortunately, pharmacotherapy mishaps occur commonly in the older adult population. This problem greatly affects the morbidity and mortality of elderly patients and greatly increases healthcare costs. To improve patient care among elderly adults, healthcare practitioners must consider several issues when developing a pharmacotherapy plan. A thorough understanding of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, adverse drug reactions, drug interactions, and several other factors is necessary for practitioners to develop a safe and effective drug therapy plan for older adults. This review provides a general but comprehensive review of the issues pertaining to pharmacotherapy in elderly people and offers several suggestions for improving their pharmaceutical care.

  11. Urinary Incontinence in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Ouslander, Joseph G.

    1981-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common and distressing problem for elderly patients, their families and friends, and the health professionals who care for them. It is a heterogeneous condition, and appropriate management depends on a thorough evaluation and understanding of the multiple factors that can play a role in its cause and perpetuation. Identifying reversible causes of transient incontinence, and appropriate management of incontinence that is associated with acute illness, can be important in preventing the problem from becoming established. A thorough diagnostic evaluation of urinary incontinence in the elderly, and appropriate use of the different types of therapy, will greatly improve the management in these cases. The need and opportunities for research to improve the management of incontinent elderly persons should be considered by all those involved in caring for this population. PMID:7039134

  12. [Addictive behavior among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Menecier, Pascal; Fernandez, Lydia

    2012-12-01

    Addictive behavior still persists among the elderly, mainly concerning substance abuse, such as alcohol, tobacco or psychotropic drugs and addictive practices such as gambling. Illegal substances or cyber-addictions appear much less often. The environment (place of residence or care) and/or economic factors may influence behavior and practices. The incidence of somatic illness or psychiatric disorders, such as cognitive impairment among the elderly patients, complicates even further the presentation of addictive disorders and their treatment. The age factor does not seem to lessen the suffering felt by the patient and care is required in an equal manner for all ages. Prevention (maintenance of personal autonomy and quality of life throughout the ageing process) plays an essential role along with the offer of care. The lack of scientific data such as the absence of validation for adult care among the elderly, leave wide scope for epidemiological, clinical and theoretical research.

  13. [Stress incontinence in elderly women].

    PubMed

    Loertzer, H; Schneider, P

    2013-06-01

    Stress incontinence is one of the major challenges in geriatric medicine. This is becoming more apparent in routine urology practice with the demographic changes in the population. A thorough diagnosis for a correct treatment of stress incontinence is as important in elderly women as it is in younger patients. This includes assessing the risk factors of incontinence and obesity, parturition, pelvic surgery and changes in hormone levels are risk factors usually found in elderly women. These are the main reasons why this patient group is most frequently affected. Treatment options do not differ significantly from these of younger women. Lifestyle modification, weight loss and supervised pelvic floor training are the mainstays of conservative therapy and surgical treatment should only be considered after these options have been exhausted. In these cases minimally invasive surgical techniques offer clear advantages especially for elderly often multimorbid women.

  14. The independent older Australian: Implications for food and nutrition recommendations.

    PubMed

    Krassie, J; Roberts, D C

    2001-01-01

    The World Health Organisation has restructured their program for health and the elderly, renaming it Aging and Health, focussing on aging as a part of life rather than a static age group separated from the rest of the population. As the older population becomes more heterogeneous, nutrition and food service providers in the community are faced with new challenges. This paper presents nutrition recommendations relevant to community nutrition programs in Australia including the recently released Dietary Guidelines for Older Australians. The subsequent discussion focuses on issues associated with implementation of community based food and nutrition intervention programs. The following strategies for successful implementation of community based food and nutrition programs were identified: Meals on Wheels services. 1. should maintain a register of food service systems for each site to assist in the planning process. 2. Develop a procedure for the nutritional assessment of menus focussing on a standardised methodology and recipes as well as ensuring trained staff are available to apply the procedure. 3. Validate recommended serving sizes and recommend serving utensils for specific menu items. Provide advice on the purchasing, use and calibration of scales as well as containers. 4. Develop alternative, informal methods of assessing client satisfaction to ensure the clients' experience with the service, rather than their reaction to the experience, be assessed. 5. Develop a management training program which focuses on a "train-the-trainer' strategy to ensure continuous, on-site training. Meeting the nutritional needs of the heterogeneous group of older people implies a modified approach to nutritional support. All those involved in community nutrition organisations need to recognise the significance of the "caring" role as well as that of food provider and the impact of this on the nutritional status of the client. The development of consistent guidelines and tools will

  15. Elderly deaths in Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akar, Taner; Karapirli, Mustafa; Akcan, Ramazan; Demirel, Birol; Akduman, Barış; Dursun, Ahmet Zahit; Sari, Serhat; Özkök, Alper

    2014-01-01

    According to World Health Organization, the life expectancy at birth is increasing. An increase in life expectancy might result in increased morbidity and mortality in elderly. The increase in the elderly population also leads to an increase in medico-legal problems, as well. Autopsy is of high importance for determination of cause of death in clinical and forensic cases. The purpose of this study was to find out general characteristics elderly deaths by examining forensic autopsy records. Out of 7033 forensic autopsies performed between years of 2007 and 2011, 1324 were elderly deaths and were included in the scope of the study. The records of public prosecutor office, crime scene investigation and autopsy findings were examined. The majority of victims (70.6%) were male, while 29.4% were female, with a male to female ratio of 2.4/1. Victims' ages ranged between 65 and 96 years, and the mean age was 74.8 years. A great number of presented elderly deaths were due to unnatural causes, followed by natural deaths cases. Out of unnatural deaths, 63.2% were related to accidents, 23.7% were suicides, and remaining 13.1% were homicides. More than half (56.6%) of all suicidal deaths were due to hanging. Of natural deaths, the majority (82.7%) were due to cardiovascular system disease. In the presented series the cause of death was determined in 90.9% of all elderly deaths, which validates the need for a forensic autopsy. Data obtained through autopsy procedures is of high importance for death statistics.

  16. Glioblastoma care in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Justin T; Gerstner, Elizabeth R; Batchelor, Tracy T; Cahill, Daniel P; Plotkin, Scott R

    2016-01-15

    Glioblastoma is common among elderly patients, a group in which comorbidities and a poor prognosis raise important considerations when designing neuro-oncologic care. Although the standard of care for nonelderly patients with glioblastoma includes maximal safe surgical resection followed by radiotherapy with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide, the safety and efficacy of these modalities in elderly patients are less certain given the population's underrepresentation in many clinical trials. The authors reviewed the clinical trial literature for reports on the treatment of elderly patients with glioblastoma to provide evidence-based guidance for practitioners. In elderly patients with glioblastoma, there is a survival advantage for those who undergo maximal safe resection, which likely includes an incremental benefit with increasing completeness of resection. Radiotherapy extends survival in selected patients, and hypofractionation appears to be more tolerable than standard fractionation. In addition, temozolomide chemotherapy is safe and extends the survival of patients with tumors that harbor O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation. The combination of standard radiation with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide has not been studied in this population. Although many questions remain unanswered regarding the treatment of glioblastoma in elderly patients, the available evidence provides a framework on which providers may base individual treatment decisions. The importance of tumor biomarkers is increasingly apparent in elderly patients, for whom the therapeutic efficacy of any treatment must be weighed against its potential toxicity. MGMT promoter methylation status has specifically demonstrated utility in predicting the efficacy of temozolomide and should be considered in treatment decisions when possible. Cancer 2016;122:189-197. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  17. Salt appetite in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Hendi, Khadeja; Leshem, Micah

    2014-11-28

    The present study investigated whether salt appetite in the elderly is impaired similar to thirst because of the commonality of their physiological substrates and whether alterations in salt appetite are related to mood. Elderly (65-85 years, n 30) and middle-aged (45-58 years, n 30) men and women were compared in two test sessions. Thirst, psychophysical ratings of taste solutions, dietary Na and energy intakes, seasoning with salt and sugar, number of salty and sweet snacks consumed, preferred amounts of salt in soup and sugar in tea, and an overall measure of salt appetite and its relationship with mood, nocturia and sleep were measured. Elderly participants were found to be less thirsty and respond less to thirst. In contrast, no impairment of salt appetite was found in them, and although they had a reduced dietary Na intake, it dissipated when corrected for their reduced dietary energy intake. Diet composition and Na intake were found to be similar in middle-aged and elderly participants, despite the lesser intake in elderly participants. There were no age-related differences in the intensity of taste or hedonic profile of Na, in salting habits, in tests of salting soup, or number of salty snacks consumed. No relationship of any measure of salt appetite with mood measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, frequency of nocturia, or sleep duration was observed. The age-related impairment of the physiology of mineralofluid regulation, while compromising thirst and fluid intake, spares salt appetite, suggesting that salt appetite in humans is not regulated physiologically. Intact salt appetite in the elderly might be utilised judiciously to prevent hyponatraemia, increase thirst and improve appetite.

  18. Neurologic Emergencies in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Nentwich, Lauren M; Grimmnitz, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Neurologic diseases are a major cause of death and disability in elderly patients. Due to the physiologic changes and increased comorbidities that occur as people age, neurologic diseases are more common in geriatric patients and a major cause of death and disability in this population. This article discusses the elderly patient presenting to the emergency department with acute ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, chronic subdural hematoma, traumatic brain injury, seizures, and central nervous system infections. This article reviews the subtle presentations, difficult workups, and complicated treatment decisions as they pertain to our older patients."

  19. Healthcare and complicity in Australian immigration detention.

    PubMed

    Essex, Ryan

    2016-06-01

    Australian immigration detention has received persistent criticism since its introduction almost 25 years ago. With the recent introduction of offshore processing, these criticisms have intensified. Riots, violence, self-harm, abuse and devastating mental health outcomes are all now well documented, along with a number of deaths. Clinicians have played a central role working in these environments, faced with the overarching issue of delivering healthcare while facilitating an abusive and harmful system. Since the re-introduction of offshore processing a number of authors have begun to discuss the possibility of a boycott. While taking such action may lead to change, further discussion is needed, not only in relation to the impact of a boycott, but whether it is possible for clinicians to engage with this system in more productive, ethical ways. This article utilises a framework proposed by Lepora and Goodin (On complicity and compromise, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2013) that provides a structured approach to examine complicity and seeks to explore how clinicians have engaged with Australian immigration detention and ultimately whether they should continue to do so.

  20. Patterns of multimorbidity in working Australians

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity is becoming more prevalent. Previously-used methods of assessing multimorbidity relied on counting the number of health conditions, often in relation to an index condition (comorbidity), or grouping conditions based on body or organ systems. Recent refinements in statistical approaches have resulted in improved methods to capture patterns of multimorbidity, allowing for the identification of nonrandomly occurring clusters of multimorbid health conditions. This paper aims to identify nonrandom clusters of multimorbidity. Methods The Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC) study cross-sectional screening dataset (approximately 78,000 working Australians) was used to explore patterns of multimorbidity. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify nonrandomly occurring clusters of multimorbid health conditions. Results Six clinically-meaningful groups of multimorbid health conditions were identified. These were: factor 1: arthritis, osteoporosis, other chronic pain, bladder problems, and irritable bowel; factor 2: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and allergies; factor 3: back/neck pain, migraine, other chronic pain, and arthritis; factor 4: high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, and fatigue; factor 5: cardiovascular disease, diabetes, fatigue, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and arthritis; and factor 6: irritable bowel, ulcer, heartburn, and other chronic pain. These clusters do not fall neatly into organ or body systems, and some conditions appear in more than one cluster. Conclusions Considerably more research is needed with large population-based datasets and a comprehensive set of reliable health diagnoses to better understand the complex nature and composition of multimorbid health conditions. PMID:21635787

  1. Biobank classification in an Australian setting.

    PubMed

    Rush, Amanda; Christiansen, Jeffrey H; Farrell, Jake P; Goode, Susan M; Scott, Rodney J; Spring, Kevin J; Byrne, Jennifer A

    2015-06-01

    In 2011, Watson and Barnes proposed a schema for classifying biobanks into 3 groups (mono-, oligo-, and poly-user), primarily based upon biospecimen access policies. We used results from a recent comprehensive survey of cancer biobanks in New South Wales, Australia to assess the applicability of this biobank classification schema in an Australian setting. Cancer biobanks were identified using publically available data, and by consulting with research managers. A comprehensive survey was developed and administered through a face-to-face setting. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel™ 2010 and IBM SPSS Statistics™ version 21.0. The cancer biobank cohort (n=23) represented 5 mono-user biobanks, 7 oligo-user biobanks, and 11 poly-user biobanks, and was analyzed as two groups (mono-/oligo- versus poly-user biobanks). Poly-user biobanks employed significantly more full-time equivalent staff, and were significantly more likely to have a website, share staff between biobanks, access governance support, utilize quality control measures, be aware of biobanking best practice documents, and offer staff training. Mono-/oligo-user biobanks were significantly more likely to seek advice from other biobanks. Our results further delineate a biobank classification system that is primarily based on access policy, and demonstrate its relevance in an Australian setting.

  2. Understanding Australian families' organ donation decisions.

    PubMed

    Neate, S L; Marck, C H; Skinner, M; Dwyer, B; McGain, F; Weiland, T J; Hickey, B B; Jelinek, G A

    2015-01-01

    Numbers of deceased organ donors in Australia have increased, but rates of consent to donation remain at around 60%. Increasing family consent is a key target for the Australian Organ and Tissue Authority. Reasons for donation decisions have been reported in the international literature, but little is known of reasons for Australian families' decisions. Potential organ donors in four Melbourne hospitals were identified and 49 participants from 40 families (23 consenting and 17 non-consenting) were interviewed to understand reasons for consent decisions. Themes for consent to organ donation included that: donation was consistent with the deceased's explicit wishes or known values, the desire to help others or self-including themes of altruism, pragmatism, preventing others from being in the same position, consolation received from donation and aspects of the donation conversation and care that led families to believe donation was right for them. Themes for non-consent included: lack of knowledge of wishes; social, cultural and religious beliefs; factors related to the donation process and family exhaustion; and conversation factors where negative events influenced decisions. While reasons for consent were similar to those described in international literature, reasons for non-consent differed in that there was little emphasis on lack of trust of the medical profession, concerns regarding level of care provided to the potential donor, preserving the deceased's body, fears of body invasion or organ allocation fairness.

  3. Rescues conducted by surfers on Australian beaches.

    PubMed

    Attard, Anna; Brander, Robert W; Shaw, Wendy S

    2015-09-01

    This study describes the demographics, occurrence, location, primary hazards and outcomes involved in rescues performed by surfers on Australian beaches. Conservative estimates suggest that the number of rescues conducted by Australian surfers each year is on par with the number conducted by volunteer surf lifesavers. Surfers perform a considerable number of serious rescues in both lifesaver/lifeguard patrolled (45%) and unpatrolled (53%) beach locations. Rip currents represent the major physical hazard leading to rescue (75%) and the dominant emotional response of people rescued is one of panic (85%). Most surfer rescue events occur during conditions of moderate waves and sunny, fine weather with the highest proportion of rescues occurring on quiet beaches with few people around (26%). Swimming is the activity associated with most rescue events (63%), followed by board riding (25%). Males aged 18-29 represent the largest demographic of people rescued. Surfers with prior water-safety training are more likely to perform a higher number of rescues, however ability to perform rescues is not associated with formal training, but rather number of years' experience surfing. Seventy-eight percent of surfers were happy to help, while 28% expressed feelings of annoyance or inconvenience, generally towards unwary swimmers. Results of this research suggest that 63% of surfers feel they have saved a life. This value may be enhanced through improved training of surfers in basic water safety rescue techniques.

  4. The "lessons" of the Australian "heroin shortage".

    PubMed

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Day, Carolyn; Gilmour, Stuart; Hall, Wayne

    2006-05-02

    Heroin use causes considerable harm to individual users including dependence, fatal and nonfatal overdose, mental health problems, and blood borne virus transmission. It also adversely affects the community through drug dealing, property crime and reduced public amenity. During the mid to late 1990s in Australia the prevalence of heroin use increased as reflected in steeply rising overdose deaths. In January 2001, there were reports of an unpredicted and unprecedented reduction in heroin supply with an abrupt onset in all Australian jurisdictions. The shortage was most marked in New South Wales, the State with the largest heroin market, which saw increases in price, dramatic decreases in purity at the street level, and reductions in the ease with which injecting drug users reported being able to obtain the drug. The abrupt onset of the shortage and a subsequent dramatic reduction in overdose deaths prompted national debate about the causes of the shortage and later international debate about the policy significance of what has come to be called the "Australian heroin shortage". In this paper we summarise insights from four years' research into the causes, consequences and policy implications of the "heroin shortage".

  5. The h-index in Australian Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimbblet, Kevin A.

    2011-06-01

    The Hirsch h-index is now widely used as a metric to compare individual researchers. To evaluate it in the context of Australian astronomy, the h-index for every member of the Astronomical Society of Australia (ASA) is found using NASA's Astrophysics Data System Bibliographic Services. Percentiles of the h-index distribution are detailed for a variety of categories of ASA members, including students. This enables a list of the top ten Australian researchers by h-index to be produced. These top researchers have h-index values in the range 53

  6. Supplement Use of Elite Australian Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Gregory; Slater, Gary; Burke, Louise M

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the influence the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) Sport Supplement Program had on supplement practices of elite Australian swimmers, comparing those guided by the Program with others in the same national team. Thirty-nine elite swimmers (13 AIS, 26 Other; 20 female, 19 male; age 21.8 ± 3.3 y) completed a questionnaire investigating supplement use. Ninety-seven percent of swimmers reported taking supplements or sports foods over the preceding 12 months. AIS swimmers reported using more total brands (p = .02) and supplements considered Ergogenic (p = .001) than Other swimmers who used more supplements considered to be lacking scientific support (p = .028). Swimmers rated the risk of a negative outcome from the use of supplements available in Australia (Mdn = 3.0) as less than the risk of supplements from international sources (Mdn = 4.0; p < .001). AIS swimmers were more likely to report dietitians (p < .001) and sports physicians (p = .017) as advisors of their supplement use. Other swimmers more frequently reported fellow athletes as a source of supplement advice (p = .03). AIS swimmers sourced a greater percentage of their supplements from an organized program (94 ± 16%) compared with Other (40 ± 32%; p < .001) who sourced a greater percentage (30 ± 30%) of their dietary supplements from supermarkets. These findings suggest that swimmers influenced by this sport supplement program more frequently use supplements that are recommended by allied health trained individuals, classified as evidence based and provided by the program.

  7. Acceleration profiles in elite Australian soccer.

    PubMed

    Varley, M C; Aughey, R J

    2013-01-01

    We quantified the acceleration and high-velocity running of elite Australian soccer players. We hypothesised that high-intensity activity would be underestimated when excluding acceleration during match analysis given its high metabolic demand and occurrence at low velocities. Player movements were observed from 29 players (forwards and central and wide defenders and midfielders) during domestic Australian competition using 5-Hz global positioning system. Effort occurrence were determined for high-velocity running, sprinting and maximal accelerations. The commencement and final velocity of maximal accelerations were also identified. Players undertook an 8~fold greater number of maximal accelerations than sprints per game (65±21 vs. 8±5). Of maximal accelerations ~98% commenced from a starting velocity lower than what would be considered high-velocity running while ~85% did not cross the high-velocity running threshold. The number of efforts performed in all categories were position dependent (P<0.001). Wide defenders performed more maximal accelerations (P<0.006) and central defenders and midfielders performed less sprints compared to all other positions (P<0.02). Maximal accelerations are frequently undertaken during a match often occurring at low velocities. Excluding maximal accelerations in match analysis research may underestimate the amount of high-intensity movements undertaken. Additionally positional differences in high-intensity movements should be accounted for when developing specific conditioning drills.

  8. Earliest known Australian Tertiary mammal fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godthelp, Henk; Archer, Michael; Cifelli, Richard; Hand, Suzanne J.; Gilkeson, Coral F.

    1992-04-01

    REMAINS of Early Eocene vertebrates from freshwater clays near Murgon, southeastern Queensland, represent Australia's oldest marsupials, bats, non-volant placentals, frogs, madtsoiid snakes, trionychid turtles1and birds. Radiometric dating of illites forming part of the matrix of the mammal-bearing zone has given a minimum age estimate of 54.6 +/- 0.05 x 106 years, which is roughly twice as old as any marsupials previously known from Australia2 and well before the 38 million year (Myr) separation of Australia from Antarctica/South America3. All marsupials so far known from the Tingamarra Local Fauna are more derived (being dilambdodont) than peradectids. None of them is clearly a member of a previously known Australian family, but some could be uniquely plesiomorphic dasyuroids or perameloids. Another is autapomorphically specialized and indicative of at least partial isolation of the Australian portion of Gondwana. Here we report on the discovery of a tooth of the earliest non-volant placental known from Australia, Tingamarra porterorum gen.et sp. nov., which seems to be a condylarth-like placental mammal. The presence of non-volant placentals in the Early Tertiary of Australia challenges a common presumption that marsupials dominated Australia's therian assemblages because of failure of such placentals to reach Australia before the Late Tertiary.

  9. The napping behaviour of Australian university students.

    PubMed

    Lovato, Nicole; Lack, Leon; Wright, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the self-reported sleep and napping behaviour of Australian university students and the relationship between napping and daytime functioning. A sample of 280 university first-year psychology students (median age  = 19.00 years) completed a 6-item napping behaviour questionnaire, a 12-item Daytime Feelings and Functioning Scale, the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Results indicated that 53.6% of students reported napping with 34% napping at least 1-2 times per week, and 17% napping three or more occasions per week. Long naps, those over 30 minutes, were taken by 77% of the napping students. Sixty-one percent of students reported they took long naps during the post-lunch dip period, from 2-4 pm. Students who nap at least once per week reported significantly more problems organizing their thoughts, gaining motivation, concentrating, and finishing tasks than students who did not nap. Students who napped also felt significantly more sleepy and depressed when compared to students who did not nap. The results also indicated that nap frequency increased with daytime sleepiness. The majority of students (51%) reported sleeping 6-7 hours per night or less. Overall, the results from this study suggest that among this population of Australian first-year university students habitual napping is common and may be used in an attempt to compensate for the detrimental effects of excessive sleepiness.

  10. Monitoring Diffuse Impacts: Australian Tourism Developments.

    PubMed

    Warnken; Buckley

    2000-04-01

    / The scientific quality of monitoring for diffuse environmental impacts has rarely been quantified. This paper presents an analysis of all formal environmental monitoring programs for Australian tourism developments over a 15-year period from 1980 to 1995. The tourism sector provides a good test bed for this study because tourism developments are (1) often adjacent to or even within conservation reserves and other relatively undisturbed natural environments, and (2) often clustered, with resulting cumulative impacts that require detection at an early stage. Here we analyze the precision and reliability with which monitoring programs as actually implemented can detect diffuse environmental impacts against natural variation. Of 175 Australian tourism developments subject to EIA from 1980 to 1993 inclusive, only 13 were subject to formal monitoring. Only 44 individual parameters, in total, were monitored for all these developments together. No baseline monitoring was conducted for nine of the 44 parameters. For the remaining 35, only one was monitored for a full year. Before, after, control, impact, paired sampling (BACIP) monitoring designs were used for 24 of the 44 parameters, and power analysis in 10. The scientific quality of monitoring was significantly better for developments subject to control by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA). The key factor appears to be the way in which GBRMPA uses external referees and manages external consultants. The GBRMPA model merits wider adoption.

  11. Acid peptic disease in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Linder, J D; Wilcox, C M

    2001-06-01

    GERD and peptic ulcer disease are important diseases in the elderly. GERD presents similarly in the elderly and the young, although elderly patients may have less severe symptoms yet more severe mucosal disease and a higher prevalence of BE. Although the prevalence of H. pylori is falling, the elderly remain at risk for peptic ulcer because of the widespread use of NSAIDS. The presentation of peptic ulcer disease in the elderly can be subtle and atypical when compared with younger patients, leading to a delay in diagnosis. Because of comorbidity in the aged, peptic ulcer disease and its complications result in increased morbidity and mortality rates.

  12. Postural instability and consequent falls and hip fractures associated with use of hypnotics in the elderly: a comparative review.

    PubMed

    Allain, Hervé; Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Polard, Elisabeth; Akwa, Yvette; Patat, Alain

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this review is to establish the relationship between treatment with hypnotics and the risk of postural instability and as a consequence, falls and hip fractures, in the elderly. A review of the literature was performed through a search of the MEDLINE, Ingenta and PASCAL databases from 1975 to 2005. We considered as hypnotics only those drugs approved for treating insomnia, i.e. some benzodiazepines and the more recently launched 'Z'-compounds, i.e. zopiclone, zolpidem and zaleplon. Large-scale surveys consistently report increases in the frequency of falls and hip fractures when hypnotics are used in the elderly (2-fold risk). Benzodiazepines are the major class of hypnotics involved in this context; falls and fractures in patients taking Z-compounds are less frequently reported, and in this respect, zolpidem is considered as at risk in only one study. It is important to note, however, that drug adverse effect relationships are difficult to establish with this type of epidemiological data-mining. On the other hand, data obtained in laboratory settings, where confounding factors can be eliminated, prove that benzodiazepines are the most deleterious hypnotics at least in terms of their effects on body sway. Z-compounds are considered safer, probably because of their pharmacokinetic properties as well as their selective pharmacological activities at benzodiazepine-1 (BZ(1)) receptors. The effects of hypnotics on balance, gait and equilibrium are the consequence of differential negative impacts on vigilance and cognitive functions, and are highly dose- and time-dependent. Z-compounds have short half-lives and have less cognitive and residual effects than older medications. Some practical rules need to be followed when prescribing hypnotics in order to prevent falls and hip fractures as much as possible in elderly insomniacs, whether institutionalised or not. These are: (i) establish a clear diagnosis of the sleep disorder; (ii) take into account chronic

  13. Spousal social activity trajectories in the Australian longitudinal study of ageing in the context of cognitive, physical, and affective resources.

    PubMed

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Gerstorf, Denis; Luszcz, Mary

    2008-01-01

    We examined the dyadic interdependence of spousal social activity trajectories over 11 years by using longitudinal data on 565 couples from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (M age = 76 years at Time 1). Social activity trajectories were interrelated in elderly couples, and they depended not only on individual but also on spousal cognitive, physical, and affective resources at baseline. Most associations examined were similar in husbands and wives. However, wives performed more social activities and displayed different depression-social activity associations than did husbands. We found stronger within-couple associations in the domain of social activities than for cognition. Our findings illustrate the important role of social relationships for late-life development and suggest that the mechanisms involved in dyadic interdependencies may be domain and gender specific.

  14. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ≥3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2). Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%), noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data suggest that undiagnosed

  15. Rational Suicide among the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphry, Derek

    1992-01-01

    Contends that old age, in and of itself, should never need to be a cause for self-destruction. Further argues that suicide and assisted suicide carried out in the face of terminal illness causing unbearable suffering should be ethically and legally acceptable. Outlines a perspective on rational suicide among the elderly. (Author/NB)

  16. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  17. Research and the Hispanic Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacayo, Carmela G.

    The current status of research on the Hispanic Elderly indicates that very little has been written. Most of the published material is dated, unreliable, inconclusive, and scattered throughout the historical and social literature world. To date, research regarding the Hispanic Community is seriously defective both statistically and in its…

  18. Increased Challenge with the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Helen

    Research has shown that too little stress or stimulation can increase health risks. To determine the effectiveness of mild stimulation on the depression levels and feelings of self-worth of the elderly, 24 withdrawn nursing home residents participated in a non-judgemental 6-month art expression group. Half the group were assigned to a control…

  19. Hematologic Disorders in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, John R.

    1981-01-01

    Management of hematologic disorders in older patients must often be weighed in a setting of decreased physiological reserves and concurrent illnesses. Anemia in the elderly should never be attributed to old age. Even a mild anemia in collusion with multiple physical and mental problems may tip the balance for those previously able to cope with their disabilities. Iron deficiency anemia and the anemia of chronic disease are the most common types of anemia in the elderly. Nutritional anemias due to folate or vitamin B12 deficiency are treatable and should not be overlooked. Newer chemotherapy regimens for acute nonlymphocytic leukemia have been effective in many older patients. Decisions to treat are sometimes difficult, often depending on the aggregate of coexistent physical and mental disorders. The most prevalent type of leukemia in the elderly is chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A benign asymptomatic course requires no therapy, but aggressive disease requires treatment. Multiple myeloma should be suspected in an elderly person who has both unexplained anemia and bone pain. After definitive diagnosis, phlebotomy therapy should be considered for both polycythemia vera and secondary erythrocytosis to reduce blood viscosity and increase cerebral blood flow. PMID:6801866

  20. Elderly Refugees and Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grognet, Allene Guss

    For elderly refugees, coming from a variety of cultural situations and with varied educational backgrounds, transplantation to a new culture is an especially difficult process. There is no research evidence to suggest that older adults can not succeed in learning another language, although more deliberate efforts must be made to achieve this. In…

  1. [Drug interactions and the elderly].

    PubMed

    Le Jeunne, C; Hugues, F C

    1995-01-01

    Elderly people are particularly at risk for drug interactions, for several reasons. They are the part of the population who consume the most drugs: over 75 years the mean number of drugs on a prescription is 5.6. As they suffer from various associated diseases, they see several medical specialists, each of them adding a new prescription to the others. Self-prescriptions complicate the problem because they are rarely mentioned. Changes in pharmacokinetics in the elderly tend to increase blood concentrations of drugs. Elderly people suffer from altered homeostatic mechanisms to compensate for adverse drug effects. As a whole, such individuals are more exposed to the side effects of drugs. The drugs most often involved in these interactions are diuretics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, benzodiazepines, antiarrhythmics, cardiac glycosides, antihypertensive drugs, oral antidiabetics and antalgics. The clinical accidents most often occurring with these drug interactions are: malaise, orthostatic hypotension, loss of conciousness, amnesia, confusion, renal insufficiency, digestive problems. Since elderly people are less likely to recover easily, this problem of drug interaction should be looked for systematically.

  2. Attempting to Unravel the Australian Megatsunami Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    Nearly two decades of information report apparent megatsunamis along the SE coast of Australia and yet these interpretations are still highly controversial. This work has proven to be particularly influential in guiding more recent megatsunami researchers, and yet it has never been critically evaluated in the light of recent advances in tsunami research. Much of the controversy hinges upon the nature of the original observations, event chronologies, and source identification. The most recent incarnation of the megatsunami hypothesis is indicative of the controversy. A supposed impact crater to the SW of New Zealand is linked with abandoned Maori settlements, Maori legends, and high elevation beach sand deposits in New Zealand, and apparent megatsunami evidence in eastern Australia and on Lord Howe Island. A date of around AD1500 is proposed. There are two key issues here. First, is there currently any evidence for contemporaneous trans Tasman palaeotsunamis (or megatsunamis) in the Holocene? Second, how reliable is the evidence? The first issue was addressed by comparing Holocene events from the Australian and New Zealand palaeotsunami databases. Up to five possible contemporaneous events were identified, but at the same time flaws in the underpinning data were highlighted. To start with, there is no consistent approach to the interpretation of chronological information comprising the databases. A consistent recalibration of all available radiocarbon data was carried out for both databases. This was based upon information contained in the relevant original papers. No clusters of radiocarbon ages were found for apparent megatsunami deposits along the SE coast of Australia. Clusters were found however, in New Zealand for inferred local and regional events. Next, the nature and extent of physical evidence used to determine tsunami emplacement were found to be highly variable. A preliminary reassessment of the physical evidence casts doubt upon the interpretation of

  3. Beverage intake and obesity in Australian children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There have been increases in the obesity and overweight rates in Australian children over the past 25 years and it has been suggested that sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) have played a role in this increase. Objective The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine SSB intakes in the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2) relate SSB intake to rates of overweight and obesity, socio-economic status (SES), TV viewing time, and activity levels and (3) compare 2007 SSB intakes with data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Design A computer assisted 24 h dietary recall in 4,400 children aged 2-16 years was performed. Results In the 2007 survey 47% of all children reported drinking SSBs with 25% consuming sugar sweetened soft drinks on the day of the survey. The mean consumption of soft drink was 436 g/d/consumer. Activity levels were unrelated to SSB consumption. Television viewing was positively related to soft drink consumption with a difference of 55 g/day from bottom to top tertile of time spent TV viewing (p = 0.015) in children aged 9-16 years. 55% of SSB consumption occurred at home and 10% occurred at school. Lower SES status was associated with a greater prevalence of SSB consumption- 30% for the lowest SES quartile vs 19% in the highest quartile. The proportion of overweight who consumed SSBs (which excludes 100% fruit) was not different from the non-overweight children although the proportion of SSB consumers in the 6% of children who were obese was significant compared with the non-overweight children (59% vs 47%, p < 0.05). In the 2007 survey 23% of children were overweight (17%) or obese (6%) while in the 1995 survey this figure was 21%. The proportion of children consuming SSBs in 1995 and 2007 for selected age groups were: 2-3 years - 25.8% and 12.8% respectively and 4-7 years - 33.6% and 20.5% respectively (p < 0.001 for both). Conclusions This cross-sectional data set provides evidence that SSB

  4. [Kidney grafts from elderly donors].

    PubMed

    Hiesse, Christian; Pessione, Fabienne; Cohen, Sophie

    2003-06-07

    FROM AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL POINT OF VIEW: The epidemiology of renal transplantation had greatly changed over the past 10 years. The increasing number of patients with renal failure and candidates for transplantation increases the demand for grafts, whereas the sampling rate of organs remains stable. The mean age of the donors is rising, hence underlining the question of the use of organs of so-called "borderline" quality. THE WEAK POINTS OF ELDERLY GRAFTS: Aging of the kidneys affects the structure of the parenchyma and renal function, which decreases, notably in hypertensive persons. The elderly graft exhibits a critical mass of nephrons that is insufficient to fulfil the functional requirements of a poorly equipped recipient. The recipient is more sensitive to the added agressions: prolonged ischemia and immunological and medicinal agressions. THE RESULTS OF RENAL GRAFT FROM ELDERLY DONORS: They are quantitatively and qualitatively inferior to those of renal transplants from "ideal" donors. The donor's age is a significant factor influencing negatively influences the survival of the transplanted kidney, but dependent on past vascular history. Good results regarding the maintenance of dialysis are obtained by selecting the donors and by avoiding added risk factors. THE ASSESSMENT OF A GRAFT FROM AN ELDERLY DONOR: This, basically, relies on clinical criteria: donor's history, cause of death and accurate measurement of the renal function. A biopsy of the graft, at the time of sampling, provides useful information. TRANSPLANTATION STRATEGY OF A GRAFT FROM AN ELDERLY DONOR: Donor-recipient matching by age is a common approach. Grafting of both kidneys in the same recipient is a method presently under assessment. The episode of ischemia must be reduced and the immunosuppressive therapy adapted.

  5. Elderly Volunteers and the Time They Contribute: An Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozawa, Martha N.; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    To meet the social service needs of the elderly, many communities across the nation are developing programs to foster social support systems involving elderly volunteers. The System to Assure Elderly Services (STAES) located in St. Louis City (Missouri), mobilizes and trains elderly persons to become volunteers who serve other elderly persons. A…

  6. The Australian experiment with ETS-V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Goldhirsh, Julius; Hase, Yoshihiro

    1989-01-01

    Land-mobile satellite propagation measurements were implemented at L Band (1.5 GHz) in South-Eastern Australia during an 11 day period in October 1988. Transmissions (CW) from both the Japanese ETS-5 and INMARSAT Pacific geostationary satellites were accessed. Previous measurements in this series were performed at both L Band (1.5 GHz) and UHF (870 MHz) in Central Maryland, North-Central Colorado, and the southern United States. The objectives of the Australian campaign were to expand the data base acquired in the U.S. to another continent, to validate a U.S. derived empirical model for estimating the fade distribution, to establish the effects of directive antennas, to assess the isolation between co- and cross-polarized transmissions, to derive estimates of fade as well as non-fade durations, and to evaluate diversity reception. All these objectives were met.

  7. The Anglo-Australian Planet Search Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Tinney, Christopher G.; Butler, Paul; Horner, Jonathan; Carter, Brad; Wright, Duncan; Jones, H. R. A.

    2017-01-01

    Radial velocity searches for exoplanets have undergone a revolution in recent years: now precisions of 1 m/s or better are being demonstrated by many instruments, and new purpose-built spectrographs hold the promise of bringing Earth-mass planets into the realm of secure detectability. In the "race to the bottom," it is critical not to overlook the impact of long-running planet search programs that continue to hold the advantage of time. We highlight the continuing impact of the 18-year Anglo-Australian Planet Search: the characterisation of long-period giant planets, and the insights into the occurrence rate of Jupiter and Saturn analogs. To fully understand the origins of planetary systems and the fundamental question of how common (or rare) the architecture of the Solar system is in the Galaxy, we must continue these "legacy" surveys to probe ever-larger orbital separations.

  8. Tackling inequalities in health: the Australian experience.

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, M; Judge, K; Hunter, D J; Maxwell, R; Scheuer, M A

    1993-01-01

    Federal and state governments in Australia have embarked on a series of national initiatives which show a firm commitment to tackling social inequalities in health. The development of national goals and targets for health, for example, covers social and environmental conditions and sets differential targets for specific social groups with very poor health status. In a complementary initiative, a wide ranging analysis of the health care system--the National Health Strategy--has as one of its main objectives to improve the equitable impact of the health system. Where problems of access to and quality of services have been exposed, policies have been devised to deal with them. The exceptionally poor health of the Aboriginal community has elicited cross party support for action. Resources have been allocated to implement the National Aboriginal Health Strategy: to improve living and working conditions, education, and employment opportunities. Britain can glean much from the Australian experience. Images p783-a p787-a PMID:8490345

  9. The Australian Measles Control Campaign, 1998.

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, F. M.; Burgess, M. A.; McIntyre, P. B.; Lambert, S. B.; Gilbert, G. L.; Gidding, H. F.; Escott, R. G.; Achat, H. M.; Hull, B. P.; Wang, H.; Sam, G. A.; Mead, C. L.

    2001-01-01

    The 1998 Australian Measles Control Campaign had as its aim improved immunization coverage among children aged 1-12 years and, in the longer term, prevention of measles epidemics. The campaign included mass school-based measles-mumps-rubella vaccination of children aged 5-12 years and a catch-up programme for preschool children. More than 1.33 million children aged 5-12 years were vaccinated at school: serological monitoring showed that 94% of such children were protected after the campaign, whereas only 84% had been protected previously. Among preschool children aged 1-3.5 years the corresponding levels of protection were 89% and 82%. During the six months following the campaign there was a marked reduction in the number of measles cases among children in targeted age groups. PMID:11584738

  10. Western Australian school students' understanding of biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Are science educators providing secondary school students with the background to understand the science behind recent controversies such as the recently introduced compulsory labelling of genetically modified foods? Research from the UK suggests that many secondary school students do not understand the processes or implications of modern biotechnology. The situation in Australia is unclear. In this study, 1116 15-year-old students from eleven Western Australian schools were surveyed to determine their understanding of, and attitude towards, recent advances in modern biotechnology. The results indicate that approximately one third of students have little or no understanding of biotechnology. Many students over-estimate the use of biotechnology in our society by confusing current uses with possible future applications. The results provide a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the school science curriculum

  11. The Australian experience in organ donation--2003.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    The Australian performance in deceased donor organ donation continues to languish near the bottom of the International ladder. This is despite a national expenditure on health 10% more than the average OECD country (dollars per capita) and the presence of active transplantation programs (heart, kidney, liver, lung and pancreas) with excellent success rates. The deceased donor rate has fallen from 14 donors pmp in 1989 to 9 at the present time and appears to be still falling. Living donors now outnumber deceased donors as a source of kidney transplants. Causes of the low deceased donor rate appear to include variable management of severe brain injury, shortage of ICU beds, lack of ICU priority to potential donors when beds are restricted, and a low family consent rate (50%) despite 83% of the public being willing to donate. Programs aimed at addressing these issues are planned and include additional funding for beds, improved identification of donors and a standard pathway for managing severe brain injury.

  12. Driving violations observed: an Australian study.

    PubMed

    Glendon, A Ian

    2007-08-01

    This study analyses 2,765 cases of driving behaviours in three Australian states - New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria. Data were gathered from in-car coordinated video and audio recording sequences in free-flowing traffic along two-, three- and four-lane highways with varying speed limits on all days of the week in daylight and fine weather conditions. Explanatory variables included driver age group and gender, passenger characteristics and vehicle age and type. Response variables included driving violations and other driving behaviours, including lane use, speeding, close following (tailgating), driver's hands position and mobile phone use. Data were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. By focusing upon vehicle and driver characteristics, and their impact on driving behaviours, including identified violations, this study explores some implications both for future research and for traffic policy makers.

  13. "Bridging the Gap" through Australian Cultural Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-01-01

    For more than 50,000 years, Indigenous Australians have incorporated celestial events into their oral traditions and used the motions of celestial bodies for navigation, time-keeping, food economics, and social structure. In this paper, we explore the ways in which Aboriginal people made careful observations of the sky, measurements of celestial bodies, and incorporated astronomical events into complex oral traditions by searching for written records of time-keeping using celestial bodies, the use of rising and setting stars as indicators of special events, recorded observations of variable stars, the solar cycle, and lunar phases (including ocean tides and eclipses) in oral tradition, as well as astronomical measurements of the equinox, solstice, and cardinal points.

  14. Forensic archaeology and anthropology : An Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Kate

    2005-09-01

    Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a unique opportunity to develop a new multidisciplinary approach to forensic archaeology/anthropology within Australia as we hold a unique set of environmental, social, and cultural conditions that diverge from overseas models and require different methodological approaches. In the current world political climate, more forensic techniques are being applied at scenes of mass disasters, genocide, and terrorism. This provides Australian forensic archaeology/anthropology with a unique opportunity to develop multidisciplinary models with contributions from psychological profiling, ballistics, sociopolitics, cultural anthropology, mortuary technicians, post-blast analysis, fire analysis, and other disciplines from the world of forensic science.

  15. Australian university proposes academic program changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    The University of Melbourne in Australia has adopted a 10-year plan to create a U.S.-style of education where undergraduate university students would first have to complete a three-year general degree in science or the arts before being allowed to continue onto graduate or professional studies. Unlike in the United States, most Australian students are able to move from secondary school directly into professional studies.A major change for Earth science students would be the replacement of the one-year Bachelor of Science Honours with a two-year Masters program. According to Janet Hergt, head of the university's School of Earth Sciences, the longer program could allow students more time to develop and complete research projects, and would provide them with a better understanding of Ph.D.studies.

  16. Trypanosomes of Australian mammals: A review.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Craig K; Godfrey, Stephanie S; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 306 species of terrestrial and arboreal mammals are known to have inhabited the mainland and coastal islands of Australia at the time of European settlement in 1788. The exotic Trypanosoma lewisi was the first mammalian trypanosome identified in Australia in 1888, while the first native species, Trypanosoma pteropi, was taxonomically described in 1913. Since these discoveries, about 22% of the indigenous mammalian fauna have been examined during the surveillance of trypanosome biodiversity in Australia, including 46 species of marsupials, 9 rodents, 9 bats and both monotremes. Of those mammals examined, trypanosomes have been identified from 28 host species, with eight native species of Trypanosoma taxonomically described. These native trypanosomes include T. pteropi, Trypanosoma thylacis, Trypanosoma hipposideri, Trypanosoma binneyi, Trypanosoma irwini, Trypanosoma copemani, Trypanosoma gilletti and Trypanosoma vegrandis. Exotic trypanosomes have also been identified from the introduced mammalian fauna of Australia, and include T. lewisi, Trypanosoma melophagium, Trypanosoma theileri, Trypanosoma nabiasi and Trypanosoma evansi. Fortunately, T. evansi was eradicated soon after its introduction and did not establish in Australia. Of these exotic trypanosomes, T. lewisi is the sole representative that has been reported from indigenous Australian mammals; morphological forms were recorded from two indigenous species of rodents (Hydromys chrysogaster and Rattus fuscipes). Numerous Australian marsupial species are potentially at risk from the native T. copemani, which may be chronically pathogenic, while marsupials, rodents and monotremes appear at risk from exotic species, including T. lewisi, Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi. This comprehensive review of trypanosome biodiversity in Australia highlights the negative impact of these parasites upon their mammalian hosts, as well as the threatening biosecurity concerns.

  17. Occupational heat stress in Australian workplaces

    PubMed Central

    Jay, Ollie; Brotherhood, John R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this review was to summarize the current state of knowledge on heat stress risk within typical Australian occupational settings. We assessed identified occupations (mining, agriculture, construction, emergency services) for heat production and heat loss potential, and resultant levels of physiological heat strain. A total of 29 reports were identified that assessed in-situ work settings in Northern Territory, South Australia, Western Australia, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, that measured physiological responses and characterized the thermal environment. Despite workers across all industries being regularly exposed to high ambient temperatures (32–42°C) often coupled with high absolute humidity (max: 33 hPa), physiological strain is generally low in terms of core temperature (<38°C) and dehydration (<1 % reduction in mass) by virtue of the low energy demands of many tasks, and self-regulated pacing of work possible in most jobs. Heat stress risk is higher in specific jobs in agriculture (e.g. sheep shearing), deep underground mining, and emergency services (e.g., search/rescue and bushfire fighting). Heat strain was greatest in military-related activities, particularly externally-paced marching with carried loads which resulted in core temperatures often exceeding 39.5°C despite being carried out in cooler environments. The principal driver of core temperature elevations in most jobs is the rate of metabolic heat production. A standardized approach to evaluating the risk of occupational heat strain in Australian workplaces is recommended defining the individual parameters that alter human heat balance. Future research should also more closely examine female workers and occupational activities within the forestry and agriculture/horticulture sector. PMID:28349081

  18. Achieving professional status: Australian podiatrists' perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Borthwick, Alan M; Nancarrow, Susan A; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper explores the notion of professional status from the perspective of a sample of Australian podiatrists; how it is experienced, what factors are felt to affect it, and how these are considered to influence professional standing within an evolving healthcare system. Underpinning sociological theory is deployed in order to inform and contextualise the study. Methods Data were drawn from a series of in-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 21) and focus groups (n = 9) with podiatrists from across four of Australia's eastern states (Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Australian Capital Territory), resulting in a total of 76 participants. Semi-structured interview schedules sought to explore podiatrist perspectives on a range of features related to professional status within podiatry in Australia. Results Central to the retention and enhancement of status was felt to be the development of specialist roles and the maintenance of control over key task domains. Key distinctions in private and public sector environments, and in rural and urban settings, were noted and found to reflect differing contexts for status development. Marketing was considered important to image enhancement, as was the cache attached to the status of the universities providing graduate education. Conclusion Perceived determinants of professional status broadly matched those identified in the wider sociological literature, most notably credentialism, client status, content and context of work (such as specialisation) and an ideological basis for persuading audiences to acknowledge professional status. In an environment of demographic and workforce change, and the resultant policy demands for healthcare service re-design, enhanced opportunities for specialisation appear evident. Under the current model of professionalism, both role flexibility and uniqueness may prove important. PMID:19216783

  19. Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program annual report, 2014.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, Carl D; Roczo-Farkas, Suzie

    2015-09-30

    The Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program, together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, reports the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis. During the survey period of 1 January to 31 December 2014, 1,022 faecal samples were referred for rotavirus G and P genotype analysis, and of these 733 were confirmed as rotavirus positive. A total of 480 specimens were collected from children under 5 years of age, while 253 were from older children and adults. Genotype analysis of the 733 rotavirus samples collected from both children and adults revealed that G12P[8] was the dominant genotype in this reporting period, identified in 29.6% of strains nationally. Genotype G1P[8] was the 2nd most common strain nationally, representing 22.9% of samples, followed by genotype G3P[8] (14.9%). This report highlights the continued significance of G12P[8] strains as the major cause of disease in this population. The genotype distribution was slightly altered when the analysis was restricted to samples collected from children under 5 years of age, with G1P[8] being the dominant genotype (29%) followed by G12P[8] as the 2nd most common genotype (26%). Fluctuations in genotype distribution were also observed based on the vaccine type in use. Genotype G12P[8] was more common in states and territories using RotaTeq, while G1P[8] was more common in the locations using Rotarix. This survey highlights the yearly fluctuations in rotavirus genotypes observed since vaccine introduction. The continuation of G12P[8] as the dominant genotype further illustrates the dynamic and diversity present in the wild-type rotavirus population evident in the Australian population since vaccine introduction.

  20. Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, Carl D; Roczo-Farkas, Susie

    2014-12-31

    This report from the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program, together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, describes the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 January to 31 December 2013. During the survey period, 1,035 faecal samples were referred for rotavirus G and P genotype analysis. Of these 828 were confirmed as rotavirus positive. A total of 503 specimens were collected from children under 5 years of age, while 325 were from older children and adults. Genotype analysis of the 828 rotavirus samples collected from both children and adults revealed that G12P[8] was the dominant genotype in this reporting period, identified in 33% of strains nationally. Genotype G3P[8] was the second most common strain nationally, representing 31% of samples, followed by genotype G2P[4] (14%). This represents the first report where G12P[8] strains are the major cause of disease in this population. The genotype distribution was slightly altered when the analysis was restricted to samples collected from children under 5 years of age, with G3P[8] being the dominant genotype (39.2%) followed by G12P[8] as the second most common genotype (31%). Fluctuations in genotype distribution were also observed based on the vaccine type in use. Genotype G12P[8] was more common in states and territories using RotaTeq, while G3P[8] was more common in the locations using Rotarix. This survey highlights the yearly fluctuations in rotavirus genotypes observed since vaccine introduction, with changes in dominant genotypes an annual event. The emergence of G12P[8] as the dominant genotype further illustrates the ongoing changes in the wild type rotavirus population evident in the Australian population since vaccine introduction.

  1. Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program annual report, 2015.

    PubMed

    Roczo-Farkas, Susie; Kirkwood, Carl D; Bines, Julie E

    2016-12-24

    The Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program, together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, reports the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 January to 31 December 2015. During the survey period, 1,383 faecal samples were referred for rotavirus G and P genotype analysis, and of these, 1,031 were confirmed as rotavirus positive. A total of 634 specimens had been collected from children under 5 years of age, while 397 were from older children and adults. Genotype analysis of samples from both children and adults revealed that G12P[8] was the dominant genotype in this reporting period, identified in 48.2% of strains nationally. Genotype G3P[8] was the second most common strain nationally, representing 22.8% of samples, followed by G2P[4] and G1P[8] (9% and 8% respectively). G3P[8] was further divided as equine-like G3P[8] (13.2% of all strains) and other wild-type G3P[8] (9.6%). This report highlights the continued predominance of G12P[8] strains as the major cause of disease in this population. Genotype distribution was distinct between jurisdictions using RotaTeq and Rotarix vaccines. Genotype G12P[8] was more common in states using RotaTeq, while equine-like G3P[8] and G2P[4] were more common in the states and territories using Rotarix. This survey highlights the dynamic change in rotavirus genotypes observed since vaccine introduction, including the emergence of a novel equine-like G3P[8] as a major strain. The prolonged dominance of G12P[8] for a 4th consecutive year further illustrates the unexpected trends in the wild type rotaviruses circulating in the Australian population since vaccine introduction.

  2. Australian Meningococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Lahra, Monica M; Enriquez, Rodney P

    2014-12-31

    In 2013, there were 143 laboratory-confirmed cases of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) analysed by the Australian National Neisseria Network (NNN). This was the lowest number of laboratory confirmed IMD cases referred to the NNN since the inception of the Australian Meningococcal Surveillance Programme in 1994. Probable and laboratory confirmed IMD is notifiable in Australia. There were 149 IMD cases notified to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in 2013. Meningococcal serogrouping was determined for 139/143 laboratory confirmed IMD cases; 74.8% (104 cases) were serogroup B infections; 5.8% (8 cases) were serogroup C infections; 8.6% (12 cases) were serogroup W135; and 10.8% (15 cases) were serogroup Y. Primary and secondary disease peaks were observed, respectively, in those aged 4 years or less, and in adolescents (15-19 years). Serogroup B cases predominated in all jurisdictions and age groups, except for those aged 65 years or over where serogroup Y predominated. The overall proportion and number of IMD caused by serogroup B decreased from previous years. The number of cases of IMD caused by serogroup C was low, and has been proportionally stable over recent years. The number of IMD cases caused by W135 and Y serogroups was similar to previous years but the proportion has increased with the overall reduction in numbers of IMD cases. Molecular typing was performed on 92 of the 93 IMD isolates, and 23 of the 50 cases confirmed by nucleic acid amplification testing. In 2013, the most common porA genotype circulating in Australia was P1.7-2,4. All IMD isolates tested were susceptible to ceftriaxone; ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. Decreased susceptibility to penicillin was observed in 78.5% of isolates.

  3. Trypanosomes of Australian mammals: A review

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Craig K.; Godfrey, Stephanie S.; Thompson, R.C. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 306 species of terrestrial and arboreal mammals are known to have inhabited the mainland and coastal islands of Australia at the time of European settlement in 1788. The exotic Trypanosoma lewisi was the first mammalian trypanosome identified in Australia in 1888, while the first native species, Trypanosoma pteropi, was taxonomically described in 1913. Since these discoveries, about 22% of the indigenous mammalian fauna have been examined during the surveillance of trypanosome biodiversity in Australia, including 46 species of marsupials, 9 rodents, 9 bats and both monotremes. Of those mammals examined, trypanosomes have been identified from 28 host species, with eight native species of Trypanosoma taxonomically described. These native trypanosomes include T. pteropi, Trypanosoma thylacis, Trypanosoma hipposideri, Trypanosoma binneyi, Trypanosoma irwini, Trypanosoma copemani, Trypanosoma gilletti and Trypanosoma vegrandis. Exotic trypanosomes have also been identified from the introduced mammalian fauna of Australia, and include T. lewisi, Trypanosoma melophagium, Trypanosoma theileri, Trypanosoma nabiasi and Trypanosoma evansi. Fortunately, T. evansi was eradicated soon after its introduction and did not establish in Australia. Of these exotic trypanosomes, T. lewisi is the sole representative that has been reported from indigenous Australian mammals; morphological forms were recorded from two indigenous species of rodents (Hydromys chrysogaster and Rattus fuscipes). Numerous Australian marsupial species are potentially at risk from the native T. copemani, which may be chronically pathogenic, while marsupials, rodents and monotremes appear at risk from exotic species, including T. lewisi, Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi. This comprehensive review of trypanosome biodiversity in Australia highlights the negative impact of these parasites upon their mammalian hosts, as well as the threatening biosecurity concerns. PMID:25161902

  4. Commercialization of Australian advanced infrared technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redpath, John; Brown, Allen; Woods, William F.

    1995-09-01

    For several decades, the main thrust in infrared technology developments in Australia has been in two main sensor technologies: uncooled silicon chip printed bolometric sensors pioneered by DSTO's Kevin Liddiard, and precision engineered high quality Cadmium Mercury Telluride developed at DSTO under the guidance of Dr. Richard Hartley. In late 1993 a low cost infrared imaging device was developed at DSTO as a sensor for guided missiles. The combination of these three innovations made up a unique package that enabled Australian industry to break through the barriers of commercializing infrared technology. The privately owned company, R.J. Optronics Pty Ltd undertook the process of re-engineering a selection of these DSTO developments to be applicable to a wide range of infrared products. The first project was a novel infrared imager based on a Palmer scan (translated circle) mechanism. This device applies a spinning wedge and a single detector, it uses a video processor to convert the image into a standard rectangular format. Originally developed as an imaging seeker for a stand-off weapon, it is producing such high quality images at such a low cost that it is now also being adapted for a wide variety of other military and commercial applications. A technique for electronically stabilizing it has been developed which uses the inertial signals from co-mounted sensors to compensate for platform motions. This enables it to meet the requirements of aircraft, marine vessels and masthead sight applications without the use of gimbals. After tests on a three-axis motion table, several system configurations have now been successfully operated on a number of lightweight platforms, including a Cessna 172 and the Australian made Seabird Seeker aircraft.

  5. Perceived economic situation, but not education level, is associated with disability prevalence in the Spanish elderly: observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to ascertain if the subjective perception of the economic situation of a household is associated with the prevalence of disability in old age, net of education level. Subjective economic perception is less non-response biased. Knowing if the self-perceived economic situation is related to disability over and above education level has important implications both for understanding the mechanisms that lead to disability and for selecting policies to reduce it. Methods This is a transversal study based on the pilot of the ELES survey, which is a representative survey of non-institutionalised Spaniards aged 50 and over. Only individuals whose job income levels were fixed before becoming disabled were selected to avoid the main source of reverse causality. Disability was defined as having difficulty in carrying out any of 12 activities of daily living. Education level, difficulty in making ends meet, self-perceived relative economic position of the household, age, gender, psychological disposition, and alcohol and tobacco consumption were introduced as independent variables in binary logistic models. Results The working sample is made up of 704 individuals of aged 60 and over. The subjective household economic situation, measured in two different ways, is strongly and consistently related with the prevalence of disability net of age, gender, education level and psychological disposition. After adjusting for age and gender, education level is no longer associated with disability. However, having economic difficulties has the same effect on disability prevalence as being 10 years older, or being a woman instead of a man. Conclusions As the economic situation of the elderly is much easier to improve than their formal education, our findings support feasible interventions which could lead to a reduction in the prevalence of disability. PMID:24886113

  6. Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This article provides an Australian perspective on students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD). Consideration is given to the cultural issues, structure of special services, identification procedures, delivery system, and types of services provided.

  7. Assessing Impediments to Leadership Succession in Australian Catholic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Jeffrey P.; D'Arbon, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Describes the design and validation of the Impediments to Leadership Succession Inventory, a 32-item survey instrument to determent why good candidates are not applying for principal positions in Australian Catholic schools. (Contains 40 references.) (PKP)

  8. VIEW NORTH OF AUSTRALIAN PINES THAT LINE SUNNY JIM LANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH OF AUSTRALIAN PINES THAT LINE SUNNY JIM LANE FROM SOUTHERN MOST BARN TO THE STABLE GATE. BARNS LINE LEFT SIDE OF LANE: CD-N. - Hialeah Park Race Track, East Fourth Avenue, Hialeah, Miami-Dade County, FL

  9. What's in the Biota Bag? Examining Australian Fossil Biota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    2002-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity in which candy is used to represent some Australian fossils with students asked to examine specimens and locate on a map of Australia where it might have been discovered. (Author/MM)

  10. Technology Transfer: Technocultures, Power and Communication--The Australian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    More, Elizabeth; Irwin, Harry

    1995-01-01

    Discusses issues of communication and power in the organizational dimensions of international technology transfer, including technoculture differences and strategic political alliances. Theoretical discussion is supplemented by analysis of international technology transfer activities involving Australian participation in the aerospace and…

  11. Selection Methods for Undergraduate Admissions in Australia. Does the Australian Predominate Entry Scheme the Australian Tertiary Admissions Rank (ATAR) Have a Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the Australian entry score system, the Australian Tertiary Admissions Rank (ATAR), and its usage as a selection mechanism for undergraduate places in Australian higher education institutions and asks whether its role as the main selection criterion will continue with the introduction of demand driven funding in 2012.…

  12. Australian DefenceScience. Volume 15, Number 2, Winter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    sources, including the original builders, Vickers Shipyards, the Royal Australian Navy Archives, the Australian National Archives, the British...South Australia. The trial team also included personnel from the Army 3rd/9th Light Horse as well the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology and Vision...the Austeyr and AK47 weapons. The two torsos presented for testing were made of a 20% strength solution of gelatine jelly , which, at a temperature of

  13. Australian DefenceScience. Volume 14, Number 2, Summer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Australian DEFENCESCIENCE BRIEFS DSTO and ANSTO to collaborate on national security research Extended range for Joint Direct Attack Munition Missile Approach...for ADF frontline aircraft DSTO and the Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation ( ANSTO ) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding...and ANSTO Executive Director Mr Ian Smith signed the agreement in Sydney on 29 August. DSTO and ANSTO to collaborate on national security research

  14. Global warming and Australian public health: reasons to be concerned.

    PubMed

    Saniotis, Arthur; Bi, Peng

    2009-11-01

    Studies in global warming and climate change indicate that human populations will be deleteriously affected in the future. Studies forecast that Australia will experience increasing heat waves and droughts. Heat stress caused by frequent heat waves will have a marked effect on older Australians due to physiological and pharmacological factors. In this paper we present an overview of some of the foreseeable issues which older Australians will face from a public health perspective.

  15. On the origin of the first Australian Medical Journal.

    PubMed

    Bailey, R J

    2013-07-01

    The Australian Medical Journal is important to Australian anaesthesia in that, as well as associated editorials, it recorded the first use of ether for surgical operations. Though it survived from 1 August 1846 until 1 October 1847, its first issue was surrounded with mystery, referring to an earlier publication. Proof of this earlier issue of April 1846 has been discovered though no copy remains extant.

  16. Effects of diet and exercise on plasma vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in Vietnamese immigrant elderly in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Brock, K; Cant, R; Clemson, L; Mason, R S; Fraser, D R

    2007-03-01

    Vitamin D deficiency may be associated with osteoporosis and fractures in the elderly. In Australia where there is a sizeable Vietnamese population, research has not yet clarified the roles of diet, exercise and sun exposure in determining vitamin D status. Plasma samples for 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D); dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium; muscle strength and sun exposure were measured and weekly dairy intake, exercise levels and smoking habits were surveyed in free-living elderly of Vietnamese and Australian/British origin. There was marginal vitamin D deficiency (<37 nmol/L 25(OH)D) in 63% of Vietnamese but only in 37% of Australian/British born. Low dairy intake and no vigorous exercise were best predictors of vitamin D deficiency in Vietnamese, taking into account age, gender, dietary intake and sun exposure. Since these migrant elderly may not get adequate sun exposure due to either clothing customs or cultural norms that encourage fair (untanned) skin, it is important to encourage increased exercise and dairy intake.

  17. Elderly people's interaction with advanced technology.

    PubMed

    Blažun, Helena; Vošner, Janez; Kokol, Peter; Saranto, Kaija; Rissanen, Sari

    2014-01-01

    Aging of population is an inevitable process by which the number of elderly people is increasing. Rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT) is changing basic needs of elderly people; therefore society should ensure opportunities for elderly to learn and use ICT in a way to manage their daily life activities and in this way enable them participation in the information and knowledge society. The purpose of the study was to find out whether elderly are acquainted with the advanced technology and to what extent they use it or they desire to use it. Within the single point study we interviewed 100 randomly selected elderly people from different geographical regions in Slovenia. Results showed the differences in the use of advanced technology by Slovenian regions; therefore in the future activities should be focused on organizing promotional and demonstrational activities including ICT courses to increase elderly's motivation for ICT interaction.

  18. The immigration experience among elderly Korean immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y-M

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this preliminary, qualitative study was to describe elderly Korean immigrants' perception of stressors they experienced through immigration and the acculturation process. The methodology used was naturalistic inquiry, a descriptive approach used to elicit the elderly immigrants' own perception of their immigration and acculturation experiences. The six elderly Korean immigrants were interviewed via a semi-structured, open-ended interview guide. The main stressors identified by the subjects as a result of adjusting to life in the United States were language barriers, isolation and loneliness, fear of dependence upon their children, fear of being a burden, financial problems, transportation problems, discrimination, and fear of death. These Korean elders also perceived changes in the traditional family values of respect for elders and support for the aged. The results of this research help to provide an understanding of the immigration and acculturation experiences of elderly Korean immigrants.

  19. [Rheumatic joint diseases in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yuya; Yokosawa, Masahiro; Kaneko, Shunta; Sumida, Takayuki

    2014-10-01

    The most frequent rheumatic joint disease in the elderly is rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent advances in the treatment of RA improve prognosis, and gradually increase the elderly patients with RA. There are some differences in clinical features between the patients with elderly onset RA and young onset RA, such as systemic symptoms and distribution of affected joints. In addition, it is occasionally difficult to differentiate elderly onset RA from the other rheumatic diseases like polymyalgia rheumatica and RS3PE syndrome, pseudogout, and osteoarthritis. Since elderly patients tend to have more co-morbidity and co-existing diseases requiring treatment with other drugs, a risk/benefit profile must always be taken into consideration when choosing the treatment in elderly patients with rheumatic joint diseases.

  20. National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Member benefits include: Subscription to the Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect (JEAN, a $198 value) 15% discount on educational ... Stein, Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect (JEAN) and the 2016 Rosalie S. Wolf Elder Abuse ...

  1. [Iron deficiency in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Helsen, Tuur; Joosten, Etienne

    2016-06-01

    Anemia is a common diagnosis in the geriatric population, especially in institutionalized and hospitalized elderly. Most common etiologies for anemia in elderly people admitted to a geriatric ward are iron-deficiency anemia and anemia associated with chronic disease. Determination of serum ferritin is the most used assay in the differential diagnosis, despite low sensitivity and moderate specificity. New insights into iron homeostasis lead to new diagnostic assays such as serum hepcidin, serum transferrin receptor and reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent.Importance of proper diagnosis and treatment for this population is large since there is a correlation between anemia and morbidity - mortality. Anemia is usually defined as hemoglobin less than 12 g/dl for women and less than 13 g/dl for men. There is no consensus for which hemoglobinvalue an investigation into underlying pathology is obligatory. This needs to be evaluated depending on functional condition of the patient.

  2. Eye surgery in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Raczyńska, Dorota; Glasner, Leopold; Serkies-Minuth, Ewelina; Wujtewicz, Magdalena A; Mitrosz, Kamila

    2016-01-01

    Extending life expectancy is a human achievement. It does however entail problems. Ophthalmic treatments are widely recognized as having a low risk of general complications. A classic example is cataract surgery, considered to be one of the safest and most frequently performed surgical procedures in the world. However, advanced age brings with it risks that should be considered before surgery. Eye operations, as with procedures on other organs, are largely dependent on the quality of surgical tissues. Therefore, the elderly are at increased risk of complications. Improved general health and postoperative follow-up with the use of noninvasive technologies such as optical coherence tomography translate into lower intraoperative risk and better postoperative prognosis. In this review, we discuss the impact of general health on operational prognosis, therapeutic problems, and technical difficulties which a surgeon and anesthesiologist may encounter in the process. We also consider new technology and strategies specifically aimed at treating eye conditions in the elderly.

  3. Interventional radiology in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Katsanos, Konstantinos; Ahmad, Farhan; Dourado, Renato; Sabharwal, Tarun; Adam, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Interventional radiological percutaneous procedures are becoming all the more important in the curative or palliative management of elderly frail patients with multiple underlying comorbidities. They may serve either as alternative primary minimally invasive therapies or adjuncts to traditional surgical treatments. The present report provides a concise review of the most important interventional radiological procedures with a special focus on the treatment of the primary debilitating pathologies of the elderly population. The authors elaborate on the scientific evidence and latest developments of thermoablation of solid organ malignancies, palliative stent placement for gastrointestinal tract cancer, airway stenting for tracheobronchial strictures, endovascular management of aortic and peripheral arterial vascular disease, and cement stabilization of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. The added benefits of high technical and clinical success coupled with lower procedural mortality and morbidity are highlighted. PMID:19503761

  4. Testosterone treatment in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Srinivas-Shankar, U; Sharma, D

    2009-01-01

    Testosterone has been used in testicular and hypothalamo-pituitary diseases since the 1940s. There is growing interest in the use of testosterone in aging men, and this has stimulated research into the benefits of male hormone replacement. Testosterone treatment of men with hypogonadism might have beneficial effects on body composition, muscle strength, sexual function, and cognition. There are several modes of administration of the male hormone, with injectable testosterone esters and implanted testosterone pellets being the mainstay of treatment until recently. These preparations are increasingly being replaced by transdermal patches, gels, and long-acting parenteral preparations. Testosterone patches and gels are ideally for elderly men. Treatment with the male hormone is relatively safe, if patients are selected appropriately and monitored carefully. The most important adverse effects are on the prostate. In this review, we briefly discuss the indications, contraindications, and benefits of testosterone treatment. Further, we list the adverse effects, advantages, and disadvantages of various testosterone preparations in elderly men.

  5. Postherpetic neuralgia in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, R W; McElhaney, J

    2009-01-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common complication of herpes zoster (HZ) or ‘shingles’ and affects a significant proportion of HZ patients with the disease, with the elderly being most frequently and seriously affected. Characterised by various types of pain (constant, intermittent and stimulus evoked) that persist between 3 months and many years after the resolution of the HZ rash, PHN can have a severe impact on the patient’s quality of life and functional ability. PHN remains highly resistant to current treatments. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, clinical features and management of PHN in the elderly and the potential of vaccination against varicella zoster virus as a means to prevent HZ, and thus decrease the incidence and severity of PHN. PMID:19691624

  6. [Accidental falls in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Heinimann, Niklas B; Kressig, Reto W

    2014-06-18

    Falls in the elderly are common with consecutive high mortality and morbidity. Recent consecutive data focus on identification and therapy of intrinsic risk factors. Sarcopenia, imbalance and gait disorders represent the major risk factors. Sarcopenia is caused by a disequilibrium of protein synthesis and breakdown, probably in consequence of age-related changes in protein metabolism. Protein supplements in combination with strength training shows the best benefit. Disorders in balance and gait are caused by age-related or pathologic changes in a complex regulation system of gait. The individual fall risk correlates with the gait variability and even increases with bad dual task performance. Activities with high requirements of attention and body awareness are the most effective prevention for falls in the elderly (-50%).

  7. Eye surgery in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Raczyńska, Dorota; Glasner, Leopold; Serkies-Minuth, Ewelina; Wujtewicz, Magdalena A; Mitrosz, Kamila

    2016-01-01

    Extending life expectancy is a human achievement. It does however entail problems. Ophthalmic treatments are widely recognized as having a low risk of general complications. A classic example is cataract surgery, considered to be one of the safest and most frequently performed surgical procedures in the world. However, advanced age brings with it risks that should be considered before surgery. Eye operations, as with procedures on other organs, are largely dependent on the quality of surgical tissues. Therefore, the elderly are at increased risk of complications. Improved general health and postoperative follow-up with the use of noninvasive technologies such as optical coherence tomography translate into lower intraoperative risk and better postoperative prognosis. In this review, we discuss the impact of general health on operational prognosis, therapeutic problems, and technical difficulties which a surgeon and anesthesiologist may encounter in the process. We also consider new technology and strategies specifically aimed at treating eye conditions in the elderly. PMID:27103794

  8. Lung cancer in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Diso, Daniele; Onorati, Ilaria; Anile, Marco; Mantovani, Sara; Rendina, Erino A.

    2016-01-01

    There is a worldwide-accepted evidence of a population shift toward older ages. This shift favors an increased risk of developing lung cancer that is primarily a disease of older populations. Decision making is extremely difficult in elderly patients, since this group is under-represented in clinical trials with only 25% of them historically opening to patients older than 65 years. For all these reasons, a “customized” preoperative assessment to identify physiological or pathological frailty should be encouraged since standard tools may be less reliable. The work already done to improve patient selection for lung surgery in the elderly population clearly shows that surgical resection seems the treatment of choice for early stage lung cancer. Further studies are required to improve outcome by reducing postoperative morbidity and mortality. PMID:27942414

  9. Institutionalisation in a Newly Created Private University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodson, Peter; Connolly, Michael; Younes, Said

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the introduction of a quality assurance system in a new, private university in Syria, and considers the extent to which the theoretical model based on institutional theory and isomorphism is reflected in practice. Design/methodology/approach: A five year longitudinal study which reviews the design,…

  10. Elderly migration and development in small communities.

    PubMed

    Rowles, G D; Watkins, J F

    1993-01-01

    "This paper develops a conceptual model of the process of community change [in the United States] in response to elderly inmigration. Analysis of intra-regional variation in elderly migration patterns in Appalachia, and synthesis of an emergent literature on the benefits and costs of attracting elderly migrants, serve as a backdrop for case studies, based on field observations and interviews, of three contrasting Appalachian communities at different stages of development as retirement destinations."

  11. Health practices of the elderly poor.

    PubMed Central

    Lubben, J E; Weiler, P G; Chi, I

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the health practices of the elderly poor and to examine the association between specific health practices and subsequent hospital use. Data came from a sample of 931 Medicaid elderly living in California. Smoking, limited social networks, and lack of regular exercise significantly increased the odds of subsequent hospital utilization. Implications of these findings, which could benefit health promotion intervention and treatment programs for the elderly, were discussed. PMID:2658629

  12. Exoskeleton plantarflexion assistance for elderly.

    PubMed

    Galle, S; Derave, W; Bossuyt, F; Calders, P; Malcolm, P; De Clercq, D

    2017-02-01

    Elderly are confronted with reduced physical capabilities and increased metabolic energy cost of walking. Exoskeletons that assist walking have the potential to restore walking capacity by reducing the metabolic cost of walking. However, it is unclear if current exoskeletons can reduce energy cost in elderly. Our goal was to study the effect of an exoskeleton that assists plantarflexion during push-off on the metabolic energy cost of walking in physically active and healthy elderly. Seven elderly (age 69.3±3.5y) walked on treadmill (1.11ms(2)) with normal shoes and with the exoskeleton both powered (with assistance) and powered-off (without assistance). After 20min of habituation on a prior day and 5min on the test day, subjects were able to walk with the exoskeleton and assistance of the exoskeleton resulted in a reduction in metabolic cost of 12% versus walking with the exoskeleton powered-off. Walking with the exoskeleton was perceived less fatiguing for the muscles compared to normal walking. Assistance resulted in a statistically nonsignificant reduction in metabolic cost of 4% versus walking with normal shoes, likely due to the penalty of wearing the exoskeleton powered-off. Also, exoskeleton mechanical power was relatively low compared to previously identified optimal assistance magnitude in young adults. Future exoskeleton research should focus on further optimizing exoskeleton assistance for specific populations and on considerate integration of exoskeletons in rehabilitation or in daily life. As such, exoskeletons should allow people to walk longer or faster than without assistance and could result in an increase in physical activity and resulting health benefits.

  13. Frailty among rural elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and associated factors related to frailty, by Fried criteria, in the elderly population in a rural area in the Andes Mountains, and to analyze the relationship of these with comorbidity and disability. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken involving 1878 participants 60 years of age and older. The frailty syndrome was diagnosed based on the Fried criteria (weakness, low speed, low physical activity, exhaustion, and weight loss). Variables were grouped as theoretical domains and, along with other potential confounders, were placed into five categories: (a) demographic and socioeconomic status, (b) health status, (c) self-reported functional status, (d) physical performance-based measures, and (e) psychosocial factors. Chi-square, ANOVA, and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to test the prognostic value of frailty for the outcomes of interest. Results The prevalence of frailty was 12.2%. Factors associated with frailty were age, gender, health status variables that included self-perceived health and number of chronic conditions, functional covariate variables that included disability in activities in daily living (ADL), disabilities in instrumental ADL, chair stand time, and psychosocial variables that included depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment. Higher comorbidity and disability was found in frail elderly people. Only a subset of frail elderly people (10%) reported no disease or disability. Conclusions A relevant number of elderly persons living in rural areas in the Andes Mountains are frail. The prevalence of frailty is similar to that reported in other populations in the Latin American region. Our results support the use of modified Cardiovascular Health Study criteria to measure frailty in communities other than urban settings. Frailty in this study was strongly associated with comorbidities, and frailty and comorbidity predicted disability. PMID:24405584

  14. Paradoxical emboli in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Vella, M; McNabb, R; Lewis, R; Sulke, N; Poston, R; Lugon, M

    1992-01-01

    We report two elderly patients who each had a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and were considered to have had paradoxical emboli. In one patient the PFO was detected by contrast two-dimensional echocardiography, whereas in the other it was demonstrated at post-mortem examination. This is an unusual but treatable condition, particularly difficult to diagnose in older people and probably occurring more frequently than is generally suspected.

  15. Myocardial Infarction in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Carro, Amelia; Kaski, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Advances in pharmacological treatment and effective early myocardial revascularization have –in recent years- led to improved clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, it has been suggested that compared to younger subjects, elderly AMI patients are less likely to receive evidence-based treatment, including myocardial revascularization therapy. Several reasons have been postulated to explain this trend, including uncertainty regarding the true benefits of the interventions commonly used in this setting as well as increased risk mainly associated with comorbidities. The diagnosis, management, and post-hospitalization care of elderly patients presenting with an acute coronary syndrome pose many difficulties at present. A complex interplay of variables such as comorbidities, functional and socioeconomic status, side effects associated with multiple drug administration, and individual biologic variability, all contribute to creating a complex clinical scenario. In this complex setting, clinicians are often required to extrapolate evidence-based results obtained in cardiovascular trials from which older patients are often, implicitly or explicitly, excluded. This article reviews current recommendations regarding management of AMI in the elderly. PMID:22396870

  16. Property Taxes and Elderly Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Hui

    2009-01-01

    The 2000–05 housing market boom in the U.S. has caused sharp increases in residential property taxes. Housing-rich but income-poor elderly homeowners often complain about rising tax burdens, and anecdotal evidence suggests that some move to reduce their tax burden. There has been little systematic analysis, however, of the link between property tax levels and the mobility rate of elderly homeowners. This paper investigates this link using household-level panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and a newly collected data set on state-provided property tax relief programs. These relief programs generate variation in effective property tax burdens that is not due solely to arguably endogenous local community choices about taxes and expenditure programs. The findings provide evidence suggesting that higher property taxes raise mobility among elderly homeowners. The point estimates from instrumental variable estimation using relief programs to generate instruments suggest that a $100 increase in annual property taxes is associated with a 0.73 percentage point increase in the two-year mobility rate for homeowners over the age of 50. This is an eight percent increase from the baseline two-year mobility rate of nine percent. These results are robust to alternative specifications. PMID:20161617

  17. Property Taxes and Elderly Mobility.

    PubMed

    Shan, Hui

    2010-03-01

    The 2000-05 housing market boom in the U.S. has caused sharp increases in residential property taxes. Housing-rich but income-poor elderly homeowners often complain about rising tax burdens, and anecdotal evidence suggests that some move to reduce their tax burden. There has been little systematic analysis, however, of the link between property tax levels and the mobility rate of elderly homeowners. This paper investigates this link using household-level panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and a newly collected data set on state-provided property tax relief programs. These relief programs generate variation in effective property tax burdens that is not due solely to arguably endogenous local community choices about taxes and expenditure programs. The findings provide evidence suggesting that higher property taxes raise mobility among elderly homeowners. The point estimates from instrumental variable estimation using relief programs to generate instruments suggest that a $100 increase in annual property taxes is associated with a 0.73 percentage point increase in the two-year mobility rate for homeowners over the age of 50. This is an eight percent increase from the baseline two-year mobility rate of nine percent. These results are robust to alternative specifications.

  18. Fatal neglect of the elderly.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, C; Fechner, G; Bajanowski, T; Brinkmann, B

    2001-01-01

    Maltreatment of the elderly is a common problem that affects more than 3% of the elderly. We report on two cases of fatal neglect. Risk factors of victims and caregivers were analysed in the context of the social history. In both cases, the victims had a dominant personality and the abusers (the sons) had been strictly controlled and formed by the parent. The victims showed typical risk factors such as living together with the abuser, isolation, dependence on care, income and money administration. Initially, the victims declined help from outside and self-neglect occurred. The unemployed perpetrators lived in social isolation and depended financially and mentally on the victims. In both cases no mental illness was present but there was a decrease of social competence. Legal medicine is predominantly involved in fatal cases in connection with external post-mortem examinations and autopsies. Also in the living, the medico-legal expert can assist in the identification of findings in elderly persons in cases of suspected abuse.

  19. [Cardiac surgery in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Wiegmann, B; Ismail, I; Haverich, A

    2017-02-01

    Due to the increasing demographic changes and the fact that cardiovascular diseases are still the leading cause of death, the mean chronological age of patients undergoing cardiac surgery is steadily increasing. In 2015, 14.8% of these patients were aged 80 years and older. This meta-analysis reviewed if and under what circumstances elderly patients benefit from cardiac surgical procedures without running the risk of limitations in the quality of life and high rates of morbidity and mortality. Generally, the chronological age was not a risk factor for higher perioperative and postoperative morbidity and mortality but the biological age was the critical factor, in particular the associated comorbidities of patients and the timing of the surgical procedure in the course of the disease. The result is that elective operations resulted in a better outcome than operations in a symptomatic or decompensated stage of a disease. Compared to patients receiving conventional medicinal therapy, elderly patients undergoing cardiac surgery had an improved life expectancy. A significant increase in the quality of life could also be identified and was ultimately comparable to those of younger patients after cardiac surgery; therefore, elderly patients even those over 80 years old benefit in all aspects of cardiac surgery, as long as individually adapted operative techniques are considered.

  20. Pathophysiologic Response to Burns in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Marc G; Patsouris, David; Stanojcic, Mile; Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Rehou, Sarah; Pinto, Ruxandra; Chen, Peter; Burnett, Marjorie; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2015-10-01

    Over the last decades advancements have improved survival and outcomes of severely burned patients except one population, elderly. The Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) burn size in elderly has remained the same over the past three decades, and so has morbidity and mortality, despite the increased demand for elderly burn care. The objective of this study is to gain insights on why elderly burn patients have had such a poor outcome when compared to adult burn patients. The significance of this project is that to this date, burn care providers recognize the extreme poor outcome of elderly, but the reason remains unclear. In this prospective translational trial, we have determined clinical, metabolic, inflammatory, immune, and skin healing aspects. We found that elderly have a profound increased mortality, more premorbid conditions, and stay at the hospital for longer, p < 0.05. Interestingly, we could not find a higher incidence of infection or sepsis in elderly, p > 0.05, but a significant increased incidence of multi organ failure, p < 0.05. These clinical outcomes were associated with a delayed hypermetabolic response, increased hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic responses, inversed inflammatory response, immune-compromisation and substantial delay in wound healing predominantly due to alteration in characteristics of progenitor cells, p < 0.05. In summary, elderly have substantially different responses to burns when compared to adults associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that these responses are complex and not linear, requiring a multi-modal approach to improve the outcome of severely burned elderly.

  1. Influenza epidemiology in patients admitted to sentinel Australian hospitals in 2015: the Influenza Complications Alert Network.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Allen C; Holmes, Mark; Dwyer, Dominic E; Irving, Louis B; Korman, Tony M; Senenayake, Sanjaya; Macartney, Kristine K; Blyth, Christopher C; Brown, Simon; Waterer, Grant; Hewer, Robert; Friedman, N Deborah; Wark, Peter A; Simpson, Graham; Upham, John; Bowler, Simon D; Lessing, Albert; Kotsimbos, Tom; Kelly, Paul M

    2016-12-24

    The Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) is a sentinel hospital-based surveillance program that operates at sites in all states and territories in Australia. This report summarises the epidemiology of hospitalisations with laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 2015 influenza season. In this observational study, cases were defined as patients admitted to one of the sentinel hospitals with an acute respiratory illness with influenza confirmed by nucleic acid detection. During the period 1 April to 30 October 2015 (the 2015 influenza season), 2,070 patients were admitted with confirmed influenza to one of 17 FluCAN sentinel hospitals. Of these, 46% were elderly (≥ 65 years), 15% were children (< 16 years), 5% were Indigenous Australians, 2.1% were pregnant and 75% had chronic co-morbidities. A high proportion were due to influenza B (51%). There were a large number of hospital admissions detected with confirmed influenza in this national observational surveillance system in 2015 with case numbers similar to that reported in 2014. The national immunisation program is estimated to avert 46% of admissions from confirmed influenza across all at-risk groups, but more complete vaccination coverage in target groups could further reduce influenza admissions by as much as 14%.

  2. Variable phenotype of Marfan syndrome in two large Australian pedigrees, one of Australian aboriginal origin

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, K.K.; Summers, K.M.; West, M.J.

    1994-09-01

    Marfan syndrome may affect the cardiovascular, ocular and skeletal systems. The gene for this autosomal dominant disease maps to chromosome 15 and codes for the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin. Phenotypic expression is very variable both within and between families, possibly due to the influence of other, unlinked, genetic factors interacting with the fibrillin gene. We report two Australian families which demonstrate the extent of inter- and intra-family phenotypic variability. Eye, cardiac and skeletal assessments were made independently. In the first family, 8 of 12 siblings and 11 of 19 of their children had ectopia lentis with or without other ocular findings. There were few cardiac signs. One child had mitral valve prolapse. He and three other children had mild dilatation of the aorta. Skeletal abnormalities were also found (3 adults and 7 children). Chest wall asymmetry was the most common skeletal finding. This family has less cardiac and skeletal involvement than is usual in Marfan syndrome, although the disease maps to chromosome 15 in the region of the fibrillin gene (LOD=4.8 at {theta}=0 with respect to CYP19). The second family is partly of Australian aboriginal origin. The disease has been traced through 5 generations. To date we have examined 37 of 84 living members. Twenty-three in 3 generations are affected. Five adults and 4 children have moderate to severe aortic dilatation and there has been at least one death due to aortic dissection. However, two adolescents with subluxed lenses and marked skeletal abnormalities have normal aortic diameters, two children have aortic dilatation without other signs and two children have only subluxed lenses. This family shows the range of phenotypic variation which can arise from mutation in the fibrillin gene, which may be influenced by the admixture of Australian aboriginal genes. These two families provide an invaluable resource for studying genetic interactions in this disease.

  3. The Australian Integrated Marine Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, R.; Meyers, G.; Roughan, M.; Operators, I.

    2008-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) is a 92M project established with 50M from the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and co-investments from 10 operators including Universities and government agencies (see below). It is a nationally distributed set of equipment established and maintained at sea, oceanographic data and information services that collectively will contribute to meeting the needs of marine research in both open oceans and over the continental shelf around Australia. In particular, if sustained in the long term, it will permit identification and management of climate change in the marine environment, an area of research that is as yet almost a blank page, studies relevant to conservation of marine biodiversity and research on the role of the oceans in the climate system. While as an NCRIS project IMOS is intended to support research, the data streams are also useful for many societal, environmental and economic applications, such as management of offshore industries, safety at sea, management of marine ecosystems and fisheries and tourism. The infrastructure also contributes to Australia's commitments to international programs of ocean observing and international conventions, such as the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention that established the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Global Ocean Observing System and the intergovernmental coordinating activity Global Earth Observation System of Systems. IMOS is made up of nine national facilities that collect data, using different components of infrastructure and instruments, and two facilities that manage and provide access to data and enhanced data products, one for in situ data and a second for remotely sensed satellite data. The observing facilities include three for the open (bluewater) ocean (Argo Australia, Enhanced Ships of Opportunity and Southern Ocean Time Series), three facilities for coastal

  4. Story Telling: Australian Indigenous Women's Means of Health Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Kaye; Acklin, F.; Newman, J.; Arbon, V.; Trindal, A.; Bermingham, M.; Thompson, B.

    Story-telling, an oral tradition of the indigenous peoples of Australia, was recorded on video as a vehicle for conveying health promotion messages in several urban Aboriginal (Koori) communities in Sydney, Australia. The video was made by a group of Koori women Elders and two female Aboriginal academics. The Elders integrated their personal…

  5. Lesions of toxoplasmosis in Australian marsupials.

    PubMed

    Canfield, P J; Hartley, W J; Dubey, J P

    1990-08-01

    This report describes toxoplasmosis lesions in Australian marsupials. Clinical signs, necropsy findings and histopathological changes are summarized for 43 macropods, two common wombats, two koalas, six possums, 15 dasyurids, two numbats, eight bandicoots and one bilby. Animals either died suddenly without clinical signs or exhibited signs associated with respiratory, neurological or enteric disease. At necropsy, many marsupials had no visible lesions. Where present, common necropsy findings included pulmonary congestion, oedema and consolidation, adrenal enlargement and reddening, haemorrhage and ulceration of stomach and small intestine, and lymphadenomegaly and splenomegaly. Microscopically, affected lungs showed interstitial pneumonia and macrophage accumulation. Myocardial, skeletal and smooth muscle necrosis and neutrophilic inflammation were common. Organs had focal necrosis and/or fibrosis and lymphoid infiltrates. Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts were common in muscle and nervous tissue. Free tachyzoites were commonly present in areas of necrosis. Selected sections from four macropods, two koalas, two dasyurids, one wombat and one possum stained specifically with avidin-biotin complex and anti-Toxoplasma gondii serum.

  6. Petroleum potential of northern Australian Continental Shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.R.; Ross, J.G.

    1986-11-01

    A study of the publicly available data from the offshore northern Australian continental shelf has shown that three prospective sedimentary sequences are present. A Cenozoic basin possibly containing Miocene reefal carbonates exists in the west part of the region, a structurally distinct Mesozoic basin containing thick sandstone intervals underlies the Cenozoic, and a thick paleozoic basin, possibly containing Devonian reefs and younger Paleozoic sandstone intervals, lies southeast of the Aru Archipelago and east of a north-northeast-trending ridge located along the eastern edges of the Aru and Timor Troughs. Paleozoic sediments also underlie the Mesozoic west of this ridge. The cenozoic and Mesozoic basins and the western Paleozoic subbasin are separated by major sequence boundaries. All the basins present hydrocarbon potential to a greater or lesser extent. The Mesozoic basin will probably be the prime target for exploration over the next few years, but secondary objectives in Cenozoic and Paleozoic sediments should not be ignored. The numerous different play types identified in this study, the positive signs from exploration in the early 1970s, the recent neighboring discoveries, and improvements in seismic data quality provide an incentive for oil companies to conduct detailed exploration of the area. 7 figures.

  7. Instrumentation at the Anglo-Australian Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barden, Samuel C.

    2004-09-01

    The Anglo-Australian Observatory (AAO) has an instrumentation group for engineering, design, and fabrication that integrates tightly with an energetic group of instrument scientists1 to develop complex astronomical instruments. This instrumentation group puts ideas for innovative technical solutions generated by the instrument scientist group into reality. One demonstration of past achievement is the highly ambitious and successful 2dF instrument that yielded invaluable scientific insight into the cosmological structure of the universe. The more recent successes of the instrumentation group include the OzPoz fiber positioner for the FLAMES facility on the VLT and the award-winning, imaging and multi-object IRIS-2 infrared spectrograph for the AAT. VPH gratings were first put into action in LDSS++ on the AAT and numerous VPH gratings are now in routine use on the 6dF spectrograph for the UKST. Under development are a completely new and unique fiber positioning scheme (Echidna) for use in the FMOS instrument for Subaru; a double-beamed, VPH-based, bench-mounted spectrograph for 2dF; new IR and optical detector controllers; a renovation of the telescope and instrument control systems for the AAT; and a feasibility study for an Echidna-style positioner for the Gemini telescopes. Several other design studies are underway for new instrument technologies using leading edge and innovative concepts in robotics and fibers. The synergy between our scientists and engineers establishes a sound basis for solving the instrumentation challenges facing us.

  8. Microsatellite variation in the Australian dingo.

    PubMed

    Wilton, A N; Steward, D J; Zafiris, K

    1999-01-01

    The dingo is thought to have arrived in Australia from Asia about 5,000 years ago. It is currently in danger because of interbreeding with domestic dogs. Several morphological, behavioral, and reproductive characteristics distinguish dingoes from domestic dog. Skull morphometrics are currently used to try to classify wild canids as pure dingo, dog, or hybrid. Molecular techniques based on diagnostic DNA differences between dogs and dingoes would make a much more reliable and practical test. A small number of markers (about 10) would allow detection of animals with domestic dog in their ancestry several generations back. We have typed 16 dingoes and 16 dogs of mixed breed for 14 microsatellites. The amount of variation in the Australian dingo is much less than in domestic dogs. The size distributions of microsatellites in the two groups usually overlap. The number of alleles in the dingo is much smaller in all cases. One dinucleotide repeat locus shows a size difference of 1 bp in allele classes between dog and dingo. This locus may be diagnostic for dog or dingo ancestry. The differences in distributions of alleles at other loci can also be used to classify animals using a likelihood method.

  9. The Australian SKA Pathfinder: First Science Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey-Smith, Lisa

    2015-08-01

    The Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) is a precursor and technology demonstrator for the Square Kilometre Array.A specialist wide-field survey instrument, ASKAP compises 36 x 12m dish antennas with a maximum separation of 6km. The array operates in the frequency range 700 - 1800 MHz and has an instantaneous bandwidth of 300 MHz. Each dish is mounted with a 'phased array feed', a radio receiver that dramatically enhances the telescope's field-of-view from 1 to 30 square degrees. ASKAP is located at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory, Australia's core site for the SKA.Ten Science Survey Projects have been established by teams of more than 600 astronomers from around the world. Astronomical research topics tackled by these teams include galaxy evolution, cosmic magnetism, the history of gas in galaxies and cosmology. A program of ASKAP Early Science will commence in late 2015. The 6-antenna Boolardy Engineering Test Array (BETA) is currently being used by the commissioning team and at the time of writing has produced its first scientific discovery paper.In this talk, hear the ASKAP Project Scientist report some of the exciting new capabilities demonstrated by ASKAP and learn about the first scientific discoveries made by the commissioning and early science team.

  10. Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program annual report, 2012.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, Carl D; Roczo-Farkas, Susie; Bishop, Ruth F; Barnes, Graeme L

    2014-03-31

    This report from the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program, together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, describes the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 January to 31 December 2012. During the survey period, 1,300 faecal samples were referred to the centre for rotavirus G and P genotype analysis, and of these 748 were confirmed as rotavirus positive. A total of 491 specimens were collected from children under 5 years of age, while 257 were from older children and adults. Genotype analysis revealed that G1P[8] was the dominant type in this reporting period, identified in 35% of strains nationally. Genotype G2P[4] was the second most common strain nationally, representing 28% of samples, followed by genotype G12P[8] (23%). This represents the first report where G12P[8] strains are a major cause of disease in this community. Fluctuations in genotype distribution were also observed based on the vaccine type in use. Genotype G2P[4] was more common in states and territories using Rotarix while G1P[8] was more common in states using RotaTeq. This survey of rotavirus strains circulating in 2012 highlights the continued fluctuations in rotavirus genotypes, with an annual change in dominant genotypes as well as emergence of a previously rare genotype, suggesting a dynamic wild-type population.

  11. Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2010.

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme monitors antibiotic susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in all states and territories. In 2010 the in vitro susceptibility of 3,997 isolates of gonococci from public and private sector sources was determined by standardised methods. Varying antibiotic susceptibility patterns were again reported across jurisdictions and regions. Resistance to the penicillins nationally was 29% and, with the exception of the Northern Territory, ranged from 22% in Queensland to 42% in Victoria. Quinolone resistance, most at high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels, was 35% nationally (excepting the Northern Territory), ranging from 28% in Queensland to 44% in Victoria. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC 0.06 mg/L or more), was found nationally in 4.8% of isolates. There has not been an isolate of N. gonorrhoeae with an MIC value greater than 0.125 mg/L reported in Australia. Nationally, all isolates remained sensitive to spectinomycin. Azithromycin surveillance was performed in New South Wales, Queensland, Western Australia, the Northern Territory and South Australia, and resistance was found in low numbers of gonococci with MIC values up to 16 mg/L. In larger urban centres the ratio of male to female cases was high, and rectal and pharyngeal isolates were common in men. In other centres, and in rural Australia, the male to female ratio of cases was lower, and most isolates were from the genital tract.

  12. Surgery for otitis media among Indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Stephen J; Triolo, Ross D

    2009-11-02

    Otitis media with effusion and recurrent acute otitis media are ubiquitous among Indigenous children. Otitis media causes conductive hearing loss that may persist throughout early childhood and adversely affect social interactions, language acquisition and learning. Control of otitis media usually restores hearing to adequate levels. Surgery is to be considered when otitis media has not responded to medical treatment. In non-Indigenous populations, tympanostomy tubes ("grommets"), with or without adenoidectomy, can control otitis media; how these findings relate to Indigenous Australians is not known. Tympanic membrane perforation is a frequent sequela of early childhood otitis media among Indigenous children. It occurs as early as 12 months of age and causes conductive hearing loss. Perforation is associated with recurrent aural discharge, particularly in the tropics and in desert regions. Medical and public health management is required until a child is old enough to undergo surgical closure of the perforation, usually by an age of 7-10 years. Surgical closure of the tympanic membrane stops the aural discharge and improves the hearing sufficiently to avoid the need for hearing aids in most cases. The success rate of surgery conducted in rural and remote Australia is below urban benchmarks; improving this will probably require funding for community-based follow-up.

  13. Control of Legionnaires' disease -- An Australian perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Broadbent, C.R.

    1999-07-01

    Major outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease (causative agent, ionella spp.) occurred in Australia during the 1980s and early 1990s. The putative sources were primarily heat rejection systems of the recirculating cooling water type (cooling towers). These outbreaks prompted engineers to carry out field studies on which to base improved design and maintenance practices for such heat rejection systems. Health authorities introduced regulations and guidelines to encourage owners to establish and maintain hygienic conditions in these and other systems. Central to this progress is the recognition that Legionella is essentially a biofilm organism and that it prefers the surfaces of warmer parts of systems for growth. This is particularly so if there are deadlegs in the system or accumulations of sediment. Biocidal water treatment approaches must therefore take biofilm control into account. A recent Australian innovation is the preparation of a national performance-based regulatory standard to complement earlier standards that are of a prescriptive nature. The aim of this new standard is to allow alternative strategies that may not necessitate system shutdown for regular cleaning yet provide for an equivalent level of system hygiene. The standard requires that a risk assessment strategy be implemented involving identification of performance indicators and control and monitoring of parameters likely to move beyond stipulated limits.

  14. Antibacterial activity of traditional Australian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Palombo, E A; Semple, S J

    2001-10-01

    Fifty-six ethanolic extracts of various parts of 39 plants used in traditional Australian Aboriginal medicine were investigated for their antibacterial activities against four Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes) and four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium) bacterial species. In a plate-hole diffusion assay, 12 extracts inhibited the growth of one or more of the bacteria, with five extracts showing broad spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. B. cereus was the most susceptible bacterium, with all 12 extracts displaying activity against this organism. Extracts from the leaves of Eremophila species (Myoporaceae) were the most active, with Eremophila duttonii exhibiting the greatest activity (against Gram-positive bacteria). The antibacterial effects of E. duttonii were further investigated by time-course growth assays which showed that significant growth inhibition was observed in cultures incubated in the presence of the extract within 1 h for B. cereus, E. faecalis and S. aureus and 2 h for S. pyogenes.

  15. Dietary flavonoid sources in Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Somerset, Shawn M; Johannot, Lidwine

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from laboratory-based in vitro studies provides compelling evidence supporting the involvement of dietary flavonoid intake in human cancer risk. Associations between intakes of individual flavonoids and disease outcomes at the population level are emerging from recent epidemiological studies. As an important step in the development of methods to assess flavonoid intakes across populations, the major sources of dietary flavonoids in the adult Australian population were identified. Data from a 24-h diet recall questionnaire used in a national nutrition survey (NNS95-comprising a sample of 10,851 subjects aged 19 yr and over) were combined with U.S. Department of Agriculture data on flavonoid content of foods to identify key sources. Black and green teas clearly were the dominant sources of the flavonols kaempferol, myricetin, and quercetin. Other significant flavonol sources included onion (isorhamnetin and quercetin), broccoli (kaempferol and quercetin), apple (quercetin), grape (quercetin), coffee (myrcetin), and beans (quercetin). Black and green teas also were dominant sources of flavon-3-ols, with wine, apples, and pears contributing somewhat. In terms of flavanone consumption, oranges (hesperetin and naringenin), lemon (eriodictyol), mandarin (hesperetin), and grapefruit (naringenin) were the major sources. Parsley (apigenin), celery (apigenin and luteolin), and English spinach (luteolin) were the major flavone sources. Wine was the major anthocyanadin source (delphinidin, malvidin, peonidin and petunidin), with smaller amounts from cherry (peonidin) and blueberry (delphinidin, malvidin, peonidin and petunidin). It is suggested that the relatively small number of aforementioned key foods form the basis of food frequency questionnaires to assess flavonoid intake.

  16. Stable isotopic compositions in Australian precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianrong; Fu, Guobin; Song, Xianfang; Charles, Stephen P.; Zhang, Yinghua; Han, Dongmei; Wang, Shiqin

    2010-12-01

    Stable deuterium (δD) and oxygen-18 (δ18O) isotopes in 1962 to 2002 precipitation from the seven Australian stations of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) were used to investigate isotope characteristics including temporal and spatial distributions across different regions of Australia. On the basis of 1534 samples, the local meteoric water line (LMWL) was established as δD = 7.10δ18O + 8.21. δ18O showed a depletion trend from north and south to central Australia (a continental effect) and from west to east. Precipitation amount effects were generally greater than temperature effects, with quadratic or logarithmic correlations describing δ/T and δ/P better than linear relationships. Nonlinear stepwise regression was used to determine the significant meteorological control factors for each station, explaining about 50% or more of the δ18O variations. Geographical control factors for δ18O were given by the relationship δ18O (‰) = -0.005 longitude (°) - 0.034 latitude (°)-0.003 altitude (m) - 4.753. Four different types of d-excess patterns demonstrated particular precipitation formation conditions for four major seasonal rainfall zones. Finally, wavelet coherence (WTC) between δ18O and SOI confirmed that the influence of ENSO decreased from east and north to west Australia.

  17. The Australian health system: continuity and change.

    PubMed

    Harris, M G; Harris, R D

    1998-01-01

    The health of Australians, with the exception of Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders, compares favourably with other industrialised nations. Since 1984, universal access for citizens to medical and public hospital services has been achieved under a national Health Insurance Scheme called Medicare, partially funded by a 1.4 percent levy on all taxpayers. Medicare found early widespread support from the electorate but continues to be buffeted by a minority coalition of some medical associations, private health insurers, and conservative "libertarian" politicians. Over the decade since its inception, Medicare has provided stability in maintaining total health costs around 8 percent of GDP. This has been largely due to capping hospital costs via Commonwealth-State agreements. Medicare has failed in the past five years to contain medical costs which have increased proportionally with increases in the medical workforce. This article examines the structure and performance of Medicare and its role within Australia's overall health system. Benefits of a universal access insurance program are outlined together with challenges associated with inequities in health status, geography, aging of the population, burgeoning technology, ideological diversity, and an economic climate requiring cost containment and favouring privatisation and the role of the market. It can be concluded that, despite these challenges, universal access to health care is here to stay. Australia's Medicare program has become popular with the electorate.

  18. Bt resistance in Australian insect pest species.

    PubMed

    Downes, Sharon; Walsh, Tom; Tay, Wee Tek

    2016-06-01

    Bt cotton was initially deployed in Australia in the mid-1990s to control the polyphagous pest Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) which was intractably resistant to synthetic chemistries. A conservative strategy was enforced and resistance to first generation single toxin technology was managed. A decade later, shortly after the release of dual toxin cotton, high baseline frequencies of alleles conferring resistance to one of its components prompted a reassessment of the thinking behind the potential risks to this technology. Several reviews detail the characteristics of this resistance and the nuances of deploying first and second generation Bt cotton in Australia. Here we explore recent advances and future possibilities to estimate Bt resistance in Australian pest species and define what we see as the critical data for enabling effective pre-emptive strategies. We also foreshadow the imminent deployment of three toxin (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Vip3A) Bollgard 3 cotton, and examine aspects of resistance to its novel component, Vip3A, that we believe may impact on its stewardship.

  19. Ocean circulation on the North Australian Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    The ocean circulation on Australia's Northern Shelf is dominated by the Monsoon and influenced by large-scale interannual variability. These driving forces exert an ocean circulation that influences the deep Timor Sea Passage of the Indonesian Throughflow, the circulation on the Timor and Arafura Shelves and, further downstream, the Leeuwin Current. Seasonal maxima of northeastward (southwestward) volume transports on the shelf are almost symmetric and exceed 10 6 m 3/s in February (June). The associated seasonal cycle of vertical upwelling from June to August south of 8.5°S and between 124°E and 137.5°E exceeds 1.5×10 6 m 3/s across 40 m depth. During El Niño events, combined anomalies from the seasonal means of high regional wind stresses and low inter-ocean pressure gradients double the northeastward volume transport on the North Australian Shelf to 1.5×10 6 m 3/s which accounts for 20% of the total depth-integrated transport across 124°E and reduce the total transport of the Indonesian Throughflow. Variability of heat content on the shelf is largely determined by Pacific and Indian Ocean equatorial wind stress anomalies with some contribution from local wind stress forcing.

  20. A Stalagmite record of Holocene Indonesian-Australian summer monsoon variability from the Australian tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denniston, Rhawn F.; Wyrwoll, Karl-Heinz; Polyak, Victor J.; Brown, Josephine R.; Asmerom, Yemane; Wanamaker, Alan D.; LaPointe, Zachary; Ellerbroek, Rebecca; Barthelmes, Michael; Cleary, Daniel; Cugley, John; Woods, David; Humphreys, William F.

    2013-10-01

    Oxygen isotopic data from a suite of calcite and aragonite stalagmites from cave KNI-51, located in the eastern Kimberley region of tropical Western Australia, represent the first absolute-dated, high-resolution speleothem record of the Holocene Indonesian-Australian summer monsoon (IASM) from the Australian tropics. Stalagmite oxygen isotopic values track monsoon intensity via amount effects in precipitation and reveal a dynamic Holocene IASM which strengthened in the early Holocene, decreased in strength by 4 ka, with a further decrease from ˜2 to 1 ka, before strengthening again at 1 ka to years to levels similar to those between 4 and 2 ka. The relationships between the KNI-51 IASM reconstruction and those from published speleothem time series from Flores and Borneo, in combination with other data sets, appear largely inconsistent with changes in the position and/or organization of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Instead, we argue that the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) may have played a dominant role in driving IASM variability since at least the middle Holocene. Given the muted modern monsoon rainfall responses to most El Niño events in the Kimberley, an impact of ENSO on regional monsoon precipitation over northwestern Australia would suggest non-stationarity in the long-term relationship between ENSO forcing and IASM rainfall, possibly due to changes in the mean state of the tropical Pacific over the Holocene.

  1. Mechanics, Problems and Contributions of Tertiary Strategic Alliance: The Case of 22 Australian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saffu, Kojo; Mamman, Aminu

    1999-01-01

    A study of international strategic alliances involving 22 Australian universities indicates that a majority of universities have frameworks for internationalization initiatives, with top institutional management instrumental in initiating joint ventures with overseas institutions despite limited resources. Australian universities believe they…

  2. Identifying and Characterizing Elder Abuse. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengstock, Mary C.; Liang, Jersey

    While the family has traditionally been the preferable alternative to nursing home care for the aged, recent research indicates that some elderly persons are subjected to neglect or abuse by their families. To investigate this problem, elderly abuse victims in Detroit completed questionnaires and interviews; their families and social service and…

  3. Elder Abuse Reporting: Limitations of Statutes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salend, Elyse; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compares 16 state elder abuse reporting statutes and analyzes their implementation. Generally, the statutes have failed to ensure consistent information about elder abuse within or across states. Neglect is more often reported than abuse and little prosecutory activity was noted. Suggestions for improving reporting policies are made. (JAC)

  4. Wisdomkeepers: Meetings with Native American Spiritual Elders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arden, Harvey; Wall, Steve

    This book documents meetings with Native American elders who shared their tribal stories of origin, sacred traditions, social life and customs, and traditional wisdom. The idea for the book began when a Cherokee medicine man requested that his tribal knowledge be documented for future generations. For the past 10 years, the spiritual elders of…

  5. Cognitive Changes among Institutionalized Elderly People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Jose I.; Menacho, Inmaculada; Alcalde, Concepcion; Marchena, Esperanza; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Aguilar, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of different cognitive training procedures in elderly people was studied. Two types of methods to train cognitive and memory functions were compared. One method was based on new technologies and the other one on pencil-and-paper activities. Thirty-six elderly institutionalized people aged 68-94 were trained. Quantitative and memory…

  6. ERP Correlates of Performance Monitoring in Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Melanie; Pietschmann, Maria; Kathmann, Norbert; Endrass, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies on performance monitoring repeatedly found attenuated error-related negativities (Ne/ERN) in elderly, while findings for the correct-related negativity (Nc/CRN) are inconsistent. The present study aimed at clarifying inconsistent Nc/CRN results in elderly. Therefore, a refined design was employed to control for potential…

  7. Sexual Assault of the Elderly Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muram, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Evaluated elderly victims of rape and determined the variables affected solely by the patient's age. It was found that 71.7 percent of these assaults took place at the victim's home, and most were by an unknown assailant. Genital injury was more prevalent among elderly victims. Physical intimidation was all that was necessary to subdue the victims…

  8. High Risk Situations for Elderly Alcohol Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupree, Larry W.; Schonfeld, Lawrence

    The Gerontology Alcohol Project, a treatment/research program investigating the characteristics of the late-life onset elderly alcohol abuser, was used as a model for a new program which emphasized teaching the elderly abusers how to break down their personal drinking behavior chain and deal with the antecedents of drinking behavior, to use…

  9. Safe and Effective Prescribing for the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Macarthur, Colin; Rockwood, Kenneth

    1992-01-01

    Drug-induced iatrogenic disease is more common among elderly patients than in any other patient population. Factors associated with adverse drug reactions in the elderly include excessive and inappropriate prescribing practices (such as the failure to adjust drug dose to age or complex drug regimens), the aging process itself (altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics), and concurrent illness. PMID:21229126

  10. Suicide and Elderly People: Assessment and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Sharon M.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that people over age 60 have highest suicide rates and comprise one-fourth of all suicides. Presents case study illustrating risk assessment and intervention with elderly woman. Examines clinical issues related to recognition of suicidal elderly patients and presents practical approach to early detection, evaluation, and management of…

  11. Elder Abuse in American Indian Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anisko, Briana

    2009-01-01

    Although the many American Indian tribes of the United States are unique in their own customs, languages, and histories, a common thread throughout their traditions and cultural lifestyles is that they are of a culture that reveres the elder in their communities. Elders are the carriers of the culture/history; they are the storytellers, holders of…

  12. Counseling the Elderly: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulvino, Charles J.; Colangelo, Nicholas

    1980-01-01

    Reviews research with implications for counselors who work with the elderly, and describes model programs and counselor training issues. The needs of the elderly are common to all people and include developmental issues, sexuality, substance abuse, family problems and widowhood. (JAC)

  13. Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse among the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Paul S.

    The current prevailing professional opinion is that the prevalence rates of alcohol abuse among the elderly are low compared to the general population. The prevalence of alcohol abuse among the elderly was examined through a review of the empirical research. This review revealed a number of serious methodological problems. The most important of…

  14. Understanding and Counseling Elderly Alcohol Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Shirley; Remley, Theodore P., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Investigated cause of abusive drinking among the elderly and treatment practices and counseling strategies used by professionals who serve them. Structured interviews with six practitioners who were knowledgeable about alcohol abuse among the elderly revealed consensus that alcoholism is a physiological disorder with attendant psychological and…

  15. Communicating with the Elderly: Shattering Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freimuth, Vicki S.; Jamieson, Kathleen

    Designed to present communications problems faced by the elderly and to assist classroom teachers to develop activities for dealing with them, this booklet begins by examining stereotypes of older persons which minimize and distort communication with them. It outlines common misconceptions about the elderly, centering on their state of mind,…

  16. Protocols for the Assessment of Elder Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulmer, Terry; Wetle, Terrie

    The fact that many states have passed elder abuse reporting laws has left care providers with a dilemma. If suspected abuse is reported, the relationship between caregiver and patient may change and the family's difficulties may increase. Indicators of abuse are not easy to differentiate from health problems, especially in the frail elderly. An…

  17. Well Elderly Integrated Training Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summit-Portage Area Health Education Network, Akron, OH.

    The Well Elderly Integrated Training Project was conceptualized as a service-oriented endeavor with an evaluation component. The project required that a university medical school resource faculty develop an integrated training program and materials on health education (wellness) for trainers who were respected, healthy elderly high in the senior…

  18. The Functional Competency of Elderly at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Barbara; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated functional competency to make informed decisions by elderly depressed and cognitively impaired psychiatric patients. Although depressed elderly patients did not appear to experience problems in informed consent process, cognitively impaired patients had difficulty understanding important aspects of consent information. Suggests that…

  19. Operation of the Australian Store.Synchrotron for macromolecular crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Grischa R.; Aragão, David; Mudie, Nathan J.; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; McGowan, Sheena; Bertling, Philip J.; Groenewegen, David; Quenette, Stevan M.; Bond, Charles S.; Buckle, Ashley M.; Androulakis, Steve

    2014-10-01

    The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The service automatically receives and archives raw diffraction data, related metadata and preliminary results of automated data-processing workflows. Data are able to be shared with collaborators and opened to the public. In the nine months since its deployment in August 2013, the service has handled over 22.4 TB of raw data (∼1.7 million diffraction images). Several real examples from the Australian crystallographic community are described that illustrate the advantages of the approach, which include real-time online data access and fully redundant, secure storage. Discoveries in biological sciences increasingly require multidisciplinary approaches. With this in mind, Store.Synchrotron has been developed as a component within a greater service that can combine data from other instruments at the Australian Synchrotron, as well as instruments at the Australian neutron source ANSTO. It is therefore envisaged that this will serve as a model implementation of raw data archiving and dissemination within the structural biology research community.

  20. Is resilience relevant to smoking abstinence for Indigenous Australians?

    PubMed

    Tsourtos, George; Ward, Paul R; Lawn, Sharon; Winefield, Anthony H; Hersh, Deborah; Coveney, John

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence rate of tobacco smoking remains high for Australian Indigenous people despite declining rates in other Australian populations. Given many Indigenous Australians continue to experience a range of social and economic structural problems, stress could be a significant contributing factor to preventing smoking abstinence. The reasons why some Indigenous people have remained resilient to stressful adverse conditions, and not rely on smoking to cope as a consequence, may provide important insights and lessons for health promotion policy and practice. In-depth interviews were employed to collect oral histories from 31 Indigenous adults who live in metropolitan Adelaide. Participants were recruited according to smoking status (non-smokers were compared with current smokers to gain a greater depth of understanding of how some participants have abstained from smoking). Perceived levels of stress were associated with encouraging smoking behaviour. Many participants reported having different stresses compared with non-Indigenous Australians, with some participants reporting having additional stressors such as constantly experiencing racism. Resilience often occurred when participants reported drawing upon internal psychological assets such as being motivated to quit and where external social support was available. These findings are discussed in relation to a recently developed psycho-social interactive model of resilience, and how this resilience model can be improved regarding the historical and cultural context of Indigenous Australians' experience of smoking.

  1. The Australian cigarette brand as product, person, and symbol

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine, for dominant Australian cigarette brands, brand identity (overriding brand vision), brand positioning (brand identity elements communicated to the consumer), brand image (consumers' brand perceptions) and brand equity (financial value). Design: Tobacco industry documents, articles from retail trade publications since 1990, and current brand advertising from retail trade publications were searched for information about Australian brands. Results: Cigarette manufacturers benefit from their competitors' brand equity as well as their own. The industry sees Australian smokers as far less brand loyal and strongly oriented to "low tar". A few predominantly local brands dominate the market, with variation by state. Successful Australian brands exist in one of three categories: premium, mainstream, and supervalue. Their brand identity essence is as follows. Premium: quality. Mainstream: a good humoured "fair go" for ordinary Australians. Supervalue: value for money. All supervalue brand identities also include freedom, escape, mildness, an aspirational attitude, blue tones, and waterside scenes. Brand image and brand identity is frequently congruent, even when marketing is restricted, and brand image is generally more positive for a smoker's own brand. Conclusions: Tobacco control activities have undermined cigarette brand equity. Further research is needed regarding brand loyalty, low tar, and brand categories. Smokers may respond more positively to tobacco control messages consistent with the identities of their chosen brand, and brand-as-organisation elements may assist. Further marketing restrictions should consider all elements of brand identity, and aim to undermine brand categories. PMID:14645952

  2. The Bereaved Elderly: Can We Help Them?

    PubMed Central

    Tudiver, Fred

    1986-01-01

    Of the over one million widowed persons in Canada, 63% of the widows and 70% of the widowers are over 65 years of age. The bereaved elderly, especially elderly widowers, are at high risk for poor response to bereavement. Death of one's spouse has been rated one of the most stressful events in life, yet the literature has few studies demonstrating effective bereavement counselling for the elderly. In particular, very few of these studies have looked at the bereaved elderly male, especially in terms of the impact of bereavement intervention on both emotional and physical problems. This paper critically reviews the literature on bereavement counselling for elderly widows and widowers and suggests new pragmatic methods for helping them. PMID:20469463

  3. Sex hormones and the elderly male voice.

    PubMed

    Gugatschka, Markus; Kiesler, Karl; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Schoekler, Bernadette; Schmid, Christoph; Groselj-Strele, Andrea; Friedrich, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    The objective was to describe influences of sex hormones on the male voice in an elderly cohort. Sixty-three elderly males were recruited to undergo assessment of voice parameters, stroboscopy, voice-related questionnaires, a blood draw, and an ultrasound examination of the laryngeal skeleton. The group was divided into men with normal hormonal status and men with lowered levels of sex hormones, called hypogonades. Depending on the level of androgens, voice parameters did not differ. In subjects with decreased levels of estrogens, a significant increase in mean fundamental frequency, as well as changes of highest and lowest frequency plus a shift of the frequency range could be detected. We could detect significant changes of voice parameters depending on status of estrogens in elderly males. Androgens appear to have no impact on the elderly male voice. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study that correlates sex hormones with voice parameters in elderly men.

  4. Nutritional status and cognitive impairment in elderly.

    PubMed

    Daradkeh, Ghazi; Essa, Musthafa M; Al-Adawi, S Samir; Koshy, Roopa P; Al-Asmi, Abdullah; Waly, Mostafa I

    2014-10-01

    The elderly population is increasing worldwide and it has been suggested that senior citizens will continue to constitute the bulk of the population in many countries. Nutritional status of senior citizens are adversely affected by their frailty, chronic condition and declining cognitive functioning. Conversely, malnourished elderly further deteriorate their frailty, chronic disease and cognitive functioning. The aim of this review article is to recognize the importance of nutritional assessment of elderly population particularly those with cognitive impairment. First part is to highlight characteristic cognitive impairment among senior citizens and the second one highlight t he background in which malnutrition is a factor that leads to increased risk of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. This review also highlight salgorithms for safeguarding nutritional status among senior citizen and focuses on importance of nutritional screening, assessment and early intervention for safeguarding further deterioration of elderly who are likely to prone to cognitive impairment.

  5. [Injuries in the elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Hładki, Waldemar; Brongel, Leszek; Lorkowski, Jacek

    2006-01-01

    More and more higher development of civilisation causes constant lengthening of life in humans. Changes, which occur during growing old of organism predispose to increased risk of trauma. Financial cost of medical treatment of injuries in elderly are higher and higher. Degenerative disease of joints, osteoporosis, earlier body injuries and co-existing other diseases are important risk factors of trauma. Deficiencies of eyesight, hearing and prolonged time reaction are other strengthening risk of trauma. Falls and motor-vehicle accidents are the most frequent causes of trauma in elderly. Distal radius fracture, fracture of the proximal femur bone and compressive vertebral fracture of spine are typical fractures in the skeletal system. Head injuries are the most frequent cause of death in this group of patients. Limited functional reserves, especially in the respiratory and circulatory system brings difficulties in the treatment of even not dangerous injuries of chest and increases risks of infectious complications in respiratory system and finally may lead to organ failure. Elderly patients need more precise physical examination and diagnostics because essential information from the patient's history are often difficult to obtain. Indications to hospitalisation should be often widened even at not dangerous injuries, because the patients may demand intensive analgesic treatment and nursing. Necessity of care provided by other persons, poor care in household conditions, and inadequate social circumstances extend also indications to hospitalisation. There is a need to creation of nursing care departments for considerable group of injured persons who finished proper hospital-treatment, but because of the above-mentioned reasons cannot exist at home.

  6. Residential care for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Alber, J

    1992-01-01

    This article maps variations in a standardized way in residential care for elderly people in three Western nations. Measured by the number of available places per person aged sixty-five and over and by the number of staff members per bed in nursing homes, the United Kingdom has the most highly developed standards. The United States ranks second, with Germany lagging considerably behind. The variations are explained by four variables: the pressure of the problem, as defined by the percentage of the population aged sixty-five and over; the caretaker potential in the family system, which alleviates this pressure; the structure and financing of the supply of residential care; and decision-making procedures in health care policy-making. My analysis emphasizes the last two variables. In the United Kingdom and the United States, the public and private providers who supply care have either political or market incentives to expand their services. Germany's mix of public and private, by contrast, is dominated by voluntary associations that are neither responsible to an electorate nor allowed to make profits. Thus, their clients do not have opportunities to articulate their needs. Health care decision making in Germany takes place through a collective bargaining process between the sickness funds and the providers. In such a system, the interests of groups who are not represented at the negotiation table--such as the elderly--tend to be neglected. A national health system of the British type links political decision makers via the election mechanism more closely to the concerns of the public. As older people represent growing proportions of the electorate, their needs find more adequate consideration in the policy process. In the United States, political officeholders also have to pay attention to the needs of increasingly organized older people, since the tax-financed and federally regulated Medicaid system is largely responsible for financing long-term care for the elderly.

  7. [Balance disorders in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Bracchi, E; Rizzo, S; Longari, F; Bernardini, M; Bizzotti, C; Frenguelli, A

    2002-10-01

    In the elderly patient, instability is a syndrome in which a loss of balance, during ambulation or while standing, can give rise to falls, with consequent disability and morbidity. Maintaining the correct static and dynamic balance is known to be the result of the synergetic functioning of different systems. In old age, however, the efficiency of these mechanisms is impaired because of the physiological process of aging, which affects all of the organs and systems of the human body. Besides that, different concomitant causes such as cardiovascular and dysmetabolic pathologies, chronic pharmacological therapies etc. contribute to the aging of our organism. The object of this study was to evaluate 40 subjects, 21 males and 19 females, aged between 70 and 86, who were referred to us with craniofacial trauma consequent to a fall. Upon hospitalization, all of the patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire evaluating the incidence of the vertigo symptom as a possible cause of the falls. All of the subjects underwent the following clinicoinstrumental examinations: standard audiometric evaluation, vestibular tests, neurological and ophthalmic examination. Careful appraisal of the results obtained enabled us to conclude that balance disorders in the elderly patient are due to the synergetic action of three factors: aging, concomitant diseases and environmental factors. In conclusion, we can affirm that balance disorders giving rise to a fall in the elderly are attributable to the concomitance of different factors that determine a clinical state of imbalance, defined by some Authors with the term "presbivertigo". It follows that a suitable diagnostic protocol must be employed, comprising a detailed medical, pharmacological and functional history, a study both of the environmental conditions in which the patient lives and the modalities according to which the traumatic event occurred. It is, last of all, indispensable that steps be taken to improve these environmental

  8. Atrial fibrillation in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Franken, Roberto A.; Rosa, Ronaldo F.; Santos, Silvio CM

    2012-01-01

    This review discusses atrial fibrillation according to the guidelines of Brazilian Society of Cardiac Arrhythmias and the Brazilian Cardiogeriatrics Guidelines. We stress the thromboembolic burden of atrial fibrillation and discuss how to prevent it as well as the best way to conduct cases of atrial fibrillatios in the elderly, reverting the arrhythmia to sinus rhythm, or the option of heart rate control. The new methods to treat atrial fibrillation, such as radiofrequency ablation, new oral direct thrombin inhibitors and Xa factor inhibitors, as well as new antiarrhythmic drugs, are depicted. PMID:22916053

  9. Important Infections in Elderly Persons

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Thomas T.

    1981-01-01

    Elderly persons are prone to more frequent or greater morbidity and higher mortality from selected infectious diseases than the average population. Factors that may affect this increased predilection or poorer prognosis include environmental exposure, normal physiological changes of aging, coexistence of chronic diseases and alteration of host defense mechanisms. Infections to which the aged are particularly vulnerable are pneumonia, influenza, tuberculosis, urinary tract infection, Gram-negative bacteremia, intra-abdominal sepsis, soft tissue infection, infective endocarditis, bacterial meningitis, bacterial arthritis and herpes zoster infection. PMID:7039132

  10. Personality in recovered depressed elderly.

    PubMed

    Schneider, L S; Zemansky, M F; Bender, M; Sloane, R B

    1992-01-01

    Personality traits in euthymic elderly subjects with and without past histories of major depressive episodes were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and the Social Adjustment Scale-SR. Recovered depressed subjects were characterized by significantly more personality traits from DSM-III-R Clusters B and C than controls, and they exhibited differences in social adjustment, as well. Subjects who have recovered from depressive episodes may show significant differences in personality and social adjustment that might represent residua of past depression, a trait characteristic, or a risk factor for recurrence.

  11. Skin cancer in the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, S.V.

    1987-11-01

    Skin cancer is a major concern in geriatric populations. Cumulative exposure to carcinogens and age-related factors both contribute to the high prevalence of cutaneous malignancy in the elderly. Although mortality rates from skin cancer are relatively low, morbidity can be significant, particularly if lesions are neglected. Physicians can have a major impact on the course of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma by nurturing a high index of suspicion for malignancy when unexplained cutaneous lesions are encountered. 56 references.

  12. Faecal incontinence in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Lee, K S; Owen, R E; Choo, P W; Jayaratnam, F J

    1991-04-01

    Faecal incontinence is distressing both to the patient and the carers. However with accurate diagnosis of its cause, the condition can often be treated. Causes can be classified by pathophysiology. The most common cause in the elderly is faecal impaction with overflow incontinence. Other causes include inflammatory conditions of the bowel, neurological disorder, functional incontinence and iatrogenic incontinence. Management depends on an accurate diagnosis. A proper bowel and drug history is important. A rectal examination is mandatory, in order not to miss a diagnosis of faecal impaction with overflow incontinence. Specific treatment is directed at the cause.

  13. Papulosquamous diseases in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Norman, Robert A; Blanco, Patricia M

    2003-01-01

    This article refers to papulosquamous diseases that are seen in the elderly. Many of these diseases are complex to diagnose due to the fact that they are difficult to identify, because they may resemble a similar disorder, which can be misleading. The problem that is frequently seen with these diseases is that they are commonly misdiagnosed. In this article the authors include information that will help with identifying these diseases. The authors also provide important laboratory exams that can be performed and can help guide diagnosis, as well as differential diagnosis and treatment options.

  14. Allergic diseases in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Demographic distribution of the population is progressively changing with the proportion of elderly persons increasing in most societies. This entails that there is a need to evaluate the impact of common diseases, such as asthma and other allergic conditions, in this age segment. Frailty, comorbidities and polymedication are some of the factors that condition management in geriatric patients. The objective of this review is to highlight the characteristics of allergic diseases in older age groups, from the influence of immunosenescence, to particular clinical implications and management issues, such as drug interactions or age-related side effects. PMID:22409889

  15. Australian Education: An Overview of a System Adapting to a Post-Industrial Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Richard J.

    This paper offers a brief overview of the Australian education system and compares it with the United States system of education. The Australian economy presents no threat to U.S. hegemony, but its education system presents an interesting contrast. The paper describes the following features of the Australian education system: governance; school…

  16. An Australian Approach to Schooling: The Record, the Rewards, and the Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Cherry

    This paper discusses the inclusion of Australian rather than English cultural components into an Australian-focused curriculum. Prior to World War II, English culture was accentuated in Australian education because of the country's English heritage. The conclusion that Australia has developed its own unique culture separate from that of Great…

  17. The Australian Geography Competition: An Overview of Participation and Results 2004-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Iraphne R. W.; Berg, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Geography Competition (AGC) was established in 1995 by the Royal Geographical Society of Queensland (RGSQ) and the Australian Geography Teachers' Association to promote the study of geography in Australian secondary schools and to reward student excellence in geographical studies. Initially focusing on students at the lower…

  18. Positioning the School in the Landscape: Exploring Black History with a Regional Australian Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeegers, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with a project establishing an Indigenous Australian artists-in-residence program at a regional Australian primary school to foreground its Black History. Primary school students worked with Indigenous Australian story tellers, artists, dancers and musicians to explore ways in which they could examine print and non-print texts for…

  19. Australian Information Education in the 21st Century--The Synergy among Research, Teaching and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasie, Daniela L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 a group of Australian Library and Information Science academics led by Prof. Helen Partridge conducted an investigation into the Australian Library and Information Science education in the 21st century. The project was funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) and the final report, titled "Re-conceptualising and…

  20. Strategic Capacity Building for Australian Educational Research: Creating Spaces for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides some background information about the Strategic Capacity Building for Australian Educational Research initiative: a joint program of work sponsored by the Australian Association for Research in Education and the Australian Council of Deans of Education. In addition, it offers some broader analysis of the contexts within which…

  1. Content Validation of Statements Describing the Essential Work of Australian Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dally, Kerry A.; Dempsey, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the procedures used in developing and validating a set of statements for Australian special education teachers. Using the existing AITSL Australian Professional Standards for Teachers at the proficient level as a basis, a set of statements describing the specific skills and knowledge required by Australian educators working…

  2. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 2006 Cohort Wave 4 (2009)--Questionnaire. Technical Report 56A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the questionnaire for the LSAY 2006 cohort Wave 4 (2009) data set. [For the "Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY):…

  3. Enhancing Educational Performance for Remote Aboriginal Australians: What Is the Impact of Attendance on Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The educational performance of Aboriginal Australians lags behind non-Indigenous Australians with the gap increasing the longer students remain at school. The Australian government has released its Closing the Gap policy with the specific intent to redress gaps in health, education and housing, as these are seen as key indicators to life success.…

  4. The Invisible Hand of Pedagogy in Australian Indigenous Studies and Indigenous Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Zane Ma; Russell, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    The Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project "Exploring Problem-Based Learning Pedagogy as Transformative Education in Indigenous Australian Studies" raised a number of issues that resonated with concerns we have had as professionals engaged in teaching and researching Australian Indigenous studies and Indigenous…

  5. Potential Effectiveness of Specific Anti-Smoking Mass Media Advertisements among Australian Indigenous Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Harold S.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Bayly, Megan C.; Sharplin, Greg R.; Durkin, Sarah J.; Miller, Caroline L.; Givans, Sharon E.; Warne, Charles D.; Wakefield, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156…

  6. Values-Based Education in Schools in the 2000s: The Australian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leichsenring, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explores the teaching of values in Australian schools through a framework established by the Australian Federal government during the 2000s. This paper focuses on: the approaches employed by the Australian Federal government in the implementation of Values Education; and the application of cases of values-based education utilized by…

  7. Eating Disorders and Dieting Behavior among Australian and Swazi University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Nicole M.; Schumaker, John F.; Sibiya, Thokozile E.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the eating behaviors of 192 Australian and 129 Swaziland university students using the Eating Attitudes Test. Reports no significant differences between the Australian and Swazi samples in terms of eating disorder symptoms, but indicates that more Australians saw themselves as overweight and were on a weight loss diet. (CMK)

  8. A Survey of Abuse of the Elderly in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jeff; And Others

    Many elderly persons suffer abuse and neglect from which they cannot escape. Questions concerning the extent of elder abuse, the kinds of abuse, and underlying factors associated with elder abuse in Texas were explored in a survey of professionals most likely to encounter elder abuse in their work. Questionnaires (1,508) were mailed to agencies…

  9. An Aboriginal Australian genome reveals separate human dispersals into Asia.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong; Lohmueller, Kirk E; Rasmussen, Simon; Albrechtsen, Anders; Skotte, Line; Lindgreen, Stinus; Metspalu, Mait; Jombart, Thibaut; Kivisild, Toomas; Zhai, Weiwei; Eriksson, Anders; Manica, Andrea; Orlando, Ludovic; De La Vega, Francisco M; Tridico, Silvana; Metspalu, Ene; Nielsen, Kasper; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Muller, Craig; Dortch, Joe; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Lund, Ole; Wesolowska, Agata; Karmin, Monika; Weinert, Lucy A; Wang, Bo; Li, Jun; Tai, Shuaishuai; Xiao, Fei; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; van Driem, George; Jha, Aashish R; Ricaut, François-Xavier; de Knijff, Peter; Migliano, Andrea B; Gallego Romero, Irene; Kristiansen, Karsten; Lambert, David M; Brunak, Søren; Forster, Peter; Brinkmann, Bernd; Nehlich, Olaf; Bunce, Michael; Richards, Michael; Gupta, Ramneek; Bustamante, Carlos D; Krogh, Anders; Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta M; Balloux, Francois; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Villems, Richard; Nielsen, Rasmus; Wang, Jun; Willerslev, Eske

    2011-10-07

    We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to 38,000 years ago. We also find evidence of gene flow between populations of the two dispersal waves prior to the divergence of Native Americans from modern Asian ancestors. Our findings support the hypothesis that present-day Aboriginal Australians descend from the earliest humans to occupy Australia, likely representing one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa.

  10. Myxosporean parasites in Australian frogs: Importance, implications and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Hartigan, Ashlie; Phalen, David N.; Šlapeta, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Myxosporean parasites have been identified in amphibians around the world yet very little is known about their diversity, biology and host impact. Several species of Australian frogs have recently been shown to be affected by myxosporidiosis caused by two new Cystodiscus species. In this manuscript, we review what is known about the myxosporean parasites Cystodiscus australis and Cystodiscus axonis that produce myxospores in gallbladders of Australian frogs and Myxobolus fallax and Myxobolus hylae that produce spores in gonads and the potential impact of these parasites on the conservation of Australian frogs. By doing so, we aim to highlight the importance of amphibian myxosporean parasites, suggest directions for future research and argue that the lessons learned about these parasites in Australia are directly transferable to amphibians around the world. PMID:24533318

  11. Population and environment: an Australian challenge.

    PubMed

    Short, R V

    1992-07-01

    The latest UN population projections are cause both for hope and for despair. If effective family planning programs could be implemented without delay in those areas of the world where contraceptives are used by only a minority of the population, then the global population might increase by a mere 2.4 billion people by 2050, and thereafter would decline to 6.4 billion by the end of the next century. A more realistic projection is that numbers will increase to 11.2 billion by the year 2100. But if the issue is ignored, then there will be a global population of 17.6 billion by the century's end. The recent immigration debate and the Government Report on Population Issues and Australia's Future published in early 1992 could be taken as a starting point, even though there is no suggestion in the report that Australia should ever aim to stabilize its own population. The committee was strongly of the view that immigration was an ineffective and inappropriate tool to reduce mass population pressures in other parts of the world. Clearly Australia cannot act as a safety valve for the population excesses in the rest of the world. Even without immigration the present population of 17 million will grow by about another 2 million over the next 40 years as a result of natural increase. If the current level of about 111,000 migrants a year is maintained, Australia's population will grow to 25 million by 2031. The solution is to transfer some of the defense budget to the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau and provide Asian neighbors, whose family planning programs are starved of support, with the weapons they need to fight the population battle. The Population Issues Committee itself recognized that there was a clear need for Australia to develop an enhanced foreign aid program to support family planning services. By doing so Australia would earn the lasting gratitude of Asian neighbors.

  12. Australian trachoma surveillance annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Cowling, Carleigh S; Liu, Bette C; Snelling, Thomas L; Ward, James S; Kaldor, John M; Wilson, David P

    2016-06-30

    Australia remains the only developed country to have endemic levels of trachoma (a prevalence of 5% or greater among children) in some regions. Endemic trachoma in Australia is found predominantly in remote and very remote Aboriginal communities. The Australian Government funds the National Trachoma Surveillance and Reporting Unit to collate, analyse and report trachoma prevalence data and document trachoma control strategies in Australia through an annual surveillance report. This report presents data collected in 2013. Data are collected from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island communities designated at-risk for endemic trachoma within New South Wales, the Northern Territory, South Australia and Western Australia. The World Health Organization grading criteria were used to diagnose cases of trachoma in Aboriginal children, with jurisdictions focusing screening activities on the 5-9 years age group; but some children in the 1-4 and 10-14 years age groups were also screened. The prevalence of trachoma within a community was used to guide treatment strategies as a public health response. Aboriginal adults aged 40 years or over were screened for trichiasis. Screening coverage for the estimated population of children aged 5-9 years and adults aged 40 years or over in at-risk communities required to be screened in 2013 was 84% and 30%, respectively. There was a 4% prevalence of trachoma among children aged 5-9 years who were screened. Of communities screened, 50% were found to have no cases of active trachoma and 33% were found to have endemic levels of trachoma. Treatment was required in 75 at-risk communities screened. Treatment coverage for active cases and their contacts varied between jurisdictions from 79% to 100%. Trichiasis prevalence was 1% within the screened communities.

  13. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Australian dogs.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, A J; Norris, J M; Heller, J; Brown, G; Malik, R; Bosward, K L

    2016-09-01

    The role of dogs in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans is uncertain, and extensive seroprevalence studies of dogs have not been previously conducted in Australia. This study determined C. burnetii exposure in four diverse canine subpopulations by adapting, verifying and comparing an indirect immunofluoresence assay (IFA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used to detect anti-C. burnetii antibodies in humans. Canine serum samples (n = 1223) were tested with IFA from four subpopulations [breeding establishments; household pets; free-roaming dogs in Aboriginal communities; shelter dogs]. The proportions of seropositive dogs were as follows: breeding (7/309, 2.3%), household pets (10/328, 3%), Aboriginal communities (21/321, 6.5%) and shelters (5/265, 1.9%). Dogs from Aboriginal communities were 2.8 times (CI 1.5-5.1; P < 0.001) more likely to be seropositive than dogs from other populations. The ELISA was used on 86 of 1223 sera tested with IFA, and a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.60 (CI 0.43-0.78) indicated good agreement between the two assays. This study has established that Australian dogs within all four subpopulations have been exposed to C. burnetii and that a higher seroprevalence was observed amongst free-roaming dogs associated with Aboriginal communities. As C. burnetii recrudesces during pregnancy and birth products contain the highest concentration of organism, individuals assisting at the time of parturition, those handling pups shortly after birth as well as those residing in the vicinity of whelping dogs are potentially at risk of developing Q fever. However, the identification of active antigen shed in excreta from seropositive dogs is required in order to accurately define and quantify the public health risk.

  14. Australian Seismometers in Schools - eyes on seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, M.; Balfour, N.; Sambridge, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Australian Seismometers in Schools (AuSIS) program has installed 42 research quality broadband seismometers in schools around Australia. The school's infrastructure allows for real time data transfers, and eager young students monitor the instruments and report any recorded events. The reporting feature ("Caught it? Report it!") through our website works as a crude type of detection to inform us of what instruments pick up the earthquakes. It also has the added benefits of keeping schools engaged in the program, ongoing learning about earth science and geography, and obviously keeps them returning to our website. A network of professional and amateur seismologists provides support to the schools and helps promote earth science education and earthquake risk awareness. The data is publically available through the IRIS DMC and is used by not just our volunteers but also by government departments, universities and private agencies for research and monitoring. One of the challenges has been to provide a way for schools and to interact with the real time data in an accessible format. We have achieved this through website and mobile app development alongside step-by step how to guides. These tools have the added advantage that they also allow schools without their own seismometer to connect with nearby schools that do. The government run national network of seismometers in Australia is sparse; the AuSIS program provides additional instruments that are now being incorporated into the national network for improved regional earthquake locations. Although schools are not the ideal site for broadband seismometers, the program has proven that with a well-chosen location within the school we can recover high quality data for much of the day. The schools are generally well distributed across the country enabling the program to supplement the national network at the same time as bringing earth science to rural communities that often miss out on this type of opportunity.

  15. Nutritional anemias and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Carmel, Ralph

    2008-10-01

    Nutritional anemias are important because they are easily reversed and because their underlying causes, most often unrelated to dietary intake, require individualized assessment. Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) usually results from iron losses accompanying chronic bleeding, including loss to intestinal parasites, or from gastric disorders or malabsorption in the elderly. Cobalamin-deficiency anemia, the only nutritional anemia with predilection for the elderly, nearly always stems from failure of intrinsic factor (IF)-related absorption. Folate-deficiency anemia, the only nutritional anemia usually caused by poor intake, has nearly disappeared in countries that fortify food with folic acid. Copper-deficiency anemia, which usually results from malabsorptive disorders or from medical or nutritional interventions that provide inadequate copper or excess zinc, is uncommon but increasingly recognized. The prevalences of nutritional anemias, which are not always distinguished from non-anemic deficiency, are uncertain. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) provides an essential diagnostic tool leading to judicious matching of relevant biochemical changes with relevant anemia. Nutritional anemias usually feature abnormal MCV, whereas the predominant anemias in the aged, especially the anemias of chronic disease/chronic inflammation (ACD/ACI), of renal failure, and of unknown causes, are typically normocytic.

  16. Affective robot for elderly assistance.

    PubMed

    Carelli, Laura; Gaggioli, Andrea; Pioggia, Giovanni; De Rossi, Federico; Riva, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Recently, several robotic solutions for the elderly have been proposed. However, to date, the diffusion of these devices has been limited: available robots are too cumbersome, awkward, and expensive to become widely adopted. Another key issue which reduces the appeal of assistive robots is the lack of socio-emotional interaction: affective interchanges represent key requirements to create sustainable relationships between elderly and robots. In this paper, we propose a new approach to enhance the acceptability of robotic systems, based on the introduction of affective dimensions in human-robot interaction. This strategy is aimed at designing a new generation of relational and cognitive robots fusing information from embodied unobtrusive sensory interfaces. The final objective is to develop embodied interfaces, which are able to learn and adapt their affective responses to the user's behavior. User and robot will engage in natural interactions, involving verbal and non-verbal communication, improving empathic exchange of moods and feelings. Relevant independent living and quality of life related issues will be addressed: on-going monitoring of health parameters, assistance in everyday's activities, social support and cognitive/physical exercises. We expect that the proposed strategy will enhance the user's acceptance and adoption of the assistive robotic system.

  17. The Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri: a personal story.

    PubMed

    Joss, Jean M P

    2011-08-01

    The following is a brief description of how lungfish research at Macquarie University began, of the period in which it flourished, and, most recently, of the winding down of the University's involvement with this research. During this latter period, the Australian lungfish in the wild were threatened by the construction of a megadam in their very limited habitat. Fortunately, this was averted in December 2009, after 3 years of lobbying the Federal Government. They now await another "Aussie" to make them accessible for further research by Australian and international researchers.

  18. Australian standards of care for cystic fibrosis-related diabetes.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Peter G; Wagenaar, Monica; Matson, Angela G; Craig, Maria E; Holmes-Walker, Deborah Jane; Katz, Tamarah; Hameed, Shihab

    2014-02-01

    Multiple guidelines have been published over the last few years for the diagnosis and management of cystic fibrosis (CF) and cystic fibrosis related diabetes (CFRD), although some of the recommendations are based on extrapolation from other forms of diabetes and/or expert opinions. This document seeks to combine the guidelines to provide an Australian approach to the management of CFRD and establish the guidelines within the Australian CF Standards of Care. It is intended that this document will provide assistance to doctors, nurses, dietitians, physiotherapists, diabetes educators and CF patients concerning the issues surrounding CFRD, and will be reviewed and updated in 2016.

  19. Services for the Elderly. Curriculum Guide. Academic Integration Supplement. Assistance Services for the Elderly. Student Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This guide is designed for use in implementing Texas' services for the elderly curriculum. The following topics are covered in 33 chapters: understanding the elderly in the United States; services and legislation for the elderly; job opportunities in services for the elderly; employee qualifications; physical, emotional, mental, and social needs…

  20. Cancer incidence in elderly West Virginians.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Alana G; Mertz, Kristen J; Jubelirer, Steven J; Wilson, John W

    2013-01-01

    West Virginia has one of the oldest populations in the nation. Cancer is a common disease among the elderly. With the projected growth of the elderly population (defined as 65 years and older), cancer will become a major public health burden. This article provides a summary of cancer incidence in elderly West Virginians. Incidence data were obtained from the West Virginia Cancer Registry. Approximately 6,262 elderly persons are diagnosed with some form of reportable cancer in West Virginia each year. Among those aged 65 and older, the four leading primary cancer sites in the order of their relative frequency were lung and bronchus cancer (21.8%), prostate cancer (14.6%), colorectal cancer (12.7%), and female breast cancer (9.6%). In general, the burden of cancer was greater in elderly men than in elderly women. Knowledge of the epidemiology of cancer in the elderly can potentially help guide statewide cancer prevention and control efforts and be used for anticipating future health care needs in the state.

  1. Special considerations for nutritional studies in elderly.

    PubMed

    Riobó Serván, Pilar; Sierra Poyatos, Roberto; Soldo Rodríguez, Judith; Gómez-Candela, Carmen; García Luna, Pedro Pablo; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2015-02-26

    The elderly population is increasing and it is well documented that may present some health problems related to nutritional intake. Both mental and physical impairments in the elderly may need specific adaptations to dietary assessment methods. But all self-report approaches include systematic and random errors, and under-reporting of dietary energy intake is common. Biomarkers of protein intake, as 24 hours urinary Nitrogen, may not be useful in elderly patients because of incontinence problems. Some micronutrients, like vitamin B12, have special importance in the elderly population. Also, measurement of fluid intake is also critical because elderly population is prone to dehydration. A detailed malnutrition status assessment should be included in the geriatric dietary history, and assessment. Body mass index (BMI) is not useful in the elderly, and it is important to evaluate functional status. Gait speed, handgrip strength using hand dynamometry can be used. Body Shape Index (ABSI) appears to be an accurate measure of adiposity, and is associated with total mortality. Further research is needed to clarify the best and simple methods to accurately estimate food and beverage fluid intake in the elderly population, and to evaluate nutritional and hidration status.

  2. [Approaching Physically Inactive Elderly for Physical Activity].

    PubMed

    Allmer, H; Allmer, M; Euskirchen, J; Froböse, I; Wallmann, B; Walter, T; Walschek, R

    2015-09-01

    The majority of elderly persons are still not sufficiently physically active. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate different approaches (physical activity courses, poster, online-survey) for activating elderly to participate in physical activity. The most effective approach was target group physical activity courses with which higher course participation rates in men as well as in people with lower levels of education were achieved. Referring to the transtheoretical model (TTM) it is necessary for future analyses of target group approaches to consider more intensely the initial motivational position of physically inactive elderly.

  3. Diagnostic procedures for osteoporosis in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Delmas, P D

    1995-01-01

    Several recent studies show that bone loss continues in the elderly, and that various regimens are still effective in the elderly to stop bone loss. Thus, diagnostic procedures for osteoporosis should be considered in elderly women, i.e. measurement of bone mass by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry of the hip, spine or forearm that have been shown to predict the subsequent risk of fractures. The rate of bone turnover, and therefore of bone loss, is quite variable from patient to patient and can be assessed with improved sensitivity and specificity with the new markers that are specific for bone formation and bone resorption.

  4. Prescribing Strategies for the Frail Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, John P.

    1992-01-01

    Current recommendations for prescribing for the frail elderly can be supplemented by others of value to family physicians. Minimization or simplification of medication regimens, proof of medication efficacy, vigilance for adverse drug reactions, and knowledge of aging and medications are important. Compliance is critical for the community-dwelling frail elderly but is rarely a problem in long-term care facilities. High-yield, high-risk conditions with presentations different from the “geriatric giants” must be recognized. Less medication is not necessarily the best treatment. Routine surveillance and frequent follow up are essential to adequate pharmacotherapy of frail elderly people. PMID:21221302

  5. Australian Institute of Sport and the Australian Paralympic Committee position statement: urinary tract infection in spinal cord injured athletes.

    PubMed

    Compton, Stacey; Trease, Larissa; Cunningham, Corey; Hughes, David

    2015-10-01

    Patients with spinal cord injuries are at increased risk of developing symptomatic urinary tract infections. Current evidence-based knowledge regarding prevention and treatment of urinary tract infection in the spinal cord injured population is limited. There are currently no urinary tract infection prevention and management guidelines specifically targeted towards elite spinal cord injured athletes. This position statement represents a set of recommendations intended to provide clinical guidelines for sport and exercise medicine physicians and other healthcare providers for the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infection in spinal cord injured athletes. It has been endorsed by the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) and the Australian Paralympic Committee (APC).

  6. Improving the oral health of frail and functionally dependent elderly.

    PubMed

    Lewis, A; Wallace, J; Deutsch, A; King, P

    2015-03-01

    The Australian Government endorsed a national evidence based oral health model when it introduced the first Nursing Home Oral and Dental Health Plan in 2010. Called Better Oral Health in Residential Care, it promotes a multidisciplinary approach with doctors, nurses, care workers and dental professionals sharing responsibility for the four key processes of oral health screening, oral health care planning, daily oral hygiene and access to dental treatment. Frail and dependent residents are most conveniently treated on-site, hence an aged care/dental partnership is encouraged to facilitate the use of portable dental equipment in the delivery of dental care. Currently, few dentists provide services to residential aged care facilities (RACFs), with loss of clinical time in practice, difficulty in providing clinical care in a non-dental environment and lack of referral pathways from the RACFs to the dentists contributing to the problem. The need to establish a model of care involving dental hygienists/oral health therapists in RACFs has merit. Minimal intervention treatment using glass ionomer cement (GIC) and silver fluoride is ideal in aged care. However, GIC has limitation in dry mouths with low pH caused by polypharmacy or disease. Palliative and definitive treatment techniques need to be individualized with consideration of a patient's ability to maintain their own mouths as well as their mental and physical competence. The range of products available to address the oral diseases common to the frail elderly is growing. The oral health care provider is required to establish a preventive regime that is tailored to the patient's needs, is realistic and under revision as the patient's needs change.

  7. Adjuvant chemotherapy in elderly patients with pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nagrial, A M; Chang, D K; Nguyen, N Q; Johns, A L; Chantrill, L A; Humphris, J L; Chin, V T; Samra, J S; Gill, A J; Pajic, M; Pinese, M; Colvin, E K; Scarlett, C J; Chou, A; Kench, J G; Sutherland, R L; Horvath, L G; Biankin, A V

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adjuvant chemotherapy improves survival for patients with resected pancreatic cancer. Elderly patients are under-represented in Phase III clinical trials, and as a consequence the efficacy of adjuvant therapy in older patients with pancreatic cancer is not clear. We aimed to assess the use and efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in older patients with pancreatic cancer. Methods: We assessed a community cohort of 439 patients with a diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma who underwent operative resection in centres associated with the Australian Pancreatic Cancer Genome Initiative. Results: The median age of the cohort was 67 years. Overall only 47% of all patients received adjuvant therapy. Patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy were predominantly younger, had later stage disease, more lymph node involvement and more evidence of perineural invasion than the group that did not receive adjuvant treatment. Overall, adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with prolonged survival (median 22.1 vs 15.8 months; P<0.0001). Older patients (aged ⩾70) were less likely to receive adjuvant chemotherapy (51.5% vs 29.8% P<0.0001). Older patients had a particularly poor outcome when adjuvant therapy was not delivered (median survival=13.1 months; HR 1.89, 95% CI: 1.27–2.78, P=0.002). Conclusion: Patients aged ⩾70 are less likely to receive adjuvant therapy although it is associated with improved outcome. Increased use of adjuvant therapy in older individuals is encouraged as they constitute a large proportion of patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:24263063

  8. Performing colonoscopy in elderly and very elderly patients: Risks, costs and benefits.

    PubMed

    Lin, Otto S

    2014-06-16

    Many diagnostic and screening colonoscopies are performed on very elderly patients. Although colonoscopic yield increases with age, the potential benefits in such patients decrease because of shorter life expectancy and more frequent comorbidities. Colonoscopy in very elderly patients carries a greater risk of complications and morbidity than in younger patients, and is associated with lower completion rates and higher likelihood of poor bowel preparation. Thus, screening colonoscopy in very elderly patients should be performed only after careful consideration of potential benefits, risks and patient preferences. On the other hand, diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopy are more likely to benefit even very elderly patients, and in most cases should be performed if indicated.

  9. Models of Reference Services in Australian Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Liz

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a project which was undertaken in 2006 to investigate the current modes and methods for delivering reference services in Australian academic libraries. The project included a literature review to assist in providing a definition of reference services as well as a snapshot of statistics showing staff and patron numbers from…

  10. Increasing access by priority populations to Australian sexual health clinics.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hammad; Donovan, Basil; Fairley, Christopher K; Chen, Marcus Y; O'Connor, Catherine C; Grulich, Andrew E; McNulty, Anna; Ryder, Nathan; Hellard, Margaret E; Guy, Rebecca J

    2013-10-01

    Data from a network of 35 Australian sexual health clinics, in geographically diverse locations, showed that the number and proportion of patients from priority populations (ie, young people, men who have sex with men, indigenous people, and female sex workers) increased significantly between 2004 and 2011.

  11. Revolting Campuses: Novel Impressions of Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symes, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Australian higher education has undergone a process of policy renovation during the post-war period. Much has been written about the impact of this renovation, much of it written from a sociological point of view. There is also a body of more imaginative literature, campus fiction, which variously recounts, often in uproarious and light-hearted…

  12. Issues in English Language Assessment of Indigenous Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    Although English is widely used by Indigenous Australians as the main means of communication, national testing has consistently raised questions as to the level of their English language and literacy achievement. This article examines contextual factors (historical, linguistic, cultural, socio-political and educational) which underlie this…

  13. Leadership and Identity in the Catholic School: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultmann, William F.; Brown, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the nature of leadership as expressed in literature and workshop commentary on the identity of the Catholic school within an Australian context. Employing a qualitative methodology, data from workshops designed around school mission were compared and integrated with data from texts of selected Post Conciliar documents on the…

  14. Australian barnacles (Cirripedia: Thoracica), distributions and biogeographical affinities.

    PubMed

    Jones, Diana S

    2012-09-01

    Currently, 279 barnacle species are recognized in Australia waters. The barnacle fauna of tropical Australia exhibits high species diversity (221), with a high incidence of tropical species (87 Indo-west Pacific [IWP], 16 West Pacific and 65 Indo-Malayan), a low species endemicity (8), and 44 cosmopolitan and 1 Australasian species. Conversely, that of temperate Australia shows lower species diversity (129), with a lower incidence of tropical species (26 IWP, 10 West Pacific and 25 Indo-Malayan), higher species endemicity (23), 37 cosmopolitan, 6 Australasian species, and 3 Australasian/Antarctic species. Distributions corroborate the general patterns demonstrated by the shallow-water biota of northern tropical and southern temperate Australian biogeographic provinces. Tropical and temperate provinces grade into each other in a broad overlap zone along both the western and eastern Australian coasts. This overlap zone is essentially a transitional region, with the gradual replacement of a tropical barnacle fauna in the north by a predominantly temperate barnacle fauna in the south. Both western and eastern Australian coasts are bounded by major poleward-flowing warm currents that have considerable influence on the marine flora and fauna, distributing tropical species of many taxa much farther south than could be predicted by latitude. Currently, 16 barnacle species introduced into Australian waters are identified, although this number may increase in the future due to new port developments and increased shipping arrivals.

  15. Australian Students' Perceptions of Racial Attitudes in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Anna M.; Evans, Virden; Evans, Adeline L.

    1998-01-01

    This survey of the perceptions of Australian high school students toward racism in America indicates that a majority knew little about cultural diversity; had various cultural backgrounds; were influenced more by television than other forms of media; and believed African Americans do not have equal access to education, equal opportunity to…

  16. Implementing Cooperative Learning in Australian Primary Schools: Generalist Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Angela; Dionigi, Rylee A.

    2013-01-01

    To implement cooperative learning successfully in practice, teachers require knowledge of cooperative learning, its features and terms, and how it functions in classrooms. This qualitative study examined 12 Australian generalist primary teachers', understandings of cooperative learning and perceived factors affecting its implementation. Using…

  17. Holiday and School-Term Sleep Patterns of Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Suzanne; Murray, Greg; Meyer, Denny

    2008-01-01

    The holiday and school-term sleep patterns of 310 Australian senior school students were surveyed in a longitudinal study, along with self-reported sleep quality, mood, daytime functioning, grades and circadian preference. Evidence was found that with the impact of school schedule, students accrued a significant sleep debt, obtaining insufficient…

  18. Australian per caput dose from diagnostic imaging and nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Hayton, A; Wallace, A; Marks, P; Edmonds, K; Tingey, D; Johnston, P

    2013-10-01

    The largest man-made contributor to the ionising radiation dose to the Australian population is from diagnostic imaging and nuclear medicine. The last estimation of this dose was made in 2004 (1.3 mSv), this paper describes a recent re-evaluation of this dose to reflect the changes in imaging trends and technology. The estimation was calculated by summing the dose from five modalities, computed tomography (CT), general radiography/fluoroscopy, interventional procedures, mammography and nuclear medicine. Estimates were made using Australian frequency data and dose data from a range of Australian and international sources of average effective dose values. The ionising radiation dose to the Australian population in 2010 from diagnostic imaging and nuclear medicine is estimated to be 1.7 mSv (1.11 mSv CT, 0.30 mSv general radiography/fluoroscopy, 0.17 mSv interventional procedures, 0.03 mSv mammography and 0.10 mSv nuclear medicine). This exceeds the estimate of 1.5 mSv per person from natural background and cosmic radiation.

  19. Organisational Change and the Management of Training in Australian Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew; Oczkowski, Edward; Macklin, Robert; Noble, Charles

    2003-01-01

    A survey of 584 Australian companies investigated the impact of 5 management practices (total quality management, teamwork, lean production, reengineering, learning organizations) in relation to 8 training practices. New management practices had significant but differing effects on the organization of training: total quality management had the…

  20. Transparency and Opacity: Levinasian Reflections on Accountability in Australian Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellar, Sam

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on the philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas to consider, from an ethical perspective, the current transparency and accountability agenda in Australian schooling. It focuses on the case of the "My School" website and the argument that transparent publication of comparative performance data via the website provides a basis for…