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Sample records for institutionalised elderly australians

  1. Malnutrition on the menu: nutritional status of institutionalised elderly Australians in low-level care.

    PubMed

    Woods, J L; Walker, K Z; Iuliano Burns, S; Strauss, B J

    2009-10-01

    Most studies reporting malnutrition in the elderly relate to high-level care. However, one third of Australians in aged care reside in low-level care facilities. Data is limited on their nutritional status. To investigate the nutritional status of elderly in low-level care facilities. A cross sectional study design. 14 low-level aged care facilities in metropolitan Melbourne. Convenience sample of 103 ambulatory elderly (86 +/- 6.6 years (mean +/- SD), 76% female, comprising 15% of the hostel population) able to perform daily functions of living. Nutritional intake assessed by three-day weighed food records, and nutritional status by haematological and biochemical markers and body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry). FOOD served did not supply the estimated average requirements (EAR) for 5 of the 14 nutrients analysed. Compared with EAR, 34% of participants were protein malnourished and 62% had energy intake deficits. Micronutrient intake was low for calcium, magnesium, folate, zinc (for men) and dietary fibre. Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25OH Vitamin D < 50 nmol/L) was present in 58% of residents. More men than women had low haemoglobin (P < 0.000), low red blood cells (P < 0.000), and a raised white blood cell count (P = 0.004). Forty three percent of men and 21% women had sarcopenia, 28% of men and 44% women had excess body fat (> 28% and >40%, respectively) and 14% of men and 12 % of women were sarcopenic-obese. Only 12% showed no sign of undernutrition using seven different nutritional indicators. Around 65% had two or more indicators of undernutrition. These findings highlight the need for the supply of more, better quality, nutrient dense food to residents and better detection of undernutrition in aged care facilities. Maintenance of nutritional status has the potential to reduce morbidity and delay the transition to high-level care.

  2. Dairy food supplementation may reduce malnutrition risk in institutionalised elderly.

    PubMed

    Iuliano, Sandra; Poon, Shirley; Wang, Xiaofang; Bui, Minh; Seeman, Ego

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition in institutionalised elderly increases morbidity and care costs. Meat and dairy foods are high-quality protein sources so adequate intakes may reduce malnutrition risk. We aimed to determine whether inadequate intakes of meat and dairy foods contribute to malnutrition in institutionalised elderly. This cross-sectional study involved 215 elderly residents (70·2 % females, mean age 85·8 years) from twenty-one aged-care facilities in Melbourne, Australia. Dietary intake was assessed using observed plate waste. Food groups and serving sizes were based on the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Nutrient content was analysed using a computerised nutrient analysis software (Xyris). Malnutrition risk was assessed using the Mini Nutrition Assessment (MNA) tool; a score between 24 and 30 indicates normal nutritional status. Data were analysed using robust regression. Mean MNA score was 21·6 (sd 2·7). In total, 68 % of residents were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition (MNA score≤23·5). Protein intake was 87 (sd 28) % of the Australian recommended dietary intake (RDI). Consumption averaged 1 serving each of dairy foods and meat daily. Number of dairy and meat servings related to proportion of protein RDI (both P24 points). Provision of meat and dairy foods did not meet recommended levels. On the basis of current dietary intakes in aged-care residents, increasing consumption of dairy foods to the recommended four servings daily ensures protein adequacy and may reduce malnutrition risk in institutionalised elderly, and so reduce risk of comorbidities and costs associated with malnutrition.

  3. Nutritional status, functional ability and food habits of institutionalised and non-institutionalised elderly people in Morogoro Region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nyaruhucha, C N M; Msuya, J M; Matrida, E

    2004-05-01

    To determine nutritional status, food habits and functional abilities of the institutionalised and non-institutionalised elderly. A cross-sectional population survey. Free living and institutionalised elderly of Morogoro municipality, Tanzania. A total of 100 elderly people, fifty institutionalised and fifty non-institutionalised were included. Gender distribution was of equal numbers. Anthropometric measurements of weights and heights were taken to enable calculation of Body Mass Index (BMI) of each subject. Questionnaires were used to collect information on types of foods, amount and frequency of consumption and functional abilities of the elderly. Amount of food consumed was expressed in grams per person per day. There were significant differences (p=0.001) in nutritional status between the institutionalised and the non- institutionalised males, but this relationship did not exist among the females. Similarly, 30% and 26% of the institutionalised males and females, respectively, and none of the non- institutionalised males was observed to be overweight. On the other hand, 39% and 23% of the non-institutionalised males and females, respectively, were underweight or malnourished. Consumption of sardines was higher (p=0.05) among the institutionalised subjects, but the situation was opposite for the case of fruits. Alcohol consumption was higher (p<0.05) among non- institutionalised subjects in both sexes. No difference was noted in consumption of beans, vegetables, cereals and meat. The most common functional disability was urinary incontinence (36%) while feeding (5%) was the least common. The most affected by urinary incontinence were institutionalised male subjects. There was a great variation between elderly people who are cared for in institutional centres and those who are cared for by their relatives in terms of nutritional status, reflected by their BMI levels. The institutionalised ones appear to be better off than their counterparts. However, this

  4. Ricinus communis treatment of denture stomatitis in institutionalised elderly.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, L A P; Montandon, A A B; Corbi, S C T; Moraes, T A; Fais, L M G

    2013-05-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of Ricinus communis (RC) with Nystatin (NYS) and Miconazole (MIC) in the treatment of institutionalised elderly with denture stomatitis (DS). They (n = 30) were randomly distributed into three groups: MIC, NYS or RC. Clinical and mycological evaluations were performed prior to the use of the antifungal (baseline) and repeated after 15 and 30 days of treatment. The sample was clinically examined for oral mucosal conditions. Standard photographs were taken of the palate, and the oral candidiasis was classified (Newton's criteria). Mycological investigation was performed by swabbing the palatal mucosa, and Candida spp. were quantified by counting the number of colony-forming units (cfu mL⁻¹). The clinical and mycological data were analysed, respectively by Wilcoxon and Student's t-test (α = 0.05). Significant improvement in the clinical appearance of DS in the MIC and RC groups was observed between the 1st and 3rd collections (MIC - P = 0.018; RC - P = 0.011) as well as between the 2nd and 3rd collections (MIC - P = 0.018; RC - P = 0.011). Neither groups showed a statistically significant reduction in cfu mL⁻¹ at any time. Although none of the treatments decreased the cfu mL⁻¹, it was concluded that Ricinus communis can improve the clinical condition of denture stomatitis in institutionalised elderly patients, showing similar results to Miconazole. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Serum trace elements and risk of malnutrition in institutionalised elderly.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, G; Lorini, C; Bani Assad, G; Pepe, P; Santomauro, F

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the association between Selenium (Se)-, Copper (Cu)- and Zinc (Zn)-circulating concentrations and indicators of nutritional status. This study enroled 428 institutionalised elderly. The diagnostic tools used are a form to collect data regarding gender, age, duration of stay in nursing home, number of prescribed drugs, chronic diseases, Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), anthropometric measurements, albumin, transferrin and serum concentrations of Se, Cu and Zn. The collected data were analysed with descriptive assessments of the differences χ(2), Student's t-test and analysis of variance. Multivariate linear regression were performed to evaluate the association between the concentrations of each trace elements and the other variables. The study population was represented by 327 women and 101 men, of whom 13.8% were 65-75 years old and 47.4% were older than 85 years. According to the MNA score, 58.4% were at risk of malnutrition and 21.3% were malnourished. The results show a significant reduction in the average concentrations of Se and Zn in women when the nutritional status gets worse. The same trend, although not statistically significant, is also observed in men. In both genders, the Cu concentration does not show a statistically significant association with nutritional status. Multivariate linear regression show some positive or negative associations. Our study seems to confirm the association between Se and nutritional status, as well as with some blood chemistry parameters. The length of institutionalisation seems to be an independent predictor of Se concentration.

  6. Oral health and mortality risk in the institutionalised elderly

    PubMed Central

    Sandvik, Leiv; Gil-Montoya, José A.; Willumsen, Tiril

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examining oral health and oral hygiene as predictors of subsequent one-year survival in the institutionalized elderly. Design: It was hypothesized that oral health would be related to mortality in an institutionalized geriatric population. A 12-month prospective study of 292 elderly residing in nine geriatric institutions in Granada, Spain, was thus carried out to evaluate the association between oral health and mortality. Independent samples, T-test, chi-square test and Cox regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Sixty-three participants died during the 12-month follow-up. Results: Mortality was increased in denture users (RR = 2.18, p= 0.007) and in people suffering severe cognitive impairment (RR = 2. 24, p= 0.003). One-year mortality was 50% in participants having both these characteristics. Conclusions: Oral hygiene was not significantly associated with mortality. Cognitive impairment and wearing dentures increased the risk of death. One-year mortality was 50% in cognitively impaired residents wearing dentures as opposed to 10% in patients without dentures and cognitive impairment. Key words:Oral health, mortality risk, institutionalised elderly. PMID:22322487

  7. [Dignified social support for elderly institutionalised adults in Medellín, 2008].

    PubMed

    Cardona-Arango, Doris; Estrada-Restrepo, Alejandro; Chavarriaga-Maya, Lina M; Segura-Cardona, Angela M; Ordoñez-Molina, Jaime; Osorio-Gómez, Jorge J

    2010-06-01

    Analysing the social support provided for elderly institutionalised adults being cared for in Elderly Welfare Centres (Centros de Bienestar del Anciano de Medellín) in Medellin during 2008. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study (primary information source) which addressed some characteristics related to the social support being received by 273 elderly people institutionalised in 37 social welfare centres. Univariate and bivariate analysis was applied to the data. The institutionalised people were mostly single or widowed women aged between 65 and 84 who had received primary and secondary education; most were affiliated to the contributory health regimen. Loneliness, health problems and family decision were the main causes for them having become institutionalised. They were visited by their children and other relatives and such support was rated as being satisfactory; however, more than half of them had feelings of loneliness and one sixth claimed to be humiliated and insulted by their loved ones. It should be noted that a few of them reported being mistreated by their caregivers. Institutionalised elderly adults performed recreational activities, were satisfied with the support received from friends, with cohabitation and the pertinent institution. Social support networks were strong within the institution (i.e. Elderly Welfare Centres); the elderly seemed to receive greater abuse from family members and cohabitants than institutional caregivers. Loneliness generally leads elderly adults to become institutionalised; however, once having entered an institution (being partly motivated by little family contact and average satisfaction with friends and the institution itself) their neglect and social vulnerability becomes evident.

  8. Oral hygiene caregivers' educational programme improves oral health conditions in institutionalised independent and functional elderly.

    PubMed

    Portella, Fernando F; Rocha, Aline W; Haddad, Daniel C; Fortes, Carmem B B; Hugo, Fernando N; Padilha, Dalva M P; Samuel, Susana M W

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the impact of an oral hygiene education programme for caregivers on the oral health of institutionalised elderly and to examine the effect of disability and low muscle strength on programme outcomes. The subjects of this study were geriatric patients (n = 80) from a nursing home. Katz Index for activities of daily living, handgrip strength and mucosal-plaque score (MPS) was evaluated at baseline and 1 year after intervention. The intervention consisted of an educational programme and specific guidelines for caregivers (to perform oral hygiene for dependent elderly and to supervise the independent elderly during oral hygiene practices). Differences on MPS were evaluated using a paired-sample t-test. A stratified analysis was carried out to identify differences in response to the programme according to the Katz Index and handgrip strength of elderly. The MPS was significantly reduced (p = 0.001) at follow-up; however, a separate analysis showed that only the independent elderly (p = 0.002) and those with normal muscle strength (p = 0.006) showed a reduction in MPS during the follow-up examination. The oral hygiene education programme for caregivers resulted in a positive impact on oral hygiene of the independent and functional elderly. © 2013 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Nutritional status and eating habits of the institutionalised elderly in Turkey: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Rakıcıoğlu, N; Aksoy, B; Tamer, F; Yıldız, E Akal; Samur, G; Pekcan, G; Besler, H T

    2016-04-01

    As the elderly population increases in Turkey, so do the associated health and nutritional problems. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the nutritional status of elderly individuals who live in institutions. A total of 102 elderly volunteers was recruited from seven residential homes of the Ministry of Family and Social Policies in Ankara. In the consecutive years of 2007, 2008 and 2009, dietary intake was assessed using a 24-h food recall. Nutritional status was screened using a questionnaire from the Mini-Nutritional Assessment, basic characteristics were determined and anthropometric measurements were assessed. The percentage of elderly participants who were malnourished or at risk for malnutrition increased by the completion of the follow-up (P < 0.05). It was found that energy, total protein, animal proteins, carbohydrates, niacin, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc intake of men decreased significantly over the years studied (P < 0.05). A significant decrease occurred among women in animal protein, vitamin B1 , niacin and the percentage of energy from proteins (P < 0.05); however, an increase in energy from fat (P < 0.05) was determined. Within the years studied, the percentage of nutrients meeting the Turkish recommended daily allowances decreased from 2007 to 2009 both in men and women. During the years 2007 to 2009, the percentage of waist circumferences >102 cm for men was 46.4%, 45.6% and 48.1%, respectively, and the percentage of waist circumferences for women >88 cm was 75.6%, 75.6% and 81.8%, respectively. During the follow-up, significant nutritional changes were determined. To prevent malnutrition, periodical screening of nutritional status should be a priority and a standard policy for elderly people, especially for those institutionalised. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  10. Frailty, body composition and nutritional status in non-institutionalised elderly.

    PubMed

    São Romão Preto, Leonel; Dias Conceição, Maria do Carmo; Figueiredo, Telma Martins; Pereira Mata, Maria Augusta; Barreira Preto, Pedro Miguel; Mateo Aguilar, Ester

    2017-07-28

    Frailty is a clinical syndrome characterized, among other signs, by involuntary weight loss and decreased muscle strength. The aim of this study was to analyse associations between frailty, body composition and nutritional status in non-institutionalised elderly people in the municipality of Alfândega (Braganza-Portugal). Observational, prevalence and association study involving 220 elderly (mean 75.8±6.8 years of age; 68.8% women). Frailty was assessedt according to Fried criteria, body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis and nutritional status using the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form. The prevalence of frailty was 23.6%. Frail participants had, on average, lower total muscle mass and lower segmental muscle mass (arms and legs) than pre-frail and non-frail (p <.001). From the elderly at risk of malnutrition or undernourished (n=24), the majority (n=13) had frailty syndrome. It was observed that 41.2% of the elderly with low weight were frail. This syndrome prevailed only in 17.1% of the eutrophic persons, increasing again to 22.4% in the overweight group (p <.001). The phenotypic profile of frail elderly was characterised by lower muscle mass. The results of our study suggest that both underweight and overweight may be associated with frailty. There is the need to prevent and manage frailty, not only taking into account possible treatable medical causes, but also by intervening in important pillars, such as physical activity, dietary and nutritional problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Antioxidant status in a group of institutionalised elderly people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena; Ortega, Rosa M; Andrés, Pedro; Aparicio, Aránzazu; González-Rodríguez, Liliana G; López-Sobaler, Ana M; Navia, Beatriz; Perea, José M; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Paula

    2016-05-28

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most important and prevalent diseases suffered by the elderly. Evidence exists that its onset and severity might be conditioned by antioxidant status. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between antioxidant status and COPD in institutionalised elderly people. In all, 183 elderly people aged >65 years (twenty-one had COPD and 160 healthy controls) were studied. The subjects' diets were investigated via the use of precise individual weighing for 7 d. Body weight, height, and biceps and triceps skinfold thickness were measured, and body fat (kg) and BMI (kg/m2) were calculated. Serum retinol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene and vitamin C levels were determined. Subjects with COPD ate less fruits than healthy controls (117 (sd 52) v. 192 (sd 161) g/d), their coverage of the recommended intake of vitamin C was smaller (150 (sd 45) v. 191 (sd 88) %; note that both exceeded 100 %) and their diets had a lower antioxidant capacity (6558 (sd 2381) v. 9328 (sd 5367) mmol trolox equivalent/d). Those with COPD had lower serum vitamin C and α-tocopherol concentrations than healthy controls (32·4 (sd 15·3) v. 41·5 (sd 14·8) µmol/l and 12·1 (sd 3·2) v. 13·9 (sd 2·8) µmol/l, respectively). In addition, subjects with α-tocopherol <14·1µmol/l (50th percentile) were at 6·43 times greater risk of having COPD than those subjects with ≥14·1µmol/l (OR 6·43; 95 % CI 1·17, 35·24; P<0·05), taking sex, age, use of tobacco, body fat and vitamin E intake as covariables. Subjects with COPD had diets of poorer antioxidant quality, especially with respect to vitamins C and E, compared with healthy controls.

  12. Dental prosthetic status and prosthetic needs of institutionalised elderly population in oldage homes of jabalpur city, madhya pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Deogade, Suryakant C; Vinay, S; Naidu, Sonal

    2013-12-01

    Oral disorders are cumulative throughout life and hence unfavourable outcomes are likely to be greatest among the elderly. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among institutionalized geriatric population in old-age homes of Jabalpur city, Madhya Pradesh, to assess their prosthetic status and prosthetic needs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in all the four old-age homes of Jabalpur city, Madhya Pradesh state, India. All residents aged 60 years and above formed the study population. The recording of prosthetic status and prosthetic needs was carried out according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) Oral Health Assessment Form (1997). A total of 224 individuals were included in the study of which 123 were females and 101 were males. Seventy five percent of the females and 55 % of the males had no prostheses in their upper arch and 61 % of the females and 76 % of the males had no prostheses in their lower arch. More number of males presented with 'Bridges' in their upper arch when compared to females (P value = 0.006). Highest prosthetic need in males was multi-unit prosthesis (42 % in upper arch and 41 % in lower arch) whereas, females' required full prosthesis (39 % in both the upper arch and lower arches). Ageing presents some formidable challenges, particularly with the institutionalised. This study clearly demonstrates a high insufficiency of prosthetic care among the institutionalized elderly population. Any preparation towards the provision of oral health care should not be limited to treatment alone but, more importantly focus on empowering this elderly community with information and education programmes.

  13. Caregiver perspectives in oral healthcare in an institutionalised elderly population without access to dental services: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Matear, David; Barbaro, John

    2006-01-01

    The provision of dental services to elderly populations is a complicated area. When clients are cognitively impaired, a new set of variables are introduced as care can be influenced by designated family members, caregivers or administrators, who are responsible for the oral health care of the client and may influence the types of treatment the client will receive. Differences in attitudes and perceptions, with respect to oral health, may lead to better or worse access to care. The goals of this study are: (a) to gain a better understanding of the perceptions which may govern access and barriers to care within the institutionalised elderly population; and (b) to improve information on where and how to target educational and service resources, in order to reduce barriers to care. A convenience (non-randomised) sample of 100 residents with caregivers was selected from nursing homes without organised access to oral healthcare services. A structured interview was conducted with 40 family members. Questions explored the importance and priorities of dental services for elderly people in institutions. Services which family members deemed of highest importance were dentures (both to replace teeth and adjustments on existing dentures), pain relief, emergency dentistry, fillings, cleanings, check-ups, tooth removal and treatment for advanced gum disease. Services that family members felt were less important were complex restorations, cleaning instruction to caregivers and seniors, and services by a specialist. Services considered to be of least importance were root canal treatment and implants. The top service priorities identified by the sample of family members included: cleanings to prevent mouth disease; check-ups including X-rays; fillings; dentures to replace teeth; and dental treatment to relieve pain. This study found that family members and caregivers would like a basic dental service including check-ups and preventive care, with restorative, denture and surgical

  14. Effect evaluation of a two-year complex intervention to reduce loneliness in non-institutionalised elderly Dutch people.

    PubMed

    Honigh-de Vlaming, Rianne; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Heinrich, Judith; van't Veer, Pieter; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2013-10-21

    Public health policy calls for intervention programmes to reduce loneliness in the ageing population. So far, numerous loneliness interventions have been developed, with effectiveness demonstrated for few of these interventions. The loneliness intervention described in this manuscript distinguishes itself from others by including multiple intervention components and targeting individuals and their environment. Intervention components included a mass media campaign, information meetings, psychosocial group courses, social activities organised by neighbours, and training of intermediaries. The aim of this manuscript is to study the effects of this integrated approach on initial and long-term outcomes. A quasi-experimental pre-test post-test intervention study was conducted among non-institutionalised elderly people aged 65 years and over to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention by comparing the intervention community and the control community. Data on outputs, initial and long-term outcomes, and the overall goal were collected by self-administered questionnaires. Data of 858 elderly people were available for the analyses. To assess the effect linear regression analyses with adjustments for age, gender, church attendance, and mental health were used. In addition, the process evaluation provided information about the reach of the intervention components. After two years, 39% of the elderly people were familiar with the intervention programme. The intervention group scored more favourably than the control group on three subscales of the initial outcome, motivation (-4.4%, 95% CI-8.3--0.7), perceived social support (-8.2%, 95% CI-13.6--2.4), and subjective norm (-11.5%, 95% CI-17.4--5.4). However, no overall effects were observed for the long-term outcome, social support, and overall goal, loneliness. Two years after its initiation the reach of the intervention programme was modest. Though no effect of the complex intervention was found on social support and

  15. [Effects of cognitive state on balance disturbances and gait disorders in institutionalised elderly].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Pelegrina, Ana; Cabrera-Martos, Irene; López-Torres, Isabel; Rodríguez-Torres, Janet; Valenza, Marie Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Ageing has been linked to a high prevalence of cognitive impairment, which, in turn, has been related to balance disturbances and gait disorders. The aim of this study was to identify whether there are differences between subjects with and without cognitive impairment regarding the quality of gait and balance. An observational study was conducted on institutionalised people older than 65 years (n=82). Gait and balance was evaluated after the assessment of cognitive impairment using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Single and dual tests were used including, the 6-minute walking, stride length, and gait speed. Timed Up and Go tests were also used to evaluate balance. The participants were divided into three groups: 28 subjects in the group without cognitive impairment (MMSE≥27), 29 subjects with mild (27

  16. Effect evaluation of a two-year complex intervention to reduce loneliness in non-institutionalised elderly Dutch people

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Public health policy calls for intervention programmes to reduce loneliness in the ageing population. So far, numerous loneliness interventions have been developed, with effectiveness demonstrated for few of these interventions. The loneliness intervention described in this manuscript distinguishes itself from others by including multiple intervention components and targeting individuals and their environment. Intervention components included a mass media campaign, information meetings, psychosocial group courses, social activities organised by neighbours, and training of intermediaries. The aim of this manuscript is to study the effects of this integrated approach on initial and long-term outcomes. Methods A quasi-experimental pre-test post-test intervention study was conducted among non-institutionalised elderly people aged 65 years and over to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention by comparing the intervention community and the control community. Data on outputs, initial and long-term outcomes, and the overall goal were collected by self-administered questionnaires. Data of 858 elderly people were available for the analyses. To assess the effect linear regression analyses with adjustments for age, gender, church attendance, and mental health were used. In addition, the process evaluation provided information about the reach of the intervention components. Results After two years, 39% of the elderly people were familiar with the intervention programme. The intervention group scored more favourably than the control group on three subscales of the initial outcome, motivation (−4.4%, 95% CI−8.3-−0.7), perceived social support (−8.2%, 95% CI−13.6-−2.4), and subjective norm (−11.5%, 95% CI−17.4-−5.4). However, no overall effects were observed for the long-term outcome, social support, and overall goal, loneliness. Conclusions Two years after its initiation the reach of the intervention programme was modest. Though no effect of the

  17. Differences between polyunsaturated fatty acid status of non-institutionalised elderly women and younger controls: a bioconversion defect can be suspected.

    PubMed

    Babin, F; Abderrazik, M; Favier, F; Cristol, J P; Léger, C L; Papoz, L; Descomps, B

    1999-08-01

    To evaluate the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status in non-institutionalised elderly women and to detect a possible essential fatty acid bioconversion defect. The fatty acid composition of total plasma lipids, plasma triglycerides (TG), cholesterol esters (CE), phospholipids (PL), and erythrocytes was determined by capillary column gas-liquid chromatography in a sample of 200 non-institutionalised healthy elderly women over 75 years of age. The data were compared with those of a control group of 50 young female volunteers aged 20-48 y. In elderly women, the n-6 series precursor, linoleic acid (18:2 n-6), was lower in TG and CE (P = 0.029 and 0.014, respectively). In CE, this fatty acid was highly correlated with vegetable and vegetal fat intakes (P < 0.0001), suggesting a lower dietary supply than in controls. Higher percentages of 16:1 n-7 were found in all the plasma lipid fractions in elderly women, especially in CE (P < 0.0001). The ratios 20:4 n-6/20:3 n-6 and 22:6 n-3/20:5 n-3 were significantly lower in PL from elderly women (P < 0.005 and P < 0.002, respectively), raising the question of the efficiency of the terminal steps of 20:4 n-6 and 22:6 n-3 biosynthesis. Dietary investigations in elderly women indicated that a high dietary protein intake via meat probably contributed to the supply of 20:4 n-6 and thus maintained the status of this fatty acid, despite the suspected altered biosynthesis. The PUFA status in the elderly women group could be more fragile and dependent on exogenous supply of long-chain PUFAs than previously suspected.

  18. Reduction in hospital admissions for pneumonia in non-institutionalised elderly people as a result of influenza vaccination: a case-control study in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Puig-Barberà, J; Márquez-Calderón, S; Masoliver-Fores, A; Lloria-Paes, F; Ortega-Dicha, A; Gil-Martín, M; Calero-Martínez, M J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in preventing hospital admission for pneumonia in non-institutionalised elderly people. DESIGN: This was a case-control study. SETTING: All three public hospitals in the Castellón area of Spain. PARTICIPANTS: Cases were people aged 65 or more not living in an institution who were admitted to hospital for pneumonia between November 15, 1994 and March 31, 1995. Each case was matched with two sex matched control subjects aged 65 years or older admitted to hospital in the same week for acute abdominal surgical conditions or trauma. The sampling of incident cases was consecutive. Eighty three cases and 166 controls were identified and included in the study. MEASUREMENTS: Trained interviewers completed a questionnaire for each subject on the vaccination status, smoking habits, previous diseases, health care use, social contacts, family background, the vaccination status of the family carer, home characteristics, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: The adjusted odds ratio of the influenza vaccination preventing admission to hospital for pneumonia was 0.21 (95% confidence interval 0.09, 0.55). The variables which best explained the risk of being a case were age, intensity of social contacts, health care use, previous diseases, and the existence of a vaccinated family carer. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccination reduced significantly hospital admissions for pneumonia in non-institutionalised elderly people. PMID:9425463

  19. Specific bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) is more accurate than classic BIVA to detect changes in body composition and in nutritional status in institutionalised elderly with dementia.

    PubMed

    Camina Martín, M Alicia; de Mateo Silleras, Beatriz; Barrera Ortega, Sara; Domínguez Rodríguez, Luis; Redondo del Río, M Paz

    2014-09-01

    A new analytical variation of bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA), called specific BIVA, has shown to be more accurate in detecting changes in fat mass than classic BIVA. To compare classic and specific BIVA in order to identify which is more strongly associated with psycho-functional and nutritional indicators in a group of institutionalised elderly patients with dementia. Cross-sectional study. Fifty-four patients (34 women, 20 men) with dementia in moderately severe to very severe stages and aged 60-95years underwent geriatric nutritional assessment, including body mass index calculations, the Mini Nutritional Assessment, the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index, and whole body composition analysis. With specific BIVA (unlike with classic BIVA), significant differences were found between women with moderately severe and very severe dementia. In the BIVA conducted for body mass index, the confidence ellipses produced with the classic BIVA approach were highly overlapping; but with specific BIVA, significant differences were observed between the women in different nutritional categories (malnutrition, risk of malnutrition, normal weight and obesity). On the other hand, both approaches distinguished malnourished women from those who were at risk of malnutrition, according to the Mini Nutritional Assessment; and men with a moderate-high risk of malnutrition from men with no risk, on the basis of the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index. Overall, the findings of the present study suggest that specific BIVA is more effective than classic BIVA in identifying bioelectrical changes associated with psycho-functional and nutritional indicators in institutionalised elderly with dementia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of elastic band resistance training and nutritional supplementation on physical performance of institutionalised elderly--A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Oesen, Stefan; Halper, Barbara; Hofmann, Marlene; Jandrasits, Waltraud; Franzke, Bernhard; Strasser, Eva-Maria; Graf, Alexandra; Tschan, Harald; Bachl, Norbert; Quittan, Michael; Wagner, Karl Heinz; Wessner, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    of a low intensity resistance exercise using elastic bands and own body weight is safe and beneficial in improving functional performance of institutionalised older people. Multinutrient supplementation did not offer additional benefits to the effects of RT in improving muscular performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Time use and costs of institutionalised elderly persons with or without dementia: results from the Nordanstig cohort in the Kungsholmen Project--a population based study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Nordberg, Gunilla; Wimo, Anders; Jönsson, Linus; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Sjölund, Britt-Marie; Lagergren, Mårten; von Strauss, Eva

    2007-07-01

    The aging of the population has become a worldwide phenomenon. This leads to increased demand for services and with limited resources it is important to find a way to estimate how resources can be match to those with greatest need. To analyse time use and costs in institutional care in relation to different levels of cognitive and functional capacity for elderly persons. The population consisted of all institutionalised inhabitants, 75 + years, living in a rural community (n = 176). They were clinically examined by physicians and interviewed by nurses. Staff and informal care-giving time was examined with the RUD (Resource Utilization in Dementia) instrument. Tobit regression analyses showed that having dementia increased the amount of ADL care time with 0.9 h when compared to those not having dementia, whereas each loss of an ADL function (0-6) added 0.6 h of ADL care time. Analysing the total care time use, the presence of dementia added more than 9 h, while each loss of one ADL function added 2.9 h. There were some informal care contributions, however with no correlation to severity in dependency. The estimated cost for institutional care increased with more than 85% for people being dependent in 5-6 ADL activities compared to persons with no functional dependency, and with 30% for persons with dementia compared to the non-demented. There is a variation in time use in institutional settings due to differences in ADL dependency but also whether dementia is present or not. This variation has implications for costs of institutional care.

  2. The feasibility of Whole Body Vibration in institutionalised elderly persons and its influence on muscle performance, balance and mobility: a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN62535013].

    PubMed

    Bautmans, Ivan; Van Hees, Ellen; Lemper, Jean-Claude; Mets, Tony

    2005-12-22

    Fatigue or lack of interest can reduce the feasibility of intensive physical exercise in nursing home residents. Low-volume exercise interventions with similar training effects might be an alternative. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate the feasibility of Whole Body Vibration (WBV) in institutionalised elderly, and its impact on functional capacity and muscle performance. Twenty-four nursing home residents (15 female, 9 male; mean age 77.5 +/- 11.0 years) were randomised (stratification for age, gender and ADL-category) to 6 weeks static WBV exercise (WBV+, N = 13) or control (only static exercise; N = 11). Outcome measures were exercise compliance, timed up-and-go, Tinetti-test, back scratch, chair sit-and-reach, handgrip strength and linear isokinetic leg extension. At baseline, WBV+ and control groups were similar for all outcome variables. Twenty-one participants completed the program and attended respectively 96% and 86% of the exercise sessions for the WBV+ and control groups. Training-induced changes in timed up-and-go and Tinetti-test were better for WBV+ compared to control (p = 0.029 for timed up-and-go, p = 0.001 and p = 0.002 for Tinetti body balance and total score respectively). In an alternative analysis (Worst Rank Score & Last Observation Carried Forward) the differences in change remained significant on the Tinetti body balance and total score. No other significant differences in change between both groups were observed. In nursing home residents with limited functional dependency, six weeks static WBV exercise is feasible, and is beneficial for balance and mobility. The supplementary benefit of WBV on muscle performance compared to classic exercise remains to be explored further.

  3. Institutionalising of public health.

    PubMed

    Karkee, R

    2014-01-01

    Though public health situation in Nepal is under-developed, the public health education and workforce has not been prioritised. Nepal should institutionalise public health education by means of accrediting public health courses, registration of public health graduates in a data bank and increasing job opportunities for public health graduates in various institutions at government sector.

  4. Measurement of Aging Anxiety in an Elderly Australian Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Rochelle E.; Coates, Rosemary; Ferroni, Paola

    1998-01-01

    The Anxiety About Aging Scale (AAS) was modified to produce an instrument designed to assess aging anxiety in an elderly population; specifically, the future orientation of the AAS was modified for use with older adults. Validity testing was done on elderly individuals living in an independent community (N=123). (Author/EMK)

  5. Elder participation and senior power in Australian electoral politics.

    PubMed

    Borowski, Allan; Hudson, Robert B; McCormack, John

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to assess the "goodness of fit" between the social science literature on the impact of older voters on electoral outcomes and the Australian experience of the politics of aging. While the literature suggests that the notion of senior power is a flawed one, Australia's 2004 federal election campaign indicated that this is not quite so. This article offers a possible explanation for the difference between the literature and the Australian experience in terms of the calculus that underpinned the election campaign, namely, capturing the votes of swing voters in marginal seats including "silver" swing voters in seats with a disproportionate number of older voters. The preliminary findings of a small exploratory study of campaign strategists suggest that there may be a real basis to this explanation. Thus, there does appear to be some basis for asserting that "gray power"does play a role in Australian national electoral politics.

  6. Combined effects of functionally-oriented exercise regimens and nutritional supplementation on both the institutionalised and free-living frail elderly (double-blind, randomised clinical trial).

    PubMed

    Zak, Marek; Swine, Christian; Grodzicki, Tomasz

    2009-01-28

    Consistently swelling proportion of the frail elderly within a modern society challenges the overstrained public health sector to provide both adequate medical care and comprehensive assistance in their multiple functional deficits of daily living. Easy-to-apply and task-specific ways of addressing this issue are being sought out, with a view to proposing systemic solutions for nationwide application. The present randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 7-week clinical trial aimed to determine whether specifically structured, intensive exercise regimens, combined with nutritional supplementation, might improve and help sustain individual muscle strength and mobility, and possibly enhance individual functional capabilities in an on-going quest for active prevention of care-dependency. Ninety-one frail elderly (F 71 M 20; mean age 79 years) were recruited from both nursing home residents and community dwellers and randomly split into four groups: Group I - progressive resistance exercises (PRE) + functionally-oriented exercises (FOE) + nutritional supplementation (NS), Group II - PRE + FOE + placebo, Group III--standard exercises (SE) + FOE + NS, Group IV - SE + FOE + placebo. Each group pursued a 45 min. exercise session 5 times weekly. The subjects' strength with regard to four muscle groups, i.e. hip and knee extensors and flexons, was assessed at 80% (1 RM) weekly, whereas their balance and mobility at baseline and at the end of the study. The study was completed by 80 subjects. Despite its relatively short duration significant differences in muscle strength were noted both in Group I and Group II (p = 0.01; p = 0.04; respectively), although this did not translate directly into perceptible improvement in individual mobility. Notable improvements in individual mobility were reported in Group III and Group IV (p = 0.002), although without positive impact on individual muscle strength. Comprehensively structured, high-intensity regimen made up of diverse

  7. The cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination in elderly Australians: an exploratory analysis of the vaccine efficacy required.

    PubMed

    Newall, Anthony T; Dehollain, Juan Pablo

    2014-03-10

    It is important to consider the value for money offered by existing elderly influenza vaccination programs, particularly as doubts persist about the magnitude of the effectiveness of such programs. An informative approach to explore the value of vaccination is to consider what vaccine efficacy would be required for a program to be considered cost-effective. To estimate the cost-effectiveness of the current elderly (65+ years) influenza vaccination program in Australia, we modelled how the hypothetical removal of vaccination would increase current disease burden estimates depending on alternative vaccine efficacy assumptions. The base-case results of the analysis found that the existing elderly vaccination program is likely to be cost-effective (under A$50,000 per quality-adjusted life year gained) if the vaccine efficacy is above ∼30%. This study offers reassurance that the influenza vaccination of elderly Australians is likely to offer value for money.

  8. Low all-cause mortality despite high cardiovascular risk in elderly Greek-born Australians: attenuating potential of diet?

    PubMed

    Kouris-Blazos, Antigone; Itsiopoulos, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Elderly Greek-born Australians (GA) consistently show lower rates of all-cause and CVD mortality compared with Australian-born. Paradoxically, however, this is in spite of a higher prevalence of CVD risk factors. This paper reviews the findings from the Food Habits in Later Life (FHILL) study, other studies on Greek migrants to Australia and clinical studies investigating dietary mechanisms which may explain the "morbidity mortality paradox". The FHILL study collected data between 1988 and 1991 on diet, health and psycho-social variables on 818 people aged 70 and over from Sweden, Greece, Australia (Greeks and Anglo-Celts), Japan and were followed up for 5-7 years to determine survival status. The FHILL study was the first to develop a score which captured the key features of a traditional plant-based Mediterranean diet pattern (MDPS). A higher score improved overall survival in both Greek and non-Greek elderly reducing the risk of death by 50% after 5-7 years. Of the 5 cohorts studied, elderly GA had the lowest risk of death, even though they had the highest rates of obesity and other CVD risk factors (developed in the early years of migration with the introduction of energy dense foods). GA appeared to be "getting away" with these CVD risk factors because of their continued adherence in old age to a Mediterranean diet, especially legumes. We propose that the Mediterranean diet may, in part, be operating to reduce the risk of death and attenuate established CVD risk factors in GA by beneficially altering the gut microbiome and its metabolites.

  9. Safety and Efficacy of Isolated Limb Infusion Chemotherapy for Advanced Locoregional Melanoma in Elderly Patients: An Australian Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Kroon, Hidde M; Coventry, Brendon J; Giles, Mitchell H; Henderson, Michael A; Speakman, David; Wall, Mark; Barbour, Andrew; Serpell, Jonathan; Paddle, Paul; Smithers, Bernard M; Thompson, John F

    2017-08-10

    Isolated limb infusion (ILI) offers a minimally invasive treatment option for locally advanced extremity melanoma. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ILI in elderly patients in an Australian multicenter setting. The results of 316 first ILI procedures, performed between 1992 and 2008 in five Australian institutions, were identified and analyzed, with the main focus on elderly patients (≥75 years of age). All institutions used the same protocol: melphalan was circulated in the isolated limb for 20-30 min (±actinomycin D), and toxicity, responses, and survival were recorded. Characteristics of patients aged ≥75 years (n = 148) were similar to those aged <75 years (n = 168), except that older patients had more melanoma deposits (median 4 vs. 5; p = 0.035) and lower limb volumes (5.4 vs. 6.5 L; p = 0.001). Median drug circulation times were lower in the older group (21 vs. 24 min; p = 0.04), and older patients experienced less limb toxicity (grade III/IV in 22 and 37% of patients, respectively; p = 0.003). A complete response (CR) was seen in 27% of patients aged ≥75 years and in 38% of patients aged <75 years (p = 0.06), while overall response rates were 72 and 77%, respectively (p = 0.30). No difference in survival was seen (p = 0.69). The ILI technique proved safe and effective in elderly patients. When present, toxicity was localized, and lower compared with younger patients, possibly due to shorter drug circulation times. CR rates were higher in younger patients, although not significantly, while overall response and survival were equal. Optimization of perioperative factors in elderly patients may allow response rates to be raised further, while maintaining low toxicity.

  10. The use and impact of cancer medicines in routine clinical care: methods and observations in a cohort of elderly Australians

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Sallie-Anne; Schaffer, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Introduction After medicines have been subsidised in Australia we know little about their use in routine clinical practice, impact on resource utilisation, effectiveness or safety. Routinely collected administrative health data are available to address these issues in large population-based pharmacoepidemiological studies. By bringing together cross-jurisdictional data collections that link drug exposure to real-world outcomes, this research programme aims to evaluate the use and impact of cancer medicines in a subset of elderly Australians in the real-world clinical setting. Methods and analysis This ongoing research programme involves a series of retrospective cohort studies of Australian Government Department of Veterans’ Affairs (DVA) clients. The study population includes 104 635 veterans who reside in New South Wales, Australia, and were aged 65 years and over as of 1 July 2004. We will investigate trends in cancer medicines use according to cancer type and other sociodemographic characteristics as well as predictors of the initiation of cancer medicines and other treatment modalities, survival and adverse outcomes among patients with cancer. The programme is underpinned by the linkage of eight health administrative databases under the custodianship of the DVA and the New South Wales Ministry of Health, including cancer notifications, medicines dispensing data, hospitalisation data and health services data. The cancer notifications database is available from 1994 with all other databases available from 2005 onwards. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been granted by the DVA and New South Wales Population and Health Service Research Ethics Committees. Results Results will be reported in peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and policy forums. The programme has high translational potential, providing invaluable evidence about cancer medicines in an elderly population who are under-represented in clinical trials. PMID:24793244

  11. Therapeutic workshops and psychosocial rehabilitation for institutionalised leprosy patients.

    PubMed

    Leite, Soraia Cristina Coelho; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    2015-06-01

    Leprosy is still a major public health problem and psychosocial rehabilitation services for patients suffering from the disease remain insufficient. This study aimed to assess the impact of therapeutic workshops on quality of life and symptoms of depression among institutionalised leprosy patients. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and generic World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) were used before and after the implementation of a series of therapeutic workshops over a period of six months. Sixty-two patients participated in the study. Almost all of the sample were elderly and had a low level of education. There was a significant reduction in the symptoms of depression scores after the intervention (p < 0,001) and a positive impact was shown for the psychological (p = 0,001), physical (p = 0,03) and environment (p < 0,001) domains, but not for the social relationships (p = 0,124) domain. Therapeutic workshops appear to a useful tool for psychosocial rehabilitation work with leprosy patients.

  12. Whey protein isolate improves vitamin B12 and folate status in elderly Australians with subclinical deficiency of vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Varinderpal S; Zabaras, Dimitrios; Almond, Theodora; Cavuoto, Paul; James-Martin, Genevieve; Fenech, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Whey protein isolate (WPI) contains vitamin B12 and folate. However, the efficacy of WPI as a bioavailable source of these vitamins in the elderly with low vitamin B12 was not previously tested. We investigated the effects of WPI supplementation on vitamin B12 and folate status in blood and measured changes in homocysteine (HCY), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and genome integrity biomarkers in elderly individuals with low vitamin B12 status. The effect of WPI was compared to soy protein isolate (SPI). In this randomized controlled cross-over intervention trial, 56 subclinically vitamin B12 -deficient participants received 50 g WPI or 50 g SPI as a control for 8 wk followed by 16-wk washout phase and then cross-over to alternative supplement for next 8 wk. Consumption of WPI resulted in significant increase in serum active B12 (p < 0.0001) and serum folate (p = 0.0094). MMA, HCY, and nucleoplasmic bridges increased significantly after SPI intake but not after WPI (p = 0.052; p = 0.028; p = 0.0009, respectively). Results indicate that WPI consumption improves active B12 and folate status. Unlike SPI, WPI consumption may prevent increase in MMA, HCY, and genome instability in older Australians with low vitamin B12 status. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Prevalence of disability in Australian elderly: Impact of trends in obesity and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Evelyn; Woodward, Mark; Stevenson, Christopher; Backholer, Kathryn; Sarink, Danja; Peeters, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the impact of past and future changes in obesity and diabetes prevalence in mid-life on disability prevalence for adult Australians. We analysed data from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study (AusDiab) including participants aged 45-64years, disability-free at baseline (1999/2000) with disability information at follow-up (2011/12) (n=2107). We used coefficients from multinomial logistic regression to predict 10-year probabilities of disability and death from baseline predictors (age, sex, obesity, smoking, diabetes and hypertension). We estimated the prevalence of disability attributable to past (1980) and expected future (2025) changes in obesity and diabetes prevalence using the life table approach. We estimated that the prevalence of disability for those aged between 55 and 74years would have been 1697 cases per 100,000 persons less in 2010 (10.3% less) if the rates of obesity and diabetes observed in 2000 had been as low as the levels observed in 1980. However, if instead the prevalence of obesity and diabetes had been as high as the levels expected in 2025, then the prevalence of disability would have been an additional 2173 per 100,000 persons (an additional 13.2%). We demonstrate, for the first time, a substantial potential impact of obesity and diabetes trends on disability amongst those aged 55-74years. In Australian adults by 2025 we estimate that around 26% of disability cases would have been avoidable if there had been no change in obesity and diabetes prevalence since 1980. A similar impact is likely around the world in developed countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inappropriate prescribing in hospitalised Australian elderly as determined by the STOPP criteria.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Mohd Shahezwan Abd; Nyfort-Hansen, Karin; Kowalski, Stefan R

    2012-12-01

    The elderly population is increasing worldwide. Due to age-related physiological changes that affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs, the elderly are predisposed to adverse drug reactions. Prescribing of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) has been found to be prevalent among the elderly and PIM use has been associated with hospitalisations and mortality. This study aims to identify the prevalence and nature of pre-admission inappropriate prescribing by using the STOPP (screening tool of older people's prescriptions) criteria amongst a sample of hospitalised elderly inpatients in South Australia. Medical, surgical and rehabilitation wards of a public teaching hospital in Adelaide, South Australia. Pre-admission prevalence of PIM. Medication management plans of 100 patients of ≥65 years old were prospectively studied to determine the prevalence of pre-admission PIM use. Sixty-five criteria of STOPP were applied to identify PIMs. The total number of pre-admission medications screened during the study period was 949; the median number of medicines per patient was nine (range 2-28). Overall the STOPP criteria identified 138 PIMs in 60 % of patients. The most frequently encountered PIM was opiates prescribed in patients with recurrent falls (12.3 %), followed by benzodiazepines in fallers (10.1 %) and proton pump inhibitors when prescribed for peptic ulcer disease for long-term at maximum doses (9.4 %). The number of medications were found to have a positive correlation with pre-admission PIM use (r(s) = 0.49, P < 0.01). Pre-admission PIM use is highly prevalent among the studied population. Strategies to reduce PIM use should be undertaken by physicians and pharmacists. The use of the STOPP criteria in clinical practice to reduce prescriptions of inappropriate medications requires further investigation.

  15. Use of health services and medicines amongst Australian war veterans: a comparison of young elderly, near centenarians and centenarians

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    65 to 74, a lower proportion of centenarians and near centenarians received antihypertensives, lipid lowering therapy, antiinflammatories, and antidepressants (p < 0.0001) and a higher proportion received antibiotics, analgesics, diuretics, laxatives, and anti-anaemics (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Medical consultations and medicines are the health services most frequently accessed by Australian veteran centenarians and near centenarians. For most health services, the proportion of very old people who access them is similar to or less than younger elderly. Our results support the findings of other studies which suggest that longevity is not necessarily associated with excessive health service use. PMID:21050484

  16. Use of health services and medicines amongst Australian war veterans: a comparison of young elderly, near centenarians and centenarians.

    PubMed

    Roughead, Elizabeth E; Kalisch, Lisa M; Ramsay, Emmae N; Ryan, Philip; Gilbert, Andrew L

    2010-11-04

    of centenarians and near centenarians received antihypertensives, lipid lowering therapy, antiinflammatories, and antidepressants (p < 0.0001) and a higher proportion received antibiotics, analgesics, diuretics, laxatives, and anti-anaemics (p < 0.0001). Medical consultations and medicines are the health services most frequently accessed by Australian veteran centenarians and near centenarians. For most health services, the proportion of very old people who access them is similar to or less than younger elderly. Our results support the findings of other studies which suggest that longevity is not necessarily associated with excessive health service use.

  17. [Effectiveness of training interventions aimed at reducing physical restraints in institutionalised older people: A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Briones-Peralta, María Ángeles; Rodríguez-Martín, Beatriz

    There is some controversy about the use of physical restraints in institutionalised elderly people. The aim of this review is to analyse studies that evaluated the effectiveness of training interventions targeting interdisciplinary teams aimed at preventing, reducing or eliminating the use of physical restraints in nursing homes. A systematic search was performed in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science to find clinical trials, published in English or in Spanish, that examined training sessions for interdisciplinary teams aimed at preventing, minimising or eliminating the use of physical restrains in institutionalised people over 65 years. Ten papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The findings show conflicting results on the effectiveness of training sessions. Furthermore, they lack sufficient empirical evidence to be able to assert that training sessions brought about a reduction in the use of physical restraints. More studies are needed that analyse the effectiveness of these interventions to prevent or eliminate the use of physical restraints in these institutions.

  18. Cost-utility of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-based treatment compared with thiazide diuretic-based treatment for hypertension in elderly Australians considering diabetes as comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Enayet K; Ademi, Zanfina; Moss, John R; Wing, Lindon M H; Reid, Christopher M

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)-based treatment compared with thiazide diuretic-based treatment for hypertension in elderly Australians considering diabetes as an outcome along with cardiovascular outcomes from the Australian government's perspective.We used a cost-utility analysis to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Data on cardiovascular events and new onset of diabetes were used from the Second Australian National Blood Pressure Study, a randomized clinical trial comparing diuretic-based (hydrochlorothiazide) versus ACEI-based (enalapril) treatment in 6083 elderly (age ≥65 years) hypertensive patients over a median 4.1-year period. For this economic analysis, the total study population was stratified into 2 groups. Group A was restricted to participants diabetes free at baseline (n = 5642); group B was restricted to participants with preexisting diabetes mellitus (type 1 or type 2) at baseline (n = 441). Data on utility scores for different events were used from available published literatures; whereas, treatment and adverse event management costs were calculated from direct health care costs available from Australian government reimbursement data. Costs and QALYs were discounted at 5% per annum. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the uncertainty around utilities and cost data.After a treatment period of 5 years, for group A, the ICER was Australian dollars (AUD) 27,698 (&OV0556; 18,004; AUD 1-&OV0556; 0.65) per QALY gained comparing ACEI-based treatment with diuretic-based treatment (sensitive to the utility value for new-onset diabetes). In group B, ACEI-based treatment was a dominant strategy (both more effective and cost-saving). On probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the ICERs per QALY gained were always below AUD 50,000 for group B; whereas for group A, the

  19. Role of Dietary Pattern Analysis in Determining Cognitive Status in Elderly Australian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ashby-Mitchell, Kimberly; Peeters, Anna; Anstey, Kaarin J.

    2015-01-01

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to determine the association between dietary patterns and cognitive function and to examine how classification systems based on food groups and food items affect levels of association between diet and cognitive function. The present study focuses on the older segment of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab) sample (age 60+) that completed the food frequency questionnaire at Wave 1 (1999/2000) and the mini-mental state examination and tests of memory, verbal ability and processing speed at Wave 3 (2012). Three methods were used in order to classify these foods before applying PCA. In the first instance, the 101 individual food items asked about in the questionnaire were used (no categorisation). In the second and third instances, foods were combined and reduced to 32 and 20 food groups, respectively, based on nutrient content and culinary usage—a method employed in several other published studies for PCA. Logistic regression analysis and generalized linear modelling was used to analyse the relationship between PCA-derived dietary patterns and cognitive outcome. Broader food group classifications resulted in a greater proportion of food use variance in the sample being explained (use of 101 individual foods explained 23.22% of total food use, while use of 32 and 20 food groups explained 29.74% and 30.74% of total variance in food use in the sample, respectively). Three dietary patterns were found to be associated with decreased odds of cognitive impairment (CI). Dietary patterns derived from 101 individual food items showed that for every one unit increase in ((Fruit and Vegetable Pattern: p = 0.030, OR 1.061, confidence interval: 1.006–1.118); (Fish, Legumes and Vegetable Pattern: p = 0.040, OR 1.032, confidence interval: 1.001–1.064); (Dairy, Cereal and Eggs Pattern: p = 0.003, OR 1.020, confidence interval: 1.007–1.033)), the odds of cognitive impairment decreased. Different results were

  20. Towards institutionalised regionalism: the role of institutions and prospects for institutionalisation in ASEAN.

    PubMed

    Rattanasevee, Pattharapong

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides concrete understanding of the role of institutions and prospects for institutionalisation in ASEAN. It highlights the significant roles of institutions in the integrating Southeast Asia and demonstrates three main areas of institutional deficiency in the association. However, although ASEAN institutions meet the expectations, by and large, in terms of serving the national governments and upholding the association's norms, along with theoretical explanation, this paper argues that ASEAN should focus on strengthening its existing institutional structure by providing them with a mandate and sufficient financial and human resources in order to support its administration and growing activities. Finally, the paper suggests a revision of the current financial contribution system, a seeking of alternative sources of income and some institutional inventions such as a research wing and a mechanism that can get non-state actors involved in the process.

  1. Can the elderly handle the heat? A retrospective case-control study of the impact of heat waves on older patients attending an inner city Australian emergency department.

    PubMed

    Dalip, Janelle; Phillips, Georgina A; Jelinek, George A; Weiland, Tracey J

    2015-03-01

    The elderly have a higher mortality rate during heat waves and may, therefore, have higher morbidity. We investigated the effects of high ambient environmental temperature on emergency department (ED) function and patient (age >64 years) morbidity. A retrospective case-control study of ED presentations at an Australian metropolitan hospital from September 2005 to May 2010 was undertaken. Cases comprised 1297 ED presentations surrounding heat threshold days. These were compared with randomly selected presentations on nonthreshold days (3 controls: 1 case), analyzing patient morbidity and ED function variables: triage category, presenting complaint, demographics, arrival mode, time to doctor, ED length of stay (LOS), ED disposition, and discharge diagnoses. A greater proportion of cases presented with "weakness," and were diagnosed with "dehydration." There was little effect on ED function, with ED LOS 24 minutes longer for cases and time to doctor 3 minutes shorter. This study found limited evidence of increased morbidity in the elderly during heat wave conditions.

  2. Institutionalising Teacher Clusters in South Africa: Dilemmas and Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jita, Loyiso C.; Mokhele, Matseliso L.

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, teacher clusters are being used as a substitute for the more traditional approaches to the professional development of teachers. With this goal in mind, many provincial education departments in South Africa have sought to institutionalise and encourage the formation of teacher clusters as vehicles for the continuing professional…

  3. Institutionalising Teacher Clusters in South Africa: Dilemmas and Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jita, Loyiso C.; Mokhele, Matseliso L.

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, teacher clusters are being used as a substitute for the more traditional approaches to the professional development of teachers. With this goal in mind, many provincial education departments in South Africa have sought to institutionalise and encourage the formation of teacher clusters as vehicles for the continuing professional…

  4. Elderly Mental Health: Needs*

    PubMed Central

    Parkar, Shubhangi R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights the mental health needs of the elderly. It tackles the issues of their institutionalisation and community care. Rapid urbanisation in Indian society throws up special problems in elderly care. There is great evidence of a raise in morbidity, mortality, hospitalisation and loss of functional status related to common mental disorders in the elderly patients. Overlap of depression and anxiety is very common with up to almost half of the elderly patients reporting significant depressive and anxiety symptoms. Also, depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in late life. Growth in the elderly population means a direct increase in age related diseases such as dementia and poor mental health outcomes such as depression, anxiety, suicide and serious constraints on the quality of life among elderly individuals. The need to identify new and unmet problem areas and develop efficient therapeutic outcomes for this special population is stressed. PMID:25838727

  5. Child violence experiences in institutionalised/orphanage care.

    PubMed

    Sherr, Lorraine; Roberts, Kathryn J; Gandhi, Natasha

    2017-03-01

    Institutions are not necessarily good environments for children. In the face of challenges such as HIV, Ebola, poverty, conflict and disaster the numbers have grown rather than reduced. Some countries have closed institutions down -driven by findings that cognitive developmental delay is associated with institutional care. Yet insight into abuse and violence within institutionalised settings is neglected. Maltreatment -violence and abuse -may be an issue. This systematic review series addresses violence and abuse experiences in institutionalised care, exploring firstly the frequency of abuse/violence in institutions, secondly any interventions to reduce such violence or abuse and thirdly the perpetrators of such violence or abuse. The final systematic review updates the findings on cognitive delay associated with institutionalised care. With a violence lens, cognitive delay may well be considered under the umbrella of neglect. Maltreatment and abuse may be a driver of cognitive delay. The keyword search covered several electronic databases and studies were included for data abstraction if they met adequacy criteria. Eight studies were identified on the prevalence of abuse in institutions and a further three studies reported on interventions. Only one study was identified documenting peer on peer violence in institutions. Sixty-six studies were identified examining cognitive development for institutionalised children. All but two of these record cognitive deficits associated with institutionalisation. Only two asked about violence or abuse which was found to be higher in institutionalised children. Overall the abuse experiences of children in institutions are poorly recorded, and in one study violence was associated with high suicidal attempts. The major intervention pathway for ameliorating cognitive challenge seems to be placement out of the institutions which shows benefits and redresses some cognitive outcomes - yet not a total panacea. The single study

  6. De-institutionalisation and trans-institutionalisation - changing trends of inpatient care in Norwegian mental health institutions 1950-2007

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Over the last decades mental health services in most industrialised countries have been characterised by de-institutionalisation and different kinds of redistribution of patients. This article will examine the historical trends in Norway over the period 1950-2007, identify the patterns of change in service settings and discuss why the mental health services have been dramatically transformed in less than sixty years. Methods The presentation of the trends in the Norwegian mental health services and the outline of the major changes in the patterns of inpatient care over the period 1950-2007 is founded on five indicators: The average inpatient population, the number of discharges during a year, the average length of stay, the number of beds or places, and the occupancy rate (average inpatient population/beds). Data are reported by institutional setting. Multiple sources of data are used. In some cases it has been necessary to interpolate data due to missing data. Results New categories of institutions were established and closed during the 57 years period. De-hospitalisation started in Norway in the early 1970s, de-institutionalisation in general 15 years later. Six distinct periods are identified: The asylum period (-1955), institutionalisation and trans-institutionalisation (1955-65), stabilisation and onset of de-hospitalisation (1965-75), de-hospitalisation (1975-87), from nursing homes to community-based services (1988-98), and the national mental health program (1999-2007). There has been a significant reduction in the number of beds and in the average in-patient population. The average length of stay in institutions has been continuously reduced since 1955. The number of patients actually treated in psychiatric institutions has increased significantly. Accessibility, quality of care and treatment for most patients has improved during the period. The mental health system in Norway has recently been evaluated as better than the systems in USA, England

  7. Balance training reduces fear of falling and improves dynamic balance and isometric strength in institutionalised older people: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Gusi, Narcis; Carmelo Adsuar, Jose; Corzo, Hector; Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Olivares, Pedro R; Parraca, Jose A

    2012-01-01

    What is the effect of a balance training protocol with the Biodex Balance System in institutionalised older people with fear of falling? Randomised controlled trial with concealed allocation and assessor blinding. Forty older people who lived in a nursing home and had fear of falling. The experimental group completed a 12-week balance training protocol based on balancing/rebalancing training with the Biodex Balance System, with two sessions per week. During the training period, participants in both groups received the same multidisciplinary care (such as physiotherapy, occupational therapy and nursing) that they usually received in the nursing home. The primary outcome was fear of falling (Falls Efficacy Scale International questionnaire). Secondary outcomes were dynamic balance (Fall Risk Test) and isometric strength (torque of knee flexor and extensor isometric strength measured with an isokinetic dynamometer). Outcome measures were taken before and after the training program protocol. Compared to the control group, the exercise group had significantly greater improvements at 12 weeks in fear of falling (by 8 points, 95% CI 4 to 12), in dynamic balance (by 2 degrees, 95% CI 1 to 3), and in isometric strength of the knee flexors (by 7Nm, 95% CI 3 to 11) and knee extensors (by 7Nm, 95% CI 1 to 13). The training program was feasible and effective in reducing fear of falling and improving dynamic balance and isometric strength in institutionalised older people with fear of falling. ISRCTN21695765. Copyright © 2012 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  8. Institutionalising cost sharing for catchment management: lessons from land and water management planning in Australia.

    PubMed

    Marshall, G R

    2002-01-01

    A recurring theme in recent Australian reports on integrated catchment management (ICM) has been the need to institutionalise more formally the cost-sharing commitments made within this domain. This represents a significant departure from earlier visions of ICM as essentially promoting voluntary uptake of resource-conservation measures. Two important questions raised by this nascent policy shift are addressed in this paper. Firstly, how might cost-sharing arrangements be given greater formality without undermining the efforts of ICM to increase the preparedness of civil stakeholders to voluntarily, or informally, accept responsibility for sharing costs? Secondly, how is it possible to formalise cost-sharing arrangements so that the transaction costs of enforcing compliance with them remain affordable? Answers to these questions are explored through a case study of the Land and Water Management Planning Program now being successfully implemented in the irrigation districts of the central-Murray region of southern inland New South Wales (NSW) surrounding Deniliquin. The sophisticated system of institutional arrangements introduced in the program to facilitate monitoring, enforcement and adaptive management of cost-sharing commitments is discussed, and insights into how informally motivated cooperation can enhance the affordability and political feasibility of formal arrangements are presented.

  9. Relationship between Quantity and Frequency of Alcohol Use and Indices of Suicidal Behavior in an Elderly Australian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaff, Jon J.; Almeida, Osvaldo P.; Witte, Tracy K.; Waesche, Matthew C.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Relatively little research has been conducted on the relationship between alcohol misuse and suicidal behavior among the elderly. The current study's aim was to examine whether quantity and frequency of alcohol use and the interaction between these variables are related to current suicidal ideation, previous suicidal ideation/intent, and past…

  10. Relationship between Quantity and Frequency of Alcohol Use and Indices of Suicidal Behavior in an Elderly Australian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaff, Jon J.; Almeida, Osvaldo P.; Witte, Tracy K.; Waesche, Matthew C.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Relatively little research has been conducted on the relationship between alcohol misuse and suicidal behavior among the elderly. The current study's aim was to examine whether quantity and frequency of alcohol use and the interaction between these variables are related to current suicidal ideation, previous suicidal ideation/intent, and past…

  11. Comparative analysis of the frequency of lower urinary tract dysfunction among institutionalised and non-institutionalised children.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Ubirajara; Dultra, Anderson; De Bessa, José; Barros, Daniela G; Maron, Fabio; Barroso, Danilo V; Moreira, Edson Duarte

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate the level of symptoms of lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) in orphans in institutions, and compare these data with schoolchildren of the same age group who were not institutionalised, as LUTD in children is related to factors such as social isolation and low self-esteem, with other psychological changes also being cited, although it is unknown whether these problems are primary or secondary to the symptoms of LUTD. Children institutionalised in orphanages with no parental presence and who are isolated from a family environment are probably more sensitive to psychological disturbances. Psychological changes have been associated with symptoms of urgency and urinary incontinence. Thus 89 orphans were compared with 143 schoolchildren not in institutions. A questionnaire was devised and completed by the care-taking staff in the orphanage, while for the schoolchildren the parents completed the questionnaire. The mean age in the institutionalised children was 7.9 years and that of the control group 7.8 years (P = 0.32). Thirty-nine (44%) of the orphans were boys, vs 74 (54%) of the control group (P = 0.17). The incidence of urgency, diurnal urinary incontinence, nocturnal enuresis and constipation in the orphans and in the control group were: 45 (51%) and 57 (40) (P = 0.17), 36 (40%) and 19 (13%) (P < 0.001), 39 (47%) and 38 (27%) (P = 0.002), and 27 (30%) and 43 (30%) (P = 0.76), respectively. Children living in orphanages have a significantly higher level of diurnal urinary incontinence and nocturnal enuresis than those not in an institution.

  12. Factors causing rickets in institutionalised handicapped children on anticonvulsant therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Morijiri, Y; Sato, T

    1981-01-01

    An epidemiological study on vitamin D-dependent rickets was carried out in severely handicapped institutionalised children on long-term anticonvulsant therapy. Nine (10%) of 94 patients had overt rickets on the basis of roentgenological bone changes and biochemical indices, but 46 patients in hospital without medication, and 50 epileptic patients attending an outpatient clinic and taking anticonvulsants had no sign of rickets. Causative factors for the development of rickets were evaluated. Administration of anticonvulsive drugs depressed the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) level, but this was not the major factor in the development of rickets. Vitamin D intake seemed to be about average in these patients and its supplementation increased their serum 25-OHD level. This serum 25-OHD level was not maintained by supplemental vitamin D, unless the children were exposed to sunlight. These results indicate that although several factors--such as anticonvulsants, low vitamin D intake, and inactivity--are concerned in the development of rickets, the main cause is lack of sun in institutionalised handicapped children. PMID:6973324

  13. Risk factors for hip fracture among institutionalised older people.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian Sheng; Sambrook, Philip N; Simpson, Judy M; Cameron, Ian D; Cumming, Robert G; Seibel, Markus J; Lord, Stephen R; March, Lyn M

    2009-07-01

    risk factors for hip fracture in community-dwelling individuals have been extensively studied, but there have been fewer studies of institutionalised older people. a total of 1,894 older people (1,433 females, 461 males; mean age 86 years, SD 7.1 years) were recruited from 52 nursing homes and 30 intermediate-care nursing care facilities in Australia during March 1999 and February 2003. We assessed clinical risk factors for hip fracture and skeletal fragility by calcaneus broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) at baseline and then followed up for fracture for 4 years. Hip fractures were validated by x-ray reports. Survival analysis with age as a time-dependent covariate was used to analyse the data. during a mean follow-up period of 2.65 years (SD 1.38), 201 hip fractures in 191 residents were recorded, giving an overall hip fracture incidence rate of 4.0% per person year (males 3.6% and females 4.1%). Residents living in intermediate-care hostels had a higher crude hip fracture rate (4.6% vs. 3.0%) than those living in high-care nursing homes. In multivariate analysis, an increased risk of hip fracture was significantly associated with older age, cognitive impairment, a history of fracture since age 50, lower body weight, longer lower leg length and poorer balance in intermediate-care hostel residents, but not with lower BUA. institutionalised older people, who are at a higher risk of hip fracture than community-dwelling individuals, have differences in some risk factors for hip fracture that should be considered in targeting intervention programs.

  14. Reform and community care: has de-institutionalisation delivered for people with intellectual disability?

    PubMed

    Burrell, Beverley; Trip, Henrietta

    2011-06-01

    Reform and community care: has de-institutionalisation delivered for people with intellectual disability? In this paper we provide a post structural analysis of the theoretical shifts informing changes to service delivery over the past 150 years in relation to people with intellectual disability. We utilise the New Zealand experience of reform as it reflected global knowledge at any given period. Firstly, we address the historical modes of treatment and care, with reference to the eugenics movement, the concepts informing 'Prisons of protection' and moral treatment. Secondly the paper traces reforms commencing in the 1960s where changes from institutional care to community care were informed by humanistic ideals, a key driver being the concept of normalisation. Theorists offered competing discourses that formed the bases of arguments for the status quo whilst resistant voices advocated change. Covering such significant changes leads us to assess the state of de-institutionalisation' as it stands today and how it may be perceived in the future. We assert that Foucault's genealogical approach provides analytic tools to uncover the dynamics of changing attitudes and approaches to service delivery. In applying a Foucauldian lens to the trajectory of reforms concerning institutionalisation to de-institutionalisation we question whether a form of re-institutionalisation may be occurring.

  15. The effect of institutionalisation on elevated IgD and IgG levels in patients with Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    McMillan, B C; Hanson, R P; Golubjatnikov, G; Sinha, S K

    1975-01-01

    Serum levels of IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM and levels of secretory IgA (S-IgA) in nasal specimens were quantitated by radial immunodiffusion in a group of forty-one institutionalised patients with Down's syndrome (all non-disjunctive trisomy-G karyotype) and their age, sex and race matched controls, consisting of institutionalised non-mongols and normal non-institutionalised subjects. Analysis of levels of all immunoglobulins by age and sex showed no differences within the populations. However, levels of IgA, IgD and IgG were found significantly higher in mongols than in the other two populations. The concentrations of IgM were lower in mongols than in other institutionalised retardates but higher than non-institutionalised normal controls. Levels of S-IgA or IgE were similar in all populations. It was shown that the length of institutionalisation was associated with elevated levels of IgA and depressed levels of IgM in mongols. However, elevated IgG levels in mongols did not appear to be associated with their length of institutionalisation. Similarly, elevated levels of IgD in mongols were not associated with their length of institutionalisation.

  16. Prevalence and Severity of Menstrual Symptoms among Institutionalised Women with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Jane Zxy-Yann; Pu, Cheng-Yun

    2009-01-01

    Background: Perimenstrual syndrome (PMS) among women with an intellectual disability (ID) has not been investigated in Taiwan. This study explores the prevalence/severity of PMS experienced by women with ID who are institutionalised. Method: Ninety two female residents aged 15 to 54 at six public institutions completed a structured interview…

  17. Continuities and Discontinuities in the Origins of the Institutionalisation of Pedagogy in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jover, Gonzalo; Rabazas, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    This article applies the current international interest in the institutionalisation of pedagogic knowledge to the study of its origins as an academic discipline in Spain. The focus of attention lies in the unexplored issues, the ideological tensions and the recurrent discontinuities that surrounded this process. The starting point is a cryptic…

  18. Institutionalisation of Internal Quality Assurance: Focusing on Institutional Work and the Significance of Disciplinary Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukasovic, Martina

    2014-01-01

    The study suggests that institutionalisation of a comprehensive and systematic approach to internal quality assurance of higher education institutions inspired by the Bologna Process has regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive dimensions. It includes development of structures and procedures for quality assurance, as well as boosting of the…

  19. Leadership Challenges of Strategic Research Centres in Relation to Degree of Institutionalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomqvist, Christine; Agrell, Cecilia; Sandahl, Christer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse leadership challenges in the organisation of strategic research centres, focusing on the relationship between organisation and the level of institutionalisation. Four main themes of leadership challenges were identified: (1) the "changing university context," including relationships…

  20. Institutionalisation of Internal Quality Assurance: Focusing on Institutional Work and the Significance of Disciplinary Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukasovic, Martina

    2014-01-01

    The study suggests that institutionalisation of a comprehensive and systematic approach to internal quality assurance of higher education institutions inspired by the Bologna Process has regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive dimensions. It includes development of structures and procedures for quality assurance, as well as boosting of the…

  1. Leadership Challenges of Strategic Research Centres in Relation to Degree of Institutionalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomqvist, Christine; Agrell, Cecilia; Sandahl, Christer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse leadership challenges in the organisation of strategic research centres, focusing on the relationship between organisation and the level of institutionalisation. Four main themes of leadership challenges were identified: (1) the "changing university context," including relationships…

  2. The factors affecting the institutionalisation of two policy units in Burkina Faso's health system: a case study.

    PubMed

    Zida, Andre; Lavis, John N; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Kouyate, Bocar; Moat, Kaelan

    2017-07-17

    This paper is one of three linked studies that attempts to understand the process of institutionalisation of policy units within Burkina Faso's health system. It examines the relationships between the existence of an institutional framework, data production capacity and other resource availability in the institutionalisation of policy units in health systems. It therefore contributes to our understanding of the dynamics linking the key drivers and indicators of institutionalisation. Additionally, it examines how factors within the managerial setting, including workplace environment, and budgetary and human resource availability, may influence the institutionalisation process. The study used an explanatory qualitative case study approach, examining two policy units in Burkina Faso's Ministry of Health, the first of which had been institutionalised successfully and the other less so. Data were collected from key policymakers, including 13 connected with the first policy unit and 10 with the second, plus two funders. We also conducted a documentary analysis of the National Program for Health Development, two mid-term strategic plans, 230 action plans, eight Ministry of Health state budgets, eight Ministry of Health annual statistics reports, 16 policy unit budgets and published literature. The framework within which the government gave the policy unit its mandate and policy focus had the strongest effect on the institutionalisation process. Institutionalisation depended on political will, in both the host government and any donors, and the priority given to the policy unit's focus. It was also affected by the leadership of the policy unit managers. These factors were influenced by human resource capacity, and our findings suggest that, for successful institutionalisation in Burkina Faso's health system, policy units need to be given sufficient human resources to achieve their objectives. Policy units' institutionalisation in Burkina Faso's health system depend on the

  3. Emotional intelligence and health-related quality of life in institutionalised Spanish older adults.

    PubMed

    Luque-Reca, Octavio; Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther; Augusto-Landa, José María

    2015-06-01

    This study explores the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a sample of Spanish older adults who are institutionalised in long-term care (LTC) facilities. One hundred fifteen institutionalised individuals (47.82% women; 88.3 ± 7.9 years) from southern Spain completed a set of questionnaires that included measures of EI, health and personality. Data were analysed via hierarchical regression. After controlling for personality and sociodemographic variables, the EI dimensions, emotional comprehension and emotional facilitation, accounted for part of the variance in several HRQoL facets. These dimensions could have an important role in the HRQoL of residents in LTC. Moreover, the use of a performance measure addresses the limitations of previous studies that have relied on self-report measures. These aspects underscore the importance of the results of this study.

  4. Changing patterns of injury associated with low-energy falls in the elderly: a 10-year analysis at an Australian Major Trauma Centre.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hugo; Bein, Kendall J; Ivers, Rebecca; Dinh, Michael M

    2015-04-01

    The rate of hospitalization in elderly patients because of falls is increasing. The objective of this study was to investigate long-term trends in injury profiles of low-energy falls and to identify injuries associated with need for in-patient rehabilitation. A single-centre retrospective study was performed at an inner city Major Trauma Centre in Sydney. Trauma registry data were obtained from patients who were 65 years of age or over with low-energy falls (trip and fall from height ≤ 1 m, including falls from standing) from the trauma registry between January 2000 and December 2011. Demographic data, time and date of presentation and injury characteristics were collected. Outcomes of interests were proportions of hip fractures, head injuries and discharge to in-patient rehabilitation facilities. A total of 4964 cases were identified. There was a 6.5% per annum decrease in the proportion of elderly patients with low-energy falls who sustained hip fractures compared with a relative increase in severe head injuries, 5.7% per annum. Around 25% of patients were transferred to in-patient rehabilitation. Severe head injuries and lower-limb injuries were the two injuries most associated with transfer to in-patient rehabilitation. In elderly patients with low-energy falls, a significant decrease in hip fractures was associated with a rise in severe head injuries over the past decade. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. Asymptomatic bacteriuria - prevalence in the elderly population.

    PubMed

    Ariathianto, Yohanes

    2011-10-01

    To identify the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in the elderly population and to examine associated risk factors, complications and natural history, and whether treatment improves prognosis. A literature search of MEDLINE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library was undertaken of studies published from 1980 to 2009. A total of 70 articles were identified. Emphasis was given to randomised controlled trials, review articles and more recent publications. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in the elderly, especially among institutionalised or hospitalised patients. Risk factors include cognitive impairment, diabetes mellitus, structural urinary tract abnormalities and indwelling catheters. Antimicrobial therapy does not result in improved survival or genitourinary morbidity and may potentially cause avoidable side effects and the emergence of resistant organisms. Bacteriuria is common in functionally impaired elderly patients. In the absence of symptoms or signs of infection, routine dipstick screening and subsequent antimicrobial therapy is not recommended.

  6. The prevention of vitamin D deficiency in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Dunnigan, M G; Fraser, S A; McIntosh, W B; Moseley, H; Sumner, D J

    1986-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in the house-bound and institutionalised elderly population of Britain. A study of patients over 65 years discharged with a diagnosis of osteomalacia from Greater Glasgow Health Board hospitals between 1970 and 1981 inclusive showed a low incidence in the 65 to 74 years age group but a steeply rising incidence in older age groups. The majority (83%) of patients were female. The fortification of margarine, butter and milk with concentrations of vitamin D acceptable to the general population does not produce significant elevations in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels in vitamin D-deficient elderly patients. Low intensity background ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and intermittent high intensity UVR produce significant elevations in serum 25-OHD levels in elderly patients but both methods have disadvantages which limit their widespread use. Vitamin D supplements equivalent to 10 micrograms daily produce significant elevations in serum 25-OHD levels in vitamin D-deficient elderly patients. A vitamin D supplement policy for the housebound and institutionalised elderly population of Britain is required.

  7. Australian Defense.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Australia in World Affairs 1966-1970, (Melbourne: Cheshire Publishing Pty Ltd , 1974), p. 258. 6Department of Defence, Australian Defence Review...Pvt, Ltd .: 1977), p. 69. 74 17Desmond Ball, "American Bases: Implications for Australian Securi- ty" The Strategic and Defence Studies Centre...million with aircraft, or 3) a " Woolworth " carrier costing $300-400 million with aircraft.33 Defence planners are now faced with determin- ing which

  8. Feasibility and acceptability of advance care planning in elderly Italian and Greek speaking patients as compared to English-speaking patients: an Australian cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Detering, Karen; Sutton, Elizabeth; Fraser, Scott; Wallis, Kasey; Silvester, William; Mawren, Daveena; Whiteside, Kathryn

    2015-08-28

    To assess the feasibility and acceptability of facilitated advance care planning (ACP) discussions in elderly Italian and Greek-speaking inpatients compared to English-speaking inpatients. This cross-sectional study with convenience sampling was conducted in Melbourne, Australia, and recruited hospital inpatients with medical decision-making capacity, aged 65 years or above, who spoke Greek (25 patients), Italian (24 patients) or English (63 patients). Facilitated ACP was offered, aiming to assists patients to consider and discuss their goals, values, beliefs and future treatment wishes with their family and doctor; to help them consider how they would like healthcare decisions made in the future if they become unable to do this for themselves; and to complete advance care directives. The completion of ACP discussions, their duration, advance care directive completion and utilisation of interpreters. Of 112 patients, 109 (97%) had at least one discussion, 63 (54%) completed advance care directives, either nominating a substitute decision-maker, documenting their wishes or both, and 76 (68%) included family in discussions. The median duration of discussions for all patients was slightly more than 1 h, over two visits. There were no differences between the Greek-speaking and the Italian-speaking patients, or between the Non-English speaking and the English-speaking patients in any of these measures. Only 14 non-English speaking patients, (30%) utilised interpreters, but when utilised, patients were much more likely (p<0.005) to complete advance care directives. Facilitated ACP in elderly Italian and Greek-speaking patients is feasible, acceptable and is similar to that for English-speaking patients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Feasibility and acceptability of advance care planning in elderly Italian and Greek speaking patients as compared to English-speaking patients: an Australian cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Detering, Karen; Sutton, Elizabeth; Fraser, Scott; Wallis, Kasey; Silvester, William; Mawren, Daveena; Whiteside, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the feasibility and acceptability of facilitated advance care planning (ACP) discussions in elderly Italian and Greek-speaking inpatients compared to English-speaking inpatients. Design, setting and participants This cross-sectional study with convenience sampling was conducted in Melbourne, Australia, and recruited hospital inpatients with medical decision-making capacity, aged 65 years or above, who spoke Greek (25 patients), Italian (24 patients) or English (63 patients). Intervention Facilitated ACP was offered, aiming to assists patients to consider and discuss their goals, values, beliefs and future treatment wishes with their family and doctor; to help them consider how they would like healthcare decisions made in the future if they become unable to do this for themselves; and to complete advance care directives. Main outcome measures The completion of ACP discussions, their duration, advance care directive completion and utilisation of interpreters. Results Of 112 patients, 109 (97%) had at least one discussion, 63 (54%) completed advance care directives, either nominating a substitute decision-maker, documenting their wishes or both, and 76 (68%) included family in discussions. The median duration of discussions for all patients was slightly more than 1 h, over two visits. There were no differences between the Greek-speaking and the Italian-speaking patients, or between the Non-English speaking and the English-speaking patients in any of these measures. Only 14 non-English speaking patients, (30%) utilised interpreters, but when utilised, patients were much more likely (p<0.005) to complete advance care directives. Conclusions Facilitated ACP in elderly Italian and Greek-speaking patients is feasible, acceptable and is similar to that for English-speaking patients. PMID:26319775

  10. Health status of children in institutionalised homes in South West Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Brown, B J; Oladokun, R E

    2013-09-01

    To determine the nutritional and immunisation status as well as morbidity pattern of children in institutionalised care in south-western Nigeria. The study was cross sectional and involved children under the age of fifteen years in seven institutions in Oyo and Ogun states, south western Nigeria. Children admitted into these homes were either orphans or those separated from their parents through child abandonment, illness and juvenile delinquency. A history of current and recent illnesses in the preceding one month as well as immunisation was obtained for each child. Physical examination including growth assessment was then performed after which blood specimens were collected for haematocrit estimation, haemoglobin electrophoresis and examination for malaria parasites. A total of 161 children were studied comprising 74 (46.0%) males and 87 (54.0%) females. Their ages ranged from 1.12 to 168 months with a mean (standard deviation) of 94.5 (47.0) months. Only 24.5 % of the children were reported to have completed the immunisation schedule. Fifty five (34.2%) of the 161 children were reported to have been ill in the preceding period of one month, the leading symptoms being fever (14.9%), cough (10.3%) and diarrhoea (3.9%). Forty six (28.6%) of the children were stunted, 34 (21.1%) underweight and 106 (65.8%) anaemic. The health status of children in institutionalised care is poor and needs better supervision and support to facilitate growth and wellbeing.

  11. Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy in three generations, with clinical courses from nearly asymptomatic elderly to severe juvenile, in an Australian family of Macedonian descent.

    PubMed

    Vinton, Anita; Fahey, Michael C; O'Brien, Terence J; Shaw, Janet; Storey, Elsdon; Gardner, R J McKinlay; Mitchell, Peter J; Du Sart, Desirée; King, John O

    2005-07-15

    We report a three-generation Caucasian family of Macedonian origin with dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA), manifesting as very mild elderly onset, severe young adult onset, and severe childhood onset presentations in the three generations. The grandparental trinucleotide expansion size (52 repeats) is the smallest overtly pathogenic mutation yet reported. This 67-year-old man displayed only subtle neurological and cognitive deficits on formal examination and very slight signs on MRI. His son had developed a choreiform disorder at age 32 years, and by his 40s suffered severe dementia and motor decline. The grandson, the proband, presented as a teenager with progressive myoclonic epilepsy, dysarthria, ataxia, and cognitive decline, having manifesting learning difficulties from the age 5 years. Atrophin-1 expansion sizes of 52, 57, and 66 repeats were demonstrated in the three patients, respectively. Given an absence of any other indicative history in the family, we speculate that the mutation may have expanded from a 'high-end' normal allele to a pathogenic size at the grandfather's conception, or that one of his parents may have had a pathogenic mutation at the lowest end of the expanded range.

  12. Planning elderly and palliative care in Montenegro

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Mark; Brajovic, Mina

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Montenegro, a newly independent Balkan state with a population of 650,000, has a health care reform programme supported by the World Bank. This paper describes planning for integrated elderly and palliative care. Description The current service is provided only through a single long-stay hospital, which has institutionalised patients and limited facilities. Broad estimates were made of current financial expenditures on elderly care. A consultation was undertaken with stakeholders to propose an integrated system linking primary and secondary health care with social care; supporting people to live, and die well, at home; developing local nursing homes for people with higher dependency; creating specialised elderly-care services within hospitals; and providing good end-of-life care for all who need it. Effectiveness may be measured by monitoring patient and carers’ perceptions of the care experience. Discussion Changes in provision of elderly care may be achieved through redirection of existing resources, but the health and social care services also need to enhance elderly care budgets. The challenges for implementation include management skills, engaging professionals and political commitment. Conclusion Middle-income countries such as Montenegro can develop elderly and palliative care services through redirection of existing finance if accompanied by new service objectives, staff skills and integrated management. PMID:19513178

  13. Peer Coaching as an Institutionalised Tool for Professional Development: The Perceptions of Tutors in a Nigerian College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aderibigbe, Semiyu Adejare; Ajasa, Folorunso Adekemi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the perceptions of college tutors on peer coaching as a tool for professional development to determine its formal institutionalisation. Design/methodology/approach: A survey questionnaire was used for data collection, while analysis of data was done using descriptive statistics. Findings: The…

  14. Peer Coaching as an Institutionalised Tool for Professional Development: The Perceptions of Tutors in a Nigerian College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aderibigbe, Semiyu Adejare; Ajasa, Folorunso Adekemi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the perceptions of college tutors on peer coaching as a tool for professional development to determine its formal institutionalisation. Design/methodology/approach: A survey questionnaire was used for data collection, while analysis of data was done using descriptive statistics. Findings: The…

  15. Australian Extinctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…

  16. Australian Extinctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…

  17. Group integrative reminiscence therapy on self-esteem, life satisfaction and depressive symptoms in institutionalised older veterans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Fen

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to use group integrative reminiscence as a nursing intervention to evaluate the immediate effects on self-esteem, life satisfaction and depressive symptoms for a special group named 'institutionalised older veterans' after a 12-week intervention. The study group comprised institutionalised older veterans with combat experience, including being wounded in war and who were twice forced to relocate. The group participants had lower life satisfaction, and greater use for mental health services and greater non-specific health complaints were reported from this group. Reminiscence therapy has been considered an effective nursing intervention, but the effects on institutionalised older veterans have not been studied. A quasi-experimental design and purposive sampling were conducted. A total of 74 participants were studied with pre- and post-tests to measure the effect of group integrative reminiscence therapy. The activity was held once weekly for 12 weeks. The Life Satisfaction Index A, self-esteem scale and Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form were used as research tools, and the t-test, Fisher's exact test and generalised estimating equation were used for data analysis. All participants were male, with an average age of 81·34 years old, 91·9% unmarried and were in bad health. After 12 weeks of intervention, the reminiscence groups significantly improved their self-esteem and life satisfaction and decreased depressive symptoms compared with control groups. Group integrative reminiscence revealed immediate effects on improving the self-esteem and life satisfaction of institutionalised older veterans, and depressive symptoms were also decreased. Moreover, a sense of positive self-value and belonging to the institution was produced. Group integrative reminiscence is an applicable nursing intervention for vulnerable persons such as institutionalised older veterans. A structured protocol based on the characteristics of the residents and the

  18. A Dedicated Nutritional Care Program (NUTRICARE) to reduce malnutrition in institutionalised dysphagic older people: A quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Milko; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Catania, Gianluca; Aleo, Giuseppe; Sartini, Marina; Cristina, Maria Luisa; Ripamonti, Stefania; Monacelli, Fiammetta; Odetti, Patrizio; Sasso, Loredana

    2017-02-23

    To assess the effects of a texture-modified food program for dysphagia on the nutritional, biochemical and functional profile in a cohort of institutionalised older people in Italy. Dysphagic institutionalised older people, often also affected by dementia, are frequently exposed to malnutrition. Malnutrition in older people has negative effects on mortality, days of hospitalisation, infection, wound healing and risk of pressure injuries. Therefore, it is very important to prevent malnutrition in this frail population. A pre-post study without a control group. The study included 479 dysphagic institutionalised older people from 20 nursing homes. Anthropometrical, biochemical, nutritional and functional parameters were collected retrospectively, 6 months before the study intervention, at time zero and, prospectively for 6 months after implementing the NUTRICARE food programme, for a total of nine evaluations. The NUTRICARE programme includes meals without nutritional supplementation, and personalised levels of density, viscosity, texture and particle size. The total mean body mass index of our sample passed from 17.88-19.00; body weight averagely improved by 7.19%, as well as their nutritional and biochemical profiles. There was a progressive improvement of total protein and serum albumin values. Nutritional parameters (serum transferrin and lymphocytes) displayed similar changes. Plasma lymphocytes reached normal levels in 98.23% of the sample. Plasma creatinine levels remained steady throughout the study and within the normal range. No side effects were reported. The NUTRICARE food programme with a adequate proteins, calories, balanced nutritional and bromatological properties, and appropriate texture and palatability significantly improved the nutritional, biochemical and functional profile in a cohort of institutionalised dysphagic older people. The introduction of a balanced nutritional programme, using high-quality natural ingredients, appropriate texture and

  19. Australian Brain Alliance.

    PubMed

    2016-11-02

    A proposal for an Australian Brain Initiative (ABI) is under development by members of the Australian Brain Alliance. Here we discuss the goals of the ABI, its areas of research focus, its context in the Australian research setting, and its necessity for ensuring continued success for Australian brain research.

  20. Frailty in elderly people with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Portilla Franco, Maria Eugenia; Tornero Molina, Fernando; Gil Gregorio, Pedro

    In recent years, the concept of frailty as a "state of pre-disability" has been widely accepted by those involved in the care of the elderly. Its importance lies not only in its high prevalence - more than 25% in people over 85 years of age - but it is also considered an independent risk factor of disability, institutionalisation and mortality amongst the elderly. The study of renal function is relevant in patients with major comorbidities. Studies have shown a significant association between chronic kidney disease and the development of adverse clinical outcomes such as heart disease, heart failure, end-stage renal disease, increased susceptibility to infections and greater functional impairment. Frailty can be reversed, which is why a study of frailty in patients with chronic kidney disease is of particular interest. This article aims to describe the association between ageing, frailty and chronic kidney disease in light of the most recent and relevant scientific publications.

  1. Association between indicators of dementia and nutritional status in institutionalised older people.

    PubMed

    Galesi, Lilian Fernanda; Leandro-Merhi, Vânia Aparecida; de Oliveira, Maria Rita Marques

    2013-09-01

    Dementia weakens older people and can lead to malnutrition; therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the association between indicators of dementia and biochemical indicators, anthropometric indicators and food intake in institutionalised older people. A total of 150 older people of both genders participated in this study. Nutritional status was determined by body mass index and other anthropometric variables, and biochemical indicators were used to analyse the differences between individuals with and without dementia. Energy and nutrient intakes were determined by food records, and dementia was investigated with the Mini-Mental State Examination. The data were analysed by the chi-square test, Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney tests. Of the 150 individuals studied, 48% were men with a mean age of 73 ± 10 years and 52% were women with a mean age of 80 ± 9 years. Thirty-six per cent had some degree of malnutrition and 48% presented dementia, which was more prevalent in women (59%). The nutritional status of men and women individuals with and without dementia differed significantly (P < 0.001 for men and women). The only variables that presented a significant difference between individuals with and without dementia were those associated with muscle mass in men. There were no differences in energy and nutrient intakes between individuals with and without dementia except for vitamin C intake, which differed among women (P = 0.032). In the conditions of the present study, dementia was associated with nutritional status, but not with energy and nutrient intakes, suggesting that older people with dementia may have higher nutritional requirements. Implications for practice.  Investigation of dementia may contribute to the nutritional status assessment of older people and energy expenditure and immobility should be investigated for a more complete assessment. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Communication: Are Australians Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansford, B. C.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the question of the distinctive nature of communication in Australia. Discusses nonverbal messages, gender concerns, historical influences on communication, the Australian accent, communication with indigenous persons, communication apprehension, and classroom communication. Argues that Australians' communication is relatively similar to…

  3. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-07-01

    We explore about fifty different Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarize the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses. We show that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, elders or medicine men claimed to be able to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their roles as providers and protectors within their communities. We also show that some Aboriginal groups seem to have understood the motions of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.

  4. Elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Benton, D; Marshall, C

    1991-11-01

    Elder abuse encompasses physical, psychological, and financial abuse and also includes the violation of an individual's rights, or social abuse. Detection of elder abuse is often obstructed by the denial or shame of the abused older adult and the denial or improper assessment by health care professionals. The ethical struggle professionals face when they suspect abuse may also impede assessment or intervention. Preliminary data on etiologic factors related to elder abuse suggest that misinformation, the caregiver's lack of understanding of the needs of older adults, social isolation, a history of dysfunctional family relationships, and the psychopathologic factors of the caregiver are salient factors for understanding elder abuse. In addition, caregiver burden related to the care of the impaired elder and other external life events is a risk factor for elder abuse. Self-neglect is the type of elder abuse most often reported and the most difficult to handle, because older adults have a right to refuse services. Home care providers often face practical and ethical dilemmas in cases of self-neglect. When making an assessment for elder abuse, it is best to use a multidisciplinary approach. In addition to physical indicators (bruises, malnutrition, fractures), attention must be paid to the social, family, and sexual history of the patient. The psychological history of the patient and caregiver is also important. Reporting laws exist in all states, and health care practitioners must become familiar with the laws in their states. Awareness of elder abuse by professionals working in home care is essential, because the failure to detect abuse can interfere with interventions and in some cases lead to death.

  5. Fatigue in frail elderly people.

    PubMed

    Toye, Christine; White, Kate; Rooksby, Karen

    2006-05-01

    Many frail older people are likely to suffer from fatigue, but tools to measure fatigue in this population are lacking. Stage one of this study explored and described the experiences of fatigue of 12 older people from Australian residential aged care facilities. Themes identified were pacing yourself, battling on, hitting rock bottom, feeling safe, and moving on. Findings indicated that, with support, frail elders may be able to manage fatigue effects themselves. A measure of fatigue was developed from stage one findings, with reference to the literature. In stage two of the study, the Frail Elder Fatigue Assessment Tool was subjected to panel review, piloting, and refinement. The refined tool comprises 20 items in three subscales: fatigue effects; fatigue resources; and adaptation to fatigue. Further work is required to establish the tool's psychometric properties, but it should then be useful for both research and clinical assessment purposes.

  6. Impact of home and community-based services on hospitalisation and institutionalisation among individuals eligible for long-term care insurance in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This population-based retrospective cohort study aimed to clarify the impact of home and community-based services on the hospitalisation and institutionalisation of individuals certified as eligible for long-term care insurance (LTCI) benefits. Methods Health insurance data and LTCI data were combined into a database of 1,020 individuals in two farming communities in Hokkaido who were enrolled in Citizen's Health Insurance. They had not received long-term care services prior to April 1, 2000 and were newly certified as eligible for Long-Term Care Insurance benefits between April 1, 2000 and February 29, 2008. The analysis covered 565 subjects who had not been hospitalised or institutionalised at the time of first certification of LTCI benefits. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of hospitalisation or institutionalisation or death after the initial certification were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model. The predictors were age, sex, eligibility level, area of residence, income, year of initial certification and average monthly outpatient medical expenditures, in addition to average monthly total home and community-based services expenditures (analysis 1), the use or no use of each type of service (analysis 2), and average monthly expenditures for home-visit and day-care types of services, the use or no use of respite care, and the use or no use of rental services for assistive devices (analysis 3). Results Users of home and community-based services were less likely than non-users to be hospitalised or institutionalised. Among the types of services, users of respite care (HR: 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55-0.93) and rental services for assistive devices (HR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.54-0.92) were less likely to be hospitalised or institutionalised than non-users. For those with relatively light needs, users of day care were also less likely to be hospitalised or institutionalized than non-users (HR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.61-0.98). Conclusions

  7. Elder abuse and neglect: challenges and directions for legal reform.

    PubMed

    Breedon, Laura

    2010-09-01

    The last two decades have heralded an increased community and professional awareness of the phenomenon of elder abuse and the challenges it poses to the enjoyment of the human rights of some older people. The contemporary Australian legal system provides many of the components of a framework required to assist in the promotion of the rights of the elderly and in the prevention and remedy of elder abuse. This framework acts in concert with health and community services dedicated to the advancement of health and wellbeing into old age. In the future, the acknowledgment and adoption of international legal principles which are directed to the needs of the elderly, the reform of existing domestic legislation and the development of new elder-specific statutes may all impact upon the incidence and consequences of elder abuse. To date, no Australian jurisdiction has adopted a legislative regime targeted specifically at the issues confronting older Australians who may be vulnerable to abuse and neglect. This column looks at some of the options for legal reform in this area.

  8. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or nursing homes. The mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, and ...

  9. Elderly Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview (continued) • One of the leading causes of suicide among the elderly is depression; often undiagnosed and/or untreated. Risk Factors The act of completing suicide is rarely preceded by only one cause or ...

  10. Oral health-related quality of life and nutritional status of institutionalized elderly population aged 60 years and above in Mysore City, India.

    PubMed

    Kshetrimayum, Nandita; Reddy, Chavva Venkata Konda; Siddhana, Sunitha; Manjunath, Maurya; Rudraswamy, Sushma; Sulavai, Sibyl

    2013-06-01

    To assess whether oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is associated with nutritional status in the institutionalised elderly population of Mysore. Malnutrition in the elderly has an evident impact on their general health and quality of life. Analysis of data of the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) and their association with the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) results improves our understanding of the complex relationship between oral health and malnutrition. The study was conducted among the institutionalised elderly population in Mysore city, Karnataka. Data on socio-demographic, oral health status were gathered. OHRQoL was evaluated using GOHAI, and malnutrition risk using MNA. Out of 141 elderly, 41.1% were men and 58.9% were women with mean age of 72.2 ±7.5 years. Mean GOHAI score was 47.03 ± 9.2, with 69.5% had low perception of oral health. Mean MNA score was 9.91 ± 2.4, 15.6% were malnourished, 52.5% were at risk of malnutrition and 31.9% were adequately nourished. A strong association was found between the mean GOHAI and MNA scores.  Oral health-related quality of life was associated with nutritional deficit, and it requires a greater integration between dentistry and nutrition in the health promotion of older adults. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A population-based study of disability and institutionalisation after TIA and stroke: 10-year results of the Oxford Vascular Study

    PubMed Central

    Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Paul, Nicola L.M.; Gray, Alastair M.; Pendlebury, Sarah T.; Bull, Linda M.; Welch, Sarah J.V.; Cuthbertson, Fiona C.; Rothwell, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Long-term outcome information after TIA and stroke is required to help plan and allocate care services. We evaluated the impact of TIA and stroke on disability and institutionalisation over 5 years using data from a population-based study. Methods Patients from a UK population-based cohort study (Oxford Vascular Study) were recruited from 2002 to 2007, and followed-up to 2012. Patients were followed-up at 1, 6, 12, 24 and 60 months post-event and assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). A multivariate regression analysis was performed to assess the predictors of disability post-event. Results 748 index stroke and 440 TIA cases were studied. For TIA patients, disability levels increased from 14% (63/440) pre-morbidly to 23% (60/256) at 5 years (p=0.002), with occurrence of subsequent stroke being a major predictor of disability. For stroke survivors, the proportion disabled (mRS>2) increased from 21% (154/748) pre-morbidly to 43% (273/634) at 1-month (p<0.001), with 39% (132/339) of survivors disabled 5 years post-stroke. 5 years post-event, 70% (483/690) of stroke patients and 48% (179/375) of TIA patients were either dead or disabled. The 5-year risk of care home institutionalisation was 11% after TIA and 19% after stroke. The average 5-year cost per institutionalised TIA patient was $99,831 (S.D. 67,020) and $125,359 (S.D. 91,121) for stroke patients. Conclusions Our results show that 70% of stroke patients are either dead or disabled 5 years after the event. There therefore remains considerable scope for improvements in acute treatment and secondary prevention to reduce post-event disability and institutionalisation. PMID:23920019

  12. European Elder (Elderberry)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Common Names: European elder, black elder, elderberry, elder flower, sambucus Latin Name: Sambucus nigra Background European elder ... Saxon word “aeld,” meaning fire. The terms “elder flower” and “elderberry” may refer to either European elder ...

  13. Research Readings. Australian Apprenticeships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Nigel, Ed.

    This volume on apprenticeships in Australia summarizes 11 research studies. After an "Introduction" (Nigel Smart), the reports are: "Apprenticeship in Australia: A Concise History" (John Ray); "Issues and Directions from the Australian Apprenticeship and Traineeship Literature" (Stephen Saunders); "Determinants…

  14. Research Readings. Australian Apprenticeships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Nigel, Ed.

    This volume on apprenticeships in Australia summarizes 11 research studies. After an "Introduction" (Nigel Smart), the reports are: "Apprenticeship in Australia: A Concise History" (John Ray); "Issues and Directions from the Australian Apprenticeship and Traineeship Literature" (Stephen Saunders); "Determinants…

  15. Australian Mineral Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides details on the philosophy and operation of the Australian Mineral Foundation, established in 1970 to update professionals in the mining and petroleum industries. Services in continuing education courses and to secondary school teachers and students are described. (CS)

  16. A randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of Pycnogenol and Bacopa CDRI08 herbal medicines on cognitive, cardiovascular, and biochemical functioning in cognitively healthy elderly people: the Australian Research Council Longevity Intervention (ARCLI) study protocol (ANZCTR12611000487910)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    trials in which supplements are administered to elderly participants. Results from ARCLI may help develop novel preventative health practices and nutritional/pharmacological targets in the elderly for cognitive and brain health. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12611000487910 PMID:22390677

  17. Clinicopathological Findings of Suicide in the Elderly: Three Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peisah, Carmelle; Snowdon, John; Kril, Jillian; Rodriguez, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The neuropathological correlates of suicide in older persons have received little research attention. Our recent study of elderly suicide victims from an Australian forensic medicine department (n = 143), unlike a previous case-control study, did not find an increased prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in older persons who committed suicide…

  18. Clinicopathological Findings of Suicide in the Elderly: Three Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peisah, Carmelle; Snowdon, John; Kril, Jillian; Rodriguez, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The neuropathological correlates of suicide in older persons have received little research attention. Our recent study of elderly suicide victims from an Australian forensic medicine department (n = 143), unlike a previous case-control study, did not find an increased prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in older persons who committed suicide…

  19. Isolated Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Lucy Rose; And Others

    The Minnesota Senior Study, the first statewide survey of the elderly in nearly 20 years, was based on a telephone survey with a statewide sample of 1,500 non-institutionalized Minnesotans age 60 and older. Substantial numbers of Minnesotans age 60-plus were found to have low social contacts. Five percent, or about 33,000 older Minnesotans, fell…

  20. America's Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soldo, Beth J.; Agree, Emily M.

    1988-01-01

    The older population in the United States grew twice as fast as the rest of the population in the last 20 years. This growth is expected to accelerate early in the next century as the large baby-boom cohorts move through middle age and become elderly. Substantial improvements in life expectancy at all ages, particularly at extreme old age, mean…

  1. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Consequences for Indigenous Australians in North Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine risk and protective factors associated with the consequences of card gambling and commercial gambling for Indigenous Australians in north Queensland. With Indigenous Elders' approval and using qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 Indigenous and 48 non-Indigenous…

  2. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Consequences for Indigenous Australians in North Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine risk and protective factors associated with the consequences of card gambling and commercial gambling for Indigenous Australians in north Queensland. With Indigenous Elders' approval and using qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 Indigenous and 48 non-Indigenous…

  3. Australian Courseware in Geographical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidstone, John G.; Gerber, Rod

    Students pursuing Australian studies should be given every possible opportunity to work with materials produced in Australia. There is a substantial and growing list of good curriculum software written within Australia and from an Australian perspective which can add interest and excitement to Australian geography classrooms. Computers can be used…

  4. Potentially inappropriate prescribing in institutionalised older patients in Spain: the STOPP-START criteria compared with the Beers criteria

    PubMed Central

    Ubeda, Amalia; Ferrándiz, Luisa; Maicas, Nuria; Gomez, Cristina; Bonet, Montserrat; Peris, Jose E.

    Objective The aims of this study were to identify potentially inappropriate prescribing using the Beers and STOPP criteria. The START criteria were applied to detect prescription omission in the geriatric population. We compared the utility of these criteria in institutionalised older people. Methods Descriptive study reviewing the medication and clinical records of 81 residents (aged 65 years and more) by pharmacists in a nursing home in the Lleida region (Spain). Results The mean patients’'age was 84 (SD=8) years, with an average of 5 drugs per resident (total prescriptions: 416 medicines). The Beers criteria identified potentially inappropriate medication use in 25% of patients and 48% of patients used at least 1 inappropriate medication according to STOPP criteria. The most frequent potentially inappropriate medications for both criteria were long-acting benzodiazepines and NSAIDs. START detected 58 potential prescribing omissions in 44% of patients. Calcium-vitamin D supplementation in osteoporosis was the most frequent rule (15%), but omissions corresponding to the cardiovascular system implied 23% of patients. Conclusions The STOPP-START criteria reveal that potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) is a highly prevalent problem among Spanish nursing home residents, and a statistically significant positive correlation was found between the number of medicines prescribed and the number of PIP detected in this study. The STOPP criteria detect a larger number of PI medications in this geriatric population than the Beers criteria. The prescribing omissions detected by the START criteria are relevant and require intervention. Pharmacists’ review of medications may help identify potentially inappropriate prescribing and, through an interdisciplinary approach, working with physicians may improve prescribing practices among geriatric residents of nursing homes. PMID:24155822

  5. A pilot duplicate diet study on manganese, selenium and chromium intakes in institutionalised children and adolescents from Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Briones, Mercedes; Muros, José Joaquín; Seiquer, Isabel; Sánchez, José Antonio; Rodríguez, Guillermo; Giménez, Rafael

    2015-11-28

    Hidden hunger occurs in the presence of an otherwise nutritionally or energetically appropriate diet that is deficient in essential vitamins and minerals. Guatemala has the highest rate of child malnutrition in Latin America and the prevalence of hidden hunger is high. The aim of this study was to determine the Mn, Se and Cr dietary intakes in Guatemalan institutionalised children (4-14 years), a population group at high risk of mineral deficiency. For this purpose, the contents of Mn, Se and Cr were analysed in a duplicate diet (for 7 consecutive days) by electrothermal atomisation-atomic absorption spectrophotometry following acid digestion. Mn, Se and Cr intakes from the duplicate diets were in the range of 1·3-2·31 mg/d, 58·7-69·6 µg/d and 6·32-27·57 µg/d, respectively. Mn and Cr values were below current recommended daily intakes. A cereal- and legumes-based diet is habitually consumed by this population. Local vegetables, fruits and nutritional supplements are included daily, but the consumption of fish, meat, eggs and dairy products is very infrequent or negligible. Mean daily energy intake from the 7-d diet was 8418·2 kJ (2012 kcal), with a macronutrient energy distribution of carbohydrates 69·4 %, proteins 12·3 % and fats 18·3 %. Correlations between Mn, Se and Cr intakes and energy and other nutrient intakes were also evaluated. The present findings will help establish new nutritional strategies for this and similar population groups.

  6. What is Elder Abuse?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources and Links National Elder Abuse Incidence Study Domestic Violence in Later Life What If I Suspect ... Demonstrations (PPHF) Elder Justice Innovation Grants Late Life Domestic Violence World Elder Abuse Awareness Day State Grants ...

  7. Elderly people. Old testament.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M; Roberts, E

    2000-02-03

    Primary care groups need to address the needs of elderly people. Elderly people and their carers should be consulted about services. Elderly service users can be enthusiastic participants in consultation initiatives.

  8. Is the level of institutionalisation found in psychiatric housing services associated with the severity of illness and the functional impairment of the patients? A patient record analysis.

    PubMed

    Valdes-Stauber, Juan; Kilian, Reinhold

    2015-09-14

    In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether clinical, social, financial, and care variables were associated with different accommodation settings for individuals suffering from severe and persistent mental disorders. Electronic record data of 250 patients who fulfilled the criteria for persistent and severe mental illness were used. Multiple linear regression models were applied to analyse associations between the types and the costs of housing services and the patients' severity of illness, their functional impairment, and their socio-demographic characteristics. We identified 50 patients living at home without need for additional housing support who were receiving outpatient treatment, 41 patients living in the community with outpatient housing support, 23 patients living with foster families for adults, 45 patients living in group homes with 12-h staff cover, 10 patients living in group homes with 24-h staff, and 81 patients living in psychiatric nursing homes. While this housing differed largely in the level of institutionalisation and also in the costs of accommodation, these differences were not related to a patient's severity of disease or in their functional impairment. In particular, patients living in nursing homes had a slightly higher level of functioning compared to those living in the community without welfare housing services. Only where patients were subject to guardianship was there a significant association with an increased level of institutionalisation. Our study suggests that the level of institutionalisation and the associated costs of welfare housing services do not accurately reflect the severity of illness or the level of functional impairment of the patients there are designed to support. The limitations of the study design and the data do not allow for conclusions about causal relationships or generalisation of the findings to other regions. Therefore, further prospective studies are needed to assess the adequacy of the setting

  9. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek

    2014-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, this issue will focus on Number in the Number and Algebra strand. In this article Derek Hurrell provides a few tried and proven activities to develop place value understanding. These activities are provided for…

  10. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek

    2013-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, the focus in this issue is on Measurement in the Measurement and Geometry strand. The small unit of work on measurement presented in this article has activities that can be modified to meet the requirements of…

  11. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek; O'Neil, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, this issue the authors focus, on Geometry in the Measurement and Geometry strand with strong links for an integrated focus on the Statistics and Probability strand. The small unit of work on the sorting and…

  12. Researching Australian Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxby, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    When in 1962 the author began to research the history of Australian children's literature, access to the primary sources was limited and difficult. From a catalogue drawer in the Mitchell Library of hand-written cards marked "Children's books" he could call up from the stacks, in alphabetical order, piles of early publications. His notes…

  13. Trialling the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashman, Di

    2010-01-01

    In 2010, St. Leonards Primary School in Tasmania, along with other selected schools throughout Australia, trialled the draft Australian Curriculum: Mathematics. Mathematics had been a whole school focus at St. Leonards Primary School for several years, and the school found that the opportunity to be part of the trial strongly connected with their…

  14. Researching Australian Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxby, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    When in 1962 the author began to research the history of Australian children's literature, access to the primary sources was limited and difficult. From a catalogue drawer in the Mitchell Library of hand-written cards marked "Children's books" he could call up from the stacks, in alphabetical order, piles of early publications. His notes…

  15. Australian Film Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Myles P.

    Although Australia had a vigorous film industry in the silent film era, it was stifled in the 1930s when United States and British interests bought up the Australian distribution channels and closed down the indigenous industry. However, the industry and film study have undergone a renaissance since the advent of the Labor government in 1972,…

  16. Numeracy and Australian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgasz, Helen; Leder, Gilah

    2016-01-01

    Australian teachers, recruited via Facebook, completed an online survey about aspects of numeracy. The survey was designed to explore views on numeracy and capacity to respond to numeracy tasks. In this paper, we focus primarily on responses to two numeracy tasks--one numerical, the other requiring critical evaluation. On the first item, 40%…

  17. Music in Australian Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartle, Graham

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a survey of music in Australian schools. The survey included all types of schools, and includes facilities and equipment for musical education, and the use made of them. The courses of study, organization of musical activities, finance, supervision, teacher training, and…

  18. Fraud and Australian Academics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Brian

    1989-01-01

    A series of highly publicized cases of alleged fraud in the Australian academic community are described. Each case reveals an apparent failure of peer review. The right to pursue investigations and make comments that may offend powerful figures within the scholarly community is precarious. (MLW)

  19. Australian Film Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Myles P.

    Although Australia had a vigorous film industry in the silent film era, it was stifled in the 1930s when United States and British interests bought up the Australian distribution channels and closed down the indigenous industry. However, the industry and film study have undergone a renaissance since the advent of the Labor government in 1972,…

  20. [Gender-specific predictors of institutionalisation in the elderly--results of the Leipzig longitudinal study of the aged (LEILA 75+)].

    PubMed

    Luppa, Melanie; Gentzsch, Katrin; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Weyerer, Siegfried; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2011-05-01

    Especially given the different socialization and life conditions of men and women, it could not be assumed that factors leading to nursing home admission (NHA) can be equally applied to both genders. We aimed to determine gender-specific predictors of NHA. Data were derived from the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged, a population-based study of individuals aged 75 years and older. 1,058 older adults were interviewed six times on average every 1.4 years. Sociodemographic, clinical, and psychometric variables were obtained. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine predictors of NHA. 10.3 % of men and 19.5 % of women (p < 0.001) were admitted to nursing home during the study period. The mean time to nursing home was 7.2 years for men and 6.8 years for women. Characteristics associated with a shorter time to NHA were increased age for men and women; cognitive impairment, poor self-rated health status, and less than two specialist's visits in the preceding 12 months for women, and being unmarried, moderate educational status, and hospitalization in the preceding 12 months were predictors of NHA for men. Gender differences in prediction of NHA do actually exist. The inclusion of gender-specific factors in design and application of interventions to support individuals at home and delay or prevent NHA appears to be warranted. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. [Anthropometric characterization of an institutionalized elderly population from Caracas, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Hérrera, Hector; Rebato, Esther; Rocandio, Ana María; Hernández, Rosa; Rodríguez, Nahir; Barbosa, Johanna; Hernández-Valera, Yolanda

    2005-06-01

    Most of the anthropometric standards are derived from adult populations but not from older subjects, so their use to evaluate the nutritional status in the elderly may not be the most appropriate. In this sense, the anthropometric characteristics and their relationship to sex and age in a cross-sectional sample of 809 Venezuelan subjects (370 males and 439 females), aged 60 to 102 years old, randomly selected from a elderly institution-alised population were studied. The results indicate that anthropometric variables show different degrees and signs of sexual dimorphism. Males presented higher stature, weight, waist and calf circumferences and higher bone diameters, while females have higher hip and thigh perimeters, and bigger trunk and extremities skinfolds. Independently of the changes observed in these variables with age, the difference spread between the sexes tends to stay and even to increase with age in the height and weight, in hip perimeter and in thigh and calf skinfolds; while, on the contrary, they attenuate in waist perimeter and in triceps, subescapular and suprailiac skinfolds. Males and females appear to be more similar for these variables in the advanced ages. In general, these results could be used as reference elements for similar researches in Venezuela, due to the low number of studies developed in the country in older populations

  2. [Management of dysphagia in the institutionalized elderly patient: current situation].

    PubMed

    Botella Trelis, J J; Ferrero López, M I

    2002-01-01

    Elderly patients suffering from dysphagia, institutionalised either in hospital or nursing homes, have been studied. Etiology, characteristics and complications of dysphagia were studied as well as the most frequently used strategies to improve the management of swallowing disorders. A retrospective study of the complications of dysphagia found during the last 4 years in our hospital were conducted in addition to a cross-sectional study of the techniques used to manage dysphagia. A postal questionnaire was sent to all the registered nursing homes in the Valencian Community. Inhospital patients: 58% of physicians estimated that no less than 20% of patients under their care presented dysphagia. 13% of the total number of hospital diets were specific for swallowing disorders. All the patients suffering from dysphagia used a liquid thickener. Nursing Homes residents: 107 questionnaires were returned. This represents 7057 residents of which 3.6% were suffering from dysphagia. 54% of nursing homes have a specific diet for the management of dysphagia, 51% used nasogastric feeding and 30% consider PEG. The most frequent complications were 75% lung aspirations, 39% dehydration, 32% malnourishment and 31% pneumonia. Dysphagia is an important problem in elderly people. In our hospital there is a correct use of a dysphagia diet but it could be more widespread and further measures should be taken. Complications are frequent but are not correctly documented in the medical records. Nursing home residents have frequent and important complications when suffering dysphagia. Interventions towards a better management of dysphagia should be recommended and implemented.

  3. Food habits and nutritional status of elderly people living in a Spanish Mediterranean city.

    PubMed

    Martínez Tomé, M J; Rodríguez, A; Jiménez, A Ma; Mariscal, M; Murcia, Ma A; García-Diz, L

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the food habits and nutritional status of free-living, non-institutionalised, elderly people of Torrevieja, a Spanish city located in the Mediterranean coast. Anthropometric and dietary survey (two 24 hour recalls) were assessed in 200 (83 men and 117 women) free-living elderly people (average age 72.3±6.6 years). Just married women accomplished the recommended energy intake. The contribution of macronutrients to the total energy intake was different from the Recommended Intake for the elderly, since it was too derived from proteins, fats, SFA and sugars, but in only small amounts was derived from complex carbohydrates. High percentages of elderly persons showed inadequate intake of calcium, zinc, magnesium, potassium, copper, iodine, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, and riboflavin. Men showed lower micronutrient intake than women. An increase in dietary complex carbohydrate, and a decrease in protein and fats, especially SFA, is recommended. It would be desirable to increase the consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole cereals, fish and skimmed dairy products.

  4. [Malnutrition in the elderly: clinical features, psychological and social determinants. Preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Morrone, A; Donini, L M; Scardella, P; Piombo, L; Pinto, A; Giusti, A M; Neri, B; Hagedorn, T; Proietti, A R; Cataldi, S; Cucinotta, D; Di Bella, G; Barbagallo, M; Cannella, C

    2011-01-01

    In industrialized Countries malnutrition is a very frequent condition in frail groups of the population, people with low income and elderly subjects above all if institutionalized. The aim of the study is to: analyse the prevalence of malnutrition in a sample of elderly people located in different geographical areas in Italy; identify the psychological, social, economic, environmental, cultural and demographic determinants of malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition (estimated through the MNA) is high in both sexes (28% of F and 21.9% of M. Age, institutionalisation, health status, autonomy status, cognitive status and education level are some of the factors that correlate with the presence of malnutrition. Loneliness and poverty seem to have a negative impact on nutritional status but further data are needed to confirm this hypothesis. The data collected confirm the need to activate services dedicated to assess the nutritional status of elderly people, to implement campaigns in particular on food education for the elderly population, to set tools and guide lines for caregivers.

  5. Elder neglect.

    PubMed

    del Carmen, Tessa; LoFaso, Veronica M

    2014-11-01

    Because neglect is the most common form of elder abuse, identifying patients who are vulnerable to neglect allows clinicians to intervene early and potentially prevent situations that can escalate and lead to harm or even death. Health care workers have a unique opportunity to uncover these unfortunate situations and in many cases may be the only other contact isolated vulnerable patients have with the outside world. Responding appropriately and quickly when neglect is suspected and using a team approach can improve the health and well-being of older victims of neglect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Injury in Australian veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Fritschi, Lin; Day, Lesley; Shirangi, Adeleh; Robertson, Ian; Lucas, Michael; Vizard, Andrew

    2006-05-01

    There are a number of risk factors for traumatic injury in veterinary practice but there is little information on the prevalence of injuries or the factors associated with injury in this profession. To identify the prevalence of injuries sustained by veterinarians and the groups most at risk for different types of injury. Cross-sectional survey of Australian veterinarians. Subjects were asked whether they had ever had a significant work-related injury, a less serious acute work injury in the last 12 months, a work-related chronic musculoskeletal problem or dog or cat bites. The prevalence of injuries by gender, practice type and decade of graduation were reported and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the risk of each type of injury. Of 2800 veterinarians, over half (51%) reported a significant work-related injury during their career while 26% of practitioners reported having at least one injury in the previous 12 months. Chronic work-related musculoskeletal problems were reported by 49% of respondents. Dog and cat bites were also very common. After adjusting for graduation year and university, males were more likely than females to have experienced cat or dog bites or have a chronic or significant injury, and large animal veterinarians were most likely to have chronic or significant injuries. A high injury prevalence was found among Australian veterinarians with large animal practitioners at highest risk. This is the largest study of Australian veterinarians to have been reported and has shown that injuries are common and serious in the profession.

  7. Oral health care in long-term care facilities for elderly people in southern Brazil: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Mello, Ana Lúcia Schaefer Ferreira de; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Brondani, Mario

    2010-03-01

    To present a theoretical model for understanding oral health care for the elderly in the context of long-term care institutions (LTCI). Open-ended individual interviews were conducted with the elderly residing in LTCI, their carers, nursing technicians and nurses, directors of care, dental surgeons and managers of public health services. A grounded theory methodological approach was adopted for data collection and analysis. The emerging core category revealed a basic social process: 'Promoting oral health care for the elderly based on the context of LTCI'. This process was composed of two contradicting yet correlated aspects: the oral health care does not minimise the poor oral epidemiological condition, and at the same time, there was a continued improvement in the oral care expressed by better care practices. These aspects were related to the: attribution of meaning to oral health, social determination of oral health, the ageing process, interactions established in the oral health care practices, oral health care management in LTCI, inclusion of oral health care into the political-organisational dimension and possibility of conjecturing better oral health care practices. The core concept of 'Promotion of oral health care for elderly people based on the context of LTCI' is capable of explaining the variations in the structure and process of LTCI, as well as in helping to understand the meaning of the oral health care practices for the institutionalised elderly.

  8. Crime and the Elderly.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    The elderly are differentially affected by crime and the fear of crime due to their increased vulnerability and, as such, warrant a certain degree of...specialized handling and understanding by the police. The information presented in this thesis will enhance police knowledge of the elderly and... elderly and, ideally, result in less elderly victimization and a better living environment and quality of life for the elderly .

  9. Review of Australian Higher Education: An Australian Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is one of the key foundations that economic prosperity is founded upon. Government policies, funding and strategic planning require a fine balance to stimulate growth, prosperity health and well-being. The key Australian government policies influenced by a Review of Australian Higher Education report include attracting many more…

  10. Review of Australian Higher Education: An Australian Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is one of the key foundations that economic prosperity is founded upon. Government policies, funding and strategic planning require a fine balance to stimulate growth, prosperity health and well-being. The key Australian government policies influenced by a Review of Australian Higher Education report include attracting many more…

  11. A systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions designed to prevent or stop elder maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Ayalon, Liat; Lev, Sagit; Green, Ohad; Nevo, Uziel

    2016-03-01

    elder maltreatment is a major risk for older adults' mental health, quality of life, health, institutionalisation and even mortality. to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions designed to prevent or stop elder abuse. Studies that were posted between January 2000 and December 2014, written in English, specifically designed to prevent or stop elder maltreatment were included. overall, 24 studies (and four records reporting on the same participants) were kept for the systematic review and the meta-analysis. Studies were broadly grouped into three main categories: (i) interventions designed to improve the ability of professionals to detect or stop elder maltreatment (n = 2), (ii) interventions that target older adults who experience elder maltreatment (n = 3) and (iii) interventions that target caregivers who maltreat older adults (n = 19). Of the latter category, one study targeted family caregivers, five targeted psychological abuse among paid carers and the remaining studies targeted restraint use. The pooled effect of randomised controlled trials (RCTs)/cluster-RCTs that targeted restraint use was significant, supporting the effectiveness of these interventions in reducing restraint use: standardised mean difference: -0.24, 95% confidence interval = -0.38 to -0.09. the most effective place to intervene at the present time is by directly targeting physical restraint by long-term care paid carers. Specific areas that are still lacking evidence at the present time are interventions that target (i) elder neglect, (ii) public awareness, (iii) older adults who experience maltreatment, (iv) professionals responsible for preventing maltreatment, (v) family caregivers who abuse and (vi) carers who abuse. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Australian University International Student Finances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2009-01-01

    The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study…

  13. Towards Inclusion: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the views of the Australian Special Education Principals' Association (ASEPA) on inclusion and the impact this is having on Australian Government Schools from a school based perspective. ASEPA is a relatively young association and was formed in 1997 out of the need to put forward the case to support students with special…

  14. Ambiguities in Spoken Australian English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, C. V.

    1971-01-01

    Pronunciation of some sounds in Australian English causes ambiguities in cases where phonemes seem to have merged. This paper discusses some of the ambiguities arising from phonemic changes and provides examples of pronunciation variations in British and Australian English--mainly in vowels, but also in consonants and syllabification. Several…

  15. Towards Inclusion: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the views of the Australian Special Education Principals' Association (ASEPA) on inclusion and the impact this is having on Australian Government Schools from a school based perspective. ASEPA is a relatively young association and was formed in 1997 out of the need to put forward the case to support students with special…

  16. Australian University International Student Finances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2009-01-01

    The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study…

  17. Network-based rehabilitation increases formal support of frail elderly home-dwelling persons in Finland: randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ollonqvist, Kirsi; Aaltonen, Tuula; Karppi, Sirkka-Liisa; Hinkka, Katariina; Pöntinen, Seppo

    2008-03-01

    The AGE study is a national randomised, long-term, multicentre research project aimed at comparing a new network-based rehabilitation programme with the use of standard health and social services. The use of home help services is associated with increasing age, living alone and having difficulties with activities of daily living. During a rehabilitation intervention the elderly participants' need for care can be assessed. The focus of this paper is to investigate the possible effects of the network-based rehabilitation programme on the use of informal and formal support among home-dwelling elderly at a high risk of long-term institutionalisation. The randomised controlled trial with a 12-month follow-up was implemented in 7 rehabilitation centres and 41 municipalities in Finland. The participants were recruited between January and October 2002. A total of 708 home-dwelling persons aged 65 years or older with progressively decreasing functional capacity and at the risk of being institutionalised within 2 years participated. Persons with acute or progressive diseases or poor cognitive capacity (Mini Mental State Examination<18 points), and those who had participated in any inpatient rehabilitation during the preceding 5 years, were excluded. Participants were randomly allocated to the intervention group (n=343) or to the control group (n=365). The intervention consisted of a network-based rehabilitation programme specifically designed for frail elderly people. Main outcome measures included the help received from relatives and municipal or private services. The use of municipal services increased more in the intervention group (P<0.05) than in the control group. Support from relatives decreased in the control group. The rehabilitees' ability to manage with daily activities decreased and they received additional help; hence, in this respect the rehabilitation model seems successful. A longer follow-up within the still ongoing AGE study is needed to verify whether the

  18. [Differences in the expression of the frailty syndrome in institutionalized elderly men and women with no severe cognitive decline].

    PubMed

    Garrido, Margarita; Serrano, María Dolores; Bartolomé, Raquel; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    To analyse the differences between men and women as regards the prevalence of the frailty syndrome, its association with different sociodemographic and bio-psychosocial health factors, and its impact on the level of dependence of institutionalised elderly men and women with no severe cognitive decline. A cross-sectional, descriptive and multicenter study was conducted in 16 nursing homes in Cuenca (Spain). A representative sample of 281 elderly who fulfilled the inclusion criteria was randomly selected. frailty following Fried's criteria, age, gender, morbidity, geriatric syndromes, level of dependence, cognitive status, mood and quality of life. The overall prevalence of frailty was 53.7% (60% among women). The following criteria were associated with frailty: age, respiratory diseases, arthritis, diabetes, sensory deficits, urinary and faecal incontinences, polypharmacy, hospitalization in the past year, functional impairment, cognitive decline and depressive symptoms. The states of frailty were independently associated with dependence (OR=5.1), more strongly in men (OR=7.3) than in women (OR=3.6). Clinical criteria of frailty that best predicted dependence were: exhaustion in women (OR=4.7) and low physical activity in men (OR=12.3). The prevalence of frailty found among the institutionalised elderly population was greater than that expected for a general population. Older frail adults had poorer biological and psychosocial health results, suggesting that the physical decline is accompanied by an identity crisis. Frailty expresses differently in men and women. Women have a higher prevalence, but its impact on their dependence is less than men. Copyright © 2012 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Sexuality and Australian law.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The author describes the changing legal environment concerning same-sex relationships in the common law world with special reference to Australia. He refers to shifts in public opinion recorded in opinion polls; important decisions of human rights courts and tribunals; and changes in national law and court decisions. He then reviews the Australian constitutional setting which divides lawmaking responsibility on such subjects between the federal, State and Territory legislatures. He describes initiatives adopted in the States and Territories and the more modest changes effected in federal law and practice. He concludes on a note of optimism concerning Australia's future reforms affecting discrimination on the grounds of sexuality.

  20. Oral health status and treatment need among institutionalised hearing-impaired and blind children and young adults in Udaipur, India. A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Jain, Manish; Bharadwaj, Surya Prakash; Kaira, Laxman Singh; Bharadwaj, Surya Prakash; Chopra, Devendra; Prabu, Duraiswamy; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and compare the oral health status and the treatment needs of the institutionalised hearing-impaired and blind children and young adults in the city of Udaipur, Rajasthan, India. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 498 institutionalised hearing-impaired and blind people, aged 4 to 23 years, in the city of Udaipur, Rajasthan. The World Health Organization oral health assessment basic methods and form (1997) were used for data collection. Clinical examinations were carried out in the institute's medical room or classroom by single examiner with the aid of a mouth mirror, explorer and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) probe under adequate natural light (Type III examination). The resulting data were entered into statistical software and analysed by applying the chi-square test, ANOVA, t-test and stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. The total mean DMFT (decayed-missing-filled teeth) and mean dft scores were 1.77 and 0.27 respectively. The largest component of DMFT was the D, with a mean of 1.49. The F component of 0.08 was very low. Mean DMFT/dft was greater among hearing-impaired than among blind subjects. Overall, 159 (32%) were periodontally healthy (CPI=0), 162 (32%) had shallow pockets (CPI=3) and 36 (7%) had deeper pockets (CPI=4). A higher percentage of the blind (87; 43%) than the hearing-impaired (72; 24%) subjects were periodontally healthy (CPI score=0). One-surface fillings were the most commonly provided form of past treatment. The findings in this study highlight the lack of dental treatment for this group. Overall oral health status was poorer in the hearing-impaired than in the blind subjects.

  1. [Current situation of the research on living conditions and health status of elderly people in Spain].

    PubMed

    Machón-Sobrado, Mónica; Vergara-Mitxeltorena, Itziar; Dorronsoro-Iraeta, Miren; Larrañaga-Larrañaga, Nerea; Vrotsou, Kalliopi; Larrañaga-Padilla, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    To analyse the dimensions studied with respect to living and health conditions of the non-institutionalised elderly in the scientific literature in Spain. A content analysis based on secondary sources was carried out by literature searches in Pubmed and Embase in Spanish and English. The search strategies combined terms related to older people, health and/or living conditions and with Spain. All studies assessing living and/or health conditions of elderly in Spain were included. Studies analyzing a specific aspect of living or health conditions and those based on institutionalized population were excluded. A total of 14 studies were considered in the content analysis. The studies are usually local, cross-sectional and data collection is done by direct interview. Variability was observed in the aspects analysed about living and health conditions. All studies included: sociodemographic characteristics, health status and lifestyle habits. Issues related to the status of the out-of home environment are poorly analysed. This work allows knowing the dimensions prioritised in the studies carried out to date about health and living conditions in Spain. It also provides key elements for the development of future research aiming to integrate both living and health conditions of elderly population, both aspects closely related. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk factors for cancer in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Castles, Simon; Wainer, Zoe; Jayasekara, Harindra

    2016-01-01

    Cancer incidence in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population is higher and survival lower compared with non-Indigenous Australians. A proportion of these cancers are potentially preventable if factors associated with carcinogenesis are known and successfully avoided. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature to examine risk factors for cancer in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. Electronic databases Medline, Web of Science and the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Bibliographic Index were searched through August 2014 using broad search terms. Studies reporting a measure of association between a risk factor and any cancer site in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population were eligible for inclusion. Ten studies (1991-2014) were identified, mostly with small sample sizes, showing marked heterogeneity in terms of methods used to assess exposure and capture outcomes, and often using descriptive comparative analyses. Relatively young (as opposed to elderly) and geographically remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders were found to be at increased risk for selected cancers while most modifiable lifestyle and behavioural risk factors were rarely assessed. Further studies examining associations between potential risk factors and cancer will help define public health policy for cancer prevention in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population.

  3. Conservation among Elderly Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughston, George A.; Protinsky, Howard O.

    1979-01-01

    The majority of 63 elderly women were able to pass tests in the conservation of mass (98 percent), volume (100 percent), and surface area (65 percent). These results conflict with previous research about Piagetian abilities of elderly people. (RL)

  4. Elder Abuse FAQS

    MedlinePlus

    ... of older Americans Prev Play Pause Next Elder abuse is a complex issue that intersects with many ... You are a front line defender against elder abuse. Everyone has a role in preventing and combatting ...

  5. Elder care - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - elder care ... The following organizations are good resources for information on aging and elder care: Administration on Aging -- www.aoa.gov Eldercare Locator -- www.eldercare.gov National Institute on ...

  6. Conservation among Elderly Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughston, George A.; Protinsky, Howard O.

    1979-01-01

    The majority of 63 elderly women were able to pass tests in the conservation of mass (98 percent), volume (100 percent), and surface area (65 percent). These results conflict with previous research about Piagetian abilities of elderly people. (RL)

  7. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Marilyn J.; Doyle, Kathleen

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was developed to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect of elderly people in several rural counties in central Illinois. A primary purpose of the study was to survey service providers as to their actual encounters with elder abuse and neglect. Each provider was asked about warning signs or cues that were…

  8. Australians' use of surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Everingham, Sam G; Stafford-Bell, Martyn A; Hammarberg, Karin

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the characteristics of parents and intended parents and their current and planned behaviour in relation to surrogacy arrangements. Members of two Australian parenting support forums who were considering surrogacy or were currently or previously in a surrogacy arrangement were invited to complete an online survey during July 2013. Sociodemographic characteristics; proportions engaging in domestic uncompensated and overseas compensated arrangements; countries used; costs incurred; and impact on behaviour of state laws criminalising compensated surrogacy. Of 1135 potential participants, 312 (27%) commenced the survey. Of these, 24 did not fulfil inclusion criteria and 29 did not complete the survey. Eighty-nine respondents were considering surrogacy and 170 had commenced or completed surrogacy. Many respondents (53%) considered both overseas and domestic surrogacy. Among those who only considered one option, overseas surrogacy was considered significantly more often than domestic surrogacy (92% v 8%; P < 0.05). Only 22 respondents (8%) commenced with a surrogate in Australia. The most common countries used for compensated surrogacy were India and the United States, and average total estimated costs were $69 212 for India and $172 347 for the US. Barriers discouraging domestic surrogacy included concern that the surrogate might keep the child (75%), belief that it was too long and complicated a process (68%) and having no one of the right age or life stage to ask (61%). Few intended parents (9%) were deterred by state laws criminalising compensated surrogacy. Most Australian intended parents via surrogacy consider or use overseas compensated arrangements. Laws banning compensated surrogacy do not appear to deter those seeking surrogacy arrangements.

  9. Nursing on the australian trail.

    PubMed

    1988-01-23

    Sharks, crocodiles, spitting spiders and army rations were just some of the health hazards encountered by Accident and Emergency Staff Nurse Linda Mutti on her recent trip to the Australian island of Badu with Operation Raleigh.

  10. Australian helminths in Australian rodents: an issue of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Warner, L R

    1998-06-01

    The Australian public as well as Australian funding bodies are generally unsympathetic to native murids, rats and mice, in spite of the fact that 36% have either become extinct or critically endangered since European settlement. The endemic Australian parasites of these rats and mice have been even less sympathetically regarded. Prior to 1958 very little work was carried out on the helminths of Australian rodents and little more is known today. Records are known from only 28% of the extant host species, comprising some 109 species of helminth identified at least to generic level. The rodents invaded Australia from the north, perhaps through New Guinea in at least two separate waves, 5-8 then about 1 million years ago. The parasites they brought with them have adapted and speciated and there has been some host switching between rodent groups and between rodents and the Australian marsupials. This is illustrated particularly in the Trichostrongyloidea. The origins of the rodents from Southeast Asia down the Indonesian island chain are reflected in the presence of the nematode genus Tikusnema in both Australia and Indonesia, and Cyclodontostomum purvisi across Southeast Asia and into New Guinea. Hydromys chrysogaster, the Australian water-rat, illustrates how the biogeographical influences of the host's distribution and lifestyle can affect its parasite fauna. Most of the research to date is merely indicative of where more data are needed. The links between Australian and New Guinean helminth fauna, as well as the links between rodent and marsupial hosts and their fauna, cannot be determined without further research.

  11. The Civic Mission of Australian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lawrence; Muirhead, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the origins and meaning of civic responsibility in the Australian model of the university, beginning with medieval European universities and progressing through Australian reforms of the 20th century. Warns against the university without a civic mission. (SLD)

  12. The role of primary health care services to better meet the needs of Aboriginal Australians transitioning from prison to the community.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Jane E; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Abbott, Penny; Baldry, Eileen; McEntyre, Elizabeth; Reath, Jennifer; Indig, Devon; Sherwood, Juanita; Harris, Mark F

    2015-07-22

    Aboriginal Australians are more likely than other Australians to cycle in and out of prison on remand or by serving multiple short sentences-a form of serial incarceration and institutionalisation. This cycle contributes to the over-representation of Aboriginal Australians in prison and higher rates of recidivism. Our research examined how primary health care can better meet the health care and social support needs of Aboriginal Australians transitioning from prison to the community. Purposive sampling was used to identify 30 interviewees. Twelve interviews were with Aboriginal people who had been in prison; ten were with family members and eight with community service providers who worked with former inmates. Thematic analysis was conducted on the interviewees' description of their experience of services provided to prisoners both during incarceration and on transition to the community. Interviewees believed that effective access to primary health care on release and during transition was positively influenced by providing appropriate healthcare to inmates in custody and by properly planning for their release. Further, interviewees felt that poor communication between health care providers in custody and in the community prior to an inmate's release, contributed to a lack of comprehensive management of chronic conditions. System level barriers to timely communication between in-custody and community providers included inmates being placed on remand which contributed to uncertainty regarding release dates and therefore difficulties planning for release, cycling in and out of prison on short sentences and being released to freedom without access to support services. For Aboriginal former inmates and family members, release from prison was a period of significant emotional stress and commonly involved managing complex needs. To support their transition into the community, Aboriginal former inmates would benefit from immediate access to culturally- responsive

  13. [Longitudinal analysis of nutrition parameters in a cohort of elderly people with and without dementia].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Viadero, Carlos; Peña Sarabia, Nicolás; Jiménez-Sanz, Magdalena; Ordóñez-González, Javier; Verduga Vélez, Rosario; Crespo Santiago, Dámaso

    2016-01-01

    It is important to assess longitudinal nutritional parameters during the ageing process in order to determine body composition changes. This procedure is more relevant when dealing with institutionalised geriatric patients suffering from cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to assess the interactions, if any, between mental status and several nutritional parameters in a cohort of elderly people. A longitudinal prospective two years follow-up evaluation was performed on 301 elderly residents (233 females and 68 males) in a nursing home, of whom 51 of them fulfilled the clinical criteria for dementia. Both anthropometric and biochemical parameters were obtained annually, according to standard procedures. The dementia group had lower values when compared to the non-dementia group. Furthermore, nutritional values remained constant in the group with cognitive impairment (no significant differences were observed throughout the study period). BMI 24.5±4.9 vs 24.2±4.1; tricipital skinfold 15.0±6.0 vs 14.7±6.9; brachial circumference 25.9±3.3 vs 25.7±3.5, and albumin 3.7±0.3 vs 3.7±0.3. At the end of the study, the group without cognitive impairment showed lower values in all the parameters analysed when compared to the baseline ones, except for bicipital fold and plasma triglycerides. Our study shows that there are no variations in the elderly with cognitive impairment, as regards the nutritional, anthropometric and biochemist parameters analysed. On the contrary, the group with normal cognitive status showed a reduction in most of the parameters. Further studies analysing larger populations of elderly people and over longer periods of time will provide more information to improve our knowledge on this important issue. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Changing Patterns of Governance for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Kay; Treadgold, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with the "corporate" model for university governance, a model advocated by both sides of the Australian parliament and adopted by Australian universities over the past two decades, prompted the Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee (AVCC) in 2003 to suggest an alternative "trusteeship" model. The paper…

  15. Embracing Babel: The "Framework for Australian Languages"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troy, Jaky; Walsh, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) has been developing language-specific curricula for a range of languages in the "Australian Curriculum: Language"s and has also undertaken development of a "Framework for Australian Languages", to provide guidance for the development of curricula for specific…

  16. Changing Patterns of Governance for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Kay; Treadgold, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with the "corporate" model for university governance, a model advocated by both sides of the Australian parliament and adopted by Australian universities over the past two decades, prompted the Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee (AVCC) in 2003 to suggest an alternative "trusteeship" model. The paper…

  17. "English" in the "Australian Curriculum: English"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This is the text of a paper given at the 2011 Symposium of the Australian Academy of the Humanities on the theme, "Educating the Nation: The Humanities in the New Australian Curriculum", the 42nd Annual Symposium of the Australian Academy of the Humanities at the University of Melbourne, 17 November 2011. It was presented in a session on…

  18. Embracing Babel: The "Framework for Australian Languages"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troy, Jaky; Walsh, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) has been developing language-specific curricula for a range of languages in the "Australian Curriculum: Language"s and has also undertaken development of a "Framework for Australian Languages", to provide guidance for the development of curricula for specific…

  19. National Mythology on Television: The Australian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Myles P.

    In view of the increasing interest in the mass media's role in the creation, maintenance, transformation, and celebration of whole cultures, the Australian experience with nationalistic mythmaking in film and television should be examined. Research reveals that Australians prefer watching Australian programs to watching British or American…

  20. Electrical safety: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Ward, A

    1982-02-01

    Australia has an electricity mains supply that differs from those of most countries. Safety standards relating to both the mains supply and mains-powered apparatus also differ. This paper describes the mechanism of electric shock and methods of shock protection - core-balance relays, protected earth-free supplies and equipotential earthing are considered. Australian safety standards as applied to earthed mains-powered apparatus are summarized. Particular attention is given to class A and B treatment areas and electromedical apparatus having a patient circuit. Class A, B and Z patient circuits are described. Copyright © 1982 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by . All rights reserved.

  1. Second Languages and Australian Schooling. Australian Education Review No. 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo Bianco, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    It is an underlying principle of Australian Education Review (AER) 54 that active efforts should be made to cultivate the latent bilingual potential within Australia's wider population and that this should be linked to major improvements in the quality of language teaching in schools. A combined approach of this kind will require investment in…

  2. Second Languages and Australian Schooling. Australian Education Review No. 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo Bianco, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    It is an underlying principle of Australian Education Review (AER) 54 that active efforts should be made to cultivate the latent bilingual potential within Australia's wider population and that this should be linked to major improvements in the quality of language teaching in schools. A combined approach of this kind will require investment in…

  3. Malnutrition among the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Rauscher, C.

    1993-01-01

    Nutrition is a significant determinant of health. Undernutrition presenting as malnutrition is a serious health concern for frail elderly people with many health problems. Understanding the risk factors for malnutrition helps physicians assess and manage the condition. Primary care physicians are in an excellent position to screen, educate, and manage their elderly malnourished patients. Images p1396-a PMID:8324408

  4. [Pneumonia in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Catherinot, Emilie

    2012-01-01

    Pneumonia is a serious medical pathology frequent in elderly people. The physiological changes of the respiratory system linked with age reduce postural drainage capacities and increase the risk of acute respiratory failure. Associated with other comorbidities, chronic inhalation is a major risk factor of pneumonia in elderly people. Prevention is based on vaccination, nutrition, dental care and an adapted diet.

  5. Cancer and the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Veath, J.M.; Meyer, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book compiles the pages presented at the annual conference on the subject of cancer of elderly patients and radiotherapy and surgery. The topics discussed were: Diagnostic techniques of radiology for elderly patients; cancer of breasts and its management and monitoring. Hormonal dependence of cancer breast was also partly discussed.

  6. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Kathleen; Morrow, Marilyn J.

    1985-01-01

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was undertaken: (1) to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect in seven Illinois counties; and (2) to develop, produce, and distribute educational materials on elder abuse for the service provider and for senior citizens. Results are presented and discussed. (MT)

  7. Elder Abuse in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arai, Mizuho

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…

  8. Elder Abuse in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arai, Mizuho

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…

  9. Malnutrition among the elderly.

    PubMed

    Rauscher, C

    1993-06-01

    Nutrition is a significant determinant of health. Undernutrition presenting as malnutrition is a serious health concern for frail elderly people with many health problems. Understanding the risk factors for malnutrition helps physicians assess and manage the condition. Primary care physicians are in an excellent position to screen, educate, and manage their elderly malnourished patients.

  10. [Anemia in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Maerevoet, M; Sattar, L; Bron, D; Gulbis, B; Pepersack, T

    2014-09-01

    Anaemia is a problem that affects almost 10% over 65 years and 20% over 85 years. There is no physiological anaemia in the elderly. Any anaemia expresses the existence of a pathological process, regardless of its severity. Anaemia in the elderly is always associated with a poor prognosis that is in terms of mortality, morbidity and risk of fragility. The diagnostic approach to anemia in the elderly is the same as in younger individual. There are many causes of anaemia; anaemia balance is a complex diagnostic process. Most anaemias are due to a deficiency, chronic inflammation or comorbidity. However, in the elderly, the etiology of anaemia is often multifactorial. In a number of cases remain unexplained anaemia. In a number of cases, anemia remain unexplained. Treatment of anaemia is the treatment of the cause, but specific therapeutic aspects to the elderly should be considered, as among other martial substitution or use of erythropoietin (EPO).

  11. Elder mistreatment in women.

    PubMed

    Fulmer, Terry; Guadagno, Lisa; Bolton, Marguarette M

    2004-01-01

    Elder mistreatment is a serious syndrome that affects more than 1.5 million older Americans every year. Actions such as abuse, neglect, exploitation, and abandonment by caregivers, relatives, friends, or acquaintances can have devastating sequelae for the elderly. Such actions may be intentional or unintentional, but the detrimental outcomes for older individuals can destroy the elder's quality of life and health. A lack of empirical research addresses gender differences in elder mistreatment. There is also confusion and debate over what constitutes elder mistreatment in older women versus what is domestic violence that has continued into later life. Professional nurses need to include both types of screening for their older female patients in order to address both types of family violence.

  12. Promoting Leadership in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Andrew P.; Grice, Tim; Paulsen, Neil

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we review current practices for developing and promoting academic leadership in universities. We consider the forms of leadership that are appropriate for academic organisations, while exploring the types of leadership favoured by recruitment and promotion committees. Using the Australian higher education context as a case study, we…

  13. Staff Bullying in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Dan; Duncan, Deirdre J.; Edwards, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of staff bullying in Australian schools, to identify bullies and targets and to examine some implications for school leaders in dealing with staff bullying. Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative research design survey instrument contained 11 demographic items, 44 questions of…

  14. Big Ideas for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Within weeks of taking office, Australia's new Labor government commissioned two major reviews--one of Australia's innovation system and one of Australian higher education. Taken together, these reviews will have major implications for the future of research and teaching in Australia for decades to come. This paper discusses the main…

  15. Catalogue of Australian Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A catalogue of all families, subfamilies, genera, and species of Cynipoidea present in Australia is presented here. The Australian cynipoid fauna is very poorly known, with 37 genera cited: one each for Austrocynipidae, Ibaliidae, Liopteridae, two for Cynipidae, and 32 for Figitidae. The first Austr...

  16. The 2005 Australian Informatics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the Australian Informatics Competition (AIC), a non-programming competition aimed at identifying students with potential in programming and algorithmic design. It is the first step in identifying students to represent Australia at the International Olympiad in Informatics. The main aim of the AIC is to increase awareness of…

  17. Employee Participation: Some Australian Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansbury, Russell D.; Davis, Edward M.

    1992-01-01

    The Australian Workplace Industrial Relations Survey of 2,353 companies showed sporadic employee participation in decision making. Although case studies of Ford Motor, Australia Post, Lend Lease, Telecom Australia, and Woodlawn Mining illustrate successful programs, most managers appear cautious about industrial democracy. (SK)

  18. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  19. Skills Gaps in Australian Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of more than 2000 managers examining perceptions of skills gaps in a range of Australian firms. It finds that three quarters report a skills gap, and almost one third report skills gaps across the whole organisation. Firm size and industry differences exist in perceptions of the effect of the skills gap…

  20. Techniques of Australian forest planning

    Treesearch

    Australian Forestry Council

    1978-01-01

    Computer modeling has been extensively adopted for Australian forest planning over the last ten years. It has been confined almost entirely to the plantations of fast-growing species for which adequate inventory, growth, and experimental data are available. Stand simulation models have replaced conventional yield tables and enabled a wide range of alternative...

  1. Staff Bullying in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Dan; Duncan, Deirdre J.; Edwards, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of staff bullying in Australian schools, to identify bullies and targets and to examine some implications for school leaders in dealing with staff bullying. Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative research design survey instrument contained 11 demographic items, 44 questions of…

  2. Arabic in Australian Islamic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Presents census data on the Muslim population in Australia and overviews full-time independent Islamic schools offering a comprehensive education across the curriculum. Argues that these schools offer great potential for the successful development of Arabic language and cultural literacy skills required by Australian exporters and diplomats in the…

  3. Australian Nursing Informatics Competency Project.

    PubMed

    Foster, Joanne; Bryce, Julianne

    2009-01-01

    A study of Australian nurses on their use of information technology in the workplace was undertaken by the Australian Nursing Federation (ANF) in 2007. This study of over 4000 nurses highlighted that nurses recognise benefits to adopting more information technology in the workplace although there are significant barriers to their use. It also identified gross deficits in the capacity of the nursing workforce to engage in the digital processing of information. Following the release of the study last year, the ANF commenced work on a number of key recommendations from the report in order to overcome identified barriers and provide opportunities for nurses to better utilise information technology and information management systems. One of these recommendations was to seek research funding to develop national information technology and information management competency standards for nurses. This project has now received Federal Government funding to undertake this development. This project is being developed in collaboration with the ANF and the Queensland University of Technology. This paper will discuss the methodology, development and publication of the Australian Nursing Informatics Competency Standards Project which is currently underway and due for completion in May 2009. The Australian Nursing Informatics Competencies will be presented at the conference.

  4. The Spirituality of Young Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael; Singleton, Andrew; Webber, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    A research project conducted in 2003-2006, the Spirit of Generation Y, using both extended interviews and a nationwide survey, revealed three main strands in the spirituality of young Australians: traditional, alternative and humanist. Their involvement in traditional religions was declining, like that of their parents, and although some adopted…

  5. The Spirituality of Young Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael; Singleton, Andrew; Webber, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    A research project conducted in 2003-2006, the Spirit of Generation Y, using both extended interviews and a nationwide survey, revealed three main strands in the spirituality of young Australians: traditional, alternative and humanist. Their involvement in traditional religions was declining, like that of their parents, and although some adopted…

  6. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  7. Australian Circuses as Cooperative Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Beverley J.

    2000-01-01

    Studied how circus personnel of all ages interact in Australian circuses to preserve traditional circus lifestyles and entertainment. Interviews with 30 personnel from 4 circuses show the importance of learning to be a member of a cooperative society through immersion. Results provide information about the education of a community of occupational…

  8. Skills Gaps in Australian Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of more than 2000 managers examining perceptions of skills gaps in a range of Australian firms. It finds that three quarters report a skills gap, and almost one third report skills gaps across the whole organisation. Firm size and industry differences exist in perceptions of the effect of the skills gap…

  9. Big Ideas for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Within weeks of taking office, Australia's new Labor government commissioned two major reviews--one of Australia's innovation system and one of Australian higher education. Taken together, these reviews will have major implications for the future of research and teaching in Australia for decades to come. This paper discusses the main…

  10. Correlation between the use of ‘over-the-counter’ medicines and adherence in elderly patients on multiple medications.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Charlotte; Harbig, Philipp; Barat, Ishay; Damsgaard, Else Marie

    2014-02-01

    Medication adherence is a multifaceted issue that is influenced by various factors. One factor may be the concurrent use of over-the-counter (OTC)medicines. The use of OTC medicine has been reported as common amongst elderly patients. To determine if a correlation exists between the use of OTC medicines and adherence to prescribed medications in elderly patients. Non-institutionalised elderly patients in Denmark. Elderly unassisted patients aged ≥65 prescribed five or more prescription drugs were included in the study. Information on the use of concurrent OTC medications (herbal medicines, dietary supplements, or non-prescribed drugs) was elicited during home visit interviews. Prescription drug adherence was determined by pill counts. A patient was categorised as non-adherent if the me an adherence rate for all drugs consumed was\\80 %. Different sensitivity analyses were made where adherence was defined different. Medication adherence based on pill-count. A total of 253 participants included 72 % who used OTC medicines and 11 % who did not adhere to their prescriptions. Users of OTC medicines, however, were significantly more likely to be adherent than were non-users (odds ratio 0.41; 95 %confidence interval 0.18–0.91). Sensitivity analyses where adherence was defined different show no relationship between adherence and use of OTC medicine. Furthermore,separate analyses of herbal medicines, dietary supplements,or non-prescribed drugs did not correlate with adherence to prescriptions. Amongst elderly patients on multiple medications a positive relationship was found between the overall use of OTC medicines and adherence to prescription drugs, in contrast to none when adherence were defined different or herbal medicines, dietary supplements, or non-prescribed drugs were analysed separately.

  11. Correlation between the use of 'over-the-counter' medicines and adherence in elderly patients on multiple medications.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Charlotte; Harbig, Philipp; Barat, Ishay; Damsgaard, Else Marie

    2013-10-12

    Background Medication adherence is a multifaceted issue that is influenced by various factors. One factor may be the concurrent use of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines. The use of OTC medicine has been reported as common amongst elderly patients. Objective To determine if a correlation exists between the use of OTC medicines and adherence to prescribed medications in elderly patients. Setting Non-institutionalised elderly patients in Denmark. Methods Elderly unassisted patients aged ≥65 prescribed five or more prescription drugs were included in the study. Information on the use of concurrent OTC medications (herbal medicines, dietary supplements, or non-prescribed drugs) was elicited during home visit interviews. Prescription drug adherence was determined by pill counts. A patient was categorised as non-adherent if the mean adherence rate for all drugs consumed was <80 %. Different sensitivity analyses were made where adherence was defined different. Main outcome measure Medication adherence based on pill-count. Results A total of 253 participants included 72 % who used OTC medicines and 11 % who did not adhere to their prescriptions. Users of OTC medicines, however, were significantly more likely to be adherent than were non-users (odds ratio 0.41; 95 % confidence interval 0.18-0.91). Sensitivity analyses where adherence was defined different show no relationship between adherence and use of OTC medicine. Furthermore, separate analyses of herbal medicines, dietary supplements, or non-prescribed drugs did not correlate with adherence to prescriptions. Conclusion Amongst elderly patients on multiple medications a positive relationship was found between the overall use of OTC medicines and adherence to prescription drugs, in contrast to none when adherence were defined different or herbal medicines, dietary supplements, or non-prescribed drugs were analysed separately.

  12. An innovative solid oral nutritional supplement to fight weight loss and anorexia: open, randomised controlled trial of efficacy in institutionalised, malnourished older adults.

    PubMed

    Pouyssegur, Valerie; Brocker, Patrice; Schneider, Stéphane M; Philip, Jean Luc; Barat, Philippe; Reichert, Ewa; Breugnon, Frederic; Brunet, Didier; Civalleri, Bruno; Solere, Jean Paul; Bensussan, Line; Lupi-Pegurier, Laurence

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of a solid nutritional supplement on the weight gain of institutionalised older adults>70 years with protein-energy malnutrition. The innovation of these high-protein and high-energy cookies was the texture adapted to edentulous patients (Protibis®, Solidages, France). An open, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Seven nursing homes. One hundred and seventy-five malnourished older adults, aged 86±8 years. All participants received the standard institutional diet. In addition, Intervention group participants received eight cookies daily (11.5 g protein; 244 kcal) for 6 weeks (w0-w6). Five visits (w-4, w0, w6, w10 and w18). Percentage of weight gain from w0 to w6 (body mass in kg). Appetite, rated using a numerical scale (0: no appetite to 10: extremely good appetite); current episodes of pressure ulcers and diarrhea. Average weight increased in Intervention group (n=88) compared with Control group (n=87) without cookies supplementation (+1.6 versus -0.7%, P=0.038). Weight gain persisted 1 month (+3.0 versus -0.2%, P=0.025) and 3 months after the end of cookies consumption (+3.9 versus -0.9%, P=0.003), with diarrhea reduction (P=0.027). There was a synergistic effect with liquid/creamy dietary supplements. Subgroup analysis confirmed the positive impact of cookies supplementation alone on weight increase (P=0.024), appetite increase (P=0.009) and pressure ulcers reduction (P=0.031). The trial suggested that, to fight against anorexia, the stimulation of touch (finger food; chewing, even on edentulous gums) and hearing (intra-oral sounds) could be valuable alternatives to sight, smell and taste alterations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. [Stories by the elderly].

    PubMed

    Cintra, Fernanda A; Delboux Diogo, Maria José; Filomena Ceolim, Maria

    2005-10-01

    This Brazilian article bears interest for its qualitative methodology which allows us to get a feeling for the elderly of this country being able to relate the results of their lives and knowledge to our own. The lack of an educational health program for the elderly led the authors to create the Health Care Group for the Elderly (GRASI in Portuguese) in which we developed an educational program based on the social-historical perspective of L. S. Vygotsky. This current study analyzes the dynamic speeches recorded by a group of elderly in the GRASI educational program. A group of seven elderly people, from both sexes, having an age equal to or greater than 60, participated in an analysis of the content from meetings among themselves. To analyze the data obtained, in the underlying text as well as their recorded speech, the feelings and meanings of their conversations and stories were identified and separated into thematic units. The results obtained reveal that the opportunity to express their experiences regarding the transformation the elderly have lived during their lives, and to find new ways to treat health problems or how to carry out self health care, is an important resource for elderly nursing care which can lead to the development of health education programs.

  14. Hypertension in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Hansson, L

    1996-10-01

    TREATMENT OF ELDERLY HYPERTENSIVES: Treatment of hypertension in the elderly is nowadays an accepted and highly effective medical intervention following the positive reports on the benefits of lowering elevated arterial pressure in elderly patients. Most of the intervention studies an antihypertensive treatment in elderly patients have used diuretics or beta-blockers or the two in combination as the therapy by which blood pressure was lowered. However, from a theoretical point of view, novel therapies such as calcium antagonists could offer advantages that would translate into an even greater reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than has been obtained with the traditional antihypertensive therapies used so far. DATA ON CALCIUM ANTAGONISTS IN THE ELDERLY: Some of the studies in elderly hypertensives that are currently in progress are using calcium antagonists as one of the main therapies, e.g. the Swedish Trial in Old patients with hypertension (STOP-Hypertension)-2 study and the Systolic hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) study. Another source of information is a large database on nicardipine, a dihydropyridine-derived calcium antagonist, used in the treatment of elderly hypertensives.

  15. Reporting elder mistreatment.

    PubMed

    Capezuti, E; Brush, B L; Lawson, W T

    1997-07-01

    Elder mistreatment, defined as the abuse and neglect of older persons, includes physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, caregiver and self-neglect, and financial exploitation. Fifty states and the District of Columbia have passed legislation to establish adult protective service (APS) programs. State APS statutes authorize APS agencies to investigate cases of elder mistreatment. Some status fund services to alleviate the abusive or neglectful situation. This article analyzes the critical aspects of state-specific APS legislation affecting nursing practice with older adults and the nurse's role in reporting cases of elder mistreatment.

  16. Longitudinal associations between body composition, sarcopenic obesity and outcomes of frailty, disability, institutionalisation and mortality in community-dwelling older men: The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project.

    PubMed

    Hirani, Vasant; Naganathan, Vasi; Blyth, Fiona; Le Couteur, David G; Seibel, Markus J; Waite, Louise M; Handelsman, David J; Cumming, Robert G

    2017-05-01

    to explore the longitudinal associations between body composition measures, sarcopenic obesity and outcomes of frailty, activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) disability, institutionalisation and mortality. men aged ≥ 70 years (2005-07) from the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project were assessed at baseline (n = 1,705), 2 (n = 1,366) and 5 years (n = 954). The main outcome measures were frailty (adapted Fried criteria), ADL, including personal care and mobility and IADL disability (ability to perform tasks for independent living), institutionalisation and mortality. The Foundation for the National Institutes of Health cut-points were used for low muscle mass: appendicular lean mass (ALM):Body Mass Index (BMI) ratio (ALMBMI) <0.789 and obesity was defined as >30% fat. Generalised estimating equations were used to examine the longitudinal associations between the independent variables (obesity alone, low muscle mass and sarcopenic obesity) and frailty, ADL and IADL disability. in unadjusted, age adjusted and fully adjusted analysis, men with low muscle mass showed increased risk of frailty and IADL disability. In fully adjusted analysis, men with sarcopenic obesity had an increased risk of frailty (odds ratio (OR): 2.00 (95% confidence of interval (CI): 1.42, 2.82)) ADL disability (OR: 1.58 (95% CI: 1.12, 2.24)) and IADL disability (OR: 1.36 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.76)). Obesity alone was protective for institutionalisation (OR: 0.51 (95% CI: 0.31, 0.84)) but was not associated with any other outcomes. low muscle mass and sarcopenic obesity were associated with poor functional outcomes, independent of confounders. This would suggest that future trials on frailty and disability prevention should be designed to intervene on both muscle mass and fat mass.

  17. Is a good death possible in Australian critical and acute settings?: physician experiences with end-of-life care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Australia approximately 70% of all deaths are institutionalised but over 15% of deaths occur in intensive care settings where the ability to provide a “good death” is particularly inhibited. Yet, there is a growing trend for death and dying to be managed in the ICU and physicians are increasingly challenged to meet the new expectations of their specialty. This study examined the unexplored interface between specialised Australian palliative and intensive care and the factors influencing a physician’s ability to manage deaths well. Method A qualitative investigation was focused on palliative and critical/acute settings. A thematic analysis was conducted on semi-structured in-depth interviews with 13 specialist physicians. Attention was given to eliciting meanings and experiences in Australian end-of-life care. Results Physicians negotiated multiple influences when managing dying patients and their families in the ICU. The way they understood and experienced end-of-life care practices was affected by cultural, institutional and professional considerations, and personal values and beliefs. Interpersonal and intrapsychic aspects highlighted the emotional and psychological relationship physicians have with patients and others. Many physicians were also unaware of what their cross-disciplinary colleagues could or could not do; poor professional recognition and collaboration, and ineffective care goal transition impaired their ability to assist good deaths. Experience was subject to the efficacy of physicians in negotiating complex bedside dynamics. Conclusions Regardless of specialty, all physicians identified the problematic nature of providing expert palliation in critical and acute settings. Strategies for integrating specialised palliative and intensive care were offered with corresponding directions for future research and clinical development. PMID:25147481

  18. Is a good death possible in Australian critical and acute settings?: physician experiences with end-of-life care.

    PubMed

    Trankle, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    In Australia approximately 70% of all deaths are institutionalised but over 15% of deaths occur in intensive care settings where the ability to provide a "good death" is particularly inhibited. Yet, there is a growing trend for death and dying to be managed in the ICU and physicians are increasingly challenged to meet the new expectations of their specialty. This study examined the unexplored interface between specialised Australian palliative and intensive care and the factors influencing a physician's ability to manage deaths well. A qualitative investigation was focused on palliative and critical/acute settings. A thematic analysis was conducted on semi-structured in-depth interviews with 13 specialist physicians. Attention was given to eliciting meanings and experiences in Australian end-of-life care. Physicians negotiated multiple influences when managing dying patients and their families in the ICU. The way they understood and experienced end-of-life care practices was affected by cultural, institutional and professional considerations, and personal values and beliefs. Interpersonal and intrapsychic aspects highlighted the emotional and psychological relationship physicians have with patients and others. Many physicians were also unaware of what their cross-disciplinary colleagues could or could not do; poor professional recognition and collaboration, and ineffective care goal transition impaired their ability to assist good deaths. Experience was subject to the efficacy of physicians in negotiating complex bedside dynamics. Regardless of specialty, all physicians identified the problematic nature of providing expert palliation in critical and acute settings. Strategies for integrating specialised palliative and intensive care were offered with corresponding directions for future research and clinical development.

  19. Pharmacokinetics in the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Mayersohn, M

    1994-01-01

    Animals undergo substantial changes in many physiologic and biochemical functions as a natural consequence of aging. In the absence of disease or other pathologic conditions, these changes occur in a gradual manner with time (generally expressed as a fractional or percentage change in that function per year or decade). Furthermore, for any given function and at any given chronologic age, there is large variation in that function among individuals. Given the increase in life expectancy, the substantial increase in the number of elderly (and aged elderly) in the population, and the escalating costs of health care, there is great interest in learning more about the risks associated with aging as a result of toxic exposure. Are the elderly at greater risk than younger adults to the toxic effects of drugs and environmental exposure? Is the elderly population an inherently more sensitive one? PMID:7737036

  20. Elder Abuse FAQS

    MedlinePlus

    ... your community with our ready-to-use, research rich elder abuse presentations and pamphlets Community ... Policies & Disclaimers Right Column Social Media For Employees Office of the Inspector General Open ...

  1. Nazi medical experiments on Australian prisoners of war: Commentary on the testimony of an Australian soldier.

    PubMed

    Weisz, George M

    2015-12-01

    Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments.

  2. Funding emergency care: Australian style.

    PubMed

    Bell, Anthony; Crilly, Julia; Williams, Ged; Wylie, Kate; Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Burke, John; FitzGerald, Gerry

    2014-08-01

    The ongoing challenge for ED leaders is to remain abreast of system-wide changes that impact on the day-to-day management of their departments. Changes to the funding model creates another layer of complexity and this introductory paper serves as the beginning of a discussion about the way in which EDs are funded and how this can and will impact on business decisions, models of care and resource allocation within Australian EDs. Furthermore it is evident that any funding model today will mature and change with time, and moves are afoot to refine and contextualise ED funding over the medium term. This perspective seeks to provide a basis of understanding for our current and future funding arrangements in Australian EDs.

  3. [Solitude in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Delisle, I

    1998-11-01

    Elderly people who are deprived of the warmth of human contact are at the risk of turning inward. For the very old, an atmosphere such as this can become psychologically catastrophic and lead to depressive syndromes such as extreme sadness, a desire to do nothing, sleep problems and even dementia. An in-depth analysis of the environment of the elderly inspires readers to address care objectives and interventions that will minimize and prevent these negative consequences.

  4. Folate and vitamin B12: friendly or enemy nutrients for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Cuskelly, Geraldine J; Mooney, Kathleen M; Young, Ian S

    2007-11-01

    In the UK vitamin B12 deficiency occurs in approximately 20% of adults aged >65 years. This incidence is significantly higher than that among the general population. The reported incidence invariably depends on the criteria of deficiency used, and in fact estimates rise to 24% and 46% among free-living and institutionalised elderly respectively when methylmalonic acid is used as a marker of vitamin B12 status. The incidence of, and the criteria for diagnosis of, deficiency have drawn much attention recently in the wake of the implementation of folic acid fortification of flour in the USA. This fortification strategy has proved to be extremely successful in increasing folic acid intakes pre-conceptually and thereby reducing the incidence of neural-tube defects among babies born in the USA since 1998. However, in successfully delivering additional folic acid to pregnant women fortification also increases the consumption of folic acid of everyone who consumes products containing flour, including the elderly. It is argued that consuming additional folic acid (as 'synthetic' pteroylglutamic acid) from fortified foods increases the risk of 'masking' megaloblastic anaemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. Thus, a number of issues arise for discussion. Are clinicians forced to rely on megaloblastic anaemia as the only sign of possible vitamin B12 deficiency? Is serum vitamin B12 alone adequate to confirm vitamin B12 deficiency or should other diagnostic markers be used routinely in clinical practice? Is the level of intake of folic acid among the elderly (post-fortification) likely to be so high as to cure or 'mask' the anaemia associated with vitamin B12 deficiency?

  5. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  6. Policy: Australian astronomy looks forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhathal, Ragbir

    2005-12-01

    Over the next decade, a new generation of instruments will come into being for the benefit of astronomers across the world. Australian astronomers hope to build on their strong astronomical heritage and continue to take part in astronomy at the highest international level. To this end, they have prepared a Decadal Plan that envisages building, with international partners, a world-class radio telescope, greater invovlement with 8 metre telescopes, as well as making the most of the Antarctic opportunities that Australia offers.

  7. [Australian short-beaked echidna].

    PubMed

    Rismiller, P

    1995-12-01

    The Australian short-beaked echidna, a monotreme, is one of the oldest living mammals on earth. It is recorded to be the most widely distributed native mammal on the island continent and classed as 'common'. Yet, little is known about its natural history and biology in the wild. What science has learned about the echidna in the past 200 years and why there are still large gaps is reported here.

  8. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly.

    PubMed

    Vukcević, Natasa Perković; Ercegović, Gordana Vuković; Segrt, Zoran; Djordjević, Snezana; Stosić, Jasmina Jović

    2016-03-01

    Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender), benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old), middle aged (41-65-year old) and elderly (older than 65). During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  9. Australian Defence Force Demographic Data and Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE DEMOGRAPHIC DATA AND CHALLENGES Directorate of Strategic Personnel Planning and Research DSPPR Technical Note 10/2001...DATE 00 OCT 2001 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Australian Defence Force Demographic Data and Challenges 5a...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE DEMOGRAPHIC DATA AND CHALLENGES The findings and views expressed in this report are the results

  10. The Australian Science Facilities Program: A Study of Its Influence on Science Education in Australian Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainley, John G.

    This report is a study conducted by the Australian Council for Educational Research to evaluate the influence of science material resources, provided under the Australian Science Facilities Program, on science education in Australia. Under the Australian Science Facilities Program some $123 million was spent, between July 1964 and June 1975, on…

  11. The Politics Are Personal: "The Australian" vs the Australian Curriculum in History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tony; Collins, Sue

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the relationship between the conservative newspaper "The Australian" and the development of a national history curriculum in Australia. The lead author surveyed the major Australian press in the five-year period between 2007 and 2012 and found clear patterns of difference between "The Australian" and other…

  12. Trends in Australian government health expenditure by age: a fiscal incidence analysis.

    PubMed

    Tapper, Alan; Phillimore, John

    2014-11-01

    Australian government health expenditure per capita has grown steadily across the past few decades, but little is known about trends in the age distribution of health expenditure. In this paper, the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) fiscal incidence studies, which track expenditure at the household level between 1984 and 2010, are used to shed light on this topic. The main finding was that spending has shifted focus from the younger half to the older half of the population. This shift is evident in three areas: (1) acute care (hospitals); (2) community health services (doctors); and (3) pharmaceuticals. Together, these areas account for approximately 88% of expenditure. The trend is independent of demographic aging. It is unlikely to reflect changes in population health. Its explanation is open to debate. Growth in expenditure per household has been more than threefold faster for elderly than young households. Across this period, expenditure per household per week has increased by 51% for the young, by 79% for the middle aged and by 179% for the elderly. This age-related growth is most prominent in expenditure on acute care, community health services and pharmaceuticals. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC?: The Productivity Commission has published figures that relate age and Australian heath expenditure. However, there has been no published study of age-related trends in Australian health expenditure. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD?: In addition to tracking age-related trends across 26 years, this paper adds a breakdown of those trends into four categories of expenditure, namely acute care, community health services, pharmaceutical benefits, and other. This breakdown shows that the trends vary by expenditure type. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS?: The paper shows that forward projections in health expenditure need to take into account age-related trends as well as demographic trends.

  13. Positive and negative outcomes of informal caregiving at home and in institutionalised long-term care: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Metzelthin, Silke F; Verbakel, Ellen; Veenstra, Marja Y; van Exel, Job; Ambergen, Antonius W; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M

    2017-10-10

    Our ageing society is putting tremendous strain on public health and welfare programs to meet the needs of ageing individuals. Promoting informal caregiving is one way for policymakers to reduce this burden. However, caregiving may be experienced as stressful and is associated with adverse health consequences. While quite a lot of research focuses on caregiving for community-dwelling older adults, little is known about informal care in institutionalised long-term care (ILTC). Therefore, the objectives of this study were: 1) to compare characteristics of informal caregivers and care receivers and caregiver outcomes - at home and in ILTC; 2) to study the association between these characteristics and positive and negative caregiver outcomes; 3) to investigate the moderating effect of the setting (at home vs. ILTC) on these associations. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the TOPICS-MDS DataSet. A total of 5197 Dutch dyads were included. The average age of the care receivers and caregivers was respectively 80.7 years and 63.2 years. Several sociodemographic, health-related and caregiving-related characteristics of care receiver and caregiver and two caregiver outcomes (i.e., subjective burden and care-related quality of life) were included in the analyses. Caregivers in both settings experienced comparable levels of subjective burden. Caregivers at home had slightly lower care-related quality of life than caregivers in ILTC. Several care receiver characteristics (i.e., male sex, married/cohabiting, more morbidities/disability, and less self-perceived health/psychological wellbeing) and several caregiver characteristics (i.e., female sex, being younger, living together with the care receiver, more objective burden, less self-perceived health, and more support) were associated with an increase in burden and/or a decrease in care-related quality of life. Some of these associations were stronger for dyads at home compared to dyads in ILTC. Informal caregiving

  14. Phototherapy in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Powell, J B; Gach, J E

    2015-08-01

    Elderly patients present with a unique spectrum of dermatoses that pose particular management opportunities and challenges, which will be increasingly encountered in dermatological practice. The skin of elderly patients differs from that of younger patients not only in appearance but also in structure, physiology and response to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, little is known about the safety and efficacy of phototherapy in elderly patients and how phototherapy is currently being utilized to treat them. To investigate the safety, efficacy and utilization of phototherapy in elderly patients. In January 2014, we analysed all patients recently referred for, currently receiving or recently having completed a course of phototherapy at a university teaching hospital in England (UK). In total, 249 patients were identified; 37 (15%) were over the age of 65 years (the WHO definition of an elderly or older person). The dermatoses being treated were psoriasis (51%), eczema (11%), nodular prurigo (11%), pruritus (11%), Grover disease (5%) and others (11%). One patient with dementia was deemed not safe to embark on phototherapy, and five patients were yet to start. The remaining 31 elderly patients received 739 individual phototherapy treatments: 88% narrowband (NB)-UVB and 12% systemic, bath and hand/foot psoralen UVA (PUVA). The acute adverse event (AE) rate was 1.89%, all occurring in those receiving NB-UVB. No severe acute AEs occurred. Of those who completed their course of phototherapy, 80% achieved a clear/near clear or moderate response, while just two patients (8%) had minimal response and two (8%) had worsening of the disease during treatment. Of those receiving NB-UVB for psoriasis, 91% achieved a clear or near-clear response. In this small survey, the first of its kind to focus on elderly patients, phototherapy appears to be well-tolerated, safe and efficacious in the short term. Further thought and investigation should be given to delivering phototherapy to an

  15. Hypertension in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kendall, M J

    1998-01-01

    In those aged 65-85 years, the major causes of death and disability are cardiovascular diseases (myocardial infarction, sudden death and stroke). Clinical trials in elderly patients have demonstrated unequivocally that effective blood pressure reduction in hypertensive patients up to the age of 85 years significantly reduces this mortality and morbidity. The larger trials are referred to as the SHEP trial (chlorthalidone), the STOP trial (beta-blockers and/or diuretics), the MRC Elderly Trial (atenolol or diuretic) and the SYST-EUR trial (nitrendipine). Patients entered into clinical trials are a selected population; those with serious coexisting diseases and with a poor prognosis are usually excluded. For this reason one has to carefully consider whether the results of these trials would provide the best treatment for the next patient the doctor sees who would probably not meet the entry criteria. Elderly hypertensives may fall into one of three categories. The sick elderly with serious disorders such as cancer or dementia have a poor quality of life and a bad prognosis. They should not be given antihypertensive drugs. The medically complicated elderly have serious disorders, which usually require drug therapy and the medical condition and the drugs used in treatment may complicate the choice of antihypertensive drugs. The potential adverse effects of adding another form of drug treatment may outweigh the potential benefits. The fit elderly do derive considerable benefit from adequate blood pressure control and need an effective, well-tolerated antihypertensive drug. The choice of drug to control blood pressure in the elderly is difficult. An effective, well-tolerated antihypertensive with little potential to interact with coexisting disorders and other drugs is needed.

  16. Prosthetic Status, Needs and Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQOL) in the Elderly Population of Aluva, India.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Albin Geo; Janakiram, Chandrashekar; Mathew, Anil

    2016-11-01

    Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQOL), being a patient-centred outcome has profound association with the existing prosthetic status and needs. To assess the association between the prosthetic status and needs with OHRQOL in the elderly population of Aluva, Kochi, Kerala, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the elderly residing in the municipal wards of Aluva municipality, Kochi, Kerala, India. A total of 539 subjects whose age was 60 years or above were considered for the study. Proforma utilizing a validated structured questionnaire of two sections; the first section noted with demographic details with WHO assessment of prosthetic needs and details regarding loss of teeth and denture wear and the second section consisted of Oral Health Impact Proflie (OHIP)-14 questions to measure the OHRQOL which was prepared in the local language. Type III oral examination (WHO Basic Oral Health Assessment 2013) was carried out on selected elderly subjects from house hold survey at municipal wards and recordings were done by the trained local health worker. ANOVA was used to find out the association between different domains of the OHIP and prosthetic status and need. The prosthetic status was 18.2% and 14.7% and the prosthetic needs 62.7% and 60.3% of the upper and lower jaws respectively for the population. The prosthetic status was found to have no impact on the OHRQOL. However, the prosthetic need was significantly related to various components of OHRQOL of the study population. Of all the domains in OHRQOL, physical pain was the most affected in this population. There is high unmet prosthetic care for non-institutionalised elderly population in Aluva.

  17. Effects of a short-term whole body vibration intervention on bone mass and structure in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Cabello, Alba; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Morales, Silvia; Ara, Ignacio; Casajús, José A; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to clarify whether a short-term whole body vibration training has a beneficial effect on bone mass and structure in elderly men and women. Randomised controlled trial. A total of 49 non-institutionalised elderly (20 men and 29 women) volunteered to participate in the study. Participants who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to one of the study groups (whole body vibration or control). A total of 24 elderly trained squat positioned on a vibration platform 3 times per week for 11 weeks. Bone-related variables were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Two-way repeated measures one-way analysis of variance (group by time) was used to determine the effects of the intervention on the bone-related variables and also to determinate the changes within group throughout the intervention period. Analysis of covariance was used to test the differences between groups for bone-related variables in pre- and post-training assessments and in the percentage of change between groups. All analysis were carried out including age, height, subtotal lean mass and daily calcium intake as covariates. 11 weeks of whole body vibration training led to no changes in none of the bone mineral content and bone mineral density parameters measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry through the skeleton. At the tibia, total, trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral density decreased significantly in the whole body vibration group (all P<0.05). A short-term whole body vibration therapy is not enough to cause any changes on bone mineral content or bone mineral density and it only produces a slight variation on bone structure among elderly people. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prosthetic Status, Needs and Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQOL) in the Elderly Population of Aluva, India

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Albin Geo; Mathew, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQOL), being a patient-centred outcome has profound association with the existing prosthetic status and needs. Aim To assess the association between the prosthetic status and needs with OHRQOL in the elderly population of Aluva, Kochi, Kerala, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among the elderly residing in the municipal wards of Aluva municipality, Kochi, Kerala, India. A total of 539 subjects whose age was 60 years or above were considered for the study. Proforma utilizing a validated structured questionnaire of two sections; the first section noted with demographic details with WHO assessment of prosthetic needs and details regarding loss of teeth and denture wear and the second section consisted of Oral Health Impact Proflie (OHIP)-14 questions to measure the OHRQOL which was prepared in the local language. Type III oral examination (WHO Basic Oral Health Assessment 2013) was carried out on selected elderly subjects from house hold survey at municipal wards and recordings were done by the trained local health worker. ANOVA was used to find out the association between different domains of the OHIP and prosthetic status and need. Results The prosthetic status was 18.2% and 14.7% and the prosthetic needs 62.7% and 60.3% of the upper and lower jaws respectively for the population. The prosthetic status was found to have no impact on the OHRQOL. However, the prosthetic need was significantly related to various components of OHRQOL of the study population. Of all the domains in OHRQOL, physical pain was the most affected in this population. Conclusion There is high unmet prosthetic care for non-institutionalised elderly population in Aluva. PMID:28050494

  19. Maximizing health benefits vs egalitarianism: an Australian survey of health issues.

    PubMed

    Nord, E; Richardson, J; Street, A; Kuhse, H; Singer, P

    1995-11-01

    Economists have often treated the objective of health services as being the maximization of the QALYs gained, irrespective of how the gains are distributed. In a cross section of Australians such a policy of distributive neutrality received: (a) very little support when health benefits to young people compete with health benefits to the elderly; (b) only moderate support when those who can become a little better compete with those who can become much better; (c) only moderate support when smokers compete with non smokers; (d) some support when young children compete with newborns; and (e) wide spread support when parents of dependent children compete with people without children. Overall, the views of the study population were strongly egalitarian. A policy of health benefit maximization received very limited support when the consequence is a loss of equity and access to services for the elderly and for people with a limited potential for improving their health.

  20. Riskiness in the Elderly: Attitudes of Young and Elderly Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldstein, Jerome H.; Feldman, Barbara

    Risk-taking attitudes and behaviors among young and elderly adults were investigated. Elderly subjects, from both a nursing home and the community, and college students responded to choice dilemmas involving aged central characters. Each subject responded twice, once under "self" instructions, and once as the "average elderly person" would…

  1. Riskiness in the Elderly: Attitudes of Young and Elderly Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldstein, Jerome H.; Feldman, Barbara

    Risk-taking attitudes and behaviors among young and elderly adults were investigated. Elderly subjects, from both a nursing home and the community, and college students responded to choice dilemmas involving aged central characters. Each subject responded twice, once under "self" instructions, and once as the "average elderly person" would…

  2. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified as the most frequently cited ... victim and/or the perpetrator who has the substance abuse problem. Substance abuse is believed to be a ...

  3. Chromium in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Offenbacher, E G

    1992-01-01

    Several studies indicate that glucose tolerance improves and lipid levels decline in the elderly after supplementation with Cr-rich brewer's yeast or inorganic Cr. Other studies report equivocal results or no changes. Interpretation of these investigations is hampered by 1. Lack of a marker to identify Cr-deficient people 2. Artifactually high levels of dietary and body Cr, owing to inadequate analytic techniques and 3. The interplay of chronic health problems, medications, institutionalization, and dietary practices. Investigators have studied the effects of aging on Cr in the body. In the rat, tissue retention of 51Cr decreases, and organ distribution changes with age. In humans, plasma Cr levels of healthy elderly subjects are not different from those of young adults. There is no evidence of malabsorption in aged humans or animals. Nevertheless, higher urinary Cr losses are reported in elderly people. These data suggest that Cr retention may decrease with aging and that aging may alter Cr metabolism. Diets of many healthy elderly people contain less than 30 micrograms Cr. Two elderly men living under controlled conditions maintained Cr balance with 37 micrograms/d. However, these levels may be insufficient during the stresses and illnesses associated with aging.

  4. Meals for the Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA is drawing upon its food-preparation expertise to assist in solving a problem affecting a large segment of the American population. In preparation for manned space flight programs, NASA became experienced in providing astronauts simple, easily-prepared, nutritious meals. That experience now is being transferred to the public sector in a cooperative project managed by Johnson Space Center. Called Meal System for the Elderly, the project seeks to fill a gap by supplying nutritionally balanced meal packages to those who are unable to participate in existing meal programs. Many such programs are conducted by federal, state and private organizations, including congregate hot meal services and home-delivered "meals on wheels." But more than 3.5 million elderly Americans are unable to take advantage of these benefits. In some cases, they live in rural areas away from available services; in others, they are handicapped, temporarily ill, or homebound for other reasons. Meal System for the Elderly, a cooperative program in which the food-preparation expertise NASA acquired in manned space projects is being utilized to improve the nutritional status of elderly people. The program seeks to fill a gap by supplying nutritionally-balanced food packages to the elderly who are unable to participate b existing meal service programs.

  5. Australian Aboriginal Language Early Childhood Education Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Tony

    This report discusses the provision of culturally appropriate early childhood programs in Australian Aboriginal language in Australia, and the education of teachers for these programs. The first section of the report examines the education of indigenous peoples in the context of the current Australian education system. Evidence in support of the…

  6. Successful Principal Leadership: Australian Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurr, David; Drysdale, Lawrie; Mulford, Bill

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an Australian perspective on successful school leadership. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on case studies in two Australian states (Tasmania and Victoria). Case studies for each state were developed independently and are reported separately. Findings: The findings show a remarkable degree of…

  7. Career Intentions of Australian Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Whipp, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian physical education (PE) teachers' career intentions and factors influencing their intentions. A sample (N = 234) of Western Australian PE teachers responded to a questionnaire determining PE teachers' work and the primary motivators for intention to leave the profession. Half (51.3%) of the…

  8. A National Australian Curriculum: In Whose Interests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditchburn, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of an Australian curriculum is likely to have a widespread and long-term impact on schools, teachers and students, and yet there has been a swift and an almost unquestioning acceptance of its introduction by the Australian public and by educators. This paper will use theoretical frameworks informed by Gramsci's cultural hegemony…

  9. The Australian Skills Agenda: Productivity versus Credentialism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashenden, Dean

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the rise of the concept of improved skills recognition in Australian industry. Highlights include the role of industrial relations; the Australian vocational education and training system; recognition, industrial relations, and workplace change; career and training paths; credentials; and future prospects. (10 references) (LRW)

  10. Australian Literature in the Primary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Colleen, Ed.

    This book was designed to supply information on available resources in Australian children's literature and a tradition of teaching which incorporates the Australian experience in an inclusive manner. Essays and their authors consist of the following: (1) "Children's Books in Australia: Two Hundred Years of Social Life" (Maurice Saxby);…

  11. A National Australian Curriculum: In Whose Interests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditchburn, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of an Australian curriculum is likely to have a widespread and long-term impact on schools, teachers and students, and yet there has been a swift and an almost unquestioning acceptance of its introduction by the Australian public and by educators. This paper will use theoretical frameworks informed by Gramsci's cultural hegemony…

  12. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  13. Central Life Interests of Australian Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Nicola

    1986-01-01

    A total of 252 male Melbourne workers of varying occupational ranks completed Dubin's central life interest questionnaire. Results suggest that Australian respondents were far less committed to work than their American, Canadian, British, and Japanese counterparts. A large proportion of the Australian sample was characterized by dual commitment to…

  14. Australian Literature in the Primary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Colleen, Ed.

    This book was designed to supply information on available resources in Australian children's literature and a tradition of teaching which incorporates the Australian experience in an inclusive manner. Essays and their authors consist of the following: (1) "Children's Books in Australia: Two Hundred Years of Social Life" (Maurice Saxby);…

  15. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  16. Career Intentions of Australian Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Whipp, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian physical education (PE) teachers' career intentions and factors influencing their intentions. A sample (N = 234) of Western Australian PE teachers responded to a questionnaire determining PE teachers' work and the primary motivators for intention to leave the profession. Half (51.3%) of the…

  17. Four Management Agendas for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In a new mixed economy of higher learning, Australian universities require more strategic management to compete and collaborate sustainably. However, many scholars argue that new modes of university management are at odds with scholarly aims and values. This article examines how Australian universities frame their missions and communicate their…

  18. The Australian Curriculum: Finding the Hidden Narrative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditchburn, Geraldine M.

    2012-01-01

    The Australian curriculum to be introduced in all Australian schools over the next few years provides two competing narratives about curriculum. An overt narrative provides an unproblematic view of curriculum where the rhetoric and discourse that promotes a "world-class curriculum" effectively obscures a second narrative. This second…

  19. Four Management Agendas for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In a new mixed economy of higher learning, Australian universities require more strategic management to compete and collaborate sustainably. However, many scholars argue that new modes of university management are at odds with scholarly aims and values. This article examines how Australian universities frame their missions and communicate their…

  20. Home advantage in Australian soccer.

    PubMed

    Goumas, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify the magnitude of home advantage (HA) in Australian soccer and to investigate how home-team crowd support and away-team travel may contribute to it. A paired design was used wherein each match contributed two observations, one for the home team and one for the away team. The data used in this study were all matches from the first seven seasons (2005/06-2011/12) of the Australian A-League - the major soccer league in Australia. Repeated measures Poisson regression analysis was used to investigate the effect that crowd size and density, distance and direction travelled by away teams, and crossing time zones may have on HA. HA in terms of the percentage of competition points gained by home teams in the A-League averaged 58% over the study period. HA increased significantly with increasing number of time zones crossed by away teams (p<0.001). HA also appeared to increase with increasing crowd size (p=0.07) but only up to about 20,000 persons. Crowd density, distance travelled and direction travelled were not independently associated with HA. The present results suggest that in soccer competitions where time zones are crossed, travel effects such as jet lag may play an even greater role in HA than home-team crowd support. Travel management programs aimed at reducing the effects of jet lag could significantly improve away team performance in Australian soccer. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Recreation and the Rural Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Michael J.; And Others

    This review of the literature on recreation for the rural elderly is organized into seven sections. The first section is a brief overview of the values and socio-economic characteristics of the rural elderly. In the next section, studies on the leisure interests and the recreation participation patterns of the rural elderly are presented. The…

  2. Elder Care Comes of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herndon, Mary D.

    1995-01-01

    A discussion of elder care looks at the extent to which government and employers are addressing the issue, how elder care affects the work performance of and productivity of employed caregivers, and how human resource professionals can respond effectively to the needs of both employee and employer as these needs relate to the issue of elder care.…

  3. The complexities of elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse is a growing societal concern, affecting at least 1 in 10 older Americans. Researchers and practitioners alike consistently assert that a dramatic discrepancy exists between the prevalence rates of elder abuse and the number of elder abuse cases reported. As a field of study, recognition and understanding of elder abuse is still emerging. Comparing findings of a small, but growing, body of literature on perceived and substantiated cases of elder abuse is challenging because there is no uniform term or agreed-upon definition used among state governments, researchers, health care and service providers, and advocates. This article summarizes current understanding of elder abuse, including what constitutes elder abuse, risk factors for elder abuse, perpetrators of elder abuse, and outcomes of elder abuse. Issues associated with the detection of elder abuse and intervention strategies for victims of abuse are addressed. In the final section, potential roles and contributions of psychologists for advancing elder abuse research, professional practice, and policy development are highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Poverty among Elderly in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Using consumption expenditure data of the National Sample Survey 2004-2005, this paper estimates the size of elderly poor and tests the hypotheses that elderly households are not economically better-off compared to non-elderly households in India. Poverty estimates are derived under three scenarios--by applying the official cut-off point of the…

  5. Israeli Perspectives on Elder Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabi, Keren

    2006-01-01

    Despite the prevailing agreement among researchers that the increasing rate of elder abuse in Israel is relatively understudied, not sufficiently identified, and not appropriately addressed, literature on elderly abuse in the Israeli society remains limited. The common discourse on aging, eldercare, and elder abuse and neglect, mainly revolves…

  6. Poverty among Elderly in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Using consumption expenditure data of the National Sample Survey 2004-2005, this paper estimates the size of elderly poor and tests the hypotheses that elderly households are not economically better-off compared to non-elderly households in India. Poverty estimates are derived under three scenarios--by applying the official cut-off point of the…

  7. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  8. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    Australian Aboriginal ethnoastronomical traditions were recorded from a wide variety of sources in different periods. While the corpus of mythology concerning the heavens is diverse, it is unified by beliefs of a Skyworld as land with its own topography, containing plants and animals familiar to those living below. Spirits of the dead reside alongside the Creation Ancestors as celestial bodies in the Skyworld. Aboriginal hunter-gatherers used the regular movement of constellations and planets to measure time and to indicate the season, while unexpected change in the sky was seen as an omen.

  9. Australian developments in marine science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, Millard F.

    2012-07-01

    Australia is an island nation with about two thirds of its jurisdiction underwater. On 25 May 2012, Australia instituted the Seas and Submerged Lands (Limits of Continental Shelf) Proclamation 2012, confirming areas of seabed where Australia has exclusive rights to explore and exploit marine resources. This proclamation follows recommendations by the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, a body established under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, confirming Australia's entitlement to extended continental shelf, i.e., that beyond 200 nautical miles from the coastline, of some 2.56 million square kilometers, excluding Australian Antarctic Territory [Symonds et al., 2009] (Figure 1a).

  10. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  11. Elderly Care Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagiman, Aliani; Haja Bava Mohidin, Hazrina; Ismail, Alice Sabrina

    2016-02-01

    The demand for elderly centre has increased tremendously abreast with the world demographic change as the number of senior citizens rose in the 21st century. This has become one of the most crucial problems of today's era. As the world progress into modernity, more and more people are occupied with daily work causing the senior citizens to lose the care that they actually need. This paper seeks to elucidate the best possible design of an elderly care centre with new approach in order to provide the best service for them by analysing their needs and suitable activities that could elevate their quality of life. All these findings will then be incorporated into design solutions so as to enhance the living environment for the elderly especially in Malaysian context.

  12. Letter - Reply: Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-06-01

    In response to the letter by Gorelli (2010) about Hamacher & Norris (2010), he is quite right about Aboriginal people witnessing impact events in Australia. There are several oral traditions regarding impact sites, some of which were probably witnessed, as Gorelli pointed out. The Henbury craters he mentions, with a young age of only ∼ 4200 years, have oral traditions that seem to describe a cosmic impact, including an aversion to drinking water that collects in the craters in fear that the fire-devil (which came from the sun, according to an Elder) would rain iron in them again. Other impact sites, such as Gosse's Bluff crater (Tnorala in the Arrernte language) and Wolfe Creek crater (Kandimalal in the Djaru language) have associated impact stories, despite their old ages (142 Ma and ∼0.3 Ma, respectively). In addition, many fireball and airburst events are described in Aboriginal oral traditions, a number of which seem to indicate impact events that are unknown to Western science. I have published a full treatise of meteorite falls and impact events in Australian Aboriginal culture that I would like to bring to the attention of Gorelli and WGN readers (Hamacher & Norris, 2009). Although our paper was published in the 2009 volume of Archaeoastronomy, it did not appear in print until just recently, which is probably why it has gone unnoticed. Recent papers describing the association between meteorites and Aboriginal cosmology (Hamacher, 2011) and comets in Aboriginal culture (Hamacher & Norris, 2011) have also been published, and would likely be of interest to WGN readers. I heartily agree with Gorelli that oral traditions are fast disappearing, taking with them a wealth of information about not only that peoples' culture, but also about past geologic and astronomical events, such as meteorite falls and cosmic impacts (a branch of the growing field of Geomythology). There is an old saying that "when a man dies, a library goes with him". This is certainly the

  13. [Anaemia in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Leischker, Andreas Herbert; Fetscher, Sebastian; Kolb, Gerald Franz

    2016-07-01

    In the elderly, even mild anaemia leads to significantly decreased quality of life and reduced survival rate. Therefore even mild anaemias should be worked up especially in the elderly. More than 75 % of all anaemias have a specific and treatable cause.Differential diagnosis of anaemia in the elderly is much more challenging compared to the differential diagnosis in younger patients: in older patients often more than one dysfunction is responsible for the anaemia simultaneously. Many routine laboratory parameters are changed by ageing and are therefore only of limited value for diagnosis of anaemia. Soluble transferinreceptor and hepcidin are two parameters feasible for differential diagnosis of the causes of anaemia in the elderly.The most common cause of iron deficiency anaemia in the elderly is gastrointestinal bleeding. Many causes for gastrointestinal bleeding -like angiodysplasia of the colon - can readily be treated with endoscopic therapy. For this reason, colonoscopy is part of the standard workup for elderly patients with iron-deficient anaemia (IDA) if no contraindications exist.Therapy of anaemia is based on the specific cause or the causes. In IDA, the first step other than causal treatment is to replace iron orally. If this is not tolerated because of side effects or does not lead to a sufficient rise in the haemoglobin level, intravenous iron replacement therapy is indicated. Folic acid deficiency is generally treated orally, whereas vitamin B12 deficiency is generally treated by the parenteral - preferably subcutaneous - route. In anaemia due to chronic renal failure and anaemia due to myelodysplastic syndromes, the underlying cause must be treated, furthermore erythropoiesis-stimulating agents can be indicated.

  14. Physical Activity in Elderly.

    PubMed

    Cvecka, Jan; Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-08-24

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared.

  15. Physical Activity in Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164

  16. Unmasking the 'elderly mystique': Why it is time to make the personal political in ageing research.

    PubMed

    Carney, Gemma M; Gray, Mia

    2015-12-01

    This article uses feminist scholarship to investigate 'the elderly mystique'-which contends that the potential of old age is masked by a set of false beliefs about ageing (i.e. ageism) which permeate social, economic, and political life (Cohen, 1988). The article presents a theoretical model which explores the extent to which institutionalised ageism shapes the trajectory of life after 60.(1) The hypothesis underpinning the model is simple: The challenge for ageing societies is not the average age of a given population, but rather, how age is used to structure economic, social and political life. An inter-disciplinary framework is used to examine how biological facts about ageing are used to segregate older from younger people, giving older people the status of 'other'; economically through retirement, politically through assumptions about 'the grey vote,' and socially through ageist stereotyping in the media and through denial and ridicule of the sexuality of older people. Each domain is informed by the achievements of feminist theory and research on sexism and how its successes and failures can inform critical investigations of ageism. The paper recognises the role of ageism in de-politicising the lived experience of ageing. The paper concludes that feminist scholarship, particularly work by feminists in their seventies, eighties, and nineties, has much to offer in terms of re-framing gerontology as an emancipatory project for current and future cohorts of older people.

  17. [Impact of a multidimensional intervention in elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia: IMIEPCAP clinical trial].

    PubMed

    Torres, Olga Herminia; Gil, Eva; Comas, Maria Teresa; Saez, Maria Encarnación; Clotet, Sandra; Ramirez, Hector David; Mateo, Miriam; Ruiz, Domingo

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine whether a multidimensional intervention applied to elderly patients admitted to hospital due to pneumonia reduces re-admissions and emergency department visits in the year after the intervention. This is a single-centre non-pharmacological randomised clinical trial with a parallel design. Three hundred and fourteen patients will be included (157 in each arm). Eligible patients will be ≥65 years old and with a Barthel index ≥60 that are admitted to hospital due to pneumonia. Participants will be randomised to multidimensional intervention or to control group. Two months after hospital discharge the intervention group will receive a geriatric intervention, carried out by a nurse and a physician. It will include assessment of co-morbidities, nutritional, functional and cognitive status, and immunisation. The control group will receive conventional follow-up. The number of re-admissions, visits to the emergency department, functional status, survival, and institutionalisation will be evaluated one year after intervention. If the intervention shows an improvement in the studied outcomes, it would allow us to improve individual outcomes, and indirectly reduce healthcare costs using a relatively simple, standardised tool. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Health care and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Eisdorfer, C

    1985-01-01

    America's health care crisis is hitting our elderly and threatens to cripple Medicare, the elderly's financial support system. Medicare was designed to ensure that every elderly American would be protected against the destruction of life savings as a result of illness. Elderly Americans would be able to enjoy their golden years without the financial burden of medical bills. Today, this vision is almost extinct. Medicare has been placed on the endangered species list. Market predictions indicate that Medicare's Hospital insurance Trust Fund will be depleted by 1988 if current trends continue. The elderly presently must pay on the average about 14% of their health care bill. In addition, Medicare pays little for long-term care; and about 45% of long-term care is paid for out-of-pocket by the elderly and their families. Alternative approaches are desperately needed of Medicare if our elderly are to survive.

  19. The Elderly in Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallas, Dan

    1974-01-01

    Two cases illustrate the vast number of the forgotten aged with acute problems and life and death experiences, who are in dire need of protective services. The time has come to evaluate and assist the elderly in their steps toward renewed pride, dignity, and self-respect. (Author/PC)

  20. Vaccines for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Weinberger, Birgit; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2015-01-01

    The aging of the human population is posing serious challenges to research and to public health authorities in order to prevent diseases that more frequently affect the elderly, a portion of the population that will increase more and more in the coming years. While some vaccines exist and are used in the elderly to effectively fight against some infections (e.g. influenza, pneumococci, varicella-zoster virus, diphtheria, and tetanus), still a lot of work remains to be done to better adapt these vaccines and to develop new ones for this age group. The prevention of infectious diseases affecting the elderly can be successful only through a holistic approach. This approach will aim at the following: (1) a deeper understanding of the mechanisms leading to the senescence of the immune system, (2) a better and broader use of vaccines recommended for the elderly, (3) the use of vaccines currently considered only for other age groups and (4) actively priming the population when they are immunological competent, before the physiological waning of immune responsiveness may affect the beneficial effects of vaccination.

  1. Honoring the Elders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazzie, Evangeline Parsons; St. Clair, Robert N.

    The co-directors of the 1998 Annual Symposium for Language Renewal and Revitalization describe how they came up with a focus and presenters for the symposium. They began by discussing their concern over the loss of indigenous languages and cultures, then decided to honor tribal elders by choosing one to represent them all as the symposium's…

  2. Loneliness among Elderly Widowers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinick, Barbara H.

    The fact that few researchers have studied loneliness in widowhood may be related to the concept itself which spans intellectual perspectives, incorporating elements of affect, cognition, and social structure. To examine loneliness among elderly widowers, 24 adult males (participants in a more comprehensive study of widowed men, aged 63 to 93…

  3. [Dignity of the elderly].

    PubMed

    Ribera Casado, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A discussion is presented on what is understood by «dignity» when applied to the elderly, highlighting it universal character and contrasting it with the greater risks of suffering «indignities» to which the elderly are exposed. The discussion is divided into 3 sections. In the first, the risk factors in this sense could lead to physiological losses and illnessess, which in in the physical, mental and social sense are associated with ageing. In the second, the question of discrimination of the elderly as a form of aggression due to age, and is so widespread and infrequently studied. Lastly, it is discussed how to interpret the advice of the United Nations on how to promote active ageing as a defence system against indignities. It concludes with the message that neither the limitations that accompany the ageing process, nor the different forms of aggression that the elderly may be subjected to, provide sufficient argument neither for a loss of individual nor collective dignity. This is something which we all must endeavour to achieve and which must be maintained and be respected by individuals and by society at all times.

  4. [Balance in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Ruwer, Sheelen Larissa; Rossi, Angela Garcia; Simon, Larissa Fortunato

    2005-01-01

    Throughout years, the human organism goes through natural aging, having functional and structural changes. The part which is responsible for the corporal balance system also suffers from the aging process, creating great impact for the elderly. Thus, the present paper aims to study the vestibular function of old people suffering from dizziness, tinnitus and hearing impairment. Transversal cohort. 80 elderly individuals from two different groups were evaluated: group A - composed of 38 women and 2 men who belonged to an elderly group from Santa Maria, RS; and group B - composed of 35 women and 5 men with complaints of balance disorders. Both groups were undergone anamnesis (calling attention to aspects concerning the dizziness, tinnitus and the hearing impairment), and the vestibular function evaluation (by using the computerized system of vecto-electronystagmography SCV 5.0). The results displayed a statistical significant difference between both groups, concerning the complaints of dizziness and tinnitus, straightforward in group B. In the hypothetical diagnosis lead by the computerized examination, it was found that most individuals had presented normal diagnosis; however, it was found the predominance of vestibular disorders in the elderly such as Deficit Peripheral Vestibular Syndrome and Irritative Peripheral Vestibular Syndrome. It was concluded that the vestibular disorders, according to the vecto-electronystagmography, and to the complaints of dizziness, tinnitus and hearing impairment, are numerically similar in both studied groups.

  5. Loneliness among Elderly Widowers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinick, Barbara H.

    The fact that few researchers have studied loneliness in widowhood may be related to the concept itself which spans intellectual perspectives, incorporating elements of affect, cognition, and social structure. To examine loneliness among elderly widowers, 24 adult males (participants in a more comprehensive study of widowed men, aged 63 to 93…

  6. Alcoholism and Elder Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anetzberger, Georgia J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A comparison group study of abusing and nonabusing caregivers suggested a correlation between alcohol use and violence against elderly parents. Findings reveal that abusers were more likely than nonabusers to drink, to become intoxicated, and to be identified as having a drinking problem. Policy and practice implications are discussed. (Author)

  7. Biology of Elderly Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifai, A. Hind; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes age-related changes in central nervous system pertinent to biology of suicide. Reviews postmortem biological studies of brains of suicides and suicide attempters. As suicide attempts in elderly are characterized by violence, discusses biological studies of impulsive violence. Describes data on effect of degenerative diseases on serotonin…

  8. Hardiness among Elderly Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagnild, Gail; Young, Heather

    Hardiness has been defined as a mediator in life stress and, within the health/illness context, has been conceptualized as a personality characteristic. This study used a descriptive exploratory design to examine the concept of hardiness among elderly women. The Stress, Appraisal, and Coping model developed by Lazarus and Folkman (1986) was the…

  9. America's elderly: policy implications.

    PubMed

    Barberis, M

    1981-01-01

    Senior citizens, particularly those aged 75 or older, are the fastest growing group in the US today. 25 million strong, the elderly make up 11% of the total population, the proportion ranging from 18.1% in Florida to 2.6% in Alaska. 1/4 of the federal budget, $155 billion in 1980, now goes to their support yet many face difficulty in gaining access to the programs designed to benefit them. The elderly, especially those who rely solely on Social Security, comprise a disproportionate share of all poor households. The retirement system itself is facing financing challenges that promise to grow as the baby boom generation swells the number of senior citizens to 55 million in 2030. Plans to coordinate government programs and improve the method of financing the retirement system are receiving increasing attention. Financing Social Security from revenue funds, or with actuarial reserves, are 2 alternatives to the present pay-as-you-go system. Another area of concern to policymakers is America's health care system, which is now crisis oriented and heavily biased toward institutionalization. Health care must be made more responsive to the long-term needs of the oldest segment of the population, many of whom suffer from chronic illnesses. Impaired elderly receive most of their care from family or friends, and private organizations, but this natural support network largely has been ignored by government. New program initiatives might emphasize homemaker services, geriatric day care, compensation for families that provide for the needs of an elderly relative, and the strengthening of the informal partnership between the elderly themselves, their families and friends, community groups, private organizations, and government at the state and local as well as the federal level.

  10. Addressing workplace violence among nurses who care for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Rodwell, John; Demir, Defne

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the social-situational (ie, Job Demands-Resource model) and individual (ie, negative affectivity) factors that might be associated with violence among nurses caring for the elderly (aged care nurses). Workplace violence is recognized as a serious issue among nurses. Effective intervention and prevention require an understanding of antecedent factors. Nurses working in elderly care facilities across an Australian healthcare organization participated in a cross-sectional survey. Job demands were associated with all of the externally sourced types of violence. Low job control was linked with external emotional abuse and physical assault. Outside work support was related to external physical assault and verbal sexual harassment. Finally, high negative affectivity was linked to internal and external emotional abuse and threat of assault. Both the Job Demands-Resource model and negative affectivity were useful in identifying relationships with violence, supporting suggestions that situational and individual factors are associated with violence among nurses who care for the elderly.

  11. [Drug consumption and cognitive function in non-institutionalized elderly: a population-based study].

    PubMed

    Planas-Pujol, X; López-Pousa, S; Vilalta-Franch, J; Monserrat-Vila, S; Garre-Olmo, J

    2010-10-01

    Drug consumption in the general population is concentrated in the elderly. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacological profile of elderly people 75 years of age and older, to assess the relationship with the cognitive function and the variables associated with drug consumption. This is an epidemiological, cross-sectional, door-to-door study among the non-institutionalised population in a rural area. Participants were inhabitants aged 75 and older from the Anglès Primary Healthcare Area (Girona). Drug prescriptions were recorded from participants' medicine chest. Cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination. A total of 875 individuals took part (82%). Participants with mild and moderate cognitive impairment consumed an average of 4.6 (SD=2.9) and 5.2 (SD=3.2) drugs, participants without cognitive impairment consumed an average of 4 (SD=2.7) drugs (P < 0.005). In the bivariate analysis, taking into account the degree of cognitive impairment, there was a change in drugs acting on the digestive tract and metabolism (P=0.003) and nervous system (P=0.001). Multivariate analysis identified four variables associated with the central nervous system drugs: age, sex, comorbidity and suspicion of depression (P <0.05). Participants with severe cognitive impairment had a higher frequency of anti-psychotic and antidepressant drug consumption. However, the multivariate analysis shows that advanced age, female sex and suspicion of depression are variables associated with a higher central nervous system drug consumption.

  12. [Evaluation of the capacity of elderly patients to make decisions about their health].

    PubMed

    Atienza-Martín, F J; Garrido-Lozano, M; Losada-Ruiz, C; Rodríguez-Fernández, L M; Revuelta-Pérez, F; Marín-Andrés, G

    2013-09-01

    To assess the decision-making capacity and variables related to this, in elderly patients in a home care program. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 130 patients assigned to home care program or in social welfare residences of an urban health centre. Demographic variables, as well as comorbidities, social support, institutionalisation, number of drugs used, degree of dependence (Barthel Index), cognitive function (Pfeiffer) were collected. The primary endpoint was the capacity for decision-making about their health assessed using the Aid to Capacity Evaluation (ACE) tool. There was a prevalence of 58.5% capacity. There was an association between ability and independence for activities of daily living (odds ratio (OR): 12.214; Confidence interval 95% (95% CI): 3.90 to 32.29, P <.0001) and function intellectual intact (OR: 282.750, 95% CI 34.0 to 2351.2, P <.0001). Numeric variables associated with the capacity for decision-making that had a more important effect size were the Barthel index (d: -1.398) and Pfeiffer index (d: 3.084). The prevalence of incapacity to make decisions about their health in elderly patients who are cared for in their homes is high. The level of dependence in activities of daily living and the deterioration of intellectual function are factors associated with the presence of this capacity. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. [Are short-stay units an appropriate resource for hospitalising elderly patients with infection?

    PubMed

    Llopis, Ferran; Ferré, Carles; García-Lamberechts, Eric Jorge; Martínez-Ortiz-de-Zárate, Mikel; Jacob, Javier; González-Del-Castillo, Juan

    To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of elderly patients (≥ 75 years) with suspected infection attending the emergency department (ED) and to compare patients admitted to a short-stay unit (SSU) with those admitted to a conventional hospital unit (CHU). Prospective cohort study including, using opportunity sampling, patients ≥75 years treated for infection in the ED of 3 Spanish university hospitals (2013). Demographic variables, comorbidity, baseline performance status, presence of sepsis, infection type, destination on discharge, and mortality at 30 days were collected. During the study period, 330 patients ≥75 years (mean age 83.8±7.3) were evaluated for a suspected infection in the ED, and 306 (93%) were admitted to the hospital, 175 (53%) to the CHU and 87 (26%) to the SSU. Medical history included hypertension (74.5%), arrhythmia (30%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (28%), and diabetes mellitus (26%), and risk factors for multidrug resistance, such as antibiotic treatment in 3 months prior to admission (48%), and institutionalisation (26%). A classic sepsis syndrome was found to be the source of infection in 53%, and was respiratory in half of patients. When comparing patients admitted to SSU and CHU, statistically significant differences (p<.05) were found in the Charlson index (1.95 vs. 2.51), Glasgow coma scale (14.6 vs. 14.3), classic sepsis syndrome (67% vs. 53%), severe sepsis (2.3% vs. 18%), length of stay (4.2 vs. 10.4 days), and mortality within 30 days (3.4% vs. 18%), respectively. SSU may be an adequate alternative to CHU for elderly patients requiring admission with suspected infection. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and Alzheimer's disease risk in an Australian population

    PubMed Central

    Gardener, S; Gu, Y; Rainey-Smith, S R; Keogh, J B; Clifton, P M; Mathieson, S L; Taddei, K; Mondal, A; Ward, V K; Scarmeas, N; Barnes, M; Ellis, K A; Head, R; Masters, C L; Ames, D; Macaulay, S L; Rowe, C C; Szoeke, C; Martins, R N

    2012-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet (MeDi), due to its correlation with a low morbidity and mortality for many chronic diseases, has been widely recognised as a healthy eating model. We aimed to investigate, in a cross-sectional study, the association between adherence to a MeDi and risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a large, elderly, Australian cohort. Subjects in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing cohort (723 healthy controls (HC), 98 MCI and 149 AD participants) completed the Cancer Council of Victoria Food Frequency Questionnaire. Adherence to the MeDi (0- to 9-point scale with higher scores indicating higher adherence) was the main predictor of AD and MCI status in multinominal logistic regression models that were adjusted for cohort age, sex, country of birth, education, apolipoprotein E genotype, total caloric intake, current smoking status, body mass index, history of diabetes, hypertension, angina, heart attack and stroke. There was a significant difference in adherence to the MeDi between HC and AD subjects (P<0.001), and in adherence between HC and MCI subjects (P<0.05). MeDi is associated with change in Mini-Mental State Examination score over an 18-month time period (P<0.05) in HCs. We conclude that in this Australian cohort, AD and MCI participants had a lower adherence to the MeDi than HC participants. PMID:23032941

  15. Vowel change in Australian English.

    PubMed

    Cox, F

    1999-01-01

    The dynamic nature of vowel systems has recently been investigated in several English dialects confirming that phonetic disruptions often have systemic consequences and suggesting that change follows predictable patterns of movement. The present paper examines the nature of vowel change in Australian English by comparing two sets of data from different subjects at each end of a 25-year interval. A series of multivariate analyses of variance reveals significant acoustic differences between the two sets of data providing strong evidence for systemic effects. The analysis also indicates the presence of chain and parallel shifts within vowel classes as well as a close correspondence between monophthong and diphthong movement in phonetic space. The observed monophthong/diphthong relationships suggests that change in one class of vowels impacts on the other in a parallel fashion in this dialect of English.

  16. Population and Australian development assistance.

    PubMed

    Jones, R

    1992-07-01

    Australia's position on international population issues is consistent with the major international statements on population: the World Population Plan of Action (1974), the Mexico City Declaration (1984), and the Amsterdam Declaration (1989). Australia's policy emphasizes the importance of population policies as an integral part of social, economic, and cultural development aimed at improving the quality of life of the people. Factors that would promote smaller families include improving economic opportunities, old-age security, education and health (particularly for women), as well as improving the accessibility and quality of family planning services. The quality of care approach is directly complementary to the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)'s Women-In-Development Policy and its Health Policy, which stresses the theme of Women And Their Children's Health (WATCH). Australia's support for population programs and activities has increased considerably over the last few years. Total assistance for the year 1990/91 was around $7 million out of a total aid program of $1216 million. In recent years AIDAB has funded family planning activities or health projects with family planning components in a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In the South Pacific region AIDAB has funded a reproductive health video project taking into consideration the cultural sensitivities and customs of the peoples of the region. AIDAB has supported a UN Population Fund project in Thailand that aims to strengthen the capacity of the National Statistical Office to collect population data. The US currently accounts for around 40% of all population-related development assistance to improve the health of women and children through family planning. The other major donors are Japan, the Scandinavian countries, and the Netherlands. Funding for population has been a relatively low percentage of overall development assistance budgets in OECD countries. In the

  17. Pyrogenic carbon in Australian soils.

    PubMed

    Qi, Fangjie; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi S; Dong, Zhaomin; Yan, Yubo; Lamb, Dane; Bucheli, Thomas D; Choppala, Girish; Duan, Luchun; Semple, Kirk T

    2017-02-16

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC), the combustion residues of fossil fuel and biomass, is a versatile soil fraction active in biogeochemical processes. In this study, the chemo-thermal oxidation method (CTO-375) was applied to investigate the content and distribution of PyC in 30 Australian agricultural, pastoral, bushland and parkland soil with various soil types. Soils were sampled incrementally to 50cm in 6 locations and at another 7 locations at 0-10cm. Results showed that PyC in Australian soils typically ranged from 0.27-5.62mg/g, with three Dermosol soils ranging within 2.58-5.62mg/g. Soil PyC contributed 2.0-11% (N=29) to the total organic carbon (TOC), with one Ferrosol as high as 26%. PyC was concentrated either in the top (0-10cm) or bottom (30-50cm) soil layers, with the highest PyC:TOC ratio in the bottom (30-50cm) soil horizon in all soils. Principal component analysis - multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) suggested the silt-associated organic C factor accounted for 38.5% of the variation in PyC. Our findings suggest that PyC is an important fraction of the TOC (2.0-11%, N=18) and chemically recalcitrant organic C (ROC) obtained by chemical C fractionation method accounts for a significant proportion of soil TOC (47.3-84.9%, N=18). This is the first study comparing these two methods, and it indicates both CTO-375 and C speciation methods can determine a fraction of recalcitrant organic C. However, estimated chemically recalcitrant organic carbon pool (ROC) was approximately an order of magnitude greater than that of thermally stable organic carbon (PyC).

  18. Healthier times?: revisiting Indigenous Australian health history.

    PubMed

    Blyton, Greg

    2009-01-01

    The perception that Indigenous Australians were primitive hunters and gatherers who lived in a nomadic 'Stone Age' culture resonates through most narratives found on Indigenous people in pre-colonial times. This narrative is better placed in the realm of myth; I contest claims that the life expectancy of Indigenous Australians was only forty years in pre-colonial times, by providing suggestive evidence that there is a strong probability that longevity favoured Indigenous Australians in comparison to many poorer sectors of the European population living in slum habitats. As well, I will challenge notions that Indigenous Australians were more violent than supposedly 'civilised' nations. Finally I express the hope that future researchers will revisit archival sources to develop a more nuanced perspective on the past.

  19. Australian Vocational Education: Learning from Past Mistakes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, John

    1992-01-01

    Competing pressures on Australian educational managers include pressure to implement competency-based training, to manage using the industrial model, and to husband resources, conflicting with traditional educational goals, government policies, and demands for accountability. (SK)

  20. The Use of Telecommunications in Australian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Morrison F.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses telecommunications services used in Australian education. They include Minerva (electronic mail), Midas (database accessing), Viatel (interactive videotext), and Telememo (electronic mail used to exchange information between schools. (JN)

  1. Australian Management Education for International Business Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gniewosz, Gerhard

    2000-01-01

    As Australian corporations have increased overseas activity, there has been a significant increase in international business degrees at the undergraduate and graduate levels. The curriculum is balanced between business-technical knowledge courses and cultural knowledge courses. (SK)

  2. ANSTO: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization conducts or is engaged in collaborative research and development in the application of nuclear science and associated technology. Through its Australian radio-isotopes unit, it markets radioisotopes, their products and other services for the nuclear medicine industry and research. It also operates national nuclear facilities (HIFAR and Moata research reactors), promotes training, provides advice and disseminates information on nuclear science and technology. The booklet briefly outlines these activities.

  3. Implementing Maneuver Theory in the Australian Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    AUSTRALIAN ARMY, A PROCESS OF IMPLEMENTING THIS PHILOSOPHY IS REQUIRED IF THE ARMY IS TO REALIZE ITS FULL BENEFITS . THIS PAPER EXPLORES THE MEANS BY WHICH...warfighting philosophy for the Australian Army, a process of implementing this philosophy is required if the Army is to realize its full benefits . Discussion...smallest of forces. It can be employed in battle and long before combat. It can even be utilized in the organisation and equipping of forces long

  4. [Physiotherapy for the elderly].

    PubMed

    Ongaro, G; Zwisler, C; Grob, D

    2001-08-01

    One of the main goals of physical therapeutic procedures in the elderly is the restoration or maintenance of functional autonomy in daily living activities. Whilst necessity for care and assistance in an aged population rises dramatically with age, physical therapy can efficiently reduce these needs. For an optimal therapeutic approach the therapists should take into account the particular characteristics of the ageing process as well as the predominant comorbidities, which should be correctly assessed in order to integrate those context factors into the rehabilitation program. This is only possible with a good functioning teamwork: The team should therefore include physicians, nurses, physiotherapists as well as social workers and other professionals. We describe here the theoretical basis of the particular aspects of physiotherapy for the elderly and we illustrate this approach exemplarily for falls prevention through resistance- and balance training.

  5. [Catatonia in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Chiba, Yuhei; Odawara, Toshinari

    2013-10-01

    Catatonia is a syndrome characterized by mutism, stupor, immobility, negativism, posturing, stereotypy, and echophenomena. Not only patients with schizophrenia, but also patients with general medical disease, mood disorder, and substance-related disorder exhibit catatonia. In the patients with catatonia, it is recommended to examine whether they have a general medical disease. We present two catatonic elder patients. Case 1 exhibited catatonia with vascular dementia, and was revealed to have anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome. Case 2 exhibited catatonia with dementia with Lewy bodies, and was revealed to have Hashimoto's encephalopathy. The first recommended treatment for catatonia is benzodiazepines. In case of benzodiazepine resistance or malignant catatonia, it should be considered electroconvulsive therapy, but it needs to be carefully implemented for elder patients.

  6. [Suicide in the Elderly].

    PubMed

    Velásquez Suarez, Juliana María

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is a public health problem worldwide, with multiple features and risk factors. It has some common and unique trends in each phase across the lifespan. To review the medical literature related to suicide in the elderly, in order to determine the current status of this problem in the world, and especially in Colombia. Literature review. There is a high volume of articles about suicide in general, even in Colombia, with many papers describing the problem in a comprehensive manner, but there is a need for more studies and publications on the scope of this problem in the elderly. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Nutrition for the Australian Rules football player.

    PubMed

    Ebert, T R

    2000-12-01

    This review summarises past and present nutritional practices of Australian Rules Football players, noting changes that have occurred as the footballers have become more receptive to scientific input. Australian Rules Football is a unique sport, with matches involving intermittent high intensity sprints between periods of jogging and walking and repeated physical contact. Endurance, speed, strength, power and agility are essential physical characteristics. Australian Rules footballers exhibit a wide range of anthropometrical attributes due to the positional requirements of the game. Dietary surveys indicate that footballers of the 1980's consumed a diet similar to that of the general Australian population consisting of 44%, 37.5%, 15% and 3.5% of carbohydrate (CHO), fat, protein and alcohol, respectively. However, as dietitians are becoming an integral part of the support staff of teams there is evidence that nutritional practices conducive to optimal sporting performance are now being followed. Due to the prolonged duration and intermittent high intensity activity pattern of Australian Rules, nutritional supplementation such as fluid and CHO intake during training and competition and creatine intake may be beneficial; however, further research needs to be conducted in the field to determine its importance in Australian Rules Football.

  8. Elder abuse: a review.

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt, K C

    1997-10-01

    Elder abuse exists in many forms: physical, emotional, financial, and sexual; neglect; and self-neglect. As many as 2.5 million older people are abused each year, and the number of cases will likely increase as this population grows. Elder abuse receives less attention than other forms of domestic violence, and fewer than 10% of cases are reported. Although all states have legislation addressing elder abuse, financial support for evaluation and protective services is lacking. Most states have mandatory reporting; however, it may infringe on the autonomy of competent geriatric individuals. Physicians infrequently report elder abuse because they are not familiar with reporting laws, fear offending patients, are concerned with time limitations, and believe they do not have appropriate evaluation skills. Victims often have low self-esteem, blame themselves for the abuse, and do not want to admit their vulnerabilities or betray their families. The "caregiver stress hypothesis," which suggests abuse stems from caregiver stress and resentment resulting from chronic care of dependent geriatric patients, is a misconception. Abuse is actually better correlated with the emotional and financial dependence of the caregivers on the geriatric victims. Older patients are most commonly abused by the people with whom they live. Older men and women have similar per capita abuse rates. Assessment and management should be supportive without assigning blame and should focus on both the patient and the caregiver. Patients in immediate danger should be hospitalized or placed in emergency shelters. Suspected abuse should be reported directly to the appropriate state agency, which can provide a thorough long-term assessment.

  9. Obesity and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M H

    2012-08-01

    The prevalence of obesity is rising progressively, even among older age groups. By the year 2030 to 2035 over 20% of the adult US population and over 25% of the Europeans will be aged 65 years or older. The predicted prevalence of obesity in Americans, 60 years and older was 37% in 2010. The predicted prevalence of obesity in Europe in 2015 varies between 20% and 30% dependent on the model used. This means 20.9 million obese 60 years or older people in the United States in 2010 and 32 million obese elders in 2015 in EU. Although cutoff values of body mass index, waist circumference, and percentages of fat mass have not been defined for the elderly, it is clear from several meta-analyses that mortality and morbidity associated with overweight and obesity only increases at a body mass index >30 kg/m(2). Thus, treatment should only be offered to patients who are obese rather than overweight and who have functional impairments, metabolic complications, or obesity-related diseases, that can benefit from weight loss. The weight loss therapy should minimize muscle and bone loss and vigilance as regards the development of sarcopenic obesity--a combination of an unhealthy excess of body fat with a detrimental loss of muscle and fat-free mass including bone--is important. Lifestyle intervention should be the first step and consists of a diet with a 500 kcal energy deficit and an adequate intake of protein of high biological quality, together with calcium and vitamin D, behavioral therapy, and multicomponent exercise. Multicomponent exercise includes flexibility training, balance training, aerobic exercise, and resistance training. The adherence rate in most studies is around 75%. Knowledge of constraints and modulators of physical inactivity should be of help to engage the elderly in physical activity. The role of pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery in the elderly is largely unknown as in most studies people aged 65 years and older were excluded.

  10. Therapeutic Issues with Transgender Elders.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Lynne

    2017-03-01

    Research demonstrates that transgender and nonconforming (TGNC) elders face social isolation and discrimination in policies and practices in mental and health care settings. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with practical input about therapeutic issues and interventions for use with TGNC elders. A case vignette describes the challenges and rewards of therapy with an elder trans woman. Her story illustrates the complex interplay between age, life phase, and sociocultural and historical contexts. Recommendations regarding research, practice, and advocacy are offered.

  11. Tinnitus in elderly population

    PubMed Central

    Negrila-Mezei, A.; Enache, R.; Sarafoleanu, C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Tinnitus is a common health problem that affects between 10 - 30% of the population, approximately 3 - 4% presenting to the doctor at least once in their life. There are many causes that lead to tinnitus in elderly population, including otology, metabolic, neurologic or cardiovascular conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the association of tinnitus with these chronic comorbidities among elderly community and its impact upon their quality of life. Materials and Methods: We performed a clinical retrospective study on 471 ENT patients hospitalized for various diseases, up to 60 years old, for a period of 24 months. All subjects were assessed for subjective tinnitus, neuro-vascular comorbidities and QoL by use of the brief version of the World Health Organization QoL instrument. Results: Tinnitus was reported in 114 patients, giving a prevalence of 24,2%. Variables like gender, residence, economic status, alcohol or smoking were not significantly associated with tinnitus. On the other hand, otic and sinonasal pathology, dizziness, hypertension, arteriosclerosis or diabetes were significantly correlated. All patients with tinnitus presented a more negative perception of their overall health and a poorer QoL, compared to those without. Conclusions: Tinnitus is a common pathology among elderly community. Its association with chronic treatable health comorbidities reduces QoL and highlights the need of cooping strategies among this group population. Abbreviations: RR = Relative Risk; 95%CL=95%Confidence Level; OR = Ods Ratio; QoL= quality of life PMID:22514575

  12. [Sleep in elderly].

    PubMed

    Rafrafi, Rym; Ben Romdhane, Imene; Elkateb, Malek; Bram, Nesrine

    2013-02-01

    Sleep disorders in the elderly are common. However, they are often under diagnosed and poorly supported. To study the characteristics of sleep in the elderly consultant at the front line. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a random sample of fifty persons aged 65 years and over, consultant in the center of basic health of Ezzahra and in a private practice in the same delegation. The sleep efficiency index was 0.85. Nighttime awakenings were present in 44 persons (88%). Unexplained late night awakening was reported by 19 subjects (38%). Among the respondents, 40 (80%) were considered to have at least one sleep disorder. The subjective complaint of insomnia was present in 70% of subjects. Excessive daytime sleepiness and/or hypersomnia were present in 70% of subjects. Nocturnal snoring was reported by 22 persons (44%). Nine subjects (18%) had respiratory pauses during sleep. Despite the high incidence of sleep disorder among the respondents, only 6 persons (15%) among them consulted their General Practitioner for this reason. Among patients with sleep disorder, 14 persons (40%) were taking hypnotics, from which 6 (43%) by self-medication. Sleep disorders in the elderly as well as self-medication with hypnotics are common and under diagnosed. They should be sought systematically in front-line consultation.

  13. Epilepsy in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Werhahn, Konrad J

    2009-02-01

    Epilepsy is the third most common disease affecting the brain in the elderly. Current demographic trends will lead to an increased prevalence of epilepsy in the general population. A selective literature search revealed 102 relevant publications as of September 2008, 50 of which were original articles. The level of evidence was found to be very low. No guidelines, systematic reviews or meta-analyses are available, and there have been only three randomized, double-blind trials of treatment for epilepsy in the elderly. The seizures often escape clinical attention, because premonitory symptoms (aura) and secondary generalization into tonic-clonic seizures are both rarer in older patients. On the other hand, sudden loss of consciousness from various causes becomes more common with increasing age, presenting a challenge in differential diagnosis. Treatment is often more complex because of comorbidities and multiple other drugs, and requires a cautious approach. Drug interactions, in particular, require special attention. On the positive side, epileptic seizures in the elderly seem to be more easily controlled by medications than they are in young adults. Epilepsy is often more difficult to recognize in old age. The treatment is hampered by side effects and drug interactions. Thus, certainty about the diagnosis is indispensable, and the treatment often requires the use of newer-generation antiepileptic drugs.

  14. Evaluation of the elderly driver.

    PubMed

    Craig, Kevin W; Zweig, Steven C

    2007-01-01

    Driving is a daily activity for people across the country. Most Americans, including the elderly, consider it a right. Driving, however, is dangerous and can become more challenging as people age. While evaluating the elderly driver is not a simple task, it is a responsibility that must be shared by Missouri physicians. This paper describes the epidemiology of this problem, common mistakes made by elderly drivers, risk factors that can cause unsafe driving, and strategies physicians can use to evaluate their elderly patients' ability to drive.

  15. A review of linked health data in Australian nephrology.

    PubMed

    Kotwal, Sradha; Webster, Angela C; Cass, Alan; Gallagher, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Linked health data bring together data about one person from varying sources such as administrative health datasets, death registries and clinical registries using a process that maintains patient privacy. Linked health data have been used for burden of disease estimates and health-care planning and is being increasingly use as a research methodology to study health service utilisation and patient outcomes. Within Australian nephrology, there has been limited understanding and use of linked health data so far, but we expect that with the increasing availability of data and the growing complexity of health care, the use of such data will expand. This is especially pertinent for the growing elderly population with advanced kidney disease, who are poorly represented in other types of research studies. This article summarizes the history of linked health data in Australia, the nature of available datasets in Australia, the methods of access to these data, privacy and ethical issues, along with strengths, limitations and implications for the future. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  16. Australian National Diagnosis Related Groups and Abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Hall, J C; Brooks, B

    1994-09-01

    This study compares the declared splits for abdominal surgery within the Australian National Diagnosis Related Groups (AN-DRG) with age-based strata. Data were derived from two clinical trials involving 2114 adults. The patients tended to be elderly (25% > 71 years) and had significant co-morbidity, that is, 57% with an American Society of Anesthesia (ASA) classification > 1. Adverse events after surgery included pulmonary complications (16%), urinary tract infections (10%), wound infection (6%), and death (4.5%). Only 27% of the patients could be classified into a 'non-complicated' AN-DRG partition; these patients had a median age of 25 years and 88% had either appendicectomy or cholecystectomy. In contrast, analysis of six age-based strata revealed a stepwise increase in the incidence of adverse events after surgery (Friedman ANOVA, P < 0.001). It might therefore be wise to consider the inclusion of age-strata in the abdominal surgery component of the AN-DRG. Failure to do so may result in financial penalties for hospitals that care for patients at high risk of an adverse outcome after abdominal surgery.

  17. Forgetfulness in elders: strategies for protective caregiving.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, S L; Phillips, L R

    1995-01-01

    Nurses working with elders know from experience that an elder being viewed as forgetful negatively affects both the quality and the quantity of elders' social relationships. Avoiding stigmatization, in the presence of increased forgetting, presents a challenge for elders and their caregivers. Gerontologic nurses can assist forgetful elders with their personal impression management. They can protect these elders from being labeled by their social group. However, in order to assist elders in maintaining acceptable social impressions, nurses need to understand the impression management process and effective strategies for assisting forgetful elders in social situations.

  18. Issues and Directions from a Review of the Australian Apprenticeship and Traineeship Literature. Australian Apprenticeships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, S.

    This paper synthesizes issues and directions that a review of Australian apprenticeship and traineeship literature suggested. An overview discusses the paper's basis, which was a survey of 125 Australian references from 1985-99. Chapter 2 categorizes issues into seven groups, discusses them, and draws out salient themes. (The groups concerned…

  19. Why Do Chinese-Australian Students Outperform Their Australian Peers in Mathematics: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Dacheng; Singh, Michael

    2011-01-01

    International comparative studies and cross-cultural studies of mathematics achievement indicate that Chinese students (whether living in or outside China) consistently outperform their Western counterparts. This study shows that the gap between Chinese-Australian and other Australian students is best explained by differences in motivation to…

  20. Australian Thesaurus of Education Descriptors. A Word-Stock for Indexing and Retrieving Australian Educational Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, G. B.; Findlay, Margaret A.

    This core thesaurus of terms suitable for indexing Australian educational literature was developed by the Australian Council for Educational Research by means of a systematic and thorough revision of the "Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors." Based on the actual terminology of education in Australia, this thesaurus includes: key words and…

  1. Why Do Chinese-Australian Students Outperform Their Australian Peers in Mathematics: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Dacheng; Singh, Michael

    2011-01-01

    International comparative studies and cross-cultural studies of mathematics achievement indicate that Chinese students (whether living in or outside China) consistently outperform their Western counterparts. This study shows that the gap between Chinese-Australian and other Australian students is best explained by differences in motivation to…

  2. Facilitators and barriers influencing the readiness to receive dental implants in a geriatric institutionalised population-A randomized non-invasive interventional study.

    PubMed

    Merz, Miriam A; Terheyden, Hendrik; Huber, Christian G; Seixas, Azizi A; Schoetzau, Andreas; Schneeberger, Andres R

    2017-09-01

    Although elderly people have many serious dental issues and are in need of prosthesis, few opt for dental implants. The aim of this study was to investigate barriers that prevent elderly people from receiving dental implants. Specifically, we examined (i) whether the message was delivered before or after the interview had an impact, and (ii) whether it did matter who delivered the message. Sixty-six residents from seven residential homes in the Canton of Grisons, Switzerland were included. The sample was randomized to a treatment group that received comprehensive education about dental implants before the interview and a control group that received education after completing the questionnaire. The sample consisted of 54 women (81.8%) and 12 males (18.2%) with an average age of 86.2 years. Education before the interview did not show any impact on the attitude towards dental implants. Main reasons for a negative attitude towards implants were old age and high costs. Participants who received information about implants from their relatives and their own dentist and not from the study dentist were significantly more willing to receive implants. Providing an adequate education about benefits and risks of receiving dental implants does not change the attitude towards dental implants. The source of information/messenger does influence attitudes towards implants. If the person delivering the education and information is a relative or a known medical person, the person's attitude is more likely to change as compared to people receiving the information from an unrelated person. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Elder Abuse and Help-Seeking Behavior in Elderly Chinese.

    PubMed

    Yan, Elsie

    2015-09-01

    Elder abuse is a prevalent phenomenon resulting in physical, emotional, and social costs to individuals, families, and society. Timely and effective intervention is crucial because victims are often involved in relationships where re-victimization is common. Most elder abuse victims, however, are reluctant to seek help from outside their families. The aim of the present study is to explore factors associated with help-seeking behaviors among mistreated elders in Hong Kong. In-depth interviews were conducted with 40 elder abuse survivors. Although almost all of the participants could provide some examples of elder abuse, most denied that their own experience was abusive. Personal and professional social networks were important determinants of help seeking. Social isolation, cultural barriers, self-blame, and lack of knowledge were major barriers to help seeking. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Marine Biodiversity in the Australian Region

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Alan J.; Rees, Tony; Beesley, Pam; Bax, Nicholas J.

    2010-01-01

    The entire Australian marine jurisdictional area, including offshore and sub-Antarctic islands, is considered in this paper. Most records, however, come from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) around the continent of Australia itself. The counts of species have been obtained from four primary databases (the Australian Faunal Directory, Codes for Australian Aquatic Biota, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums, and the Australian node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System), but even these are an underestimate of described species. In addition, some partially completed databases for particular taxonomic groups, and specialized databases (for introduced and threatened species) have been used. Experts also provided estimates of the number of known species not yet in the major databases. For only some groups could we obtain an (expert opinion) estimate of undiscovered species. The databases provide patchy information about endemism, levels of threat, and introductions. We conclude that there are about 33,000 marine species (mainly animals) in the major databases, of which 130 are introduced, 58 listed as threatened and an unknown percentage endemic. An estimated 17,000 more named species are either known from the Australian EEZ but not in the present databases, or potentially occur there. It is crudely estimated that there may be as many as 250,000 species (known and yet to be discovered) in the Australian EEZ. For 17 higher taxa, there is sufficient detail for subdivision by Large Marine Domains, for comparison with other National and Regional Implementation Committees of the Census of Marine Life. Taxonomic expertise in Australia is unevenly distributed across taxa, and declining. Comments are given briefly on biodiversity management measures in Australia, including but not limited to marine protected areas. PMID:20689847

  5. Marine biodiversity in the Australian region.

    PubMed

    Butler, Alan J; Rees, Tony; Beesley, Pam; Bax, Nicholas J

    2010-08-02

    The entire Australian marine jurisdictional area, including offshore and sub-Antarctic islands, is considered in this paper. Most records, however, come from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) around the continent of Australia itself. The counts of species have been obtained from four primary databases (the Australian Faunal Directory, Codes for Australian Aquatic Biota, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums, and the Australian node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System), but even these are an underestimate of described species. In addition, some partially completed databases for particular taxonomic groups, and specialized databases (for introduced and threatened species) have been used. Experts also provided estimates of the number of known species not yet in the major databases. For only some groups could we obtain an (expert opinion) estimate of undiscovered species. The databases provide patchy information about endemism, levels of threat, and introductions. We conclude that there are about 33,000 marine species (mainly animals) in the major databases, of which 130 are introduced, 58 listed as threatened and an unknown percentage endemic. An estimated 17,000 more named species are either known from the Australian EEZ but not in the present databases, or potentially occur there. It is crudely estimated that there may be as many as 250,000 species (known and yet to be discovered) in the Australian EEZ. For 17 higher taxa, there is sufficient detail for subdivision by Large Marine Domains, for comparison with other National and Regional Implementation Committees of the Census of Marine Life. Taxonomic expertise in Australia is unevenly distributed across taxa, and declining. Comments are given briefly on biodiversity management measures in Australia, including but not limited to marine protected areas.

  6. Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Gheno, Ramon; Cepparo, Juan M.; Rosca, Cristina E.; Cotten, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders are among the most common problems affecting the elderly. The resulting loss of mobility and physical independence can be particularly devastating in this population. The aim of this article is to present some of the most frequent musculoskeletal disorders of the elderly, such as fractures, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, microcrystal disorders, infections, and tumors. PMID:22919553

  7. The Vulnerability of Elderly Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Jerrie L.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews research on the vulnerability of the elderly to consumer fraud. Patterns of consumption, situational characteristics, education and product knowledge, psychological losses, social isolation, and psychosocial transitions influence the elderly's vulnerability and ability to cope with consumer abuse. Higher educational attainment and greater…

  8. Special Section: Educating Elderly Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Bernice A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Four articles in this special section report on (1) Arizona curriculum for home-based caregivers of the elderly in rural communities (Epstein, Koenig); (2) educational programs for nursing home caregivers (Marsden); (3) extension programs for helping low-income elderly with money management (Koonce); and (4) energy education for the elderly…

  9. Vascular imaging in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kalva, Sanjeeva P; Mueller, Peter R

    2008-07-01

    Though a myriad of vascular conditions affect the elderly, atherosclerosis remains the most common vascular disorder, followed by venous thromboembolism and varicose veins. In this article, the authors discuss the imaging of atherosclerosis affecting various vascular territories and pay special attention to the elderly population. The authors also discuss imaging findings of segmental arterial mediolysis, giant cell arteritis, and venous thromboembolism.

  10. Leptospirosis in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Gancheva, Galya Ivanova

    2013-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonosis with broad clinical spectrum and high mortality in severe forms. The aim of this study was to analyze clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, epidemiological data, and management in elderly patients with leptospirosis. Toward that end, we performed a descriptive analysis of 15 leptospirosis elderly cases (age 60-78 years) treated at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases of University Hospital - Pleven (1976-2012). Patients were serologically confirmed by microscopic agglutination test. Twelve cases (80%) presented with the severe form of leptospirosis. Co-morbidity (hypertonic diseases, chronic pulmonary diseases, chronic alcohol abuse, and diabetes) was registered in 13 cases. All cases had fever, oliguria, conjunctival suffusions, hepatosplenomegaly. Jaundice (14/93%), hemorrhagic diathesis (13/87%), vomiting (11/73%), abdominal pain (10/67%), myalgia (7/47%) and hypotension (7/47%) also were observed. Renal dysfunction was expressed by increased blood urea nitrogen (mean 38.1±24.1mmol/L) and serum creatinine (mean 347.6±179.8μmol/L). Hepatic dysfunction was expressed by increased total serum bilirubin level (mean 274.6±210.7μmol/L) and slightly elevated aminotransferases (ASAT mean 125.8±61.6IU/L; ALAT mean 131.3±126.5IU/L). Five cases (33%) had a lethal outcome. In conclusion, leptospirosis in elderly patients is associated with severe course and higher risk for death, and requires prompt intensive treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Fire fatalities in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Elder, A T; Squires, T; Busuttil, A

    1996-05-01

    Fatal dwelling-house fires account for 10% of all accidental deaths in the United Kingdom with one-quarter of the deaths being of elderly people. No study had described the characteristics of elderly individuals who die in fires. We report results from a retrospective review of all fatal dwelling-house fires in Scotland from 1980 to 1990. Of 1096 people dying in fires, 243 (23%) were aged over 75. When compared with patients under the age of 75, older patients were significantly less likely to be smokers. Significantly more fires killing elderly people were caused by faulty or misused electrical items in the house, particularly electric blankets. These differences between elderly and younger individuals dying in dwelling-house fires may suggest that preventive strategies for the elderly population require a different emphasis from those for younger people.

  12. [Crisis intervention with elderly people].

    PubMed

    Etzersdorfer, E

    2008-02-01

    This paper gives an overview about the most important aspects of crisis intervention, with special emphasis on crisis intervention with elderly people. First a review of the development of crisis intervention is given, including of some of the major concepts, with particular emphasis on psychoanalytic aspects of crisis intervention. Then a clinical case example of a crisis intervention with an elderly woman following a suicide attempt is given and discussed. The focus lies on the description of the transference-countertransference relationship, with attempts of pressing the therapist to comply with superficial, denying and minimizing fantasies. Peculiarities of crisis intervention with elderly people are highlighted: it is necessary to emphasize that elderly people are underrepresented in most crisis services, whereby they represent the group with the highest suicide risk. Peculiarities of elderly people still are not sufficiently met and they are created by a particularly wide range of aspects.

  13. Elder mistreatment: an international narrative.

    PubMed

    Podnieks, Elizabeth; Penhale, Bridget; Goergen, Thomas; Biggs, Simon; Han, Donghee

    2010-01-01

    This eclectic overview of global reports on elder mistreatment reflects both the diversity of the work of the authors and the situations in the countries described. Some nations frame elder mistreatment as a human rights issue; others trace the development of emerging programs and practices as they articulate strategies designed to identify, prevent, and reduce the problem, while recognizing the shifting context in which elder mistreatment takes place. This article sheds light on the way different countries share their stories, policies, and initiatives, which stimulate discussions and debates of various aspects and cultural nuances of elder mistreatment. The data presented provide a platform for increased action toward preventing elder mistreatment and celebrate successes while looking for new ways to address challenges.

  14. Understanding suicide in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Zanni, Guido R; Wick, Jeannette Y

    2010-02-01

    One suicide occurs every 16 minutes. Intentionally killing oneself is distinctly human; other species don't commit suicide. Suicide is an exceedingly complex phenomenon stemming from intolerable stress and the inability to cope. Elders tend to plan their suicides well, choose means of killing themselves that are more violent than younger people do, and are less likely to survive the attempt than others. Numerous factors increase risk for elder suicide: recent bereavement, pain, chronic illness, hopelessness, and despair. Identifying and treating depression early is essential to avoid tragedy. Regardless, many elders are treated with anxiolytics and analgesics in lieu of antidepressants, and some medications may increase suicide risk. Consultant pharmacists need to be aware that suicide is a serious concern for elders. When depression seems to be worsening in an elder, aggressive action is needed.

  15. Living with aphasia: three Indigenous Australian stories.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Hersh, Deborah; Hayward, Colleen; Fraser, Joan; Brown, Melita

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disorders and stroke in Australian Aboriginal communities is more than twice as high as non-Indigenous Australians. Approximately 30% of people who survive stroke are left with some level of aphasia, and yet Indigenous Australians appear to be infrequent users of speech-language pathology services, and there is virtually no research literature about the experiences of aphasia for this group of people. This paper presents the stories of living with aphasia for three Indigenous Australian men living in Perth, Western Australia. Their narratives were collected by an Indigenous researcher through in-depth, supported interviews, and were explored using both within-case and cross-case analyses for common and recurring themes. It is argued that there is value for speech-language pathologists, and other health professionals, to be aware of the broad experiences of living with aphasia for Indigenous Australians because their stories are rarely heard and because, as with people with aphasia generally, they are at risk of social isolation and tend to lack visibility in the community. This study explores the key issues which emerge for these three men and highlights the need for further research in this area.

  16. Elder abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Muehlbauer, Melissa; Crane, Patricia A

    2006-11-01

    Elder abuse and neglect is a critical health care issue that must be brought to the attention of health care providers and older adults' family members. Adults older than 65 who live at home or in long-term care facilities may be at risk for abuse. Nurses should be aware of the causes, screening questions, symptoms of abuse, and resources in the community. Armed with information and a better understanding about the issue, nurses can minimize the devastating effects of abuse on older adults and their families.

  17. Dysphagia in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abraham; Carmona, Richard; Traube, Morris

    2014-02-01

    Dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing, is a common problem in the elderly. Based on the initial clinical history and physical examination, the dysphagia is assessed as either primarily oropharyngeal or esophageal in origin. Most oropharyngeal dysphagia is of neurologic origin, and management is coordinated with a clinical swallow specialist in conjunction with an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) physician if warning signs imply malignancy. Several structural and functional esophageal disorders can cause dysphagia. If a patient has likely esophageal dysphagia, a video barium esophagram is a good initial test, and referral to a gastroenterologist is generally warranted leading to appropriate treatment.

  18. Dysphagia in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Elderly patients are inherently predisposed to dysphagia predominately because of comorbid health conditions. With the aging of the population in the United States, along with the increased prevalence of obesity and gastroesophageal reflux disease, healthcare providers will increasingly encounter older patients with either oropharyngeal or esophageal disease and complaints of dysphagia. Useful tests to evaluate dysphagia include the videofluoroscopic swallowing study and the fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Swallow rehabilitation is useful to help patients compensate for swallowing difficulty and ultimately help strengthen the neuromusculature involved in swallowing. PMID:24772045

  19. [Breast cancer in elderly].

    PubMed

    Diab, Sami G

    2007-10-01

    The question of the breast cancer in elderly is enlightened by two constituted epidemiological data bases in the United-States: the data basis of San Antonio and the SEER (Surveillance Epidemology and End Results) which represent a follow-up of 26% of the American population. The listed data allow an approach of the clinical and biological constituents according to the age of the disease as well as the factors of comorbidity. The informations relative to the therapeutic choices are more fragmentary and must be developed first and foremost during the programs. double dagger.

  20. Dental care and treatment needs of elderly in nursing homes in Saarland: perceptions of the homes managers.

    PubMed

    Rabbo, Mohammad Abed; Mitov, Gergo; Gebhart, Florian; Pospiech, Peter

    2012-06-01

    To investigate nursing home managers' perceptions and attitudes towards oral health care and access to dental services for aged care facility residents. Questionnaires containing 28 closed-ended questions were mailed to all 114 nursing homes in Saarland, Germany. Descriptive statistics were calculated for response items. Facility response rate was 39%. None of the nursing homes in this study offered systematic dental health care. Initial dental screening was carried out only in one facility. In 81%, dental examinations only took place if required. Although stationary dental equipment was available only in one home, dental treatment was carried out in 71% of the cases by a dentist in the nursing home. Eighty-four per cent of the homes' managements rated the state of the dentition of the inhabitants as satisfying. Over half of the managers indicated satisfaction with the know-how of their nursing staff concerning oral hygiene procedures. The most significant barriers to provision of dental care in the facilities according to their managers were staff shortage, lack of interest of the inhabitants and financial concerns. The results of this study showed an urgent need for estimating a programme for systematic dental care for institutionalised elder people in the federal state of Saarland. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Data Convergence - An Australian Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. S.; Howell, B.

    2012-12-01

    Coupled numerical physical, biogeochemical and sediment models are increasingly being used as integrators to help understand the cumulative or far field effects of change in the coastal environment. This reliance on modeling has forced observations to be delivered as data streams ingestible by modeling frameworks. This has made it easier to create near real-time or forecasting models than to try to recreate the past, and has lead in turn to the conversion of historical data into data streams to allow them to be ingested by the same frameworks. The model and observation frameworks under development within Australia's Commonwealth and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) are now feeding into the Australian Ocean Data Network's (AODN's) MARine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) . The sensor, or data stream, brokering solution is centred around the "message" and all data flowing through the gateway is wrapped as a message. Messages consist of a topic and a data object and their routing through the gateway to pre-processors and listeners is determined by the topic. The Sensor Message Gateway (SMG) method is allowing data from different sensors measuring the same thing but with different temporal resolutions, units or spatial coverage to be ingested or visualized seamlessly. At the same time the model output as a virtual sensor is being explored, this again being enabled by the SMG. It is only for two way communications with sensor that rigorous adherence to standards is needed, by accepting existing data in less than ideal formats, but exposing them though the SMG we can move a step closer to the Internet Of Things by creating an Internet of Industries where each vested interest can continue with business as usual, contribute to data convergence and adopt more open standards when investment seems appropriate to that sector or business.Architecture Overview

  2. Who uses Australian chiropractic services?

    PubMed

    French, Simon D; Densley, Konstancja; Charity, Melanie J; Gunn, Jane

    2013-09-26

    The use of chiropractic services is widespread, however, little is known about the characteristics of people who seek chiropractic care in Australia. This study compared the characteristics of users and non-users of chiropractic services from a cohort of patients sourced from general medical practice in Victoria, Australia. This is a secondary analysis of baseline screening data from a prospective adult cohort study beginning in 2005. Thirty randomly selected Australian general medical practices mailed out surveys to 17,780 of their patients. Differences were examined between chiropractic users and others, and between chiropractic users who reported a back problem to those who did not. Of 7,519 respondents, 15% indicated they had visited a chiropractor in the last 12 months. Chiropractic users were more likely to have their GP located in a rural location and to be born in Australia; they were less likely to be in the older age group (55-76), to be unemployed or to have a pension/benefit as their main source of income. Chiropractic users were more likely to: have a back problem; use complementary or alternative medication; visit another type of complementary health practitioner or a physiotherapist. They were less likely to take medication for certain health problems (e.g. for high blood pressure, high cholesterol or asthma). No important differences were seen between chiropractic users and non-users for other health problems. People who visited a chiropractor and reported a back problem were more likely to: be a current smoker; have a number of other chronic conditions, including arthritis, hypertension, chronic sinusitis, asthma, dermatitis, depression and anxiety; report taking medications, including antidepressants, analgesics (painkillers and arthritis medication) and complementary or alternative medications. This large cross-sectional study of general medical practice attendees suggests that chiropractors are the most commonly consulted complementary health

  3. Elder Abuse: The Status of Current Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrick-Cornell, Claire; Gelles, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses problems of definition of elderly abuse. Examines data and research on the rates of elderly abuse and factors found related to elderly abuse. Critiques theories developed to explain the abuse of the elderly. Presents recommendations for research and practice. (RC)

  4. The mortality of elder mistreatment.

    PubMed

    Lachs, M S; Williams, C S; O'Brien, S; Pillemer, K A; Charlson, M E

    1998-08-05

    Although elder mistreatment is suspected to be life threatening in some instances, little is known about the survival of elderly persons who have been mistreated. To estimate the independent contribution of reported elder abuse and neglect to all-cause mortality in an observational cohort of community-dwelling older adults. Prospective cohort study with at least 9 years of follow-up. The New Haven Established Population for Epidemiologic Studies in the Elderly cohort, which included 2812 community-dwelling adults who were older than 65 years in 1982, a subset of whom were referred to protective services for the elderly. All-cause mortality among (1) elderly persons for whom protective services were used for corroborated elder mistreatment (elder abuse, neglect, and/or exploitation), or (2) elderly persons for whom protective services were used for self-neglect. In the first 9 years after cohort inception, 176 cohort members were seen by elderly protective services for verified allegations; 10 (5.7%) of these were for abuse, 30 (17.0%) for neglect, 8 (4.5%) for exploitation, and 128 (72.7%) for self-neglect. At the end of a 13-year follow-up period from cohort inception, cohort members seen for elder mistreatment at any time during the follow-up had poorer survival (9%) than either those seen for self-neglect (17%) or other noninvestigated cohort members (40%) (P<.001). In a pooled logistic regression that adjusted for demographic characteristics, chronic diseases, functional status, social networks, cognitive status, and depressive symptomatology, the risk of death remained elevated for cohort members experiencing either elder mistreatment (odds ratio, 3.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-6.7) or self-neglect (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.5), when compared with other members of the cohort. Reported and corroborated elder mistreatment and self-neglect are associated with shorter survival after adjusting for other factors associated with increased

  5. Physical activity recommendations for older Australians.

    PubMed

    Sims, Jane; Hill, Keith; Hunt, Susan; Haralambous, Betty

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this research was to produce evidence-based recommendations on physical activity designed to improve and maintain the health of older Australians. The authors reviewed existing guidelines and consensus statements, systematic reviews, meta-analyses and research articles. Draft recommendations were circulated to stakeholder agencies and to an expert advisory group. Final recommendations were then forwarded to the Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing for Ministerial approval. The physical activity recommendations for older Australians complement the current National Physical Activity Guidelines for adults and the American College of Sports Medicine and American Heart Association recommendations for older adults. The recommendations provide advice developed specifically for older Australians. Although the recommendations may be manifested in different ways, according to specific populations or settings, they apply to older people across all levels of health and have application to community dwelling people and those in residential care accommodation.

  6. Anaemia in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Gómez Ramírez, Susana; Remacha Sevilla, Ángel Francisco; Muñoz Gómez, Manuel

    2017-07-22

    Anaemia is common in the elderly and is associated with an increased risk of physical, functional, and cognitive impairment, hospitalisation and mortality. Although it is unknown whether anaemia is a causal factor or a subrogated marker of worse health status, its correction can improve the patients' physical and functional capacity. Detection, classification, and treatment of anaemia should be a priority for the health system. The main causes of anaemia in the elderly are nutritional deficiencies and chronic disease, with or without kidney failure, although some cases are of indeterminate origin. Medical history and physical examination help to clarify its aetiology. A diagnostic algorithm based on data from the lab allows anaemia classification with a therapeutic orientation. Supplements of iron and maturation factors, as well as erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, constitute the mainstay of treatment, along with that of the underlying disease, whereas red blood cell transfusion should be reserved for severe cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Learning Design and Inquiry in Australian History Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Global and digital connectivity transform Australian classrooms by creating rich environments for inquiry learning. Developing inquiry learning in this Information Communication Technology (ICT) context is an Australian educational goal. Recently the Australian Curriculum reform and the Digital Education Revolution has become a catalyst for…

  8. Drama in the Australian National Curriculum: Decisions, Tensions and Uncertainties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Madonna; Saunders, John Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, the Australian Federal Government endorsed the final version of the Australian Curriculum arts framework a document resulting from nearly seven years of consultation and development. "The Australian Curriculum: The Arts Version 8.0" comprises five subjects: dance, drama, media arts, music and visual arts. This article…

  9. Australian Indigenous Perspectives on Quality Assurance in Children's Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Teresa; Frances, Katie; Saggers, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Government has recently committed to the development of an integrated system of assuring national quality standards for Australian childcare and preschool services (Australian Government, 2008). This article addresses two fundamental issues relating to the development of an integrated system as it applies to Indigenous children's…

  10. Modelling Choice: Factors Influencing Modes of Delivery in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew; Ling, Peter; Hill, Doug

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study of Multiple Modes of Delivery in Australian universities that was commissioned by Australian Universities Teaching Committee over the period 2001-2004. The project examined and described the various means of educational delivery deployed by Australian universities. It identified the pedagogical,…

  11. Drama in the Australian National Curriculum: Decisions, Tensions and Uncertainties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Madonna; Saunders, John Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, the Australian Federal Government endorsed the final version of the Australian Curriculum arts framework a document resulting from nearly seven years of consultation and development. "The Australian Curriculum: The Arts Version 8.0" comprises five subjects: dance, drama, media arts, music and visual arts. This article…

  12. Building Innovation: Learning with Technologies. Australian Education Review Number 56

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyle, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Australian Education Review (AER) 56 explores national and international policy priorities for building students' innovation capabilities through information and communication technologies (ICT) in Australian schools. Section 1 sets out the Australian policy context for digital education and highlights some of the emerging challenges. It provides…

  13. Building Innovation: Learning with Technologies. Australian Education Review Number 56

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyle, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Australian Education Review (AER) 56 explores national and international policy priorities for building students' innovation capabilities through information and communication technologies (ICT) in Australian schools. Section 1 sets out the Australian policy context for digital education and highlights some of the emerging challenges. It provides…

  14. Encephalization of Australian and New Guinean marsupials.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, K W S

    2008-01-01

    Encephalization of Australian marsupials was analyzed using the endocranial volume (ECV) of 52 species of Dasyuromorphia and Notoryctemorphia, 14 species of Peramelemorphia and 116 species of Diprotodontia from Australia and New Guinea and compared with 16 species of Ameridelphian marsupials and 3 species of native and recently introduced Australian eutherian carnivores (dingo, feral cat and feral fox). Linear regression analysis of the relationship between ECV and body weight for marsupials revealed that allometric parameters for these groups are different from those previously derived for samples of (mainly eutherian) mammals, with higher slopes for Dasyuromorphia and Diprotodontia and lower slopes for Ameridelphians and Peramelemorphia. Absolute ECV for small Australian and New Guinea marsupial carnivores (Antechinus and Sminthopsis) were found to be comparable to eutherians of similar body weight, but large marsupial carnivores such as the Tasmanian devil and thylacine had substantially smaller ECVs than eutherian carnivores of similar body weight. Similarly, members of some superfamilies within Diprotodontia (Burramyoidea, Petauroidea, Tarsipedoidea) had ECVs comparable to prosimians, whereas bandicoots, bilbies and many macropods were found to be poorly encephalized. When both encephalization quotient (EQ) and residuals from regression analysis were used to compare relative ECV of extinct/threatened species with common species there were no significant differences for any of the orders of Australian marsupials, suggesting that encephalization is not a major factor in the current extinction crisis for Australian marsupials. Similarly there were no consistent differences in relative ECV between marsupials from New Guinea and associated islands compared to Australia or between arid and non-arid Australian regions for any of the marsupial orders. The results indicate that marsupials are not uniformly poorly encephalized and that small marsupial carnivores and

  15. Successes, challenges and developments in Australian rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Morand, Eric F; Leech, Michelle T

    2015-07-01

    Australia is a geographically vast but sparsely populated country with many unique factors affecting the practice of rheumatology. With a population comprising minority Indigenous peoples, a historically European-origin majority population, and recent large-scale migration from Asia, the effect of ethnic diversity on the phenotype of rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a constant of Australian rheumatology practice. Australia has a strong system of universal healthcare and subsidized access to medications, and clinical and research rheumatology are well developed, but inequitable access to specialist care in urban and regional centres, and the complex disconnected structure of the Australian healthcare system, can hinder the management of chronic diseases.

  16. Selection of the Australian indicator region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Each Australian state was examined for the availability of LANDSAT data, area, yield, and production characteristics, statistics, crop calendars, and other ancillary data. Agrophysical conditions that could influence labeling and classification accuracies were identified in connection with the highest producing states as determined from available Australian crop statistics. Based primarily on these production statistics, Western Australia and New South Wales were selected as the wheat indicator region for Australia. The general characteristics of wheat in the indicator region, with potential problems anticipated for proportion estimation are considered. The varieties of wheat, the diseases and pests common to New South Wales, and the wheat growing regions of both states are examined.

  17. Regulation of online pharmacy: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Bernath, Paul

    2003-02-01

    This article argues that existing Australian regulations do not adequately cover online pharmacies or Internet advertising of medicines and that existing penalties and sanctions are often ineffective, potentially placing public health and safety at risk. Suggestions are made for future regulatory approaches. It is concluded that as well as an effective program of public education, cautious domestic legislative reform is necessary to ensure specific regulation of Australian online pharmacy practice and Internet advertising of medicines. In addition, the global nature of the Internet demands international co-operation and increased regulator and consumer vigilance.

  18. Phenylphenalenones from the Australian plant Haemodorum simplex.

    PubMed

    Dias, Daniel Anthony; Goble, David James; Silva, Claudio Andres; Urban, Sylvia

    2009-06-01

    Chemical investigation of the Australian plant Haemodorum simplex resulted in the isolation of three new phenylphenalenones, haemodorone (10), haemodorol (11), and haemodorose (12), together with the previously reported compounds 5, dilatrin (6), and xiphidone (8). The first complete 2D NMR characterization for all of the compounds isolated, including several chemical shift reassignments for dilatrin (6), is reported. In addition this is one of the few reports to discuss the isolation of new phenylphenalenones from an Australian medicinal plant. The crude extract of both the bulbaceous and aerial components of the plant exhibited varying degrees of antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activity, and only the bulbs displayed potent cytotoxic activity.

  19. Renal Cancer in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    González León, Tania; Morera Pérez, Maricela

    2016-01-01

    The increase of the aging population corresponds with the rise of renal cancer in elderly patients. The distinction between functional and chronological age, quality of life, and survival estimate are important issues, among others, that should be considered in the management of renal cancer in elderly patients. We made this review with the purpose of synthesizing the most updated criteria regarding indications and outcomes of the different therapeutic options in the management of elderly patients with renal cancer, beginning from the physiologic considerations that characterize them, their capacity to tolerate different therapeutic possibilities, and the prognosis of the patients' risks and comorbidity assessment.

  20. Economic crises and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Backes-Gellner, Uschi; Schneider, Martin R

    2012-01-01

    Economic crises in the last decades have swept elderly workers more than younger workers out of employment. But now the tide is turning. In affluent societies, elderly workers will have more opportunities of being employed in meaningful and well-paid jobs than ever before. On account of demographic changes, fewer (younger) workers will be around, and most of the reasons that in the past have induced employers to lay off older rather than younger workers will disappear. Future employment strategies will have to focus more on an optimal age mix and on benefitting from the full potential of the elderly. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Western Australian food security project

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Alexandra; Brown, Graham; Maycock, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA) Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets). The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%). Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets) followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets). Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets), salads (n- = 50 outlets), fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets), seafood (n = 27 outlets), meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets). The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28%) offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77%) as were carbonated drinks (n = 88%) and flavoured milks (n = 46%). Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of access to quality

  2. Western Australian Food Security Project.

    PubMed

    McManus, Alexandra; Brown, Graham; Maycock, Bruce

    2007-08-23

    The aim of the Western Australian (WA) Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets). The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%). The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets) followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets). Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets), salads (n- = 50 outlets), fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets), seafood (n = 27 outlets), meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets). The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28%) offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77%) as were carbonated drinks (n = 88%) and flavoured milks (n = 46%). These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of access to quality, healthy foods at reasonable cost (food

  3. The Climatology of Australian Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Ross M.; Forgan, Bruce W.; Campbell, Susan K.

    2017-04-01

    Airborne particles or aerosols have long been recognised for their major contribution to uncertainty in climate change. In addition, aerosol amounts must be known for accurate atmospheric correction of remotely sensed images, and are required to accurately gauge the available solar resource. However, despite great advances in surface networks and satellite retrievals over recent years, long-term continental-scale aerosol data sets are lacking. Here we present an aerosol assessment over Australia based on combined sun photometer measurements from the Bureau of Meteorology Radiation Network and CSIRO/AeroSpan. The measurements are continental in coverage, comprising 22 stations, and generally decadal in timescale, totalling 207 station-years. Monthly climatologies are given at all stations. Spectral decomposition shows that the time series can be represented as a weighted sum of sinusoids with periods of 12, 6 and 4 months, corresponding to the annual cycle and its second and third harmonics. Their relative amplitudes and phase relationships lead to sawtooth-like waveforms sharply rising to an austral spring peak, with a slower decline often including a secondary peak during the summer. The amplitude and phase of these periodic components show significant regional change across the continent. Fits based on this harmonic analysis are used to separate the periodic and episodic components of the aerosol time series. An exploratory classification of the aerosol types is undertaken based on (a) the relative periodic amplitudes of the Ångström exponent and aerosol optical depth, (b) the relative amplitudes of the 6- and 4-month harmonic components of the aerosol optical depth, and (c) the ratio of episodic to periodic variation in aerosol optical depth. It is shown that Australian aerosol can be broadly grouped into three classes: tropical, arid and temperate. Statistically significant decadal trends are found at 4 of the 22 stations. Despite the apparently small

  4. Mercury concentrations in the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus from SE Australian waters

    SciTech Connect

    Bacher, G.J.

    1985-10-01

    Marine carnivores such as seals and sea lions occupy an important position in the upper trophic level of the marine food web and this, together with their longevity, makes these marine mammals useful indicators of mercury accumulation in the marine environment. Little information exists on mercury concentrations in marine mammals from the southern hemisphere. This paper reports total mercury concentrations in the tissues of the Australian Fur Seal Arctocephalus pusillus from southeastern Australian waters.

  5. Elderly Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Booth, Brad D

    2016-04-01

    With the ever-aging population, the number of elderly sexual offenders are also on the rise. The courts and correctional system are increasingly faced with older individuals who have offended sexually. Previously, these older offenders were thought to be similar to younger sexual offenders. However, closer analysis suggests that many of these individuals pose a much lower risk to recidivate than the risk to recidivate of their younger counterparts. Still, an individualized approach to manage the risk of older offenders is required, as some may have particular risk factors relevant for their treatment and future stability, such as dementia or other mental health issues. Further, this population often has particular physical health issues and requires special consideration when being placed in the community. Assessment, treatment, and risk management in this special population of sexual offenders are discussed.

  6. [Antidepressants in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Cortajarena García, M C; Ron Martin, S; Miranda Vicario, E; Ruiz de Vergara Eguino, A; Azpiazu Gomez, P J; Lopez Aldana, J

    2016-10-01

    Depression in the elderly is a changing, difficult and common disorder. At this age, there are more relapses and more long-life treatment is required. The pharmacology approach is a challenge because of concurrent factors that make their treatment more difficult. It is very important to have a basic antidepressant scheme, in order to help treat this disorder with efficiency and success from Primary Care. There are no drugs without side effects, and their characteristics have to be known in order to make the right selection depending on effectiveness, safety and tolerance. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Hypertension in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Extremera, Blas; Cía-Gómez, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Background. The incidence of hypertension in the Western countries is continuously increasing in the elderly population and remains the leading cause of cardiovascular and morbidity. Methods. we analysed some significant clinical trials in order to present the relevant findings on those hypertensive population. Results. Several studies (SYST-EUR, HYVET, CONVINCE, VALUE, etc.) have demonstrated the benefits of treatment (nitrendipine, hydrochrotiazyde, perindopril, indapamide, verapamil, or valsartan) in aged hypertensive patients not only concerning blood pressure values but also the other important risk factors. Conclusion. Hypertension is the most prevalent cardiovascular disorder in the Western countries, and the relevance of receiving pharmacological treatment of hypertension in aged patients is crucial; in addition, the results suggest that combination therapy—nitrendipine plus enalapril—could have more benefits than those observed with the use of nitrendipine alone. PMID:21876789

  8. Meals for the Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The aim of Skylab's multi-agency cooperative project was to make simple but nutritious space meals available to handicapped and otherwise homebound senior adults, unable to take advantage of existing meal programs sponsored by federal, state and private organizations. As a spinoff of Meal Systems for the Elderly, commercial food processing firms are now producing astronaut type meals for public distribution. Company offers variety of freeze dried foods which are reconstituted by addition of water, and "retort pouch" meals which need no reconstitution, only heating. The retort pouch is an innovative flexible package that combines the advantage of boil-in bag and metal can. Foods retain their flavor, minerals and vitamins can be stored without refrigeration and are lightweight for easy transportation.

  9. Mastocytosis among elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Rouet, Audrey; Aouba, Achille; Damaj, Gandhi; Soucié, Erinn; Hanssens, Katia; Chandesris, Marie-Olivia; Livideanu, Cristina Bulai; Dutertre, Marine; Durieu, Isabelle; Grandpeix-Guyodo, Catherine; Barète, Stéphane; Bachmeyer, Claude; Soria, Angèle; Frenzel, Laurent; Fain, Olivier; Grosbois, Bernard; de Gennes, Christian; Hamidou, Mohamed; Arlet, Jean-Benoit; Launay, David; Lavigne, Christian; Arock, Michel; Lortholary, Olivier; Dubreuil, Patrice; Hermine, Olivier; Georgin-Lavialle, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases with a young median age at diagnosis. Usually indolent and self-limited in childhood, the disease can exhibit aggressive progression in mid-adulthood. Our objectives were to describe the characteristics of the disease when diagnosed among elderly patients, for which rare data are available. The French Reference Center conducted a retrospective multicenter study on 53 patients with mastocytosis >69 years of age, to describe their clinical, biological, and genetic features. The median age of our cohort of patients was 75 years. Mastocytosis variants included were cutaneous (n = 1), indolent systemic (n = 5), aggressive systemic (n = 11), associated with a hematological non-mast cell disease (n = 34), and mast cell leukemia (n = 2). Clinical manifestations were predominantly mast cell activation symptoms (75.5%), poor performance status (50.9%), hepatosplenomegaly (50.9%), skin involvement (49.1%), osteoporosis (47.2%), and portal hypertension and ascites (26.4%). The main biological features were anemia (79.2%), thrombocytopenia (50.9%), leucopenia (20.8%), and liver enzyme abnormalities (32.1%). Of the 40 patients tested, 34 (85%), 2 (5%), and 4 (10%) exhibited the KIT D816V mutant, other KIT mutations and the wild-type form of the KIT gene, respectively. Additional sequencing detected significant genetic defects in 17 of 26 (65.3%) of the patients with associated hematological non-mast cell disease, including TET2, SRSF2, IDH2, and ASLX1 mutations. Death occurred in 19 (35.8%) patients, within a median delay of 9 months, despite the different treatment options available. Mastocytosis among elderly patients has a challenging early detection, rare skin involvement, and/or limited skin disease; it is heterogeneous and has often an aggressive presentation with nonfortuitous associated myeloid lineage malignant clones, and thus a poor overall prognosis. PMID:27310990

  10. Elders Health Empowerment Scale

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Empowerment refers to patient skills that allow them to become primary decision-makers in control of daily self-management of health problems. As important the concept as it is, particularly for elders with chronic diseases, few available instruments have been validated for use with Spanish speaking people. Objective: Translate and adapt the Health Empowerment Scale (HES) for a Spanish-speaking older adults sample and perform its psychometric validation. Methods: The HES was adapted based on the Diabetes Empowerment Scale-Short Form. Where "diabetes" was mentioned in the original tool, it was replaced with "health" terms to cover all kinds of conditions that could affect health empowerment. Statistical and Psychometric Analyses were conducted on 648 urban-dwelling seniors. Results: The HES had an acceptable internal consistency with a Cronbach's α of 0.89. The convergent validity was supported by significant Pearson's Coefficient correlations between the HES total and item scores and the General Self Efficacy Scale (r= 0.77), Swedish Rheumatic Disease Empowerment Scale (r= 0.69) and Making Decisions Empowerment Scale (r= 0.70). Construct validity was evaluated using item analysis, half-split test and corrected item to total correlation coefficients; with good internal consistency (α> 0.8). The content validity was supported by Scale and Item Content Validity Index of 0.98 and 1.0, respectively. Conclusions: HES had acceptable face validity and reliability coefficients; which added to its ease administration and users' unbiased comprehension, could set it as a suitable tool in evaluating elder's outpatient empowerment-based medical education programs. PMID:25767307

  11. Marketing Australian Universities to Thai Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimpa, Nattavud

    2005-01-01

    This study examines Thai students' perceptions regarding the quality of the Australian university system. Research findings reveal that (a) it is very important to maintain and safeguard the university's superior reputation, as it is the most important factor influencing Thais to choose one university over other institutions; (b) information on…

  12. The Australians--A "Fair Go" People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Herschel

    1984-01-01

    Australians are known for their egalitarian spirit, manifested by a dislike of social pretension and affectation. A brief history of the country from the time of its establishment in 1788 as a dumping ground for Britain's unwanted criminals to the present is presented. (RM)

  13. Financial Management and Young Australian Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Nicki; Hoiles, Lauren; Corney, Tim; Clark, David

    2008-01-01

    In two studies of young Australian workers, participants generally displayed positive attitudes towards financial management practices; however, a substantial proportion failed to display positive financial management practices, experienced financial problems and dissatisfaction, and reported low rates of seeking financial assistance, particularly…

  14. Linguistic Aspects of Australian Aboriginal English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard…

  15. A survey of Australian haematology reference intervals.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Leanne; Hall, Sara; Badrick, Tony

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to create a snapshot of Australian haematology reference intervals (RIs) in use, in particular red cell parameters. We present an analysis of survey results conducted across Australian laboratories between November 2012 and January 2013.All Australian laboratories enrolled in the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program (RCPA QAP) were invited to participate in the December 2012 Survey Monkey survey, with a response from 85 laboratories (17%) received. The scope included laboratory demographics (location, size/throughput, and network), RIs in use for the full blood count and selected derived parameters, their frequency of revision, source and statistical approach for derivation. Further questions related to uncertainty of measurement, pregnancy values, paediatric/adult cut-off, haematology profiles reported and the use of extended parameters.There is more consistency with some upper and lower limits than others, and wide ranges for reported uncertainty of measurement (UM). There is no apparent consistency with RIs used for particular instruments and technologies. When laboratories change their RIs, most obtain them from a text book, paper or another laboratory and have difficulty in determining the source. If they do determine their own, most don't have a standard operating procedure and calculations are not consistent in terms of sample size and statistical methods used.We have presented evidence of the wide variations in RIs used in Australian laboratories and that arguably these do not differ significantly from each other. The paediatric age cut-off requires standardisation.

  16. Conversion Disorder in Australian Pediatric Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Nunn, Kenneth P.; Rose, Donna; Morris, Anne; Ouvrier, Robert A.; Varghese, John

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the incidence and clinical features of children presenting to Australian child health specialists with conversion disorder. Method: Active, national surveillance of conversion disorder in children younger than 16 years of age during 2002 and 2003. Results: A total of 194 children were reported on. The average age was 11.8…

  17. Sustainability in the Australian Curriculum: Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maude, Alaric

    2014-01-01

    "Sustainability" is one of the seven major concepts in the geography curriculum. It is also one of the three cross-curriculum priorities in the Australian curriculum, together with Asia and Australia's engagement with Asia, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. This paper describes how the concept is explained…

  18. Ethnicity and Gender in Australian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Jim

    The Australian education system is denying equity and social justice to ethnic minorities and women. This paper examines the development of Australia's educational policy for those two groups. It argues that the educational disadvantages they have experienced have been enhanced by the marginalization of the issues. Policies such as multicultural…

  19. Professional Standards for Australian Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Ian; Dally, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Although professional standards for Australian teachers were developed several years ago, this country is yet to develop such standards for special education teachers. The lack of standards for the special education profession is associated with the absence of a consistent process of accreditation in Australia and a lack of clarity in the pathways…

  20. Commercial Activities and Copyright in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelly, Marita

    2008-01-01

    With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…

  1. Marketing in the Australian Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favaloro, Chrissa

    2015-01-01

    This article examines domestic marketing in the Australian higher education sector, specifically, the marketing investment patterns of universities and their levels of student growth as a return on marketing investment. Marketing expenditure by universities has risen 23 per cent in the five years to 2013, with several institutions allocating in…

  2. Financial Management and Young Australian Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Nicki; Hoiles, Lauren; Corney, Tim; Clark, David

    2008-01-01

    In two studies of young Australian workers, participants generally displayed positive attitudes towards financial management practices; however, a substantial proportion failed to display positive financial management practices, experienced financial problems and dissatisfaction, and reported low rates of seeking financial assistance, particularly…

  3. Australian Children's Understanding of Display Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Cultural display rules govern the manifestation of emotional expressions. In compliance with display rules, the facial expressions displayed (i.e. apparent emotion) may be incongruent with the emotion experienced (i.e. real emotion). This study investigates Australian Caucasian children's understanding of display rules. A sample of 80 four year…

  4. Voluntary Group Participation by Third Age Australians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Claire; Swindell, Rick

    A study investigated characteristics of retirees and types of voluntary groups they joined after retirement. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and completed questionnaires of 206 Australians over age 50. Five categories of voluntary organizations were studied: intellectually challenging, sporting/exercise, social, helping others,…

  5. Should there be an Australian Army Association?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-15

    plans. Warnings. Bad news on the economic horizon? The regulatory front? In the courts? Associations serve as "early warning systems" for their...prohibited from having economic activities as their primary purpose. Under Australian state and federal legislation, bodies that seek to be political

  6. Young Australians: Their Health and Wellbeing 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milnes, Annette; Pegrum, Karen; Nebe, Brett; Topfer, Alex; Gaal, Lisa; Zhang, Jessica; Hunter, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the fourth in a series of national statistical reports on young people aged 12-24 years produced by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). This report provides the latest available information on how Australia's young people are faring according to national indicators of health and wellbeing. Many young Australians…

  7. Making Space for Multilingualism in Australian Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Marianne; Cross, Russell

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduce the special issue: Language(s) across the curriculum in Australian schools. The special issue includes a focus on English as an additional language in mainstream classes, Indigenous education, heritage languages and foreign languages, and we give background to these different--though frequently overlapping--contexts.…

  8. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  9. Reshaping Australian Education, 1960-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, W. F.

    This book provides an overview of the educational events and ideas that emerged in Australia during the years 1960 to 1985. It offers a comprehensive view of Australian education, covering all levels from kindergarten to university. Focusing on the remodelling of curricula and the teaching process, the book describes and assesses the…

  10. Australian Teachers' Careers. Teachers in Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclean, Rupert, Ed.; McKenzie, Phillip, Ed.

    This book focuses on career patterns and promotion of Australian school teachers. Following an introduction by the editors, the book is divided into 4 parts: Part 1, entitled "Understanding Teachers' Careers" includes 2 chapters: (l) "Teachers' Careers: A Conceptual Framework" (Rupert Maclean); and (2) "Teachers' Work: A…

  11. Homelessness: An Annotated Bibliography of Australian Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loft, Jenny, Comp.; Davis, Mari, Comp.

    This bibliography, compiled for the International Year of Shelter for the Homeless, lists Australian works published since 1974 about homelessness. It includes definitions of homelessness from the literature and an introductory article looking at different perspectives on homelessness. The entries, mainly taken from FAMILY database, are each…

  12. Inclusion and Equity in Australian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, David; Graham, Lorraine; Stevens, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a large-scale, in-depth study of secondary schools in one Australian state that were achieving exceptional outcomes. The element of that study on which this paper focuses is equity and inclusion. We examine the Equity programs operating in seven sites where schools were including students experiencing some form of…

  13. Western Australian School Students' Understanding of Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Surveys (n=1116) 15-year-old students from 11 Western Australian schools to determine their understanding of and attitude towards recent advances in modern biotechnology. Discusses reasons for students' over-estimation of the use of biotechnology in society. Provides a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the…

  14. OZI: Australian English Communicative Development Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalashnikova, Marina; Schwarz, Iris-Corinna; Burnham, Denis

    2016-01-01

    For more than 20 years, the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) and its adaptations for languages other than English have been used as reliable measures of infants' and toddlers' early receptive and productive vocabulary size. This article introduces the OZI, the Australian English adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates CDI, now…

  15. Citizen Child: Australian Law and Children's Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funder, Kathleen, Ed.

    Ratification by Australia of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1990 acted as a potent stimulus for a series of debates and controversies concerning the place of children in Australian society. The debate has largely taken place in relatively specialized forums involving lawyers, members of the judiciary, social…

  16. Synergy, 2003. Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network, Parramatta.

    Each issue in the 2002 edition of the Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network (ATMHN) newsletter represents a theme critical to mental health practitioners. The Winter 2002 issue features articles on the psychological consequences of interpreters in relation to working with torture and trauma clients, addressing language issues on mental…

  17. Connected Speech Processes in Australian English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, J. C. L.

    1989-01-01

    Explores the role of Connected Speech Processes (CSP) in accounting for sociolinguistically significant dimensions of speech variation, and presents initial findings on the distribution of CSPs in the speech of Australian adolescents. The data were gathered as part of a wider survey of speech of Brisbane school children. (Contains 26 references.)…

  18. Publications of Australian LIS Academics in Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Concepcion S.; Boell, Sebastian K.; Kennan, Mary Anne; Willard, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines aspects of journal articles published from 1967 to 2008, located in eight databases, and authored or co-authored by academics serving for at least two years in Australian LIS programs from 1959 to 2008. These aspects are: inclusion of publications in databases, publications in journals, authorship characteristics of…

  19. Australian Education Journals: Quantitative and Qualitative Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddow, Gaby; Genoni, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that applied citation-based measurements to Australian education journals. Citations data were drawn from two sources, Web of Science and Scopus, and these data were used to calculate each journal's impact factor, "h"-index, and diffusion factor. The rankings resulting from these analyses were compared with…

  20. Salvage Work in Australian Aboriginal Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Barry J.

    A number of research problems have hindered the study of Australian aboriginal languages which are spoken by a steadily decreasing and vanishing population. Such research has been plagued by misunderstanding and poor communication between linguists and the remaining informants. Much of the previous research, because of funding policies, has been…

  1. OZI: Australian English Communicative Development Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalashnikova, Marina; Schwarz, Iris-Corinna; Burnham, Denis

    2016-01-01

    For more than 20 years, the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) and its adaptations for languages other than English have been used as reliable measures of infants' and toddlers' early receptive and productive vocabulary size. This article introduces the OZI, the Australian English adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates CDI, now…

  2. Markets, Distance Education, and Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, Ted

    2005-01-01

    The paper argues that the Australian university system is unstable. There will be significant change as government implements its reform agenda and even more radical change if it moves to new deregulation. The role of distance education in university education needs to be analyzed against this "market" agenda of government in terms of…

  3. Scholarly Communication Costs in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, John W

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and application of a model used to estimate the costs of scholarly communication (i.e. scholarly publishing and related activities) in Australian higher education. A systems perspective was used to frame a review of the literature on the costs involved in the entire scholarly communication value chain and…

  4. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge…

  5. Is There Cultural Safety in Australian Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochecouste, Judith; Oliver, Rhonda; Bennell, Debra

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the cultural safety offered to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students within their university environments. In the context of this paper, cultural safety includes cultural competency, as recently subscribed by Universities Australia, and "extends beyond (to) cultural awareness and cultural…

  6. Understanding Australian Aboriginal Tertiary Student Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Bennell, Debra; Anderson, Roz; Cooper, Inala; Forrest, Simon; Exell, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from a study of the experiences of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students, this paper presents an overview of the specific needs of these students as they enter and progress through their tertiary education. Extracts from a set of case studies developed from both staff and student interviews and an online…

  7. Australian Education Journals: Quantitative and Qualitative Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddow, Gaby; Genoni, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that applied citation-based measurements to Australian education journals. Citations data were drawn from two sources, Web of Science and Scopus, and these data were used to calculate each journal's impact factor, "h"-index, and diffusion factor. The rankings resulting from these analyses were compared with…

  8. Does Training Pay? Evidence from Australian Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandy, Richard; Dockery, Michael; Hawke, Anne; Webster, Elizabeth

    A study was conducted to obtain pilot evidence that could serve as a basis for developing convincing methods for individual Australian companies to use in determining their returns from investment in training. The study attempted to replicate survey results from significant overseas surveys by using information collected on more than 90 Australian…

  9. Native Americans and Aboriginal Australian Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Sharon Pray

    Aboriginal Australians represent 1.5% of Australia's population, nearly double the percentage of native people in the U.S. population. While indigenous peoples throughout the world share common similarities, particularly contemporary issues and their spiritual regard for nature, many aspects of their lifestyles are different, such as governance,…

  10. Australian University Libraries: Collections Overlap Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missingham, Roxanne; Walls, Robert

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, the Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST), Higher Education Information Infrastructure Advisory Committee commissioned the National Library of Australia to analyse the uniqueness and overlap of Australian university library collections, comparing library collections in each state, using the National Bibliographic Database…

  11. Professional Standards for Australian Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Ian; Dally, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Although professional standards for Australian teachers were developed several years ago, this country is yet to develop such standards for special education teachers. The lack of standards for the special education profession is associated with the absence of a consistent process of accreditation in Australia and a lack of clarity in the pathways…

  12. Linguistic Aspects of Australian Aboriginal English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard…

  13. Wilderness quality mapping - the Australian experiences

    Treesearch

    Nick Sawyer

    2015-01-01

    By 1995 wilderness quality maps developed under the Australian Government's National Wilderness Inventory (NWI) program had been published for most of Australia, but few traces of the NWI now remain and the word "wilderness" has become almost unmentionable in government and professional land management circles. Yet its popular appeal is demonstrated by...

  14. Industrial Relations in Australian Tertiary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Keith

    1989-01-01

    A government official in industrial relations and former university administrator chronicles the emergence of unions in Australian universities and discusses the current state of academic trade unionism, focusing on the restructuring of the compensation system and the problems resulting from the process. (MSE)

  15. Commercial Activities and Copyright in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelly, Marita

    2008-01-01

    With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…

  16. Australian Study Cites Low English Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study showing that one-third of all foreign students who studied at Australian universities speak English so poorly that they should never have been granted visas to study in the country in the first place. The study, by Robert Birrell, director of the Centre for Population and Urban Research at Australia's…

  17. Open Learning: The Unique Australian Option.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latchem, Colin; Pritchard, Tony

    1994-01-01

    Describes Open Learning Australia (OLA), a national program that was developed to widen and facilitate access to undergraduate education by providing open admission. Highlights include other Australian distance education programs; services provided by OLA and those provided by participating universities; electronic support services; fees; and…

  18. Profiling nursing resources in Australian emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Morphet, Julia; Kent, Bridie; Plummer, Virginia; Considine, Julie

    2016-02-01

    Emergency nurses have a key role in managing the large numbers of patients that attend Australian emergency departments (EDs) annually, and require adequate educational preparation to deliver safe and quality patient care. This paper provides a detailed profile of nursing resources in Australian EDs, including ED locations, annual patient attendances, nurse staffing including level of education, and educational resources. Data were collected via online surveys of emergency Nurse Unit Managers and Nurse Educators and the MyHospitals website. Data were analysed by hospital peer group and state or territory. Comparisons were made using the Kruskal-Wallis Test and Spearman Rank Order Correlation. In 2011-2012, there were a median of 36,274 patient attendances to each of the 118 EDs sampled (IQR 28,279-46,288). Most of the nurses working in EDs were Registered Nurses (95.2%). Organisations provided educational resources including Clinical Nurse Educators (80.6%), learning packages (86%) and facilitation of postgraduate study (98%), but resources, both human and educational varied substantially between states and territories. One-third of emergency nurses held a relevant postgraduate qualification (30%). There are important variations in the emergency nursing resources available between Australian states and territories. The high percentage of RNs in Australian EDs is a positive finding, however strategies to increase the percentage of nurses with relevant postgraduate qualifications are required. Copyright © 2016 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Brain drain threat to Australian science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Around half of all academics in Australia intend to retire, move to an overseas university or leave Australian higher education within the next 10 years, according to a survey of more than 5500 researchers based at 20 universities in the country.

  20. Demands of Training: Australian Tourism and Hospitality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Brett

    Qualitative research was conducted as part of a four-industry project studying operation of training markets, one of which was Australian tourism and hospitality (T&H). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 individuals representing stakeholder groups. Interviews were conducted across Queensland, Victoria, and South Australia and…

  1. Australian National University Science Extension Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The first Australian National University (ANU) Science Extension Day was held on September 8, 2015. The ANU Science Extension Day is a project that was initiated by Theodore Primary School (ACT) and developed by Theodore Primary, Calwell High School, Science Educators Association of the ACT (SEA*ACT), and the ANU. The project was developed with a…

  2. Australian Allograpta Osten Sacken (Diptera, Syrphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mengual, Ximo; Thompson, F. Christian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Allograpta terraenovae sp. n. and Allograpta notiale sp. n. are described from Australia. Notes on the Australian species of Allograpta and an identification key to them are also given. The lectotype of Allograpta javana Wiedemann is designated, and the species Syrphus pallidus Bigot is synonymized under Allograpta australensis (Schiner). PMID:26257569

  3. Learning Choices, Older Australians and Active Ageing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…

  4. The Australians--A "Fair Go" People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Herschel

    1984-01-01

    Australians are known for their egalitarian spirit, manifested by a dislike of social pretension and affectation. A brief history of the country from the time of its establishment in 1788 as a dumping ground for Britain's unwanted criminals to the present is presented. (RM)

  5. Australian National University Science Extension Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The first Australian National University (ANU) Science Extension Day was held on September 8, 2015. The ANU Science Extension Day is a project that was initiated by Theodore Primary School (ACT) and developed by Theodore Primary, Calwell High School, Science Educators Association of the ACT (SEA*ACT), and the ANU. The project was developed with a…

  6. Locational Issues in New Apprenticeships. Australian Apprenticeships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbrell, T.; Finnegan, W.; de Montfort, R.

    A study examined geographical distribution of Australian apprenticeship commencements (ACs) in the context of various labor force and population statistics by industry, location of jobs by industry, and youth population. Apprenticeship and traineeship statistics between 1995-98 were examined to demonstrate differences in development of the system…

  7. Australian Society of Educational Technology Yearbook, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Society of Educational Technology, Adelaide.

    This yearbook contains reports from the presidents of the two chapters of the Australian Society of Educational Technology and six articles: Educational Technology at the Tertiary Level; Simulation in Medical Education; Ten Years in Educational Television; Rate Controlled Speech--A Review; Educational Technology--A Discussion of Selected Journal…

  8. Education for Sustainability and the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennelly, Julie; Taylor, Neil; Serow, Pep

    2011-01-01

    A national curriculum is presently being developed in Australia with implementation due during 2014. Associated standards for the accreditation of teachers and for teacher education providers have been prepared with the standards describing skills and attributes that teachers are expected to attain. The developing Australian Curriculum, along with…

  9. Learning Choices, Older Australians and Active Ageing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…

  10. Marketing in the Australian Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favaloro, Chrissa

    2015-01-01

    This article examines domestic marketing in the Australian higher education sector, specifically, the marketing investment patterns of universities and their levels of student growth as a return on marketing investment. Marketing expenditure by universities has risen 23 per cent in the five years to 2013, with several institutions allocating in…

  11. Young Australians: Their Health and Wellbeing 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milnes, Annette; Pegrum, Karen; Nebe, Brett; Topfer, Alex; Gaal, Lisa; Zhang, Jessica; Hunter, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the fourth in a series of national statistical reports on young people aged 12-24 years produced by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). This report provides the latest available information on how Australia's young people are faring according to national indicators of health and wellbeing. Many young Australians…

  12. The gambling behavior of indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

    2014-06-01

    The gambling activities of minority groups such as Indigenous peoples are usually culturally complex and poorly understood. To redress the scarcity of information and contribute to a better understanding of gambling by Indigenous people, this paper presents quantitative evidence gathered at three Australian Indigenous festivals, online and in several Indigenous communities. With support from Indigenous communities, the study collected and analyzed surveys from 1,259 self-selected Indigenous adults. Approximately 33 % of respondents gambled on card games while 80 % gambled on commercial gambling forms in the previous year. Gambling participation and involvement are high, particularly on electronic gaming machines (EGMs), the favorite and most regular form of gambling. Men are significantly more likely to participate in gambling and to gamble more frequently on EGMs, horse/dog races, sports betting and instant scratch tickets. This elevated participation and frequency of gambling on continuous forms would appear to heighten gambling risks for Indigenous men. This is particularly the case for younger Indigenous men, who are more likely than their older counterparts to gamble on EGMs, table games and poker. While distinct differences between the gambling behaviors of our Indigenous sample and non-Indigenous Australians are apparent, Australian Indigenous behavior appears similar to that of some Indigenous and First Nations populations in other countries. Although this study represents the largest survey of Indigenous Australian gambling ever conducted in New South Wales and Queensland, further research is needed to extend our knowledge of Indigenous gambling and to limit the risks from gambling for Indigenous peoples.

  13. Revitalising Languages in Australian Universities: What Chance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo Bianco, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Institutions of higher education teach fewer languages, in less secure ways, for less time per week, for shorter periods, by an increasingly casually employed staff, in often underfunded, underappreciated and under stress modes, but participants in the Australian Academy of the Humanities' "Beyond the Crisis: Revitalising Languages in…

  14. Intergenerational Challenges in Australian Jewish School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Zehavit; Rutland, Suzanne D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the intergenerational changes that have occurred in Australian Jewish day schools and the challenges these pose for religious and Jewish education. Using a grounded theory approach according to the constant comparative method (Strauss 1987), data from three sources (interviews [296], observations [27],…

  15. Citizen Child: Australian Law and Children's Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funder, Kathleen, Ed.

    Ratification by Australia of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1990 acted as a potent stimulus for a series of debates and controversies concerning the place of children in Australian society. The debate has largely taken place in relatively specialized forums involving lawyers, members of the judiciary, social…

  16. Australian Policy Activism in Language and Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo Bianco, Joseph, Ed.; Wickert, Rosie, Ed.

    This book presents the dynamics of language and literacy policy activism in Australia. The introduction is "Activists and Policy" (LoBianco, Wickert). Part 1, "From Policy to Anti-Policy" (LoBianco), sets a frame and overarching context of the pattern of Australian language and literacy policy. Part 2 contains accounts of how…

  17. Ethnicity and Gender in Australian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Jim

    The Australian education system is denying equity and social justice to ethnic minorities and women. This paper examines the development of Australia's educational policy for those two groups. It argues that the educational disadvantages they have experienced have been enhanced by the marginalization of the issues. Policies such as multicultural…

  18. Intergenerational Challenges in Australian Jewish School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Zehavit; Rutland, Suzanne D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the intergenerational changes that have occurred in Australian Jewish day schools and the challenges these pose for religious and Jewish education. Using a grounded theory approach according to the constant comparative method (Strauss 1987), data from three sources (interviews [296], observations [27],…

  19. Mature Age Students in Australian Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hore, Terry; West, Leo H. T.

    A study was undertaken, in 1976 and for the three following years, of adult students in Australian higher education. The study examined: (1) the phenomenon of adult students and the extent of their involvement in higher education; (2) the politics and practices of institutions towards these students; (3) staff attitudes in the courses; (4) adult…

  20. Developments in Australian Agricultural and Related Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, Peter; Rayner, John

    2011-01-01

    While the calm waters metaphor might explain the changes navigated by Australian agricultural education through most of its history, the last 20 or so years have been very turbulent. Now, the new millennium sees agricultural education in both Australia and the Western world facing a different and less certain future. This paper analyses some of…

  1. Australian orchids and the doctors they commemorate.

    PubMed

    Pearn, John H

    2013-01-21

    Botanical taxonomy is a repository of medical biographical information. Such botanical memorials include the names of some indigenous orchids of Australia. By searching reference texts and journals relating to Australian botany and Australian orchidology, as well as Australian and international medical and botanical biographical texts, I identified 30 orchids indigenous to Australia whose names commemorate doctors and other medical professionals. Of these, 24 have names that commemorate a total of 16 doctors who worked in Australia. The doctors and orchids I identified include: doctor-soldiers Richard Sanders Rogers (1862-1942), after whom the Rogers' Greenhood (Pterostylis rogersii) is named, and Robert Brown (1773-1858), after whom the Purple Enamel Orchid (Elythranthera brunonis) is named; navy surgeon Archibald Menzies (1754-1842), after whom the Hare Orchid (Leptoceras menziesii) is named; radiologist Hugo Flecker (1884-1957) after whom the Slender Sphinx Orchid (Cestichis fleckeri) is named; and general medical practitioner Hereward Leighton Kesteven (1881-1964), after whom the Kesteven's Orchid (Dendrobium kestevenii) is named. Biographic references in scientific names of plants comprise a select but important library of Australian medical history. Such botanical taxonomy commemorates, in an enduring manner, clinicians who have contributed to biology outside clinical practice.

  2. The Dawkins Reconstruction of Australian Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Grant

    Aspects of recent changes in Australian higher education are explored, with focus on the Dawkins Agenda, which is related to the current political and economic situation. Questions about the success of John Dawkins, Federal Minister for Employment, Education and Training, in regard to higher education are raised (why he has been successful and…

  3. After Bureaucracy, What?: An Australian Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Alan

    1983-01-01

    In the Australian state of Victoria, control of academic curriculum has shifted from the bureaucrats to locally based teacher networks and statewide associations which limit subject scope and teaching styles. However, curriculum has not changed significantly, indicating that institutional reforms do not necessarily result in radical alterations of…

  4. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge…

  5. Conversion Disorder in Australian Pediatric Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Nunn, Kenneth P.; Rose, Donna; Morris, Anne; Ouvrier, Robert A.; Varghese, John

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the incidence and clinical features of children presenting to Australian child health specialists with conversion disorder. Method: Active, national surveillance of conversion disorder in children younger than 16 years of age during 2002 and 2003. Results: A total of 194 children were reported on. The average age was 11.8…

  6. Bill Boyd and the Australian Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Don

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author shares a short account of Bill Boyd's contribution to Australian research and practice in educational administration and education policymaking. The author has sought the views and recollections of some of the colleagues who worked closely with Bill. He has chosen to quote them at length rather than attempt to summarize…

  7. School Libraries Empowering Learning: The Australian Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes school libraries in Australia. Highlights include the title of teacher librarian and their education; the history of the role of school libraries in Australian education; empowerment; information skills and benchmarks; national standards for school libraries; information literacy; learning outcomes; evidence-based practice; digital…

  8. The Asian currency crisis and the Australian health industry.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, S

    1998-01-01

    This article identifies linkages between the Australian health industry and the global economy. It discusses some of the consequences of the Asian currency crisis of 1997-98 for the Australian economy and health industry, with special emphasis upon exports. Devaluation of the Australian dollar will increase the cost of most pharmaceutical and medical imports, but may offer competitive advantages to some Australian exporters. The nascent engagement with Asia of many health industry enterprises is likely to be stifled. It is therefore important for Australian governments, as well as the Australian health industry, to provide intelligence and encouragement to those enterprises that wish to continue their engagement with Asia or resume it when economic equilibrium returns. Markets throughout the world must also be further developed. The crisis may therefore provide the stimulus for re-thinking and re-stating Australian health export policy.

  9. Food For Elderly -Space Benefits

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-08

    View of men packaging special food for the elderly, a spinoff program from the space program under auspices of Technology Utilization Program. Men and food are in the Bldg.37, where food has been stowed.

  10. Food For Elderly -Space Benefits

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-08

    View of men packaging special food for the elderly, a spinoff program from the space program under auspices of Technology Utilization Program. Men and food are in the Bldg.37, where food has been stowed

  11. Cutaneous melanoma in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Testori, Alessandro; Soteldo, Javier; Sances, Daniele; Mazzarol, Giovanni; Trifirò, Giuseppe; Zonta, Mark; Rastrelli, Marco; Schenone, Francesco; Verrecchia, Francesco

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this review was to analyze the difficulties in diagnosing and treating elderly patients with cutaneous melanoma. It focused on the main causes for late diagnosis and relatively poor prognosis in these patients. Early detection of melanoma is vital to reduce mortality in these patients and surgery is often curative. Adequate treatment of elderly patients with melanoma requires knowledge of the clinical features and histopathology of the disease, and the therapeutic options. This review also examined the main surgical procedures for primary melanoma and regional lymph node staging, and the curative and palliative procedures indicated for those elderly patients with advanced disease. It is expected that several molecular genetic factors will soon provide further prognostic information of possible benefit for elderly patients with melanoma.

  12. Medicine use of elderly Chinese and Vietnamese immigrants and attitudes to home medicines review.

    PubMed

    White, Lesley; Klinner, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    There is a paucity of research into the perceptions of elderly Australian ethnic minorities towards public health services related to quality use of medicines. Among the six fastest growing ethnic groups in Australia, the Mandarin-speaking Chinese and Vietnamese constitute the largest elderly populations with poor English skills. This paper investigates the relationships of elderly Chinese and Vietnamese migrants with medicines, general practitioners and pharmacists, and how these relationships influence their awareness and attitudes of the home medicines review (HMR) program. Two semi-structured focus groups were held with a total of 17 HMR-eligible patients who have never received a HMR, one with Chinese and one with Vietnamese respondents, each in the respective community language. Confusion about medications and an intention to have a HMR were pronounced among all participants although none of them had heard of the program before participating in the focus groups. Respondents reported difficulties locating a pharmacist who spoke their native language, which contributed to an increased unmet need for medicine information. The Chinese group additionally complained about a lack of support from their general practitioners in relation to their medicine concerns and was adamant that they would prefer to have a HMR without the involvement of their general practitioner. Our results indicate a distinct HMR need but not use among elderly Chinese and Vietnamese eligible patients with poor English skills. Home medicines review service use and perceived medication problems are likely to improve with an increasing availability of bilingual and culturally sensitive health care providers.

  13. [Deglutition disorders in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Menasria, Feriel; Lakroun, Samia; David, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Deglutition disorders are frequent in elderly patients and can lead to serious consequences in terms of morbidity and mortality. Despite an easy screening test with the water, they are ignored or underestimated. Moreover, early detection and treatment focused essentially on the adaptation of textures, postures as well as the provision of information and training to all the people involved in feeding the elderly person require few resources and provide a real benefit.

  14. Naproxen pharmacokinetics in the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Upton, R A; Williams, R L; Kelly, J; Jones, R M

    1984-01-01

    While naproxen pharmacokinetics appear to be altered in the presence of both diminished renal and hepatic function, the degree to which naproxen disposition might be influenced in the elderly by concurrent alteration in these functions is not obvious. Total plasma clearance/bioavailability (CL/F) of naproxen after a single 375 mg oral dose was found to be less in a group of 10 healthy men between 66 and 81 years of age than in 10 healthy men between 22 and 39 years (0.318 +/- 0.078, 0.416 +/- 0.061 l/h). At steady state (375 mg, 12 hourly), however, CL/F was statistically indistinguishable between the two groups. The fraction of naproxen unbound to plasma protein was doubled in elderly subjects, both at peak and trough drug concentrations. The lowered protein binding tended to obscure a 50% decrement in the intrinsic clearance of naproxen in the elderly as estimated by unbound clearance/bioavailability (213 +/- 64, 396 +/- 155 l/h). As a result, mean steady-state plasma concentrations of naproxen were indistinguishable between the elderly and young (64.2 +/- 8.5, 58.2 +/- 8.1 mg/l) but the elderly generated twice the mean steady-state unbound plasma drug concentration (0.157 +/- 0.039, 0.0859 +/- 0.0212 mg/l). Since it is the unbound drug concentration which appears in general to relate more closely to pharmacological and toxic effect, it may be advisable to reduce naproxen doses by half in the elderly, pending plasma drug concentration-response studies in this age group. If a similar perturbation with age occurs in benoxaprofen protein binding as was observed with naproxen, benoxaprofen intrinsic clearance in the elderly might be only one quarter of that in younger individuals; a factor which may contribute to the toxicity of this drug in the elderly. PMID:6487459

  15. Elderly-animal postmortem attachment.

    PubMed

    Peretti, P O

    1990-01-01

    Attachment can be strong between people and their pets. The present study was conducted to determine: (1) specific variables associated with the final rite and disposition of the deceased pet, and (2) those criteria associated with emotional and social factors pertaining to elderly-animal postmortem attachment. Results suggested four most frequently stated variables of final rite and disposition, and eight emotional and social factors of elderly-animal postmortem attachment.

  16. [Nutritional anemias in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Serraj, Khalid; Federici, Laure; Kaltenbach, Georges; Andrès, Emmanuel

    2008-09-01

    Nutritional deficiencies cause one third of the cases of anemia in the elderly. The urgency of anemia management in elderly patients depends on tolerance and repercussions, rather than only on the hemoglobin level. Iron, vitamin B12 and folate are the most common deficiencies, and their levels should be tested. Chronic gastrointestinal bleeding is the principal cause of iron-deficiency anemia. Management is based on supplementation combined with effective etiological treatment.

  17. The influence of renal function on vitamin D metabolism in the very elderly.

    PubMed

    Van Pottelbergh, G; Matheï, C; Vaes, B; Adriaensen, W; Gruson, D; Degryse, J M

    2013-02-01

    Hypovitaminosis D and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are highly prevalent in older adults. The factors correlating with 25-OH-vitamin D and PTH levels were analyzed in older adults with and without CKD. We performed a cross-sectional analysis embedded within the BELFRAIL study. A population-based prospective cohort study of the very elderly in Belgium. 325 participants, all aged 80 or older. Time of year and LAPAQ score were used as proxies for sunshine exposure. Vitamin D3 supplementation, gender, institutionalisation, age, level of education, and serum calcium and phosphorus level were examined as possible confounders in the analyses. There was no correlation between the presence of CKD and low 25-OH-vitamin D levels, but there was a significant (p<0.01) correlation between CKD and high PTH levels. Among the participants with a normal eGFR, the LAPACQ score, vitamin D supplementation, season, log PTH value and eGFR were correlated with log 25-OH-vitamin D levels. Among the participants with CKD, only vitamin D supplementation, log PTH levels and serum calcium levels were correlated with log 25-OH-vitamin D levels. Gender, log 25-OH-vitamin D values, serum calcium and phosphorus levels and eGFR were correlated with log PTH values in the patients with normal eGFR. Log 25-OH-vitamin D values, serum phosphorus levels, vitamin D supplementation (p=0.07), season (p=0.10) and eGFR were correlated with log PTH values in the patients with CKD. Exposure to sunshine and an active lifestyle were correlated with higher 25-OH-vitamin D levels in older adults without CKD. The PTH level in patients with CKD may be influenced by the season.

  18. Are there associations between socio-economic status and known diabetes in an elderly Finnish population?

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, L A

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the associations between socio-economic status and type 2 diabetes in a non-institutionalised population aged 70 years or over. Diabetes was assessed on the basis of self-reports and additionally 2-h oral glucose tolerance test for the subjects on diet treatment. Socio-economic status was assessed by questions on marital status, number of residents in household, basic education, self-rated income and economic status. In the population of 379 subjects (141 men), 14% (n = 19) of men and 19% (n = 46) of women had known diabetes. Known diabetes was less common among married compared to unmarried, widowed or divorced subjects. Diabetes was also more common among men with higher compared to lower level of basic education, while a reverse trend was seen among women. Women, who had been engaged in manual labour, had diabetes more often compared to those engaged in administrative work. Diabetes was more common among men who rated their income as good, but the opposite was true of women. Higher income among men and lower income among women were the most powerful variables associated with known diabetes. Known diabetes was more common in elderly women with lower socio-economic status, whereas the opposite was true of men. This finding suggests that the impact of the socio-economic changes that have taken place in Finland in the 20th century on the risk factors for diabetes has been greater among men with higher and women with lower socio-economic status.

  19. Micronutrient dilution associated with added sugar intake in elderly black South African women.

    PubMed

    Charlton, K E; Kolbe-Alexander, T L; Nel, J H

    2005-09-01

    To investigate the association between added sugar and macronutrient and micronutrient intakes, and to assess whether added sugar intake is related to biochemical indices of nutritional status, Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score, body mass index (BMI) and performance on physical function tests. A cross-sectional, analytical study. Convenient sample of 285 institutionalised and community-dwelling black South African men and women aged 60+ y. An interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall and MNA were performed. Serum albumin, vitamin B12, ferritin, cholesterol, haemoglobin, red blood cell (RBC) folate and plasma vitamin C were measured. Handgrip strength, BMI, 'sit-to-stand' and 'get-up-and-go' tests were measured. Outcome variables were analysed according to tertiles of added sugar, in grams and as a percentage of total energy (% E). In each tertile of sugar intake, mean MNA score fell in the 'at-risk' classification. In women, energy, protein, % E protein, fibre, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin C, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc, copper and selenium intake were significantly lowest in subjects in the highest % E sugar tertile. In men, no differences were found for micronutrient intake according to tertiles of total added sugar or % E added sugar. Physical function declined with increasing sugar intake, and suboptimal RBC folate and plasma ascorbic acid status was associated with increasing sugar intake (in women). No relationship was found between added sugar intake and the very high prevalence (65%) of obesity in women. A nutrient-diluting effect of added sugars intake was demonstrated in elderly black South African women. Further studies in this population are required in order to develop food-based dietary guidelines, which include messages on added sugar intake.

  20. Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among urban elderlies: Lucknow elderly study

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, S. C.; Tripathi, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Aditya; Kar, A. M.; Singh, Ragini; Kohli, V. K.; Agarwal, G. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Paucity of systematic studies in elderly mental health in an aging population is an urgent need, which is required to address services and planning issues for health. Aim: The present study aims to investigate the distribution of physical, neuropsychiatric, and cognitive disorders of a community sample of elderlies with certain socioeconomic data. Materials and Methods: A door-to-door household survey was conducted to identify houses with elderlies (≥55 years) in two urban localities of Lucknow. Mini mental state examination (MMSE), Survey Psychiatric Assessment Schedule (SPAS)/Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and physical and neurological examination were used for screening all consenting elderlies. MMSE positive participants were assessed on Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination-Revised for diagnosis of cognitive disorders; SPAS/MDQ positives were assessed on Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry based clinical interview for diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders other than cognitive disorders (using ICD-10 criteria). Routine and indicated laboratory/radiological investigations on all and on MMSE/SPAS (organic section) positive/physically ill participants respectively were done to confirm organic and/or physical illness. Only percentages were calculated to find the distribution of morbidity. Results: The sample had proportionate age structure as that of the surveyed population and had balanced gender representation in each age deciles. Prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders (with/without comorbidities) was 11.8% in the elderlies (60 years and above) highest being in the 60-69 years age group. Being women and of lower socioeconomic status was more commonly associated with a neuropsychiatric diagnosis. 7.6% of the elderlies had cognitive impairment. Overall findings suggest a prevalence rate of 17.34% of total psychiatric morbidity among elderlies. A significant number had comorbid physical illness diagnoses

  1. Phenomenology of ELDER dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuflik, Eric; Perelstein, Maxim; Lorier, Nicolas Rey-Le; Tsai, Yu-Dai

    2017-08-01

    We explore the phenomenology of Elastically Decoupling Relic (ELDER) dark matter. ELDER is a thermal relic whose present density is determined primarily by the cross-section of its elastic scattering off Standard Model (SM) particles. Assuming that this scattering is mediated by a kinetically mixed dark photon, we argue that the ELDER scenario makes robust predictions for electron-recoil direct-detection experiments, as well as for dark photon searches. These predictions are independent of the details of interactions within the dark sector. Together with the closely related Strongly-Interacting Massive Particle (SIMP) scenario, the ELDER predictions provide a physically motivated, well-defined target region, which will be almost entirely accessible to the next generation of searches for sub-GeV dark matter and dark photons. We provide useful analytic approximations for various quantities of interest in the ELDER scenario, and discuss two simple renormalizable toy models which incorporate the required strong number-changing interactions among the ELDERs, as well as explicitly implement the coupling to electrons via the dark photon portal.

  2. Anesthesia for the elderly outpatient.

    PubMed

    Aurini, Lucia; White, Paul F

    2014-12-01

    As the number of ambulatory surgery procedures continues to grow in an aging global society, the implementation of evidence-based perioperative care programs for the elderly patients will assume increased importance. Increasing evidence supports the expanded use of ambulatory surgery for managing elderly patients undergoing elective surgery procedures. This review article describes the demographics of ambulatory surgery in the elderly population. This review article describes the effects of aging on the responses of geriatric patients to anesthetic and analgesic drugs used during ambulatory surgery. Important considerations in the preoperative evaluation of elderly outpatients with co-existing diseases, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of different anesthetic techniques on a procedural-specific basis, and recommendations regarding the management of common postoperative side-effects (including delirium and cognitive dysfunction, fatigue, dizziness, pain, and gastrointestinal dysfunction) after ambulatory surgery. Finally, we discuss the future challenges related to the continued expansion of ambulatory surgery practice in this growing segment of our surgical population. The role of anesthesiologists as perioperative physicians is of critical importance for optimizing surgical outcomes for elderly patients undergoing ambulatory surgery. Providing high-quality, evidence-based anesthetic and analgesic care for elderly patients undergoing elective operations on an ambulatory basis will assume greater importance in the future.

  3. Family caregivers: Russian-speaking Australian women's access to welfare support.

    PubMed

    Team, Victoria; Markovic, Milica; Manderson, Lenore

    2007-09-01

    In Australia, rapid population ageing, and government efforts to support people who are chronically ill, elderly or with disabilities to live in their own homes, has led to the primary responsibility of care being undertaken by families. Through its social policies, the Australian government provides income and other types of support to informal caregivers. This article explores how Australian social policy and women's understanding of their roles impact on their access to welfare support. Qualitative research was conducted in Melbourne between February and June 2006. In-depth interviews were undertaken with eight Russian-speaking women involved in caregiving, purposively recruited through ethnic associations, and with four community service providers. Women based their expectations of the gendered and private nature of their role on the social policies in countries of their origin and, hence, did not attempt to access welfare support unless they were referred by health and welfare professionals. In addition, poor referral by professionals, influenced by past societal attitudes that caregiving is a gendered role, contributed to women's limited access to welfare benefits. Changes in the implementation of social policy are proposed to increase caregivers' access to welfare support and efficient utilisation of existing resources.

  4. Climate impacts of Australian land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, P. J.

    2004-05-01

    Australian land cover has been dramatically altered since European settlement primarily for agricultural utilization, with native vegetation widely replaced or modified for cropping and intensive animal production. While there have been numerous investigations into the regional and near surface climate impacts of Australian land cover change, these investigation have not included the climate impacts of larger-scale changes in atmospheric circulation and their associated feedbacks, or the impacts of longer-term soil moisture feedbacks. In this research the CSIRO General Circulation Model (GCM) was used to investigate the climate impacts of Australian land cover change, with larger-scale and longer-term feedbacks. To avoid the common problem of overstating the magnitude and spatial extent of changes in land surface conditions prescribed in land cover change experiments, the current Australian land surface properties were described from finer-scale, satellite derived land cover datasets, with land surface conditions extrapolating from remnant native vegetation to pre-clearing extents to recreate the pre-clearing land surface properties. Aggregation rules were applied to the fine-scale data to generate the land surface parameters of the GCM, ensuring the equivalent sub-grid heterogeneity and land surface biogeophysics were captured in both the current and pre-clearing land surface parameters. The differences in climate simulated in the pre-clearing and current experiments were analyzed for changes in Australian continental and regional climate to assess the modeled climate impacts of Australian land cover change. The changes in modeled climate were compared to observed changes in Australian precipitation over the last 50 and 100 years to assess whether modeled results could be detected in the historical record. The differences in climate simulation also were analyzed at the global scale to assess the impacts of local changes on larger scale circulation and climate at

  5. Social inclusion affects elderly suicide mortality.

    PubMed

    Yur'yev, Andriy; Leppik, Lauri; Tooding, Liina-Mai; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Peeter; Wu, Jing; Värnik, Airi

    2010-12-01

    National attitudes towards the elderly and their association with elderly suicide mortality in 26 European countries were assessed, and Eastern and Western European countries compared. For each country, mean age-adjusted, gender-specific elderly suicide rates in the last five years for which data had been available were obtained from the WHO European Mortality Database. Questions about citizens' attitudes towards the elderly were taken from the European Social Survey. Correlations between attitudes and suicide rates were analyzed using Pearson's test. Differences between mean scores for Western and Eastern European attitudes were calculated, and data on labor-market exit ages were obtained from the EUROSTAT database. Perception of the elderly as having higher status, recognition of their economic contribution and higher moral standards, and friendly feelings towards and admiration of them are inversely correlated with suicide mortality. Suicide rates are lower in countries where the elderly live with their families more often. Elderly suicide mortality and labor-market exit age are inversely correlated. In Eastern European countries, elderly people's status and economic contribution are seen as less important. Western Europeans regard the elderly with more admiration, consider them more friendly and more often have elderly relatives in the family. The data also show gender differences. Society's attitudes influence elderly suicide mortality; attitudes towards the elderly are more favorable among Western European citizens; and extended labor-market inclusion of the elderly is a suicide-protective factor.

  6. USGS analysis of the Australian UNCLOS submission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Rowland, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    In November 2004, the Government of Australia made a submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) for 10 extended continental shelf (ECS) regions, utilizing Article-76 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). With information provided in the Australian Executive Summary, the USGS examined the 10 regions of the submission from geological, morphological, and resource perspectives. By their own request, the Australians asked that CLCS take no action on the Australian-Antarctic Territory. The major limitation in this analysis is that no bathymetric soundings or detailed hydrographic profiles were provided in the Australian Executive Summary that might show why the Foot of the Slope (FOS) was chosen or where the 2,500-m contour is located. This represents a major limitation because more than half of the 4,205 boundary points utilize the bathymetric formula line and more than one-third of them utilize the bathymetric constraint line. CLCS decisions on the components of this submission may set a precedent for how ECSs are treated in future submissions. Some of the key decisions will cover (a) how a 'natural prolongation' of a continental margin is determined, particularly if a bathymetric saddle that appears to determine the prolongation is in deep water and is well outside of the 200-nm limit (Exmouth Plateau), (b) defining to what extent that plateaus, rises, caps, banks and spurs that are formed of oceanic crust and from oceanic processes can be considered to be 'natural prolongations' (Kerguelen Plateau), (c) to what degree UNCLOS recognizes reefs and uninhabited micro-islands (specifically, rocks and/or sand shoals) as islands that can have an EEZ (Middleton and Elizabeth Reefs north of Lord Howe Island), and (d) how the Foot of the Slope (FOS) is chosen (Great Australian Bight). The submission contains situations that are relevant to potential future U.S. submissions and are potentially analogous to certain

  7. [Sexuality in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Wilk, Bartosz

    2015-03-01

    Sustaining and strengthening the ability of the elderly to continue their sexual needs can be realized as part of improving their quality of life, health and well-being. There is no age at which ends the expression of sexuality and intimacy. Through education, quality of life and advances in medicine, the average life expectancy is still increasing. Sexual activity of older people society usually describe using pejorative terms as an inappropriate, bizarre or obscene, but these labels are different than reality. Hormonal changes and other physiological changes associated with aging affect sexual interest. Erectile dysfunction is a problem in men increasing with age. There is no evidence that premature ejaculation is more common in older age. Cross-sectional studies showed no difference in sexual dysfunction between older and younger women. Age is not a barrier to sexually transmitted diseases. The most common pathogenetic factors for male erectile dysfunction are vascular diseases. In women, the most important symptoms of sexual dysfunction are lack of emotional wellbeing and a sense of intimacy during sexual intercourse. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  8. Diabetes mellitus in elderly

    PubMed Central

    Chentli, Farida; Azzoug, Said; Mahgoun, Souad

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) frequency is a growing problem worldwide, because of long life expectancy and life style modifications. In old age (≥60–65 years old), DM is becoming an alarming public health problem in developed and even in developing countries as for some authors one from two old persons are diabetic or prediabetic and for others 8 from 10 old persons have some dysglycemia. DM complications and co-morbidities are more frequent in old diabetics compared to their young counterparts. The most frequent are cardiovascular diseases due to old age and to precocious atherosclerosis specific to DM and the most bothersome are visual and cognitive impairments, especially Alzheimer disease and other kind of dementia. Alzheimer disease seems to share the same risk factors as DM, which means insulin resistance due to lack of physical activity and eating disorders. Visual and physical handicaps, depression, and memory troubles are a barrier to care for DM treatment. For this, old diabetics are now classified into two main categories as fit and independent old people able to take any available medication, exactly as their young or middle age counterparts, and fragile or frail persons for whom physical activity, healthy diet, and medical treatment should be individualized according to the presence or lack of cognitive impairment and other co-morbidities. In the last category, the fundamental rule is “go slowly and individualize” to avoid interaction with poly medicated elder persons and fatal iatrogenic hypoglycemias in those treated with sulfonylureas or insulin. PMID:26693423

  9. The role of acculturation in health status and utilization of health services among the iranian elderly in metropolitan Sydney.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh-Khoei, Mahtab; Mathews, R Mark; Hossain, S Zakia

    2011-12-01

    The present study explores the impact of acculturation on health status and use of health and community aged care services among elderly Iranian-born immigrants to Australia. Three hundred two Iranian immigrants aged 65 years and over who had lived in the Sydney Metropolitan area for at least six months participated. Data were collected using a written survey instrument, face-to-face interviews, and telephone interviews. Iranian immigrants had higher levels of psychological distress, more limited physical function, greater need for help or assistance with activities of daily living, lower feelings of wellbeing, and were much less likely to use aged care services than the general population of older Australians. Participants who did not speak English at home were more likely to experience psychological distress and had greater limitations in their physical functioning. Elderly Iranians with better English proficiency had lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms and reported less need for help and supervision in activities of daily living; they were also more likely to access health care services. Elderly Iranian immigrants experience higher levels of psychological distress and lower levels of physical function than the general population of older Australians; those with limited proficiency in English are at greatest risk. These findings contribute to the enrichment of multicultural policy, social fairness, access, and equity for ethnic aged people.

  10. Elder Abuse and Neglect in Israel: A Comparison between the General Elderly Population and Elderly New Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iecovich, Esther

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated differences between the general elderly population and elderly new immigrants from former Soviet Union countries in regard to the incidence of elder abuse and neglect, victims' characteristics, and perpetrators' characteristics. In addition, the study sought to examine predictors of various types of abuse and…

  11. Elder Abuse and Neglect in Israel: A Comparison between the General Elderly Population and Elderly New Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iecovich, Esther

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated differences between the general elderly population and elderly new immigrants from former Soviet Union countries in regard to the incidence of elder abuse and neglect, victims' characteristics, and perpetrators' characteristics. In addition, the study sought to examine predictors of various types of abuse and…

  12. College Students' Attitudes toward Elderly Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Michele J.

    1996-01-01

    College students (n=420) completed attitude measures about elderly people. Males viewed elderly women in all age groups significantly more negatively than did females. Males viewed males ages 65-74 more negatively than did females. (SK)

  13. Elder-Abuse Offenders: A Typology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey-Klawsnik, Holly

    2000-01-01

    Addresses some of the perplexing issues involved in understanding and responding to elder-abuse offenders. Offers a typology of offenders to elucidate the dynamics when people mistreat the elderly. (Contains 13 references.) (Author)

  14. Nature Study, Aborigines and the Australian Kindergarten: Lessons from Martha Simpson's "Australian Programme Based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an experimental kindergarten programme "Work in the Kindergarten: An Australian Programme based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black" developed by Martha Simpson in early twentieth-century Australia. Here Simpson adapted international Revisionist Froebelian approaches to cultural epoch theory and nature…

  15. Nature Study, Aborigines and the Australian Kindergarten: Lessons from Martha Simpson's "Australian Programme Based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an experimental kindergarten programme "Work in the Kindergarten: An Australian Programme based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black" developed by Martha Simpson in early twentieth-century Australia. Here Simpson adapted international Revisionist Froebelian approaches to cultural epoch theory and nature…

  16. Ecological Model of Australian Indigenous Men's Health.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Mellor, David; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Mussap, Alexander J; Hallford, David J

    2016-11-01

    This study was designed to examine the health behaviors as well as the enablers and barriers to health behaviors among Indigenous Australian men. One hundred and fifty Indigenous Australian men in rural, regional, and urban locations were interviewed about their health behaviors. The results revealed several themes of importance: (a) role of community activities, (b) the Indigenous man as a leader and role model, (c) negative impact of discrimination/racism, (d) importance of partner and family, (e) positive and negative role of peer relationships, (f) central role of culturally appropriate health care facilities, and (g) association between employment and health care problems. These findings highlight the importance of broad community-based (rather than individualistic) approaches to promoting health behavior in Indigenous men.

  17. Cardiovascular Surgery in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Yaffee, David W; Williams, Mathew R

    2016-01-01

    The elderly population is the fastest growing demographic in Western countries. As the population ages, the incidence of age-related comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peripheral vascular disease, renal disease, cerebrovascular disease, and cardiovascular disease increases. With cardiovascular disease occurring in approximately one-quarter of the population over the age of 75 years and more than half of all cardiac procedures performed on this age group, the number of potential elderly surgical candidates is increasing. However, data suggest that old age is associated with increased morbidity and mortality following cardiac surgery. Over the past 2 decades, improvements in myocardial protection, extracorporeal circulation, anesthesia, and surgical techniques have significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with cardiac surgery. Although most prospective studies exclude elderly patients, data from large retrospective studies and subgroup analyses suggest that cardiac surgery is a viable option for many elderly patients with cardiovascular disease, with good outcomes observed in reasonable-risk candidates; moreover, there are a growing number of available less-invasive options for them when surgical risk becomes prohibitive. In this article, we discuss the current state of cardiovascular surgery in the elderly as well as emerging technologies on the horizon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Management of Hypertension in the Elderly and Frail Elderly.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Claudio; Ferri, Livia; Desideri, Giovambattista

    2017-03-01

    An elevated systolic but not diastolic blood pressure level represents a common finding in elderly patients and is associated with an increased risk for developing coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, progressive cognitive decline and renal failure. Although less frequently, elderly patients manifest not only with systolic but also diastolic hypertension. Also in this case, the elderly patient will present an increased risk for developing hypertension-related abnormalities. Based on several trials conducted in patients ≥65 years and one single trial in patients ≥80 years the most recent European guidelines recommend antihypertensive treatment in elderly hypertensive patients with a systolic blood pressure ≥60 mmHg, with a systolic target between 140 and 150 mmHg. In fit elderly patients <80 years treatment may be considered at a systolic level ≥140 mmHg with a target SBP <140 mmHg if treatment is well tolerated. Despite of the above, at least three issues related to antihypertensive drug treatment in aged individuals are still debated, particularly after the publication of a recent large scale clinical trial that included also 2.636 patients ≥75 years and a study in nursing home residents ≥80 years, i.e. the frailest oldest patients: (1) the blood pressure threshold at which antihypertensive drug should be initiated, (2) the blood pressure targets of the therapeutic intervention, and (3) the approach to frail elderly hypertensive patients. This review will critically review the evidence available so far on these important issues as well as the position of current guidelines and consensus statements.

  19. Eliciting change in at-risk elders (ECARE): evaluation of an elder abuse intervention program.

    PubMed

    Mariam, Lydia Morris; McClure, Regina; Robinson, J B; Yang, Janet A

    2015-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a community-based elder abuse intervention program that assists suspected victims of elder abuse and self-neglect through a partnership with local law enforcement. This program, Eliciting Change in At-Risk Elders, involves building alliances with the elder and family members, connecting the elder to supportive services that reduce risk of further abuse, and utilizing motivational interviewing-type skills to help elders overcome ambivalence regarding making difficult life changes. Risk factors of elder abuse decreased over the course of the intervention and nearly three-quarters of participants made progress on their treatment goal, advancing at least one of Prochaska and DiClemente's (1983) stages of change (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance). Forty-three percent of elders moved into the stages of action and maintenance regarding their goal. The usefulness of eliciting change via longer-term relationships with vulnerable elders in entrenched elder abuse situations is discussed.

  20. Non-infectious skin disease in Indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Christopher; Tait, Clare; Toholka, Ryan; Gebauer, Kurt

    2014-08-01

    The burden of non-infectious skin disease in the Indigenous Australian population has not been previously examined. This study considers the published data on the epidemiology and clinical features of a number of non-infectious skin diseases in Indigenous Australians. It also outlines hypotheses for the possible differences in the prevalence of such diseases in this group compared with the general Australian population. There is a paucity of literature on the topic but, from the material available, Indigenous Australians appear to have a reduced prevalence of psoriasis, type 1 hypersensitivity reactions and skin cancer but increased rates of lupus erythematosus, kava dermopathy and vitamin D deficiency when compared to the non-Indigenous Australian population. This article profiles the prevalence and presentation of non-infectious skin diseases in the Indigenous Australian population to synthesise our limited knowledge and highlight deficiencies in our understanding. © 2013 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  1. Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Lahra, Monica M

    2015-03-31

    The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme has continuously monitored antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from all states and territories since 1981. In 2013, 4,897 clinical isolates of gonococci from public and private sector sources were tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility by standardised methods. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC value 0.06-0.125 mg/L) was found nationally in 8.8% of isolates, double that reported in 2012 (4.4%). The highest proportions were reported from New South Wales and Victoria (both states reporting 11.8%), with a high proportion of strains also reported from Tasmania but a low number of isolates were tested. In addition, there was a multi-drug-resistant strain of N. gonorrhoeae isolated from a traveller to Australia, with a ceftraixone MIC value of 0.5 mgL-the highest ever reported in Australia. These antimicrobial resistance data from Australia in 2013 are cause for considerable concern. With the exception of remote Northern Territory where penicillin resistance rates remain low (1.3%) the proportion of strains resistant to penicillin remained high in all jurisdictions ranging from 15.6% in the Australian Capital Territory to 44.1% in Victoria. Quinolone resistance ranged from 16% in the Australian Capital Territory to 46% in Victoria. Azithromycin susceptibility testing was performed in all jurisdictions and resistance ranged from 0.3% in the Northern Territory to 5.7% in Queensland. High level resistance to azithromycin (MIC value was > 256 mg/L) was reported for the first time in Australia, in 4 strains: 2 each from Queensland and Victoria. Azithromycin resistant gonococci were not detected in the Australian Capital Territory, Tasmania or from the remote Northern Territory. Nationally, all isolates remained susceptible to spectinomycin.

  2. Use of Opioid Analgesics in Older Australians.

    PubMed

    Veal, Felicity C; Bereznicki, Luke R E; Thompson, Angus J; Peterson, Gregory M

    2015-08-01

    To identify potential medication management issues associated with opioid use in older Australians. Retrospective cross-sectional review of the utilization of analgesics in 19,581 people who underwent a medication review in Australia between 2010 and 2012. Australian residents living in the community deemed at risk for adverse medication outcomes or any resident living fulltime in an aged care facility. Patient characteristics in those taking regularly dosed opioids and not and those taking opioid doses >120 mg and ≤120 mg MEQ/day were compared. Multivariable binary logistic regression was used to analyze the association between regular opioid and high dose opioid usage and key variables. Additionally, medication management issues associated with opioids were identified. Opioids were taken by 31.8% of patients, with 22.1% taking them regularly. Several major medication management issues were identified. There was suboptimal use of multimodal analgesia, particularly a low use of non-opioid analgesics, in patients taking regular opioids. There was extensive use (45%) of concurrent anxiolytics/hypnotics among those taking regular opioid analgesics. Laxative use in those prescribed opioids regularly was low (60%). Additionally, almost 12% of patients were taking doses of opioid that exceeded Australian recommendations. A significant evidence to practice gap exists regarding the use of opioids amongst older Australians. These findings highlight the need for a quick reference guide to support prescribers in making appropriate decisions regarding pain management in older patients with persistent pain. This should also be combined with patient and caregiver education about the importance of regular acetaminophen to manage persistent pain. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Australian Oceanographic Data Centre. Bulletin 15.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    bathythermal data for Coral Sea , Tasman Sea plus other Australian areas 4. Department of Science and the Environment, (Antarctic Division...RAN meteorological/oceanographic officers, of an ocean analysis and forecasting scheme for the Tasman /Coral Sea area. This scheme uses sea -surface...layers are heated up and mixed layer depth is fairly uniform except near fronts. The Tasman Front is the boundary between Coral Sea and Tasman Sea

  4. Combustion of Australian spent shales compared

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The combustion kinetics of spent oil shales from seven major Australian deposits have been examined using a fluidized bed batch technique. Chemical rate constants were shown to vary between the shales and to be less than extrapolations of data from American spent oil shales. The effective diffusivity also varies widely among the shales. The seven oil shales were from the Condor, Duaringa, Lowmead, Nagoorin, Nagoorin South, Rundle and Stuart deposits in Queensland. Results are briefly described. 1 figure, 1 table.

  5. Benchmarking management practices in Australian public healthcare.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Renu; Green, Roy; Agarwal, Neeru; Randhawa, Krithika

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the quality of management practices of public hospitals in the Australian healthcare system, specifically those in the state-managed health systems of Queensland and New South Wales (NSW). Further, the authors assess the management practices of Queensland and NSW public hospitals jointly and globally benchmark against those in the health systems of seven other countries, namely, USA, UK, Sweden, France, Germany, Italy and Canada. In this study, the authors adapt the unique and globally deployed Bloom et al. (2009) survey instrument that uses a "double blind, double scored" methodology and an interview-based scoring grid to measure and internationally benchmark the management practices in Queensland and NSW public hospitals based on 21 management dimensions across four broad areas of management - operations, performance monitoring, targets and people management. The findings reveal the areas of strength and potential areas of improvement in the Queensland and NSW Health hospital management practices when compared with public hospitals in seven countries, namely, USA, UK, Sweden, France, Germany, Italy and Canada. Together, Queensland and NSW Health hospitals perform best in operations management followed by performance monitoring. While target management presents scope for improvement, people management is the sphere where these Australian hospitals lag the most. This paper is of interest to both hospital administrators and health care policy-makers aiming to lift management quality at the hospital level as well as at the institutional level, as a vehicle to consistently deliver sustainable high-quality health services. This study provides the first internationally comparable robust measure of management capability in Australian public hospitals, where hospitals are run independently by the state-run healthcare systems. Additionally, this research study contributes to the empirical evidence base on the quality of

  6. A Proposal for an Australian Hydrodynamics Laboratory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    IJ fi1 SIM~ARD, lq A DEPARTMENT OF DEFENCE 0 DEFENCE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANISATION AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH LABORATORIES Oct MELBOURNE, VICTORIA...Release. THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL ISAUTHONSED TO s ©COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA 1981 mAY 1981 UNCLASSIFIED AR-002-268 DEPARTMENT OF DEFENCE DEFENCE ...Departments of the Navy, Defence , Supply, Shipping and Transport, and Education and Science. Recently, the Australian Science and Technology Council

  7. Military Retirement Reform: An Australian Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    international retirement models, public retirement, private retirement, DFRB, DFRDB, MSBS, High-3, REDUX 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 83 16. PRICE CODE 17...ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ADF Australian Defence Force COLA cost of living adjustment CPI consumer price index CSB career status bonus CSS...calculations that include income and total assets (with exemptions for house ownership); for example, a retiree with other retirement income over AU$47,605

  8. Farming fit? Dispelling the Australian agrarian myth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rural Australians face a higher mental health and lifestyle disease burden (obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease) than their urban counterparts. Our ongoing research reveals that the Australian farming community has even poorer physical and mental health outcomes than rural averages. In particular, farm men and women have high rates of overweightness, obesity, abdominal adiposity, high blood pressure and psychological distress when compared against Australian averages. Within our farming cohort we observed a significant association between psychological distress and obesity, abdominal adiposity and body fat percentage in the farming population. Presentation of hypothesis This paper presents a hypothesis based on preliminary data obtained from an ongoing study that could potentially explain the complex correlation between obesity, psychological distress and physical activity among a farming population. We posit that spasmodic physical activity, changing farm practices and climate variability induce prolonged stress in farmers. This increases systemic cortisol that, in turn, promotes abdominal adiposity and weight gain. Testing the hypothesis The hypothesis will be tested by anthropometric, biochemical and psychological analysis matched against systemic cortisol levels and the physical activity of the subjects. Implications of the hypothesis tested Previous studies indicate that farming populations have elevated rates of psychological distress and high rates of suicide. Australian farmers have recently experienced challenging climatic conditions including prolonged drought, floods and cyclones. Through our interactions and through the media it is not uncommon for farmers to describe the effect of this long-term stress with feelings of 'defeat'. By gaining a greater understanding of the role cortisol and physical activity have on mental and physical health we may positively impact the current rates of psychological distress in farmers. Trial

  9. Farming fit? Dispelling the Australian agrarian myth.

    PubMed

    Brumby, Susan; Chandrasekara, Ananda; McCoombe, Scott; Kremer, Peter; Lewandowski, Paul

    2011-03-30

    Rural Australians face a higher mental health and lifestyle disease burden (obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease) than their urban counterparts. Our ongoing research reveals that the Australian farming community has even poorer physical and mental health outcomes than rural averages. In particular, farm men and women have high rates of overweightness, obesity, abdominal adiposity, high blood pressure and psychological distress when compared against Australian averages. Within our farming cohort we observed a significant association between psychological distress and obesity, abdominal adiposity and body fat percentage in the farming population. This paper presents a hypothesis based on preliminary data obtained from an ongoing study that could potentially explain the complex correlation between obesity, psychological distress and physical activity among a farming population. We posit that spasmodic physical activity, changing farm practices and climate variability induce prolonged stress in farmers. This increases systemic cortisol that, in turn, promotes abdominal adiposity and weight gain. The hypothesis will be tested by anthropometric, biochemical and psychological analysis matched against systemic cortisol levels and the physical activity of the subjects. IMPLICATIONS OF THE HYPOTHESIS TESTED: Previous studies indicate that farming populations have elevated rates of psychological distress and high rates of suicide. Australian farmers have recently experienced challenging climatic conditions including prolonged drought, floods and cyclones. Through our interactions and through the media it is not uncommon for farmers to describe the effect of this long-term stress with feelings of 'defeat'. By gaining a greater understanding of the role cortisol and physical activity have on mental and physical health we may positively impact the current rates of psychological distress in farmers. ACTRN12610000827033.

  10. Evaluation of Walkers for Elderly People

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    speed, acceleration, electromyogram I. INTRODUCTION Walking is a basic everyday activity . In an aging society, elderly people need to walk to promote...Abstract- The aim of this study was to evaluate three types of walkers for elderly people. Four elderly patients participated in the study. The...higher than that in parallel bar. Power-assisted walkers are suitable for patients who are used to using a wheelchair. Keywords - walker, elderly , walking

  11. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-03-21

    Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C(∗), present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia.

  12. Origins of the southeastern Australian vegetation.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Robert S

    2004-01-01

    Australia is an ancient continent with an interesting geological history that includes a recent major shift in its position, both globally and compared with neighbouring land masses. This has led to a great deal of confusion over many years about the origins of the Australian biomes. The plant fossil record is now clarifying this, and it is clear that the ancient Gondwanan rainforests that covered Australia while it was still part of that supercontinent contained many of the elements of the modern vegetation. However, major climatic sifting, along with responses to other factors, including soil nutrient levels, disturbance regimes, atmospheric CO2 levels, fire frequency and intensity, glaciations and the arrival of humans, have had profound impacts on the Australian vegetation, which today reflects the sum of all these factors and more. The origins of Australian vegetation and its present-day management cannot be properly understood without an appreciation of this vast history, and the fossil record has a vital role to play in maintaining the health of this continent's vegetation into the future. PMID:15519971

  13. A decade of Australian methotrexate dosing errors.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Rose; Brown, Jared A; Lynch, Ann-Maree; Robinson, Jeff; Wylie, Carol; Buckley, Nicholas A

    2016-06-06

    Accidental daily dosing of methotrexate can result in life-threatening toxicity. We investigated methotrexate dosing errors reported to the National Coronial Information System (NCIS), the Therapeutic Goods Administration Database of Adverse Event Notifications (TGA DAEN) and Australian Poisons Information Centres (PICs). A retrospective review of coronial cases in the NCIS (2000-2014), and of reports to the TGA DAEN (2004-2014) and Australian PICs (2004-2015). Cases were included if dosing errors were accidental, with evidence of daily dosing on at least 3 consecutive days. Events per year, dose, consecutive days of methotrexate administration, reasons for the error, clinical features. Twenty-two deaths linked with methotrexate were identified in the NCIS, including seven cases in which erroneous daily dosing was documented. Methotrexate medication error was listed in ten cases in the DAEN, including two deaths. Australian PIC databases contained 92 cases, with a worrying increase seen during 2014-2015. Reasons for the errors included patient misunderstanding and incorrect packaging of dosette packs by pharmacists. The recorded clinical effects of daily dosage were consistent with those previously reported for methotrexate toxicity. Dosing errors with methotrexate can be lethal and continue to occur despite a number of safety initiatives in the past decade. Further strategies to reduce these preventable harms need to be implemented and evaluated. Recent suggestions include further changes in packet size, mandatory weekly dosing labelling on packaging, improving education, and including alerts in prescribing and dispensing software.

  14. Reporting on cyclist crashes in Australian newspapers.

    PubMed

    Boufous, Soufiane; Aboss, Ahmad; Montgomery, Victoria

    2016-10-01

    To assess information on cyclist crashes reported in Australian newspapers. The Factiva news archive was searched for articles on cyclist crashes published in major Australian newspapers between 2010 and 2013. Information on the circumstances of cyclist crashes were extracted and coded. A total of 160 cyclist crashes were covered by 198 newspaper articles, with 44% of crashes resulting in cyclist fatalities. Crashes reported by more than one newspaper were more likely to involve public figures or protracted court cases. Individual characteristics of cyclists as well as the location of the crash were reported for more than 80% of crashes. The road user at fault was reported for more than half of crashes. In contrast, information on helmet use, alcohol and cycling lanes was mentioned for only about 10% of crashes. Fewer than one in five articles mentioned prevention strategies including education campaigns, legislative and infrastructure changes. Australian newspapers tend to focus on the most dramatic and more 'newsworthy' aspects of cyclist crashes. Cycling advocates need to work with journalists to improve the quality of this coverage. Better communication between cycling advocates and journalists is likely to have a positive impact on the safety and the uptake of cycling in the community. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  15. The carbon footprint of Australian ambulance operations.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lawrence H; Canyon, Deon V; Buettner, Petra G; Crawford, J Mac; Judd, Jenni

    2012-12-01

    To determine the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy consumption of Australian ambulance operations, and to identify the predominant energy sources that contribute to those emissions. A two-phase study of operational and financial data from a convenience sample of Australian ambulance operations to inventory their energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for 1 year. State- and territory-based ambulance systems serving 58% of Australia's population and performing 59% of Australia's ambulance responses provided data for the study. Emissions for the participating systems totalled 67 390 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents. For ground ambulance operations, emissions averaged 22 kg of carbon dioxide equivalents per ambulance response, 30 kg of carbon dioxide equivalents per patient transport and 3 kg of carbon dioxide equivalents per capita. Vehicle fuels accounted for 58% of the emissions from ground ambulance operations, with the remainder primarily attributable to electricity consumption. Emissions from air ambulance transport were nearly 200 times those for ground ambulance transport. On a national level, emissions from Australian ambulance operations are estimated to be between 110 000 and 120 000 tons of carbon dioxide equivalents each year. Vehicle fuels are the primary source of emissions for ground ambulance operations. Emissions from air ambulance transport are substantially higher than those for ground ambulance transport. © 2012 The Authors. EMA © 2012 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  16. Correlates of Death Anxiety in Elderly Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Karen Dineen; Lorion, Raymond P.

    1984-01-01

    Studied the variables related to death anxiety in the elderly (N=122). Results indicated that death anxiety response patterns are a function of the population examined, rather than existing as general characteristics of the elderly, which explains the inconsistency of previous literature on death anxiety in elderly persons. (LLL)

  17. Home Energy Education and the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junk, Virginia; Heikkinen, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Identified factors which were significant in predicting familiarity with, and participation in, energy assistance programs for low-income elderly people (N=181). Specific subgroups of elderly people were identified as being most in need of home energy information. Recommendations are made for those providing energy education to elderly people.…

  18. Correlates of Death Anxiety in Elderly Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Karen Dineen; Lorion, Raymond P.

    1984-01-01

    Studied the variables related to death anxiety in the elderly (N=122). Results indicated that death anxiety response patterns are a function of the population examined, rather than existing as general characteristics of the elderly, which explains the inconsistency of previous literature on death anxiety in elderly persons. (LLL)

  19. Attribution, the Attractiveness Stereotype, and the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Douglas F.; Pittenger, John B.

    1984-01-01

    Tests the applicability of the physical attractiveness stereotype to perceptions of the elderly. In the first study, college-age and elderly observers rated the attractiveness of faces of elderly people. In the second study, subjects rated faces at three levels of attractiveness on personality, success in life experiences, and occupational…

  20. Collaborative Elder Abuse Prevention Project Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Garry L.

    The Texas Department of Human Services, in collaboration with 13 other public and private organizations, co-sponsored a statewide collaborative elder abuse prevention project, to prevent abuse of elderly and disabled adults. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive, long-range plan for the prevention of elder abuse, a method for…

  1. Belief Discrepancy Reasoning in the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Robert D.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the development of belief discrepancy reasoning, or how people evaluate disagreeing others, with 44 college and elderly respondents. Results showed the elderly were significantly lower in belief discrepancy reasoning and higher in dogmatism than the college sample. The elderly sample did not evidence intolerance, but rather relativism.…

  2. Elderly Men as Caretakers of Wives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinick, Barbara

    Because the life expectancy of women is longer than that of men and because men seem to marry younger women, most of the literature on caregivers of the elderly has focusd on women who care for elderly, disabled husbands. In order to explore the role of men as caretakers of disabled wives, 25 elderly widowers (aged 63-93) participated in…

  3. [Suicide risk factors among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Pérez Barrero, Sergio Andrés

    2012-08-01

    The author offers a brief overview of suicide risk factors among the elderly such as depression, all manner of abuse of the elderly, as well as medical, psychological and social risk factors, etc. By way of conclusion, a practical guide to evaluate suicide risk among the elderly is provided.

  4. Frontiers in the Education of the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, James A.

    Demographic trends indicate a continued population rise among the elderly, suggesting an expanded market for adult education efforts. Early retirement, unemployment due to technological change, as well as the need for older workers to stay current in their fields all point in the direction of education of the elderly. The elderly report great…

  5. [Addictive behavior among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Menecier, Pascal; Fernandez, Lydia

    2012-12-01

    Addictive behavior still persists among the elderly, mainly concerning substance abuse, such as alcohol, tobacco or psychotropic drugs and addictive practices such as gambling. Illegal substances or cyber-addictions appear much less often. The environment (place of residence or care) and/or economic factors may influence behavior and practices. The incidence of somatic illness or psychiatric disorders, such as cognitive impairment among the elderly patients, complicates even further the presentation of addictive disorders and their treatment. The age factor does not seem to lessen the suffering felt by the patient and care is required in an equal manner for all ages. Prevention (maintenance of personal autonomy and quality of life throughout the ageing process) plays an essential role along with the offer of care. The lack of scientific data such as the absence of validation for adult care among the elderly, leave wide scope for epidemiological, clinical and theoretical research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. [Liver diseases in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Bruguera, Miguel

    2014-11-01

    Liver diseases in the elderly have aroused less interest than diseases of other organs, since the liver plays a limited role in aging. There are no specific liver diseases of old age, but age-related anatomical and functional modifications of the liver cause changes in the frequency and clinical behavior of some liver diseases compared with those in younger patients. This review discusses the most important features of liver function in the healthy elderly population, as well as the features of the most prevalent liver diseases in this age group, especially the diagnostic approach to the most common liver problems in the elderly: asymptomatic elevation of serum transaminases and jaundice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  7. [The rehabilitation of elderly amputees].

    PubMed

    Welraeds, D

    1998-06-01

    Rehabilitation of elderly amputees raises several issues. Taking into account that amputations are frequently performed in elderly patients, with vascular diseases, it seems relevant to ask whether it is preferable to perform an amputation and quickly rehabilitate the patient or to attempt revascularisation and save the patient's limb. The knowledge of the outcome of amputation is crucial for the choice of treatment. Therefore, we discuss limb amputation in old patients in terms of epidemiology, aetiology, functional characteristics, specific problems and results with regards to expectations. Types and characteristics of prostheses, as well as rehabilitation and cost-effectiveness are briefly discussed. It is concluded that amputation is a mutilating procedure which carries for the elderly a poor outcome in terms of rehabilitation. Consequently any surgical procedure that may spare the limb should be preferred.

  8. [Stress incontinence in elderly women].

    PubMed

    Loertzer, H; Schneider, P

    2013-06-01

    Stress incontinence is one of the major challenges in geriatric medicine. This is becoming more apparent in routine urology practice with the demographic changes in the population. A thorough diagnosis for a correct treatment of stress incontinence is as important in elderly women as it is in younger patients. This includes assessing the risk factors of incontinence and obesity, parturition, pelvic surgery and changes in hormone levels are risk factors usually found in elderly women. These are the main reasons why this patient group is most frequently affected. Treatment options do not differ significantly from these of younger women. Lifestyle modification, weight loss and supervised pelvic floor training are the mainstays of conservative therapy and surgical treatment should only be considered after these options have been exhausted. In these cases minimally invasive surgical techniques offer clear advantages especially for elderly often multimorbid women.

  9. Thoracic anesthesia in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kozian, Alf; Kretzschmar, Moritz A; Schilling, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    The mean age of patients presenting for thoracic surgery is rising steadily, associated with an increased demand for thoracic surgical treatments by geriatric patients. With increasing age, physiologic changes and comorbidities have to be considered. Thoracic anesthesia for elderly patients requires greater specific knowledge. Respiratory mechanics change progressively during aging, and the pharmacology of different drugs is also altered with increasing age. This has implications for the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative management of elderly patients scheduled for thoracic surgery. Special focus has to be placed on preoperative evaluation, the ventilation regime and general intraoperative management. Effective postoperative pain treatment after geriatric thoracic surgery requires careful pain assessment and drug titration. Considering key points of physiology and pharmacology can help to provide best possible care for the increasing number of elderly patients in thoracic surgery. Management of geriatric patients in thoracic surgery offer opportunities for anaesthetic interventions including protective ventilation, use of different anesthetics, anaesthesia monitoring, fluid management and pain therapy.

  10. Urinary Incontinence in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Ouslander, Joseph G.

    1981-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common and distressing problem for elderly patients, their families and friends, and the health professionals who care for them. It is a heterogeneous condition, and appropriate management depends on a thorough evaluation and understanding of the multiple factors that can play a role in its cause and perpetuation. Identifying reversible causes of transient incontinence, and appropriate management of incontinence that is associated with acute illness, can be important in preventing the problem from becoming established. A thorough diagnostic evaluation of urinary incontinence in the elderly, and appropriate use of the different types of therapy, will greatly improve the management in these cases. The need and opportunities for research to improve the management of incontinent elderly persons should be considered by all those involved in caring for this population. PMID:7039134

  11. Influenza vaccination in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Smetana, Jan; Chlibek, Roman; Shaw, Jana; Splino, Miroslav; Prymula, Roman

    2017-07-14

    Seasonal influenza is a prevalent and serious annual illness resulting in widespread morbidity and economic disruption throughout the population; the elderly and immunocompromised are particularly vulnerable to serious sequelae and mortality. The changing demographics worldwide to an aging society have important implications for public health policy and pharmaceutical innovations. For instance, primary prevention via immunization is effective in reducing the burden of influenza illness among the elderly. However, the elderly may be insufficiently protected by vaccination due to the immunosenescence which accompanies aging. In addition, vaccine hesitancy among the younger populations increases the likelihood of circulating infectious diseases, and thus concomitant exposure. While it is clear that the development of more immunogenic vaccines is an imperative and worthy endeavor, clinical trials continue to demonstrate that the current influenza vaccine formulation remains highly effective in reducing morbidity and mortality when well matched to circulating strains.

  12. Verbal Mistreatment in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Fulmer, Terry; Rodgers, Rachel F.; Pelger, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Elder mistreatment is expected to rise with the aging of the American population. To date, the association between specific forms of mistreatment and decreased quality of life is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to explore the association between verbal mistreatment among elderly individuals and depression and quality of life. A sample of 142 older adults (40% male) aged 65 or over was enrolled from a large medical practice and academic dental practice, mean (SD) = 74.88 (6.98) years. Thirty-eight percent of the sample reported verbal mistreatment. Controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and depression, verbal mistreatment was a significant predictor of social functioning (β = −.28, p<.001), mental health (β = −.25, p<.001), and role limitations OR = 3.02, 95% CI [1.34 – 6.77]. The present findings highlight the prevalence of verbal mistreatment in elderly individuals. PMID:24910894

  13. Pharmacotherapy considerations in elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Wooten, James M

    2012-08-01

    Life expectancy for Americans has increased dramatically since 1900, as have the available pharmacotherapeutic options. Unfortunately, pharmacotherapy mishaps occur commonly in the older adult population. This problem greatly affects the morbidity and mortality of elderly patients and greatly increases healthcare costs. To improve patient care among elderly adults, healthcare practitioners must consider several issues when developing a pharmacotherapy plan. A thorough understanding of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, adverse drug reactions, drug interactions, and several other factors is necessary for practitioners to develop a safe and effective drug therapy plan for older adults. This review provides a general but comprehensive review of the issues pertaining to pharmacotherapy in elderly people and offers several suggestions for improving their pharmaceutical care.

  14. Psychiatric disorders in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Skoog, Ingmar

    2011-07-01

    Recent research has shown that depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosis are more common than previously supposed in elderly populations without dementia. It is unclear whether the frequency of these disorders increases or decreases with age. Clinical expression of psychiatric disorders in old age may be different from that seen in younger age groups, with less and often milder symptoms. Concurrently, comorbidity between different psychiatric disorders is immense, as well as comorbidity with somatic disorders. Cognitive function is often decreased in people with depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosis, but whether these disorders are risk factors for dementia is unclear. Psychiatric disorders in the elderly are often related to cerebral neurodegeneration and cerebrovascular disease, although psychosocial risk factors are also important. Psychiatric disorders, common among the elderly, have consequences that include social deprivation, poor quality of life, cognitive decline, disability, increased risk for somatic disorders, suicide, and increased nonsuicidal mortality.

  15. Elderly deaths in Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akar, Taner; Karapirli, Mustafa; Akcan, Ramazan; Demirel, Birol; Akduman, Barış; Dursun, Ahmet Zahit; Sari, Serhat; Özkök, Alper

    2014-01-01

    According to World Health Organization, the life expectancy at birth is increasing. An increase in life expectancy might result in increased morbidity and mortality in elderly. The increase in the elderly population also leads to an increase in medico-legal problems, as well. Autopsy is of high importance for determination of cause of death in clinical and forensic cases. The purpose of this study was to find out general characteristics elderly deaths by examining forensic autopsy records. Out of 7033 forensic autopsies performed between years of 2007 and 2011, 1324 were elderly deaths and were included in the scope of the study. The records of public prosecutor office, crime scene investigation and autopsy findings were examined. The majority of victims (70.6%) were male, while 29.4% were female, with a male to female ratio of 2.4/1. Victims' ages ranged between 65 and 96 years, and the mean age was 74.8 years. A great number of presented elderly deaths were due to unnatural causes, followed by natural deaths cases. Out of unnatural deaths, 63.2% were related to accidents, 23.7% were suicides, and remaining 13.1% were homicides. More than half (56.6%) of all suicidal deaths were due to hanging. Of natural deaths, the majority (82.7%) were due to cardiovascular system disease. In the presented series the cause of death was determined in 90.9% of all elderly deaths, which validates the need for a forensic autopsy. Data obtained through autopsy procedures is of high importance for death statistics.

  16. Glioblastoma care in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Justin T; Gerstner, Elizabeth R; Batchelor, Tracy T; Cahill, Daniel P; Plotkin, Scott R

    2016-01-15

    Glioblastoma is common among elderly patients, a group in which comorbidities and a poor prognosis raise important considerations when designing neuro-oncologic care. Although the standard of care for nonelderly patients with glioblastoma includes maximal safe surgical resection followed by radiotherapy with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide, the safety and efficacy of these modalities in elderly patients are less certain given the population's underrepresentation in many clinical trials. The authors reviewed the clinical trial literature for reports on the treatment of elderly patients with glioblastoma to provide evidence-based guidance for practitioners. In elderly patients with glioblastoma, there is a survival advantage for those who undergo maximal safe resection, which likely includes an incremental benefit with increasing completeness of resection. Radiotherapy extends survival in selected patients, and hypofractionation appears to be more tolerable than standard fractionation. In addition, temozolomide chemotherapy is safe and extends the survival of patients with tumors that harbor O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation. The combination of standard radiation with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide has not been studied in this population. Although many questions remain unanswered regarding the treatment of glioblastoma in elderly patients, the available evidence provides a framework on which providers may base individual treatment decisions. The importance of tumor biomarkers is increasingly apparent in elderly patients, for whom the therapeutic efficacy of any treatment must be weighed against its potential toxicity. MGMT promoter methylation status has specifically demonstrated utility in predicting the efficacy of temozolomide and should be considered in treatment decisions when possible. Cancer 2016;122:189-197. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  17. Salt appetite in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Hendi, Khadeja; Leshem, Micah

    2014-11-28

    The present study investigated whether salt appetite in the elderly is impaired similar to thirst because of the commonality of their physiological substrates and whether alterations in salt appetite are related to mood. Elderly (65-85 years, n 30) and middle-aged (45-58 years, n 30) men and women were compared in two test sessions. Thirst, psychophysical ratings of taste solutions, dietary Na and energy intakes, seasoning with salt and sugar, number of salty and sweet snacks consumed, preferred amounts of salt in soup and sugar in tea, and an overall measure of salt appetite and its relationship with mood, nocturia and sleep were measured. Elderly participants were found to be less thirsty and respond less to thirst. In contrast, no impairment of salt appetite was found in them, and although they had a reduced dietary Na intake, it dissipated when corrected for their reduced dietary energy intake. Diet composition and Na intake were found to be similar in middle-aged and elderly participants, despite the lesser intake in elderly participants. There were no age-related differences in the intensity of taste or hedonic profile of Na, in salting habits, in tests of salting soup, or number of salty snacks consumed. No relationship of any measure of salt appetite with mood measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, frequency of nocturia, or sleep duration was observed. The age-related impairment of the physiology of mineralofluid regulation, while compromising thirst and fluid intake, spares salt appetite, suggesting that salt appetite in humans is not regulated physiologically. Intact salt appetite in the elderly might be utilised judiciously to prevent hyponatraemia, increase thirst and improve appetite.

  18. Neurologic Emergencies in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Nentwich, Lauren M; Grimmnitz, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Neurologic diseases are a major cause of death and disability in elderly patients. Due to the physiologic changes and increased comorbidities that occur as people age, neurologic diseases are more common in geriatric patients and a major cause of death and disability in this population. This article discusses the elderly patient presenting to the emergency department with acute ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, chronic subdural hematoma, traumatic brain injury, seizures, and central nervous system infections. This article reviews the subtle presentations, difficult workups, and complicated treatment decisions as they pertain to our older patients."

  19. [Oral health among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Siukosaari, Päivi; Nihtilä, Annamari

    2015-01-01

    A large proportion of our population is ageing with own teeth in the mouth. Good oral health and an adequate number of teeth improve the functional capacity of an elderly person. Oral diseases are, however, becoming more common among the elderly population with the accumulation of risk factors such as insufficient self-care, cariogenic diet, reduced salivation, smoking and systemic diseases. Dryness of the mouth due to the adverse effects of drugs or systemic diseases makes eating and cleaning of the mouth more difficult. Prevention of oral diseases with good self-care and regular dental examinations is essential.

  20. Acid peptic disease in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Linder, J D; Wilcox, C M

    2001-06-01

    GERD and peptic ulcer disease are important diseases in the elderly. GERD presents similarly in the elderly and the young, although elderly patients may have less severe symptoms yet more severe mucosal disease and a higher prevalence of BE. Although the prevalence of H. pylori is falling, the elderly remain at risk for peptic ulcer because of the widespread use of NSAIDS. The presentation of peptic ulcer disease in the elderly can be subtle and atypical when compared with younger patients, leading to a delay in diagnosis. Because of comorbidity in the aged, peptic ulcer disease and its complications result in increased morbidity and mortality rates.