Science.gov

Sample records for institutului politehnic din

  1. DINS - Lessons learned and successes achieved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traeger, J.; Quasius, G.

    It is pointed out that the Dormant Inertial Navigation System (DINS) is the first Ring Laser gyro system developed for maneuvering reentry vehicles. The DINS is a pure strapdown system. It provides attitude reference, navigation, and flight control information to the maneuvering reentry vehicle. Two flight tests in which DINS was aboard the Advanced Maneuvering Reentry Vehicle were highly successful. The tests involved the launch of the vehicle by a Minuteman I for a flight from VAFB to Kwajalein. Attention is given to a DINS mission description, a DINS system description, ground test programs, and the flight test program.

  2. Diné (Navajo) Ethno- and Archaeoastronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, Von Del

    The Navajo (Diné) are an Athabascan-speaking people who migrated from the far northwest of America into the desert southwest where they became the largest surviving Native American culture. Three words portray Diné philosophy - beauty, harmony, and balance. Their traditions are rich with astronomical symbolism found in literature, ceremony, iconography, artifacts, rock art, and the sacred landscape. This chapter summarizes Diné astronomical traditions, identification of stars known to be important to the Diné, and how these are depicted on artifacts and rock art.

  3. Chromosomal locations of three Bacillus subtilis din genes

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, K.; Yasbin, R.E.

    1987-07-01

    Previously isolated DNA damage-inducible (din) genes of Bacillus subtilis have been mapped on the bacterial chromosome by bacteriophage PBS1-mediated transduction. The din genes have been localized to three positions on the B. subtilis map. dinA cotransduction with the hisA locus was 80%, while dinC cotransduction with this marker was about 56%. dinB is unlinked to hisA, but its cotransduction with the dal-1 and purB loci was 84 and 22%, respectively.

  4. Strategy of DIN-PACS benchmark testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Gary S.; Lyche, David K.; Richardson, Nancy E.; Thomas, Jerry A.; Romlein, John R.; Cawthon, Michael A.; Lawrence, David P.; Shelton, Philip D.; Parr, Laurence F.; Richardson, Ronald R., Jr.; Johnson, Steven L.

    1998-07-01

    The Digital Imaging Network -- Picture Archive and Communication System (DIN-PACS) procurement is the Department of Defense's (DoD) effort to bring military medical treatment facilities into the twenty-first century with nearly filmless digital radiology departments. The DIN-PACS procurement is unique from most of the previous PACS acquisitions in that the Request for Proposals (RFP) required extensive benchmark testing prior to contract award. The strategy for benchmark testing was a reflection of the DoD's previous PACS and teleradiology experiences. The DIN-PACS Technical Evaluation Panel (TEP) consisted of DoD and civilian radiology professionals with unique clinical and technical PACS expertise. The TEP considered nine items, key functional requirements to the DIN-PACS acquisition: (1) DICOM Conformance, (2) System Storage and Archive, (3) Workstation Performance, (4) Network Performance, (5) Radiology Information System (RIS) functionality, (6) Hospital Information System (HIS)/RIS Interface, (7) Teleradiology, (8) Quality Control, and (9) System Reliability. The development of a benchmark test to properly evaluate these key requirements would require the TEP to make technical, operational, and functional decisions that had not been part of a previous PACS acquisition. Developing test procedures and scenarios that simulated inputs from radiology modalities and outputs to soft copy workstations, film processors, and film printers would be a major undertaking. The goals of the TEP were to fairly assess each vendor's proposed system and to provide an accurate evaluation of each system's capabilities to the source selection authority, so the DoD could purchase a PACS that met the requirements in the RFP.

  5. Concept analysis of Diné Hózhó: a Diné wellness philosophy.

    PubMed

    Kahn-John, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    American Indian Alaska Native people of the United States face challenges in attaining physical, mental, spiritual, and environmental health. This article presents a concept analysis of Diné Hózhó, a complex and misunderstood wellness concept the Diné (Navajo) strive to attain. Findings from a literature review are presented to explore anthropological definitions and uses of the concept Hózhó. The method of concept analysis of Walker and Avant is utilized, model cases are presented. Recommendations for application in nursing practice are presented.

  6. Selection of dinB Alleles Suppressing Survival Loss upon dinB Overexpression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Ryan W.; Cafarelli, Tiziana M.; Rands, Thomas J.; Lin, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains overproducing DinB undergo survival loss; however, the mechanisms regulating this phenotype are poorly understood. Here we report a genetic selection revealing DinB residues essential to effect this loss-of-survival phenotype. The selection uses strains carrying both an antimutator allele of DNA polymerase III (Pol III) α-subunit (dnaE915) and either chromosomal or plasmid-borne dinB alleles. We hypothesized that dnaE915 cells would respond to DinB overproduction differently from dnaE+ cells because the dnaE915 allele is known to have an altered genetic interaction with dinB+ compared to its interaction with dnaE+. Notably, we observe a loss-of-survival phenotype in dnaE915 strains with either a chromosomal catalytically inactive dinB(D103N) allele or a low-copy-number plasmid-borne dinB+ upon DNA damage treatment. Furthermore, we find that the loss-of-survival phenotype occurs independently of DNA damage treatment in a dnaE915 strain expressing the catalytically inactive dinB(D103N) allele from a low-copy-number plasmid. The selective pressure imposed resulted in suppressor mutations that eliminated growth defects. The dinB intragenic mutations examined were either base pair substitutions or those that we inferred to be loss of function (i.e., deletions and insertions). Further analyses of selected novel dinB alleles, generated by single-base-pair substitutions in the dnaE915 strain, indicated that these no longer effect loss of survival upon overproduction in dnaE+ strains. These mutations are mapped to specific areas of DinB; this permits us to gain insights into the mechanisms underlying the DinB-mediated overproduction loss-of-survival phenotype. PMID:24914188

  7. Ernst Rüdin: Hitler's Racial Hygiene Mastermind.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jay; Wetzel, Norbert A

    2013-01-01

    Ernst Rüdin (1874-1952) was the founder of psychiatric genetics and was also a founder of the German racial hygiene movement. Throughout his long career he played a major role in promoting eugenic ideas and policies in Germany, including helping formulate the 1933 Nazi eugenic sterilization law and other governmental policies directed against the alleged carriers of genetic defects. In the 1940s Rüdin supported the killing of children and mental patients under a Nazi program euphemistically called "Euthanasia." The authors document these crimes and discuss their implications, and also present translations of two publications Rüdin co-authored in 1938 showing his strong support for Hitler and his policies. The authors also document what they see as revisionist historical accounts by leading psychiatric genetic authors. They outline three categories of contemporary psychiatric genetic accounts of Rüdin and his work: (A) those who write about German psychiatric genetics in the Nazi period, but either fail to mention Rüdin at all, or cast him in a favorable light; (B) those who acknowledge that Rüdin helped promote eugenic sterilization and/or may have worked with the Nazis, but generally paint a positive picture of Rüdin's research and fail to mention his participation in the "euthanasia" killing program; and (C) those who have written that Rüdin committed and supported unspeakable atrocities. The authors conclude by calling on the leaders of psychiatric genetics to produce a detailed and complete account of their field's history, including all of the documented crimes committed by Rüdin and his associates.

  8. [Ernst Rüdin: distinguished scientist, radical racial hygienist].

    PubMed

    Roelcke, V

    2012-03-01

    Ernst Rüdin (1874–1952) was one of the founders of psychiatric genetics. From 1931 until 1945, he was Director of the German Institute for Psychiatric Research (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Psychiatrie, DFA) and from 1935 until 1945 President of the German Association of Neurologists and Psychiatrists. The historical knowledge on Rüdin is reconsidered, using new sources, and with a focus on Rüdin’s involvement in the Nazi program of patient killings („euthanasia"). It is documented that (1) it is a misconception to interpret psychiatric genetics as „instrumentalised" by the Nazi regime; (2) Rüdin belonged to the group of psychiatric perpetrators who worked to give the Nazi selection policies scientific authority; (3) Rüdin knew early on about the patient killings and refused to support others in their efforts to stop them; and (4) the research in the context of the patient killings carried out by Julius Deussen, a member of Rüdin’s team at the DFA, was initiated and actively supported by Rüdin, and co-financed by the DFA.

  9. Dinámica de objetos transplutonianos: resultados preliminares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, S.; Brizuela, H.; Roig, F.; Varela, O.

    Se presentan los resultados de una integración numérica de las ecuaciones de movimiento para objetos transplutonianos. Se han calculado los tiempos de Lyapunov para esos objetos y se analiza el comportamiento dinámico de los mismos.

  10. Characterization of three mycobacterial DinB (DNA polymerase IV) paralogs highlights DinB2 as naturally adept at ribonucleotide incorporation

    PubMed Central

    Ordonez, Heather; Uson, Maria Loressa; Shuman, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    This study unveils Mycobacterium smegmatis DinB2 as the founder of a clade of Y-family DNA polymerase that is naturally adept at incorporating ribonucleotides by virtue of a leucine in lieu of a canonical aromatic steric gate. DinB2 efficiently scavenges limiting dNTP and rNTP substrates in the presence of manganese. DinB2's sugar selectivity factor, gauged by rates of manganese-dependent dNMP versus rNMP addition, is 2.7- to 3.8-fold. DinB2 embeds ribonucleotides during DNA synthesis when rCTP and dCTP are at equimolar concentration. DinB2 can incorporate at least 16 consecutive ribonucleotides. In magnesium, DinB2 has a 26- to 78-fold lower affinity for rNTPs than dNTPs, but only a 2.6- to 6-fold differential in rates of deoxy versus ribo addition (kpol). Two other M. smegmatis Y-family polymerases, DinB1 and DinB3, are characterized here as template-dependent DNA polymerases that discriminate strongly against ribonucleotides, a property that, in the case of DinB1, correlates with its aromatic steric gate side chain. We speculate that the unique ability of DinB2 to utilize rNTPs might allow for DNA repair with a ‘ribo patch’ when dNTPs are limiting. Phylogenetic analysis reveals DinB2-like polymerases, with leucine, isoleucine or valine steric gates, in many taxa of the phylum Actinobacteria. PMID:25200080

  11. Doctor Shoja-ad-Din Sheikholeslamzadeh and his Achievements

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Ahmadreza; Ziaei, Majid Eyvaz; Ahmadi, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Doctor Shoja-ad-Din Sheikholeslamzadeh (also known as Dr. Sheikh) (1931-2014) was an outstanding orthopedic surgeon. He is credited for the establishment of the Iranian Association of Rehabilitation, Shafa Yahyaian Hospital as an Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Center, the Social Welfare Organization, Iran's emergency dispatch center (115) and many other major projects that led to the upgrading of health care services in Iran. He also served as the Minister of Social Welfare and Minister of Health and Welfare before the Islamic revolution. The history of modern health care management and modern orthopedic surgery in Iran are indebted to the great leadership and executive abilities of Dr. Sheikh. PMID:25692161

  12. An efficient compressive sensing based PS-DInSAR method for surface deformation estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. T.; Xu, H. P.; Shan, L.; Liu, W.; Chen, G. Z.

    2016-11-01

    Permanent scatterers differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (PS-DInSAR) is a technique for detecting surface micro-deformation, with an accuracy at the centimeter to millimeter level. However, its performance is limited by the number of SAR images available (normally more than 20 are needed). Compressive sensing (CS) has been proven to be an effective signal recovery method with only a very limited number of measurements. Applying CS to PS-DInSAR, a novel CS-PS-DInSAR method is proposed to estimate the deformation with fewer SAR images. By analyzing the PS-DInSAR process in detail, first the sparsity representation of deformation velocity difference is obtained; then, the mathematical model of CS-PS-DInSAR is derived and the restricted isometry property (RIP) of the measurement matrix is discussed to validate the proposed CS-PS-DInSAR in theory. The implementation of CS-PS-DInSAR is achieved by employing basis pursuit algorithms to estimate the deformation velocity. With the proposed method, DInSAR deformation estimation can be achieved by a much smaller number of SAR images, as demonstrated by simulation results.

  13. A ΔdinB mutation that sensitizes Escherichia coli to the lethal effects of UV- and X-radiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mei-Chong W; Franco, Magdalena; Vargas, Doris M; Hudman, Deborah A; White, Steven J; Fowler, Robert G; Sargentini, Neil J

    2014-01-01

    The DinB (PolIV) protein of Escherichia coli participates in several cellular functions. We investigated a dinB mutation, Δ(dinB-yafN)883(::kan) [referred to as ΔdinB883], which strongly sensitized E. coli cells to both UV- and X-radiation killing. Earlier reports indicated dinB mutations had no obvious effect on UV radiation sensitivity which we confirmed by showing that normal UV radiation sensitivity is conferred by the ΔdinB749 allele. Compared to a wild-type strain, the ΔdinB883 mutant was most sensitive (160-fold) in early to mid-logarithmic growth phase and much less sensitive (twofold) in late log or stationary phases, thus showing a growth phase-dependence for UV radiation sensitivity. This sensitizing effect of ΔdinB883 is assumed to be completely dependent upon the presence of UmuDC protein; since the ΔdinB883 mutation did not sensitize the ΔumuDC strain to UV radiation killing throughout log phase and early stationary phase growth. The DNA damage checkpoint activity of UmuDC was clearly affected by ΔdinB883 as shown by testing a umuC104 ΔdinB883 double-mutant. The sensitivities of the ΔumuDC strain and the ΔdinB883 ΔumuDC double-mutant strain were significantly greater than for the ΔdinB883 strain, suggesting that the ΔdinB883 allele only partially suppresses UmuDC activity. The ΔdinB883 mutation partially sensitized (fivefold) uvrA and uvrB strains to UV radiation, but did not sensitize a ΔrecA strain. A comparison of the DNA sequences of the ΔdinB883 allele with the sequences of the Δ(dinB-yafN)882(::kan) and ΔdinB749 alleles, which do not sensitize cells to UV radiation, revealed ΔdinB883 is likely a "gain-of-function" mutation. The ΔdinB883 allele encodes the first 54 amino acids of wild-type DinB followed by 29 predicted residues resulting from the continuation of the dinB reading frame into an adjacent insertion fragment. The resulting polypeptide is proposed to interfere directly or indirectly with UmuDC function(s) involved

  14. A ΔdinB mutation that sensitizes Escherichia coli to the lethal effects of UV and X-radiation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mei-Chong W.; Franco, Magdalena; Vargas, Doris M.; Hudman, Deborah A.; White, Steven J.; Fowler, Robert G.; Sargentini, Neil J.

    2014-01-01

    The DinB (PolIV) protein of Escherichia coli participates in several cellular functions. We investigated a dinB mutation, Δ(dinB-yafN)883(::kan) [referred to as ΔdinB883], which strongly sensitized E. coli cells to both UV- and X-radiation killing. Earlier reports indicated dinB mutations had no obvious effect on UV radiation sensitivity which we confirmed by showing that normal UV radiation sensitivity is conferred by the ΔdinB749 allele. Compared to a wild-type strain, the ΔdinB883 mutant was most sensitive (160-fold) in early to mid-logarithmic growth phase and much less sensitive (twofold) in late log or stationary phases, thus showing a growth phase-dependence for UV radiation sensitivity. This sensitizing effect of ΔdinB883 is assumed to be completely dependent upon the presence of UmuDC protein; since the ΔdinB883 mutation did not sensitize the ΔumuDC strain to UV radiation killing throughout log phase and early stationary phase growth. The DNA damage checkpoint activity of UmuDC was clearly affected by ΔdinB883 as shown by testing a umuC104 ΔdinB883 double-mutant. The sensitivities of the ΔumuDC strain and the ΔdinB883 ΔumuDC double-mutant strain were significantly greater than for the ΔdinB883 strain, suggesting that the ΔdinB883 allele only partially suppresses UmuDC activity. The ΔdinB883 mutation partially sensitized (fivefold) uvrA and uvrB strains to UV radiation, but did not sensitize a ΔrecA strain. A comparison of the DNA sequences of the ΔdinB883 allele with the sequences of the Δ(dinB-yafN)882(::kan) and ΔdinB749 alleles, which do not sensitize cells to UV radiation, revealed ΔdinB883 is likely a “gain-of-function” mutation. The ΔdinB883 allele encodes the first 54 amino acids of wild-type DinB followed by 29 predicted residues resulting from the continuation of the dinB reading frame into an adjacent insertion fragment. The resulting polypeptide is proposed to interfere directly or indirectly with UmuDC function

  15. Mycobacterium smegmatis DinB2 misincorporates deoxyribonucleotides and ribonucleotides during templated synthesis and lesion bypass

    PubMed Central

    Ordonez, Heather; Shuman, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium smegmatis DinB2 is the founder of a clade of Y-family DNA polymerase that is naturally adept at utilizing rNTPs or dNTPs as substrates. Here we investigate the fidelity and lesion bypass capacity of DinB2. We report that DinB2 is an unfaithful DNA and RNA polymerase with a distinctive signature for misincorporation of dNMPs, rNMPs and oxoguanine nucleotides during templated synthesis in vitro. DinB2 has a broader mutagenic spectrum with manganese than magnesium, though low ratios of manganese to magnesium suffice to switch DinB2 to its more mutagenic mode. DinB2 discrimination against incorrect dNTPs in magnesium is primarily at the level of substrate binding affinity, rather than kpol. DinB2 can incorporate any dNMP or rNMP opposite oxo-dG in the template strand with manganese as cofactor, with a kinetic preference for synthesis of an A:oxo-dG Hoogsteen pair. With magnesium, DinB2 is adept at synthesizing A:oxo-dG or C:oxo-dG pairs. DinB2 effectively incorporates deoxyribonucleotides, but not ribonucleotides, opposite an abasic site, with kinetic preference for dATP as the substrate. We speculate that DinB2 might contribute to mycobacterial mutagenesis, oxidative stress and quiescence, and discuss the genetic challenges to linking the polymerase biochemistry to an in vivo phenotype. PMID:25352547

  16. A comparison between the Dutch and American-English digits-in-noise (DIN) tests in normal-hearing listeners.

    PubMed

    Smits, Cas; Watson, Charles S; Kidd, Gary R; Moore, David R; Goverts, S Theo

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch digits-in-noise test (NL DIN) and the American-English version (US DIN) are speech-in-noise tests for diagnostic and clinical usage. The present study investigated differences between NL DIN and US DIN speech reception thresholds (SRTs) for a group of native Dutch-speaking listeners. In experiment 1, a repeated-measures design was used to compare SRTs for the NL DIN and US DIN in steady-state noise and interrupted noise for monaural, diotic, and dichotic listening conditions. In experiment 2, a subset of these conditions with additional speech material (i.e. US DIN triplets without inter-digit coarticulation/prosody) was used. Experiment 1 was conducted with 16 normal-hearing Dutch students. Experiment 2 was conducted with nine different students. No significant differences between SRTs measured with the NL DIN and US DIN were found in steady-state noise. In interrupted noise the US DIN SRTs were significantly better in monaural and diotic listening conditions. Experiment 2 demonstrated that these better SRTs cannot be explained by the combined effect of inter-digit coarticulation and prosody in the American-English triplets. The NL DIN and US DIN are highly comparable and valuable tests for measuring auditory speech recognition abilities. These tests promote across-language comparisons of results.

  17. Feasibility study of a gadolinium-loaded DIN-based liquid scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sook Hyung; Joo, Kyung Kwang; So, Sun Heang; Yeo, In Sung

    2013-09-01

    DIN (di-isopropylnaphthalene) has a high flashpoint and can be used as a base solvent in liquid scintillators. It reduces safety concerns to humans and the environment. (PPO, 3 g/ ℓ) and (bis-MSB, 30 mg/ ℓ) were dissolved to formulate a DIN-based liquid scintillator (LS). A gadolinium (Gd) complex with carboxylic acid was synthesized using a neutralized chemical reaction. Then, 0.1% Gd was loaded into the LS. This Gd-loaded DIN-based LS using a solvent-solvent extraction method is the first attempt at a LS. In this study, we investigated the physical and the optical properties of this LS, and we will summarize all the characteristics of the Gd-loaded DIN-based LS.

  18. Manufacturing of microcomponents in a research institute under DIN EN ISO 9001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, Dieter; Karl, Bernhard; Saile, Volker; Schulz, Joachim

    2000-08-01

    The Institute for Microstructure Technology at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe has implemented a rigorous quality management system and was certified according to the DIN ISO EN 9001 standard in January 2000.

  19. Discrimination against major groove adducts by Y-family polymerases of the DinB subfamily.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jason M; Ippoliti, Paul J; Ronayne, Erin A; Rozners, Eriks; Beuning, Penny J

    2013-09-01

    Y-family DNA polymerases bypass DNA adducts in a process known as translesion synthesis (TLS). Y-family polymerases make contacts with the minor groove side of the DNA substrate at the nascent base pair. The Y-family polymerases also contact the DNA major groove via the unique little finger domain, but they generally lack contacts with the major groove at the nascent base pair. Escherichia coli DinB efficiently and accurately copies certain minor groove guanosine adducts. In contrast, we previously showed that the presence in the DNA template of the major groove-modified base 1,3-diaza-2-oxophenothiazine (tC) inhibits the activity of E. coli DinB. Even when the DNA primer is extended up to three nucleotides beyond the site of the tC analog, DinB activity is strongly inhibited. These findings prompted us to investigate discrimination against other major groove modifications by DinB and its orthologs. We chose a set of pyrimidines and purines with modifications in the major groove and determined the activity of DinB and several orthologs with these substrates. DinB, human pol kappa, and Sulfolobus solfataricus Dpo4 show differing specificities for the major groove adducts pyrrolo-dC, dP, N(6)-furfuryl-dA, and etheno-dA. In general, DinB was least efficient for bypass of all of these major groove adducts, whereas Dpo4 was most efficient. DinB activity was essentially completely inhibited by the presence of etheno-dA, while pol kappa activity was strongly inhibited. All three of these DNA polymerases were able to bypass N(6)-furfuryl-dA with modest efficiency, with DinB being the least efficient. We also determined that the R35A variant of DinB enhances bypass of N(6)-furfuryl-dA but not etheno-dA. In sum, we find that whereas DinB is specific for bypass of minor groove adducts, it is specifically inhibited by major groove DNA modifications.

  20. Dinámica de planetas extrasolares resonantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauge, C.

    Actualmente se han detectado 117 planetas alrededor de estrellas de Secuencia Principal, incluyendo 12 sistemas planetarios, cada uno con dos o tres miembros. De estos últimos, ocho poseen planetas en órbitas próximas y sus perturbaciones gravitacionales se convierten en un factor fundamental para la estabilidad orbital del sistema. Todos se encuentran en configuraciones resonantes, desde la conmensurabilidad de movimientos 2/1 de Gliese 876, hasta la resonancia secular de Ups And. En esta presentación analizamos varios aspectos de la dinámica resonante de los planetas extrasolares, incluyendo la existencia de soluciones de equilibrio, construcción de modelos analógicos y métodos para la determinación de masas individuales. También discutimos por qué las resonancias son tan frecuentes en estos sistemas, comparado con nuestro propio Sistema Solar. Por último, intentamos relacionar estos modelos con la hipótesis de migración planetaria, buscando límites en su extensión y en los posibles mecanismos que le dieron origen.

  1. Mutually exclusive RNA secondary structures regulate translation initiation of DinQ in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Knut I; Weel-Sneve, Ragnhild; Booth, James A; Bjørås, Magnar

    2016-11-01

    Protein translation can be affected by changes in the secondary structure of mRNA. The dinQ gene in Escherichia coli encodes a primary transcript (+1) that is inert to translation. Ribonucleolytic removal of the 44 first nucleotides converts the +1 transcript into a translationally active form, but the mechanism behind this structural change is unknown. Here we present experimental evidence for a mechanism where alternative RNA secondary structures in the two dinQ mRNA variants affect translation initiation by mediating opening or closing of the ribosome binding sequence. This structural switch is determined by alternative interactions of four sequence elements within the dinQ mRNA and also by the agrB antisense RNA. Additionally, the structural conformation of +1 dinQ suggests a locking mechanism comprised of an RNA stem that both stabilizes and prevents translation initiation from the full-length dinQ transcript. BLAST search and multiple sequence alignments define a new family of dinQ-like genes widespread in Enterobacteriaceae with close RNA sequence similarities in their 5' untranslated regions. Thus, it appears that a whole new family of genes is regulated by the same mechanism of alternative secondary RNA structures. © 2016 Kristiansen et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  2. The Escherichia coli SOS gene dinF protects against oxidative stress and bile salts.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Beltrán, Jerónimo; Rodríguez-Rojas, Alexandro; Guelfo, Javier R; Couce, Alejandro; Blázquez, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    DNA is constantly damaged by physical and chemical factors, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide radical (O(2)(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and hydroxyl radical (•OH). Specific mechanisms to protect and repair DNA lesions produced by ROS have been developed in living beings. In Escherichia coli the SOS system, an inducible response activated to rescue cells from severe DNA damage, is a network that regulates the expression of more than 40 genes in response to this damage, many of them playing important roles in DNA damage tolerance mechanisms. Although the function of most of these genes has been elucidated, the activity of some others, such as dinF, remains unknown. The DinF deduced polypeptide sequence shows a high homology with membrane proteins of the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family. We describe here that expression of dinF protects against bile salts, probably by decreasing the effects of ROS, which is consistent with the observed decrease in H(2)O(2)-killing and protein carbonylation. These results, together with its ability to decrease the level of intracellular ROS, suggests that DinF can detoxify, either direct or indirectly, oxidizing molecules that can damage DNA and proteins from both the bacterial metabolism and the environment. Although the exact mechanism of DinF activity remains to be identified, we describe for the first time a role for dinF.

  3. Apportioning riverine DIN load to export coefficients of land uses in an urbanized watershed.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yu-Ting; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Huang, Jr-Chuan; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Chang

    2016-08-01

    The apportionment of riverine dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) load to individual land use on a watershed scale demands the support of accurate DIN load estimation and differentiation of point and non-point sources, but both of them are rarely quantitatively determined in small montane watersheds. We introduced the Danshui River watershed of Taiwan, a mountainous urbanized watershed, to determine the export coefficients via a reverse Monte Carlo approach from riverine DIN load. The results showed that the dynamics of N fluctuation determines the load estimation method and sampling frequency. On a monthly sampling frequency basis, the average load estimation of the methods (GM, FW, and LI) outperformed that of individual method. Export coefficient analysis showed that the forest DIN yield of 521.5kg-Nkm(-2)yr(-1) was ~2.7-fold higher than the global riverine DIN yield (mainly from temperate large rivers with various land use compositions). Such a high yield was attributable to high rainfall and atmospheric N deposition. The export coefficient of agriculture was disproportionately larger than forest suggesting that a small replacement of forest to agriculture could lead to considerable change of DIN load. The analysis of differentiation between point and non-point sources showed that the untreated wastewater (non-point source), accounting for ~93% of the total human-associated wastewater, resulted in a high export coefficient of urban. The inclusion of the treated and untreated wastewater completes the N budget of wastewater. The export coefficient approach serves well to assess the riverine DIN load and to improve the understanding of N cascade.

  4. Localized landslide risk assessment with multi pass L band DInSAR analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, HyeWon; Rack Kim, Jung; Lin, Shih-Yuan; Choi, YunSoo

    2014-05-01

    In terms of data availability and error correction, landslide forecasting by Differential Interferometric SAR (DInSAR) analysis is not easy task. Especially, the landslides by the anthropogenic construction activities frequently occurred in the localized cutting side of mountainous area. In such circumstances, it is difficult to attain sufficient enough accuracy because of the external factors inducing the error component in electromagnetic wave propagation. For instance, the local climate characteristics such as orographic effect and the proximity to water source can produce the significant anomalies in the water vapor distribution and consequently result in the error components of InSAR phase angle measurements. Moreover the high altitude parts of target area cause the stratified tropospheric delay error in DInSAR measurement. The other obstacle in DInSAR observation over the potential landside site is the vegetation canopy which causes the decorrelation of InSAR phase. Thus rather than C band sensor such as ENVISAT, ERS and RADARSAT, DInSAR analysis with L band ALOS PLASAR is more recommendable. Together with the introduction of L band DInSAR analysis, the improved DInSAR technique to cope all above obstacles is necessary. Thus we employed two approaches i.e. StaMPS/MTI (Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers/Multi-Temporal InSAR, Hopper et al., 2007) which was newly developed for extracting the reliable deformation values through time series analysis and two pass DInSAR with the error term compensation based on the external weather information in this study. Since the water vapor observation from spaceborne radiometer is not feasible by the temporal gap in this case, the quantities from weather Research Forecasting (WRF) with 1 km spatial resolution was used to address the atmospheric phase error in two pass DInSAR analysis. Also it was observed that base DEM offset with time dependent perpendicular baselines of InSAR time series produce a significant error

  5. Estudio dinámico de un potencial perturbador dependiente de dos parámetros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O.; Brunini, A.

    El objeto del presente trabajo consiste en el estudio dinámico de un sistema dinámico caracterizado por la función hamiltoniana correspondiente a un satélite planetario perturbado por la acción del Sol y del achatamiento del planeta madre. Cuando dicha Hamiltoniana se promedia respecto de los términos de corto período, esta queda con dos grados de libertad, y su estudio puede ser realizado con las herramientas clásicas de la dinámica no-lineal. Se tratará de determinar regiones regulares y caóticas de movimiento. En el caso de estas últimas, es de particular interés la determinación de su orígen.

  6. Redox control of the DNA damage-inducible protein DinG helicase activity via its iron-sulfur cluster.

    PubMed

    Ren, Binbin; Duan, Xuewu; Ding, Huangen

    2009-02-20

    The Escherichia coli DNA damage-inducible protein DinG, a member of the superfamily 2 DNA helicases, has been implicated in the nucleotide excision repair and recombinational DNA repair pathways. Combining UV-visible absorption, EPR, and enzyme activity measurements, we demonstrate here that E. coli DinG contains a redox-active [4Fe-4S] cluster with a midpoint redox potential (E(m)) of -390 +/- 23 mV (pH 8.0) and that reduction of the [4Fe-4S] cluster reversibly switches off the DinG helicase activity. Unlike the [4Fe-4S] cluster in E. coli dihydroxyacid dehydratase, the DinG [4Fe-4S] cluster is stable, and the enzyme remains fully active after exposure to 100-fold excess of hydrogen peroxide, indicating that DinG could be functional under oxidative stress conditions. However, the DinG [4Fe-4S] cluster can be efficiently modified by nitric oxide (NO), forming the DinG-bound dinitrosyl iron complex with the concomitant inactivation of helicase activity in vitro and in vivo. Reassembly of the [4Fe-4S] cluster in NO-modified DinG restores helicase activity, indicating that the iron-sulfur cluster in DinG is the primary target of NO cytotoxicity. The results led us to propose that the iron-sulfur cluster in DinG may act as a sensor of intracellular redox potential to modulate its helicase activity and that modification of the iron-sulfur cluster in DinG and likely in other DNA repair enzymes by NO may contribute to NO-mediated genomic instability.

  7. A novel cis-acting element required for DNA damage-inducible expression of yeast DIN7

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshitani, Ayako; Yoshida, Minoru; Ling Feng

    2008-01-04

    Din7 is a DNA damage-inducible mitochondrial nuclease that modulates the stability of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. How DIN7 gene expression is regulated, however, has remained largely unclear. Using promoter sequence alignment, we found a highly conserved 19-bp sequence in the promoter regions of DIN7 and NTG1, which encodes an oxidative stress-inducible base-excision-repair enzyme. Deletion of the 19-bp sequence markedly reduced the hydroxyurea (HU)-enhanced DIN7 promoter activity. In addition, nuclear fractions prepared from HU-treated cells were used in in vitro band shift assays to reveal the presence of currently unidentified trans-acting factor(s) that preferentially bound to the 19-bp region. These results suggest that the 19-bp sequence is a novel cis-acting element that is required for the regulation of DIN7 expression in response to HU-induced DNA damage.

  8. Connection and Community: Diné College Emphasizes Real-World Experience in Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Summer Research Enhancement Program (SREP) at Diné College provides students with a solid foundation of public health research methods and includes a hands-on internship in their home community to test their newly acquired skills while enhancing the communities' health. Focusing on health issues prioritized by Navajo health leaders, from…

  9. Connection and Community: Diné College Emphasizes Real-World Experience in Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Summer Research Enhancement Program (SREP) at Diné College provides students with a solid foundation of public health research methods and includes a hands-on internship in their home community to test their newly acquired skills while enhancing the communities' health. Focusing on health issues prioritized by Navajo health leaders, from…

  10. Improvement of HSPF watershed model in plant uptake and DIN export from forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Linker, L. C.

    2001-12-01

    Correct simulation of nutrient export in response to flow is important in watershed models. In HSPF, plant uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) affects the export of DIN from sloped soil layers to a stream. Plant uptake depends on soil moisture. When moisture is deficient, increasing moisture may increase mass uptake; when moisture is over-sufficient, increasing moisture may dilute solution concentrations and decrease mass uptake in unit time. Detailed analysis of the effect of moisture on plant uptake and DIN export is presented. The two different relationships of soil moisture and uptake can be simulated by using the Michaelis-Menton saturation kinetics with two different mechanisms by applying different units of the maximum plant uptake rate, respectively. HSPF version 11 uses a single mechanism for all ranges of moisture conditions. This paper firstly compares two methods in plant uptakes. 1) The HSPF version 11 uses concentration (per unit time) as the unit of maximum uptake rate, which results in higher uptake in higher moisture conditions. It is good in moisture deficient condition, but is not good for moisture over-sufficient condition and results in some strange high DIN loads in some moderate low flow days. 2) The Alternative Method uses mass (per unit area per unit time) as the unit of maximum uptake rate, which is good in moisture sufficient condition and results in a better DIN load-flow relationship, because significant DIN load is usually associated with excessive moisture conditions. However, it overestimates uptake in moisture deficient condition and slightly underestimates DIN load associated with some very low flows. A sensitivity analysis is conducted with different precipitation factors to generate different flows. The HSPF version 11 yields lower yearly loads in the runs with greater precipitation factors, whereas, the Alternative Method yields higher load in the runs with greater factors. Overall, the Alternative Method provides

  11. Characteristics of Riverine DIN Export in Subtropical High-standing Island, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J. C.; Kao, S. J.; Lee, T. Y.; Lin, T. C.

    2016-12-01

    Increases in nitrogen (N) availability and mobility resulting from anthropogenic activities has substantially altered nitrogen cycle both locally and globally. Taiwan characterized by the subtropical montane landscape with abundant rainfall, downwind to the most rapidly industrializing east coast of China can be a demonstration site for extreme high N input and riverine DIN (dissolved inorganic N) export. We used 49 watersheds with similar climatic and landscape settings, but classified into low-, moderate-, and highly-disturbed categories based on population density to illustrate their differences in nitrogen inputs through atmospheric N deposition, synthetic fertilizer and human emission and DIN export ratios. Our results showed that the island-wide average riverine DIN export is 3800 kg-N/km2yr, approximately 18-fold higher than the global average mostly due to the large input of synthetic fertilizer. The average riverine DIN export ratio is 0.30-0.51, which is much higher than the average of 0.20-0.25 of large rivers around the world indicating excessive N input relative to ecosystem demand or retention capacity. The low-disturbed watersheds despite of high input only export 0.06-0.18 of the input and well buffered to changes in input quantity suggesting high efficiency of nitrogen usage or high N retention capacity of the less disturbed watersheds. The moderate-disturbed watersheds show a linear increase of output with increases in total N inputs and a mean DIN export ratio of 0.20 to 0.31. The main differences in land use between low and moderately disturbed watershed are the relative proportions of agricultural land and forests, not the built-up lands. The export ratio of the highly-disturbed watersheds is 0.42-0.53, which is very high and suggests that much of the N input is transported downstream. The increases in riverine DIN export ratio along with the gradient of human disturbance in subtropical Taiwan shows a gradient in excess N saturation. Our

  12. Landslide risk assessment with multi pass DInSAR analysis and error suppressing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    yun, H.; Kim, J.; Lin, S.; Choi, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Landslide is one of the most dreadful natural hazards and the prime risk source causing lethal damages in many countries. In spite of various attempts to measure the landslide susceptibility by the remote sensed method including Differential Interferometric SAR (DInSAR) analysis, the construction of reliable forecasting systems still remains unsolved. Thus, we tackled the problem of DInSAR analysis for monitoring landslide risk over the mountainous areas where InSAR observations are usually contaminated by the orographic effects and other error elements. In order to measure the correct surface deformation which might be a prelude of landslide, time series analysis and atmospheric correction of DInSAR interferograms were conducted and crossly validated. The target area of this experiment is the eastern part of Korean peninsula centered in Uljin. In there, the landslide originated by the geomorphic factors such as high sloped topography and localized torrential down pour is critical issue. The landslide cases frequently occurred in the cutting side of mountainous area by the anthropogenic construction activities. Although high precision DInSAR measurements for monitoring the landslide risks are essential in such circumstances, it is difficult to attain sufficient enough accuracy because of the external factors inducing the error component in electromagnetic wave propagation. For instance, the local climate characteristics such as orographic effect and the proximity to seashore can produce the significant anomalies in the water vapor distribution and consequently result in the error components of InSAR phase angle measurements. Moreover the high altitude parts of target area cause the stratified tropospheric delay error in DInSAR measurement. After all, the improved DInSAR approaches to cope all above obstacles are highly necessary. Thus we employed two approaches i.e. StaMPS/MTI (Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers/Multi-Temporal InSAR, Hopper et al., 2007

  13. Assessment of DInSAR Potential in Simulating Geological Subsurface Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouladi Moghaddam, N.; Rudiger, C.; Samsonov, S. V.; Hall, M.; Walker, J. P.; Camporese, M.

    2013-12-01

    High resolution geophysical surveys, including seismic, gravity, magnetic, etc., provide valuable information about subsurface structuring but they are very costly and time consuming with non-unique and sometimes conflicting interpretations. Several recent studies have examined the application of DInSAR to estimate surface deformation, monitor possible fault reactivation and constrain reservoir dynamic behaviour in geothermal and groundwater fields. The main focus of these studies was to generate an elevation map, which represents the reservoir extraction induced deformation. This research study, however, will focus on developing methods to simulate subsurface structuring and identify hidden faults/hydraulic barriers using DInSAR surface observations, as an innovative and cost-effective reconnaissance exploration tool for planning of seismic acquisition surveys in geothermal and Carbon Capture and Sequestration regions. By direct integration of various DInSAR datasets with overlapping temporal and spatial coverage we produce multi-temporal ground deformation maps with high resolution and precision to evaluate the potential of a new multidimensional MSBAS technique (Samsonov & d'Oreye, 2012). The technique is based on the Small Baseline Subset Algorithm (SBAS) that is modified to account for variation in sensor parameters. It allows integration of data from sensors with different wave-band, azimuth and incidence angles, different spatial and temporal sampling and resolutions. These deformation maps then will be used as an input for inverse modelling to simulate strain history and shallow depth structure. To achieve the main objective of our research, i.e. developing a method for coupled InSAR and geophysical observations and better understanding of subsurface structuring, comparing DInSAR inverse modelling results with previously provided static structural model will result in iteratively modified DInSAR structural model for adequate match with in situ observations

  14. The management of ductal intraepithelial neoplasia (DIN): open controversies and guidelines of the Istituto Europeo di Oncologia (IEO), Milan, Italy.

    PubMed

    Farante, Gabriel; Zurrida, Stefano; Galimberti, Viviana; Veronesi, Paolo; Curigliano, Giuseppe; Luini, Alberto; Goldhirsch, Aron; Veronesi, Umberto

    2011-07-01

    The management of ductal intraepithelial neoplasia (DIN) has substantially changed over the past 30 years, as its incidence has increased (from 2-3% to more than 20%), mainly due to the widespread use of mammography screening. This article describes not only the more widespread theoretical concepts on DIN but also the differences in the practical applications of the theory between different countries, different oncology specialists, and different cancer centers. Papers related to the international multicentre-randomized trials and retrospective studies were analyzed. We include articles and papers published between 1993 and 2010 related to patients with DIN, and abstracts and reports from MEDLINE and other sources were indentified. The standard of care for DIN consists of (a) breast conservative surgery (mastectomy is still indicated in large lesions--masses or microcalcifications--in about 30% of cases); (b) radiotherapy (RT) after conservative surgery, and (c) medical treatment in estrogen receptors-positive patients. However, most studies have shown significant differences between theory and practical application. Moreover, there are differences regarding (a) the indications of sentinel lymph node biopsy, (b) the definition and identification of low-risk DIN subgroups that can avoid RT and tamoxifen, and (c) the research into new alternative drugs in adjuvant medical therapy. A general agreement on the best management of DIN does not exist as yet. New large trials are needed in order to define the best management of DIN patients which is (in most respects) still complex and controversial.

  15. DinB Upregulation Is the Sole Role of the SOS Response in Stress-Induced Mutagenesis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Galhardo, Rodrigo S.; Do, Robert; Yamada, Masami; Friedberg, Errol C.; Hastings, P. J.; Nohmi, Takehiko; Rosenberg, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Stress-induced mutagenesis is a collection of mechanisms observed in bacterial, yeast, and human cells in which adverse conditions provoke mutagenesis, often under the control of stress responses. Control of mutagenesis by stress responses may accelerate evolution specifically when cells are maladapted to their environments, i.e., are stressed. It is therefore important to understand how stress responses increase mutagenesis. In the Escherichia coli Lac assay, stress-induced point mutagenesis requires induction of at least two stress responses: the RpoS-controlled general/starvation stress response and the SOS DNA-damage response, both of which upregulate DinB error-prone DNA polymerase, among other genes required for Lac mutagenesis. We show that upregulation of DinB is the only aspect of the SOS response needed for stress-induced mutagenesis. We constructed two dinB(oc) (operator-constitutive) mutants. Both produce SOS-induced levels of DinB constitutively. We find that both dinB(oc) alleles fully suppress the phenotype of constitutively SOS-“off” lexA(Ind−) mutant cells, restoring normal levels of stress-induced mutagenesis. Thus, dinB is the only SOS gene required at induced levels for stress-induced point mutagenesis. Furthermore, although spontaneous SOS induction has been observed to occur in only a small fraction of cells, upregulation of dinB by the dinB(oc) alleles in all cells does not promote a further increase in mutagenesis, implying that SOS induction of DinB, although necessary, is insufficient to differentiate cells into a hypermutable condition. PMID:19270270

  16. [Reform of the Law DIN EN ISO 9001:2000. Commentary on the new requirements on quality management systems].

    PubMed

    Eckert, H; Böhmer, K

    2000-09-01

    Since January this year the German translation of the third draft to the reform of the DIN EN ISO 9000 is available. The draft reveals an approximation to the models of Business Excellence. Most important changes are a far stronger customer orientation, orientation on the processes and resource management. The norms DIN EN ISO 9002 and 9003 have been removed, ISO 8402 has been integrated in the reformed DIN EN ISO 9000. Apart from that the compatibility with other management systems has been improved. It was the aim of the reform to improve the applicability for all types of business, products and services.

  17. "We're still in a struggle": Diné resilience, survival, historical trauma, and healing.

    PubMed

    Goodkind, Jessica R; Hess, Julia Meredith; Gorman, Beverly; Parker, Danielle P

    2012-08-01

    As part of a community/university collaborative effort to promote the mental health and well-being of Diné (Navajo) youth, we explored the relevance of addressing historical trauma and current structural stressors, and of building on individual and community strengths through healing and social transformation at multiple levels. Qualitative analyses of 74 ethnographic interviews with 37 Diné youth, parents, and grandparents suggested that a focus on historical trauma as a conceptual frame for behavioral health inequities, understood within the context of resilience and survival, is appropriate. Our findings also highlight the salience of current stressors such as poverty and violence exposure. We explore the fit of an historical trauma healing framework and present implications for intervention and transformation through revitalization of traditional knowledge, culturally based healing practices, intergenerational education, and social change strategies designed to eliminate social inequities.

  18. ALOS-PALSAR Performances on a Multiple Sensor DInSAR Scenario for Deformation Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Pablo; Arbiol, Roman; Pala, Vicenc

    2008-11-01

    The Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya (ICC) has developed its own DInSAR processing chain during the past years. Initial topographic interferometry applications have evolved into Multi Image Differential Interferometry (MI DInSAR) for terrain deformation monitoring purposes. The appearance of the JAXA's L-band sensor ALOS-PALSAR opens new possibilities to increase the amount of useful information which serve as input to these techniques and brings complementarity to the already successful C-band missions as ESA's ERS and ENVISAT. In the frame of deformation monitoring, PALSAR benefits and L-C band combination strategies are here investigated. L-band coherence enhancement in rural areas is addressed, allowing information retrieval on areas that would be inaccessible at C-band. Furthermore, PALSAR polarimetric channels combination is investigated in order to increase the number of pixels from whom deformation values can be extracted. Deformation results employing PALSAR and ENVISAT data are presented.

  19. Railway deformation detected by DInSAR over active sinkholes in the Ebro Valley evaporite karst, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galve, J. P.; Castañeda, C.; Gutiérrez, F.

    2015-11-01

    Subsidence was measured for the first time on railway tracks in the central sector of Ebro Valley (NE Spain) using Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) techniques. This area is affected by evaporite karst and the analysed railway corridors traverse active sinkholes that produce deformations in these infrastructures. One of the railway tracks affected by slight settlements is the Madrid-Barcelona high-speed line, a form of transport infrastructure highly vulnerable to ground deformation processes. Our analysis based on DInSAR measurements and geomorphological surveys indicates that this line shows dissolution-induced subsidence and compaction of anthropogenic deposits (infills and embankments). Significant sinkhole-related subsidence was also measured by DInSAR techniques on the Castejón-Zaragoza conventional railway line. This study demonstrates that DInSAR velocity maps, coupled with detailed geomorphological surveys, may help in the identification of the railway track sections that are affected by active subsidence.

  20. Effects of different N sources on riverine DIN export and retention in a subtropical high-standing island, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang-Chuan, Jr.; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Lin, Teng-Chiu; Hein, Thomas; Lee, Li-Chin; Shih, Yu-Ting; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Shiah, Fuh-Kwo; Lin, Neng-Huei

    2016-03-01

    Increases in nitrogen (N) availability and mobility resulting from anthropogenic activities have substantially altered the N cycle, both locally and globally. Taiwan characterized by the subtropical montane landscape with abundant rainfall, downwind of the most rapidly industrializing eastern coast of China, can be a demonstration site for extremely high N input and riverine DIN (dissolved inorganic N) export. We used 49 watersheds with similar climatic and landscape settings but classified into low, moderate, and highly disturbed categories based on population density to illustrate their differences in nitrogen inputs (through atmospheric N deposition, synthetic fertilizers, and human emission) and DIN export ratios. Our results showed that the island-wide average riverine DIN export is ˜ 3800 kg N km-2 yr-1, approximately 18 times the global average. The average riverine DIN export ratios are 0.30-0.51, which are much higher than the averages of 0.20-0.25 of large rivers around the world, indicating excessive N input relative to ecosystem demand or retention capacity. The low disturbed watersheds have a high N retention capacity and DIN export ratios of 0.06-0.18 in spite of the high N input (˜ 4900 kg N km-2 yr-1). The high retention capacity is likely due to effective uptake by secondary forests in the watersheds. The moderately disturbed watersheds show a linear increase in DIN export with increases in total N inputs and mean DIN export ratios of 0.20 to 0.31. The main difference in land use between low and moderately disturbed watersheds is the greater proportion of agricultural land cover in the moderately disturbed watersheds. Thus, their greater DIN export could be attributed to N fertilizers used in the agricultural lands. The greater export ratios also imply that agricultural lands have a lower proportional N retention capacity and that reforestation could be an effective land management practice to reduce riverine DIN export. The export ratios of the

  1. Effects of different N sources on riverine DIN export and retention in a subtropical high-standing island, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jr-Chuan; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Lin, Teng-Chiu; Hein, Thomas; Lee, Li-Chin; Shih, Yu-Ting; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Shiah, Fuh-Kwo; Lin, Neng-Huei

    Increases in nitrogen (N) availability and mobility resulting from anthropogenic activities have substantially altered the N cycle, both locally and globally. Taiwan characterized by the subtropical montane landscape with abundant rainfall, downwind of the most rapidly industrializing eastern coast of China, can be a demonstration site for extremely high N input and riverine DIN (dissolved inorganic N) export. We used 49 watersheds with similar climatic and landscape settings but classified into low, moderate, and highly disturbed categories based on population density to illustrate their differences in nitrogen inputs (through atmospheric N deposition, synthetic fertilizers, and human emission) and DIN export ratios. Our results showed that the island-wide average riverine DIN export is ~ 3800 kg N km(-2) yr(-1), approximately 18 times the global average. The average riverine DIN export ratios are 0.30-0.51, which are much higher than the averages of 0.20-0.25 of large rivers around the world, indicating excessive N input relative to ecosystem demand or retention capacity. The low disturbed watersheds have a high N retention capacity and DIN export ratios of 0.06-0.18 in spite of the high N input (~ 4900 kg N km(-2) yr(-1)). The high retention capacity is likely due to effective uptake by secondary forests in the watersheds. The moderately disturbed watersheds show a linear increase in DIN export with increases in total N inputs and mean DIN export ratios of 0.20 to 0.31. The main difference in land use between low and moderately disturbed watersheds is the greater proportion of agricultural land cover in the moderately disturbed watersheds. Thus, their greater DIN export could be attributed to N fertilizers used in the agricultural lands. The greater export ratios also imply that agricultural lands have a lower proportional N retention capacity and that reforestation could be an effective land management practice to reduce riverine DIN export. The export ratios

  2. Effects of different N sources on riverine DIN export and retention in a subtropical high-standing island, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jr-Chuan; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Lin, Teng-Chiu; Hein, Thomas; Lee, Li-Chin; Shih, Yu-Ting; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Shiah, Fuh-Kwo; Lin, Neng-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Increases in nitrogen (N) availability and mobility resulting from anthropogenic activities have substantially altered the N cycle, both locally and globally. Taiwan characterized by the subtropical montane landscape with abundant rainfall, downwind of the most rapidly industrializing eastern coast of China, can be a demonstration site for extremely high N input and riverine DIN (dissolved inorganic N) export. We used 49 watersheds with similar climatic and landscape settings but classified into low, moderate, and highly disturbed categories based on population density to illustrate their differences in nitrogen inputs (through atmospheric N deposition, synthetic fertilizers, and human emission) and DIN export ratios. Our results showed that the island-wide average riverine DIN export is ~ 3800 kg N km−2 yr−1, approximately 18 times the global average. The average riverine DIN export ratios are 0.30−0.51, which are much higher than the averages of 0.20−0.25 of large rivers around the world, indicating excessive N input relative to ecosystem demand or retention capacity. The low disturbed watersheds have a high N retention capacity and DIN export ratios of 0.06−0.18 in spite of the high N input (~ 4900 kg N km−2 yr−1). The high retention capacity is likely due to effective uptake by secondary forests in the watersheds. The moderately disturbed watersheds show a linear increase in DIN export with increases in total N inputs and mean DIN export ratios of 0.20 to 0.31. The main difference in land use between low and moderately disturbed watersheds is the greater proportion of agricultural land cover in the moderately disturbed watersheds. Thus, their greater DIN export could be attributed to N fertilizers used in the agricultural lands. The greater export ratios also imply that agricultural lands have a lower proportional N retention capacity and that reforestation could be an effective land management practice to reduce riverine DIN export. The export

  3. Lidocaine-based topical anesthetic with disinfectant (LidoDin) versus EMLA for venipuncture: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shavit, Itai; Hadash, Amir; Knaani-Levinz, Hadas; Shachor-Meyouhas, Yael; Kassis, Imad

    2009-10-01

    To examine the efficacy and safety of a new topical anesthetic containing a disinfection ingredient (LidoDin cream) in reducing the pain associated with venipuncture by comparing it with the proven eutectic mixture of lidocaine 2.5% and prilocaine 2.5% (EMLA cream). A single-blind, randomized, controlled trial was conducted on a study population consisting of a convenience sample of patients aged 12 to 16 years who presented at our Emergency Department between November 2007 and April 2008. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used for pain assessment. Before the study, the bactericidal effect of the LidoDin cream on skin flora was tested. Twenty patients were enrolled to each arm of the study. Mean patient age was 13.6 years for the LidoDin group and 14.12 years for the EMLA group (P=0.347). Male patients accounted for 55% of the patients in the LidoDin group, compared with 40% in the EMLA group (P=0.527). Skin reaction scores of the LidoDin group for erythema and edema were not statistically different than those of the EMLA group (P=0.73 and P=0.75, respectively). Patient VAS scores and nurse VAS scores of the LidoDin group were not statistically different than those of the EMLA group (P=0.57 and P=0.93, respectively). This pilot study demonstrated that LidoDin and EMLA seem to be equally safe and effective topical anesthetics for venipuncture. Future studies are planned to determine, if LidoDin reduces the rate of local skin infection in patients treated with multiple daily subcutaneous injections of medications.

  4. Complementing geotechnical slope stability and land movement analysis using satellite DInSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripolitsiotis, Achilleas; Steiakakis, Chrysanthos; Papadaki, Eirini; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Mertikas, Stelios; Partsinevelos, Panagiotis

    2014-03-01

    This paper explores the potential of using satellite radar inteferometry to monitor time-varying land movement prior to any visible tension crack signs. The idea was developed during dedicated geotechnical studies at a large open-pit lignite mine, where large slope movements (10-20 mm/day) were monitored and large fissures were observed in the immediate area outside the current pit limits. In this work, differential interferometry (DInSAR), using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ALOS images, was applied to monitor the progression of land movement that could potentially thwart mine operations. Early signs of land movements were captured by this technique well before their visual observation. Moreover, a qualitative comparison of DInSAR and ground geodetic measurements indicates that the technique can be used for the identification of high risk areas and, subsequently, for the optimization of the spatial distribution of the available ground monitoring equipment. Finally, quantitative land movement results from DInSAR are shown to be in accordance with simultaneous measurements obtained by ground means.

  5. Analysing surface deformation in Surabaya from sentinel-1A data using DInSAR method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjasmara, Ira Mutiara; Yusfania, Meiriska; Kurniawan, Akbar; Resmi, Awalina L. C.; Kurniawan, Roni

    2017-07-01

    The rapid population growth and increasing industrial space in the urban area of Surabaya have caused an excessive ground water use and load of infrastructures. This condition triggers surface deformation, especially the vertical deformation (subsidence or uplift), in Surabaya and its surroundings. The presence of dynamic processes of the Earth and geological form of Surabaya area can also fasten the rate of the surface deformation. In this research, Differential Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) method is chosen to infer the surface deformation over Surabaya area. The DInSAR processing utilized Sentinel 1A satellite images from May 2015 to September 2016 using two-pass interferometric. Two-pass interferometric method is a method that uses two SAR imageries and Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The results from four pairs of DInSAR processing indicate the occurrence of surface deformation in the form of land subsidence and uplift based on the displacement Line of Sight (LOS) in Surabaya. The average rate of surface deformation from May 2015 to September 2016 varies from -3.52 mm/4months to +2.35 mm/4months. The subsidence mostly occurs along the coastal area. However, the result still contains errors from the processing of displacement, due to the value of coherence between the image, noise, geometric distortion of a radar signal and large baseline on image pair.

  6. DNA-damage-inducible (din) loci are transcriptionally activated in competent Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Love, P.E.; Lyle, M.J.; Yasbin, R.E.

    1985-09-01

    DNA damage-inducible (din) operon fusions were generated in Bacillus subtilis by transpositional mutagenesis. These YB886(din::Tn917-lacZ) fusion isolates produced increased ..beta..-galactosidase when exposed to mitomycin C, UV radiation, or ethyl methanesulfonate, indicating that the lacZ structural gene had inserted into host transcriptional units that are induced by a variety of DNA-damaging agents. One of the fusion strains was DNA-repair deficient and phenotypically resembled a UV-sensitive mutant of B. subtilis. Induction of ..beta..-galactosidase also occurred in the competent subpopulation of each of the din fusion strains, independent of exposure to DNA-damaging agents. Both the DNA-damage-inducible and competence-inducible components of ..beta..-galactosidase expression were abolished by the recE4 mutation, which inhibits SOS-like (SOB) induction but does not interfere with the development of the component state. The results indicate that gene expression is stimulated at specific loci within the B. subtilis chromosome both by DNA-damaging agents and by the development of competence and that this response is under the control of the SOB regulatory system. Furthermore, they demonstrate that at the molecular level SOB induction and the development of competence are interrelated cellular events.

  7. New A-DInSAR study of La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. Results and interpretation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escayo, Joaquín; Bru, Guadalupe; Camacho, Antonio; Prieto, Juan F.; Mallorquí, Jordi J.; Fernández, José

    2016-04-01

    We present new results on the deformation field for La Palma Island in the Canary Archipelago using the complete archive of Envisat (2004-2010). The recent volcanic activity registered in La Palma (at historical and subhistorical times, there have been seven eruptions, in ca. A.D. 1480, 1585, 1646, 1677, 1712, 1949 and 1971) and the absence of any geodetic monitoring system implemented in the Island at the 90's converts A-DInSAR studies in an basic information source for the study of surface displacements. From late 90's several geodetic studies using GNSS, gravimetry and InSAR techniques has been carried out in the island (see Fernández et al., 2015 for a summary). We improve previous radar satellite results by increasing the temporal coverage and using more images, which generates a greater interferogram set, and using a recently developed A-DInSAR processing technique which includes an error estimation for the LOS mean velocity and deformation time series ("Subsidence" software, developed by the "Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, see e.g., Blanco-Sánchez et al., 2008, and Centolanza, 2015). Our A-DInSAR results are compared with previous InSAR ones and with GNSS results obtained from campaigns. A discussion and interpretation of the results is also presented. Radar images have been provided by ESA through Cat.-1 13933 project.

  8. Multiple Signaling Pathways in Gene Expression during Sugar Starvation. Pharmacological Analysis of din Gene Expression in Suspension-Cultured Cells of Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Fujiki, Yuki; Ito, Masaki; Nishida, Ikuo; Watanabe, Akira

    2000-01-01

    We have identified many dark-inducible (din) genes that are expressed in Arabidopsis leaves kept in the dark. In the present study we addressed the question of how plant cells sense the depletion of sugars, and how sugar starvation triggers din gene expression in suspension-cultured cells of Arabidopsis. Depletion of sucrose in the medium triggered marked accumulation of din transcripts. Suppression of din gene expression by 2-deoxy-Glc, and a non-suppressive effect exerted by 3-O-methyl-Glc, suggested that sugar-repressible expression of din genes is mediated through the phosphorylation of hexose by hexokinase, as exemplified in the repression of photosynthetic genes by sugars. We have further shown that the signaling triggered by sugar starvation involves protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events, and have provided the first evidence that multiple pathways of protein dephosphorylation exist in sugar starvation-induced gene expression. An inhibitor of serine/threonine protein kinase, K-252a, inhibited din gene expression in sugar-depleted cells. Okadaic acid, which may preferentially inhibit type 2A protein phosphatases over type 1, enhanced the transcript levels of all din genes, except din6 and din10, under sugar starvation. Conversely, a more potent inhibitor of type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases, calyculin A, increased transcripts from din2 and din9, but decreased those from other din genes, in sugar-depleted cells. On the other hand, calyculin A, but not okadaic acid, completely inhibited the gene expression of chlorophyll a/b-binding protein under sugar starvation. These results indicate that multiple signaling pathways, mediated by different types of protein phosphatases, regulate gene expression during sugar starvation. PMID:11080291

  9. EPOSAR: an innovative service to provide EPOS community with advanced DInSAR products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manunta, Michele; De Luca, Claudio; Elefante, Stefano; Lanari, Riccardo; Pepe, Antonio; Zinno, Ivana; Casu, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The quantitative evaluation of ground deformation is traditionally based on in-situ surveying techniques that, through the intensive use of GPS stations, automatic total stations and levelling benchmarks, can measure up to sub-centimetre displacements. In the last decades, the extensive use of satellite remote sensing data, such as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, has represented an important breakthrough in the context of non-invasive ground deformation analyses over large areas, thanks to their large spatial coverage and relatively short revisit time, as well as to their medium-high ground resolution. In such a context, the well-known Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) technique allows us to map and measure deformation phenomena due to both natural and man-made causes with centimetre to millimetre accuracy. The Earth Science community has a wide interest in the use of DInSAR displacement maps both for crisis management and risk mitigation activities, and for surveillance, monitoring and analysis of geophysical phenomena. In areas characterized by high level of hazards the availability of routinely generated advanced DInSAR products would allow a fast analysis of their current status, providing a near real time monitoring. Similarly, an on-demand service would allow the customization of the products by selecting the area of interest, the SAR data to be processed, and other processing parameters to be set by the users to edit/correct/improve the final products. In this work we discuss the Satellite Data Thematic Core Service of EPOS and we present the EPOSAR service. In particular, the EPOSAR service, based on the well-known DInSAR approach referred to as Small Baseline Subset (SBAS), accomplishes a shared and synergic Earth Observation (EO) service aimed at designing, implementing and harmonizing efficient satellite data processing chains capable of ingesting the significantly increased data stream expected from the ESA Sentinel-1 satellites. EPOSAR

  10. From local to national scale DInSAR analysis for the comprehension of Earth's surface dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, Claudio; Casu, Francesco; Manunta, Michele; Zinno, Ivana; lanari, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    Earth Observation techniques can be very helpful for the estimation of several sources of ground deformation due to their characteristics of large spatial coverage, high resolution and cost effectiveness. In this scenario, Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) is one of the most effective methodologies for its capability to generate spatially dense deformation maps with centimeter to millimeter accuracy. DInSAR exploits the phase difference (interferogram) between SAR image pairs relevant to acquisitions gathered at different times, but with the same illumination geometry and from sufficiently close flight tracks, whose separation is typically referred to as baseline. Among several, the SBAS algorithm is one of the most used DInSAR approaches and it is aimed at generating displacement time series at a multi-scale level by exploiting a set of small baseline interferograms. SBAS, and generally DInSAR, has taken benefit from the large availability of spaceborne SAR data collected along years by several satellite systems, with particular regard to the European ERS and ENVISAT sensors, which have acquired SAR images worldwide during approximately 20 years. While the application of SBAS to ERS and ENVISAT data at local scale is widely testified, very few examples involving those archives for analysis at huge spatial scale are available in literature. This is mainly due to the required processing power (in terms of CPUs, memory and storage) and the limited availability of automatic processing procedures (unsupervised tools), which are mandatory requirements for obtaining displacement results in a time effective way. Accordingly, in this work we present a methodology for generating the Vertical and Horizontal (East-West) components of Earth's surface deformation at very large (national/continental) spatial scale. In particular, it relies on the availability of a set of SAR data collected over an Area of Interest (AoI), which could be some hundreds

  11. Effects of different N sources on riverine DIN export and retention in subtropical high-standing island, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.-C.; Lee, T.-Y.; Lin, T.-C.; Hein, T.; Lee, L.-C.; Shih, Y.-T.; Kao, S.-J.; Shiah, F.-K.; Lin, N.-H.

    2015-10-01

    Increases in nitrogen (N) availability and mobility resulting from anthropogenic activities has substantially altered N cycle both locally and globally. Taiwan characterized by the subtropical montane landscape with abundant rainfall, downwind to the most rapidly industrializing east coast of China can be a demonstration site for extreme high N input and riverine DIN (dissolved inorganic N) export. We used 49 watersheds classified into low-, moderate-, and highly-disturbed categories based on population density to illustrate their differences in nitrogen inputs through atmospheric N deposition, synthetic fertilizers and human emission and DIN export ratios. Our results showed that the island-wide average riverine DIN export is ~ 3800 kg N km-2 yr-1, approximately 18-fold higher than the global average mostly due to the large input of synthetic fertilizers. The average riverine DIN export ratio is 0.30-0.51, which is much higher than the average of 0.20-0.25 of large rivers around the world indicating excessive N input relative to ecosystem demand or retention capacity. The low-disturbed watersheds, despite of high N input, only export 0.06-0.18 of the input so were well buffered to changes in input quantity suggesting high efficiency of nitrogen usage or high N retention capacity of the less disturbed watersheds. The high retention capacity probably is due to the effective uptake by secondary forests in the watersheds. The moderate-disturbed watersheds show a linear increase of output with increases in total N inputs and a mean DIN export ratio of 0.20 to 0.31. The main difference in land use between low and moderately disturbed watershed is the relative proportions of agricultural land and forests, not the built-up lands. Thus, their greater DIN export quantity could be attributed to N fertilizers used in the agricultural lands. The greater export ratios also imply that agricultural lands have lower proportional N retention capacity and that reforestation could be

  12. Evolución Dinámica de Cúmulos Estelares Abiertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Fuente Marcos, R.

    Las estrellas que observamos no se formaron aisladamente, sino que lo hicieron en grupos o cúmulos. Estos sistemas estelares recibenel nombre de cúmulos estelares abiertos o galácticos cuando están constituidos por estrellas de la Población I. Los cúmulos abiertos se localizan preferentemente en el plano galáctico, y en muchos de ellos está teniendo lugar aún una activa formación estelar. El propósito principal de esta tesis doctoral es el estudio de la evolución dinámica de estos sistemas estelares por medio de simulaciones numéricas y de la comparación de sus resultados con datos observacionales. Con este fin se analizan los efectos que, sobre la dinámica de los cúmulos, ejercen varios fenómenos de interés astrofísico tales como el campo gravitatorio galáctico, la pérdida de masa causada por la evolución estelar y la presencia de binarias primordiales. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de más de un centenar de modelos de cúmulos, con poblaciones comprendidas en el intervalo [100, 10.000] estrellas, calculados con NBODY5, un programa estándar en el campo de la Dinámica Estelar Experimental. De los mismos se deduce que el mecanismo principal que rige la dinámica de los cúmulos abiertos es la evolución estelar de su distribución de masas, encontrándose un comportamiento diferencial fuertemente dependiente de la población inicial del cúmulo. Los mecanismos responsables de la desintegración de los cúmulos abiertos son analizados en detalle, proponiéndose un modelo analítico que ajusta razonablemente los resultados de las simulaciones. Además, y con el fin de explicar el elevado número de sistemas múltiples observados en cúmulos abiertos, se estudian los efectos que, sobre los mismos, ejerce la presencia de una cierta fracción de binarias primordiales. El papel de las binarias tambiín depende de la riqueza del cúmulo y sus efectos se interrelacionan con aquellos debidos a la evolución estelar. Por último, se

  13. [Quality assurance in student training. Prerequisites for DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 in teaching].

    PubMed

    Ochsner, W; Kaiser, C; Schirmer, U

    2007-07-01

    Standards of quality assurance according to DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 have been implemented in many university hospital departments, but often teaching activities are not included. This work presents a method that allows, after having defined the various teaching activities as sub-processes of one single core process, to include the manifold teaching activities of university hospital departments into the certification process. The stepwise description of the prerequisites for including teaching activities into ISO 9001 certification is illustrated by a concrete implementation example.

  14. Diné (Navajo) parents' and community leaders' perceptions of agriculture-related injury risk to youth: a social narrative.

    PubMed

    Shumway, K; Pate, M L; McNeal, L G

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a formative needs assessment of Diné (Navajo) parents for the prevention of childhood injuries resulting from livestock and horses. The research objectives were to identify parents' perceived livestock and horse related injury risks to Diné children and describe Diné community stakeholder input on prevention interventions for reducing injury risks to children associated with livestock and horse related activities on farms or ranches. The assessment used a survey constructed of closed and open-response questions to gauge Diné farmers' and ranchers' perceptions of injury risks to children who live or work on agricultural operations. Additional questions were asked to gauge Diné acceptance of an online training program as a prevention intervention to reduce livestock and horse related injuries to children. A total of 96 individuals agreed to participate in the survey and provided usable responses. A total of 53.2% (f = 50) of participants were female. Sixty-three percent of participants (f = 58) perceived that youth who work with intact male livestock were at high risk for injury. A total of 25 individuals perceived that youth who ride horses without equestrian helmets were at high risk for injury. Approximately 96% (f = 89) of those surveyed agreed or strongly agreed that they would use an online training program to promote agricultural health and safety for Diné youth. When participants were asked if there were safety issues associated with having youth working on a farm or ranch, a very large portion felt that the biggest issue was a lack of education and instruction from elders. A recommendation for an injury prevention practice included developing a user-friendly online network, giving parents and community leaders access to resources to assist in educating youth in local agricultural traditions integrated with safety training.

  15. DIN retention-transport through four hydrologically connected zones in a headwater catchment of the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Triska, F.J.; Duff, J.H.; Sheibley, R.W.; Jackman, A.P.; Avanzino, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) retention-transport through a headwater catchment was synthesized from studies encompassing four distinct hydrologic zones of the Shingobee River Headwaters near the origin of the Mississippi River. The hydrologic zones included: (1) hillslope ground water (ridge to bankside riparian); (2) alluvial riparian ground water; (3) ground water discharged through subchannel sediments (hyporheic zone); and (4) channel surface water. During subsurface hillslope transport through Zone 1, DIN, primarily nitrate, decreased from ???3 mg-N/l to <0.1 mg-N/l. Ambient seasonal nitrate:chloride ratios in hillslope flow paths indicated both dilution and biotic processing caused nitrate loss. Biologically available organic carbon controlled biotic nitrate retention during hillslope transport. In the alluvial riparian zone (Zone 2) biologically available organic carbon controlled nitrate depletion although processing of both ambient and amended nitrate was faster during the summer than winter. In the hyporheic zone (Zone 3) and stream surface water (Zone 4) DIN retention was primarily controlled by temperature. Perfusion core studies using hyporheic sediment indicated sufficient organic carbon in bed sediments to retain ground water DIN via coupled nitrification-denitrification. Numerical simulations of seasonal hyporheic sediment nitrification-denitrification rates from perfusion cores adequately predicted surface water ammonium but not nitrate when compared to 5 years of monthly field data (1989-93). Mass balance studies in stream surface water indicated proportionally higher summer than winter N retention. Watershed DIN retention was effective during summer under the current land use of intermittently grazed pasture. However, more intensive land use such as row crop agriculture would decrease nitrate retention efficiency and increase loads to surface water. Understanding DIN retention capacity throughout the system, including special channel

  16. Deformation analysis through the SBAS-DInSAR technique and geotechnical methods for structural damage assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonano, M.; Arangio, S.; Calò, F.; Di Mauro, M.; Manunta, M.; Marsella, M.; Sansosti, E.; Sonnessa, A.; Tagliafierro, V.; Lanari, R.

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring of displacements affecting single buildings or human-made infrastructures is of key importance for their diagnostic and damage assessment. The evaluation of the structural damage in urban areas is a critical problem related to the complexity of soil-structure interaction. Indeed, the structural damage is influenced by several factors, such as the uniformity of the settlements, the variability on the soil property, the type of foundations, the rigidity and type of the considered structure, as well as the rate at which the settlements occur. Concerning this latter issue, settlements occurring very slowly over periods of decades or more may be tolerable by masonry or reinforced concrete structures; on the other hand, the same settlements related to a few months or a few years would result in severe structural damage. In this context, remote sensing techniques allow non-invasive and non-destructive deformation analyses over large areas by properly exploiting a large number of space-borne radar data. Within this framework, Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) has emerged as a valuable microwave methodology to detect and monitor ground displacements, with centimeter to millimeter accuracy, by exploiting the phase difference (interferogram) between two SAR images relevant to the same area. Recent developments of advanced DInSAR techniques are aimed at investigating not only single event deformation phenomena, but also the temporal evolution of the detected displacements through the generation of deformation time-series. These approaches benefit of the availability of huge archives of SAR data, including the ones acquired over the last 20 years by the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors on-board the ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT satellites of the European Space Agency (ESA). Among these advanced DInSAR approaches, we focus on the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) algorithm (Berardino et al., 2002) that implements an easy combination of DInSAR data pairs characterized by

  17. Sentinel-1 DInSAR processing chain within Geohazard Exploitation Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinno, Ivana; Bonano, Manuela; Buonanno, Sabatino; Casu, Francesco; De Luca, Claudio; Fusco, Adele; Lanari, Riccardo; Manunta, Michele; Manzo, Mariarosaria; Ojha, Chandrakanta; Pepe, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The Sentinel-1A (S1A) satellite has been launched on April 2014 to acquire SAR data in continuity with the ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT missions. It presents advanced characteristics in terms of revisit time, spatial coverage and service reliability. Such a satellite will be paired during 2016 with the Sentinel-1B twin system that will reduce the constellation revisit time from 12 to 6 days. Accordingly, a huge and ever-increasing data flow relevant to extended areas on Earth will be delivered with a "free and open access" data policy. The S1-A sensor is equipped with a C-band SAR instrument that is conceived for interferometric applications, thus allowing us to analyze Earth's surface displacements through the Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) technique. In particular, S1A SAR data are collected through the Terrain Observation by Progressive Scans (TOPS) mode, which generates Interferometric Wide Swath (IWS) acquisitions. To properly handle S1A TOPS data, the existing DInSAR processing chains have to be adapted with new procedures, which properly take into account the characteristics of this new acquisition mode. Furthermore, another critical point to be taken into account in designing a S1A DInSAR processing chain is the achievement of a good computational efficiency. Indeed, the capability to process in reduced time frames the huge data stream expected by S1A (and, very soon, also by S1B) is a key aspect to fully exploit S1 data archives. In this work we present an efficient interferometric processing chain, based on the advanced DInSAR algorithm referred to as Parallel Small BAseline Subset (P-SBAS), for the generation of S1A IWS surface deformation time-series. It ingests the Single Look Complex data and generates, in unsupervised way, interferograms and displacement time-series. This processing chain is able to exploit distributed computing architectures taking advantage of both multi-node and multi-threading programming techniques. The proposed S1A P

  18. Surface deformation analysis of the Istanbul (Turkey) city retrieved via the SBAS-DInSAR technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzo, Mariarosaria; Lanari, Riccardo; Manconi, Andrea; Solaro, Giuseppe; Walter, Thomas R.; Zschau, Jochen

    2010-05-01

    Remote sensing techniques make possible to collect information on dangerous or inaccessible areas. In this context, space-based geodetic techniques as Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) have been used in several areas in order to obtain co-seismic surface deformation maps in a few days or even hours following large earthquakes. The retrieved surface deformation can be used to constrain analytical and/or numerical models to derive parameters such as depth, dimension, orientation, and slip occurred on the fault plane. Moreover, advanced DInSAR techniques allow observing the temporal evolution of the surface displacements, and are thus able to furnish a picture of the pre-seismic state as well as of the post-seismic effects. In this work, we present DInSAR analyses of the deformation patterns in areas that are affected by seismic hazard. In particular, we focus on ground displacements occurred in the greater city area of Istanbul (Turkey) in the last 17 years. To this aim, we exploited the advanced DInSAR algorithm, referred to as Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) technique (Berardino et al., 2002). Displacement time series are retrieved from data acquired by the ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT (Pepe et al., 2005) satellites of the European Space Agency (ESA) between 1992 and 2009. First, we show the results of an analysis carried out at a spatial resolution of about 100 x 100 m. This shows, in addition to the co-seismic displacement caused by the Izmit earthquake (17 August 1999) and associated events, several areas that are subject to subsidence (often in excess of 10 cm per decade) within the city of Istanbul. Moreover, in selected case studies, we further exploited localized phenomena by "zooming" in the areas of interest and carrying out analyses at full spatial resolution scale (10 x 10 m) (Lanari et al., 2004). This additional effort allowed us to discriminate among deformation phenomena occurring at regional and at the building scale. This study provides an updated

  19. A new implementation of full resolution SBAS-DInSAR processing chain for the effective monitoring of structures and infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonano, Manuela; Buonanno, Sabatino; Ojha, Chandrakanta; Berardino, Paolo; Lanari, Riccardo; Zeni, Giovanni; Manunta, Michele

    2017-04-01

    The advanced DInSAR technique referred to as Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) algorithm has already largely demonstrated its effectiveness to carry out multi-scale and multi-platform surface deformation analyses relevant to both natural and man-made hazards. Thanks to its capability to generate displacement maps and long-term deformation time series at both regional (low resolution analysis) and local (full resolution analysis) spatial scales, it allows to get more insights on the spatial and temporal patterns of localized displacements relevant to single buildings and infrastructures over extended urban areas, with a key role in supporting risk mitigation and preservation activities. The extensive application of the multi-scale SBAS-DInSAR approach in many scientific contexts has gone hand in hand with new SAR satellite mission development, characterized by different frequency bands, spatial resolution, revisit times and ground coverage. This brought to the generation of huge DInSAR data stacks to be efficiently handled, processed and archived, with a strong impact on both the data storage and the computational requirements needed for generating the full resolution SBAS-DInSAR results. Accordingly, innovative and effective solutions for the automatic processing of massive SAR data archives and for the operational management of the derived SBAS-DInSAR products need to be designed and implemented, by exploiting the high efficiency (in terms of portability, scalability and computing performances) of the new ICT methodologies. In this work, we present a novel parallel implementation of the full resolution SBAS-DInSAR processing chain, aimed at investigating localized displacements affecting single buildings and infrastructures relevant to very large urban areas, relying on different granularity level parallelization strategies. The image granularity level is applied in most steps of the SBAS-DInSAR processing chain and exploits the multiprocessor systems with distributed

  20. The DinB•RecA complex of Escherichia coli mediates an efficient and high-fidelity response to ubiquitous alkylation lesions.

    PubMed

    Cafarelli, Tiziana M; Rands, Thomas J; Godoy, Veronica G

    2014-03-01

    Alkylation DNA lesions are ubiquitous, and result from normal cellular metabolism as well as from treatment with methylating agents and chemotherapeutics. DNA damage tolerance by translesion synthesis DNA polymerases has an important role in cellular resistance to alkylating agents. However, it is not yet known whether Escherichia coli (E. coli) DNA Pol IV (DinB) alkylation lesion bypass efficiency and fidelity in vitro are similar to those inferred by genetic analyses. We hypothesized that DinB-mediated bypass of 3-deaza-3-methyladenine, a stable analog of 3-methyladenine, the primary replication fork-stalling alkylation lesion, would be of high fidelity. We performed here the first kinetic analyses of E. coli DinB•RecA binary complexes. Whether alone or in a binary complex, DinB inserted the correct deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) opposite either lesion-containing or undamaged template; the incorporation of other dNTPs was largely inefficient. DinB prefers undamaged DNA, but the DinB•RecA binary complex increases its catalytic efficiency on lesion-containing template, perhaps as part of a regulatory mechanism to better respond to alkylation damage. Notably, we find that a DinB derivative with enhanced affinity for RecA, either alone or in a binary complex, is less efficient and has a lower fidelity than DinB or DinB•RecA. This finding contrasts our previous genetic analyses. Therefore, mutagenesis resulting from alkylation lesions is likely limited in cells by the activity of DinB•RecA. These two highly conserved proteins play an important role in maintaining genomic stability when cells are faced with ubiquitous DNA damage. Kinetic analyses are important to gain insights into the mechanism(s) regulating TLS DNA polymerases.

  1. Toxin-antitoxin systems mqsR/ygiT and dinJ/RelE of Xylella fastidiosa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) encodes multiple toxin-antitoxin (TA) system homologues, including relE/dinJ and mqsR/ygiT. Phylogenetic analyses indicate these two Xf TA systems have distinct evolutionary histories. Genomic comparisons among Xf subspecies/strains reveal TA systems are ...

  2. Railway deformation detected by DInSAR over active sinkholes in the Ebro Valley evaporite karst, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galve, J. P.; Castañeda, C.; Gutiérrez, F.

    2015-06-01

    Previously not measured subsidence on railway tracks was detected using DInSAR displacement maps produced for the central sector of Ebro Valley (NE Spain). This area is affected by evaporite karst and the analyzed railway corridors traverse active sinkholes that produce deformations in these infrastructures. One of the railway tracks affected by slight settlements corresponds to the Madrid-Barcelona high-speed line, a transport infrastructure highly vulnerable to ground deformation processes. Our analysis based on DInSAR measurements and geomorphological surveys indicate that this line show dissolution-induced subsidence and compaction of anthropogenic deposits (infills and embankments). By using DInSAR techniques, it was also measured the significant subsidence related to the activity of sinkholes in the Castejón-Zaragoza conventional railway line. Thus, this study demonstrate that DInSAR velocity maps coupled with detailed geomorphological surveys may help in the identification of the sectors of railway tracks that may compromise the safety of travellers.

  3. A Study of Chromo-Boronizing on DIN 1.2714 Steel by Duplex Surface Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghaie-Khafri, M.; Mohamadpour Nazar Abady, M.

    2012-06-01

    In the current study, the microhardness, layer depth, corrosion properties, and kinetics of chromium boride coatings on DIN 1.2714 hot-worked tool steel have been investigated. Thermodiffusion chromium boride coatings have been carried out for the first time by a duplex salt bath immersion coating by chromizing at 1050°C followed by boronizing at 950°C, 1000°C, and 1050°C (chromo-boronizing). The coating layer obtained was hard (2482 HV), compact, and homogeneous. The kinetics of the chromium boride coating followed a parabolic relation ( d 2 = Kt) and the activation energy of the formation of the chromo-boronized layer was calculated as 132 kJ/mol. The corrosion resistance of the coating was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization in 3.5% NaCl solution. The results showed the degradation of the corrosion properties of the coated samples.

  4. Unsupervised DInSAR processing chain for multi-scale displacement analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casu, Francesco; Manunta, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Earth Observation techniques can be very helpful for the estimation of several sources of ground deformation due to their characteristics of large spatial coverage, high resolution and cost effectiveness. In this scenario, Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) is one of the most effective methodologies for its capability to generate spatially dense deformation maps at both global and local spatial scale, with centimeter to millimeter accuracy. DInSAR exploits the phase difference (interferogram) between SAR image pairs relevant to acquisitions gathered at different times, but with the same illumination geometry and from sufficiently close flight tracks, whose separation is typically referred to as baseline. Among several, the SBAS algorithm is one of the most used DInSAR approaches and it is aimed at generating displacement time series at a multi-scale level by exploiting a set of small baseline interferograms. SBAS, and generally DInSAR, has taken benefit from the large availability of spaceborne SAR data collected along years by several satellite systems, with particular regard to the European ERS and ENVISAT sensors, which have acquired SAR images worldwide during approximately 20 years. Moreover, since 2014 the new generation of Copernicus Sentinel satellites has started to acquire data with a short revisit time (12 days) and a global coverage policy, thus flooding the scientific EO community with an unprecedent amount of data. To efficiently manage such amount of data, proper processing facilities (as those coming from the emerging Cloud Computing technologies) have to be used, as well as novel algorithms aimed at their efficient exploitation have to be developed. In this work we present a set of results achieved by exploiting a recently proposed implementation of the SBAS algorithm, namely Parallel-SBAS (P-SBAS), which allows us to effectively process, in an unsupervised way and in a limited time frame, a huge number of SAR images

  5. Unsupervised SBAS-DInSAR time series generation: a small brick for building a Supersites ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casu, F.; De Luca, C.; Elefante, S.; Imperatore, P.; Lanari, R.; Manunta, M.; Zinno, I.; Farres, J.; Lengert, W.

    2013-12-01

    Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) is an effective tool to detect and monitor ground displacements with centimeter accuracy. The geoscience communities, as well as those related to hazard monitoring and risk mitigation, make extensively use of DInSAR. They take advantage from the current huge amount of SAR data and will benefit the incoming big data stream of Sentinel 1 system. The availability of this information makes possible the generation of Earth's surface displacement maps and time series with large spatial coverage and long time span and, often in conjunction to in-situ data, fosters advances in science. However, the managing, processing and analysis of such a huge amount of data is expected to be the major bottleneck, particularly when crisis phases occur. The emerging need of creating a common ecosystem in which data (space born and in-situ), results and processing tools are shared, is envisaged to be a successful way to address such a problem and contribute to information and knowledge spreading. The Supersites initiative as well as the ESA SuperSites Exploitation Platform (SSEP), through the ESA Grid Processing On Demand (G-POD) and Cloud Computing Operational Pilot (CIOP) projects, provide effective answers to this need. The existent tools for querying and analysing SAR data are required to be redesigned for both processing big data and for quickly replying to simultaneous user requests, mainly during emergency situations. These requirements push for the development of automatic and unsupervised processing tools as well as of scalable, widely accessible and high performance computing capabilities. The cloud-computing environment successfully responds to these objectives, particularly in case of spike and peak requests of processing resources linked to disaster events. In this work we present a parallel computational model for the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) DInSAR algorithm as it was implemented within the computing environment provided by the

  6. "The City of Din": decibels, noise, and neighbors in The Netherlands, 1910-1980.

    PubMed

    Bijsterveld, Karin

    2003-01-01

    Science and technology have played a crucial role in regulating problems resulting from urban overcrowding. In the twentieth century, the decibel became a major factor in controlling, for instance, urban traffic noise in the Netherlands. "The city of din" led to the creation of the portable noise meter to measure decibels, but the urban context also set limits on its utility in noise conflicts between neighbors. Regarding neighborly noise, the trust in numbers failed to be productive. Legislation,based on objective noise levels, aimed at regulating disturbance from neighbors was not realized in any comprehensive manner, due to changing class relations and the increasing recognition of both the subjectivity of noise and the right to make noise in the privacy of one's own home.

  7. Generation of Classical DInSAR and PSI Ground Motion Maps on a Cloud Thematic Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Oscar; Ordoqui, Patrick; Romero, Laia

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the experience of ALTAMIRA INFORMATION uploading InSAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry) services in the Geohazard Exploitation Platform (GEP), supported by ESA. Two different processing chains are presented jointly with ground motion maps obtained from the cloud computing, one being DIAPASON for classical DInSAR and SPN (Stable Point Network) for PSI (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry) processing. The product obtained from DIAPASON is the interferometric phase related to ground motion (phase fringes from a SAR pair). SPN provides motion data (mean velocity and time series) on high-quality pixels from a stack of SAR images. DIAPASON is already implemented, and SPN is under development to be exploited with historical data coming from ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT satellites, and current acquisitions of SENTINEL-1 in SLC and TOPSAR modes.

  8. Dinámica global en galaxias elípticas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, M. J.; Cincotta, P. M.; Giordano, C. M.

    Con el propósito de determinar propiedades dinámicas globales en sistemas triaxiales no integrables, utilizamos una nueva herramienta conocida como ``Mean Exponential Growth factor of Nearby Orbits'' (MEGNO), introducida por Cincotta y Simó (2000). Esta técnica no sólo resulta eficiente para investigar ambas componentes del espacio fase, regular y caótica, sino que también, provee una medida de la hiperbolicidad en el dominio caótico que coincide con la dada por el Lyapunov Characteristic Number (LCN). Previamente este método ha sido aplicado al estudio de modelos simples, y últimamente en el campo de la Mecánica Celeste, al estudio de sistemas planetarios extrasolares. En esta presentación, ilustraremos algunas de las propiedades más importantes del MEGNO, aplic& acute;andolo al potencial tridimensional de Stäckel perturbado.

  9. Exploitation of the results of an extend DInSAR analysis performed since 1992 in the urban area of Roma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsella, Maria; Scifoni, Silvia; Scutti, Marianna; Sonnessa, Alberico; Bonano, Manuela; Ojha, Chandrakanta; Manunta, Michele; Pepe, Antonio; Solaro, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Remote sensing is a key tool for environmental monitoring due to its outstanding capabilities to provide unique and timely information about Earth surface. In this framework, differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) represents nowadays a well-established remote sensing technique for the investigation of surface deformation phenomena. In particular, the advanced DInSAR techniques that have been developed over the last years allow the detection and monitoring of the time evolution of very localized deformation signals affecting single buildings or man-made structures on the ground. In this context, DInSAR technology can play a significant role in monitoring ground settlements affecting single buildings and infrastructural network in urban areas. Recently, the availability of high-resolution SAR images collected by the sensors of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) Cosmo Sky-Med constellation has allowed the generation of DInSAR products with improved spatial and temporal resolution characteristics with respect to previous SAR systems. This enhanced the capabilities of controlling deformation phenomena affecting the historical heritage in large urban areas, such as the town Roma. As a matter of fact, the monitoring of monuments and historical buildings represents a challenging issue for the preservation of historical heritage which is more sensible to factors causing structural deterioration that may lead to severe degrees of damage up to irreversible situations. This work is aimed at investigating the capability improvement of DInSAR technique to map deformation phenomena affecting the urban area of Rome guaranteed by the exploitation of SAR data acquired by the new X-band SAR instruments onboard of the Cosmo-Skymed (CSM) sensors, with respect to that obtained through the first generation C-band ERS/ENVISAT radar systems. To this aim, we have analyzed three different archives of SAR images gathered by the CSM, the ERS and the ENVISAT platforms over the area of Roma (Italy

  10. Analysis of DSGSD using the DInSAR technique and geomorphological studies in central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolomei, C.; Taramelli, A.; Moro, M.; Saroli, M.; Salvi, S.

    2008-12-01

    Considerable enhancement for morphometric interpretation can be obtained through generation of a synthetic stereo pair, by means of the integration of detailed photogeological analysis (Volo Italia 1987-1988) dataset, supported by SPOT images, 20m pixel-size Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and in situ observations. In this research we analyze the overall requirement and use of parameters derived from geomorphic analysis in synergy with DInSAR technique for Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD) topography characterization in the Italy Central Apennine (Umbria-Marche area). The topographic approach employed to derive these insights is not intended for use in site-specific analyses of DSGSD potential but instead identify slopes whose morphology is indicative of deep seated phenomena. Geomorphological evidences from aerial photos and field observations shows large scale gravity driven phenomena (landslides, sackung or rock-flow, lateral spread and block slide), responsible for the landscape evolution of the whole area. The InSAR technique has been applied in order to understand the temporal behaviour and spatial distribution of such deformation. The interferograms show various isolated fringe patterns corresponding to some of the large scale gravitative phenomena previously and indipendently identified through geomorphic analysis. The final results indicate that when incorporated with the DInSAR technique the morphological analysis is useful to supervise the activity of identified DSGSDs in specific landscapes and quantify their surface movement. This research has promoted a structured and integrated approach to DSGSD assessment primarily from a quantitative perspective. The approach can have further positive implications. The application of the suggested methodology to areas characterized by the presence of different DSGSD typology and related to a seismic sequence could also allow to better separate tectonic and gravity contributions from the whole

  11. Advanced Differential Radar Interferometry (A-DInSAR) as integrative tool for a structural geological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, B.; Calcagni, L.; Rossi, G.; Sternai, P.

    2009-04-01

    Advanced Differential SAR interferometry (A-DInSAR) is a technique monitoring large-coverage surface deformations using a stack of interferograms generated from several complex SLC SAR images, acquired over the same target area at different times. In this work are described the results of a procedure to calculate terrain motion velocity on highly correlated pixels (E. Biescas, M. Crosetto, M. Agudo, O. Monserrat e B. Crippa: Two Radar Interferometric Approaches to Monitor Slow and Fast Land Deformation, 2007) in two area Gemona - Friuli, Northern Italy, Pollino - Calabria, Southern Italy, and, furthermore, are presented some consideration, based on successful examples of the present analysis. The choice of these pixels whose displacement velocity is calculated depends on the dispersion index value (DA) or using coherence values along the stack interferograms. A-DInSAR technique allows to obtain highly reliable velocity values of the vertical displacement. These values concern the movement of minimum surfaces of about 80m2 at the maximum resolution and the minimum velocity that can be recognized is of the order of mm/y. Because of the high versatility of the technology, because of the large dimensions of the area that can be analyzed (of about 10000Km2) and because of the high precision and reliability of the results obtained, we think it is possible to exploit radar interferometry to obtain some important information about the structural context of the studied area, otherwise very difficult to recognize. Therefore we propose radar interferometry as a valid investigation tool whose results must be considered as an important integration of the data collected in fieldworks.

  12. X-Ray protective clothing: does DIN 6857-1 allow an objective comparison between lead-free and lead-composite materials?

    PubMed

    Eder, H; Schlattl, Helmut; Hoeschen, C

    2010-05-01

    The validity of DIN 6857-1 to establish lead equivalence for protective clothing is evaluated by Monte Carlo simulations and measurements. Commercially available protective clothing made of lead, lead-free and lead-composite materials has been tested regarding its protective efficacy. The analysis has been performed on the one hand in accordance with the test conditions described in the manufacturing standard DIN EN 61331-3 and on the other hand following the new DIN 6857-1 standard. Additionally, measurements have been carried out under simulated patient conditions by using an Alderson-Rando phantom. Following DIN EN 61331-3, the lead-free protective clothing achieved the required protective efficacy only at a restricted tube-voltage range. The test according to DIN 6857-1 showed that the protective criteria were fulfilled only by one lead-composite apron, but not by the three lead-free aprons examined. Thus, in order to guarantee the same protection as lead between 50 and 120 kV, the conditions of DIN 6857-1 must be fulfilled. A modification of DIN EN 61331-3 to account for secondary radiation is strongly advised in the case of lead-free materials. In summary, most of the protective lead-free aprons in use should be used with care, particularly for examinations with a high dose. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart * New York.

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DinG is a structure-specific helicase that unwinds G4 DNA: implications for targeting G4 DNA as a novel therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Roshan Singh; Desingu, Ambika; Basavaraju, Shivakumar; Subramanya, Shreelakshmi; Rao, Desirazu N; Nagaraju, Ganesh

    2014-09-05

    The significance of G-quadruplexes and the helicases that resolve G4 structures in prokaryotes is poorly understood. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is GC-rich and contains >10,000 sequences that have the potential to form G4 structures. In Escherichia coli, RecQ helicase unwinds G4 structures. However, RecQ is absent in M. tuberculosis, and the helicase that participates in G4 resolution in M. tuberculosis is obscure. Here, we show that M. tuberculosis DinG (MtDinG) exhibits high affinity for ssDNA and ssDNA translocation with a 5' → 3' polarity. Interestingly, MtDinG unwinds overhangs, flap structures, and forked duplexes but fails to unwind linear duplex DNA. Our data with DNase I footprinting provide mechanistic insights and suggest that MtDinG is a 5' → 3' polarity helicase. Notably, in contrast to E. coli DinG, MtDinG catalyzes unwinding of replication fork and Holliday junction structures. Strikingly, we find that MtDinG resolves intermolecular G4 structures. These data suggest that MtDinG is a multifunctional structure-specific helicase that unwinds model structures of DNA replication, repair, and recombination as well as G4 structures. We finally demonstrate that promoter sequences of M. tuberculosis PE_PGRS2, mce1R, and moeB1 genes contain G4 structures, implying that G4 structures may regulate gene expression in M. tuberculosis. We discuss these data and implicate targeting G4 structures and DinG helicase in M. tuberculosis could be a novel therapeutic strategy for culminating the infection with this pathogen.

  14. Dinámica y crecimiento de los granos de polvo en la nebulosa protoplanetaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Fuente Marcos, Carlos

    2001-06-01

    En el escenario estándar de la formación planetaria, los planetesimales (cuerpos de tamaño kilométrico) crecen a partir de granos de polvo, similares a los interestelares, embebidos en un disco gaseoso denominado nebulosa protoplanetaria. Durante esta etapa, los movimientos del gas pueden tener gran influencia en la dinámica y el crecimiento de los granos de polvo, dado que el flujo kepleriano del gas frena el movimiento de los mismos haciendo que caigan hacia el Sol, y la turbulencia inhibe la inestabilidad gravitacional de la capa de polvo. Aunque se acepta que los planetesimales fueron los elementos constituyentes de los planetas, todavía se desconoce cómo se produjo la formación de los mismos. Por esta razón, en los estudios más recientes, existe un renovado interés por comprender mejor la evolución de la capa de polvo inmersa en el disco gaseoso de la Nebulosa. El gas que fluye en el disco puede engendrar estructuras carentes de simetría axial, como por ejemplo ondas espirales y vórtices, a partir de gran variedad de mecanismos de excitación e inestabilidad. En 1995, Barge y Sommeria pusieron de manifiesto que la existencia de vórtices gaseosos persistentes en la nebulosa solar tendría importantes consecuencias sobre la formación de los planetesimales y el posterior crecimiento de los planetas gigantes. La investigación desarrollada en esta Tesis analiza la relación entre el polvo y el gas debida al acoplamiento por fricción dinámica entre ambos; en concreto, se estudia el efecto del flujo medio del gas sobre la dinámica de las partículas de polvo. El primer objetivo es investigar en profundidad los procesos de captura y crecimiento de los granos de polvo dentro de un vórtice y su posible relevancia en cuanto a la formación de los planetesimales. El segundo objetivo es la exploración de los efectos de ondas espirales propagándose en el disco gaseoso sobre la dinámica y el crecimiento de las partículas. La presencia de líneas de

  15. A User-Oriented Methodology for DInSAR Time Series Analysis and Interpretation: Landslides and Subsidence Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notti, Davide; Calò, Fabiana; Cigna, Francesca; Manunta, Michele; Herrera, Gerardo; Berti, Matteo; Meisina, Claudia; Tapete, Deodato; Zucca, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    Recent advances in multi-temporal Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry (DInSAR) have greatly improved our capability to monitor geological processes. Ground motion studies using DInSAR require both the availability of good quality input data and rigorous approaches to exploit the retrieved Time Series (TS) at their full potential. In this work we present a methodology for DInSAR TS analysis, with particular focus on landslides and subsidence phenomena. The proposed methodology consists of three main steps: (1) pre-processing, i.e., assessment of a SAR Dataset Quality Index (SDQI) (2) post-processing, i.e., application of empirical/stochastic methods to improve the TS quality, and (3) trend analysis, i.e., comparative implementation of methodologies for automatic TS analysis. Tests were carried out on TS datasets retrieved from processing of SAR imagery acquired by different radar sensors (i.e., ERS-1/2 SAR, RADARSAT-1, ENVISAT ASAR, ALOS PALSAR, TerraSAR-X, COSMO-SkyMed) using advanced DInSAR techniques (i.e., SqueeSAR™, PSInSAR™, SPN and SBAS). The obtained values of SDQI are discussed against the technical parameters of each data stack (e.g., radar band, number of SAR scenes, temporal coverage, revisiting time), the retrieved coverage of the DInSAR results, and the constraints related to the characterization of the investigated geological processes. Empirical and stochastic approaches were used to demonstrate how the quality of the TS can be improved after the SAR processing, and examples are discussed to mitigate phase unwrapping errors, and remove regional trends, noise and anomalies. Performance assessment of recently developed methods of trend analysis (i.e., PS-Time, Deviation Index and velocity TS) was conducted on two selected study areas in Northern Italy affected by land subsidence and landslides. Results show that the automatic detection of motion trends enhances the interpretation of DInSAR data, since it provides an objective

  16. Spatial and temporal interpolation of DInSAR data at different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessitore, Serena; Fiaschi, Simone; Achilli, Vladimiro; Ahmed, Ahmed; Calcaterra, Domenico; Di Martire, Diego; Guardiola-Albert, Carolina; Meisina, Claudia; Ramondini, Massimo; Floris, Mario

    2015-04-01

    The present study regards the utilization of multi-pass DInSAR algorithms to the ground displacements monitoring at small and large scales. An integration of in situ and DInSAR data to the elaboration of 2D maps of deformation is proposed. A geo-statistical method for "radar-gauge combination" called Ordinary Kriging of Radar Errors (OKRE) has been used. This algorithm uses the punctual values of a primary variable that is represented by measurements of true deformations, whereas radar is comprised as auxiliary information on the spatial distribution (Erdin, 2013). According to this method, is possible to obtain the interpolated map of deformations by subtracting a radar error map from the original interpolated radar map. In particular, the radar error map is carried out by interpolating the differences between radar and in situ data with the OK interpolator. To this aim, in the present work the available standard spirit levelling and GPS data have been used. Moreover, DInSAR data achieved through two different approaches have been taken into account for the spatial analysis and the error map computation at different scales. Specifically, the Persistent Scatterer Technique (PS-InSAR) and the Small BAseline Subset approach (SBAS) have been used to process the ENVISAT SAR images acquired in the period 2002-2010. In the SBAS processing chain, it is possible to activate the Disconnected Blocks tool and perform the SAR data "temporal interpolation". Since the estimation of the results in the processing takes into account the coherence threshold on the input images stack and their connection criteria, only the pixels above the threshold that are fully connected in all the images are solved. By activating the Disconnect Blocks tool, the results are estimated also for those pixels that respect the threshold criteria at least in the 60% of the images even in a not fully connected stack. In this way, the spatial coverage is higher but the reliability of the results is has to

  17. Advanced DInSAR analysis at Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiampo, K. F.; Camacho, A. G.; Fernandez, J.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Samsonov, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    Geodetic data, the spatial and temporal surface expression of complex geophysical processes in the earth, is being acquired today at unprecedented rates and accuracies. Differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) is a satellite remote sensing technique used extensively today for mapping ground deformation with high spatial resolution and sub-centimeter precision over large areas that is particularly useful for volcanic monitoring [Massonnet and Feigl, 1998; Rosen et al., 2000]. Here we apply the advanced Multidimensional Small Baseline Subset (MSBAS) InSAR algorithm [Samsonov and d'Oreye, 2012] to several thousand Envisat and RADARSAT-2 images from 1993-2013 and compute time series of ground deformation over the Naples Bay region of Italy. Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei are located in this area in close proximity to the densely populated city of Naples and, as a result, it is one of the most hazardous volcanic areas in the world. We obtain time series of ground deformation at high spatial and temporal resolution that span, for the first time, twenty years. Campi Flegrei underwent continuous subsidence through 1999. Uplift began in 2005, reaching approximately 13 cm by 2013. We model the observed deformation to determine source parameters for subsidence and uplift epochs [Samsonov et al., 2014]. In addition, a typical DInSAR image can contain significant signals from with several different, nonvolcanic sources. For example, we clearly observe decade-long elevation-dependent seasonal oscillations of the vertical displacement component at Vesuvius that are substantially larger than the long-term deformation rate (<0.6 cm/yr). As a result, we employ an eigenpattern decomposition technique known as Karhunen-Loeve expansion (KLE) analysis in order to identify the unique, finite set of correlated deformation patterns associated with volcanic sources at different depths [Tiampo et al., 2004; Tiampo et al., 2012]. Both the inflation and deflation mechanisms

  18. “We’re Still in a Struggle”: Diné Resilience, Survival, Historical Trauma, and Healing

    PubMed Central

    Goodkind, Jessica R.; Hess, Julia Meredith; Gorman, Beverly; Parker, Danielle P.

    2014-01-01

    As part of a community/university collaborative effort to promote the mental health and well-being of Diné (Navajo) youth, we explored the relevance of addressing historical trauma and current structural stressors and of building on individual and community strengths through healing and social transformation at multiple levels. Qualitative analyses of 74 ethnographic interviews with 37 Diné youth, parents, and grandparents suggested that a focus on historical trauma as a conceptual frame for behavioral health inequities, understood within the context of resilience and survival, is appropriate. Our findings also highlight the salience of current stressors such as poverty and violence exposure. We explore the fit of a historical trauma healing framework and present implications for intervention and transformation through revitalization of traditional knowledge, culturally-based healing practices, intergenerational education, and social change strategies designed to eliminate social inequities. PMID:22707344

  19. Semi-Automated Detection Of Terrain Activity In The Swiss Alpine Periglacial Environment From DInSAR Scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barboux, Chloe; Dalaloye, Reynald; Lambiel, Christophe; Strozzi, Tazio; Raetzo, Hugo; Collet, Claude

    2013-12-01

    This paper proposes a semi-automated method to update inventory of moving slopes. First a Map of Terrain Activity (MTA) is created by partitioning an interferogram, using segmentation and classification processes, into 3 regions: stable areas, coherently moving parts and decorrelated areas (due to motion or not). Then, a Combined-Map of Terrain Activity (C- MTA) is computed describing the general behavior of the terrain at a specific time-lapse. Finally, C-MTA is used to determine the potential change in the activity rate of moving slopes. Tests are performed in a small area using large set of TSX DInSAR scenes from summers 2008 to 2012 in order to update past moving slope inventories produced from ERS DInSAR data.

  20. A general framework and related procedures for multiscale analyses of DInSAR data in subsiding urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peduto, Dario; Cascini, Leonardo; Arena, Livia; Ferlisi, Settimio; Fornaro, Gianfranco; Reale, Diego

    2015-07-01

    In the last decade Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) data were successfully tested in a number of case studies for the detection, mapping and monitoring of ground displacements associated with natural or anthropogenic phenomena. More recently, several national and regional projects all around the world provided rich data archives whose confident use, however, should rely on multidisciplinary experts in order to avoid misleading interpretations. To this aim, the present work first introduces a general framework for the use of DInSAR data; then, focusing on the analysis of subsidence phenomena and the related consequences to the exposed facilities, a set of original procedures is proposed. By drawing a multiscale approach the study highlights the different goals to be pursued at different scales of analysis via high/very high resolution SAR sensors and presents the results with reference to the case study of the Campania region (southern Italy) where widespread ground displacements occurred and damages of different severity were recorded.

  1. Comportamiento dinámico de asteroides en la región 23 < a < 26 UA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López García, F.

    Los Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) pueden ser una fuente de origen de los cometas de corto período. Muchos de los KBOs observados parecen provenir, al igual que el sistema Pluton-Charonte, de órbitas resonantes con Neptuno. Los Centauros son objetos que dinámicamente provienen de órbitas inestables cuyo semieje mayor se encuentra entre las órbitas de Júpiter y Neptuno. Pudiera ser que estos cuerpos fueron expulsados desde la región del cinturón de Kuiper y se encuentran en un proceso de ``scattering" debido a los efectos gravitacionales de los planetas gigantes. Su tiempo de vida dinámico es de algunos millones de años. La evolución orbital de los objetos trans-Neptunianos nos permite conocer su comportamiento anterior, por eso, es importante su relación dinámica con la evolución orbital de Neptuno. El objeto de este trabajo es estudiar el comportamiento dinámico de partículas test que se encuentran entre las resonancias 3:2 con Neptuno y 2:3 con Urano, las cuales comprenden una región de 2 UA aproximadamente. Los primeros resultados indican que la mayoría de los objetos ficticios son eyectados hacia la parte externa del Sistema Solar, mientras que sólo una parte pequeña del total de objetos estudiados, aproximadamente un 7%, son eyectados hacia la parte interna del Sistema Solar, y en algunos casos sus órbitas pueden cruzar la órbita de los planetas terrestres.

  2. A DinB Ortholog Enables Mycobacterial Growth under dTTP-Limiting Conditions Induced by the Expression of a Mycobacteriophage-Derived Ribonucleotide Reductase Gene.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shreya; Samaddar, Sourabh; Kirtania, Prithwiraj; Das Gupta, Sujoy K

    2015-11-02

    Mycobacterium species such as M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis encode at least two translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerases, DinB1 and DinB2, respectively. Although predicted to be linked to DNA repair, their role in vivo remains enigmatic. M. smegmatis mc(2)155, a strain commonly used to investigate mycobacterial genetics, has two copies of dinB2, the gene that codes for DinB2, by virtue of a 56-kb chromosomal duplication. Expression of a mycobacteriophage D29 gene (gene 50) encoding a class II ribonucleotide reductase in M. smegmatis ΔDRKIN, a strain derived from mc(2)155 in which one copy of the duplication is lost, resulted in DNA replication defects and growth inhibition. The inhibitory effect could be linked to the deficiency of dTTP that resulted under these circumstances. The selective inhibition observed in the ΔDRKIN strain was found to be due solely to a reduced dosage of dinB2 in this strain. Mycobacterium bovis, which is closely related to M. tuberculosis, the tuberculosis pathogen, was found to be highly susceptible to gene 50 overexpression. Incidentally, these slow-growing pathogens harbor one copy of dinB2. The results indicate that the induction of a dTTP-limiting state can lead to growth inhibition in mycobacteria, with the effect being maximum in cells deficient in DinB2. Mycobacterium species, such as M. tuberculosis, the tuberculosis pathogen, are known to encode several Y family DNA polymerases, one of which is DinB2, an ortholog of the DNA repair-related protein DinP of Escherichia coli. Although this protein has been biochemically characterized previously and found to be capable of translesion synthesis in vitro, its in vivo function remains unknown. Using a novel method to induce dTTP deficiency in mycobacteria, we demonstrate that DinB2 can aid mycobacterial survival under such conditions. Apart from unraveling a specific role for the mycobacterial Y family DNA polymerase DinB2 for the first time, this study also paves the way for the

  3. [Quality assessment according to DIN EN ISO 9001:2000: certification in a university ENT department].

    PubMed

    Helbig, M; Kahla-Witzsch, H A; Helbig, S; Knecht, R; Gstöttner, W

    2006-12-01

    In 2003, our department inaugurated a quality management system. The certification according to DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 as required by the hospital management was achieved in August 2005. The aims were optimization of internal operating schedules and standardization of procedures according to logistic interfaces with external structures. Since 2000, the implementation of an internal quality management system is required by German law and threatened by penalty in case of non-implementation. Beside a basic audit and optimization of all organizational procedures, all core processes were determined and the approvals checked. These aims involve both the quality of operational procedures, in and outpatient treatment, research, study and teaching and aspects of service such as quickness of scheduling and forwarding of reports as well as economic aspects and efficiency. The department of "quality management", whose main tasks are the professional guidance and the training of the quality management representatives, plays an important role. Realization of the new regulations and restructuring resulted in an increase in effectiveness and an improvement in operational procedures. In particular, patients and staff have benefited from the reorganized and modified sequence of operations. Implementation of a quality management system in different hospital departments is recommended.

  4. Deep seated landslide mapping and sliding mass assessment with DInSAR and UAV model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kuo-Lung; Lin, Jun-Tin; Lin, Meei-Ling; Liao, Ray-Tang; Chen, Chao-Wei; Chi, Chung-Chi

    2017-04-01

    Landslide mapping is simple work in case landslide is sliding and scar appears with optical images. However, it is difficult to reveal the sliding depth and sliding mass from ground surface monitoring. Several deep-seated landslides were investigated in central Taiwan and monitoring systems were installed several years. The sliding depth and sliding mass are defined in these area. A proposed method to define sliding scars and sliding depth from surface deformation observation in this research. Unmanned vehicle produced very high resolution and accuracy digital surface model to help geomorphology identification. SAR images from ALOS, ALOS2, Sentinel-1 and Terra-X are adopted to compare results. DInSAR and SBAS methods are used in this research to discover different landslide details and deformation magnitude. The results shows that ALOS and ALOS2 images are more suitable than other SAR images in this area. This might be owing to the wave length of SAR image, which longer wave length is more suitable for faster landslide and vegetation area.

  5. El nuevo panorama de la Dinámica Galáctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivovaroff, Michael James

    En general, la tendencia imperante en Dinámica Galáctica ha sido considerar que los movimientos estelares son básicamente regulares y que el caos no tiene mayor relevancia en los sistemas estelares. Sin embargo, en el último lustro se vienen acumulando pruebas de la importancia del movimiento caótico en ciertos sistemas estelares que existen en la naturaleza. Por una parte, sobre todo el grupo de David Merritt, lo ha mostrado en los casos de galaxias elípticas con concentraciones centrales de materia; por otra parte, en nuestro propio grupo, lo hemos mostrado para el caso de los satélites galácticos. Las consecuencias de estos hallazgos son tanto de tipo técnico, por la necesidad de construir modelos que contengan órbitas caóticas, como astrofísico, por los efectos del caos sobre la estacionariedad y evolución de los sistemas estelares en los que se presenta.

  6. Development of a prototype electronic alternator for DIN/PACS environment and its evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hwan-Soo; Park, Hyun Wook; Haynor, David R.; Kim, Yongmin

    1990-08-01

    A prototype electronic alternator (EA) has been implemented utilizing an advanced image processing workstation and evaluated for its clinical acceptability as a primary diagnostic workstation. The workstation is based on a PIXAR II image computer and is a node on the University of Washington Digital Imaging Network and Picture Archiving and Communications System (DIN/PACS, hereafter PACS). The goals of this study are to utilize the unique features ofthe workstation (large image memory, a high-speed parallel transfer disk (PTD), and a 2560 x 2048 high-resolution image monitor) to demonstrate the feasibility of a limited model of the EA as a primary diagnostic workstation in the PACS environment, to evaluate its capability in image viewing and diagnosis, and to assess the feasibility of an icon-based user interface to select and rearrange images on the monitor. In this paper, various characteristics of the prototype EA such as image display and processing performance, image storage capacity, and functional specification as well as the results of a clinical evaluation are presented. The main emphasis of the clinical evaluation was on system speed, image quality, and user preference for an icon-based user interface.

  7. [Oswald Bumke in Leipzig. Beyond Kraepelin, Freud and Rüdin's Entartungslehre].

    PubMed

    Steinberg, H

    2008-03-01

    Oswald Bumke is a central figure in twentieth-century German psychiatry, having had a considerable influence on its development as one of its best-known representatives. His time in Leipzig from 1921 to 1924 and subsequently in Munich up to the mid-1930s saw the second major phase in his scientific work, during which he laid the basis for the renown he still enjoys as a result of his specialist encyclopaedic textbooks and manuals summarising the current knowledge of his time. At the beginning of the 1920s he made his stand on the burning issues of the day and thus influenced the conceptional history of the subject. For instance, he proposed his own philosophical psychology, rejecting the experimental psychological approach of Emil Kraepelin. By challenging the libido theory and the dynamic unconscious he weakened the impact of Sigmund Freud and psychoanalysis on German scientific psychiatry. Moreover, Bumke strongly opposed the prevailing concept of degeneration and its main protagonist Ernst Rüdin. Owing to the political and social developments at the time, however, he was not able to raise much support among his colleagues.

  8. [Certification of an RIA laboratory according to DIN EN ISO 9001-2000].

    PubMed

    Moser, E; Markowetz, D; Schächtele, S

    2002-06-01

    The university hospital Freiburg intends to establish step by step a total quality management system (TQMS) in all facilities with an external certification as its final aim. This has been reached already in the central laboratory. Therefore, it is effective for the department of nuclear medicine to do the same for its own lab specialized in thyroid hormones. The TQMS has been built up within six months on the basis of DIN EN ISO 9001:2000. This internationally accepted standard is of uttermost economical importance for an institution situated near the French and Swiss border. This review describes the procedure in detail. Responsible for the effort were the engagement of the coworkers in the lab as well as an adequate choice of the external adviser and the authority for certification. The procedure is formalized to a high degree and much understanding for analytic thinking and systematization is needed. Now it remains to be seen, if the desired effect (increased understanding for quality within the department, more efficient performance of the lab, better acceptance by the clients) will arise.

  9. SOS-Independent Induction of dinB Transcription by β-Lactam-Mediated Inhibition of Cell Wall Synthesis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Capilla, Tatiana; Baquero, María-Rosario; Gómez-Gómez, José-María; Ionel, Alina; Martín, Soledad; Blázquez, Jesús

    2005-01-01

    Transcription of the dinB gene, encoding DNA polymerase IV, is induced by the inhibition of cell wall synthesis at different levels. Using the β-lactam antibiotic ceftazidime, a PBP3 inhibitor, as a model, we have shown that this induction is independent of the LexA/RecA regulatory system. Induction of dinB transcription mediated by ceftazidime produces an increase in the reversion of a +1 Lac frameshift mutation. PMID:15687217

  10. Living in Health, Harmony, and Beauty: The Diné (Navajo) Hózhó Wellness Philosophy

    PubMed Central

    Koithan, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Hózhó is the complex wellness philosophy and belief system of the Diné (Navajo) people, comprised of principles that guide one's thoughts, actions, behaviors, and speech. The alignment of integrative nursing principles and the Hózhó Wellness Philosophy illustrates the power that integrative nursing offers as a meta-theoretical perspective that can transform our healthcare system so that it is inclusive and responsive to the needs of our varied populations. Integrative nursing offers the opportunity to re-introduce cultural wellness wisdom, such as Hózhó, as a means to improve whole-person/whole-systems wellbeing and resilience. Integrative nursing, through the acceptance and validation of indigenous health-sustaining wisdom, contributes to the delivery of effective, authentic, culturally tailored, whole-person/whole-system, patient-centered, relationship-based healthcare. Highlighting the Diné Hózhó philosophy re-introduces this philosophy to the Diné, other American Indian/Alaska Native nations, global indigenous cultures, and even nonindigenous people of the world as a means to promote and sustain global health and wellbeing. PMID:25984415

  11. Comparison of daptomycin MIC results by DIN, NCCLS, SFM, and SRGA methods for 297 Gram-positive organisms.

    PubMed

    Koeth, Laura M; Leclercq, Roland; Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro

    2004-01-01

    Daptomycin is a novel lipopeptide antibiotic with potent in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-positive pathogens. For daptomycin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing, National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) recommends the use of broth containing physiological levels of calcium (50 microg/ml). The daptomycin susceptibility of 297 organisms was determined by NCCLS (Mueller-Hinton (MH) broth), Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN; isotonic broth), Société Française de Microbiologie (SFM; three batches MH agar), and Swedish Reference Group for Antibiotics (SRGA; PDM agar). All media were supplemented to 50 microg/ml Ca(2+). There was good correlation between DIN and SFM methods (for staphylococci) with NCCLS results. Enterococci MICs using SFM methods were one to three dilutions lower and pneumococci results were one dilution higher than NCCLS. SRGA results were higher than NCCLS by one to four dilutions. Use of isotonic agar is an accepted alternative to isosensitest agar for the DIN method.

  12. Living in health, harmony, and beauty: the diné (navajo) hózhó wellness philosophy.

    PubMed

    Kahn-John Diné, Michelle; Koithan, Mary

    2015-05-01

    Hózhó is the complex wellness philosophy and belief system of the Diné (Navajo) people, comprised of principles that guide one's thoughts, actions, behaviors, and speech. The alignment of integrative nursing principles and the Hózhó Wellness Philosophy illustrates the power that integrative nursing offers as a meta-theoretical perspective that can transform our healthcare system so that it is inclusive and responsive to the needs of our varied populations. Integrative nursing offers the opportunity to re-introduce cultural wellness wisdom, such as Hózhó, as a means to improve whole-person/whole-systems wellbeing and resilience. Integrative nursing, through the acceptance and validation of indigenous health-sustaining wisdom, contributes to the delivery of effective, authentic, culturally tailored, whole-person/whole-system, patient-centered, relationship-based healthcare. Highlighting the Diné Hózhó philosophy re-introduces this philosophy to the Diné, other American Indian/Alaska Native nations, global indigenous cultures, and even nonindigenous people of the world as a means to promote and sustain global health and wellbeing.

  13. 3DinSight: an integrated relational database and search tool for the structure, function and properties of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    An, J; Nakama, T; Kubota, Y; Sarai, A

    1998-01-01

    Although a large amount of information on the structure, function and properties of biomolecules is becoming available, it is difficult to understand the relationship between them. Thus, we have attempted to create an integrated relational database, search and visualization tool, 3DinSight, to help researchers to gain insight into their relationship. We have gathered data on the structure, function and properties of biomolecules, and implemented them into a relational database system. The structural data contain several subset data such as protein homologues, protein-DNA complex, in order to enable searching within a specific class of data. The functional data include motif sequence and mutation data of proteins. Also, various amino acid properties are implemented as a relational table. The World Wide Web (WWW) interfaces enable users to carry out various kinds of searches among these data. The locations of motif sequences and mutations are automatically mapped on the structure, and visualized in three-dimensional (3D) space by interactive viewers, VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) and RasMol. In the case of VRML, the mapped 3D objects are hyper-linked to the corresponding document data. Also, amino acid properties, linked with structure, functional and mutation sites, can be displayed as graph plots. 3DinSight is freely accessible through the Internet (http://www.rtc.riken.go.jp/3DinSight.h tml). sarai@rtc.riken.go.jp

  14. Ground deformation monitoring using RADARSAT-2 DInSAR-MSBAS at the Aquistore CO2 storage site in Saskatchewan (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnogorska, M.; Samsonov, S.; White, D.

    2014-11-01

    The research objectives of the Aquistore CO2 storage project are to design, adapt, and test non-seismic monitoring methods for measurement, and verification of CO2 storage, and to integrate data to determine subsurface fluid distributions, pressure changes and associated surface deformation. Aquistore site is located near Estevan in Southern Saskatchewan on the South flank of the Souris River and west of the Boundary Dam Power Station and the historical part of Estevan coal mine in southeastern Saskatchewan, Canada. Several monitoring techniques were employed in the study area including advanced satellite Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) technique, GPS, tiltmeters and piezometers. The targeted CO2 injection zones are within the Winnipeg and Deadwood formations located at > 3000 m depth. An array of monitoring techniques was employed in the study area including advanced satellite Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) with established corner reflectors, GPS, tiltmeters and piezometers stations. We used airborne LIDAR data for topographic phase estimation, and DInSAR product geocoding. Ground deformation maps have been calculated using Multidimensional Small Baseline Subset (MSBAS) methodology from 134 RADARSAT-2 images, from five different beams, acquired during 20120612-20140706. We computed and interpreted nine time series for selected places. MSBAS results indicate slow ground deformation up to 1 cm/year not related to CO2 injection but caused by various natural and anthropogenic causes.

  15. Fully exploitation of SBAS-DInSAR deformation time series for assessing structural damage: the case study of Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonano, Manuela; Arangio, Stefania; Calò, Fabiana; Di Mauro, Maria; Marsella, Maria; Manunta, Michele

    2014-05-01

    Remote sensing techniques have demonstrated to be effective tools to support natural and man-made risk mitigation activities. Among these, the Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry (DInSAR) technology is largely exploited in geoscience, oil and gas extraction, and landslide fields. Recently, thanks to the large availability of high resolution SAR systems (10 m or less), as well as to the development of advanced data processing techniques, DInSAR products have also started to be effectively used for applications in urban areas to detect localized displacements affecting single buildings and infrastructures. The advanced DInSAR technique referred to as Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) (Lanari et al., 2004) allows us to generate very long deformation time series, by exploiting large SAR datasets spanning up to 20 years (Bonano et al., 2012). Thanks to its capability to investigate wide areas, the SBAS-DInSAR technique is particularly suitable to remotely analyse the structural conditions of buildings located in densely urbanized zones. In this work, we fully exploit the results achieved over the city of Rome, Italy, through the well-established SBAS-DInSAR approach, aimed at performing a quantitative assessment of structural damage in urban areas affected by ground deformation (Arangio et al., 2013). More in details, we present an innovative methodology that integrates the SBAS-DInSAR measurements within an existing model, in order to assess the damage, and possibly estimate the future structural conditions, of single buildings affected by significant foundation settlements. In particular, a semi-empirical approach, based on a laminated beam model (Finno et al., 2005), is applied to investigate the damage of buildings located in the southern part of the city. The obtained results are in substantial agreement with in situ surveys, proving that the presented approach is an effective tool for the preliminary evaluation of the structural conditions in

  16. Ground deformation tracking over Mt. Baekdu with DInSAR time series analysis and atmospheric correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, S.; Kim, J.; Lin, S.; yun, H.; Seo, H.; Choi, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Mt. Baekdu (also known as Changbai in Chinese) is a volcanic mountain located on the border between North Korea and China. It made one of the most destructive eruptions in the recorded history around 1000 A.D. This eruption was estimated to produce explosive Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) 7 eruption (Yin et al., 2012) which was comparable to Mt. Tambora's eruption. Since making minor eruption in 1702 A.D. as clearly stated in the Korean history, the Mt. Baekdu has been dormant. With continuous monitoring over Mt. Baekdu (Xu et al., 2012), it is evident that the frequencies of earthquakes and gas emission were increasing. The results showed important precursors of volcanic activation, including: (1) Strong seismic activities especially from 2002 to 2006; (2) Abnormal gas emissions in three hot springs around the summit from 2002 to 2006; (3) Strong vertical uplift during 2002 to 2005 and horizontal displacement away from Caldera Lake observed using GPS data; (4) A number of abnormal thermal activities in hot springs; (5) Surface deflation indicating new magma activities at the western and northern slopes from 2009. Therefore, it is realized that periodic magma activities are underway beneath Mt. Baekdu from the ground observations. In addition to such short-term campaigns applied on discrete observation stations, a comprehensive monitoring covering overall extent of Mt. Baekdu was further proposed. The Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) technique employing a series of remote sensed SAR phase angle difference was applied to address the difficulty for direct access to the border area due to political situation in this study. In order to deal with the harsh environmental conditions which might limit a successful D-InSAR processing over Mt. Baekdu, e.g. water vapor, vegetation canopy and steep slope around summit, StaMPS/MTI (Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers/Multi-Temporal InSAR) approach for detecting time series deformation

  17. DNA Polymerases ImuC and DinB Are Involved in DNA Alkylation Damage Tolerance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Jatsenko, Tatjana; Sidorenko, Julia; Saumaa, Signe; Kivisaar, Maia

    2017-01-01

    Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), facilitated by low-fidelity polymerases, is an important DNA damage tolerance mechanism. Here, we investigated the role and biological function of TLS polymerase ImuC (former DnaE2), generally present in bacteria lacking DNA polymerase V, and TLS polymerase DinB in response to DNA alkylation damage in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. putida. We found that TLS DNA polymerases ImuC and DinB ensured a protective role against N- and O-methylation induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in both P. aeruginosa and P. putida. DinB also appeared to be important for the survival of P. aeruginosa and rapidly growing P. putida cells in the presence of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). The role of ImuC in protection against MMS-induced damage was uncovered under DinB-deficient conditions. Apart from this, both ImuC and DinB were critical for the survival of bacteria with impaired base excision repair (BER) functions upon alkylation damage, lacking DNA glycosylases AlkA and/or Tag. Here, the increased sensitivity of imuCdinB double deficient strains in comparison to single mutants suggested that the specificity of alkylated DNA lesion bypass of DinB and ImuC might also be different. Moreover, our results demonstrated that mutagenesis induced by MMS in pseudomonads was largely ImuC-dependent. Unexpectedly, we discovered that the growth temperature of bacteria affected the efficiency of DinB and ImuC in ensuring cell survival upon alkylation damage. Taken together, the results of our study disclosed the involvement of ImuC in DNA alkylation damage tolerance, especially at low temperatures, and its possible contribution to the adaptation of pseudomonads upon DNA alkylation damage via increased mutagenesis. PMID:28118378

  18. DNA Polymerases ImuC and DinB Are Involved in DNA Alkylation Damage Tolerance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Jatsenko, Tatjana; Sidorenko, Julia; Saumaa, Signe; Kivisaar, Maia

    2017-01-01

    Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), facilitated by low-fidelity polymerases, is an important DNA damage tolerance mechanism. Here, we investigated the role and biological function of TLS polymerase ImuC (former DnaE2), generally present in bacteria lacking DNA polymerase V, and TLS polymerase DinB in response to DNA alkylation damage in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. putida. We found that TLS DNA polymerases ImuC and DinB ensured a protective role against N- and O-methylation induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in both P. aeruginosa and P. putida. DinB also appeared to be important for the survival of P. aeruginosa and rapidly growing P. putida cells in the presence of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). The role of ImuC in protection against MMS-induced damage was uncovered under DinB-deficient conditions. Apart from this, both ImuC and DinB were critical for the survival of bacteria with impaired base excision repair (BER) functions upon alkylation damage, lacking DNA glycosylases AlkA and/or Tag. Here, the increased sensitivity of imuCdinB double deficient strains in comparison to single mutants suggested that the specificity of alkylated DNA lesion bypass of DinB and ImuC might also be different. Moreover, our results demonstrated that mutagenesis induced by MMS in pseudomonads was largely ImuC-dependent. Unexpectedly, we discovered that the growth temperature of bacteria affected the efficiency of DinB and ImuC in ensuring cell survival upon alkylation damage. Taken together, the results of our study disclosed the involvement of ImuC in DNA alkylation damage tolerance, especially at low temperatures, and its possible contribution to the adaptation of pseudomonads upon DNA alkylation damage via increased mutagenesis.

  19. Unsupervised SBAS-DInSAR Processing of Space-borne SAR data for Earth Surface Displacement Time Series Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casu, F.; de Luca, C.; Lanari, R.; Manunta, M.; Zinno, I.

    2016-12-01

    During the last 25 years, the Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) has played an important role for understanding the Earth's surface deformation and its dynamics. In particular, the large collections of SAR data acquired by a number of space-borne missions (ERS, ENVISAT, ALOS, RADARSAT, TerraSAR-X, COSMO-SkyMed) have pushed toward the development of advanced DInSAR techniques for monitoring the temporal evolution of the ground displacements with an high spatial density. Moreover, the advent of the Copernicus Sentinel-1 (S1) constellation is providing a further increase in the SAR data flow available to the Earth science community, due to its characteristics of global coverage strategy and free and open access data policy. Therefore, managing and storing such a huge amount of data, processing it in an effcient way and maximizing the available archives exploitation are becoming high priority issues. In this work we present some recent advances in the DInSAR field for dealing with the effective exploitation of the present and future SAR data archives. In particular, an efficient parallel SBAS implementation (namely P-SBAS) that takes benefit from high performance computing is proposed. Then, the P-SBAS migration to the emerging Cloud Computing paradigm is shown, together with extensive tests carried out in the Amazon's Elastic Cloud Compute (EC2) infrastructure. Finally, the integration of the P-SBAS processing chain within the ESA Geohazards Exploitation Platform (GEP), for setting up operational on-demand and systematic web tools, open to every user, aimed at automatically processing stacks of SAR data for the generation of SBAS displacement time series, is also illustrated. A number of experimental results obtained by using the ERS, ENVISAT and S1 data in areas characterized by volcanic, seismic and anthropogenic phenomena will be shown. This work is partially supported by: the DPC-CNR agreement, the EPOS-IP project and the ESA GEP project.

  20. Accuracy improvement of the ice flow rate measurements on Antarctic ice sheet by DInSAR method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiramizu, Kaoru; Doi, Koichiro; Aoyama, Yuichi

    2015-04-01

    DInSAR (Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) is an effective tool to measure the flow rate of slow flowing ice streams on Antarctic ice sheet with high resolution. In the flow rate measurement by DInSAR method, we use Digital Elevation Model (DEM) at two times in the estimating process. At first, we use it to remove topographic fringes from InSAR images. And then, it is used to project obtained displacements along Line-Of-Sight (LOS) direction to the actual flow direction. ASTER-GDEM widely-used for InSAR prosessing of the data of polar region has a lot of errors especially in the inland ice sheet area. Thus the errors yield irregular flow rates and directions. Therefore, quality of DEM has a substantial influence on the ice flow rate measurement. In this study, we created a new DEM (resolution 10m; hereinafter referred to as PRISM-DEM) based on ALOS/PRISM images, and compared PRISM-DEM and ASTER-GDEM. The study area is around Skallen, 90km south from Syowa Station, in the southern part of Sôya Coast, East Antarctica. For making DInSAR images, we used ALOS/PALSAR data of 13 pairs (Path633, Row 571-572), observed during the period from November 23, 2007 through January 16, 2011. PRISM-DEM covering the PALSAR scene was created from nadir and backward view images of ALOS/PRISM (Observation date: 2009/1/18) by applying stereo processing with a digital mapping equipment, and then the automatically created a primary DEM was corrected manually to make a final DEM. The number of irregular values of actual ice flow rate was reduced by applying PRISM-DEM compared with that by applying ASTER-GDEM. Additionally, an averaged displacement of approximately 0.5cm was obtained by applying PRISM-DEM over outcrop area, where no crustal displacement considered to occur during the recurrence period of ALOS/PALSAR (46days), while an averaged displacement of approximately 1.65 cm was observed by applying ASTER-GDEM. Since displacements over outcrop area are considered

  1. How operational Advanced-DInSAR Analysis can improve knowledge on natural and anthropogenic deformations for Nuclear Power Plant areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollrath, Andreas; Zucca, Francesco; Stramondo, Salvatore; Bignami, Christian; Roeder, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    The application of Advanced Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (A-DINSAR) techniques has strongly emerged in the last two decades and became an important part in georelated fields. State-of-the-art A-DInSAR methods, such as Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) or the Small BASeline (SBAS) approach have demonstrated their usefulness in monitoring urban areas and single buildings, up to critical infrastructures. Combined with additional data from GPS networks or levelling, it could prove its large potential for an operational, cost-effective mapping of surface deformations. Given a reasonable amount of images, changes in surface deformation can be detected down to 1 mm/y. Compared to point-wise field measurements it offers a spatially consistent mapping approach from local to regional scales. In this review we want to provide a synopsis how A-DInSAR can be utilized in the framework of Nuclear Power Plant safety. Indeed, A-DInSAR is able to provide a detailed spatial analysis of slow movements occurring at NPP structures directly, as well as within the surrounding areas of the NPPs. Different phenomena of surface motion can be subject of such a monitoring. Natural causes, like active tectonics and terrain instability of slope which lead to landslides, as well as human-induced subsidence phenomena due to heavy construction or water pumping can be detected. We start by presenting techniques to determine the feasibility of the analysis for a given area and show its limitations. Then we propose a short insight into state-of-the-art studies where landslides, interseismic and human-induced deformation of the surface were mapped by A-DInSAR, to point out the relevance of a consequent analysis over an area of a NPP. Furthermore we present results of case studies from international projects (TERRAFIRMA) as well as preliminary results from the Krsko NPP in Slovenia. Finally, we provide a outlook into present and future trends concerning the use of freely

  2. Quality management in a radiological practice: experiences with a certification for DIN EN ISO 9001:2000.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Michael; Vogg, Ingrid; Hosten, Norbert; Flessa, Steffen

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes the introduction of a total quality management system in a radiological practice. Certification was based on DIN EN ISO 9001:2000. The implementation of the quality management system had to overcome a number of barriers, for instance, legal obligations of a partnership association, leadership problems, and the fear to loose all hindered implementation. The knowledge of these barriers induces a faster and cheaper implementation of a quality management system in a radiological practice as a foundation of improved quality and competitiveness.

  3. Characterization of stress-responsive behavior in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO: isolation of Tn3-lacZYA fusions with novel damage-inducible (din) promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Warner-Bartnicki, A L; Miller, R V

    1992-01-01

    Although the pervasive soil and water microorganism Pseudomonas aeruginosa demonstrates heightened sensitivity to UV radiation, this species possesses a recA gene that, based on structural and functional properties, could mediate a DNA damage-responsive regulon similar to the SOS regulon of Escherichia coli. To determine whether P. aeruginosa encodes such stress-inducible genes, the response of P. aeruginosa to DNA-damaging agents including far-UV radiation (UVC) and the quinolone antimicrobial agent norfloxacin was investigated by monitoring the expression of fusions linking P. aeruginosa promoters to a beta-galactosidase reporter gene. These fusions were obtained by Tn3-HoHoI insertional mutagenesis of a P. aeruginosa genomic library. Eight different damage-inducible (din) gene fusions were isolated which lack homology to the P. aeruginosa recA gene. Expression of the three gene fusions studied, dinA::lacZYA, dinB::lacZYA, and dinC::lacZYA, increased following UVC and quinolone exposure but not following heat shock. Similar to E. coli SOS genes, the din genes were induced to different extents and with dissimilar kinetics following UVC irradiation. PMID:1312530

  4. Characterization of stress-responsive behavior in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO: isolation of Tn3-lacZYA fusions with novel damage-inducible (din) promoters.

    PubMed

    Warner-Bartnicki, A L; Miller, R V

    1992-03-01

    Although the pervasive soil and water microorganism Pseudomonas aeruginosa demonstrates heightened sensitivity to UV radiation, this species possesses a recA gene that, based on structural and functional properties, could mediate a DNA damage-responsive regulon similar to the SOS regulon of Escherichia coli. To determine whether P. aeruginosa encodes such stress-inducible genes, the response of P. aeruginosa to DNA-damaging agents including far-UV radiation (UVC) and the quinolone antimicrobial agent norfloxacin was investigated by monitoring the expression of fusions linking P. aeruginosa promoters to a beta-galactosidase reporter gene. These fusions were obtained by Tn3-HoHoI insertional mutagenesis of a P. aeruginosa genomic library. Eight different damage-inducible (din) gene fusions were isolated which lack homology to the P. aeruginosa recA gene. Expression of the three gene fusions studied, dinA::lacZYA, dinB::lacZYA, and dinC::lacZYA, increased following UVC and quinolone exposure but not following heat shock. Similar to E. coli SOS genes, the din genes were induced to different extents and with dissimilar kinetics following UVC irradiation.

  5. [Establishing a quality management system according to DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 in an academic radiological department].

    PubMed

    Adam, G; Lorenzen, J; Krupski, G; Schackmann, R; Steiner, P; Reuter, H; Paschen, U

    2003-02-01

    Establishing a quality management (QM) system according the guidelines of DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 in an academic radiological department. To fulfill the requirements of an academic radiological department a quality management system according the guidelines of DIN EN ISO 9001 : 2000 has been established within one year. All important educational, research and patient care issues have been discussed in plenary sessions of all employees of the department twice a week. All core processes of the department have been documented as process instructions and standard operation procedures. Supported by the staff unit "quality assurance" of the university hospital, the QM system has been established during one year. Assisted by all parties of the department, obliging regulations have been established which are well accepted in the daily routine clinical work but also in research and education. The implementation of the QM system caused an additional work load. However, spreading the work load by a consequent responsibility assignment, it could be reduced effectively. The implementation of a QM system within the daily routine work of an academic radiological department is feasible. It allows the installation of generally accepted rules which regulate the principal tasks of research and education, and patient care.

  6. Ground deformation monitoring using small baseline DInSAR technique: A case study in Taiyuan City from 2003 to 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, H.-A.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Chen, X.-Y.; Lu, T.; Du, J.; Sun, Z.-H.; Sun, G.-T.

    2011-01-01

    DInSAR technique based on time series of SAR images has been very popular to monitor ground stow deformation in recent years such as permanent scatterers (PS) method small baseline subsets (SBAS) method and coherent targets (CT) method. By taking advantage of PS method and CT method in this paper small baseline DTnSAR technique is used to investigate the ground deformation of Taiyuan City Shanxi Province from 2003 to 2009 by using 23 ENVISAT ASAR images. The experiment results demonstrate that: (1) during this period four significant subsidence centers have been developed in Taiyuan namely Xiayuan Wujiabu Xiaodian Sunjiazhai. The largest subsidence center is Sunjiazhai with an average subsidence rate of -77. 28 mm/a; (2) The subsidence of the old center Wanbolin has sHowed down. And the subsidence in the northern region has stopped and some areas even rebounded. (3) The change of subsidence centers indicates that the control measures of "closing wells and reducing exploitation" taken by the Taiyuan government has achieved initial effects. (4) The experiment results have been validated with leveling data and the acouracy is 2. 90 mm which shows that the small baseline DInSAR technique can be used to monitor urban ground deformation.

  7. Fernandina Volcano (Galápagos) ground deformation modeling via multi-orbits DInSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Novellis, Vincenzo; Pepe, Susi; Castaldo, Raffaele; De Luca, Claudio; Casu, Francesco; Tizzani, Pietro; Sansosti, Eugenio

    2015-04-01

    We study the temporal and spatial ground deformation at Fernandina Volcano (Galápagos) between 2004 and 2013, by using two different DInSAR data set, acquired by ENVISAT C-Band satellite and COSMO-SkyMed X-Band constellation, respectively; we use both ascending and descending orbits for each system. To this purpose, we use the SBAS-DInSAR approach and combine ascending and descending time series to produce vertical and E-W components of the mean deformation velocity and associated deformation time series. More specifically, the long-term components analysis, carried out by using the ENVISAT sensor, revealed a broad uplift phenomenon of about 4 cm on the SE slope of the volcano; similarly, a large subsidence with maximum vertical displacement of about 2 cm on NE flank, is found. For what concern the horizontal components, the performed analysis showed a westward displacement of the southeast flank of the island. The most relevant aspect, which arises from the analysis of the DInSAR vertical eformation time series, is a strong, high rate subsidence phenomenon, that followed the 2009 eruptive event. This tendency is localized in the region around the caldera rim where the circumferential structures border the summit caldera. The multi-orbits X-Band data processing showed a new uplift phenomenon: between March 2012 and July 2013 the vertical component is characterized by a radially symmetric deformation pattern with a maximum uplift of about 20 cm strongly concentrated inside the caldera rim. This symmetry is also observed in the E-W horizontal mean velocity map, showing a maximum displacement of about 12 cm towards East for the SE flank, and 12 cm towards West for the NW flank of the volcano. In particular, the deformation time series show a rather linear uplift trend from March to September 2012, interrupted by a low deformation rate interval lasting until January 2013. After this stage, the deformation shows again a linear behaviour with an increased uplift rate

  8. Din7 and Mhr1 expression levels regulate double-strand-break-induced replication and recombination of mtDNA at ori5 in yeast.

    PubMed

    Ling, Feng; Hori, Akiko; Yoshitani, Ayako; Niu, Rong; Yoshida, Minoru; Shibata, Takehiko

    2013-06-01

    The Ntg1 and Mhr1 proteins initiate rolling-circle mitochondrial (mt) DNA replication to achieve homoplasmy, and they also induce homologous recombination to maintain mitochondrial genome integrity. Although replication and recombination profoundly influence mitochondrial inheritance, the regulatory mechanisms that determine the choice between these pathways remain unknown. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, double-strand breaks (DSBs) introduced by Ntg1 at the mitochondrial replication origin ori5 induce homologous DNA pairing by Mhr1, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) enhance production of DSBs. Here, we show that a mitochondrial nuclease encoded by the nuclear gene DIN7 (DNA damage inducible gene) has 5'-exodeoxyribonuclease activity. Using a small ρ(-) mtDNA bearing ori5 (hypersuppressive; HS) as a model mtDNA, we revealed that DIN7 is required for ROS-enhanced mtDNA replication and recombination that are both induced at ori5. Din7 overproduction enhanced Mhr1-dependent mtDNA replication and increased the number of residual DSBs at ori5 in HS-ρ(-) cells and increased deletion mutagenesis at the ori5 region in ρ(+) cells. However, simultaneous overproduction of Mhr1 suppressed all of these phenotypes and enhanced homologous recombination. Our results suggest that after homologous pairing, the relative activity levels of Din7 and Mhr1 modulate the preference for replication versus homologous recombination to repair DSBs at ori5.

  9. The Comparative Study of Morals and Democracy and Their Effect on the Behavioral Reflections of Khawaja Nasir Al-Din Tusi and John Dewey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirzaei, Khalil; Golestani, Sayyed Hashem; Vaezi, Sayyed Hossain

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at comparatively analyzing morals and democracy from John Dewey and Khawaja Nasir al-Din Tusi's viewpoint. It also sought the effect of the two philosophers' viewpoint about morals and democracy and behavioral reflections. The purpose of this study was also to become familiar with the effect of morals and democracy on…

  10. Din7 and Mhr1 expression levels regulate double-strand-break–induced replication and recombination of mtDNA at ori5 in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Feng; Hori, Akiko; Yoshitani, Ayako; Niu, Rong; Yoshida, Minoru; Shibata, Takehiko

    2013-01-01

    The Ntg1 and Mhr1 proteins initiate rolling-circle mitochondrial (mt) DNA replication to achieve homoplasmy, and they also induce homologous recombination to maintain mitochondrial genome integrity. Although replication and recombination profoundly influence mitochondrial inheritance, the regulatory mechanisms that determine the choice between these pathways remain unknown. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, double-strand breaks (DSBs) introduced by Ntg1 at the mitochondrial replication origin ori5 induce homologous DNA pairing by Mhr1, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) enhance production of DSBs. Here, we show that a mitochondrial nuclease encoded by the nuclear gene DIN7 (DNA damage inducible gene) has 5′-exodeoxyribonuclease activity. Using a small ρ− mtDNA bearing ori5 (hypersuppressive; HS) as a model mtDNA, we revealed that DIN7 is required for ROS-enhanced mtDNA replication and recombination that are both induced at ori5. Din7 overproduction enhanced Mhr1-dependent mtDNA replication and increased the number of residual DSBs at ori5 in HS-ρ− cells and increased deletion mutagenesis at the ori5 region in ρ+ cells. However, simultaneous overproduction of Mhr1 suppressed all of these phenotypes and enhanced homologous recombination. Our results suggest that after homologous pairing, the relative activity levels of Din7 and Mhr1 modulate the preference for replication versus homologous recombination to repair DSBs at ori5. PMID:23598996

  11. Ernst Rüdin's Unpublished 1922-1925 Study "Inheritance of Manic-Depressive Insanity": Genetic Research Findings Subordinated to Eugenic Ideology.

    PubMed

    Kösters, Gundula; Steinberg, Holger; Kirkby, Kenneth Clifford; Himmerich, Hubertus

    2015-11-01

    In the early 20th century, there were few therapeutic options for mental illness and asylum numbers were rising. This pessimistic outlook favoured the rise of the eugenics movement. Heredity was assumed to be the principal cause of mental illness. Politicians, scientists and clinicians in North America and Europe called for compulsory sterilisation of the mentally ill. Psychiatric genetic research aimed to prove a Mendelian mode of inheritance as a scientific justification for these measures. Ernst Rüdin's seminal 1916 epidemiological study on inheritance of dementia praecox featured large, systematically ascertained samples and statistical analyses. Rüdin's 1922-1925 study on the inheritance of "manic-depressive insanity" was completed in manuscript form, but never published. It failed to prove a pattern of Mendelian inheritance, counter to the tenets of eugenics of which Rüdin was a prominent proponent. It appears he withheld the study from publication, unable to reconcile this contradiction, thus subordinating his carefully derived scientific findings to his ideological preoccupations. Instead, Rüdin continued to promote prevention of assumed hereditary mental illnesses by prohibition of marriage or sterilisation and was influential in the introduction by the National Socialist regime of the 1933 "Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring" (Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses).

  12. Two Decades of Multi-Sensor Subsidence Monitoring over Ebro Delta Using Coherence-Based DInSAR Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipia, Luca; Perez, Fernando; Marturia, Jordi; Corbera, Jordi; Jornet, Lluis; Rovira, Albert

    2016-08-01

    This work presents the historical study of the subsidence phenomenon over the Ebro Delta plain carried out as WPB6 in the frame of Ebro-ADMICLIM LIFE project, using coherence-based differential interferometric SAR techniques (DInSAR). To this end, the whole SAR archive available at ESA over the area of interest (AOI) at C-Band and L-Band has been analyzed. The results provided by each stack term of absolute deformation and deformation-rate maps are first shown. Then, a space-time filtering method to take advantage of the redundant information provided by ERS and ENVISAT data is put forward. C-band and L-band retrievals are then compared, and future monitoring activity based on Sentinel-1 imaging is discussed.

  13. The Parallel SBAS-DInSAR algorithm: an effective and scalable tool for Earth's surface displacement retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinno, Ivana; De Luca, Claudio; Elefante, Stefano; Imperatore, Pasquale; Manunta, Michele; Casu, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) is an effective technique to estimate and monitor ground displacements with centimetre accuracy [1]. In the last decade, advanced DInSAR algorithms, such as the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) [2] one that is aimed at following the temporal evolution of the ground deformation, showed to be significantly useful remote sensing tools for the geoscience communities as well as for those related to hazard monitoring and risk mitigation. DInSAR scenario is currently characterized by the large and steady increasing availability of huge SAR data archives that have a broad range of diversified features according to the characteristics of the employed sensor. Indeed, besides the old generation sensors, that include ERS, ENVISAT and RADARSAT systems, the new X-band generation constellations, such as COSMO-SkyMed and TerraSAR-X, have permitted an overall study of ground deformations with an unprecedented detail thanks to their improved spatial resolution and reduced revisit time. Furthermore, the incoming ESA Sentinel-1 SAR satellite is characterized by a global coverage acquisition strategy and 12-day revisit time and, therefore, will further contribute to improve deformation analyses and monitoring capabilities. However, in this context, the capability to process such huge SAR data archives is strongly limited by the existing DInSAR algorithms, which are not specifically designed to exploit modern high performance computational infrastructures (e.g. cluster, grid and cloud computing platforms). The goal of this paper is to present a Parallel version of the SBAS algorithm (P-SBAS) which is based on a dual-level parallelization approach and embraces combined parallel strategies [3], [4]. A detailed description of the P-SBAS algorithm will be provided together with a scalability analysis focused on studying its performances. In particular, a P-SBAS scalability analysis with respect to the number of exploited CPUs has

  14. X-ray and ion beam investigation of alumina coatings applied on DIN1.4914 martensitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordanova, I.; Forcey, K. S.; Surtchev, M.

    2001-01-01

    An investigation has been carried out on the crystal structure and composition of the coatings applied by two processes: aluminising and RF-sputtering of alumina (Al 2O 3) on a high-chromium martensitic steel DIN1.4914. The investigation involved the use of two complementary techniques, namely, powder X-ray diffraction and ion beam methods. The results from the X-ray diffraction had been considered for the fit of the energetic spectra obtained by the Rutherford backscattering (RBS) of alpha particles and by O(d,p) nuclear reaction. By the combination of these two techniques, some new results about the structure parameters, depth profile composition and thickness of the coatings as a function of the technology of their application have been obtained.

  15. The tensile and fatigue properties of DIN 1.4914 martensitic stainless steel after 590 MeV proton irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmy, P.; Victoria, M.

    1992-09-01

    Tensile and low cycle fatigue subsize specimens of DIN 1.4914 martensitic steel (MANET) have been irradiated with 590 MeV protons to doses up to 1 dpa and at temperatures between 363 and 703 K. The helium produced by spallation reactions was measured as 130 appm/dpa. A strong radiation hardening is found, which decreases as the irradiation temperature increases. The tensile elongation is reduced after irradiation, but the fracture mode is always ductile and transgranular. The radition hardening produced at low irradiation temperatures is recovered after annealing at higher temperatures. Continous softening is observed during low cycle fatigue testing. The rate of softening of the irradiated material is stonger than that of the unirradiated material and tends to reach the saturation level of the latter. The irradiation badly affects the fatigue life, particularly in the temperature domain of dynamic strain ageing between 553 and 653 K.

  16. Statistical elaborations of PS DInSAR data applied to the analysis of the subsidence affecting the Venetian coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessitore, Serena; Fiaschi, Simone; Achilli, Vladimiro; Fabris, Massimo; Floris, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Subsidence is a hazard that may have natural or anthropic origin. It can affect wide areas causing important economic losses. The area of the Venetian coast is affected by subsidence mainly due to the exploitation of its resources (gas and water). In particular, about 40% of the Italian extraction activities are on this area and here the subsidence arise in conjunction with the industrial revolution (1950-1970). An effective monitoring system is necessary for the correct management of the resources exploitation that, very often, is not supervised. To this aim, the innovative DInSAR techniques have been effectively employed as monitoring systems for the risk assessments of various instability phenomena, such as subsidence, landslides, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, sinkholes. These techniques represent a powerful investigation tool for their high spatial and multi-temporal coverage, fast data acquisition, and overall low costs. Their results are the displacement estimates along the satellite Line of Sight (LOS), the velocity map and the displacements time series for the whole observation period. In the present work, the ERS and ENVISAT DInSAR data, achieved through the Persistent Scatterers (PS) technique, have been used to produce the iso-kinetic maps of deformation for an area of about 4300 Km2. Here, the mean velocities computed along the ERS and ENVISAT observation periods 1992-2000 and 2003-2010 have been interpolated through the Ordinary Kriging (OK) method. Simulated values and estimations of subsidence uncertainties have been analysed to advance the current understanding on the phenomenon that affects the study area. The achieved maps give information about the spatial distribution of the rates of deformation, which could be correlated with the available geological, hydrogeological and geotechnical data, as well as with the recorded damage to the structures and infrastructures. Then, local Authorities can use these maps as useful tools for the monitoring

  17. Evaluating the sources and fate of anthropogenic dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in two contrasting North Sea estuaries.

    PubMed

    Ahad, Jason M E; Ganeshram, Raja S; Spencer, Robert G M; Uher, Günther; Upstill-Goddard, Robert C; Cowie, Greg L

    2006-12-15

    Nitrogen isotope ratios (delta(15)N) were used to help elucidate the sources and fate of ammonium (NH(4)(+)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) in two northeastern English estuaries. The dominant feature of NH(4)(+) in the heavily urbanised Tyne estuary was a plume arising from a single point source; a large sewage works. Although NH(4)(+) concentrations (ranging from 30-150 microM) near the sewage outfall varied considerably between surveys, the sewage-derived delta(15)N-NH(4)(+) signature was remarkably constant (+10.6+/-0.5 per thousand) and could be tracked across the estuary. As indirectly supported by (15)N-depleted delta(15)N-NO(3)(-) values observed close to the mouth of the Tyne, this sewage-derived NH(4)(+) was thought to initiate lower estuarine and coastal zone nitrification. In the more rural Tweed, NH(4)(+) concentrations were low (<7 microM) compared to those in the Tyne and delta(15)N-NH(4)(+) values were consistent with mixing between riverine and marine sources. The dominant form of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in the Tweed was agricultural soil-derived NO(3)(-). A decrease in riverine NO(3)(-) flux during the summer coinciding with an increase in delta(15)N-NO(3)(-) values was mainly attributed to enhanced watershed nutrient processing. In the Tyne, where agricultural inputs are less important compared to the Tweed, light delta(15)N-NO(3)(-) (ca. 0 per thousand) detected in the estuary during one winter survey pointed to a larger contribution from precipitation-derived NO(3)(-) during high river discharge. Regardless of the dominant sources, in both estuaries most of the variability in DIN concentrations and delta(15)N values was explained by simple end-member mixing models, implying very little estuarine processing.

  18. Small baseline subsets approach of DInSAR for investigating land surface deformation along the high-speed railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Xiong; Tang, Yunwei

    2014-11-01

    Land surface deformation evidently exists in a newly-built high-speed railway in the southeast of China. In this study, we utilize the Small BAseline Subsets (SBAS)-Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) technique to detect land surface deformation along the railway. In this work, 40 Cosmo-SkyMed satellite images were selected to analyze the spatial distribution and velocity of the deformation in study area. 88 pairs of image with high coherence were firstly chosen with an appropriate threshold. These images were used to deduce the deformation velocity map and the variation in time series. This result can provide information for orbit correctness and ground control point (GCP) selection in the following steps. Then, more pairs of image were selected to tighten the constraint in time dimension, and to improve the final result by decreasing the phase unwrapping error. 171 combinations of SAR pairs were ultimately selected. Reliable GCPs were re-selected according to the previously derived deformation velocity map. Orbital residuals error was rectified using these GCPs, and nonlinear deformation components were estimated. Therefore, a more accurate surface deformation velocity map was produced. Precise geodetic leveling work was implemented in the meantime. We compared the leveling result with the geocoding SBAS product using the nearest neighbour method. The mean error and standard deviation of the error were respectively 0.82 mm and 4.17 mm. This result demonstrates the effectiveness of DInSAR technique for monitoring land surface deformation, which can serve as a reliable decision for supporting highspeed railway project design, construction, operation and maintenance.

  19. Reference Dosimetry according to the New German Protocol DIN 6800-2 and Comparison with IAEA TRS 398 and AAPM TG 51*

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, A; Schuette, W; Younan, C

    2011-01-01

    The preceding DIN 6800-2 (1997) protocol has been revised by a German task group and its latest version was published in March 2008 as the national standard dosimetry protocol DIN 6800-2 (2008 March). Since then, in Germany the determination of absorbed dose to water for high-energy photon and electron beams has to be performed according to this new German dosimetry protocol. The IAEA Code of Practice TRS 398 (2000) and the AAPM TG-51 are the two main protocols applied internationally. The new German version has widely adapted the methodology and dosimetric data of TRS-398. This paper investigates systematically the DIN 6800-2 protocol and compares it with the procedures and results obtained by using the international protocols. The investigation was performed with 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams as well as with electron beams from 5 MeV to 21 MeV. While only cylindrical chambers were used for photon beams, the measurements of electron beams were performed by using cylindrical and plane-parallel chambers. It was found that the discrepancies in the determination of absorbed dose to water among the three protocols were 0.23% for photon beams and 1.2% for electron beams. The determination of water absorbed dose was also checked by a national audit procedure using TLDs. The comparison between the measurements following the DIN 6800-2 protocol and the TLD audit-procedure confirmed a difference of less than 2%. The advantage of the new German protocol DIN 6800-2 lies in the renouncement on the cross calibration procedure as well as its clear presentation of formulas and parameters. In the past, the different protocols evoluted differently from time to time. Fortunately today, a good convergence has been obtained in concepts and methods. PMID:22287987

  20. Investigation of subsidence in the Manfredonia Gulf (Southern Italy) through multitemporal DInSAR techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triggiani, M.; Refice, A.; Capolongo, D.; Bovenga, F.; Caldara, M.

    2009-04-01

    tourist sea village "Ippocampo". Here, unpublished studies based on ground data indicate average subsidence rates of the order of 0.20 mm/y in the last 125 ka for the inland area next to the village. More recently, height maps issued by the Italian Military Geographic Institute (IGM) in the 1950s report heights a.s.l. of the order of a few m. Observing that today the area is practically at sea level, an average subsidence of the order of tens of mm/y can be inferred for the last 50 years. To gain insight into the recent evolution of these phenomena, we investigate vertical movements on the coastal Tavoliere area through multitemporal differential Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) techniques. We use a persistent scatterers interferometry (PSI) processing methodology [2] to estimate subsidence displacement rates from long temporal series of SAR acquisitions. PSI techniques, first developed at POLIMI [3], allow to retrieve phase information from stacks of co-registered SAR interferograms spanning many years and taken from different directions with large baselines, by restricting the analysis to selected image pixels containing single objects with strong radar backscatter returns. Exploiting the high temporal stability of radar returns from these targets, it is possible to correct the images from spurious phase contributions such as atmospheric phase artefacts and errors in the digital elevation models used to account for topographic InSAR phase. Such stable objects typically coincide with man-made features, so successful applications of PSI techniques are mainly reported over urban centers. We processed a total of 105 SAR images acquired from the ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT satellites, organized in 3 stacks related to both descending (50 ERS-1/2 scenes) and ascending (25 ERS-1/2 and 30 ENVISAT scenes) acquisition geometries. The acquisitions refer to the temporal periods from 1995 to 2000 (ERS) and 2003 to 2008 (ENVISAT), respectively, with a temporal repetition

  1. Using DInSAR as a tool to detect unstable terrain areas in an Andes region in Ecuador (South America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayorga Torres, Tannia

    2014-05-01

    Using DInSAR as a tool to detect unstable terrain areas in an Andes region in Ecuador (South America) 1. INTRODUCTION Monitoring landslides is a mandatory task in charge on the National Institute of Geological Research (INIGEMM) in Ecuador. It is a small country, supposedly will be faster doing monitoring, but what about its geographic characteristics? Lamentably, due to human and financial resources is not possible to put monitoring systems in unstable terrain areas. However, getting ALOS data to accessible price and using open source software to produce interferograms, could be a first step to know steep areas covered by vegetation and where mass movements are not visible. Under this statement, this study is part of the final research in a master study developed at CONAE during 2009-2011, with oral defense in August 2013. As a new technique used in Ecuador, the study processed radar data from ERS-1/2 and ALOS sensor PALSAR for getting differential interferograms, using ROI_PAC software. Stacking DInSAR is applied to get an average of displacement that indicates uplift and subsidence in the whole radar scene that covers two provinces in the Andes region. 2. PROBLEM Mass movements are present in the whole territory, independently of their magnitude and dynamic (slow or fast), they are a latent threat in winter season specially. There are registers of monitoring, such as two GPS's campaigns and artisanal extensometers, which are used to contrast with DInSAR results. However, the campaigns are shorter and extensometers are no trust on all. 3. METHODOLOGY Methodology has four phases of development: (1) Pre-processing of RAW data; (2) Processing of RAW data in ROI_PAC; (3) Post-processing for getting interferograms in units of cm per year; (4) Analysis of the results and comparison with ground truth. Sandwell & Price (1998) proposed Stacking technique to increase the fringes and decrease errors due to the atmosphere, to average several interferograms. L band penetrates

  2. Volcano deformation analysis based an on-demand DInSAR-GRID system: the SBAS-GPOD solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manunta, M.; Casu, F.; Cossu, R.; Fusco, L.; Guarino, S.; Lanari, R.; Mazzarella, G.; Sansosti, E.

    2009-04-01

    Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) has already demonstrated to be an effective technique to detect and monitor ground displacements with centimeter accuracy. Moreover, the recent development of advanced DInSAR techniques, aimed at the generation of deformation time series, has led to the exploitation of the large archive of SAR data acquired all over the world, during the last 16 years, by the ERS, ENVISAT and RADARSAT satellites. Among these advanced approaches, we focus on the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) algorithm that relies on the combination of DInSAR data pairs, characterized by a small separation between the acquisition orbits (baseline), in order to produce mean deformation velocity maps and the corresponding time series, maximizing the coherent pixel density of the investigated area. One of the main capabilities of the SBAS approach is the possibility to work at two spatial resolution scales, thus allowing us to investigate deformation phenomena affecting both extended areas (with resolution of about 100 by 100 m) and selected zones, in the latter case highlighting localized displacements that may affect single structures or buildings (at the full instrument resolution). Similarly to other advanced DInSAR techniques, the SBAS approach requires extended data storage and processing capabilities due to the large amount of data exploited for the generation of the final products. Accordingly, we present in this work the results of the first experiment to "plug" the robustness of the SBAS algorithm into the high computing capability provided by a GRID-based system. In particular, we have exploited the low-resolution SBAS algorithm [1] and the ESA Grid Processing-on-Demand (G-POD) system. This environment is one of the results achieved by the ESA Science and Application Department of Earth Observation Programmes Directorate at ESRIN that focused, following the participation to the DATAGRID project (the first large European Commission funded Grid project

  3. A chemical genetics analysis of the roles of bypass polymerase DinB and DNA repair protein AlkB in processing N2-alkylguanine lesions in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shrivastav, Nidhi; Fedeles, Bogdan I; Li, Deyu; Delaney, James C; Frick, Lauren E; Foti, James J; Walker, Graham C; Essigmann, John M

    2014-01-01

    DinB, the E. coli translesion synthesis polymerase, has been shown to bypass several N2-alkylguanine adducts in vitro, including N2-furfurylguanine, the structural analog of the DNA adduct formed by the antibacterial agent nitrofurazone. Recently, it was demonstrated that the Fe(II)- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase AlkB, a DNA repair enzyme, can dealkylate in vitro a series of N2-alkyguanines, including N2-furfurylguanine. The present study explored, head to head, the in vivo relative contributions of these two DNA maintenance pathways (replicative bypass vs. repair) as they processed a series of structurally varied, biologically relevant N2-alkylguanine lesions: N2-furfurylguanine (FF), 2-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl-methylguanine (HF), 2-methylguanine, and 2-ethylguanine. Each lesion was chemically synthesized and incorporated site-specifically into an M13 bacteriophage genome, which was then replicated in E. coli cells deficient or proficient for DinB and AlkB (4 strains in total). Biochemical tools were employed to analyze the relative replication efficiencies of the phage (a measure of the bypass efficiency of each lesion) and the base composition at the lesion site after replication (a measure of the mutagenesis profile of each lesion). The main findings were: 1) Among the lesions studied, the bulky FF and HF lesions proved to be strong replication blocks when introduced site-specifically on a single-stranded vector in DinB deficient cells. This toxic effect disappeared in the strains expressing physiological levels of DinB. 2) AlkB is known to repair N2-alkylguanine lesions in vitro; however, the presence of AlkB showed no relief from the replication blocks induced by FF and HF in vivo. 3) The mutagenic properties of the entire series of N2-alkyguanines adducts were investigated in vivo for the first time. None of the adducts were mutagenic under the conditions evaluated, regardless of the DinB or AlkB cellular status. Taken together, the data indicated

  4. Ground deformation of the western rift of Corinth observed by means of PSI, SBAS and DInSAR methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Panagiotis; Briole, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    The rift of Corinth has been long identified as a site of major importance in Europe due to its intense tectonic activity. It is one of the world's most rapidly extending continental regions and it has one of the highest seismicity rates in the Euro-Mediterranean region. It produces in average, an earthquake of magnitude 6 per century. The GPS studies conducted since 1990 indicate a north-south extension rate across the rift of ~1.5 cm year-1 around its western termination. Geological evidences show that the south coast of the rift is uplifting whereas the north part is subsiding. The western termination of the rift in the Patras broader area presents a major scientific and socio-economic importance, with the Psathopyrgos and the Rion-Patras faults being located very close to the city of Patras. The first DInSAR studies were carried out using SAR/ERS data after the Ms= 6.2 June 15, 1995 Aigion earthquake and contributed to its characterization. More recently the ground deformation of the area has been measured using a series of ASAR/ENVISAT, PALSAR/ALOS and RASARSAT-2 acquisitions. All datasets were processed by means of PSI (Persistent Scatterers Interferometry), SBAS (Small Baseline SubSet) and DInSAR (Differential Interferometry with SAR) methodologies. In addition to widely used tools (DIAPASON, ROI-PAC, STAMPS e.t.c.) in-house procedures and tools have been developed in order to exploit of the synergy of multiple characteristics/properties (frequency, viewing angles, sides, etc) of the SAR acquisitions aiming to the minimisation of the noise components. We verified the agreement between GPS and PSI/SBAS velocities at the location of the five permanent GPS stations operated in the rift since ten years. Ground deformations are visible at various scales and at various places in the produced PSI/SBAS maps and several known faults exhibit ground deformation around them with no earthquake occurred during the observations period: (a) On 18th and 22nd of January 2010

  5. The Mw 6.0 2016 Amatrice (Italy) Earthquake: Source Geometry Inferred from DInSAR Measurements and Geological Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casu, F.; Lavecchia, G.; Castaldo, R.; De Nardis, R.; De Novellis, V.; Ferrarini, F.; Pepe, S.; Brozzetti, F.; Solaro, G.; Cirillo, D.; Bonano, M.; Boncio, P.; de Luca, C.; Lanari, R.; Manunta, M.; Manzo, M.; Pepe, A.; Zinno, I.; Tizzani, P.

    2016-12-01

    On 24 August 2016, at 01:36 UTÇ the intra-Apennine extensional fault system of Central Italy released a destructive earthquake (MW 6.0). It produced widespread damage and fatalities, killing about 300 people and severely destroying the town of Amatrice and surrounding villages. After few hours, the Amatrice earthquake was followed by a significant aftershock (MW 5.5), which nucleated 15 km NW-ward. The epicentral area of the seismic sequence extends in the NNW-SSE direction, for a length of about 25-30 km. It is located at the hanging-wall of the WSW-dipping Vettore-Gorzano active extensional fault system. During the days following the main shock, a significant number of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data have been acquired from different passes and angles by the L-band ALOS-2, C-band Sentinel-1 and X-band COSMO-SkyMed satellites. This allowed us to map in a very short time the co-seismic ground displacements through the Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) technique, and also to evaluate their Vertical and East-West components with high details. The generated interferometric pattern is characterized by a double-eyed co-seismic shape that spans 20 km along the NNW-SSE direction and that well coincides with the epicentral areas. We modeled the seismic source that well fit the Mw 6.2 event. In particular, for this analysis, we separately applied an analytical Okada approach as well as a 3D Finite Element (FE) numerical modeling, the latter jointly exploiting DInSAR measurements and structural-geological data. The model obtained via the FE approach suggests that the Amatrice 2016 earthquake nucleated at 8 km deep along the intersection line between the Vettoretto-Redentore and the Northern Gorzano faults, and instantly geminated in two rupture patches that radiated with an approximate bilateral symmetry on the two fault planes. The two rupture patches covered differently shaped slip area, with aspect ratio that well recalls the shape of the interferometric lobes

  6. DInSAR techniques for studying the October 23, 2011, Van earthquake (Turkey), and its relationship with neighboring structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bignami, C.; Brunori, C. A.; Chini, M.; Kyriakopoulos, C.; Melini, D.; Moro, M.; Picchiani, M.; Saroli, M.; Stramondo, S.

    2012-04-01

    We have investigated the possible causal relationship between three earthquakes occurred in Turkey. In particular the Mw 7.2 October 23, 2011 earthquakes occurred in the Van province, located in the Eastern Turkey near Lake Van, its aftershock occurred the November 9 few kilometers southward, and another major event (Ms = 7.3) occurred north of Van in East Anatolia on 24 November 1976 along the Caldiran fault. The Mw 7.2 Van event took place along a previously unrecognized east-west thrust fault. The largest aftershock has hit Van Province has a magnitude 5.5 at 4.3 km of depth very close to Van. For the Van earthquake and its aftershock we used DInSAR measures for retrieving the faults parameters. A couple of COSMO-SkyMed images has been used to measure the coseismic deformation of the first event, while two TerraSAR-X interferometric images have been used for the second one. For both the topography contribution has been removed using the SRTM digital elevation model. Based on DInSAR outcomes we have then inverted the coseismic displacement field using the a novel approach [1], based on the Okada model and Neural Networks (NNs), to investigate the fault geometry of the two latest earthquakes. One of the advantages of this method is that it rapidly achieves a determination of the rupture plane. Concerning the earthquake occurred on 1976 the fault plane has been deduced using surface ruptures from ground survey [2]. Once defined the geometries of the three seismogenic fault planes we have investigated the role of the Caldiran earthquake in promoting the Van rupture, and the latter in promoting its aftershock, by evaluating the Coulomb Failure Function. [1] Stramondo, S., Del Frate, F., Picchiani, M. & Schiavon, G. Seismic Source Quantitative Parameters Retrieval from InSAR Data and Neural Networks. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 49, 96-104 (2011). [2] M. NAFI TOKSÖZ*, ESEN ARPAT† & FUAT ŞARO&GLU, "East Anatolian earthquake of 24 November 1976

  7. [Quality assurance measures within DIN 6856: the adaptation of film viewing boxes and their specifications in the radiology department of a university hospital. Deutsche Industrie-Norm].

    PubMed

    Kirchner, J; Kollath, J

    1996-02-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the quality and consistency of film viewing equipment and surroundings for radiological film viewing as stipulated by the recently released DIN 6856 standard specifications sheet. 107 film viewers in 43 locations in the Department of General Radiology (Hospital of the Goethe University in Frankfurt, Germany) were examined with regard to viewer brightness (intrinsic luminous intensity) uniformity of viewbox brightness, colour of fluorescence tubes, dimensions, adjustable filters, positioning of the viewers and ambient light level. Requirements regarding brightness were met in 70%, whereas conditions regarding uniformity of brightness were fulfilled in only 27% and the required filters in only 20% of all cases. 89% of the examined film viewboxes did not comply with the strict specifications laid down in DIN 6856. The requirements regarding the ambient light level (recommended range 50-100 lx) were met by only 75% of the examined desks.

  8. Towards Quality Assurance and an Adequate Risk Management in Geotechnical Engineering - Application of Eurocode 7 and DIN 4020 in Engineering Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schetelig, Kurt; Heitfeld, Michael; von Soos, Paul; Stocker, Manfred; Mainz, Mark

    A key issue of engineering geology is the extreme variety of soil and rock, their heterogeneity and at places anisotropy, the fabric of rockmasses, the influence of water, the primary stresses and their change into a secondary stress field by loading or unloading. Changeable properties of some kinds of soil and rock, the effect of different scales of laboratory tests, field tests and the size of the structure create further questions. Considering the difficulties of investigation of the underground, size and complexity of the structure and its construction procedure Eurocode 7 and DIN 4020 have introduced geotechnical categories. The design concept in geotechnical category 3 is mostly combined with the observational method. This requires the establishment of an adequate monitoring system and a permanent comparison of the design assumptions (pre-calculated displacements or stresses) with the recorded values. The goals and handling of Eurocode 7 and DIN 4020 are demonstrated by means of site examples.

  9. Surface Deformation Associated with Geothermal Fluids Extraction at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Baja California, Mexico Revealed by DInSAR Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarychikhina, O.; Glowacka, E.; Mojarro, J.

    2016-08-01

    The Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) is widely used for surface deformation detection and monitoring.In this paper, ERS-1/2, ENVISAT and RADARSAT-2 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired between 1993 and 2014 were processed to investigate the evolution of surface deformation at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja California, Mexico. The conventional DInSAR together with the interferogram stacking method was applied. Average LOS (line of sight) displacement velocity maps were generated for different periods: 1993 - 1997, 1998 - 2000, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2012 - 2014, revealing that the area corresponding to Cerro Prieto basin presented the important surface deformation (mainly subsidence) during the entire time of investigation. The changes in the surface deformation pattern and rate were identified. These changes have a good correlation in time with the changes of production in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field.

  10. Solubility assessment of 232Th from various types of soil in Malaysia using USP and DIN In Vitro digestion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Nur Shahidah Abdul; Perama, Yasmin Mohd Idris; Salih, Fitri Hakeem Mohd; Sarmani, Sukiman; Majid, Amran Ab.; Siong, Khoo Kok

    2016-11-01

    The overall results of the study showed that the concentrations of 232Th radionuclide using DIN digestion method during gastric phase are 0.0015 mg/kg - 0.0554 mg/kg and 0.0015 mg/kg - 0.0139 mg/kg during intestinal phase, respectively. As for USP digestion method during gastric phase are between 0.0877 mg/kg - 0.4964 mg/kg and 0.0207 mg/kg - 0.2291 mg/kg. The results from the measurements in various types of soils indicates some elevation of 232Th concentration in some types of soil compared to UNSCEAR reference values, in which may be a result from the impact of previous mining activity in the surrounding area and considered to be safe. In general, the results of 232Th concentrations from in vitro extraction technique is considered to be safe. By natural processes, thorium ingestion is getting transferred to living beings through different pathways and need to be monitored in order to assess possible hazards. Environmental studies are generally carried out to trace the pathway of radionuclides/radiotoxic elements to reach living organism. Environmental monitoring and meaningful interpretation of data from man-made pollution are more complicated without adequate knowledge about the natural abundance of radioactive elements in the environment.

  11. Using DInSAR, airborne LiDAR, and archival air photos to quantify landsliding and sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roering, Joshua J.; Stimely, Laura L.; Mackey, Benjamin H.; Schmidt, David A.

    2009-10-01

    We demonstrate the ability of coupled remote sensing tools to characterize large, slow-moving landslides in the Eel River catchment, northern California. From a stack of ALOS interferograms, we identified 5 large (>1 km long) landslides that exhibited significant activity from February 2007 to February 2008. For the Boulder Creek earthflow, we used orthorectified air photos taken in 1964 and unfiltered airborne LiDAR flown in 2006 to map the displacement of trees growing on the landslide surface. Combining those displacement orientations with stacked DInSAR data, we observed average downslope velocities of 0.65 m yr-1 through the central transport zone of the landslide. Given landslide depth estimates, minimum sediment transport and denudation rates are estimated to be 4100 m3 yr-1 and 1.6 mm yr-1, respectively. Our results demonstrate the highly erosive role of large, slow-moving landslides in landscape evolution and suggest that the superposition of dense, ephemeral gully networks and rapidly moving zones within the landslide may facilitate delivery of slide-mobilized sediment into adjacent fluvial channels.

  12. The complex karst dynamics of the Lisan Peninsula revealed by 25 years of DInSAR observations. Dead Sea, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiaschi, Simone; Closson, Damien; Abou Karaki, Najib; Pasquali, Paolo; Riccardi, Paolo; Floris, Mario

    2017-08-01

    This article presents and analyses the results obtained from Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) techniques applied to ERS-1/2, ENVISAT, ALOS-PALSAR, COSMO-SkyMed, and Sentinel-1A datasets over the Lisan Peninsula, located in the southern part of the Dead Sea, Jordan. The novelty comes from the integration of three different wavelengths to study the dynamics of a salt dome. The monitoring activity entirely covers the period extending from 1992 to 2016. Five displacement maps have been produced, carefully checked and then fused to provide a total cumulated map of the displacements in the area. The ground movements have been analysed by comparison with in-situ tectonic observations collected by various authors since the mid-1980s. The study shows an episodic rising of the Lisan diapir. The presented results can be useful to update the knowledge of the displacement rates occurring in the area and to better comprehend the complex dynamics of the Lisan Peninsula.

  13. [Efficient document management by introduction of a new, dynamic quality manual application according to DIN EN ISO 9001:2000].

    PubMed

    Pache, G; Saueressig, U; Baumann, T; Dürselen, L; Langer, M; Kotter, E

    2008-06-01

    Evaluation of the impact of a new, dynamic computer-aided quality manual application (QMA) regarding the acceptance and efficiency of a quality management system (QMS) according to DIN EN ISO 9001:2000. The QMA combines static pages of HTML with active content generated from an underlying database. Through user access rights, a hierarchy is defined to create and administer quality documents. Document workflow, feedback management and employee survey were analyzed to compare the performance of the new QMH with the formerly used static version. Integration of a document editor and automated document re-approval accelerated the document process by an average of 10 min. In spite of an increase of the yearly document changes of 60%, the administration effort was reduced by approximately 160 h. Integration of the feedback management system into the QMA decreased handling time from an average of 16.5 to 3.4 days. Simultaneously the number of feedback messages increased from 160 in 2005 to 306 in 2006. Employee satisfaction was raised (old: 3.19+/-1.02, new: 1.91+/-0.8). The number of users who partook in the QMA more than once a week also increased from 29.5% to 60%. The computer-aided quality manual application constitutes the basis for the success of our QMS. The possibility to actively participate in the quality management process has led to broad acceptance and usage by the employees. The administration effort was able to be tremendously decreased as compared to conventional QMS.

  14. La dinámica demográfica y la desigualdad educativa en Méxicoa

    PubMed Central

    Giorguli Saucedo, Silvia E.; Vargas Valle, Eunice D.; Ulloa, Viviana Salinas; Hubert, Celia; Potter, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta una investigación sobre el vínculo entre los procesos educativos y la dinámica demográfica en México. La tradición del pensamiento sobre población y desarrollo ha partido de la hipótesis de que el ritmo de crecimiento poblacional, el tamaño de las familias y la migración influyen sobre la acumulación de capital humano entre la población en edades escolares. Se explora aquí la relación del desempeño educativo de los jóvenes entre 14 y 23 años y la razón de dependencia juvenil, la fecundidad adolescente y la migración interna e internacional; para ello se utilizan datos agregados a escala municipal del año 2000. El análisis incluye indicadores de la oferta educativa municipal basados en estadísticas administrativas de la SEP. PMID:26146427

  15. Long-term deformation analysis of historical buildings through the advanced SBAS-DInSAR technique: the case study of the city of Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeni, G.; Bonano, M.; Casu, F.; Manunta, M.; Manzo, M.; Marsella, M.; Pepe, A.; Lanari, R.

    2011-09-01

    Monitoring of deformation phenomena affecting urban areas and man-made structures is of key relevance for the preservation of the artistic, archaeological and architectural heritage. The differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) technique has already been demonstrated to be an effective tool for non-invasive deformation analyses over large areas by producing spatially dense deformation maps with centimetre to millimetre accuracy. Moreover, by exploiting long sequences of SAR data acquired by different sensors, the advanced DInSAR technique referred to as the small baseline subset (SBAS) approach allows providing long-term deformation time series, which are strategic for guaranteeing the monitoring of urban area displacements. In this work, we investigate the effectiveness of the two-scale multi-sensor SBAS-DInSAR approach to detect and monitor displacements affecting historical and artistic monuments. The presented results, achieved by applying the full resolution SBAS technique to a huge set of ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT data, spanning the 1992-2010 time interval and relevant to the city of Rome (Italy), show the capability of this approach to detect and analyse the temporal evolution of possible deformation phenomena affecting historical buildings and archaeological sites. Accordingly, our analysis demonstrates the effectiveness of the full resolution multi-sensor SBAS approach to operate as a surface deformation tool for supporting the study and conservation strategies of the historical, cultural and artistic heritage.

  16. Land subsidence in the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, 1 Baja California, Mexico, from 1994 to 2005. An integrated analysis of DInSAR, levelingand geological data.

    SciTech Connect

    Sarychikhina, O; Glowacka, E; Mellors, R; Vidal, F S

    2011-03-03

    Cerro Prieto is the oldest and largest Mexican geothermal field in operation and has been producing electricity since 1973. The large amount of geothermal fluids extracted to supply steam to the power plants has resulted in considerable deformation in and around the field. The deformation includes land subsidence and related ground fissuring and faulting. These phenomena have produced severe damages to infrastructure such as roads, irrigation canals and other facilities. In this paper, the technique of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) is applied using C-band ENVISAR ASAR data acquired between 2003 and 2006 to determine the extent and amount of land subsidence in the Mexicali Valley near Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field. The DInSAR results were compared with published data from precise leveling surveys (1994- 1997 and 1997-2006) and detailed geological information in order to improve the understanding of temporal and spatial distributions of anthropogenic subsidence in the Mexicali Valley. The leveling and DInSAR data were modeled to characterize the observed deformation in terms of fluid extraction. The results confirm that the tectonic faults control the spatial extent of the observed subsidence. These faults likely act as groundwater flow barriers for aquifers and reservoirs. The shape of the subsiding area coincides with the Cerro Prieto pull-apart basin. In addition, the spatial pattern of the subsidence as well as changes in rate are highly correlated with the development of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field.

  17. Land subsidence in the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Baja California, Mexico, from 1994 to 2005: An integrated analysis of DInSAR, leveling and geological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarychikhina, Olga; Glowacka, Ewa; Mellors, Robert; Vidal, Francisco Suárez

    2011-07-01

    Cerro Prieto is the oldest and largest Mexican geothermal field in operation and has been producing electricity since 1973. The large amount of geothermal fluids extracted to supply steam to the power plants has resulted in considerable deformation in and around the field. The deformation includes land subsidence and related ground fissuring and faulting. These phenomena have produced severe damages to the local infrastructure such as roads, irrigation canals and other facilities. In this paper, the technique of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) is applied using C-band ENVISAR ASAR data acquired between 2003 and 2006 to determine the extent and amount of land subsidence in the Mexicali Valley near Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field. The DInSAR results were compared with published data from precise leveling surveys (1994-1997 and 1997-2006) and detailed geological information in order to improve understanding of the temporal and spatial distributions of anthropogenic subsidence in the Mexicali Valley. The leveling and DInSAR data were modeled to characterize the observed deformation in terms of fluid extraction. The results confirm that the tectonic faults control the spatial extent of the observed subsidence. These faults likely act as groundwater flow barriers for aquifers and reservoirs. The shape of the subsiding area coincides with the Cerro Prieto pull-apart basin. In addition, the changes in spatial pattern and rate of the subsidence are correlated with the development of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field.

  18. A GeoNode-Based Multiscale Platform For Management, Visualization And Integration Of DInSAR Data With Different Geospatial Information Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonanno, Sabatino; Fusco, Adele; Zeni, Giovanni; Manunta, Michele; Lanari, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    This work describes the implementation of an efficient system for managing, viewing, analyzing and updating remotely sensed data, with special reference to Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) data. The DInSAR products measure Earth surface deformation both in space and time, producing deformation maps and time series[1,2]. The use of these data in research or operational contexts requires tools that have to handle temporal and spatial variability with high efficiency. For this aim we present an implementation based on Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) for data integration, management and interchange, by using standard protocols[3]. SDI tools provide access to static datasets that operate only with spatial variability . In this paper we use the open source project GeoNode as framework to extend SDI infrastructure functionalities to ingest very efficiently DInSAR deformation maps and deformation time series. GeoNode allows to realize comprehensive and distributed infrastructure, following the standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc. - OGC, for remote sensing data management, analysis and integration [4,5]. In the current paper we explain the methodology used for manage the data complexity and data integration using the opens source project GeoNode. The solution presented in this work for the ingestion of DinSAR products is a very promising starting point for future developments of the OGC compliant implementation of a semi-automatic remote sensing data processing chain . [1] Berardino, P., Fornaro, G., Lanari, R., & Sansosti, E. (2002). A new Algorithm for Surface Deformation Monitoring based on Small Baseline Differential SAR Interferograms. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 40, 11, pp. 2375-2383. [2] Lanari R., F. Casu, M. Manzo, G. Zeni,, P. Berardino, M. Manunta and A. Pepe (2007), An overview of the Small Baseline Subset Algorithm: a DInSAR Technique for Surface Deformation Analysis, P. Appl. Geophys., 164

  19. [Introduction of a quality management system compliant with DIN EN 9001:2000 in a university department of nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Jansen-Schmidt, V; Paschen, U; Kröger, S; Bohuslavizki, K H; Clausen, M

    2001-12-01

    In 1995, the management of the University Clinic Hamburg-Eppendorf proposed to establish a total quality assurance (QA) system. A revised QA-system has been introduced stepwise in the department of nuclear medicine since 1997, and certification was achieved in accordance with DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 on February 14, 2001. The QA-handbook is divided into two parts. The first part contains operational (diagnostic and therapeutic) procedures in so-called standard operating procedures (SOP). They describe the indication of procedures as well as the competences and time necessary in a standardized manner. Up to now, more than 70 SOPs have been written as a collaborative approach between technicians and physicians during daily clinical routine after analysing and discussing the procedures. Thus, the results were more clearly defined processes and more satisfied employees. The second part consists of general rules and directions concerning the security of work and equipment as well as radiation protection tasks, hygiene etc. as it is required by the law. This part was written predominantly by the management of the department of nuclear-medicine and the QA-coordinator. Detailed information for the patients, documentation of the work-flows as well as the medical report was adopted to the QM-system. Although in the introduction phase of a QA-system a vast amount of time is necessary, some months later a surplus for the clinical workday will become available. The well defined relations of competences and procedures will result in a gain of time, a reduction of costs and a help to ensure the legal demands. Last but not least, the QA-system simply helps to build up confidence and acceptance both by the patients and the referring physicians.

  20. The contribute of DInSAR techniques to landslide hazard evaluation in mountain and hilly regions: a case study from Agno Valley (North-Eastern Italian Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Agostini, A.; Floris, M.; Pasquali, P.; Barbieri, M.; Cantone, A.; Riccardi, P.; Stevan, G.; Genevois, R.

    2012-04-01

    In the last twenty years, Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) techniques have been widely used to investigate geological processes, such as subsidence, earthquakes and landslides, through the evaluation of earth surface displacements caused by these processes. In the study of mass movements, contribution of interferometry can be limited due to the acquisition geometry of RADAR images and the rough morphology of mountain and hilly regions which represent typical landslide-prone areas. In this study, the advanced DInSAR techniques (i.e. Small Baseline Subset and Persistent Scatterers techniques), available in SARscape software, are used. These methods involve the use of multiple acquisitions stacks (large SAR temporal series) allowing improvements and refinements in landslide identification, characterization and hazard evaluation at the basin scale. Potential and limits of above mentioned techniques are outlined and discussed. The study area is the Agno Valley, located in the North-Eastern sector of Italian Alps and included in the Vicenza Province (Veneto Region, Italy). This area and the entire Vicenza Province were hit by an exceptional rainfall event on November 2010 that triggered more than 500 slope instabilities. The main aim of the work is to verify if spatial information available before the rainfall event, including ERS and ENVISAT RADAR data from 1992 to 2010, were able to predict the landslides occurred in the study area, in order to implement an effectiveness forecasting model. In the first step of the work a susceptibility analysis is carried out using landslide dataset from the IFFI project (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia, Landslide Italian Inventory) and related predisposing factors, which consist of morphometric (elevation, slope, aspect and curvature) and non-morphometric (land use, distance of roads and distance of river) factors available from the Veneto Region spatial database. Then, to test the prediction, the

  1. [The "Hersbruck Model". Application and integration of the DIN EN ISO 9001 quality norms with criteria of the European Foundation for Quality Management in a clinic].

    PubMed

    Fritze, B; Amon, U

    1999-11-01

    The german health system has dramatically changed and still continues to do so. Modified aspects concerning economy, customer orientation, competition, quality assurance and quality management seem to be increasingly important. Appropriate response to this challenge demands a relevant adjustment of a quality "philosophy" within a hospital. The "Hersbruck Model" has proven to be a suitable approach: on the basis of a quality management system--established and certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001--it implements all components of the model of the European Foundation for Quality Management. The modern quality tools as Total Quality Management and continuous quality improvement allow a permanent increase of customer/patient satisfaction.

  2. Using Radar Interferometry (DinSAR) to Evaluate Land Subsidence Caused by Excessive Groundwater Withdrawal in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, M. C.; Milewski, A.; El Kadiri, R.

    2013-12-01

    The combination of natural, anthropogenic, and climate change impacts on the water resources of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has devastated its water resources well beyond its current and projected populations. The increased exploitation of groundwater resources in the past half-century coupled with successive droughts has resulted in the acceleration of subsidence rates in the Souss and Massa basins in Morocco. We have completed a preliminary investigation of these impacts on the Souss and Massa basins (~27,000 km2) in the southwestern part of Morocco. This area is characterized by a semi-arid climate (annual precipitation 70-250 mm/year) with agriculture, tourism, and commercial fishing as the primary economic activities, all of which require availability of adequate freshwater resources. Additionally the primary groundwater aquifer (Plio-Quaternary Plain Aquifer), an unconfined aquifer formed mostly of sand and gravel, is being harvested by >20,000 wells at a rate of 650 MCM/yr., exceeding the rate of recharge by 260 MCM/year. Intense development over the past 50 years has exposed the aquifer to a serious risk of groundwater table drawdown (0.5m-2.5m/yr.), land subsidence, loss of artesian pressure, salinization, salt water intrusions along the coast, and deterioration of water quality across the watershed. Differential Interferometry Synthetique Aperture Radar (DInSAR) was utilized to measure ground subsidence induced by groundwater withdrawal. Land subsidence caused by excessive groundwater extraction was determined using a threefold methodology: (1) extraction of subsidence and land deformation patterns using radar interferometry, (2) correlation of the high subsidence areas within the basins to possible natural and anthropogenic factors (e.g. sea level rise, unconsolidated lithological formations distribution, urbanization, excessive groundwater extraction), and (3) forecasting the future of the Souss and Massa basins over the next century

  3. DINS Final Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-19

    I xi - 2.5 u ’ Cs S4 x 1019 ( -3 3.0 Dielectric Foration: The dielectric isolation is delineated in the field oxide followd by an an.sotropic...down the ə-1-1> plane. Following the moat etch, the dielectric oxide is thermally grown. tc =1. 0 Ufox- 0 4.0 Polycrystalline Silicon Deposition: The...ically-mechanica’ly polished to the speci- fied isolated island thickness of 5 - 7.5 microns. 3.4.3.2 Wafer Fabrication Process 1.0 Initial Oxidation

  4. An error-prone family Y DNA polymerase (DinB homolog from Sulfolobus solfataricus) uses a 'steric gate' residue for discrimination against ribonucleotides.

    PubMed

    DeLucia, Angela M; Grindley, Nigel D F; Joyce, Catherine M

    2003-07-15

    DNA polymerases of the A and B families, and reverse transcriptases, share a common mechanism for preventing incorporation of ribonucleotides: a highly conserved active site residue obstructing the position that would be occupied by a 2' hydroxyl group on the incoming nucleotide. In the family Y (lesion bypass) polymerases, the enzyme active site is more open, with fewer contacts to the DNA and nucleotide substrates. Nevertheless, ribonucleotide discrimination by the DinB homolog (Dbh) DNA polymerase of Sulfolobus solfataricus is as stringent as in other polymerases. A highly conserved aromatic residue (Phe12 in Dbh) occupies a position analogous to the residues responsible for excluding ribonucleotides in other DNA polymerases. The F12A mutant of Dbh incorporates ribonucleoside triphosphates almost as efficiently as deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, and, unlike analogous mutants in other polymerase families, shows no barrier to adding multiple ribonucleotides, suggesting that Dbh can readily accommodate a DNA-RNA duplex product. Like other members of the DinB group of bypass polymerases, Dbh makes single-base deletion errors at high frequency in particular sequence contexts. When making a deletion error, ribonucleotide discrimination by wild-type and F12A Dbh is the same as in normal DNA synthesis, indicating that the geometry of nucleotide binding is similar in both circumstances.

  5. [Certified quality management according to DIN ISO 9001 in a radiology department at a university hospital: measurable changes in academic quality indicators?].

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, J; Habermann, C; Utler, C; Grzyska, U; Weber, C; Adam, G; Koops, A

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the changes in academic quality indicators after implementation of a quality management system according to DIN ISO 9001:2000. After implementation and certification of a quality management system, the actual state based on quality indicators from the fields of student teaching, research, continuing education and the satisfaction of referring physician was determined. After implementation of an action plan for the individual areas, the temporal changes in the ratios were documented in the follow-up. The evaluation of teaching performance obtained by questionnaire among the students of the radiology course showed a steady increase in satisfaction (mean value 2003: 2.7; 2007: 3.9). In the field of research an increase in scientific output was achieved based on the number of an internal publication score (2002: 99 points; 2006: 509). Repeated opinion surveys among our referring physicians found improvements in indicators for the appointment of investigations, consulting service and waiting times for the investigation, while the waiting times for internal transport service did not improve. Exemplary measurements of the success of the advanced training of the staff demonstrated the need for continuing education for quality improvement. The evaluation of quality indicators showed over time a measurable positive impact on processes of a radiological University Hospital after implementation of a QM system according to DIN ISO 9001:2000. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  6. Caractérisations structurale et morphologique des couches minces de CuInS2 et d'In-S "airless spray"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamoun, N.; Belgacem, S.; Amlouk, M.; Bennaceur, R.; Abdelmoula, K.; Belhadj Amara, A.

    1994-03-01

    We have prepared CuInS2 thin layers by airless spray "S.P.A." in order to use them as an absorber in a photovoltaic cell. The X-ray diffraction analysis has showed that these layers are well crystallized with a privileged (112) principal orientation for a ratio of the concentrations in the pulverized solution x=frac[Cu^I][In^{III]}=1.1. After heat treatment under vacuum the crystallization have been clearly improved. The structural analysis of the thin CuInS2 layers have revealed that a secondary phases of In2S3 and In6S7 are present. Thus we have realized by the same technique thin In-S layers whose structural and morphological properties have been studied. This analysis has showed that the In-S layers are well crystallized for a ratio y=frac[In^{3+]}[S^{2-]}=0.6 in the spray solution. The In-S layers are essentially formed by a β-In2S3 material. Although the In6S7 phase appears to the detriment of β-In2S3 phase for y= 0.75. Nous avons préparé des couches minces de CuInS2, par pulvérisation chimique réactive sans air "P.S.A.", en vue de leur utilisation en tant qu'absorbeur dans un dispositif photovoltaïque. L'analyse par diffraction X a montré que ces couches sont bien cristallisées et que l'orientation principale (112) est privilégiée pour un rapport de concentrations x=frac[Cu^I]{[In^{III}]}=1,1 dans la solution à pulvériser. Après le traitement thermique sous vide la cristallisation est nettement améliorée. L'analyse structurale des couches minces de CuInS2 a révélé que ces couches renferment des phases secondaires d'In2S3 et d'In6S7. Ainsi nous avons réalisé par la même technique "P.S.A.", des couches minces d'In-S dont nous avons étudié les propriétés structurales et morphologiques, Cette analyse a montré que les couches d'In-S sont bien cristallisées. Pour un rapport de concentrations en solution de pulvérisation y=frac[In^{3+]}[S^{2-]}=0,6 les couches d'In-S sont surtout formées du matériau β-In2S3. Alors que la phase In6S7

  7. Monitoring of land subsidence in Ravenna Municipality using two different DInSAR techniques: comparison and discussion of the results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiaschi, Simone; Di Martire, Diego; Tessitore, Serena; Achilli, Vladimiro; Ahmed, Ahmed; Borgstrom, Sven; Calcaterra, Domenico; Fabris, Massimo; Ramondini, Massimo; Serpelloni, Enrico; Siniscalchi, Valeria; Floris, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Land subsidence affecting the Ravenna Municipality (Emilia Romagna Region, NE Italy) is one of the best example on how the exploitation of natural resources can affect the environment and the territory. In fact, the pumping of groundwater and the extraction of gas from both on and off-shore reservoirs, started in the 1950s, have caused a strong land subsidence affecting most of the Emilia Romagna territory but in particular the Adriatic Sea coastline near Ravenna. In such area the current subsidence rate, even if lower than in the past, can reach the -2cm/y. Local Authorities have monitored this phenomenon over the years with different techniques: spirit levelling, GPS surveys and, more recently, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) techniques, confirming the critical situation of land subsidence risk. In this work, we present the comparison between the results obtained with two different DInSAR techniques applied to the study of the land subsidence in the Ravenna territory: the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) and the Coherent Pixel Technique (CPT) techniques. The SBAS works on SARscape software and is based on the Berardino et al., 2002 algorithm. This technique relies on the combination of differential interferograms created from stacks of SAR image pairs that have small temporal and perpendicular baselines. Thanks to the application of several interferograms for every single image, it is possible to obtain high spatial coherence, high data density and more effective error reduction. This allows us to obtain mean velocity maps with good data density even over non-urbanized territories. For the CPT we used the SUBsoft processor based on the algorithm implemented by Mora et al., 2003. CPT is able to extract from a stack of differential interferograms the deformation evolution over wide areas during large time spans. The processing scheme is composed of three main steps: a) the generation of the best interferogram set among all the available images of the

  8. Integrated analysis of differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) and geological data for measuring deformation movement of Kaligarang fault, Semarang-Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyo, Y.; Fakhrudin, Warasambi, S. M.

    2016-05-01

    Semarang is one of the densely populated city in Central Java which is has Kaligarang's fault. It is lie in Kaligarang River and across several dense urban settlement. The position of Kaligarang's river itself divides in the direction nearly north-south city of Semarang. The impact of the fault can be seen in severals indication such as a land subsidence phenomenon in Tinjomoyo village area which is make impact to house and road destruction. In this research, we have used combination methods between InSAR, DinSAR and geomorphology (geology data) where is this techniques used to identity the fault area and estimate Kaligarang's fault movement velocity. In fault movement velocity observation, we only compute the movement in vertical with neglect horizontal movement. The data used in this study of one pair ALOS PALSAR level 1.0 which was acquired on June 8, 2007and 10 of September 2009. Besides that third ALOS PALSAR earlier, also used data of SRTM DEM 4th version, is used for the correction of the topography. The use of the three methods already mentioned earlier have different functions. For the lnSAR method used for the establishment of a digital model in Semarang. After getting high models digital city of Semarang, the identification process can be done layout, length, width and area of the Kaligarang fault using geomorphology. Results of such identification can be calculated using the rate of deformation and fault movement. From the result generated DinSAR method of land subsidence rate between 3 em to II em. To know the truth measurement that used DinSAR method, is performed with the decline of validation that measured using GPS. After validating obtained standard deviation of 3,073 em. To estimate the Kaligarang's fault pattern and direction is using the geomorphology method. The results that Kaligarang's is an active fault that has fault strike slip as fault pattern. It makes this research is useful because could be used as an inquick assessment in fault

  9. [Program and practice of psychiatric genetics at the German Research Institute of Psychiatry under Ernst Rüdin: on the relationship between science, politics and the concept of race before and after 1993].

    PubMed

    Roelcke, Volker

    2002-01-01

    The first research institution exclusively devoted to psychiatric genetics was the Department of Genealogy and Demography at the German Psychiatric Research Institute (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Psychiatrie) in Munich. From its foundation in 1917 until 1945 it was directed by Ernst Rüdin, one of the protagonists of the racial hygiene movement in Germany. In scientific terms, colleagues from abroad regarded the research undertaken by Rüdin and his collaborators as outstanding in 1933/34, and as remarkable even in the post-1945 period. This paper analyses programme and practice of psychiatric genetics at the Munich Institute as well as Rüdin's involvement in Nazi mental health policy including his active support of the systematic patient killings ('euthanasia'). It is argued that the idea of a healthy 'race' was a guiding principle motivating all of Rüdin's research and political activities, and that it is not possible to distinguish in his work a phase of 'good' research (in scientific terms) untainted by racial ideas from a phase of 'bad' (pseudo-) research contaminated by racial ideology.

  10. Slow-Moving Landslide Monitoring with Multi-Temporal TerraSAR-X Data by Means of DInSAR Techniques in Crotone Province (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Confuorto, P.; Plank, S.; Di Martire, D.; Ramondini, M.; Thuro, K.; Calcaterra, D.

    2015-05-01

    The Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) is one of the most powerful devices for monitoring deformation processes on the Earth surface. Here, a dataset of TerraSAR-X StripMap imagery covering almost the whole Crotone province territory, located in the south of the Italian peninsula, has been selected and processed. The time span goes from April 2008 to June 2010. In this work, two different multitemporal interferometry (MTI) approaches and two different software packages have been used and compared in order to identify benefits/constraints of each MTI approach and each software. Such approaches are: the ‘permanent’ (or ‘persistent’, or ‘point-like’) scatterers [1] implemented on the SARscape® software [2], and the Temporal Sublook Spectral Coherence (TSSC), derived from Coherent Pixel Technique algorithm and works on SUBSOFT processor, developed by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSLab) group, from the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) [3-5].

  11. [Customer satisfaction with a quality management system according to DIN EN ISO 9001:2000: Increase in the satisfaction of cooperating clinics].

    PubMed

    Beholz, Sven; Konertz, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    The evaluation of customers' satisfaction is elementary for any quality management system. In our university cardiac surgery unit that has been certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 the influence of repeated evaluation of the referring physicians' satisfaction conducted in the course of three consecutive years on structures and processes in the scope of the quality management system was examined. Customers' satisfaction with the possibility of access to the department could be increased by targeted interventions. Further interventions in the field of documentation led to a measurable increase in satisfaction with postoperative communication. Repeated annual evaluation of the satisfaction of referring physicians has proved to be a valuable tool in the process of continuous quality improvement.

  12. Espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento de Abell 586 com GMOS - o estado dinâmico de um aglomerado de galáxias com arcos gravitacionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cypriano, E. S.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Kneib, J.-P.; Campusano, L.

    2003-08-01

    Nesse trabalho é apresentado um estudo do conteúdo de massa do aglomerado de galáxias A586 (z = 0.171) bem como sua distribuição espacial. Isso foi feito a partir de dados de espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento obtidos com o instrumento GMOS acoplado ao telescópio Gemini-Norte. A massa desse aglomerado foi estudada a partir da posição dos seus arcos gravitacionais (lentes fortes), da medida estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes fracas) e através da dispersão de velocidades de uma amostra de cerca de 30 galáxias pertencentes ao aglomerado (teorema do virial). Os dois primeiros métodos não dependem do estado dinâmico do aglomerado, enquanto que o terceiro sim. Desse modo, comparando seus resultados pode-se estimar o grau de relaxamento desse sistema. Dados de raios X presentes na literatura também serão incluídos nessa análise. Nossos resultados preliminares a partir das técnicas de lentes fracas, mostram que, supondo que a distribuição de massa desse aglomerado seja a de uma esfera isotérmica, espera-se que ele apresente uma dispersão de velocidades de 1330+/-78 km s-1, em contradicao com medidas similares feitas por Dahle et al. 2002 que encontram valores tão altos quanto 1680 km s-1. Já o estudo dinâmico resultou numa dispersão de velocidades de ~950 km s-1.

  13. Monitoring of surface deformation in open pit mine using DInSAR time-series: a case study in the N5W iron mine (Carajás, Brazil) using TerraSAR-X data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mura, José C.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Gama, Fabio F.; Santos, Athos R.; Galo, Mauricio; Camargo, Paulo O.; Silva, Arnaldo Q.; Silva, Guilherme G.

    2014-10-01

    We present an investigation of surface deformation using Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) time-series carried out in an active open pit iron mine, the N5W, located in the Carajás Mineral Province (Brazilian Amazon region), using 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) scenes. This mine has presented a historical of instability and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mine (pit walls) have been done based on ground based radar. Two complementary approaches were used: the standard DInSAR configuration, as an early warning of the slope instability conditions, and the DInSAR timeseries analysis. In order to decrease the topographic phase error a high resolution DEM was generated based on a stereo GeoEye-1 pair. Despite the fact that a DinSAR contains atmospheric and topographic phase artifacts and noise, it was possible to detect deformation in some interferometric pairs, covering pit benches, road ramps and waste piles. The timeseries analysis was performed using the 31 interferometric pairs, which were selected based on the highest mean coherence of a stack of 107 interferograms, presenting less phase unwrapping errors. The time-series deformation was retrieved by the Least-Squares (LS) solution using an extension of the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), with a set of additional weighted constrain on the acceleration deformation. The atmospheric phase artifacts were filtered in the space-time domain and the DEM height errors were estimated based on the normal baseline diversity. The DInSAR time-series investigation showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in the N5W mine located in a tropical rainforest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for alarm, planning and risk assessment.

  14. 3D displacements maps of the L'Aquila earthquake by applying SISTEM method to GPS and ENVISAT and ALOS DInSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmino, Francesco; Anzidei, Marco; Briole, Pierre; de Michele, Marcello; Elias, Panagiotis; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Spata, Alessandro

    2010-05-01

    We present an application of the novel SISTEM (Simultaneous and Integrated Strain Tensor Estimation from geodetic and satellite deformation Measurements) approach [Guglielmino et al., 2009] to obtain a 3D estimation of the ground deformation pattern produced by the April 6, 2009, Mw 6.3 L'Aquila earthquake, the most destructive in the Abruzzo region since the huge 1703 earthquake [Boschi et al., 2000; Chiarabba et al., 2005]. The focal mechanism of the main shock is of normal faulting with NE-SW oriented T-axis [INGV, 2009]. Most of the aftershocks, located by the INGV seismic network, are in the depth range 5÷15 km, depicting a SW dipping fault plane [INGV, 2009]. Field observations [EMERGEO working group, 2009] have identified surface ground cracks with centimeter to decimeters throws over a wide belt running along the Paganica Fault. A closely spaced GPS (Global Positioning System) network was set up in this sector of the Apennines after 1999 [Anzidei et al., 2005] and more than 10 Continuous GPS (CGPS) stations have been operating in this region over the last years. On March 30 2008, INGV installed five GPS receivers on selected benchmarks of the Central Apennine Geodetic Network (CaGeoNet) bordering the L'Aquila basin in order to detect the eventual ground movements during the seismic sequence. These stations were crucial to resolve the near-field co-seismic deformation pattern properly, allowing direct observation of the details of co-seismic displacement related to the main shock. Thanks to the ESA Earth Watching project, which made Envisat data quickly available after their acquisition, we performed a DInSAR (Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) analysis of ascending and descending images sampling the date of the earthquake. In particular, we analyze the descending pair for the interval 27/04/2008 - 12/04/2009 (tbline = 350 days; Bperp = 44m) and the ascending pair for the interval 11/03/2009 - 15/04/2009 (tbline = 35 days; Bperp = 227m

  15. Synergy of ASAR and RADARSAT-2 ultra-fine acquisitions for ground deformation monitoring by means of DInSAR and PSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Panagiotis; Briole, Pierre; Sykioti, Olga

    2010-05-01

    consideration the raised seismisity of the area. The Psathopyrgos fault zone as well as the Rion-Patras transfer fault zone are investigated for any detectable ground deformations that could be indications/precursors or inter-seismic accumulation processes before a main event. The city of Patras are investigated for any detectable ground/buildings deformation due to human interventions or geophysical processes. The potential of Rion-Antirion bridge monitoring for any detectable deformation as well as the surrounding ground on the two edges of it, are also investigated and assessed. The study area presents major difficulties for DInSAR/PSI applications, due to its intense vegetation coverage and high topography presenting various facets, varying high slopes and shadowing effects. Moreover its intense topography in conjunction with its location between Aegean and Ionian seas is leading to high precipitation rates and extend cloud coverage. All these characteristics of the study area contribute to high decorrelation of the interferometric products. For the estimation of the ocuured deformations a series of ASAR/ENVISAT (image swath 2) data are processed by means of PSI and DInSAR techniques, but RADARSAT-2 (ultra-fine beam mode) data are processed only by means of DInSAR technique due to its lack of historical data. The processing will be carried out exploiting commercial and in-house software. The medium and high ground resolution added value products of the acquired data are combined in the thematic level.

  16. Interplay Between Tectonics And Volcanic Processes Active In The Yellowstone Caldera Detected Via DInSAR And GPS Time-Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tizzani, Pietro; Battaglia, Maurizio; Castaldo, Raffaele; Pepe, Antonio; Zeni, Giovanni; Lanari, Riccardo

    2014-05-01

    We discriminate and quantify the effects of different stress sources that are active in the Yellowstone volcanic region. In particular, the use of long-term deformation time series allows us to separate the spatial and temporal contributions of the regional tectonic field due to North American (NA) plate motion from the dynamic of magmatic/hydrothermal sources beneath the caldera area. Yellowstone volcano was formed by three major caldera forming eruptions that occurred around 2.0, 1.3 and 0.64 Ma, the most recent one responsible for the 60 km-wide and 40 km-long Yellowstone caldera. Two structural resurgent domes emerged after the last caldera forming eruption: the Mallard Lake (ML) resurgent dome in the southwestern region of Yellowstone caldera, and the Sour Creek (SC) resurgent dome in the northeast part of the caldera. In this work, we extensively exploit DInSAR and GPS measurements to investigate surface deformation at Yellowstone caldera over the last 18 years. We start by analyzing the 1992-2010 deformation time series retrieved by applying the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) DInSAR technique. This allows us identifying three macro-areas: i) Norris Geyser Basin (NGB), ii) ML and SC resurgent domes and iii) Snake River Plain (SRP), characterized by unique deformation behaviors. In particular, SRP shows a signal related to tectonic deformation, while the other two regions are influenced by the caldera unrest. To isolate the deformation signals related to different stress sources in the Yellowstone caldera, we also remove from the retrieved mean deformation velocity maps the mean displacement rate associated to the northern sector of the Snake River Plain. This latter is the result of tectonic processes controlled by complex interactions between the NA plate, moving in the ENE - WSW direction with a rate of about 2 cm/yr, and the flow of the asthenosphere plume beneath the Yellowstone volcanic region. These de-trended data allow recognizing four major deformation

  17. Comparison of water-level, extensometric, DInSAR and simulation data for quantification of subsidence in Murcia City (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessitore, S.; Fernández-Merodo, J. A.; Herrera, G.; Tomás, R.; Ramondini, M.; Sanabria, M.; Duro, J.; Mulas, J.; Calcaterra, D.

    2016-05-01

    Subsidence due to groundwater overexploitation has been recognized in the metropolitan area of Murcia (25 km2) in south-eastern Spain since the early 1990s. Previous published works have focused their attention on land subsidence that occurred during the drought period between 1995 and 2008. This work first analyzes the groundwater recovery that has occurred since 2008 and then determines the kind of associated ground deformation detected by the new extensometric data. Subsequently, subsidence time series are computed on 24 geotechnical boreholes scattered throughout the study area by means of a hydro-mechanical finite element code and a linear-elastic constitutive law. A spatio-temporal interpolation of the numerically modeled surface displacements is performed over the whole domain and compared with extensometers and DInSAR-derived displacement maps in two different periods: the drought period from 2004 to 2008, and the recovery period from 2008 to 2012. In spite of the limited information on the geomechanical parameters characterizing the modelled geological formations, the proposed approach is able to discriminate areas where the soils have an elastic behavior (small differences in the comparisons) or an elasto-plastic behavior (large differences in the comparisons). This zonation enhances the understanding of the subsidence phenomenon in Murcia City and could prevent, from a quantitatively point of view, future severe subsidence due to aquifer overexploitation.

  18. System Accuracy Evaluation of 43 Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose according to DIN EN ISO 15197

    PubMed Central

    Freckmann, Guido; Schmid, Christina; Baumstark, Annette; Pleus, Stefan; Link, Manuela; Haug, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    Background The accuracy of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose is important, as reliable measurement results are a prerequisite for therapeutic decisions. Methods This system accuracy evaluation study was performed according to DIN EN ISO 15197:2003 for 43 Conformité Européenne (CE)-labeled blood glucose (BG) monitoring systems. Measurement results of each system were compared with results of the designated comparison method (manufacturer’s measurement procedure): glucose oxidase method (YSI 2300 glucose analyzer) or hexokinase method (Hitachi 917/ cobas 501). Results Complete assessment according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard was performed for 34 out of 43 systems, and 27 (79.4%) meet the requirements of the standard, i.e., ≥95% of their results showed at least the minimum acceptable accuracy. For 9 of the 43 systems, complete accuracy assessment was not performed due to an oxygen sensitivity (manufacturer’s labeling). The bias (according to Bland and Altman) of all 43 evaluated systems ranged from -14.1% to +12.4%. Conclusions From the 34 systems completely assessed, 7 systems did not fulfill the minimal accuracy requirements of the ISO standard. The CE mark apparently does not guarantee that all BG systems provide accuracy according to the standard. Because inaccurate systems bear the risk of false therapeutic decisions, regular and standardized evaluation of BG meters and test strips should be requested in order to ensure adherence to quality standards. PMID:23063032

  19. [Quality management systems are compulsory: clinics have the choice. Comparison of the systems DIN EN ISO 9000 ff, KTQ and EFQM].

    PubMed

    Steinbrucker, S

    2011-10-01

    According to §§135-137 SGB V (German Civil Code), German hospitals are required to introduce and develop an institutional quality management (QM) system. They are, however, currently not obliged to undergo a certification. The prime responsibility to introduce a QM system lies with the top management. The aim is to continuously monitor and improve the quality of the processes and practices in the hospital. QM systems are one of the major constituents which influence the prosperity of an enterprise. Hospitals are able to improve the quality of their processes without significantly increasing the costs. The Excellence Barometer® Health Care (ExBa) of the Fraunhofer Institute has shown that deficits are usually not identified in the professional competence of the medical personnel but rather in respect to leadership abilities, communication and motivation. The introduction of QM in a hospital requires an in-depth familiarity with the various QM systems to select an appropriate model for the own institution. The systems most commonly in use in German hospitals are DIN EN ISO ff, EFQM and KTQ®. The article illustrates and compares the layout, requirements and assessment criteria of the various systems.

  20. General design method for 3-dimensional, potential flow fields. Part 2: Computer program DIN3D1 for simple, unbranched ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanitz, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The general design method for three-dimensional, potential, incompressible or subsonic-compressible flow developed in part 1 of this report is applied to the design of simple, unbranched ducts. A computer program, DIN3D1, is developed and five numerical examples are presented: a nozzle, two elbows, an S-duct, and the preliminary design of a side inlet for turbomachines. The two major inputs to the program are the upstream boundary shape and the lateral velocity distribution on the duct wall. As a result of these inputs, boundary conditions are overprescribed and the problem is ill posed. However, it appears that there are degrees of compatibility between these two major inputs and that, for reasonably compatible inputs, satisfactory solutions can be obtained. By not prescribing the shape of the upstream boundary, the problem presumably becomes well posed, but it is not clear how to formulate a practical design method under this circumstance. Nor does it appear desirable, because the designer usually needs to retain control over the upstream (or downstream) boundary shape. The problem is further complicated by the fact that, unlike the two-dimensional case, and irrespective of the upstream boundary shape, some prescribed lateral velocity distributions do not have proper solutions.

  1. Breathing clean air is Są’áh Naagháí Bik'eh Hózhóó (SNBH): a culturally centred approach to understanding commercial smoke-free policy among the Diné (Navajo People)

    PubMed Central

    Chief, Carmenlita; Sabo, Samantha; Clark, Hershel; Nez Henderson, Patricia; Yazzie, Alfred; Nahee, Jacqueline; Leischow, Scott J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Indigenous worldviews and research approaches are fundamental to make meaning of complex health issues and increase the likelihood of identifying existing cultural protective factors that have contributed to the resilience and survival of Indigenous people worldwide. Objective We describe the process for applying the Diné (Navajo) paradigm of Są’áh Naagháí Bik'eh Hózhóó (SNBH), a belief system that guides harmonious living, and demonstrate how the application of SNBH enhances understanding of Navajo principles for well-being. Specifically, we juxtapose this analysis with a conventional qualitative analysis to illuminate and interpret Diné perspectives on the health and economic impact of commercial secondhand smoke and smoke-free policy. Methods Focus groups were conducted throughout Navajo Nation to assess the appeal and impact of several evidence-based messages regarding the health and economic impact of smoke-free policy. Results Diné perspectives have shifted away from family and cultural teachings considered protective of a smoke-free life, and struggle to balance the ethical and economics of respect for individual and collective rights to live and work in smoke-free environments. Conclusions Indigenous-centred approaches to public health research and policy analysis contribute to understanding the cultural knowledge, practices and beliefs that are protective of the health and well-being of Indigenous people. PMID:27697944

  2. [Microbiological research methods of drinking water regulation in West Germany from 1986. Suitability of the specifications of DIN 38411, Part 7, for the detection of sulfite-reducing, spore-forming anaerobes (Clostridia)].

    PubMed

    Schneider, J; Edenharder, R; Borneff, J

    1988-01-01

    The drinking-water regulations of the Federal Republic of Germany, from 22.05.1986, contains in paragraph 1 the instructions: "Drinking-water must be free of pathogens", and further in paragraph 11, "Responsibilities of the employer or other owner of a water supplying facility", include that: "The official authority may direct, that the employer...of a water supplying facility has to extend or has to cause to extend the microbiological examinations in order to determine, that...sulfite-reducing, spore-forming anaerobes (Clostridia) can not be detected in 20 ml of water..." The drinking-water regulations do not prescribe a bacteriological examination method in detail. Appendix 1 rules only that the examination for sulfite-reducing, spore-forming anaerobes (Clostridia) has to be performed after heating the sample to 75 degrees C (+/- 5 degrees C) for 10 min, by either the multiple-tube or membrane filtration method and cultivation in DRCM1-medium. If growth occurs, the presence of Clostridia must be confirmed by anaerobic and aerobic subcultivation. Furthermore, a DIN-instruction (DIN 38411, part 7) exists, which prescribes a detailed procedure for multiple-tube and membrane filtration methods, but does not provide for strict anaerobiosis. We were, however, unable to detect Clostridia in a multitude of water samples with the methods of the DIN-regulation. In order to examine if neglect of strict anaerobiosis was the reason for these failures, we checked the suitability of the DIN-regulation for the isolation of Clostridia from drinking water. In preliminary tests we examined up to four strains of the species C. botulinum, C. cadaveris, C. cochlearium, C. difficile, C. innocuum, C. perfringens and C. tertium for their ability to form heat-resistent spores in four sporulation media. It was, however, not possible to find a medium, in which all strains could sporulate within one week. In order to characterize the detection of these anaerobes in water, one particularly

  3. Sentinel-1 data massive processing for large scale DInSAR analyses within Cloud Computing environments through the P-SBAS approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanari, Riccardo; Bonano, Manuela; Buonanno, Sabatino; Casu, Francesco; De Luca, Claudio; Fusco, Adele; Manunta, Michele; Manzo, Mariarosaria; Pepe, Antonio; Zinno, Ivana

    2017-04-01

    The SENTINEL-1 (S1) mission is designed to provide operational capability for continuous mapping of the Earth thanks to its two polar-orbiting satellites (SENTINEL-1A and B) performing C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging. It is, indeed, characterized by enhanced revisit frequency, coverage and reliability for operational services and applications requiring long SAR data time series. Moreover, SENTINEL-1 is specifically oriented to interferometry applications with stringent requirements based on attitude and orbit accuracy and it is intrinsically characterized by small spatial and temporal baselines. Consequently, SENTINEL-1 data are particularly suitable to be exploited through advanced interferometric techniques such as the well-known DInSAR algorithm referred to as Small BAseline Subset (SBAS), which allows the generation of deformation time series and displacement velocity maps. In this work we present an advanced interferometric processing chain, based on the Parallel SBAS (P-SBAS) approach, for the massive processing of S1 Interferometric Wide Swath (IWS) data aimed at generating deformation time series in efficient, automatic and systematic way. Such a DInSAR chain is designed to exploit distributed computing infrastructures, and more specifically Cloud Computing environments, to properly deal with the storage and the processing of huge S1 datasets. In particular, since S1 IWS data are acquired with the innovative Terrain Observation with Progressive Scans (TOPS) mode, we could benefit from the structure of S1 data, which are composed by bursts that can be considered as separate acquisitions. Indeed, the processing is intrinsically parallelizable with respect to such independent input data and therefore we basically exploited this coarse granularity parallelization strategy in the majority of the steps of the SBAS processing chain. Moreover, we also implemented more sophisticated parallelization approaches, exploiting both multi-node and multi

  4. La estructura dinámica del cinturón de Kuiper interior y la formación de Urano y Neptuno

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melita, M. D.; Brunini, A.

    De acuerdo a los más recientes estudios sobre la formación de Urano y Neptuno, éstos podrían haber sufrido una importante migración radial hacia el exterior, debido al intercambio de momento angular con los planetesimales presentes en esa región durante las últimas etapas de la formación del Sistema Solar. Esta migración radial habría tenido importantes consecuencias sobre la presente estructura dinámica del cinturón cometario de Kuiper. Tal como lo reflejan las observaciones, la mayoría de los cuerpos observados en el cinturón de Kuiper se encuentran en resonancia de movimientos medios exteriores con Neptuno, hecho que también se refleja en la presente órbita de Plutón. En el presente trabajo se estudia tanto numérica como analíticamente la influencia de la variación de las masas de Urano y Neptuno durante el proceso de migración sobre las probabilidades de captura en algunas de las resonancias exteriores de Neptuno. Se estudia también la influencia de encuentros gravitacionales mutuos sobre la estabilidad de las órbitas resonantes. Este estudio ofrece argumentos de plausibilidad para explicar por qué ninguno de los objetos descubiertos en el cinturón de Kuiper se encontraría en la resonancia 2:1.

  5. Thermal creep properties of Ti-stabilized DIN 1.4970 (15-15Ti) austenitic stainless steel pressurized cladding tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cautaerts, Niels; Delville, Rémi; Dietz, Wolfgang; Verwerft, Marc

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a large database of thermal creep data from pressurized unirradiated DIN 1.4970 Ti-stabilized austenitic stainless steel (i.e. EN 1515CrNiMoTiB or ;15-15Ti;) cladding tubes from more than 1000 bi-axial creep tests conducted during the fast reactor R&D program of the DeBeNe (Deutschland-Belgium-Netherlands) consortium between the 1960's to the late 1980's. The data comprises creep rate and time-to-rupture between 600 and 750 °C and a large range of stresses. The data spans tests on material from around 70 different heats and 30 different melts. Around one fourth of the data was obtained from cold worked material, the rest was obtained on cold worked + aged (800 °C, 2 h) material. The data are graphically presented in log-log graphs. The creep rate data is fit with a sinh correlation, the time to rupture data is fit with a modified exponential function through the Larson-Miller parameter. Local equivalent parameters to Norton's law are calculated and compared to literature values for these types of steels and related to possible creep mechanisms. Some time to rupture data above 950 °C is compared to literature dynamic recrystallization data. Time to rupture data between 600 and 750 °C is also compared to literature data from 316 steel. Time to rupture was correlated directly to creep rate with the Monkman-Grant relationship at different temperatures.

  6. Detection of Creep Displacement by DInSAR using TerraSAR-X data around Active Fault in the Metro Manila, the Philippine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguchi, T.

    2010-12-01

    Tomonori Deguchi (Nittetsu Mining Consultants Co., Ltd.) Yoshihiro Kinugasa (Association for the Development of Earthquake Prediction) Katsumi Kurita (Tokyo Metropolitan College of Industrial Technology) Makoto Omura (Kochi Womes's University) Tomoya Oku (Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center) Many ground deformations have been occurred by earthquakes and volcanic activities in the Republic of the Philippines. The monitoring of deformation using InSAR, which is capable to observe a wide area at high spatial resolution, as well as GPS measurement and leveling survey, which are capable to measure the point-based but subtle land displacement less than a centimeter, is actively conducted in this country. The Valley fault exhibits fault creep displacement. It is a north-south trending active fault on the eastern edge of the Metro Manila district, central Luzon. Some buildings and road pavement are damaged by vertical displacement of the ground where the central segment of the fault passes through. Moreover, overpumping of groundwater in the Metro Manila district has occurred huge ground subsidences. The purpose of this study is to investigate the distribution of spatial and temporal change on the earth surface around Metro Manila. We measured long-term ground deformation from 2003 until 2010 by means of InSAR and time series analysis using ENVISAT/ASAR data. As a result, it shows that the uplift phenomena in the western part of Valley fault are uniform. On the other hand, the land movement in the eastern part of the Valley fault had reversed from subsidence to uplift in around 2007. It would be difficult to conceive that these tendencies resulted from groundwater pumping. We applied DInSAR using TerraSAR-X data in order to measure the detailed spatial distribution of creep displacement around the Valley fault. Additionally, we tried to detect a steep gradient of interferometric phase using the first differentiation. From this analysis, some segments in the direction

  7. Correlation between pore fluid pressures and DInSAR post-seismic deformation of the May 20, 2012 Emilia-Romagna (Italy) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moro, M.; Stramondo, S.; Albano, M.; Barba, S.; Solaro, G.; Saroli, M.; Bignami, C.

    2015-12-01

    The present work focuses on the detection and analysis of the postseismic surface deformations following the two earthquakes that hit the Emilia Romagna region (Italy) on May 20 and 29, 2012. The 2012 Emilia earthquake sequence struck the central sector of the Ferrara arc, which represents the external fold-and-thrust system of the Northern Apennines thrust belt buried below the Po plain. The May 20 event occurred on the Ferrara basal thrust at depth, at about 6-7 km, while, during the May 29 event, the rupture jumped on an inner splay of the Ferrara system. The analysis of the postseismic displacements was carried out thanks to a dataset of SAR COSMO­ SkyMed images covering a time span of about one year (May 20, 2012 - May 11, 2013) after the May 20 event. The DInSAR results revealed the presence of two deformation patches: the first one is located in the area that experienced the coseismic uplift. Here the postseismic displacements point out a further ground uplift occurring along the first three months after the 20 May event. The second deformation patch is located in the villages of San Carlo and Mirabello, where ground subsidence lasting about four months was detected. We hypothesized that both the observed phenomena are related to the pore pressure perturbation caused by the coseismic deformation. In particular, the ground uplift is due to the deep crustal deformations caused by the pore fluid diffusion at depth to re-establish the initial hydrostatic stresses. Instead, the ground subsidence is related to the compaction of the shallow sandy layers caused by the liquefaction phenomena, which widely affected the San Carlo and Mirabello area. Preliminary numerical analyses performed with the Finite Element Method and empirical relations confirmed our hypothesis.

  8. Etude des propriétés optiques des couches minces de CuInS2 et d'In-S " Airless spray "

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamoun, N.; Bennaceur, R.; Frigerio, J. M.

    1994-05-01

    In this work we have studied the optical properties of the thin CuInS2 and In-S layers prepared by airless spray " P.S.A. ". The study of the optical properties from the ellipsometric measure realized in the interval energy of incident photons [1.5-4] eV, has showed that the refraction index n_1 and the extinction coefficient k_1 vary in the interval [1.8-2.3] and [0.45-0.80] respectively. The absorption coefficient α of the thin CuInS2 layers realized for different ratios x of the concentrations in the spray solution (x =frac[CuI][InIII]) is high with values varied between (5 × 10^4 and 18 × 10^4 cm^{-1}). The direct gap energy of the thin CuInS2 layers of the order of 1.38 eV. In the same way, we study the spectrum variation of n_1 (λ) and k_1 (λ) of the thin In-S layers, realized for two values of ratio y of the concentration in the spray solution (y=frac{[In^{3+}]}{[S^{2-}]}), shows that for the value of y = 0.6 (material β-In2S3) the refraction index is higher than that of the thin layer obtained for the value of y = 0.75 (material In6S7) [1], and that the extinction coefficient is lower than that of In6S7. For In-S thin layers, α is also high with values varing between 2×10^4 and 12×10^4 cm^{-1}. The direct band gap of materials β-In2S3 and In6S7 are 2.22 eV and 1.94 eV respectively. The heat treatment under vacuum at 573 K during two hours improves the optical quality of the thin " p " type CuInS2 Layer. Dans ce travail nous avons étudié les propriétés optiques des couches minces de CuInS2 et d'In-S réalisées par pulvérisation chimique réactive sans air " P.S.A. ". L'étude des propriétés optiques des couches minces de CuInS2, à partir des mesures ellipsométriques effectuées dans le domaine des photons incidents [1,5-4] eV, a révélé que l'indice de réfraction n_1 et le coefficient d'extinction k_1 varient respectivement dans les domaines [1,8-2,3] et [0,45-0,80]. Le coefficient d'absorption α, des couches minces de CuInS2 r

  9. Breathing clean air is Są'áh Naagháí Bik'eh Hózhóó (SNBH): a culturally centred approach to understanding commercial smoke-free policy among the Diné (Navajo People).

    PubMed

    Chief, Carmenlita; Sabo, Samantha; Clark, Hershel; Nez Henderson, Patricia; Yazzie, Alfred; Nahee, Jacqueline; Leischow, Scott J

    2016-10-01

    Indigenous worldviews and research approaches are fundamental to make meaning of complex health issues and increase the likelihood of identifying existing cultural protective factors that have contributed to the resilience and survival of Indigenous people worldwide. We describe the process for applying the Diné (Navajo) paradigm of Są'áh Naagháí Bik'eh Hózhóó (SNBH), a belief system that guides harmonious living, and demonstrate how the application of SNBH enhances understanding of Navajo principles for well-being. Specifically, we juxtapose this analysis with a conventional qualitative analysis to illuminate and interpret Diné perspectives on the health and economic impact of commercial secondhand smoke and smoke-free policy. Focus groups were conducted throughout Navajo Nation to assess the appeal and impact of several evidence-based messages regarding the health and economic impact of smoke-free policy. Diné perspectives have shifted away from family and cultural teachings considered protective of a smoke-free life, and struggle to balance the ethical and economics of respect for individual and collective rights to live and work in smoke-free environments. Indigenous-centred approaches to public health research and policy analysis contribute to understanding the cultural knowledge, practices and beliefs that are protective of the health and well-being of Indigenous people. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Investigating a damaging buried sinkhole cluster in an urban area (Zaragoza city, NE Spain) integrating multiple techniques: Geomorphological surveys, DInSAR, DEMs, GPR, ERT, and trenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonel, Domingo; Rodríguez-Tribaldos, Verónica; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Galve, Jorge Pedro; Guerrero, Jesús; Zarroca, Mario; Roqué, Carles; Linares, Rogelio; McCalpin, James P.; Acosta, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    This contribution analyses a complex sinkhole cluster buried by urban elements in the mantled evaporite karst of Zaragoza city, NE Spain, where active subsidence has caused significant economic losses (~ 0.3 million Euro). The investigation, conducted after the development of the area, has involved the application of multiple surface and subsurface techniques. A detailed map of modern surface deformation indicates two active coalescing sinkholes, whereas the interpretation of old aerial photographs reveals the presence of two additional dormant sinkholes beneath human structures that might reactivate in the near future. DInSAR (Differential Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar) displacement data have limited spatial coverage mainly due to high subsidence rates and surface changes (re-pavement), and the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and trenching investigations were severely restricted by the presence of urban elements. Nonetheless, the three techniques consistently indicate that the area affected by subsidence is larger than that defined by surface deformation features. The performance of the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique was adversely affected by the presence of highly conductive and massive anthropogenic deposits, but some profiles reveal that subsidence in the central sector of one of the sinkholes is mainly accommodated by sagging. The stratigraphic and structural relationships observed in a trench dug across the topographic margin of one of the sinkholes may be alternatively interpreted by three collapse events of around 0.6 m that occurred after 290 yr BP, or by progressive fault displacement combined with episodic anthropogenic excavation and fill. Average subsidence rates of > 6.6 mm/yr and 40 mm/yr have been calculated using stratigraphic markers dated by the radiocarbon method and historical information, respectively. This case study illustrates the need of conducting thorough investigations in sinkhole areas during the pre

  11. 2D Modelling of the Gorkha earthquake through the joint exploitation of Sentinel 1-A DInSAR measurements and geological, structural and seismological information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Novellis, Vincenzo; Castaldo, Raffaele; Solaro, Giuseppe; De Luca, Claudio; Pepe, Susi; Bonano, Manuela; Casu, Francesco; Zinno, Ivana; Manunta, Michele; Lanari, Riccardo; Tizzani, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    A Mw 7.8 earthquake struck Nepal on 25 April 2015 at 06:11:26 UTC, killing more than 9,000 people, injuring more than 23,000 and producing extensive damages. The main seismic event, known as the Gorkha earthquake, had its epicenter localized at ~82 km NW of the Kathmandu city and the hypocenter at a depth of approximately 15 km. After the main shock event, about 100 aftershocks occurred during the following months, propagating toward the south-east direction; in particular, the most energetic shocks were the Mw 6.7 and Mw 7.3 occurred on 26 April and 12 May, respectively. In this study, we model the causative fault of the earthquake by jointly exploiting surface deformation retrieved by the DInSAR measurements collected through the Sentinel 1-A (S1A) space-borne sensor and the available geological, structural and seismological information. We first exploit the analytical solution performing a back-analysis of the ground deformation detected by the first co-seismic S1A interferogram, computed by exploiting the 17/04/2015 and 29/04/2015 SAR acquisitions and encompassing the main earthquake and some aftershocks, to search for the location and geometry of the fault plane. Starting from these findings and by benefiting from the available geological, structural and seismological data, we carry out a Finite Element (FE)-based 2D modelling of the causative fault, in order to evaluate the impact of the geological structures activated during the seismic event on the distribution of the ground deformation field. The obtained results show that the causative fault has a rather complex compressive structure, dipping northward, formed by segments with different dip angles: 6° the deep segment and 60° the shallower one. Therefore, although the hypocenters of the main shock and most of the more energetic aftershocks are located along the deeper plane, corresponding to a segment of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), the FE solution also indicates the contribution of the shallower

  12. Earthquake Triggering Inferred from Rupture Histories, DInSAR Ground Deformation and Stress-Transfer Modelling: The Case of Central Italy During August 2016-January 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, G. A.; Ganas, A.; Agalos, A.; Papageorgiou, A.; Triantafyllou, I.; Kontoes, Ch.; Papoutsis, I.; Diakogianni, G.

    2017-07-01

    On August 24, October 26 and 30, 2016, Central Apennines (Italy) were hit by three shallow, normal faulting very strong earthquakes rupturing in an NW-SE striking zone. Event 3 (Norcia) occurred between event 1 (Amatrice) at the SE and event 2 (Visso) at the NW of the entire rupture zone. The rupture histories of the three events, as revealed by teleseismic P-wave inversion, showed that all were characterized by bilateral rupture process with stronger rupture directivity towards NW for events 1 and 3 and towards SSE for event 2. Maximum seismic slip of 1.2, 0.8, and 1.4 m in the hypocenter and magnitude of M w 6.2, 6.1, and 6.5 were calculated for the three events, respectively. DInSaR measurements based on Sentinel-1 and 2 satellite images showed ground deformation directivity from events 1 and 2 towards event 3, which is consistent with the rupture process directivity. For events 1, 2, and 3, the maximum ground subsidence was found equal to 0.2, 0.15, and 0.35 m. Based on rupture directivity and ground deformation pattern, we put forward the hypothesis that the area of the second event was stress loaded by the first one and that both the first and second earthquake events caused stress loading in the area, where the third event ruptured. Coulomb stress-transfer modelling yields strong evidence in favor of our hypothesis. The stress in the fault plane of event 2 was increased by 0.19 bars due to loading from event 1. Event 3 fault plane was loaded by an amount of 2 bars, due to the combined stress transfer from the two previous events, despite its proximity to the negative/positive lobe boundary. The three events produced combined stress loading of more than +0.5 bar along the Apennines to the NW and SE of the entire rupture zone. In the SE stress lobe, a series of strong earthquakes of M w 5.3, 5.6, and 5.7 occurred on January 18, 2017, but likely, seismic potential remains in the area. We consider that in the NW and more extensive stress lobe, the seismic

  13. Ground deformation and source geometry of the 24 August 2016 Amatrice earthquake (Central Italy) investigated through analytical and numerical modeling of DInSAR measurements and structural-geological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavecchia, G.; Castaldo, R.; Nardis, R.; De Novellis, V.; Ferrarini, F.; Pepe, S.; Brozzetti, F.; Solaro, G.; Cirillo, D.; Bonano, M.; Boncio, P.; Casu, F.; De Luca, C.; Lanari, R.; Manunta, M.; Manzo, M.; Pepe, A.; Zinno, I.; Tizzani, P.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the ground deformation and source geometry of the 2016 Amatrice earthquake (Central Italy) by exploiting ALOS2 and Sentinel-1 coseismic differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) measurements. They reveal two NNW-SSE striking surface deformation lobes, which could be the effect of two distinct faults or the rupture propagation of a single fault. We examine both cases through a single and a double dislocation planar source. Subsequently, we extend our analysis by applying a 3-D finite elements approach jointly exploiting DInSAR measurements and an independent, structurally constrained, 3-D fault model. This model is based on a double fault system including the two northern Gorzano and Redentore-Vettoretto faults (NGF and RVF) which merge into a single WSW dipping fault surface at the hypocentral depth (8 km). The retrieved best fit coseismic surface deformation pattern well supports the exploited structural model. The maximum displacements occur at 5-7 km depth, reaching 90 cm on the RVF footwall and 80 cm on the NGF hanging wall. The von Mises stress field confirms the retrieved seismogenic scenario.

  14. [Quality management in a combined clinic - the quality management system according to DIN EN ISO 9001 of the The German Association of Spa Accommodation Resorts e. V. (VdKB)].

    PubMed

    Eckert, H; Schulze, U

    2004-06-01

    The implementation of a quality system in health care organizations offers huge potentials for improvement and development. But the realization of such systems necessitates high investments, which small companies and family businesses often are unable to raise. The German Association of Spa Accommodation Resorts (VdKB) commissioned two consultants to develop a reasonably priced implementation concept of a DIN EN ISO 9001 quality system specially adjusted to small companies and family businesses in medical spa and rehabilitation services, which was successfully accredited in May 2003. This paper describes fundamental requirements in combine management systems, considers the pros and cons of management combines and demonstrates the practical realization of combine requirements on the example of the VdKB-combine system.

  15. Spatio-temporal evolution of anthropogenic deformation around Cerro Prieto geothermal field in the Mexicali Valley, B.C., Mexico, between 1993 and 2009 from DInSAR and leveling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarychikhina, Olga; Glowacka, Ewa; Robles, Braulio; Mojarro, Jose

    2014-05-01

    Land subsidence is an environmental hazard which could be caused by withdrawal of large amounts of fluid from beneath the earth's surface. Land subsidence is an issue in several geothermal fields worldwide (e.g., Geysers, USA (Mossop and Segall, 1997), Wairakei-Tauhara, New Zealand (Allis et al., 2009)). Cerro Prieto geothermal field (CPGF), located in the Mexicali Valley, northwest Mexico, is the oldest and largest Mexican geothermal field in operation and has been producing electricity since 1973. The large amount of geothermal fluids extracted to supply steam to the power plants has resulted in considerable deformation in and around the field (e.g. Glowacka et al., 1996, 1999; Carnec and Fabriol, 1999; Sarychikhina et al., 2011). The deformation includes land subsidence and related ground fissuring and faulting. These phenomena have produced severe damages to the local infrastructure such as roads, irrigation canals and other facilities. Detection of land subsidence and monitoring of the spatial and temporal changes of its pattern and magnitude can provide important information about the dynamics of this process and controlling geological structures. The technique of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) has been demonstrated to be a very effective technique for measuring ground deformation. This study presents an application of DInSAR interferogram stacking technique to investigate the land subsidence in the Mexicali Valley near CPGF. C-band ENVISAR ASAR images acquired between 2003 and 2009 from the ascending (track 306, frame 639) and descending track (track 84, frame 2961), obtained from the European Space Agency (ESA), as part of ESA CAT-1 project (ID - C1P3508), were used. Gamma ISP and DIFF/GEO software packages were used to calculate differential interferograms from SLC data and for differential interferograms stacking (Wegmüller and Werner, 1997). Eight average annual deformation rate maps were generated for 2005 (descending

  16. Construção de um catálogo de aglomerados abertos para estudo da dinâmica da estrutura espiral da Galáxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos, I. M.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2003-08-01

    Os aglomerados abertos são objetos de grande valor para o estudo da dinâmica da Galáxia devido esses objetos terem uma faixa de idade relativamente ampla. O trabalho visa estudar a dinâmica da estrutura espiral da Galáxia principalmente através do uso desses aglomerados, uma vez que o estudo da cinemática desses objetos é fundamental para esse objetivo. Nosso grupo trabalha no sentido de construir uma base de dados de aglomerados abertos contendo coordenadas, distância, idade, movimentos próprios e velocidades radiais e já disponibiliza uma nova versão do catálogo de aglomerados abertos o qual é uma compilação de edições anteriores, principalmente Lynga (1987), Mermilliod (1995) e ESO-B (Lauberts 1982). Nossa amostra possui cerca de 1630 aglomerados, mas nem todos os parâmetros acima citados foram determinados em sua totalidade. Para determinarmos esses parâmetros, derivamos as cores intrínsecas das estrelas membro de cada aglomerado a partir de seus tipos espectrais (busca feita no SIMBAD) obtendo assim o excesso de cor individual. A distribuição dos excessos de cor foi então utilizada para derivarmos o avermelhamento médio para cada aglomerado. De maneira similar, os tipos espectrais foram usados para estimar as magnitudes absolutas, e com as magnitudes absolutas e aparentes determinamos a respectiva distribuição do módulo de distância e finalmente a distância. Para determinar as idades foram confeccionados os diagramas cor-magnitude das estrelas de cada aglomerado onde foram superpostas a Seqüência Principal de Idade Zero (ZAMS). Superpomos a ZAMS de Schmidt-Kaler e isócronas de composição solar. Essas isócronas foram usadas para determinação das idades dos aglomerados. Uma vez que não temos ainda resultados finais, apresentamos então alguns diagramas cor-magnitude os quais foram usados para determinação, principalmente, da distância e idade dos aglomerados.

  17. (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N backbone resonance assignments of the full-length 40 kDa S. acidocaldarius Y-family DNA polymerase, dinB homolog.

    PubMed

    Moro, Sean L; Cocco, Melanie J

    2015-10-01

    The dinB homolog (Dbh) is a member of the Y-family of translesion DNA polymerases, which are specialized to accurately replicate DNA across from a wide variety of lesions in living cells. Lesioned bases block the progression of high-fidelity polymerases and cause detrimental replication fork stalling; Y-family polymerases can bypass these lesions. The active site of the translesion synthesis polymerase is more open than that of a replicative polymerase; consequently Dbh polymerizes with low fidelity. Bypass polymerases also have low processivity. Short extension past the lesion allows the high-fidelity polymerase to switch back onto the site of replication. Dbh and the other Y-family polymerases have been used as structural models to investigate the mechanisms of DNA polymerization and lesion bypass. Many high-resolution crystal structures of Y-family polymerases have been reported. NMR dynamics studies can complement these structures by providing a measure of protein motions. Here we report the (15)N, (1)H, and (13)C backbone resonance assignments at two temperatures (35 and 50 °C) for Sulfolobus acidocaldarius Dbh polymerase. Backbone resonance assignments have been obtained for 86 % of the residues. The polymerase active site is assigned as well as the majority of residues in each of the four domains.

  18. Monitoring of surface movement in a large area of the open pit iron mines (Carajás, Brazil) based on A-DInSAR techniques using TerraSAR-X data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mura, José C.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Gama, Fabio F.; Silva, Guilherme G.

    2016-10-01

    PSI (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry) analysis of large area is always a challenging task regarding the removal of the atmospheric phase component. This work presents an investigation of ground deformation measurements based on a combination of DInSAR Time-Series (DTS) and PSI techniques, applied in a large area of open pit iron mines located in Carajás (Brazilian Amazon Region), aiming at detect high rates of linear and nonlinear ground deformation. These mines have presented a historical of instability and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mines (pit walls) have been carried out based on ground based radar and total station (prisms). By using a priori information regarding the topographic phase error and phase displacement model derived from DTS, temporal phase unwrapping in the PSI processing and the removal of the atmospheric phases can be performed more efficiently. A set of 33 TerraSAR-X-1 images, acquired during the period from March 2012 to April 2013, was used to perform this investigation. The DTS analysis was carried out on a stack of multi-look unwrapped interferogram using an extension of SVD to obtain the Least-Square solution. The height errors and deformation rates provided by the DTS approach were subtracted from the stack of interferogram to perform the PSI analysis. This procedure improved the capability of the PSI analysis to detect high rates of deformation as well as increased the numbers of point density of the final results. The proposed methodology showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in a large mining area, which is located in a rain forest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for planning and risks control.

  19. Source Complexity of the 2009 L'Aquila, Italy, earthquake retrieved from the joint inversion of strong motion, GPS and DInSAR data - Evidence for a Reological Control on Rupture Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirella, Antonella; Piatanesi, Alessio; Tinti, Elisa; Chini, Marco; Cocco, Massimo

    2010-05-01

    The 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.3) occurred in the Central Apennines (Italy) on April 6th at the 01:32 UTC and caused nearly 300 casualties and heavy damages in the L'Aquila town and in several villages nearby. The main shock ruptured a normal fault striking along the Apennine axis and dipping at nearly 50° to the SW. The identification of the fault geometry of the L'Aquila main shock relies on the aftershock pattern, the interferometric data, the GPS displacements as well as the induced surface breakages. The earthquake provided an unprecedented data set of seismograms and geodetic data for a moderate-magnitude normal faulting event. In this study, we investigate the source process of the L'Aquila main shock by using a nonlinear joint inversion of strong motion, GPS and DInSAR data. The imaged rupture history is heterogeneous and characterized by rupture acceleration and directivity effects, which are stable features of the inverted models. The inferred slip distribution is characterized by two main asperities; a small shallow slip patch located up-dip the hypocenter and a large and deeper patch located southeastward. The rupture velocity is larger in the up-dip than in the along-strike direction. This difference can be partially accounted by the local crustal structure, which is characterized by a high body-wave velocity layer above the hypocenter (9.46 km) and lower velocities below. The latter velocity seems to have affected the along strike propagation, since the largest slip patch is located at depths between 9 and 14 km. The imaged slip distribution correlates well with the on-fault aftershock pattern as well as with mapped surface breakages. The rupture history is also consistent with the large PGA values recorded at L'Aquila that is located right above the hypocenter. Our results show that the L'Aquila earthquake featured a very complex rupture history, with strong spatial and temporal heterogeneities suggesting a strong reological control of the

  20. Caos en Dinámica Estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzzio, J. C.

    We describe some recent advances in the application of chaos theory to stellar dynamics, particularly those related to triaxial galaxies with central singularities. We also list current research on chaos in stellar dynamics conducted by La Plata astronomers and physicists.

  1. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 18, Number 5

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    Bucharest, Romania, pp 279-285 (Oct 22-24, 19 85) 3 fig-s 5 refs. AVAIL: Institutul Politehnic Bucuresti, Catedre de Rezistenta...NASA Lewis Res. Ctt., Cleveland, OH Rept. No. E-2546, NASA-TM-87001, 25 pp ( Mar 21, 1985) (30th Intern. Gas Turbine Conf. and Exhibit...Houston, TX, Spons. by ASME ( Mar 17-21, 1985) N85-26670/8/GAR KEY WORDS: Cascades, Flutter, Tuning An approach to passive flutter

  2. [Standardizing the radiologic report -- norm DIN 6827-5].

    PubMed

    Hackländer, T

    2004-10-01

    According to the current German "Rules and Regulation for the Application of X-rays" (RöV), a radiological report has to be issued whenever a person undergoes an examination involving x-rays. Since the RöV is not specific as to its contents, the German Radiology Standards Committee (NAR) has developed a standard for the reports. The scope of this reporting standard was expanded beyond x-ray procedures to all imaging modalities. The radiologic report describes the type of examination performed on the patient. Following the "DICOM Structured Report" information model, the report is structured in form of a document tree. The report must be archived in printed form or digitally. The report is thematically divided into six sections. Within each section, the data are condensed to the smallest still meaningful information unit. For each entry, it is stated whether it is obligatory or optional. The reports according to the standards of the NAR comply with the RöV. Standards prescribing a structure can be used as guide for uniform reporting, as appropriate for printed reports. By consistently following the DICOM standards, future international standards for medical contents can be integrated into radiologic reports.

  3. Dinámica de pulsares jóvenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. P.; Horvath, J. E.

    La observación detallada de los pulsos en varios pulsares jóvenes (τ < 105 yr) permitió detectar varios aumentos en la frecuencia de emisión gliches con cambios permanentes en Δ {˙ Ω} / {˙ Ω}. A través de las ecuaciones de movimiento se investiga, utilizando parametrizaciones simples, la hipótesis de que el ángulo entre Ω y el dipolo magnético M sea responsable de ese comportamiento. Se derivan curvas analíticas para la evolución de Ω (t) y se estudia la posibilidad de describir un conjunto de observables (incluyendo el braking index n) con estos modelos.

  4. Nuevas herramientas en dinámica de actitud.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arribas, M.; Elipe, A.

    In the software market, a number of applications designed for symbolic computations and running on desk computers are continously appearing. Among them the authors use Mathematica to handle the very discouraging expressions appearing in the attitude dynamics problem. The graphic capability of Mathematica is used in the qualitative analysis of the attitude of an artificial satellite, in order to locate where the possible bifurcations take place.

  5. Evaporación dinámica del cinturón de asteroides original

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.

    Hemos integrado numéricamente un enjambre de 3000 partículas en la región del cinturón de asteroides, sujetas a las perturbaciones gravitatorias de Júpiter y Saturno. Al cabo de 107 años, se han formado ya todos los gaps de Kirkwood observados en el cinturón actual. El grupo en la resonancia 3/2 es, aunque en menor grado, también visible. Los tiempos de Lyapunov computados para los asteroides sobrevivientes, nos ha permitido encontrar la fracción de ellos que es capaz de sobrevivir por toda la edad del sistema solar, merced a la aplicacion de la relación empírica que vincula dichos tiempos al tiempo en el cual se manifiestan grandes transiciones orbitales. La fracción de supervivientes es de aproximadamente 1/100. El resto de la masa faltante en el cinturón, es atribuible a colisiones catastróficas con cometas en etapas primordiales.

  6. Evidence for a non-opioid sigma binding site din the guinea-pig myenteric plexus

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, F.; Pascaud, X.; Vauche, D.; Junien, J.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of a binding site to (+)-(/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047 was demonstrated in a guinea-pig myenteric plexus (MYP) membrane preparation. Specific binding to this receptor was saturable, reversible, linear with protein concentration and consisted of two components, a high affinity site and a low affinity site. Morphine and naloxone 10/sup -4/M were unable to displace (+)-(/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047 binding. Haloperidol, imipramine, ethylketocyclazocine and propranolol were among the most potent compounds to inhibit this specific binding. These results suggest the presence of a non-opioid haloperidol sensitive sigma receptor in the MYP of the guinea-pig.

  7. A Methodology for Determining Consumer Attitudes and Behavior Air Force Appropriated Dinning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    attributes in choosing a fast food restaurant ...Atmosphere, nutritional food and menu variety are other important attributes consumers look for when...Restaurant Association (NRA) has published various studies which often deal with consumer preference toward specific types of food , for example, toward...ethnic foods . Many of these surveys were too food - type specific for the purpose of this study. However, a 1982 survey dealing with consumer attitudes and

  8. Investigation of Subsidence in the Manfredonia Gulf (Southern Italy) Though Multitemporal DInSAR Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triggiani, M.; Refice, A.; Capolongo, D.; Bovenga, F.; Caldara, M.

    2010-03-01

    In the last decades, the coast of the Apulia Tavoliere plain has been subject to a considerable retreat. During strong hydrodynamic and meteorological events, sea waters penetrate deeply inland. Such phenomena, together with the presence of failure damages over anthropogenic structures, indicate the presence of subsidence over an extended area. To analyze the recent evolution and rates of occurrence of the phenomenon, Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) techniques have been applied, to obtain millimetric displacement maps from series of radar interferograms. 103 ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT scenes have been analysed, with acquisition dates spanning the interval 1995-2000 (ERS) and 2003-2008 (ENVISAT), respectively. The analysis is restricted to objects characterized by strong radar return signals, generally coinciding with man-made features. The rural nature of the investigated area requires processing independently small patches on urban centres. Nevertheless, taking into account indirect observations and ground truth, a coherent picture emerges. Results indicate the presence of deformations affecting the entire temporal interval analysed, spatially distributed to form a "bowl" centered on the Ippocampo village with average rates exceeding 20 mm/y and an increasing trend in the most recent years.

  9. Monitoring of infrastructural sites by means of advanced multi-temporal DInSAR methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollrath, Andreas; Zucca, Francesco; Stramondo, Salvatore

    2013-10-01

    With the launch of Sentinel-1, advanced interferometric measurements will become more applicable then ever. The foreseen standard Wide Area Product (WAP), with its higher spatial and temporal resolution than comparable SAR missions, will provide the basement for the use of new wide scale and multitemporal analysis. By now the use of SAR interferometry methods with respect to risk assessment are mainly conducted for active tectonic zones, plate boundaries, volcanoes as well as urban areas, where local surface movement rates exceed the expected error and enough pixels per area contain a relatively stable phase. This study, in contrast, aims to focus on infrastructural sites that are located outside cities and are therefore surrounded by rural landscapes. The stumbling bock was given by the communication letter by the European Commission with regard to the stress tests of nuclear power plants in Europe in 2012. It is mentioned that continuously re-evaluated risk and safety assessments are necessary to guarantee highest possible security to the European citizens and environment. This is also true for other infrastructural sites, that are prone to diverse geophysical hazards. In combination with GPS and broadband seismology, multitemporal Differential Interferometric SAR approaches demonstrated great potential in contributing valuable information to surface movement phenomenas. At this stage of the project, first results of the Stamps-MTI approach (combined PSInSAR and SBAS) will be presented for the industrial area around Priolo Gargallo in South East Sicily by using ENVISAT ASAR IM mode data from 2003-2010. This area is located between the Malta Escarpment fault system and the Hyblean plateau and is prone to earthquake and tsunami risk. It features a high density of oil refineries that are directly located at the coast. The general potential of these techniques with respect to the SENTINEL-1 mission will be shown for this area and a road-map for further improvements is given in order to overcome limitations that refer to the influence of the atmosphere, orbit or DEM errors. Further steps will also include validation and tectonic modeling for risk assessment.

  10. Subsidence activity maps derived from DInSAR data: Orihuela case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanabria, M. P.; Guardiola-Albert, C.; Tomás, R.; Herrera, G.; Prieto, A.; Sánchez, H.; Tessitore, S.

    2013-10-01

    A new methodology is proposed to produce subsidence activity maps based on the geostatistical analysis of persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) data. PSI displacement measurements are interpolated based on Conditional Gaussian Simulation (CGS) to calculate multiple equiprobable realizations of subsidence. The result from this process is a series of interpolated subsidence values, with an estimation of the spatial uncertainty and a confidence level on the interpolation. These maps complement the PSI displacement map, improving the identification of wide subsiding areas at regional scale. At local scale, they can be used to identify buildings susceptible to suffer subsidence related damages. In order to do so, it is necessary to calculate the maximum differential settlement and the maximum angular distortion for each building of the study area. Based on PSI derived parameters those buildings in which serviceability limit state has been exceeded, and where in situ forensic analysis should be made, can be automatically identified. This methodology has been tested in Orihuela City (SE Spain) for the study of historical buildings, damaged during the last two decades by subsidence due to aquifer overexploitation.

  11. Subsidence activity maps derived from DInSAR data: Orihuela case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanabria, M. P.; Guardiola-Albert, C.; Tomás, R.; Herrera, G.; Prieto, A.; Sánchez, H.; Tessitore, S.

    2014-05-01

    A new methodology is proposed to produce subsidence activity maps based on the geostatistical analysis of persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) data. PSI displacement measurements are interpolated based on conditional Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS) to calculate multiple equiprobable realizations of subsidence. The result from this process is a series of interpolated subsidence values, with an estimation of the spatial variability and a confidence level on the interpolation. These maps complement the PSI displacement map, improving the identification of wide subsiding areas at a regional scale. At a local scale, they can be used to identify buildings susceptible to suffer subsidence related damages. In order to do so, it is necessary to calculate the maximum differential settlement and the maximum angular distortion for each building of the study area. Based on PSI-derived parameters those buildings in which the serviceability limit state has been exceeded, and where in situ forensic analysis should be made, can be automatically identified. This methodology has been tested in the city of Orihuela (SE Spain) for the study of historical buildings damaged during the last two decades by subsidence due to aquifer overexploitation. The qualitative evaluation of the results from the methodology carried out in buildings where damages have been reported shows a success rate of 100%.

  12. Estudio de eventos dinámicos en ondas milimétricas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristiani, G.; Martínez, G.; Raulin, J. P.; Giménez de Castro, G.; Rovira, M.

    El estudio de la actividad solar con el telescopio para ondas submilimétricas (SST), nos permite, por vez primera, trabajar con una resolución temporal de milisegundos. Este hecho ha permitido observar emisión nunca antes comprobada, pulsos o flashes extremadamente rápidos provenientes de las regiones activas, los cuales parecen preanunciar fulguraciones en dichas regiones. Se muestra, como ejemplo, una fulguración observada con el telescopio HASTA en Hα, y los pulsos rápidos que la preceden observados con el SST. Para cuantificar la influencia de la atmósfera terrestre en los datos registrados, se está estudiando la variabilidad temporal de las opacidades a las frecuecias de trabajo (212 y 405 Ghz), es decir los rangos de tiempo para los cuales la opacidad puede variar apreciablemente. Con este fin se calcula la eficiencia de cada canal multiplicada por la temperatura del Sol a estas frecuencias (estas son conocidas con una incerteza del 20 %). Se muestran los resultados obtenidos para cada canal, en donde se grafica este producto como función de la opacidad.

  13. Comportamiento dinámico de asteroides en la resonancia 2:1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López García, F.; Brunini, A.

    El propósito de este trabajo es mostrar los resultados obtenidos del estudio del movimiento de asteroides cercanos a la conmensurabilidad 2:1 con el movimiento medio de Júpiter, analizando el comportamiento de órbitas de asteroides reales y ficticios. Se analizan los tiempos de Lyapunov obtenidos a partir de la integración de las ecuaciones del movimiento. Se han estudiado la órbitas utilizando el modelo de cinco cuerpos y se han considerado los casos planar y espacial. Las simulaciones numéricas se realizaron utilizando integradores simpléticos y el intervalo de tiempo de integración fue de T = 107 años.

  14. Sediment DIN fluxes and preferential recycling of benthic microalgal nitrogen in a shallow macrotidal estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tobias, C.; Giblin, A.; McClelland, J.; Tucker, J.; Peterson, B.

    2003-01-01

    Sediment-water fluxes of NH4+, NO3-, dissolved inorganic carbon, and O2 were measured in cores collected from the upper Rowley River estuary, Massachusetts, and used to calculate rates of organic nitrogen (N) mineralization, nitrification, and coupled and direct denitrification (DNF). The cores contained 15N label in benthic microalgae (BMA) and in NO3- in the overlying water as a result of an ongoing whole-estuary 15NO 3- enrichment study (NISOTREX II). The tracer allowed for estimation of gross NO3- regeneration in sediments and the contribution of BMA derived N to total mineralization. The mean mineralization rate between sites was 16.0 ?? 2.0 mmol N m-2 d-1. Approximately 13 to 56% of the mineralized N was nitrified at rates ranging from 1.8 to 10.1 mmol N m-2 d-1. Total denitrification was dominated by direct DNF (3.6 mmol N m-2 d -1) furthest upstream, where NO3- concentrations were highest. Coupled DNF was most important (8.0 mmol N m -2 d-1) in the sediments with high nitrification and low water column NO3-. A gross NO3- flux from sediments to water of 0.9 to 2.1 mmol N m-2 d-1 was estimated from the isotope dilution of ??15NO 3- in the overlying water of the cores. The isotope dilution seen in the cores was also detected as a deviation from conservative ??15NO3- mixing along estuarine transects. Incorporation of this NO3- regeneration into the DNF calculations effectively increased the estimate of direct DNF by up to 50% and decreased the coupled DNF estimate by up to 220%. Increasing ?? 15NH4+ in the water of the cores indicated that the 15N-labelled BMA were preferentially mineralized over bulk sediment organic N. Additional 15N enrichments in the sediment bacterial biomarker diaminopimelic acid showed a link among 15N-labeled BMA, active bacteria, and 15NH 4+released to the overlying water. Based on ?? 15NH4+ enrichments in the cores, BMA accounted for approximately 50 to 100% of the N mineralized. An isotopic enrichment of ??15NH4+ above background in the estuary was observed at a magnitude consistent with the core-based rates of BMA mineralization. These results provide further evidence that BMA are not unidirectional sinks for water column-dissolved organic nitrogen, but instead act to turn over N between sediments and estuarine water on the scale of days.

  15. Determining the role of hydrologic variability on DIN export from the Catskill Mountains

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Catskill region of New York State receives some of the highest rates of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the northeastern US (approximately 6.2 kg ha-1 yr-1), and headwater streams have elevated nitrate concentrations (mean of stream surveys = 0.27 – 0.35 mg N l-1). Althou...

  16. 77 FR 18752 - Benzidine-Based Chemical Substances; Di-n

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... substances indicates no current manufacture (Ref. 1) within or outside the United States. In addition, four... within the United States at a level below current IUR reporting thresholds, and some substances appear to be manufactured outside the United States generally and may therefore potentially be imported as...

  17. The DinJ/RelE toxin-antitoxin system suppresses virulence in Xylella fastidiosa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of a number agriculturally important plant diseases, encodes multiple toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems. TA modules consist of a toxin protein co-expressed with a specific antitoxin, and are often acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Antitoxin molecules (RNA or ...

  18. Characteristics of the neutron field of the facility at DIN-UPM.

    PubMed

    Gallego, E; Lorente, A; Vega-Carrillo, H R

    2004-01-01

    A new source facility (241Am-Be) has been installed in a bunker-type room of large dimensions. To characterise the neutron fields in the facility, detailed calculations have been made with MCNP-4C, showing the different components of the neutron radiation reaching the reference points (direct, inscattered, backscattered). The contribution from neutrons scattered in the walls to the total ambient dose equivalent remains reasonably low (<10%) in the reference points. Additionally, spectra measurements have been performed with a Bonner spheres spectrometer with a 6LiI(Eu) scintillator (0.4 phi x 0.4 cm2), UTA4 response matrix and BUNKIUT unfolding code. The calculated and experimentally obtained spectra are compared, with small differences found in the epithermal and thermal region, attributable to the concrete composition used in the calculations. The H*(10) rate has been determined from the spectra, and then compared to the reading of an active dosemeter (LB6411), with differences found lower than 8%.

  19. Determining the role of hydrologic variability on DIN export from the Catskill Mountains

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Catskill region of New York State receives some of the highest rates of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the northeastern US (approximately 6.2 kg ha-1 yr-1), and headwater streams have elevated nitrate concentrations (mean of stream surveys = 0.27 – 0.35 mg N l-1). Althou...

  20. ¿Origen dinámico del polvo sobre la superficie de Iapetus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. B.

    We implement the three-dimensional Circular Restricted Three Body Prob- lem for low energy particles entering the Saturn­Iapetus system from the recently discovered dust ring. The distribution of impacts with the surface of Iapetus so obtained shows features resembling that of the dark regions observed in this satellite. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  1. The last days of Sala al-Din (Saladin) "noble enemy" of the third Crusade.

    PubMed

    Mackowiak, Philip A

    2010-10-01

    Saladin, "noble enemy" of Richard the Lionheart and victor at the battle of Hattin, died suddenly in 1193 A.D. at the age of 56. The clinical information preserved in the historical record is insufficient to render a definitive diagnosis for Saladin's final illness, and yet, it contains enough details to narrow the list of possibilities to just a few and also to critique his treatment in light of the medical concepts of his day.

  2. [Certification according to DIN EN ISO 9001 in MDK in Hessia--a report of experiences].

    PubMed

    Hübner, M; Andersen, J; von Mittelstaedt, G

    2000-02-01

    Quality assurance is a routine and indispensable part of the work of the Medizinische Dienst der Krankenversicherung (MDK) (Medical Services of statutory health insurance bodies in Germany). To optimize the internal organisational processes, a quality assurance system (QAS), certified by EQ Zert, Ulm (an accredited certifier of the TGA), was implemented for the first time in one of the departments of the MDK, namely, the hospital department. Employees and management consider the advantages to be as follows: the aims of the department are clearly described. the processes are now self-evident and more strictly observed, overlaps to other fields of the company are defined. Both an Error Management System with follow up measures, and a Project Management System to control projects have been implemented. The documentation system was standardized, and consequently relocating documents has become more streamlined. An MDK self-evaluation was performed as part of an internal audit. The audit showed that the QAS of the hospital department of the MDK in Hesse is indeed highly developed. It is anticipated that gradually other fields of the MDK will also be certified, to comply with the changing requirements.

  3. Monitoring the kinematic of active landslides with ALOS/PALSAR DInSAR processing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlögel, Romy; Doubre, Cécile; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2014-05-01

    This study targets the analysis of the kinematics of large active landslide through the interpretation of L-band ALOS/PALSAR interferograms. In mountainous areas, landslide monitoring with radar images is often difficult to interpret because of the complex topography, important changes in vapor content in the atmosphere, and the presence of highly variable surface states (vegetation, soil humidity, snow cover, superficial mass transfer). Sliding sub-units of two large and continuously active landslides (La Valette and Poche), exhibiting displacement rates ranging from 0.1 to 4.0 cm.day-1, are used as case studies to develop and explain the methodology. The results corresponding to positive or negative difference in phase value allow for the detection of landslide sub-units characterized by different kinematic patterns (e.g. single rotational slide, translational slide, multiple rotational slides). In the upper parts of the landslides, predominance of vertical displacements (subsidence) is observed in addition to a displacement in the downslope direction; this kinematic pattern is highlighted by either positive phase values corresponding to motion far away from the satellite. In the lower parts of the landslides, accumulation is observed in addition to a displacement in the downslope direction; this kinematic pattern is highlighted by negative phase values in the interferograms corresponding to motion toward the satellite. Extension of the landslides (downhill, uphill or laterally) is discussed according to geomorphological observations and a priori knowledge on the landslides. Quantitative measurements of the displacement are projected along the slope and the vertical components according to the observed landslide patterns. The InSAR displacements are in good agreement with on-site field measurements (permanent GNSS observations, GNSS campaigns on benchmarks, and terrestrial laser scanner surveys). Peaks in displacement rates are correlated to meteorological data.

  4. Monitoring the Subsidence of Jing-Jin Intercity High Railway Roadbed by the Advanced Network MB-DInSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yixian; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Chao; Tao, Li

    2010-12-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) has good ability to monitor the ground deformations, but traditional InSAR technique is suffered from the temporal decorrelation and geometric decorrelation. PSI (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry) can overcome these disadvantages, monitoring the ground objects deformation in long time series with high precision by analyzing the phase component of the Coherent Targets (CTs) in the SAR images. It is ideally suited to detect and characterize the movements in urban area with lots of man-made structures. In this paper, this technique is applied to monitor the deformation of large-scale man- made linear features——railway roadbed is presented, together with an advanced network establish algorithm for pixels linking, namely advanced scaled double network. The algorithm copes with the problem of the different resolution in the azimuth and rang direction when corresponding to the actual ground, and gives tradeoffs between network complexity and validity. The Intercity Railway of Beijing-Tianjin is selected as the experiment area, which is the first high speed railway in China, the secure running needs the strict stability of the railway roadbed. There are total 15 PALSAR scenes in two frames, and the time span is from 2008/07/05 to 2009/07/08. The good experiment results are achieved using the advanced network CT-InSAR technique. During the period of 2008/07/05-2009/07/08, the cumulate subsidence along most of the roadbed is about 0-14mm. But in some sections, for example, the Beichen industrial park, there is some bigger subsidence, about 14-19mm, Maybe it is induced by the overly taking out of the ground water, which is needed by the quick development of the industry of this area.

  5. Pump testing strategies and associated tribological considerations -- Vane pump testing methods ASTM D 2882, IP281, and DIN 51389

    SciTech Connect

    Reichel, J.

    1997-12-31

    Various test methods have been developed to determine the performance limits of various classes of hydraulic fluids. Lubrication capacity depends on various fundamental fluid parameters including viscosity and anti-wear properties. Critical elements of hydraulic pump and motor lubrication, which is characterized by sliding line-contact wear, will be discussed here. In vane pumps, the pressure loaded tips of the vanes are under Hertz-type load in contact with the surface of the cam ring, and rotate at a high speed creating a sliding line-contact. Due to this sliding line contact, the vane pump is the best-suited instrument for determination of the anti-wear performance of hydraulic fluids within acceptable time and at reasonable expense. Alternatively, hydraulic pump and motor testing may require greater energy, 150 kW or more over a period of more than 1,000 hours significantly increasing the cost of testing. Furthermore, tests on smaller versions of one type of pump or motor do not necessarily correlate with larger units of similar design. Therefore, it would be desirable to develop a laboratory test that: utilizes a rig with standard wear parts, provides a selective method for identifying various forms of lubricant failure, and that permits tests correlation with a wide variety of hydraulic pumps and motors used in the industry today.

  6. Comportamiento dinámico de la resonancia 4:1 en el cinturón principal de asteroides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López García, F.; Brunini, A.

    We have studied the dynamics of mean motion resonance with Jupiter in the 4:1 gap using gravitational methods only. This mechanism is capable of explaining in a uniform way this Kirkwood gap. Our work is based on the numerical integration of the full differential equations of motion in the framework of the restricted five-body problem using symplectic integrators. The variation of the orbital elements on a time span of 5x107 yr is shown. Moreover we have studied the additional effects such as the secular resonances and the diagram in the (a,e) plane with the Jacobi's integral (elliptic problem). The numerical results show that most of the trajectories of fictitious asteroids studied reach, after a few millon of years, the 3:1 gap and others are temporarily captured by Mars and some become Earth crossers. This gap may be explained considering eccentricities and inclinations (e < 0.1, i < 2o.5 ). Besides, we present the behaviour of Lyapunov exponents and the renormalization time.

  7. The DinJ/RelE toxin-antitoxin system suppresses bacterial proliferation and virulence of Xylella fastidiosa in grapevine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce’s disease of grapes, is a slow-growing, xylem-limited, bacterial pathogen. Disease progression is characterized by systemic spread of the bacterium through xylem vessel networks, causing leaf scorching symptoms, senescence, and vine decline. It appears ...

  8. Characterization of the Role of Din7 in Mitochondrial Genome Replication and Genome Integrity in the Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    except sperm ) that carry out the oxidative-phosphorylation (OXPHOS) metabolic reactions that are essential for and central to cellular energy...constructed yeast strains (wild-type; pos5 mutant) containing homomononucleotide tracts of 5 and 14 adenosines in the chromosomal lys2 gene (Tran et al

  9. Avoiding a Din at Dinner or, Teaching Students to Argue for Themselves: Year 13 Plan a Historians' Dinner Party

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Keeley

    2012-01-01

    Keeley Richards secured a fundamental shift in some of her Year 13 students' ability to argue. She did it by getting them to engage more fully with the practice of argument itself, as enacted by four historians. At the centre of her lesson sequence was an original activity: the historians' dinner party. Richards uses this activity to point to…

  10. Fricción dinámica: Influencia de órbitas caóticas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cora, S. A.; Vergne, M. M.; Muzzio, J. C.

    We have used numerical experiments to investigate the orbital decay, caused by dynamical friction, of a rigid satellite which moves within a larger stellar system (a galaxy), whose potential is non-integrable. This type of potential has regular and irregular orbits, being the last ones chaotic respect of having exponential sensitivity to perturbations, a feature that makes them to relax in a time much shorter than regular ones. Assuming that the dynamical friction is inversely proportional to the relaxation time, this phenomenon would increase in the presence of chaotic orbits (Pfenniger 1986). Therefore, we present preliminary numerical results to check this idea. We considered two different triaxial galaxy models with different percentage of chaotic orbits. 1) The triaxial generalization of spherical models of Dehnen (1993), with a constant-density core, where the orbits can be identified with one of the four families of regular orbits in Stackel potentials (boxes and the three families of tubes). When a central compact object (black hole) is included a porcentage of the boxlike orbits are rendered chaotic. 2) The modified Satoh galaxy model (Satoh 1980) without rotation, in which the orbits are mostly regular (boxes and tubes). However, if we consider the triaxial galaxy with rotation the resulting potential is non-integrable with a high degree of chaos. The satellite is modelled by a softened point mass, moving on a circular orbit in the spherical model. To integrate he equation of motion a non-self-consistent code is used. The results of a few simulations suggest that the presence of chaotic orbits does not affect significantly the orbital decay of the satellite.

  11. Nasir al-Din al-Tusi's Memoir on Astronomy (al-Tadhkira fi cilm al-hay'a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragep, F. J.

    Tusi (1201-1274 a.d.) was an Arabic scholar whose writings became the standard texts in several disciplines for several centuries. They include editions of Euclid's Elements and Ptolemy's Almagest, as well as other books on mathematics and astronomy, and books on logic, ethics, religion. He wrote the Tadhkira, to be "a summary account of `astronomy' presented in narrative form. The details are expounded and proofs of the validity are furnished in the Almagest. Indeed, ours would not be a complete science if taken in isolation from the Almagest for it is a report of what is established therein." It is thus not only a sort of running commentary on the Almagest, but also an account of medieval Arabic cosmology. Jamil Ragep has not only translated the text of the Tadhkira, but has also provided a lengthy introduction with a biography of Tusi and a discussion of the context in which the Tadhkira was written and its influence, as well as a detailed and thorough commentary on each section of the text.

  12. Extracting a Whisper from the DIN: A Bayesian-Inductive Approach to Learning an Anticipatory Model of Cavitation

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.

    1999-11-07

    For several reasons, Bayesian parameter estimation is superior to other methods for inductively learning a model for an anticipatory system. Since it exploits prior knowledge, the analysis begins from a more advantageous starting point than other methods. Also, since "nuisance parameters" can be removed from the Bayesian analysis, the description of the model need not be as complete as is necessary for such methods as matched filtering. In the limit of perfectly random noise and a perfect description of the model, the signal-to-noise ratio improves as the square root of the number of samples in the data. Even with the imperfections of real-world data, Bayesian methods approach this ideal limit of performance more closely than other methods. These capabilities provide a strategy for addressing a major unsolved problem in pump operation: the identification of precursors of cavitation. Cavitation causes immediate degradation of pump performance and ultimate destruction of the pump. However, the most efficient point to operate a pump is just below the threshold of cavitation. It might be hoped that a straightforward method to minimize pump cavitation damage would be to simply adjust the operating point until the inception of cavitation is detected and then to slightly readjust the operating point to let the cavitation vanish. However, due to the continuously evolving state of the fluid moving through the pump, the threshold of cavitation tends to wander. What is needed is to anticipate cavitation, and this requires the detection and identification of precursor features that occur just before cavitation starts.

  13. Preliminary results of ESA Category-1 Project 5834 "Application of DInSAR technique to areas of active ground deformations"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, B.; D'Auria, L.

    2009-04-01

    We have established a processing chain of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data for identification and parametrisation of deformation sources in areas of active ground deformation (e.g. seismogenic areas, volcanic districts). SAR data from European Space Agency (ESA) satellites ERS-2 and ENVISAT are used. SAR and InSAR data processing LEVEL 0 SAR data are focussed to Single Look Complex (SLC) through ROI_PAC (Copyright 2002-2008, Caltech/Jet Propulsion Laboratory). We perform an advanced data processing using Doris (Kampes and Usai, 1999) a single program that can do most common steps of the interferometric radar processing starting from SLC data to generation of interferometric products and geocoding. Unwrapping of interferometric phase is performed using the public domain software snaphu (Chen and Zebker, 2001). Modeling of deformation sources We propose a novel inversion approach base on non-linear inversion. The forward modeling is provided by the semi-analytic deformation model for point sources and finite faults. The parameters of the fault (center position, width, height, rake and seismic moment) are inverted using a combination of non-linear optimization algorithms (as Monte-Carlo, Nelder&Mead Simplex and Simulated Annealing). The misfit function defined for the optimization is based on the L2 norm of the error weighted by the coherence of the considered spatial point. Test datasets To test our modeling procedure we chose three different study areas, refer to mainly strike-slip seismogenic sources with different orientation to respect satellite Line Of Sight (LOS): December 26 2003 Iranian earthquake (Bam e.), data from both ascending and descending passes of ENVISAT ASAR narrow swath IS2 (RAW and SLCs); August 17 1999 Turkey earthquake (Izmit e.), data from both ascending and descending passes of ERS-2 AMI SAR (SLCs); June 17-21 2000 Iceland earthquakes, data from both ascending and descending passes of ERS-2 AMI SAR (SLCs). Tests carried over real deformation unwrapped interferograms have shown encouraging results. Preliminary modeling of deformation sources is presented. Acknowledgements Data provided by the European Space Agency (ESA CAT-1 Project 5834, P.I. B. Massa). References Chen W., H. Zebker A. (2001) -Two-dimensional phase unwrapping with use of statistical models for cost functions in nonlinear optimization- Journal of the Optical Society of America, 18, 338-351. Kampes B., Usai S. (1999) -Doris: The Delft object-oriented Radar Interferometric software.- In: proceedings ITC 2nd ORS symposium, August 1999 (CD-ROM).

  14. On efeito do achatamento nos pontos de equilíbrio e na dinâmica de sistemas coorbitais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourão, D. C.; Winter, O. C.; Yokoyama, T.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho analisamos o efeito do achatamento do corpo principal nos pontos de equilíbrio lagrangianos e na configuração de órbitas girino-ferradura. Enfatizamos os sistemas coorbitais de satélites de Saturno, pois se encontram em relativa proximidade com o planeta, em que o efeito do achatamento se torna mais evidente. O estudo é dividido em três etapas independentes. Na primeira fase analisamos as equações de movimento do problema restrito de três corpos considerando o efeito do achatamento, e através do balanceamento de forças buscamos a nova configuração dos pontos de equilíbrio lagrangianos. Concluímos, nesta etapa, que os pontos de equilíbrio estáveis apresentam um pequeno deslocamento definido pelo parâmetro de achatamento, não podendo ser mais representados por triângulos eqüiláteros. Aplicamos este resultado aos satélites coorbitais de Tetis e Dione, encontrando as posições de equilíbrio levemente deslocadas em relação ao caso sem achatamento. Na segunda fase visamos o sistema Saturno-Jano-Epimeteu, que por se tratar de um sistema de massas comparáveis, optamos por desenvolver as equações de Yoder et al (Icarus 53, pág 431-443, 1983), que permitem determinar os pontos de equilíbrio e a amplitude de oscilação angular das órbitas girino-ferradura para o problema não-restrito de três corpos, porém, no nosso estudo consideramos o efeito do achatamento do corpo principal nestas equações. Encontramos que a distância angular entre satélites, quando em posição de equilíbrio estável, diminui quanto maior for o parâmetro de achatamento do corpo principal. Além disso, a órbita de transição girino-ferradura possui largura angular menor em relação ao caso sem achatamento. Por fim, realizamos integrações numéricas para os casos reais de coorbitais de Saturno comparando com os resultados analíticos. Nestas integrações simulamos diversas órbitas girino-ferradura com diferentes parâmetros de achatamento, utilizando condições iniciais corrigidas para a presença do achatamento.

  15. Control System of a Three DOF Spacecraft Simulator by Vectorable Thrusters and Control Moment Gyros

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Wires one thru eight of the 34 pin ribbon cable are connected onto connections 33, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43, 45, and 47 respectively, corresponding to DIN ...individual devices. 22 Pin Number Color Connection 1 Brown DIN 0 (NS) 2 Purple DIN 1 (NO) 3 Orange DIN 2 (NO) 4 Yellow DIN 3 (NO) 5 Light Blue DIN 4 (NO...6 White DIN 5 (NO) 7 Gray DIN 6 (NO) 8 Green DIN 7 (NO) 9 Red +24 VDC 15 Black GRND Table 4. 15 Pin Serial Connector Wiring Scheme 3. Windows XP

  16. Institutional Microaggressions at a Hispanic Serving Institution: A Diné (Navajo) Woman Utilizing Tribal Critical Race Theory through Student Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Shiv R.; Abeita, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    From private to public, from small to large, campus protests and demonstrations have risen across the country to address institutional racism regarding a range of issues including offensive Halloween costumes, university/college seals, lack of faculty color, and racist vandalism. One such example occurred at Southwest University where Native…

  17. IMPINGER SOLUTIONS FOR THE EFFICIENT CAPTURE OF GASEOUS MERCURY SPECIES USING DIRECT INJECTION NEBULIZATION INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY (DIN-ICP/MS) ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently there are no EPA reference sampling mehtods that have been promulgated for measuring Hg from coal combustion sources. EPA Method 29 is most commonly applied. The ASTM Ontario Hydro Draft Method for measuring oxidized, elemental, particulate-bound and total Hg is now und...

  18. EVALUATION OF IODINE BASED IMPINGER SOLUTIONS FOR THE EFFICIENT CAPTURE OF HG USING DIRECT INJECTION NEBULIZATION INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY (DIN-ICP/MS) ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently there are no EPA reference sampling methods that have been promulgated for measuring stack emissions of Hg from coal combustion sources, however, EPA Method 29 is most commonly applied. The draft ASTM Ontario Hydro Method for measuring oxidized, elemental, particulate-b...

  19. IMPINGER SOLUTIONS FOR THE EFFICIENT CAPTURE OF GASEOUS MERCURY SPECIES USING DIRECT INJECTION NEBULIZATION INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY (DIN-ICP/MS) ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently there are no EPA reference sampling mehtods that have been promulgated for measuring Hg from coal combustion sources. EPA Method 29 is most commonly applied. The ASTM Ontario Hydro Draft Method for measuring oxidized, elemental, particulate-bound and total Hg is now und...

  20. The Profound Sense of Dissatisfaction: A Comparative Study of Franz Kafka's "A Hunger Artist" and Maulana Jalalu-d'-Din Muhammad i Rumi's "A Man of Baghdad"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooti, Noorbakhsh; Borna, Mohammad Reza Moradi

    2014-01-01

    This study delves into investigating Kafka's "A Hunger Artist" and Rumi's "A Man of Baghdad," in which they have a dramatized sense of dissatisfaction, its causes and consequences in a symbolic manner. In fact, it has utilized the story of Rumi that its main character is in a condition similar to the main character in Kafka's…

  1. Practical solution for control of the pre-analytical phase in decentralized clinical laboratories for meeting the requirements of the medical laboratory accreditation standard DIN EN ISO 15189.

    PubMed

    Vacata, Vladimir; Jahns-Streubel, Gerlinde; Baldus, Mirjana; Wood, William Graham

    2007-01-01

    This report was written in response to the article by Wood published recently in this journal. It describes a practical solution to the problems of controlling the pre-analytical phase in the clinical diagnostic laboratory. As an indicator of quality in the pre-analytical phase of sample processing, a target analyte was chosen which is sensitive to delay in centrifugation and/or analysis. The results of analyses of the samples sent by satellite medical practitioners were compared with those from an on-site hospital laboratory with a controllable optimized pre-analytical phase. The aim of the comparison was: (a) to identify those medical practices whose mean/median sample values significantly deviate from those of the control situation in the hospital laboratory due to the possible problems in the pre-analytical phase; (b) to aid these laboratories in the process of rectifying these problems. A Microsoft Excel-based Pre-Analytical Survey tool (PAS tool) has been developed which addresses the above mentioned problems. It has been tested on serum potassium which is known to be sensitive to delay and/or irregularities in sample treatment. The PAS tool has been shown to be one possibility for improving the quality of the analyses by identifying the sources of problems within the pre-analytical phase, thus allowing them to be rectified. Additionally, the PAS tool has an educational value and can also be adopted for use in other decentralized laboratories.

  2. Les complexes alcalins sous-saturés à carbonatites de la région d'In Imanal (Sahara malien): une présentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvage, J.-F.; Savard, R.

    During the exploration program of the United Nations Revolving Fund for Natural Resources Exploration on the eastern margin of the west African craton, a new carbonatitic assemblage has been discovered and studied. This assemblage belongs to an alkaline undersaturated province where annular complexes are roughly disposed in a north-south trend probably along a permian age graben. Four complexes in which carbonatites can be observed are described in this paper; Niobium and Rare Earth mineralization is related to carbonatitic intrusions. In west Africa, mineralization of this type is only reported in the carbonatites of Tamazert (Morocco) and those of the In Imanal area (Mali).

  3. Dinámica y frecuencias características de una protuberancia solar observada con los instrumentos SUMER y CDS/SOHO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovira, M.; Costa, A.; Bocchialini, K.

    La estructura de la protuberancia estudiada puede dividirse en cuatro regiones. A partir del análisis de las imágenes del CDS y los espectros del SUMER utilizando técnicas de multiresolución con Wavelets se obtuvieron las frecuencias y velocidades relativas de cada una de las regiones. Se observan frecuencias características del orden de los 5 min y otras de largo período. Se obtuvo una fuerte anticorrelación entre las intensidades y las velocidades Doppler. La presencia de las oscilaciones de 5 min en todas las regiones sugieren el acoplamiento entre la estructura cromosférica y la protuberancia.

  4. Non-invasive deformation analysis of historical buildings through the advanced SBAS-DInSAR technique: the case of the city of Roma (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manunta, Michele; Bonano, Manuela; Marsella, Maria; Lanari, Riccardo

    2010-05-01

    The monitoring of urban areas and man-made structures is of key importance for the preservation of artistic, archaeological and architectural heritage. In this context, the remote sensing techniques may allow non-invasive analysis of large areas by exploiting long time series of satellite data. Among these techniques, the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry (InSAR) has already demonstrated to be an effective tool for monitoring the displacements occurring in the historical and artistic heritage located in the historical city centers. As a matter of fact, the InSAR technique allows producing spatially dense deformation maps with centimeter to millimeter accuracy, by exploiting the phase difference (interferogram) of temporally separated SAR images relevant to the same analyzed area. In order to guarantee the monitoring of urban area displacements, it is strategic to provide very long term deformation time series by also exploiting SAR data acquired by different sensors. Accordingly, ERS/ENVISAT data archive, providing acquisitions spanning the 1992-2010 time period, might allow us generating very long term deformation time-series. However, an ERS/ENVISAT data combination is limited by the two sensors slightly different carrier frequencies: 5.331 GHz for the ENVISAT sensor and 5.3 GHz for the ERS one. Therefore, because the interferometric phase is dependent on the radiation wavelength, the generation of conventional ERS/ENVISAT cross-interferograms is strongly affected by the induced decorrelation effects. In this work we show the effectiveness of the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) (Berardino et al., 2002; Lanari et al., 2004) approach for the conservation, monitoring and risk prevention of cultural heritage. Indeed, the SBAS technique allows us to produce deformation time series at the scale of the single building by processing very long sequences of ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT (IS2 swath) SAR data, acquired with the same illumination geometry. In particular, the SBAS approach exploits only conventional ERS/ERS and ENVISAT/ENVISAT differential interferograms, in order to limit the decorrelation effects and improve the number of the detected coherent points. Accordingly, this method may play a key role for supporting the study and conservation strategies of the historical built heritage, monuments and artistic artifacts, due to its capability of generating deformation time series spanning time interval of more than 15 years. The presented results, achieved by applying the full resolution SBAS approach to an ERS/ENVISAT dataset relevant to the city of Rome, demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique to detect and analyze the temporal evolution of possible deformation phenomena affecting historical buildings within the investigated 1992-2009 time period. [1] P. Berardino, G. Fornaro, R. Lanari, and E. Sansosti, "A new Algorithm for Surface Deformation Monitoring based on Small Baseline Differential SAR Interferograms", IEEE Trans.Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 40, No 11, pp. 2375-2383, 2002. [2] Lanari, R., Mora, O., Manunta, M., Mallorquí, J.J., Berardino, P. and Sansosti, E., "A small baseline approach for investigating deformations on full resolution differential SAR interferograms", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 42, pp. 1377-1386, 2004.

  5. EVALUATION OF IODINE BASED IMPINGER SOLUTIONS FOR THE EFFICIENT CAPTURE OF HG USING DIRECT INJECTION NEBULIZATION INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY (DIN-ICP/MS) ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently there are no EPA reference sampling methods that have been promulgated for measuring stack emissions of Hg from coal combustion sources, however, EPA Method 29 is most commonly applied. The draft ASTM Ontario Hydro Method for measuring oxidized, elemental, particulate-b...

  6. Corrosion resistance of GTAW and EBW welded joints of DIN W. Nr. 1.4462 (UNS S31803): Effect of post-weld-heat-treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Brandi, S.D.; Padilha, A.F.; Wolynec, S.

    1996-12-01

    The duplex stainless steels present better corrosion behavior than the conventional stainless steels. This is due to their chemical composition (Cr, Ni, Mo, N) and a balanced microstructure (50% ferrite). It might be an increase on the volumetric fraction of ferrite, depending on the cooling rate after welding. In the same way the chemical composition can be altered by a loss of the alloying elements during welding, such as N. Both phenomena will decrease the corrosion resistance of the weldment. Autogenous GTAW and EBW were used to join the plates. Several corrosion tests were used to evaluate the behavior of the joints in as-welded (AW) and post-welded-heat-treated (PWHT) conditions. The results were analyzed and correlated to the microstructure of the welded joints. The main conclusion of this work is that corrosion resistance of both joint processes (EBW and GTAW) in as-welded condition is inadequate. PWHT (post-weld-heat-treatment) dissolved the chromium-rich precipitates, restored the equilibrium amount of austenite in the joints and recovered their corrosion resistance.

  7. Reservoir quality using the routine core analysis data of Abu Roash ;C; in Badr El Din-15 oil field, Abu Gharadig basin, north Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakat, Moataz Kh.; Nooh, Ahmed Z.

    2017-05-01

    The Abu Gharadig basin is one of the most prolific basins in the northern part of the Western Desert, Egypt. It has attracted the attention of many geologists and geophysicists for oil and gas exploration. This is due to existence of the huge subsurface sedimentary section in the basin which includes important thickness of reservoir rocks. The study area occupies the northwestern part of Abu Gharadig basin between latitudes 29° 45‧ and 30° 05‧ N, and longitudes 27° 30‧ and 28° 10‧ E. The present work deals with the routine core analysis for petrophysical evaluation of the Abu Roash ;C; Member. The available core samples belong to BED 15-3 and BED 15-7 wells in BED 15 oil field. The conventional core analyses include laboratory measurement of density (grain and bulk), helium porosity and permeability (horizontal and vertical). The core analysis data indicate that Abu Roash ;C; Member in BED-15 oil field is characterized by good reservoir quality due to high values of porosity and permeability. The statistical analysis of core data can be used to generate new relations which help to determine one petrophysical parameters in term of other.

  8. Effects of ambient DIN:DIP ratio on the nitrogen uptake of harmful dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum and Prorocentrum donghaiense in turbidistat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ji; Glibert, Patricia M.; Alexander, Jeffrey A.

    2011-07-01

    The effects of varying nitrogen (N): phosphorus (P) ratios on the growth and N-uptake and assimilation of the harmful dinoflagellates Prorocentrum minimum and Prorocentrum donghaiense were examined in turbidistat culture experiments. Algal cultures were supplied with media containing PO{4/3-} in various concentrations to obtain a wide range of N:P ratios. Experiments to determine rates of N uptake and assimilation of different N sources (NO{3/-}, NH{4/+}, urea and glycine by P. minimum and NO{3/-}, NH{4/+} by P. donghaiense) were conducted using 15N tracer techniques at each N:P ratio. The growth rates suggested nutrient limitation at both high and low N:P ratios relative to the Redfield ratio. On a diel basis, the growth of both species was regulated by the light-dark cycle, which may be a result of regulation of both lightdependent growth and light-independent nutrient uptake. Maximum growth rates of both species always occurred at the beginning of light phase. In P-rich medium (low N:P ratio), both species had higher N assimilation rates, suggesting N limitation. Low assimilation coefficients at high N:P ratios suggested P limitation of N uptake and assimilation. NO{3/-} and NH{4/+} contributed more than 90% of the total N uptake of P. minimum. Reduced N sources were more quickly assimilated than NO{3/-}. Highest average daily growth rates were recorded near an N:P ratio of 12 for both species. The N uptake rates of cultures at N:P ratios near Redfield ratio were more balanced with growth rates. The linkage between growth rates and N uptake/assimilation rates were conceptually described by the variation of cell N quota. The N:P ratios affect the N uptake and growth of Prorocentrum spp., and may regulate their bloom progression in eutrophic ecosystems.

  9. Advanced DInSAR analysis for building damage assessment in large urban areas: an application to the city of Roma, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aranno, Peppe J. V.; Marsella, Maria; Scifoni, Silvia; Scutti, Marianna; Sonnessa, Alberico; Bonano, Manuela

    2015-10-01

    Remote sensing data play an important role for the environmental monitoring because they allow to provide systematic information on very large areas and for a long period of time. Such information must be analyzed, validated and incorporated into proper modeling tools in order to become useful for performing risk assessment analysis. These approaches has been already applied in the field of natural hazard evaluation (i.e. for monitoring seismic, volcanic areas and landslides). However, not enough attention has been devoted to the development of validated methods for implementing quantitative analysis on civil structures. This work is dedicated to the comprehensive utilization of ERS / ENVISAT data store ESA SAR used to detect deformation trends and perform back-analysis of the investigated structures useful to calibrate the damage assessment models. After this preliminary analysis, SAR data of the new satellite mission (ie Cosmo SkyMed) were adopted to monitor the evolution of existent surface deformation processes and to detect new occurrence. The specific objective was to set up a data processing and data analysis chain tailored on a service that sustains the safe maintenance of the built-up environment, including critical construction such as public (schools, hospital, etc), strategic (dam, highways, etc) and also the cultural heritage sites. The analysis of the test area, in the southeastern sector of Roma, has provided three different levels and sub-levels of products from metropolitan area scale (territorial analysis), settlement scale (aggregated analysis) to single structure scale (damage degree associated to the structure).

  10. Pure flat epithelial atypia (DIN 1a) on core needle biopsy: study of 60 biopsies with follow-up surgical excision.

    PubMed

    Lavoué, Vincent; Roger, Claire Marie; Poilblanc, Mathieu; Proust, Nicolas; Monghal-Verge, Camille; Sagan, Christine; Tas, Patrick; Mesbah, Habiba; Porée, Philippe; Gay, Catherine; Body, Gilles; Levêque, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Flat epithelial atypia (FEA) is recognized as a precursor of breast cancer and its management (surgical excision or intensive follow-up) remains unclear after diagnosis on core needle biopsy (CNB). The aim of this study was to determine the underestimation rate of pure FEA on CNB and clinical, radiological, and pathological factors of underestimation. 4,062 CNBs from 5 breast cancer centers, performed over a 5-year period, were evaluated. A CNB diagnosis of pure FEA was made in 60 cases (1.5%) (the presence of atypical ductal hyperplasia, lobular neoplasia, radial scars, phyllodes tumor, papillary lesions, ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma at CNB were exclusion criteria), and subsequent surgical excision was systematically performed. The histological diagnosis was retrospectively reviewed using standardized criteria and the precise terminology of the World Health Organization by two pathologist physicians. At surgical excision, 6 (10%) ductal carcinoma in situ and 2 (3%) invasive carcinoma were diagnosed. The total underestimation rate was 13%. FEA was associated with atypical ductal hyperplasia in 10 (17%) cases and with lobular neoplasia in 2 (3%) at final pathology. Residual FEA was found in 14 (23%) cases. No clinical, radiological or pathological factors were significantly associated with underestimation. Our data highlight the importance of recognizing and diagnosing FEA in core needle biopsies. Thus, the presence of FEA on CNB, even in isolation, warrants follow-up excision.

  11. Gravity driven and tectonic post-seismic deformation of the April 6 2009 L'Aquila Earthquake detected by Cosmo-SkyMed DInSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moro, M.; Albano, M.; Bignami, C.; Malvarosa, F.; Costantini, M.; Saroli, M.; Barba, S.; Falco, S.; Stramondo, S.

    2014-12-01

    The present work focuses on the analysis of post-seismic surface deformation detected in the area of L'Aquila, Central Italy, after the strong earthquake that hit the city and the surrounding villages on April 6th, 2009. The analysis has been carried out thanks to a new dataset of SAR COSMO-SkyMed images covering a time span of 480 days after the mainshock, with the adoption of the Persistent Scatterer Pairs (PSP) approach. This method allows the estimation of surface deformations by exploiting the SAR images at full resolution. In the investigated area two patterns of subsidence have been identified reaching a maximum value of 45 mm in the northeast area of the L'Aquila town. Here the subsidence is mainly ascribable to the post seismic slip release of the Paganica fault and it does not coincide with the maximum measured coseismic subsidence. The time series of the ground deformations also reveal that a large amount of deformation is released in the first three months after the main shock. The second pattern of deformation is centered on the Mt. Ocre ridge, where a detailed photogeological analysis allowed us to identify widespread evidence of morphological elements associated with Deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DGSD). In particular geomorphologic analyses show evidences of lateral spread DGSD-type features, characterized by the tectonic superimposition of carbonatic sequences and transitional pelagic deposits. In this sector, the observed deformation is ascribable not only to the afterslip of the Paganica fault, but also to a gravitative cause. In order to confirm or reject such hypothesis a 2D numerical finite element models considering two cross sections over the Mt. Ocre ridge has been performed. The coseismic and postseimic deformations have been simulated numerically, considering an elastic-perfectly plastic rheology for the constituent rocks. First results show that most of the postseismic deformation is ascribable to the plastic deformation induced by the gravitative rebalancing of the ridge after the coseismic deformation.

  12. Measurement of elemental speciation by liquid chromatography -- inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS) with the direct injection nebulizer (DIN)

    SciTech Connect

    Shum, Sam

    1993-05-01

    This thesis is divided into 4 parts: elemental speciation, speciation of mercury and lead compounds by microbore column LC-ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization, spatially resolved measurements of size and velocity distributions of aerosol droplets from a direct injection nebulizer, and elemental speciation by anion exchange and size exclusion chromatography with detection by ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization.

  13. 1-[3-(Morpholin-4-yl)prop­yl]-3-[(naph­tha­len-2-yl)oxy]-4-(3-nitro­phen­yl)azeti­din-2-one

    PubMed Central

    Atioğlu, Zeliha; Akkurt, Mehmet; Jarrahpour, Aliasghar; Heiran, Roghayeh; Özdemir, Namık

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, C26H27N3O5, the β-lactam (azetidin-2-one) ring is nearly planar [maximum deviation = 0.011 (3) Å]. The mean plane formed by the four C atoms of the morpholine ring, which adopts a chair conformation, the benzene ring and the naphthalene ring system form dihedral angles of 72.85 (17), 87.46 (15) and 65.96 (11)°, respectively, with the β-lactam ring. In the crystal, molecules are linked via C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with R 2 2(8). PMID:25249888

  14. Filmless Radiology: The Design, Integration, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Digital Imaging Network. Potential Investigations to Be Conducted in Conjunction with the Digital Imaging Network System (DINS) evaluation Project. Revision 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    variety of meanings in the professional literature on healt . care systems. As used in Study 3.3, they mean the following: 3-10 TABLE 3-3 DELIVERABLE...corresponding frequencies. When used to show the gray-scale occupancy of an image, the horizontal axis represents gray level, and the vertical axis

  15. Estimation of Seismic and Aseismic Deformation in Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico, in the 2006-2009 Period, Using Precise Leveling, DInSAR, Geotechnical Instruments Data, and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarychikhina, Olga; Glowacka, Ewa; Robles, Braulio; Nava, F. Alejandro; Guzmán, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    Ground deformation and seismicity in Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico, the southern part of the Mexicali-Imperial valley, are influenced by active tectonics and human activity. In this study, data from two successive leveling surveys in 2006 and 2009/2010 are used to estimate the total deformation occurred in Mexicali Valley during 2006-2009. The leveling data span more than 3.5 years and include deformation from several natural and anthropogenic sources that acted at different temporal and spatial scales during the analyzed period. Because of its large magnitude, the aseismic anthropogenic deformation caused by fluid extraction in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field obscures the deformation caused by other mechanisms and sources. The method of differential interferograms stacking was used to estimate the aseismic (interseismic tectonic and anthropogenic) components of the observed displacement, using SAR images, taken in 2007 during a period when no significant seismicity occurred in the study area. After removing the estimated aseismic signal from the leveling data, residual vertical displacement remained, and to identify possible sources and mechanisms of this displacement, a detailed analysis of records from tiltmeters and creepmeters was performed. The results of this analysis suggest that the residual displacement is mainly caused by moderate-sized seismicity in the area of study. Modeling of the vertical ground deformation caused by the coseismic slip on source fault (primary mechanism) of the two most important earthquakes, May 24, 2006 (Mw = 5.4) and December 30, 2009 (Mw = 5.8), was performed. The modeling results, together with the analysis of geotechnical instruments data, suggests that this moderate-sized seismicity influences the deformation in the study area by coseismic slip on the source fault, triggered slip on secondary faults, and soft sediments deformation.

  16. Monitoring of ground movement in open pit iron mines of Carajás Province (Amazon region) based on A-DInSAR techniques using TerraSAR-X data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Guilherme Gregório; Mura, José Claudio; Paradella, Waldir Renato; Gama, Fabio Furlan; Temporim, Filipe Altoé

    2017-04-01

    Persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) analysis of a large area is always a challenging task regarding the removal of the atmospheric phase component. This work presents an investigation of ground movement measurements based on a combination of differential SAR interferometry time-series (DTS) and PSI techniques, applied on a large area of extent with open pit iron mines located in Carajás (Brazilian Amazon Region), aiming at detecting linear and nonlinear ground movement. These mines have presented a history of instability, and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mines (pit walls) have been carried out based on ground-based radar and total station (prisms). Using a priori information regarding the topographic phase error and a phase displacement model derived from DTS, temporal phase unwrapping in the PSI processing and the removal of the atmospheric phases can be performed more efficiently. A set of 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) images, acquired during the period from March 2012 to April 2013, was used to perform this investigation. The DTS analysis was carried out on a stack of multilook unwrapped interferograms using an extension of SVD to obtain the least-square solution. The height errors and deformation rates provided by the DTS approach were subtracted from the stack of interferograms to perform the PSI analysis. This procedure improved the capability of the PSI analysis for detecting high rates of deformation, as well as increased the numbers of point density of the final results. The proposed methodology showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in a large mining area, which is located in a rain forest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for planning and risk control.

  17. Climate dynamics along the arid northern coast of Chile: The 1997-1998 Dinámica del Clima de la Región de Antofagasta (DICLIMA) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutllant, José A.; Fuenzalida, Humberto; Aceituno, Patricio

    2003-09-01

    The DICLIMA field experiment was designed to test and quantify the hypothesis of an afternoon enhancement of the coastal subsidence in the extremely arid northern Chile because of solar heating over the west slope of the Andes. Ten-day campaigns near Antofagasta (23°S) were carried out in January 1997, July 1997, and January 1998. Significant diurnal cycles in temperature, mixing ratio, and wind from about 1000 to 4000 m above sea level were observed. This layer was decoupled from the marine boundary layer circulation below by the subsidence inversion when its base was under the average height of the coastal mountain range. The solar heating cycle over the Andes and associated circulation resulted in a mean afternoon zonal divergence above the subsidence inversion base of about 30 × 10-6 s-1, exceeding by a factor of 5 typical subtropical west coast divergences. The corresponding early morning convergence was particularly intense during the austral winter experiment. In spite of the very strong El Niño conditions that prevailed during the July 1997 and January 1998 experiments, the overwhelming control that radiation exerts on the daily cycles of the atmospheric circulation over the west slope of the Andes seems to guarantee the general validity of the results.

  18. Temporal evolution and variability of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in beach pore water revealed using radon residence times.

    PubMed

    Goodridge, Blair M; Melack, John M

    2014-12-16

    We coupled measurements of beach pore water residence time, determined using the radioisotopic tracer (222)Rn, with dissolved carbon and nitrogen chemistry to identify the temporal evolution and variability of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations in beach pore water along the Santa Barbara, California coastline. Pore water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) ratios (DOC:TDN) were negative exponentially correlated with residence time. Mean pore water residence times were positively correlated with tidal amplitudes, and ranged from 4.4 to 6.4 days. We used this range in mean residence times to model radon residence time distributions (RTDs), and integrated them with modeled DIN vs residence time relationships (DIN-temporal evolution, or DIN-te curves) to derive volume-weighted mean (VWM) DIN concentrations. We observed 1.2-fold and 5.2-fold differences (20% and 420% increases) in VWM DIN concentrations over the range in modeled RTDs and DIN-te curves, respectively, and a maximum 6.4-fold difference (540% increase) in VWM DIN concentrations for an interactive shift in the RTD and the DIN-te curve. Our study suggests that accounting for temporal variability in the RTD and DIN concentration of pore water is necessary to obtain more accurate estimates of DIN delivery to coastal oceans.

  19. RNA Primer Extension Hinders DNA Synthesis by Escherichia coli Mutagenic DNA Polymerase IV.

    PubMed

    Tashjian, Tommy F; Lin, Ida; Belt, Verena; Cafarelli, Tiziana M; Godoy, Veronica G

    2017-01-01

    In Escherichia coli the highly conserved DNA damage regulated dinB gene encodes DNA Polymerase IV (DinB), an error prone specialized DNA polymerase with a central role in stress-induced mutagenesis. Since DinB is the DNA polymerase with the highest intracellular concentrations upon induction of the SOS response, further regulation must exist to maintain genomic stability. Remarkably, we find that DinB DNA synthesis is inherently poor when using an RNA primer compared to a DNA primer, while high fidelity DNA polymerases are known to have no primer preference. Moreover, we show that the poor DNA synthesis from an RNA primer is conserved in DNA polymerase Kappa, the human DinB homolog. The activity of DinB is modulated by interactions with several other proteins, one of which is the equally evolutionarily conserved recombinase RecA. This interaction is known to positively affect DinB's fidelity on damaged templates. We find that upon interaction with RecA, DinB shows a significant reduction in DNA synthesis when using an RNA primer. Furthermore, with DinB or DinB:RecA a robust pause, sequence and lesion independent, occurs only when RNA is used as a primer. The robust pause is likely to result in abortive DNA synthesis when RNA is the primer. These data suggest a novel mechanism to prevent DinB synthesis when it is not needed despite its high concentrations, thus protecting genome stability.

  20. RNA Primer Extension Hinders DNA Synthesis by Escherichia coli Mutagenic DNA Polymerase IV

    PubMed Central

    Tashjian, Tommy F.; Lin, Ida; Belt, Verena; Cafarelli, Tiziana M.; Godoy, Veronica G.

    2017-01-01

    In Escherichia coli the highly conserved DNA damage regulated dinB gene encodes DNA Polymerase IV (DinB), an error prone specialized DNA polymerase with a central role in stress-induced mutagenesis. Since DinB is the DNA polymerase with the highest intracellular concentrations upon induction of the SOS response, further regulation must exist to maintain genomic stability. Remarkably, we find that DinB DNA synthesis is inherently poor when using an RNA primer compared to a DNA primer, while high fidelity DNA polymerases are known to have no primer preference. Moreover, we show that the poor DNA synthesis from an RNA primer is conserved in DNA polymerase Kappa, the human DinB homolog. The activity of DinB is modulated by interactions with several other proteins, one of which is the equally evolutionarily conserved recombinase RecA. This interaction is known to positively affect DinB’s fidelity on damaged templates. We find that upon interaction with RecA, DinB shows a significant reduction in DNA synthesis when using an RNA primer. Furthermore, with DinB or DinB:RecA a robust pause, sequence and lesion independent, occurs only when RNA is used as a primer. The robust pause is likely to result in abortive DNA synthesis when RNA is the primer. These data suggest a novel mechanism to prevent DinB synthesis when it is not needed despite its high concentrations, thus protecting genome stability. PMID:28298904

  1. Co-expression of p16 and p53 characterizes aggressive subtypes of ductal intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Bechert, Charles; Kim, Jee-Yeon; Tramm, Trine; Tavassoli, Fattaneh A

    2016-12-01

    In the USA alone, approximately 61,000 new diagnoses of ductal intraepithelial neoplasia 1c-3 (DIN) are made each year. Around 10-20 % of the patients develop a recurrence, about 50 % of which are invasive. Prior studies have shown that invasive breast carcinomas positive for p16 or p53 have a higher frequency of recurrence and a more aggressive course; however, the co-expression of these markers across the entire spectrum of DIN and its potential correlation with grade of the lesions has not been studied previously. Immunohistochemical staining for p16 and p53 was evaluated on 262 DIN lesions from 211 cases diagnosed between 1991 and 2008. The lesions ranged from DIN1b (atypical intraductal hyperplasia) to DIN3 (DCIS, grade 3) and included 45 cases with associated invasive carcinoma. Frequency of staining for both p16 and p53 increased with increasing grade of DIN. Strong co-expression was found exclusively in higher grade DIN lesions (DIN2 and DIN3) particularly those associated with periductal stromal fibrosis and lymphocytic infiltrate. Strong co-expression was seen in 8 of 12 DIN3 lesions (67 %) associated with invasive carcinoma. In conclusion, co-expression of p16 and p53 increases with advancing grade of DIN and is maximal in high grade DIN lesions associated with invasive carcinoma, indicating a more aggressive phenotype. A distinctive variant of DIN with periductal fibrosis and lymphocytic infiltrate invariably falls into the high-grade category, based on either morphology or marker expression. Co-expression of p16/p53 may be of help in distinguishing between high-grade and low-grade DIN lesions.

  2. myo-Inositol phosphate isomers generated by the action of a phytate-degrading enzyme from Klebsiella terrigena on phytate.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Ralf; Carlsson, Nils-Gunnar

    2006-08-01

    For the first time a dual pathway for dephosphorylation of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate by a histidine acid phytase was established. The phytate-degrading enzyme of Klebsiella terrigena degrades myo-inositol hexakisphosphate by stepwise dephosphorylation, preferably via D-Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P5, D-Ins(1,2,5,6)P4, D-Ins(1,2,6)P3, D-Ins(1,2)P2 and alternatively via D-Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P5, Ins(2,4,5,6)P4, D-Ins(2,4,5)P3, D-Ins(2,4)P2 to finally Ins(2)P. It was estimated that more than 98% of phytate hydrolysis occurs via D-Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P5. Therefore, the phytate-degrading enzyme from K. terrigena has to be considered a 3-phytase (EC 3.1.3.8). A second dual pathway of minor importance could be proposed that is in accordance with the results obtained by analysis of the dephosphorylation products formed by the action of the phytate-degrading enzyme of K. terrigena on myo-inositol hexakisphosphate. It proceeds preferably via D-Ins(1,2,3,5,6)P5, D-Ins(1,2,3,6)P4, Ins(1,2,3)P3, D-Ins(2,3)P2 and alternatively via D-Ins(1,2,3,5,6)P5, D-Ins(2,3,5,6)P4, D-Ins(2,3,5)P3, D-Ins(2,3)P2 to finally Ins(2)P. D-Ins(2,3,5,6)P4, D-Ins(2,3,5)P3, and D-Ins(2,4)P2 were reported for the first time as intermediates of enzymatic phytate dephosphorylation. A role of the phytate-degrading enzyme from K. terrigena in phytate breakdown could not be ruled out. Because of its cytoplasmatic localization and the suggestions for substrate recognition, D-Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 might be the natural substrate of this enzyme and, therefore, may play a role in microbial pathogenesis or cellular myo-inositol phosphate metabolism.

  3. Evolution of the sink and source of dissolved inorganic nitrogen with salinity as a tracer during summer in the Pearl River Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mei-Lin; Hong, Yi-Guo; Yin, Jian-Ping; Dong, Jun-De; Wang, You-Shao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the sink and source of the surface water along the PRE using a mixing model method with salinity as tracer. The observational data showed that the decreasing of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) did not closely follow the physical mixing lines of freshwater and modified seawater. In the western part, DIN consumption by phytoplankton and bacteria uptake (ΔDIN)varied from 15.81 μmol L−1 to 88.53 μmol L−1. On the contrary, in the eastern part, ΔDIN varied from −63.66 μmol L−1 to −10.45 μmol L−1. DIN source in the eastern part may be mainly caused by organic matter decomposition, while DIN remove is strongly associated with phytoplankton growth and bacteria consumption. These differential behaviors of the estuary with respect to DIN are largely due to varying degrees of hydrodynamics due to different topography in the two areas. Sensitivity analysis indicated reduction strategies of DIN inputs to coastal waters may improve environment quality in the PRE, due to DIN changes in the freshwater end-member having a determined influence on biological activities (R). Our results indicate that the model may be a valuable way to address the sources and sink of DIN in the river-dominated estuaries. PMID:27833110

  4. Contribution of urban runoff in Taipei metropolitan area to dissolved inorganic nitrogen export in the Danshui River, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Nae-Wen; Jien, Shih-Hao; Hong, Nien-Ming; Chen, Yao-Te; Lee, Tsung-Yu

    2017-01-01

    A previous study has demonstrated that Danshui River has almost the highest dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) yield in the world and exports most of the DIN in the form of ammonium unlike the world's large rivers. However, the DIN sources are poorly constrained. In this study, the contributions of major sources in the Taipei metropolitan area to the DIN export in the Danshui River were investigated. It is observed that ammonium is the major DIN species in the downstream reaches, resulting from the ammonium-dominated inputs of the effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and rain water pumping stations (RWPS). DIN concentrations in the downstream (urban) reaches are substantially elevated. The upstream tributaries annually discharge ∼2709 t DIN to the downstream reaches. However, the DIN discharge off the downstream reaches rises to ∼17,918 t, resulting from the contribution of RWPS-collected water, i.e., ∼14,632 t, and the effluents of two WWTP, i.e., ∼577 t. RWPS-collected water inherently contains the contribution of atmospheric deposition, ∼2937 t DIN. This finding implies that ∼11,695 t (∼66 % of the downstream output) DIN flux off the Danshui River is from urban runoff and can be attributed to human activities in the Taipei metropolitan area. To improve the water quality in the Danshui River, water quality controls in urban runoff are important.

  5. Evolution of the sink and source of dissolved inorganic nitrogen with salinity as a tracer during summer in the Pearl River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mei-Lin; Hong, Yi-Guo; Yin, Jian-Ping; Dong, Jun-De; Wang, You-Shao

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we evaluated the sink and source of the surface water along the PRE using a mixing model method with salinity as tracer. The observational data showed that the decreasing of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) did not closely follow the physical mixing lines of freshwater and modified seawater. In the western part, DIN consumption by phytoplankton and bacteria uptake (ΔDIN)varied from 15.81 μmol L-1 to 88.53 μmol L-1. On the contrary, in the eastern part, ΔDIN varied from -63.66 μmol L-1 to -10.45 μmol L-1. DIN source in the eastern part may be mainly caused by organic matter decomposition, while DIN remove is strongly associated with phytoplankton growth and bacteria consumption. These differential behaviors of the estuary with respect to DIN are largely due to varying degrees of hydrodynamics due to different topography in the two areas. Sensitivity analysis indicated reduction strategies of DIN inputs to coastal waters may improve environment quality in the PRE, due to DIN changes in the freshwater end-member having a determined influence on biological activities (R). Our results indicate that the model may be a valuable way to address the sources and sink of DIN in the river-dominated estuaries.

  6. Intelligence and Electronic Warfare (IEW) System Fact Sheets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    DIA accredited CSP is compatible with TROJAN, MSE, DIN/ DSSCS as well as all TENCAP systems. A TIBS (RIVET JOINT) capability will be added in FY94. Other...via UHF SATCOM, and point-to-point terrestrial communications. The FAST CSP is compatible with TROJAN, MSE, DIN/ DSSCS as well as all TENCAP systems. A...with TROJAN, MSE, DIN/ DSSCS as well as other TENCAP systems. The SUCCESS additionally provides a TRAP/TADIX-B interface. The data acquisition system

  7. Moldova versus Russian Hybrid Threat: A Question of National Will

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    64 Veronica Abramciuc, “Declaratia Programatica a Partidului Politic Partidul Socialistilor din Republica Moldova Patria-Rodina,” 3...Partidului Politic ‘Partidul Socialistilor din Republica Moldova’ Patria-Rodina.” Accessed February 4, 2016. http://www.e-democracy.md/parties...parties/pdm/. ———. Programul Partidului Comunistilor din Republica Moldova. Accessed February 4, 2016. http://www.e-democracy.md/parties/pcrm

  8. Fertiliser management effects on dissolved inorganic nitrogen in runoff from Australian sugarcane farms.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Grant; Rohde, Ken; Silburn, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) movement from Australian sugarcane farms is believed to be a major cause of crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks which have reduced the Great Barrier Reef coral cover by ~21% (1985-2012). We develop a daily model of DIN concentration in runoff based on >200 field monitored runoff events. Runoff DIN concentrations were related to nitrogen fertiliser application rates and decreased after application with time and cumulative rainfall. Runoff after liquid fertiliser applications had higher initial DIN concentrations, though these concentrations diminished more rapidly in comparison to granular fertiliser applications. The model was validated using an independent field dataset and provided reasonable estimates of runoff DIN concentrations based on a number of modelling efficiency score results. The runoff DIN concentration model was combined with a water balance cropping model to investigate temporal aspects of sugarcane fertiliser management. Nitrogen fertiliser application in December (start of wet season) had the highest risk of DIN movement, and this was further exacerbated in years with a climate forecast for 'wet' seasonal conditions. The potential utility of a climate forecasting system to predict forthcoming wet months and hence DIN loss risk is demonstrated. Earlier fertiliser application or reducing fertiliser application rates in seasons with a wet climate forecast may markedly reduce runoff DIN loads; however, it is recommended that these findings be tested at a broader scale.

  9. Research and Development of Advanced Life Support Equipment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-01

    Wiegman , Janet F. Yarbrough, Shawn R. Zhou, Yi 1989-1997 1,10, 12,26.9,26.14 1983-1995 11,26.8 1993-1997 9 1993-1997 u 1993-1997 1,26.13,26.19 1997...Sustained +GS" (AUACHE 91-21) Fischer MD, Heaps CL, Wiegman JF, Hill RC. Female +GZ tolerance to the 4.5-7 simulated aerial combat maneuvers acceleration...Accomplishments Research reported (DIN A005, DIN A009, DIN A010, and/or DIN A016) from this effort includes: Wiegman JF, Burton RR, Forster EM. The role

  10. Invatamantul cu Predarea in Limbile Minoritatilor Nationale din Romania. In Anul Scolar 1992/1993 = The Education System in Romania: Tuition in the Languages of Ethnic Minorities. The School Year 1992/1993 = L'enseignement dispense dans les langues des minorites nationales de Roumanie. L'annee scolaire 1992/1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for National Minorities, Bucharest (Romania).

    Documentation of the Romanian system of language instruction in ethnic minority languages is presented in Romanian, French, and English. It consists of: relevant provisions from the national constitution concerning the rights of ethnic minority members; organization and functioning of the educational system at the elementary, middle, and secondary…

  11. All the king's horses and 2,4,5-T was the best tool of all; yet 2,4,5-T had a very great fall. All of the facts midst all of the din couldn't put T back together again

    SciTech Connect

    Walstad, J.D.; Dost, F.N.

    1986-09-01

    On January 30 and February 11, 1985, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) canceled the use of 2,4,5-T and of silvex, a chemical analog of 2,4,5-T. These actions climaxed the most controversial and turbulent period in the history of forest pest management. Beginning in 1969, stories about 2,4,5-T safety generated intense social activism, litigation, and sometimes violence. Foresters, farmers, ranchers, politicians, manufacturers, environmentalists, scientists, regulatory officials, and local citizens entered the debate. The role of government in pesticide regulation and the integrity of industry and science were being challenged. Although 2,4,5-T and silvex are no longer used, questions remain. Were the ultimate decisions the result of scientific evidence and analysis, or were they a response to public opinion that with all the smoke there must be fire somewhere. Can forestry professionals help the nation avoid controversies of this nature in the future.

  12. (μ-Acetato-κ(2) O:O')[μ-2,6-bis-({bis-[(pyri-din-2-yl-κN)meth-yl]amino-κN}meth-yl)-4-methyl-phenolato-κ(2) O:O](metha-nol-κO)dizinc bis-(perchlorate).

    PubMed

    Das, Biswanath; Haukka, Matti; Nordlander, Ebbe

    2014-04-01

    The binuclear title complex, [Zn2(C33H33N6O)(CH3COO2)(CH3OH)](ClO4)2, was synthesized by the reaction between 2,6-bis-({[bis-(pyridin-2-yl)meth-yl]amino}-meth-yl)-4-methyl-phenol (H-BPMP), Zn(OAc)2 and NaClO4. The two Zn(II) ions are bridged by the phenolate O atom of the octadentate ligand and the acetate group. An additional methanol ligand is terminally coordinated to one of the Zn(II) ions, rendering the whole structure unsymmetric. Other symmetric dizinc complexes of BPMP have been reported. However, to the best of our knowledge, the present structure, in which the two Zn(II) ions are distinguishable by the number of coordinating ligands and the coordination geometries (octahedral and square-pyramidal), is unique. The dizinc complex is a dication, and two perchlorate anions balance the charge. The -OH group of the coordinating methanol solvent mol-ecule forms a hydrogen bond with a perchlorate counter-anion. One of the anions is disordered over two sets of sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.734 (2):0.266 (2).

  13. Análisis de la evolución química de los cúmulos abiertos de la Galaxia a través de simulaciones dinámicas con procesos de destrucción

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bignone, L. A.; Pellizza, L. J.; Piatti, A. E.; Tecce, T. E.

    It is well known that open clusters are excellent tracers (in time and space) of the metallicity of the Galactic disk. We analyze the history of stellar for- mation of the Galactic disk using numerical simulations of the dynamical evolution of the open cluster system. We have included the effects of clus- ter disruption caused by stellar evolution, tidal fields, and the interaction with the spiral arms. We model the present astrophysical properties of open clusters from initial hypothesis regarding their formation history. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  14. Structure of poly[di-aqua-[μ-1,2-bis-(pyri-din-4-yl)ethane-κ(2) N:N']bis-(μ3-cyclo-butane-1,1-di-carboxyl-ato-κ(3) O,O':O'':O''')dimanganese(II)].

    PubMed

    Lee, Do Nam; Kim, Youngmee

    2015-08-01

    In the title compound, [Mn(C6H6O4)(C12H12N2)(H2O)] n , the cyclo-butane-1,1-di-carboxyl-ate (cbdc) ligands bridge three Mn(II) ions, forming layers parallel to the ac plane. These layers are additionally connected by 1,2-bis-(pyridin-4-yl)ethane ligands to form a three-dimensional polymeric framework. An inversion centre is located at the mid-point of the central C-C bond of the 1,2-bis-(pyridin-4-yl)ethane ligand. The coordination geometry of the Mn(II) ion is distorted octa-hedral and is built up by four carboxyl-ate O atoms, one water O atom and a pyridyl N atom. The pyridine ligand and the coordinating water mol-ecule are in a trans configuration. One carboxyl-ate group of the cbdc ligand acts as a chelating ligand towards one Mn(II) atom, whereas the second carboxyl-ate group coordinates two different Mn(II) atoms.

  15. The role of seasonal and hydrological conditions in regulating dissolved inorganic nitrogen budgets in a forested catchment in SW Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Rusjan, Simon; Vidmar, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    During two consecutive years the monitoring of rainfall nitrate (NO3(-)) and ammonium (NH4(+)) concentrations, combined with high-frequency measurements of streamwater NO3(-) concentrations, provided insight into the mechanisms controlling the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) budgets of the forested Padež stream catchment in SW Slovenia. During both years, the catchment's annual wet atmospheric DIN deposition (12.6 and 13.8kg-N/ha) exceeded the annual DIN export (10.7kg-N/ha and 8.8kg-N/ha). The analysis of the monthly DIN budgets discloses seasonal patterns. In winter and early spring, the catchment behaves as a net source of DIN, whereas during late spring, summer, and early fall the catchment generally behaves as a net sink of the atmospheric DIN. Due to large evapotranspiration in the growth period, most of the DIN remains in the catchment and is flushed during the dormant season. Despite high evapotranspiration and consequently low runoff coefficients characteristic for the Mediterranean climate, large rainfall events in the growth period can cause intensive washout of DIN from the catchment. At a monthly basis, the DIN flushing might exceed the catchment's DIN retention capacity and the catchment might behave as a net source of DIN. Therefore, the hydrological conditions have the ability to shift the catchment's role in regulating the DIN budgets. The high responsiveness of the streamwater NO3(-) concentration in the growth period indicates a large pool of DIN in the forest soils which can become mobile by runoff formation. Wet atmospheric DIN deposition at the Padež catchment is considerable; highest DIN inputs can be expected when air masses approach the catchment from the southwest to southeast where there are extensive urban areas along the Italian, Slovenian and Croatian coast. However, the Padež catchment does not appear to be approaching N saturation, presumably due to strong internal N cycle in the forest soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  16. 78 FR 17744 - In the Matter of the Designation of Ansar al-Dine Also Known as Ansar Dine Also Known as Ansar al...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of Ansar al-Dine Also Known as Ansar Dine Also Known as Ansar al-Din Also Known as Ancar Dine Also Known as Ansar ul-Din Also Known as Ansar Eddine Also Known as Defenders of the Faith as a Foreign Terrorist...

  17. 78 FR 17745 - In the Matter of the Designation of Ansar al-Dine, Also Known as Ansar Dine, Also Known as Ansar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of Ansar al-Dine, Also Known as Ansar Dine, Also Known as Ansar al-Din, Also Known as Ancar Dine, Also Known as Ansar ul-Din, Also Known as Ansar Eddine, Also Known as Defenders of the Faith, as a Specially Designated...

  18. Factors influencing export of dissolved inorganic nitrogen by major rivers: A new, seasonal, spatially explicit, global model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Substantial effort has focused on understanding spatial variation in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export to the coastal zone and specific basins have been studied in depth. Much less is known, however, about seasonal patterns and controls of coastal DIN delivery across larg...

  19. Factors influencing export of dissolved inorganic nitrogen by major rivers: A new, seasonal, spatially explicit, global model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Substantial effort has focused on understanding spatial variation in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export to the coastal zone and specific basins have been studied in depth. Much less is known, however, about seasonal patterns and controls of coastal DIN delivery across larg...

  20. QUANTIFYING SEASONAL SHIFTS IN NITROGEN SOURCES TO OREGON ESTUARIES: PART II: TRANSPORT MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identifying the sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in estuaries is complicated by the multiple sources, temporal variability in inputs, and variations in transport. We used a hydrodynamic model to simulate the transport and uptake of three sources of DIN (oceanic, riv...

  1. Dissolved organic nitrogen measurement using dialysis pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wontae; Westerhoff, Paul

    2005-02-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is important for ecological and engineering researches. Quantification of low DON concentrations in waters with elevated dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) using existing methods is inaccurate. In this study, a dialysis-based pretreatment technique was optimized and adopted to reduce the interference from DIN to the quantification of DON in natural water. A cellulose ester dialysis tube (nominal molecular weight cutoff = 100 Da) was used in batch and continuous-flow dialysis steps with model compounds, natural organic matter isolates, and bulk waters to develop a dialysis pretreatment approach that selectively reduces DIN from solutions containing DON. By reducing DIN concentrations, propagation of analytical variance in total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and DIN species concentrations allows more accurate determination of DON (DON = TDN - NO3 - NO2- - NH3/NH4+). Dialysis for 24 h against continuously flowing distilled water reduced DIN species by 70%. With dialysis pretreatment, DON recoveries of more than 95% were obtained for surface water and finished drinking water, but wastewater experienced a slight loss (approximately 10%) of DON possibly due to the adsorption of organics onto the dialysis membrane, permeation of low molecular weight fractions, or biodegradation. Dialysis experiments using surface water spiked with different DIN/TDN ratios concluded that dialysis pretreatment leads to more accurate DON determination than no dialysis when DIN/TDN ratios exceed 0.6 mg of N/mg of N.

  2. QUANTIFYING SEASONAL SHIFTS IN NITROGEN SOURCES TO OREGON ESTUARIES: PART II: TRANSPORT MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identifying the sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in estuaries is complicated by the multiple sources, temporal variability in inputs, and variations in transport. We used a hydrodynamic model to simulate the transport and uptake of three sources of DIN (oceanic, riv...

  3. Rainfall contributes ~30% of the dissolved inorganic nitrogen exported from a southern Great Barrier Reef river basin.

    PubMed

    Packett, Robert

    2017-08-15

    A study was conducted to estimate how much of the annual load of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) from Great Barrier Reef (GBR) river basins could come from rainfall. Results suggest rainfall contributed ~37% of the average annual DIN load from the Fitzroy Basin over three wet seasons. Rainfall DIN contribution at plot to sub-catchment scale ranged from 5 to >100% for study sites in the Fitzroy and Pioneer Basins. An estimate using measured and modelled data indicates ~28% of the longer-term average annual DIN load from the entire GBR catchment may originate from rainfall. These estimates may affect current GBR management and water quality targets. Numerous studies predict increases in atmospheric nitrogen pollution from Asia via fossil fuel combustion and more frequent severe La Nina events via global warming. Future GBR rainfall chemistry data may be required for assessing catchment management outcomes and regional trends in atmospheric DIN deposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A classification and regression tree model of controls on dissolved inorganic nitrogen leaching from European forests.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, James J; Futter, Martyn N; Dise, Nancy B

    2008-11-01

    Often, there is a non-linear relationship between atmospheric dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) input and DIN leaching that is poorly captured by existing models. We present the first application of the non-parametric classification and regression tree approach to evaluate the key environmental drivers controlling DIN leaching from European forests. DIN leaching was classified as low (<3), medium (3-15) or high (>15kg N ha(-1) year(-1)) at 215 sites across Europe. The analysis identified throughfall NO(3)(-) deposition, acid deposition, hydrology, soil type, the carbon content of the soil, and the legacy of historic N deposition as the dominant drivers of DIN leaching for these forests. Ninety four percent of sites were successfully classified into the appropriate leaching category. This approach shows promise for understanding complex ecosystem responses to a wide range of anthropogenic stressors as well as an improved method for identifying risk and targeting pollution mitigation strategies in forest ecosystems.

  5. [Interpretation of spatial distribution pattern for dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentration in coastal estuary using hyperspectral data].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Ying; Li, Huan

    2010-06-01

    Choosing dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) as one of the representative nutritional salt monitoring indexes, a hyperspectral remotely sensed inversion model was built and applied to quantitatively retrieve water quality parameters with its spatial distribution patterns in coastal estuary with high suspended sediment concentration (SSC). It was found that when SSC was larger than 0.1 kg/m3, DIN concentration had a notable inverse correlation with SSC and the correlation coefficient R2 reached 0.617. Based on this conclusion, firstly the in-situ observed water surface remote sensing reflectance was resampled according to the spectral response characters of Hyperion sensor. And then, statistical correlation analysis between reflectance and DIN concentration was carried out. The results showed that band reflectance of R804 and R630 representing the second and first reflectance peak of water spectrum curve were sensitive to the variation of DIN concentration. And then, a pseudo remotely sensed sand parameter index R804 x R630/(R804 - R630) was calculated for the construction of the nonlinear DIN quantitative reversion model. Correlation coefficient R2 between observed and simulated DIN concentrations for 29 calibrating samples and 10 validating samples were 0.746 and 0.67, while their mean absolute errors reached 109.07 and 147.58 microg/L, respectively. The model was then applied on Hyperion hyperspectral image to get the spatial distribution character of DIN concentration in Sheyanghe river estuary and the DIN concentration was between 52 to 513 microg/L. Results indicated that in coastal estuary which was dominated by suspended sediments, the diffusive trends of DIN concentration reversed by remote sensing techniques had an intimate relationship with motions of tidal current and transportation attributes of SSC. As the hydrodynamic conditions were unclear, hyperspectral remote sensing technique was an effective technical way for dynamic survey of DIN concentration.

  6. Seasonality of dissolved nitrogen from spring melt to fall freezeup in Alaskan Arctic tundra and mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosh, Matthew S.; McClelland, James W.; Jacobson, Andrew D.; Douglas, Thomas A.; Barker, Amanda J.; Lehn, Gregory O.

    2017-07-01

    Predicting the response of dissolved nitrogen export from Arctic watersheds to climate change requires an improved understanding of seasonal nitrogen dynamics. Recent studies of Arctic rivers emphasize the importance of spring thaw as a time when large fluxes of nitrogen are exported from Arctic watersheds, but studies capturing the entire hydrologic year are rare. We examined the temporal variability of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations in six streams/rivers in Arctic Alaska from spring melt to fall freezeup (May through October) in 2009 and 2010. DON concentrations were generally high during snowmelt and declined as runoff decreased. DIN concentrations were low through the spring and summer and increased markedly during the late summer and fall, primarily due to an increase in nitrate. The high DIN concentrations were observed to occur when seasonal soil thaw depths were near maximum extents. Concurrent increases in DIN and DIN-to-chloride ratios suggest that net increases from nitrogen sources contributed to these elevated DIN concentrations. Our stream chemistry data, combined with soil thermistor data, suggest that downward penetration of water into seasonally thawed mineral soils, and reduction in biological nitrogen assimilation relative to remineralization, may increase DIN export from Arctic watersheds during the late summer and fall. While this is part of a natural cycle, improved understanding of seasonal nitrogen dynamics is particularly important now because warmer temperatures in the Arctic are causing earlier spring snowmelt and later fall freezeup in many regions.

  7. New Insights on the Nitrogen Footprint of a Coastal Megalopolis from Coral-Hosted Symbiodinium δ(15)N.

    PubMed

    Wong, C W Martin; Duprey, Nicolas N; Baker, David M

    2017-02-21

    The development of megalopolises in coastal areas is often linked with severe eutrophication, requiring mitigation of anthropogenic dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) pollution. Yet, identifying the DIN-sources responsible for eutrophication is challenging, hampering mitigation efforts. Here, we utilize the stable nitrogen isotope ratio of endosymbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium spp. (δ(15)Nsym) associated with the hard coral Porites to trace DIN sources in one of the most urbanized areas of the planet: the Pearl River Delta (PRD). The mean δ(15)Nsym value found in the coastal waters of Hong Kong (HK), located on the eastern edge of the PRD, (7.4‰ ± 1.2‰) was +2.7‰ higher than at Dongsha Atoll, a reference site unaffected by anthropogenic-DIN (4.7‰ ± 0.4‰). The isotopic enrichment suggested a consistent dominance of DIN deriving from local and regional sewage discharges on the eastern edge of HK. Furthermore, the strong depletion of the summer δ(15)Nsym value (-1.6‰) observed in southern HK revealed that the Pearl River plume strongly modulates the coastal DIN pool. Our results revealed the value of benthic marine organisms' δ(15)N for deciphering the complex dynamics of coastal eutrophication and highlighted the pivotal role of transboundary coordination in DIN-pollution mitigation.

  8. Assessing speech recognition abilities with digits in noise in cochlear implant and hearing aid users.

    PubMed

    Kaandorp, Marre W; Smits, Cas; Merkus, Paul; Goverts, S Theo; Festen, Joost M

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of the study was to investigate the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the Dutch digits in noise (DIN) test for measuring speech recognition in hearing aid and cochlear implant users and compare results to the standard sentences-in-noise (SIN) test. The relation between speech reception thresholds for DIN test and SIN test was analysed to determine the validity of the DIN test. As linguistic skills were expected to make different contributions in these tests, their influence was analysed. Participants were 12 normal-hearing listeners, 24 hearing aid users, and 24 cochlear implant users. The DIN test was feasible for more participants than the SIN test. Intraclass correlation coefficients showed high reliability. The standard error of measurement was smaller for the DIN test than for the SIN test. DIN test and SIN test were highly correlated (r = 0.95 and r = 0.56 for NH+ HA and CI users respectively). In the regression analysis no significant contribution of basic linguistic skills or personal factors was found. In the assessment of speech recognition in noise of aided hearing-impaired listeners with hearing aids or cochlear implants, the DIN test is a feasible, reliable and valid test.

  9. Chemical speciation and transformation of dissolved nitrogen in Lake Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, L.; Guo, L.; Zhou, Z.; Cuhel, R. L.; Aguilar, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Great Lakes have experienced significant ecological and environmental changes due to increasing anthropogenic influences and the introduction of invasive species. However, changes in nutrient cycling pathways in Lake Michigan remain elusive. Water samples were collected between December 2012 and July 2013 along a transect from the Milwaukee River to open Lake Michigan for the measurements of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, including NO3, NO2, and NH4), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and colloidal organic nitrogen (CON). Concentrations of DIN in river waters decreased from winter to spring, while in Lake Michigan, DIN increased from spring/summer to winter, showing a general decrease from river to lake waters, but homogeneous or slightly increase from surface to deep water in Lake Michigan. Within the DIN pool, NO3 is the predominant species comprising >84%. Concentrations of DON also decreased from river to open lake waters, but less variable or slightly decreased from surface to deep waters in Lake Michigan. These variation trends highlighted the importance of terrestrial contribution of DIN and DON to the lake and possible production of DIN in bottom waters. While DIN predominated the total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) pool in both river and lake waters during winter, DON became dominant throughout the entire water column during spring/summer. The imbalance between DON production and DIN consumption during summer suggested that DON could also be derived from particulate nitrogen pool in the water column and other sources. Colloidal organic nitrogen contributed up to 22-56% of the DON pool or 12-32% of the TDN pool in river/coastal waters. Similar to DIN and DON, the abundance of CON also decreased from the Milwaukee River to Lake Michigan, indicating short turnover times of the colloidal N pool and increase the proportion of low-molecular-weight DON in lake waters.

  10. Locomotor rhythm maintenance: electrical coupling among premotor excitatory interneurons in the brainstem and spinal cord of young Xenopus tadpoles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Chang; Roberts, Alan; Soffe, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    Electrical coupling is important in rhythm generating systems. We examine its role in circuits controlling locomotion in a simple vertebrate model, the young Xenopus tadpole, where the hindbrain and spinal cord excitatory descending interneurons (dINs) that drive and maintain swimming have been characterised. Using simultaneous paired recordings, we show that most dINs are electrically coupled exclusively to other dINs (DC coupling coefficients ∼8.5%). The coupling shows typical low-pass filtering. We found no evidence that other swimming central pattern generator (CPG) interneurons are coupled to dINs or to each other. Electrical coupling potentials between dINs appear to contribute to their unusually reliable firing during swimming. To investigate the role of electrical coupling in swimming, we evaluated the specificity of gap junction blockers (18-β-GA, carbenoxolone, flufenamic acid and heptanol) in paired recordings. 18-β-GA at 40–60 μm produced substantial (84%) coupling block but few effects on cellular properties. Swimming episodes in 18-β-GA were significantly shortened (to ∼2% of control durations). At the same time, dIN firing reliability fell from nearly 100% to 62% of swimming cycles and spike synchronization weakened. Because dINs drive CPG neuron firing and are critical in maintaining swimming, the weakening of dIN activity could account for the effects of 18-β-GA on swimming. We conclude that electrical coupling among pre motor reticulospinal and spinal dINs, the excitatory interneurons that drive the swimming CPG in the hatchling Xenopus tadpole, may contribute to the maintenance of swimming as well as synchronization of activity. PMID:19221124

  11. Nitrogen export from a boreal stream network following forest harvesting: seasonal nitrate removal and conservative export of organic forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schelker, J.; Sponseller, R.; Ring, E.; Högbom, L.; Löfgren, S.; Laudon, H.

    2016-01-01

    Clear-cutting is today the primary driver of large-scale forest disturbance in boreal regions of Fennoscandia. Among the major environmental concerns of this practice for surface waters is the increased mobilization of nutrients, such as dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) into streams. But while DIN loading to first-order streams following forest harvest has been previously described, the downstream fate and impact of these inputs is not well understood. We evaluated the downstream fate of DIN and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) inputs in a boreal landscape that has been altered by forest harvests over a 10-year period. The small first-order streams indicated substantial leaching of DIN, primarily as nitrate (NO3-) in response to harvests with NO3- concentrations increasing by ˜ 15-fold. NO3- concentrations at two sampling stations further downstream in the network were strongly seasonal and increased significantly in response to harvesting at the mid-sized stream, but not at the larger stream. DIN removal efficiency, Er, calculated as the percentage of "forestry derived" DIN that was retained within the stream network based on a mass-balance model was highest during the snowmelt season followed by the growing season, but declined continuously throughout the dormant season. In contrast, export of DON from the landscape indicated little removal and was essentially conservative. Overall, net removal of DIN between 2008 and 2011 accounted for ˜ 65 % of the total DIN mass exported from harvested patches distributed across the landscape. These results highlight the capacity of nitrogen-limited boreal stream networks to buffer DIN mobilization that arises from multiple clear-cuts within this landscape. Further, these findings shed light on the potential impact of anticipated measures to increase forest yields of boreal forests, such as increased fertilization and shorter forest rotations, which may increase the pressure on boreal surface waters in the future.

  12. Early results from an effort to downscale a global dissolved inorganic nitrogen model to achieve a regional assessment of nitrogen dynamics in the Columbia River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. C.; Harrison, J.

    2013-12-01

    Excessive nitrogen (N) export to coastal systems has increased dramatically since the early 20th century. The increase in N has been linked to significant environmental impacts such as eutrophication, fish kills, and harmful algal blooms and is caused in part by the increasing use and quantity of synthetic fertilizer on farmland. Significant portions of both the Willamette River Valley in Oregon and the Palouse region of eastern Washington are agricultural land, approximately 20% and 57% respectively. Nitrogen in the form of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) can leach from farms and pasture land into ground and surface water systems. This leaching, combined with DIN in runoff, contributes to the environmental degradation of both waterways (i.e. streams, rivers) and coastal estuaries. Because of this it is important to understand what effects changes in DIN application will have on water quality and DIN export to the coast. DIN export data, retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System, was analyzed for 23 major subbasins in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) and estimates DIN export (per area yield) ranging from 5.0 to 883.1 kg N km-2 yr-1. Here we present early results from our effort to downscale the Global Nutrient Export from WaterSheds (Global NEWS) DIN model for application within the Columbia River Basin (CRB). This first attempt at downscaling Global NEWS is missing some key higher-resolution N inputs for the model as well as accurate dam retention and runoff factors which could account for the low correlation between model output and observed data (R2 = 0.21).Our regional model predicts DIN yields ranging from 7.9 to 1146.6 kg N km-2 yr-1. Both the model output and observed data predict the highest per area DIN yields occurring in the Willamette river subbasin. Total DIN export to the coast was modeled as 0.06 Tg N yr-1 compared to 0.07 Tg N yr-1 calculated from the measured data. Based on current model inputs biological N2

  13. Forging Norwegian Special Operation Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    mest viktig og ŗ" for minst viktig. Ikke gi samme verdi to ganger) - Ansatte må ha muligheten til å styre sitt eget arbeid - Vi trenger å jobbe...viktig og ŗ" for minst viktig. Ikke gi samme verdi to ganger) - Personell i din avdeling deler de samme verdiene - Personell i din avdeling trenger å...deg. (Bruk ŕ" for mest viktig og ŗ" for minst viktig. Ikke gi samme verdi to ganger) - Din avdeling trenger å tilpasse seg hurtig til endringer i

  14. Carbon and nitrogen stoichiometry regulates the magnitude and temporal dynamics of nitrogenous nutrient regeneration in sandy beach pore water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodridge, B. M.; Melack, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Sandy beaches are located at the interface of terrestrial and marine ecosystems, lining about 70% of the world's ice-free coastline. They can be conduits for fresh groundwater delivery of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), a vital and often limiting nutrient source, to oceans along coastlines where a hydrologic connection exists with shallow coastal aquifers. However, even along such coastlines, the majority of water within beach sands is recirculated seawater (i.e., pore water), and the regeneration of DIN from the mineralization of marine organic matter (OM) is considered the dominant source of DIN in beach pore water and flux to coastal oceans. The biogeochemical mechanisms regulating the magnitude of and temporal changes in DIN regeneration in saline beach pore water are therefore of prime importance in assessing the role of beaches in coastal marine nitrogen cycling. We assessed the potential stoichiometric control of resource carbon to nitrogen (C:N) on pore water DIN regeneration at four sandy beach study locations, and temporal evolution of pore water C:N at two of the four study locations, along the Santa Barbara, California coastline during synoptic sampling events over the course of a year. We identified pore water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) as the resources most likely available to microbial heterotrophic metabolism (i.e., C:N), the dominant catalyst of DIN regeneration in marine sediments, finding a negative exponential correlation of DIN with DOC:TDN ratios (673 × 173 e-1.05 × 0.30(DOC:TDN); R2 = 0.55, n = 123). DOC:TDN ratios also demonstrated a negative exponential correlation with residence time (10.0 × 1.7 e-1.08 × 0.48(RT) + 1.61 × 0.54; R2 = 0.79, n = 46), estimated using radon-222 as a pore water residence time tracer. Using model-derived DOC:TDN ratios as the independent variable in the DIN vs. DOC:TDN relationship, we explored temporal changes in DIN regeneration. The modeled DIN vs. residence time

  15. Evolution of Hydrogen Dynamics in Amorphous Ice with Density.

    PubMed

    Parmentier, A; Shephard, J J; Romanelli, G; Senesi, R; Salzmann, C G; Andreani, C

    2015-06-04

    The single-particle dynamics of hydrogen atoms in several of the amorphous ices are reported using a combination of deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS) and inelastic neutron scattering (INS). The mean kinetic energies of the hydrogen nuclei are found to increase with increasing density, indicating the weakening of hydrogen bonds as well as a trend toward steeper and more harmonic hydrogen vibrational potential energy surfaces. DINS shows much more pronounced changes in the O-H stretching component of the mean kinetic energy going from low- to high-density amorphous ices than indicated by INS and Raman spectroscopy. This highlights the power of the DINS technique to retrieve accurate ground-state kinetic energies beyond the harmonic approximation. In a novel approach, we use information from DINS and INS to determine the anharmonicity constants of the O-H stretching modes. Furthermore, our experimental kinetic energies will serve as important benchmark values for path-integral Monte Carlo simulations.

  16. Blessed by the Holy People.

    PubMed

    House, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Men-women and women-men have a long tradition in Diné (Navajo) culture where they were, and sometimes still are, held in high esteem. Their supernatural prototypes figure prominently in parts of the Diné Origin Story. It is in this cosmological worldview and tradition of acceptance that Carrie, a multi-dualistic spirit, grew up to be a female-bodied man supported and respected by his/her family and community. He/she has worked in various professions defined as "masculine" in Diné and Western contexts, such as fire fighter, heavy equipment operator, truck driver, and building contractor. In addition, Carrie is a keeper of Diné traditions, and has also been active educating Native and Non-Native audiences on 2SpiritLesbianGayBiTransIntersexQueer issues.

  17. Factors influencing export of dissolved inorganic nitrogen by major rivers: A new seasonal, global-scale model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding sub-annual patterns of catchment dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export is critical for predicting and mitigating impacts of coastal eutrophication, such as algal blooms and hypoxic areas, which are often seasonal phenomena. We developed the first calibrated glob...

  18. Mining Land Subsidence Monitoring Using SENTINEL-1 SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, W.; Wang, Q.; Fan, J.; Li, H.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, DInSAR technique was used to monitor land subsidence in mining area. The study area was selected in the coal mine area located in Yuanbaoshan District, Chifeng City, and Sentinel-1 data were used to carry out DInSAR techniqu. We analyzed the interferometric results by Sentinel-1 data from December 2015 to May 2016. Through the comparison of the results of DInSAR technique and the location of the mine on the optical images, it is shown that DInSAR technique can be used to effectively monitor the land subsidence caused by underground mining, and it is an effective tool for law enforcement of over-mining.

  19. DISTINGUISHING AND QUANTIFYING NATURAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC NUTRIENT LOADING TO PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many coastal ecosystems are experiencing environmental problems due to excess nutrients, particularly nitrogen. Identifying the sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in estuaries is complicated by the multiple sources and pathways, temporal variability in inputs, and var...

  20. EFFECT OF FLUID SHEAR AND IRRADIANCE ON POPULATION GROWTH AND CELLULAR TOXIN CONTENT OF THE DINOFLAGELLATE ALEXANDRIUM FUNDYENSE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential for in situ turbulence to inhibit dinoflagellate population growth has been demonstrated by experimentally exposing dinoflagellate cultures to quantified shear flow. However, despite interest in understanding environmental factors that affect the growth of toxic din...

  1. Research on two-pass differential InSAR and its implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yihua; Zeng, Qiming; Li, Xiaofan; Gao, Liang; Zhang, Hua

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, the principle and processing procedures of two-pass Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) have been presented, and the difficulties and implementation of the key points are discussed in detail.

  2. Linking seasonal inorganic nitrogen shift to the dynamics of microbial communities in the Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yiguo; Xu, Xiongrong; Kan, Jinjun; Chen, Feng

    2014-04-01

    Seasonal shifts of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and the dynamics of microbial communities for nitrogen transformation were investigated in the water column of Chesapeake Bay. The relative abundance of nitrogen over phosphorus (N) showed a strong seasonal and spatial pattern: gradually decreased from upstream to downstream; high in winter and low in summer. Because the phosphorus concentration remained relatively stable, the spatiotemporal pattern of N implied that a substantial fraction of DIN was removed in the bay, especially in summer. Correlation analyses indicated the functional microbial communities and environmental variables, such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, played important roles for connecting the seasonal variation of N. Among them, temperature was the trigger factor. High temperature in the summer induced the growth of functional microbes, which subsequently consumed a large portion of DIN inputted from the tributaries and reduced the N. The current study provided the relative importance of microbial communities and environmental variables in driving the DIN loss in the bay.

  3. Factors influencing export of dissolved inorganic nitrogen by major rivers: A new seasonal, global-scale model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding sub-annual patterns of catchment dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export is critical for predicting and mitigating impacts of coastal eutrophication, such as algal blooms and hypoxic areas, which are often seasonal phenomena. We developed the first calibrated glob...

  4. Steuerungs- und Automatisierungstechnik an Werkzeugmaschinen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahmann, Werner

    Eine leistungsfähige und funktionssichere Steuerungstechnik ist die Voraussetzung für die Automatisierung der Werkzeugmaschinen und der Produktionsprozesse (Definition nach DIN IEC 60050-351 siehe Teil Steuerungstechnik).

  5. Globalization and Its Impact on the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    writes Gamal Essam El- Din … …In both America and Egypt, political leaders locked horns as America’s GMEI prompted outbursts of anger in Cairo and other...51 Gamal Essam El- Din . “Asserting Home-grown Reform,” Al-Ahram Weekly, no.680 (March 4-10, 2004), http...well over 415 million today, and approaching a fourfold increase. It will more than double again, to at least 833 million, by 2050

  6. Eutrophication and macroalgal blooms in temperate and tropical coastal waters: nutrient enrichment experiments with Ulva spp.

    PubMed Central

    Teichberg, Mirta; Fox, Sophia E; Olsen, Ylva S; Valiela, Ivan; Martinetto, Paulina; Iribarne, Oscar; Muto, Elizabeti Yuriko; Petti, Monica A V; Corbisier, Thaïs N; Soto-Jiménez, Martín; Páez-Osuna, Federico; Castro, Paula; Freitas, Helena; Zitelli, Andreina; Cardinaletti, Massimo; Tagliapietra, Davide

    2010-01-01

    Receiving coastal waters and estuaries are among the most nutrient-enriched environments on earth, and one of the symptoms of the resulting eutrophication is the proliferation of opportunistic, fast-growing marine seaweeds. Here, we used a widespread macroalga often involved in blooms, Ulva spp., to investigate how supply of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), the two main potential growth-limiting nutrients, influence macroalgal growth in temperate and tropical coastal waters ranging from low- to high-nutrient supplies. We carried out N and P enrichment field experiments on Ulva spp. in seven coastal systems, with one of these systems represented by three different subestuaries, for a total of nine sites. We showed that rate of growth of Ulva spp. was directly correlated to annual dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations, where growth increased with increasing DIN concentration. Internal N pools of macroalgal fronds were also linked to increased DIN supply, and algal growth rates were tightly coupled to these internal N pools. The increases in DIN appeared to be related to greater inputs of wastewater to these coastal waters as indicated by high δ15N signatures of the algae as DIN increased. N and P enrichment experiments showed that rate of macroalgal growth was controlled by supply of DIN where ambient DIN concentrations were low, and by P where DIN concentrations were higher, regardless of latitude or geographic setting. These results suggest that understanding the basis for macroalgal blooms, and management of these harmful phenomena, will require information as to nutrient sources, and actions to reduce supply of N and P in coastal waters concerned.

  7. Nicholet MED-80 (Trademark) Programs in the Naval Biodynamics Laboratory Evoked Potential Series.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    VALUES TO SOME VARIABLES. 20 DIN DELAYS(3), STSECt(3), SUPSZ$(7), SUPSS(5), CHSS (2), STMEM$(2), URISTS(6) 30 DIN SZMEM$(5) , DUELLS(5), STPERS(6...3 OR CHS(1) = 5 OR CHS(1) = 6 OR CHS(1) = 7 THEN 620 660 PUT CHS(1) IN PIN ; GET CHS.) FROM GIN ; CHSS (1) STR$(CHS(l)) 670 Y$(U) a CHS$(I) ; P a 2

  8. Enhancement of carbon and nitrogen removal by helophytes along subsurface water flowpaths receiving treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ribot, Miquel; Bernal, Susana; Nikolakopoulou, Myrto; Vaessen, Timothy N; Cochero, Joaquín; Gacia, Esperança; Sorolla, Albert; Argerich, Alba; Sabater, Francesc; Isnard, Manel; Martí, Eugènia

    2017-12-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are sources of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic nitrogen (DIN) to receiving streams, which can eventually become saturated by excess of DIN. Aquatic plants (i.e., helophytes) can modify subsurface water flowpaths as well as assimilate nutrients and enhance microbial activity in the rhizosphere, yet their ability to increase DIN transformation and removal in WWTP-influenced streams is poorly understood. We examined the influence of helophytes on DIN removal along subsurface water flowpaths and how this was associated with DOC removal and labile C availability. To do so, we used a set of 12 flow-through flumes fed with water from a WWTP effluent. The flumes contained solely sediments or sediments with helophytes. Presence of helophytes in the flumes enhanced both DIN and DOC removal. Experimental addition of a labile C source into the flumes resulted in a high removal of the added C within the first meter of the flumes. Yet, no concomitant increases in DIN removal were observed. Moreover, results from laboratory assays showed significant increases in the potential denitrifying enzyme activity of sediment biofilms from the flumes when labile C was added; suggesting denitrification was limited by C quality. Together these results suggest that lack of DIN removal response to the labile C addition in flumes was likely because potential increases in denitrification by biofilms from sediments were counterbalanced by high rates of mineralization of dissolved organic matter. Our results highlight that helophytes can enhance DIN removal in streams receiving inputs from WWTP effluents; and thus, they can become a relevant bioremediation tool in WWTP-influenced streams. However, results also suggest that the quality of DOC from the WWTP effluent can influence the N removal capacity of these systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Process Models in E-Learning--Bottom-Up or Top-Down?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahl, Sarah; Martens, Alke

    2015-01-01

    In the paper, different approaches of process modelling in e-learning system development are investigated. We provide a look at the DIN PAS 1032-1 and in the process model ROME, which is a derivation of the DIN PAS 1032-1. ROME has been extended by several pattern approaches. However, after several years of using ROME, we found out that ROME has…

  10. X-Ray Excited Luminescence and X-Ray Irradiation Effect on CdS sub 1-x Se sub x Nanocrystals Optical Absorption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Zagreb, Croatia bUniversity of Zagreb, Geotechnical Faculty Varaýdin, Hallerova aleja 7, 42000 Vara ~din, Croatia X-ray excited luminescence and X-ray...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO11551 TITLE: X-Ray Excited Luminescence and X-Ray Irradiation Effect on...UNCLASSIFIED Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, Vol. 3, No. 2, June 2001, p. 509 - 514 X-RAY EXCITED LUMINESCENCE AND X-RAY IRRADIATION

  11. Large temporal changes in contributions of groundwater-borne nutrients to coastal waters off a volcanic island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyung-Mi; Kim, Guebuem

    2017-06-01

    We examined the contribution of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to nutrient budgets in Hwasun Bay, Jeju Island, Korea in August 2009, October 2014, and May 2015. The concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) in fresh groundwater were in the range of 285-716 μM and 2.3-3.2 μM, respectively, which were each 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those in the bay seawater. The outer-bay seawater flowing into the bay was oligotrophic (2.9 ± 1.9 μM for DIN and 0.2 ± 0.3 μM for DIP). Nutrient budget calculations were performed for each season by accounting for submarine fresh groundwater discharge (SFGD) and water residence times. In August 2009 (DIN = 1.8 μM and DIN:DIP ratio = 4.6 for the outerbay water), DIN inputs from SFGD accounted for approximately 40% of the DIN inventory in the bay seawater. In October 2014 (DIN = 1.1 μM and DIP < 0.05 μM for the outer-bay water), DIP from SFGD accounted for approximately 100% of the DIP inventory in the bay seawater. In May 2015, mean concentrations of DIN and DIP in the bay seawater were 8.6 ± 12 μM and 0.11 ± 0.04 μM, respectively, with conservative behaviors in the bay seawater in association with excessive groundwater inputs. These results imply that SGD plays a critical but different role in nutrient budgets and stoichiometry in coastal waters off a volcanic island depending on open-ocean nutrient conditions.

  12. Green tide development associated with submarine groundwater discharge in a coastal harbor, Jeju, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyeong Kyu; Kang, Hyekyung; Oh, Yong Hwa; Park, Sang Rul; Kim, Guebuem

    2017-07-24

    We measured the magnitude of submarine fresh groundwater discharge (SFGD) and associated nutrient inputs to Jocheon harbor, on Jeju Island, Korea, during four sampling periods, in order to determine the link between SFGD and Ulva sp. green tide development. Good correlations among salinity, (222)Rn, and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in harbor seawater suggest that SFGD is the major source of DIN and fresh water since there are no surface runoffs. Using a (222)Rn mass balance model, SFGD to the harbor was estimated to be 5.8 ± 2.3 × 10(4) m(3) d(-1). The DIN inputs through SFGD enhanced DIN concentrations in harbor seawater approximately 10-fold of those in the open-ocean (outer harbor) seawater. Results from mesocosm experiments showed that the growth rate of U. pertusa increased by 160% on average due to the enhanced DIN concentrations (from 1 to 24 µM) through SFGD in this harbor. Thus, we conclude that DIN inputs through SFGD cause the green tide development in Jocheon harbor and perhaps in other green tide regions where river inputs are absent.

  13. Effect of external digital elevation model on monitoring of mine subsidence by two-pass differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Qiuxiang; Gao, Tengfei; Liu, Guolin; Wang, Zhiwei

    2017-04-01

    The external digital elevation model (DEM) error is one of the main factors that affect the accuracy of mine subsidence monitored by two-pass differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR), which has been widely used in monitoring mining-induced subsidence. The theoretical relationship between external DEM error and monitored deformation error is derived based on the principles of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) and two-pass DInSAR. Taking the Dongtan and Yangcun mine areas of Jining as test areas, the difference and accuracy of 1:50000, ASTER GDEM V2, and SRTM DEMs are compared and analyzed. Two interferometric pairs of Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array L-band SAR covering the test areas are processed using two-pass DInSAR with three external DEMs to compare and analyze the effect of three external DEMs on monitored mine subsidence in high- and low-coherence subsidence regions. Moreover, the reliability and accuracy of the three DInSAR-monitored results are compared and verified with leveling-measured subsidence values. Results show that the effect of external DEM on mine subsidence monitored by two-pass DInSAR is not only related to radar look angle, perpendicular baseline, slant range, and external DEM error, but also to the ground resolution of DEM, the magnitude of subsidence, and the coherence of test areas.

  14. Constitutive and dark-induced expression of Solanum tuberosum phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase enhances stomatal opening and photosynthetic performance of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kebeish, Rashad; Niessen, Markus; Oksaksin, Mehtap; Blume, Christian; Peterhaensel, Christoph

    2012-02-01

    The effect of constitutive and dark-induced expression of Solanum tuberosum phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) on the opening state of stomata and photosynthetic performance in Arabidopsis thaliana plants was studied. Transcript accumulation analyses of the A. thaliana dark-induced (Din10 and Din6) and the Pisum sativum asparagine synthetase 2 promoters (Asn2) in transiently transformed tobacco leaves showed that Din10 promoter induced more DsRed accumulation in the dark compared to the other din genes. Overexpression of PEPC under the control of the constitutive enhanced CaMV 35S (p35SS) and dark-induced Din10 promoter in stably transformed A. thaliana plants increased the number of opened stomata in dark adapted leaves. Gas exchange measurements using A. thaliana plants transgenic for p35SS-PEPC and Din10-PEPC revealed a marked increase in stomatal conductance, transpiration, and dark respiration rates measured in the dark compared to wild-type plants. Moreover, measurement of CO(2) assimilation rates at different external CO(2) concentrations (C(a) ) and different light intensities shows an increase in the CO(2) assimilation rates in transgenic Arabidopsis lines compared to wild-type plants. This is considered as first step towards transferring the aspects of Crassulacean acid metabolism-like photosynthetic mechanism into C3 plants.

  15. Inorganic nitrogen wet deposition: Evidence from the North-South Transect of Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhan, X; Yu, G; He, N; Jia, B; Zhou, M; Wang, C; Zhang, J; Zhao, G; Wang, S; Liu, Y; Yan, J

    2015-09-01

    We examined the spatio-temporal variation of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) deposition in eight typical forest ecosystems of Eastern China for three consecutive years. DIN deposition exhibited an increasing gradient from north to south, with N-NH4(+) as the predominant contributor. DIN deposition in precipitation changed after interaction with the forest canopy, and serious ecological perturbations are expected in this region. DIN deposition presented seasonal fluctuations, which might be ascribed to agricultural activity, fossil-fuel combustion and environmental factors (i.e., wind direction, soil temperature). Notably, N fertilizer use (FN), energy consumption (E), and precipitation (P) jointly explained 84.3% of the spatial variation in DIN deposition, of which FN (27.2%) was the most important, followed by E (24.8%), and finally P (9.3%). The findings demonstrate that DIN deposition is regulated by precipitation mainly via anthropogenic N emissions, and this analysis provides decision-makers a novel view for N pollution abatement.

  16. Selection of effective macroalgal species and tracing nitrogen sources on the different part of Yantai coast, China indicated by macroalgal δ(15)N values.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujue; Liu, Dongyan; Richard, Pierre; Di, Baoping

    2016-01-15

    To determine the dominant nitrogen sources and select effective macroalgal species for monitoring eutrophication along the Yantai coast, the total carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and nitrogen stable isotope ratio (δ(15)N) in macroalgal tissue were analyzed in conjunction with environmental variables in seawater along the Yantai coastline. The ranges of macroalgal tissue δ(15)N values together with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) composition indicated that except for the atmospheric deposition, there were three dominant types of nitrogen sources along the Yantai coast, with the agricultural fertilizer usage and factorial wastewater input at the S1 (Zhifu Island coast), the sewage discharge at S2 (the Moon Bay coast), the sewage discharge together with aquaculture impacts at S3 (Fisherman Wharf coast) and S4 (the Horse Island coast). Macroalgal growth were not limited by DIN but limited by P at S2, S3 and S4. Macroalgal species suitable or not for DIN source tracing along the Yantai coast were discussed. For sites with low DIN concentration, many species of three phyla could be used for DIN sources tracing with Laurencia okamurai, Gloiopeltis furcata and Ulva pertusa being ideal species. For site with high DIN concentration, however, species of Rhodophyta were not suitable and only Scytosiphon lomentaria and Monostroma nitidium were chosen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Independent signaling by Drosophila insulin receptor for axon guidance and growth.

    PubMed

    Li, Caroline R; Guo, Dongyu; Pick, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila insulin receptor (DInR) regulates a diverse array of biological processes including growth, axon guidance, and sugar homeostasis. Growth regulation by DInR is mediated by Chico, the Drosophila homolog of vertebrate insulin receptor substrate proteins IRS1-4. In contrast, DInR regulation of photoreceptor axon guidance in the developing visual system is mediated by the SH2-SH3 domain adaptor protein Dreadlocks (Dock). In vitro studies by others identified five NPXY motifs, one in the juxtamembrane region and four in the signaling C-terminal tail (C-tail), important for interaction with Chico. Here we used yeast two-hybrid assays to identify regions in the DInR C-tail that interact with Dock. These Dock binding sites were in separate portions of the C-tail from the previously identified Chico binding sites. To test whether these sites are required for growth or axon guidance in whole animals, a panel of DInR proteins, in which the putative Chico and Dock interaction sites had been mutated individually or in combination, were tested for their ability to rescue viability, growth and axon guidance defects of dinr mutant flies. Sites required for viability were identified. Unexpectedly, mutation of both putative Dock binding sites, either individually or in combination, did not lead to defects in photoreceptor axon guidance. Thus, either sites also required for viability are necessary for DInR function in axon guidance and/or there is redundancy built into the DInR/Dock interaction such that Dock is able to interact with multiple regions of DInR. We also found that simultaneous mutation of all five NPXY motifs implicated in Chico interaction drastically decreased growth in both male and female adult flies. These animals resembled chico mutants, supporting the notion that DInR interacts directly with Chico in vivo to control body size. Mutation of these five NPXY motifs did not affect photoreceptor axon guidance, segregating the roles of DInR in the

  18. Independent signaling by Drosophila insulin receptor for axon guidance and growth

    PubMed Central

    Li, Caroline R.; Guo, Dongyu; Pick, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila insulin receptor (DInR) regulates a diverse array of biological processes including growth, axon guidance, and sugar homeostasis. Growth regulation by DInR is mediated by Chico, the Drosophila homolog of vertebrate insulin receptor substrate proteins IRS1–4. In contrast, DInR regulation of photoreceptor axon guidance in the developing visual system is mediated by the SH2-SH3 domain adaptor protein Dreadlocks (Dock). In vitro studies by others identified five NPXY motifs, one in the juxtamembrane region and four in the signaling C-terminal tail (C-tail), important for interaction with Chico. Here we used yeast two-hybrid assays to identify regions in the DInR C-tail that interact with Dock. These Dock binding sites were in separate portions of the C-tail from the previously identified Chico binding sites. To test whether these sites are required for growth or axon guidance in whole animals, a panel of DInR proteins, in which the putative Chico and Dock interaction sites had been mutated individually or in combination, were tested for their ability to rescue viability, growth and axon guidance defects of dinr mutant flies. Sites required for viability were identified. Unexpectedly, mutation of both putative Dock binding sites, either individually or in combination, did not lead to defects in photoreceptor axon guidance. Thus, either sites also required for viability are necessary for DInR function in axon guidance and/or there is redundancy built into the DInR/Dock interaction such that Dock is able to interact with multiple regions of DInR. We also found that simultaneous mutation of all five NPXY motifs implicated in Chico interaction drastically decreased growth in both male and female adult flies. These animals resembled chico mutants, supporting the notion that DInR interacts directly with Chico in vivo to control body size. Mutation of these five NPXY motifs did not affect photoreceptor axon guidance, segregating the roles of DInR in the

  19. The development of iodine based impinger solutions for the efficient capture of Hg0 using direct injection nebulization-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, E; Lee, T G; Biswas, P; Zhuang, Y

    2001-09-15

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) with direct injection nebulization (DIN) was used to evaluate novel impinger solution compositions capable of capturing elemental mercury (Hg0) in EPA Method 5 type sampling. An iodine based impinger solution proved to be very efficient for Hg0 capture and was amenable to direct analysis by DIN-ICP/MS. Hg0 capture efficiency using aqueous iodine (I3-) was comparable to Hg0 capture using acidified potassium permanganate impinger solutions which were analyzed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS), with greater than 98% capture of Hg0 in the first oxidizing impinger. Using DIN-ICP/MS, it was demonstrated for the first time that iodine can be generated just prior to impinger sampling for efficiently oxidizing Hg0 and retaining it in solution as HgI4(2-). Due to the increased interest in Hg speciation from combustion sources and the potential for using DIN-ICP/MS for multiple metals analyses, an impinger sampling train for gaseous Hg speciation and multiple metals analyses using DIN-ICP/MS analyses is presented. The unique feature of such a sampling train is that each impinger solution in the series is amenable to direct analysis by DIN-ICP/MS. A bituminous coal was combusted in a bench scale coal system, and gaseous Hg species (oxidized and elemental) were determined using the proposed impinger train. The DIN-ICP/MS instrumental detection limit was 0.003 ppb, and MDLs ranged from 0.007 to 0.116 microg/L (ppb) in a variety of impinger solutions used for Hg capture.

  20. Geochemistry of inorganic nitrogen in waters released from coal-bed natural gas production wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard L; Repert, Deborah A; Hart, Charles P

    2009-04-01

    Water originating from coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) production wells typically contains ammonium and is often disposed via discharge to ephemeral channels. A study conducted in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, documented downstream changes in CBNG water composition, emphasizing nitrogen-cycling processes and the fate of ammonium. Dissolved ammonium concentrations from 19 CBNG discharge points ranged from 95 to 527 microM. Within specific channels, ammonium concentrations decreased with transport distance, with subsequent increases in nitrite and nitrate concentrations. Removal efficiency, or uptake, oftotal dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) varied between channel types. DIN uptake was greater in the gentle-sloped, vegetated channel as compared to the incised, steep, and sparsely vegetated channel and was highly correlated with diel patterns of incident light and dissolved oxygen concentration. In a larger main channel with multiple discharge inputs (n=13), DIN concentrations were >300 microM, with pH > 8.5, after 5 km of transport. Ammonium represented 25-30% of the large-channel DIN, and ammonium concentrations remained relatively constant with time, with only a weak diel pattern evident. In July 2003, the average daily large-channel DIN load was 23 kg N day(-1) entering the Powder River, an amount which substantially increased the total Powder River DIN load after the channel confluence. These results suggest that CBNG discharge may be an important source of DIN to western watersheds, at least at certain times of the year, and that net oxidation and/or removal is dependent upon the extent of contact with sediment and biomass, type of drainage channel, and time of day.

  1. A Computational Model of a Descending Mechanosensory Pathway Involved in Active Tactile Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Ache, Jan M.; Dürr, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Many animals, including humans, rely on active tactile sensing to explore the environment and negotiate obstacles, especially in the dark. Here, we model a descending neural pathway that mediates short-latency proprioceptive information from a tactile sensor on the head to thoracic neural networks. We studied the nocturnal stick insect Carausius morosus, a model organism for the study of adaptive locomotion, including tactually mediated reaching movements. Like mammals, insects need to move their tactile sensors for probing the environment. Cues about sensor position and motion are therefore crucial for the spatial localization of tactile contacts and the coordination of fast, adaptive motor responses. Our model explains how proprioceptive information about motion and position of the antennae, the main tactile sensors in insects, can be encoded by a single type of mechanosensory afferents. Moreover, it explains how this information is integrated and mediated to thoracic neural networks by a diverse population of descending interneurons (DINs). First, we quantified responses of a DIN population to changes in antennal position, motion and direction of movement. Using principal component (PC) analysis, we find that only two PCs account for a large fraction of the variance in the DIN response properties. We call the two-dimensional space spanned by these PCs ‘coding-space’ because it captures essential features of the entire DIN population. Second, we model the mechanoreceptive input elements of this descending pathway, a population of proprioceptive mechanosensory hairs monitoring deflection of the antennal joints. Finally, we propose a computational framework that can model the response properties of all important DIN types, using the hair field model as its only input. This DIN model is validated by comparison of tuning characteristics, and by mapping the modelled neurons into the two-dimensional coding-space of the real DIN population. This reveals the

  2. Variation characteristics of nitrogen concentrations through forest hydrologic subcycles in various forests across mainland China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Suqi; Wang, Yunqi; Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Huilan; Yu, Lei; Liu, Yong; Zhu, Jinqi

    2015-01-01

    Increased anthropogenic nitrogen emissions and more severe environmental issues (e.g. air pollution, soil acidification, and plant nutrient imbalances) are striking forest ecosystems. Data on NH4+ and NO3- concentrations in throughfall and stemflow were collected to estimate variation characteristics of nitrogen concentrations through forest hydrological processes across China. A typical study was carried out in the three forest types in the Jinyun Mountain region of Chongqing, from May to October 2012. Nitrogen concentrations in throughfall and stemflow are higher than those in atmospheric precipitation. DIN concentrations in atmospheric precipitation, throughfall, and stemflow, across China and in the Jinyun Mountain region, were 2.18 and 1.51, 3.19 and 3.88, and 5.14 and 3.92 mg N L(-1), respectively. NH4+ concentration was higher than NO3- concentration, suggesting NH4+ is the dominant nitrogen component in China. Additionally, across China, a linear relationship existed between DIN and NH4+, and between DIN and NO3- in atmospheric precipitation. DIN concentrations in throughfall and stemflow changed with the observed changes in precipitation, and DIN concentrations in precipitation positively correlated with those in throughfall and in stemflow were also observed. Moreover, average DIN concentrations in throughfall and stemflow varied in different forest types, resulting from differences in forest canopy structures and tree species characteristics. In the Jinyun Mountain region, both throughfall and stemflow DIN concentrations were the highest in the mixed broadleaved/coniferous forest, followed by evergreen broadleaved forest, and the lowest in moso bamboo forest. Monthly variations of NH4+ and NO3- concentrations, in throughfall and stemflow, were observed in the Jinyun Mountain region.

  3. Geochemistry of inorganic nitrogen in waters released from coal-bed natural gas production wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Richard L.; Repert, Deborah A.; Hart, Charles P.

    2009-01-01

    Water originating from coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) production wells typically contains ammonium and is often disposed via discharge to ephemeral channels. A study conducted in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, documented downstream changes in CBNG water composition, emphasizing nitrogen-cycling processes and the fate of ammonium. Dissolved ammonium concentrations from 19 CBNG discharge points ranged from 95 to 527 μM. Within specific channels, ammonium concentrations decreased with transport distance, with subsequent increases in nitrite and nitrate concentrations. Removal efficiency, or uptake, of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) varied between channel types. DIN uptake was greater in the gentle-sloped, vegetated channel as compared to the incised, steep, and sparsely vegetated channel and was highly correlated with diel patterns of incident light and dissolved oxygen concentration. In a larger main channel with multiple discharge inputs (n = 13), DIN concentrations were >300 μM, with pH > 8.5, after 5 km of transport. Ammonium represented 25−30% of the large-channel DIN, and ammonium concentrations remained relatively constant with time, with only a weak diel pattern evident. In July 2003, the average daily large-channel DIN load was 23 kg N day−1entering the Powder River, an amount which substantially increased the total Powder River DIN load after the channel confluence. These results suggest that CBNG discharge may be an important source of DIN to western watersheds, at least at certain times of the year, and that net oxidation and/or removal is dependent upon the extent of contact with sediment and biomass, type of drainage channel, and time of day.

  4. Geochemistry of inorganic nitrogen in waters released from coal-bed natural gas production wells in the powder river basin, wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.L.; Repert, D.A.; Hart, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    Water originating from coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) production wells typically contains ammonium and is often disposed via discharge to ephemeral channels. A. study conducted in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, documented downstream changes in CBNG water composition, emphasizing nitrogen-cycling processes and the fate of ammonium. Dissolved ammonium concentrations from 19 CBNG discharge points ranged from 95 to 527 ??M. Within specific channels, ammonium concentrations decreased with transport distance, with subsequent increases in nitrite and nitrate concentrations. Removal efficiency, or uptake, of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) varied between channel types. DIN uptake was greater in the gentle-sloped, vegetated channel as compared to the incised, steep, and sparsely vegetated channel and was highly correlated with diel patterns of incident light and dissolved oxygen concentration. In a larger main channel with multiple discharge inputs (n = 13), DIN concentrations were >300 ??M, with pH > 8.5, after 5 km of transport. Ammonium represented 25-30% of the large-channel DIN, and ammonium concentrations remained relatively constant with time, with only a weak diel pattern evident. In July 2003, the average daily large-channel DIN load was 23 kg N day-1 entering the Powder River, an amount which substantially increased the total Powder River DIN load after the channel confluence. These results suggest that CBNG discharge may be an important source of DIN to western watersheds, at least at certain times of the year, and that net oxidation and/or removal is dependent upon the extent of contact with sediment and biomass, type of drainage channel, and time of day. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  5. Geochemistry of Inorganic Nitrogen in Waters Released from Coal-Bed Natural Gas Production Wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Richard L.; Repert, Deborah A.; Hart, Charles P.

    2009-01-01

    Water originating from coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) production wells typically contains ammonium and is often disposed via discharge to ephemeral channels. A study conducted in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, documented downstream changes in CBNG water composition, emphasizing nitrogen-cycling processes and the fate of ammonium. Dissolved ammonium concentrations from 19 CBNG discharge points ranged from 95 to 527 µM. Within specific channels, ammonium concentrations decreased with transport distance, with subsequent increases in nitrite and nitrate concentrations. Removal efficiency, or uptake, of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) varied between channel types. DIN uptake was greater in the gentle-sloped, vegetated channel as compared to the incised, steep, and sparsely vegetated channel and was highly correlated with diel patterns of incident light and dissolved oxygen concentration. In a larger main channel with multiple discharge inputs (n = 13), DIN concentrations were >300 µM, with pH > 8.5, after 5 km of transport. Ammonium represented 25-30% of the large-channel DIN, and ammonium concentrations remained relatively constant with time, with only a weak diel pattern evident. In July 2003, the average daily large-channel DIN load was 23 kg N day-1 entering the Powder River, an amount which substantially increased the total Powder River DIN load after the channel confluence. These results suggest that CBNG discharge may be an important source of DIN to western watersheds, at least at certain times of the year, and that net oxidation and/or removal is dependent upon the extent of contact with sediment and biomass, type of drainage channel, and time of day.

  6. Comparison of land-based sources with ambient estuarine concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen in Jiaozhou Bay (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Dongliang; Yang, Nannan; Liang, Shengkang; Li, Keqiang; Wang, Xiulin

    2016-10-01

    Seasonal, land-sea synchronous surveys were conducted from 2012 to 2013 to characterize the relationship between the composition of land-based total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and the concentration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in Jiaozhou Bay (JZB). A total of 11 freshwater riverine sampling sites were selected at the river mouths and at waste water outfalls around JZB, while a total 23 Bay stations were established in JZB. Among them, 11 Bay stations were located near the 11 outfalls. Each land-sea sampling was conducted synchronously during a semi-tidal cycle. The contribution of NO3sbnd N, NO2sbnd N, NH4sbnd N, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) to TDN in land-based freshwater were similar to those in JZB seawater, while the contribution of the sum of NO3sbnd N and NO2sbnd N to TDN and the contribution of DON to TDN were about 3.2 and 4.1 times higher than the contribution of NH4sbnd N to TDN, respectively. These results showed that inputs of all land-based forms of nitrogen impact the DIN in seawater. Spatial distributions of DIN and DON, showing a gradual decrease from inner bay to the mouth of the bay, were negatively correlated with S in different seasons. In summer and winter, the ratio of DIN to DON in seawater (Rs) gradually decreased from the inner bay to the center of the bay, and the ratio of land-based DIN to DON (RL) was less than RS, indicating net transformation from land-based DON into marine DIN. However, in spring and autumn, the distribution of Rs was opposite to that in summer and winter, and RL was greater than RS, indicating net conversion from land-based DIN into marine DON. Throughout the whole year, net land-based DON was transformed into marine DIN. We provided direct evidence that the variation in DIN concentration in JZB was affected both by land-based TDN inputs and by their hydrodynamic transport and biogeochemical transformation processes.

  7. Plant diversity, CO2, and N influence inorganic and organic N leaching in grasslands.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Feike A; West, Jason B; Hobbie, Sarah E; Reich, Peter B; Trost, Jared

    2007-02-01

    In nitrogen (N)-limited systems, the potential to sequester carbon depends on the balance between N inputs and losses as well as on how efficiently N is used, yet little is known about responses of these processes to changes in plant species richness, atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]), and N deposition. We examined how plant species richness (1 or 16 species), elevated [CO2] (ambient or 560 ppm), and inorganic N addition (0 or 4 g x m(-2) x yr(-1)) affected ecosystem N losses, specifically leaching of dissolved inorganic N (DIN) and organic N (DON) in a grassland field experiment in Minnesota, USA. We observed greater DIN leaching below 60 cm soil depth in the monoculture plots (on average 1.8 and 3.1 g N x m(-2) x yr(-1) for ambient N and N-fertilized plots respectively) than in the 16-species plots (0.2 g N x m(-2) x yr(-1) for both ambient N and N-fertilized plots), particularly when inorganic N was added. Most likely, loss of complementary resource use and reduced biological N demand in the monoculture plots caused the increase in DIN leaching relative to the high-diversity plots. Elevated [CO2] reduced DIN concentrations under conditions when DIN concentrations were high (i.e., in N-fertilized and monoculture plots). Contrary to the results for DIN, DON leaching was greater in the 16-species plots than in the monoculture plots (on average 0.4 g N x m(-2) x yr(-1) in 16-species plots and 0.2 g N x m(-2) x yr(-1) in monoculture plots). In fact, DON dominated N leaching in the 16-species plots (64% of total N leaching as DON), suggesting that, even with high biological demand for N, substantial amounts of N can be lost as DON. We found no significant main effects of elevated [CO2] on DIN or DON leaching; however, elevated [CO2] reduced the positive effect of inorganic N addition on DON leaching, especially during the second year of observation. Our results suggest that plant species richness, elevated [CO2], and N deposition alter DIN loss primarily through

  8. A comparison of continuous pneumatic nebulization and flow injection-direct injection nebulization for sample introduction in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Crain, J.S.; Kiely, J.T.

    1995-08-01

    Dilute nitric acid blanks and solutions containing Ni, Cd, Pb, and U (including two laboratory waste samples) were analyzed eighteen times over a two-month period using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two different sample introduction techniques were employed: flow injection-direct injection nebulization (FI-DIN) and continuous pneumatic nebulization (CPN). Using comparable instrumental measurement procedures, FI-DIN analyses were 33% faster and generated 52% less waste than CPN analyses. Instrumental limits of detection obtained with FI-DIN and CPN were comparable but not equivalent (except in the case of Pb) because of nebulizer-related differences in sensitivity (i.e., signal per unit analyte concentration) and background. Substantial and statistically significant differences were found between FI-DIN and CPN Ni determinations, and in the case of the laboratory waste samples, there were also small but statistically significant differences between Cd determinations. These small (2 to 3%) differences were not related to polyatomic ion interference (e.g., {sup 95}Mo{sup 16}O{sup +}), but in light of the time savings and waste reduction to be realized, they should not preclude the use of FI-DIN in place of CPN for determination of Cd, Pb, U and chemically.

  9. A comparison of continuous pneumatic nebulization and flow injection-direction injection nebulization for sample introduction in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Crain, J.S.; Kiely, J.T.

    1997-08-01

    Samples containing Ni, Cd, Pb, and U were analyzed eighteen times over a two-month period using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Sample introduction was accomplished by either flow injection-direct injection nebulization (FI-DIN) or continuous pneumatic nebulization (CPN). Using comparable instrumental measurement procedures, FI-DIN analyses were 33% faster and generated 52% less waste than CPN analyses. Instrumental limits of detection obtained with FI-DIN and CPN were comparable but not equivalent (except in the case of Pb) because of nebulizer-related differences in sensitivity (i.e., signal per unit analyte concentration) and background. Substantial and statistically significant differences were found between FI-DIN and CPN Ni determinations, and in the case of laboratory waste samples, there were also small but statistically significant differences between Cd determinations. These small (2 to 3%) differences were not related to polyatomic ion interference (e.g., {sup 95}Mo{sup 16}O{sup +}), but in light of the time and waste savings to be realized, they should not preclude the use of FI-DIN in place of CPN for determination of Cd, Pb, U, and similar elements present at trace concentrations.

  10. Net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI) into the Yangtze River basin and the relationship with riverine nitrogen export

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Zheng, Yanling; Yin, Guoyu; Lin, Xianbiao; Li, Xiaofei; Zong, Haibo; Deng, Fengyu; Gao, Juan; Jiang, Xiaofen

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI, including atmospheric nitrogen deposition, nitrogenous fertilizer use, net nitrogen import in food and feed, and agricultural nitrogen fixation) and the associated relationship with riverine dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export in the Yangtze River basin during the 1980-2012 period. The total NANI in the Yangtze River basin has increased by more than twofold over the past three decades (3537.0 ± 615.3 to 8176.6 ± 1442.1 kg N km-2 yr-1). The application of chemical fertilizer was the largest component of NANI in the basin (51.1%), followed by net nitrogen import in food and feed (26.0%), atmospheric nitrogen deposition (13.2%), and agricultural nitrogen fixation (9.7%). A regression analysis showed that the riverine DIN export was strongly correlated with NANI and the annual water discharge (R2 = 0.90, p < 0.01). NANI in the Yangtze River basin was estimated to contribute 37-66% to the riverine DIN export. We also forecasted future variations in NANI and riverine DIN export for the years 2013 to 2030, based on possible future changes in human activities and the climate. This work provides a quantitative understanding of NANI in the Yangtze River basin and its effects on riverine DIN export and helps to develop integrated watershed nitrogen management strategies.

  11. Integrated Radar Interferometry for Ground Subsidence Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, L.; Chang, H.-C.; Trinder, J.; Rizos, C.

    2004-06-01

    This paper reports the progress of the ongoing ESA CAT-1 project (ID 1078). Radar interferometry (InSAR) has been used together with GIS (Geographic Information System) technique to monitor ground subsidence due to underground mining in a test site around the Appin township, southwest of Sydney, Australia. Various digital elevation models (DEMs) are assessed using elevation profiles from ground survey. The best DEM is then employed to remove topographic fringes in the differential InSAR (DInSAR) processing of ERS-1/2 and JERS-1 data. Successful DInSAR results are exported to the GIS and mine subsidence regions extracted. Subsidence profiles derived from the DInSAR results show that JERS-1 repeat-pass DInSAR can achieve +/- 1 cm resolution for subsidence detection while ERS tandem DInSAR can achieve +/- 2 mm in the Australian test site, which highlights the importance and urgency of developing a constellation of InSAR satellites now that high quality DEMs are widely available, so that ground deformation can be monitored with much shorter re-visit time.

  12. Effects of lateral nitrate flux and instream processes on dissolved inorganic nitrogen export in a forested catchment: A model sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Laurence; Webster, Jackson R.; Hwang, Taehee; Band, Lawrence E.

    2015-04-01

    The importance of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in controlling nitrogen dynamics in streams is a key interest of ecologists studying dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export from watersheds. In this study, we coupled a stream model with a terrestrial ecohydrological model and conducted a global sensitivity analysis to evaluate the relative importance of both ecosystems to nitrogen export. We constructed two scenarios ("normal" and high nitrate loads) to explore conditions under which terrestrial (lateral nitrate flux) or aquatic ecosystems (instream nutrient processes) may be more important in controlling DIN export. In a forest catchment, although the forest ecosystem controls the nitrogen load to streams, sensitivity results suggested that most nitrogen output from the terrestrial ecosystem was taken up by instream microbial immobilization associated with benthic detritus and retained in detritus. Later the immobilized nitrogen was remineralized as DIN. Therefore, the intra-annual pattern of DIN concentration in the stream was low in fall and became high in spring. Not only was instream microbial immobilization saturated with the high nitrogen load scenario, but also the net effect of immobilization and mineralization on DIN export was minimized because nitrogen cycling between organic and inorganic forms was accelerated. Overall, our linked terrestrial-aquatic model simulations demonstrated that stream process could significantly affect the amount and timing of watershed nitrogen export when nitrogen export from the terrestrial system is low. However, when nitrogen export from the terrestrial system is high, the effect of stream processes is minimal.

  13. Low ratios of silica to dissolved nitrogen supplied to rivers arise from agriculture not reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Downing, John A; Cherrier, Christine T; Fulweiler, Robinson W

    2016-12-01

    Coastal marine systems are greatly altered by toxic marine algae, eutrophication and hypoxia. These problems have been linked to decreased ratios of dissolved silica to inorganic nitrogen (Si : DIN) delivered from land. Two mechanisms for this decline under consideration are enhanced nitrogen (N) fertiliser losses from agricultural lands or Si sequestration in reservoirs. Here we examine these mechanisms via nutrient concentrations in impoundments receiving water from 130 watersheds in a landscape representative of the agriculture that often dominates coastal nutrient inputs. Decreased Si : DIN was correlated with agriculture, not impoundment. Watersheds with > 60% agricultural land yielded highest DIN, whereas Si was uncorrelated with agricultural intensity. Furthermore, eutrophic lakes were dominated by Cyanobacteria that use little Si, so reservoirs did not diminish Si : DIN. Instead, Si : DIN increased slightly as reservoir residence time increased. These data suggest that impoundments in agricultural watersheds may enhance the water quality of coastal ecosystems, whereas fertiliser losses are detrimental.

  14. Variability of the dissolved nutrient (N, P, Si) concentrations in the Bay of Annaba in relation to the inputs of the Seybouse and Mafragh estuaries.

    PubMed

    Ounissi, Makhlouf; Ziouch, Omar-Ramzi; Aounallah, Ouafia

    2014-03-15

    Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), phosphate (PO₄) and silicic acid (Si(OH)₄) loads from the Seybouse and the Mafragh estuaries into the Bay of Annaba, Algeria, were assessed at three stations of the Bay over three years. The Seybouse inputs had high levels of DIN and PO₄, in contrast to the Mafragh estuary's near-pristine inputs; Si(OH)₄ levels were low in both estuaries. The DIN:PO₄ molar ratios were over 30 in most samples and the Si(OH)4:DIN ratio was less than 0.5 in the Seybouse waters, but nearly balanced in the Mafragh. The specific fluxes of Si-Si(OH)₄ (400-540 kg Si km⁻² yr⁻¹) were comparable in the two catchments, but those of DIN were several-fold higher in the Seybouse (373 kg N km⁻² yr⁻¹). The inner Bay affected by the Seybouse inputs had high levels of all nutrients, while the Mafragh plume and the outer marine station were less enriched.

  15. Regulatory role of recF in the SOS response of Escherichia coli: impaired induction of SOS genes by UV irradiation and nalidixic acid in a recF mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Thoms, B.; Wackernagel, W.

    1987-04-01

    We isolated a new recF mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 by insertion of transposon Tn5 into the recF gene. This recF400::Tn5 allele displayed the same phenotypic characteristics as the classic recF143 mutation. By using Mu d(Ap lac) fusions, the induction of nine SOS genes, including recA, umuC, dinA, dinB, dinD, dinF, recN, and sulA, by UV irradiation and nalidixic acid was examined. Induction of eight genes by the two agents was impaired by recF400::Tn5 to different extents. The ninth fused SOS gene, dinF, was no longer inducible by UV when combined with recF400::Tn5. The generally impaired SOS response in recF strains did not result from weak induction of recA protein synthesis, since a recA operator-constitutive mutation did not alleviate the inhibitory effect of the recF mutation. The results suggest that recF plays a regulatory role in the SOS response. It is proposed that this role is to optimize the signal usage by recA protein to become a protease.

  16. Future trends in worldwide river nitrogen transport and related nitrous oxide emissions: a scenario analysis.

    PubMed

    Kroeze, C; Seitzinger, S P; Domingues, R

    2001-11-02

    We analyze possible future trends in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export by world rivers and associated emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). Our scenarios either assume that current trends continue or that nitrogen (N) inputs to aquatic systems are reduced as a result of changes in agriculture practices and fuel combustion technologies. The results indicate that moderate changes in the human diet in North America and Europe, reducing worldwide fertilizer use by only 16%, relative to Business-as-Usual (BAU) levels, may reduce DIN export rates to the North Atlantic and European Seas by about one third and associated N2O emissions by 36 to 77%. We furthermore calculate that relatively large reductions in NOy deposition rates in Europe (of about 80%) may reduce DIN export by rivers by a moderate 8% or less, relative to BAU levels. The potential effect of reduced NOy deposition on riverine DIN export is moderate, because most N in European rivers stems from agriculture, and not from fuel combustion. Nevertheless, the calculated 9% reduction (relative to BAU) in DIN inputs to the North Sea as a potential side effect of air pollution control may help achieve the international policy targets for reduced N inputs to the North Sea.

  17. Alternative futures of dissolved inorganic nitrogen export from ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nitrogen (N) export from the Mississippi River Basin contributes to seasonal hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). We explored monthly dissolved inorganic N (DIN) export to the GOM for a historical year (2002) and two future scenarios (year 2022) by linking macroeonomic energy, agriculture market, air quality, and agriculture land management models to a DIN export model. Future scenarios considered policies aimed at encouraging bioenergy crop production and reducing atmospheric N-emissions, as well as the effect of population growth and the states’ infrastructure plans on sewage fluxes. Model-derived DIN export decreased by about 9% (from 279 to 254 kg N km−2 year−1) between 2002 and 2022 due to a 28% increase in area planted with corn, 24% improvement in crop N-recovery efficiency (NRE, to 0.52), 22% reduction in atmospheric N deposition, and 23% increase in sewage inputs. Changes in atmospheric and sewage inputs had a relatively small effect on DIN export and the effect of bioenergy crop production depended on nutrient management practices. Without improved NRE, increased production of corn would have increased DIN export by about 14% (to 289 kg N km−2 year−1) between 2002 and 2022. Model results suggest that meeting future crop demand while reducing the areal extent of hypoxia could require aggressive actions, such improving basin-level crop NRE to 0.62 or upgrading N-removal capabilities in waste water treatment plants beyond current plans. Tile-dra

  18. [Nutrients regeneration speed of sediment in harmful algae blooms (HAB) area of East China Sea].

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiao-hong; Liu, Sumei; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Hongtao

    2003-07-01

    The fluxes of dissolved nutrients at sediment-water interface were investigated at 4 stations in the HAB area of East China Sea in May 2001 and May 2002. The benthic fluxes of nutrients were determined by incubating the sediment core samples with bottom seawater bubbled with air or nitrogen. The transfer of nutrients was more active under anoxic condition. The fluxes of dissolved nutrients were generally high at the stations close to the coast. The sediment was the source of SiO3(2-), which accounted for 6% of primary production. For DIN and PO4(3-), the sediment was the sink. DIN and PO4(3-) adsorbed by sediment accounted for 5.9% and 67% of the riverine DIN and PO4(3-) inputs, respectively, and the inputs of SiO3(2-) accounted for 7.8%.

  19. Capturing the fingerprint of Etna volcano activity in gravity and satellite radar data.

    PubMed

    Del Negro, Ciro; Currenti, Gilda; Solaro, Giuseppe; Greco, Filippo; Pepe, Antonio; Napoli, Rosalba; Pepe, Susi; Casu, Francesco; Sansosti, Eugenio

    2013-10-30

    Long-term and high temporal resolution gravity and deformation data move us toward a better understanding of the behavior of Mt Etna during the June 1995 - December 2011 period in which the volcano exhibited magma charging phases, flank eruptions and summit crater activity. Monthly repeated gravity measurements were coupled with deformation time series using the Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) technique on two sequences of interferograms from ERS/ENVISAT and COSMO-SkyMed satellites. Combining spatiotemporal gravity and DInSAR observations provides the signature of three underlying processes at Etna: (i) magma accumulation in intermediate storage zones, (ii) magmatic intrusions at shallow depth in the South Rift area, and (iii) the seaward sliding of the volcano's eastern flank. Here we demonstrate the strength of the complementary gravity and DInSAR analysis in discerning among different processes and, thus, in detecting deep magma uprising in months to years before the onset of a new Etna eruption.

  20. Responses of phytoplankton community to the input of different aerosols in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, X.; Chen, Y.; Wang, B.; Ma, Q. W.; Wang, F. J.

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric deposition can affect marine phytoplankton by supplying macronutrients and trace elements. We conducted mesocosm experiments by adding aerosols with different composition (dominated by mineral dust, biomass burning and high Cu, and secondary aerosol, respectively) to the surface seawater of the East China Sea. Chlorophyll a concentrations were found to be the highest and lowest after adding aerosols containing the highest Fe and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), respectively. The relative abundance of Haptophyceae increased significantly after adding mineral dust, whereas diatom, Dinophyceae and Cryptophyceae reached the maximum accompanied with the highest DIN. Our results suggest that Fe may be more important than DIN in promoting primary productivity in the sampled seawater. The input of mineral dust and anthropogenic aerosols may result in distinct changes of phytoplankton community structure.

  1. [Imaging monitors--requirements and pitfalls].

    PubMed

    Simmler, R

    2013-11-01

    When applying the standard DIN V 6868-57 rule "acceptance testing for image display devices" it always comes to misunderstandings in the practical implementation. In a brief summary the most important requirements are presented. With the pending replacement of DIN V 6868-57 by DIN 6868-157 "acceptance and constancy tests of image display systems in their environment" there will be fundamental changes. Future requirements are presented as examples. Besides the introduction of a classroom concept and new test images, the focus of the standard is aligned with the image display system. This change places new demands on the management concept of picture archiving and communication system (PACS) workstations. For testing the unit, consisting of a computer system, video card, operating system and image display equipment only one organizational unit should be responsible.

  2. Characterizing the physical and chemical properties of aluminum dross

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfredi, O.; Wuth, W.; Bohlinger, I.

    1997-11-01

    In this article, the results of an investigation of granular and compact aluminum drosses are reported. The bulk density of granular drosses was determined according to DIN 52110-B, while DIN 52102-RE-VA was applied to compact drosses. The salt contents of the drosses were measured by applying the leaching test DIN 38414-S4; the metal contents by the salt-melting process were measured on a laboratory scale. In addition to the density data, the particle-size analysis, the distribution of elements in the different fractions, composition, metal content of recovered alloys, and gas evolution were compiled in a dross identity card characterizing each dross and simplifying the preanalysis for recovery.

  3. The nutrient, total petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metal contents in the seawater of Bohai Bay, China: Temporal-spatial variations, sources, pollution statuses, and ecological risks.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shitao

    2015-06-15

    Seawater samples collected between 2007 and 2012 were determined the concentrations of nutrient (DIN and DIP), total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), and six different heavy metals (As, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Hg). The DIN, DIP, TPH, Pb, and Cd concentrations decreased from 2007 to 2009 or 2010 and increased after 2010. However, the Hg and Cu concentrations increased from 2007 to 2012. In contrast, the As and Zn gradually decreased during the study period. All of the pollutant concentrations gradually decreased from the shoreline to the offshore sites. PCA result showed that urban and port areas, agriculture, and atmospheric deposition were the main sources of pollutants in the bay. Although most of the pollutants were present at concentrations bellow the highest seawater quality standards in China, eutrophication was a risk in Bohai Bay. In addition, DIN was the main pollutant and was responsible for the eutrophication risk in Bohai Bay.

  4. Dissolved organic nitrogen budgets for upland, forested ecosystems in New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, J.L.; Hornbeck, J.W.; McDowell, W.H.; Buso, D.C.; Shanley, J.B.; Likens, G.E.

    2000-01-01

    Relatively high deposition of nitrogen (N) in the northeastern United States has caused concern because sites could become N saturated. In the past, mass-balance studies have been used to monitor the N status of sites and to investigate the impact of increased N deposition. Typically, these efforts have focused on dissolved inorganic forms of N (DIN = NH4-N + NO3-N) and have largely ignored dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) due to difficulties in its analysis. Recent advances in the measurement of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) have facilitated measurement of DON as the residual of TDN - DIN. We calculated DON and DIN budgets using data on precipitation and streamwater chemistry collected from 9 forested watersheds at 4 sites in New England. TDN in precipitation was composed primarily of DIN. Net retention of TDN ranged from 62 to 89% (4.7 to 10 kg ha-1 yr-1) of annual inputs. DON made up the majority of TDN in stream exports, suggesting that inclusion of DON is critical to assessing N dynamics even in areas with large anthropogenic inputs of DIN. Despite the dominance of DON in streamwater, precipitation inputs of DON were approximately equal to outputs. DON concentrations in streamwater did not appear significantly influenced by seasonal biological controls, but did increase with discharge on some watersheds. Streamwater NO3-N was the only fraction of N that exhibited a seasonal pattern, with concentrations increasing during the winter months and peaking during snowmelt runoff. Concentrations of NO3-N varied considerably among watersheds and are related to DOC:DON ratios in streamwater. Annual DIN exports were negatively correlated with streamwater DOC:DON ratios, indicating that these ratios might be a useful index of N status of upland forests.

  5. The control of locomotor frequency by excitation and inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Chang; Moult, Peter R

    2012-01-01

    Every type of neural rhythm has its own operational range of frequency. Neuronal mechanisms underlying rhythms at different frequencies, however, are poorly understood. We use a simple aquatic vertebrate, the two day old Xenopus tadpole, to investigate how the brainstem and spinal circuits generate swimming rhythms of different speeds. We first determined that the basic motor output pattern was not altered with varying swimming frequencies. The firing reliability of different types of rhythmic neuron involved in swimming was then analysed. The results showed that there was a drop in the firing reliability in some inhibitory interneurons when fictive swimming slowed. We have recently established that premotor excitatory interneurons (descending interneurons; dINs) are critical in rhythmically driving activity in the swimming circuit. Voltage-clamp recordings from dINs showed higher frequency swimming correlated with stronger background excitation and phasic inhibition, but did not correlate with phasic excitation. Two parallel mechanisms have been proposed for tadpole swimming maintenance: post-inhibition rebound firing and NMDA receptor (NMDAR) dependent pace-maker firing in dINs. Rebound tests in dINs in this study showed that greater background depolarization and phasic inhibition led to faster rebound firing. Higher depolarization was previously shown to accelerate dIN pace-maker firing in the presence of NMDA. Here we show that enhancing dIN background excitation during swimming speeds up fictive swimming frequency whilst weakening phasic inhibition without changing background excitation slows down swimming rhythms. We conclude that both strong background excitation and phasic inhibition can promote faster tadpole swimming. PMID:22553028

  6. Sources of nitrogen and phosphorus to Northern San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hager, S.W.; Schemel, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    We studied nutrient sources to the Sacramento River and Suisun Bay (northern San Francisco Bay) and the influence which these sources have on the distributions of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in the river and bay. We found that agricultural return flow drains and a municipal wastewater treatment plant were the largest sources of nutrients to the river during low river flow. The Sutter and Colusa agricultural drains contributed about 70% of the transport of DIN and DRP by the river above Sacramento (about 20% of the total transport by the river) between August 8 and September 26, 1985. Further downstream, the Sacramento Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant discharged DIN and DRP at rates that were roughly 70% of total DIN and DRP transport by the river at that time. Concentrations at Rio Vista on the tidal river below the Sacramento plant and at the head of the estuary were related to the reciprocals of the river flows, indicating the importance of dilution of the Sacramento waste by river flows. During very dry years, elevated DIN and DRP concentrations were observed in Suisun Bay. We used a steady-state, one-dimensional, single-compartment box model of the bay, incorporating terms for advection, exchange, and waste input, to calculate a residual rate for all processes not included in the model. We found that the residual for DIN was related to concentrations of chlorophyll a (Chl a). The residual for DRP was also related to Chl a at high concentrations of Chl a, but showed significant losses of DRP at low Chl a concentrations. These losses were typically equivalent to about 80% of the wastewater input rate. *** DIRECT SUPPORT *** A01BY057 00004 ?? 1992 Estuarine Research Federation.

  7. Leaching characteristics of selected South African fly ashes: Effect of pH on the release of major and trace species

    SciTech Connect

    Gitari, W.M.; Fatoba, O.O.; Petrik, L.F.; Vadapalli, V.R.K.

    2009-07-01

    Fly ash samples from two South African coal-fired power stations were subjected to different leaching tests under alkaline and acidic conditions in an attempt to assess the effect of pH on the leachability of species from the fly ashes and also assess the potential impact of the fly ashes disposal on groundwater and the receiving environment. To achieve this, German Standard leaching (DIN-S4) and Acid Neutralization Capacity (ANC) tests were employed. Ca, Mg, Na, K and SO{sub 4} were significantly leached into solution under the two leaching conditions with the total amounts in ANC leachates higher than that of DIN-S4. This indicates that a large fraction of the soluble salts in unweathered fly ash are easily leached. These species represents the fraction that can be flushed off initially from the surface of ash particles on contacting the ash with water. The amounts of toxic trace elements such as As, Se, Cd, Cr and Pb leached out of the fly ashes when in contact with de-mineralized water (DIN-S4 test) were low and below the Target Water Quality Range (TWQR) of South Africa. This is explained by their low concentrations in the fly ashes and their solubility dependence on the pH of the leaching solution. However the amounts of some minor elements such as B, Mn, Fe, As and Se leached out at lower pH ranging between 10 to 4 (ANC test) were slightly higher than the TWQR, an indication that the pH of the leaching solution plays a significant role on the leaching of species in fly ash. The high concentrations of the toxic elements released from the fly ashes at lower pH gives an indication that the disposal of the fly ash could have adverse effects on the receiving environment if the pH of the solution contacting the ashes is not properly monitored.

  8. Sources of nitrogen and phosphorous to northern San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hager, Stephen W.; Schemel, Laurence E.

    1992-01-01

    We studied nutrient sources to the Sacramento River and Suisun Bay (northern San Francisco Bay) and the influence which these sources have on the distributions of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in the river and bay. We found that agricultural return flow drains and a municipal wastewater treatment plant were the largest sources of nutrients to the river during low river flow. The Sutter and Colusa agricultural drains contributed about 70% of the transport of DIN and DRP by the river above Sacramento (about 20% of the total transport by the river) between August 8 and September 26, 1985. Further downstream, the Sacramento Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant discharged DIN and DRP at rates that were roughly 70% of total DIN and DRP transport by the river at that time. Concentrations at Rio Vista on the tidal river below the Sacramento plant and at the head of the estuary were related to the reciprocals of the river flows, indicating the importance of dilution of the Sacramento waste by river flows. During very dry years, elevated DIN and DRP concentrations were observed in Suisun Bay. We used a steady-state, one-dimensional, single-compartment box model of the bay, incorporating terms for advection, exchange, and waste input, to calculate a residual rate for all processes not included in the model. We found that the residual for DIN was related to concentrations of chlorophylla (Chla). The residual for DRP was also related to Chla at high concentrations of Chla, but showed significant losses of DRP at low Chla concentrations. These losses were typically equivalent to about 80% of the wastewater input rate.

  9. Stereospecificity of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate hydrolysis by a protein tyrosine phosphatase-like inositol polyphosphatase from Megasphaera elsdenii.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Aaron A; Greiner, Ralf; Selinger, L Brent

    2009-02-01

    Inositol polyphosphatases (IPPases), particularly those that can hydrolyze myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (Ins P(6)), are of biotechnological interest for their ability to reduce the metabolically unavailable organic phosphate content of feedstuffs and to produce lower inositol polyphosphates (IPPs) for research and pharmaceutical applications. Here, the gene coding for a new protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-like IPPase was cloned from Megasphaera elsdenii (phyAme), and the biochemical properties of the recombinant protein were determined. The deduced amino acid sequence of PhyAme is similar to known PTP-like IPPases (29-44% identity), and the recombinant enzyme displayed strict specificity for IPP substrates. Optimal IPPase activity was displayed at an ionic strength of 250 mM, a pH of 5.0, and a temperature of 60 degrees C. In order to elucidate its stereospecificity of Ins P(6) dephosphorylation, a combination of high-performance ion-pair chromatography and kinetic studies was conducted. PhyAme displayed a stereospecificity that is unique among enzymes belonging to this class in that it preferentially cleaved Ins P(6) at one of two phosphate positions, 1D-3 or 1D-4. PhyAme followed two distinct and specific routes of hydrolysis, predominantly degrading Ins P(6) to Ins(2)P via: (a) 1D-Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P(5), 1D-Ins(1,2,5,6)P(4), 1D-Ins(1,2,6)P(3), and 1D-Ins(1,2)P(2) (60%) and (b) 1D-Ins(1,2,3,5,6)P(5), 1D-Ins(1,2,3,6)P(4), Ins(1,2,3)P(3), and D/L-Ins(1,2)P(2)(35%).

  10. Impacts of labile organic carbon concentration on organic and inorganic nitrogen utilization by a stream biofilm bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Suchismita; Leff, Laura G

    2013-12-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, carbon (C) availability strongly influences nitrogen (N) dynamics. One manifestation of this linkage is the importance in the dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), which can serve as both a C and an N source, yet our knowledge of how specific properties of DOM influence N dynamics are limited. To empirically examine the impact of labile DOM on the responses of bacteria to DON and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), bacterial abundance and community composition were examined in controlled laboratory microcosms subjected to various combinations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DON, and DIN treatments. Bacterial communities that had colonized glass beads incubated in a stream were treated with various glucose concentrations and combinations of inorganic and organic N (derived from algal exudate, bacterial protein, and humic matter). The results revealed a strong influence of C availability on bacterial utilization of DON and DIN, with preferential uptake of DON under low C concentrations. Bacterial DON uptake was affected by the concentration and by its chemical nature (labile versus recalcitrant). Labile organic N sources (algal exudate and bacterial protein) were utilized equally well as DIN as an N source, but this was not the case for the recalcitrant humic matter DON treatment. Clear differences in bacterial community composition among treatments were observed based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) of 16S rRNA genes. C, DIN, and DON treatments likely drove changes in bacterial community composition that in turn affected the rates of DON and DIN utilization under various C concentrations.

  11. Modeling and forecasting riverine dissolved inorganic nitrogen export using anthropogenic nitrogen inputs, hydroclimate, and land-use change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hong; Chen, Dingjiang; Zhang, Baifa; Zeng, Lingzao; Dahlgren, Randy A.

    2014-09-01

    A quantitative understanding of riverine nitrogen (N) export in response to human activities and climate change is critical for developing effective watershed N pollution control measures. This study quantified net anthropogenic N inputs (NANI) and riverine dissolved inorganic N (DIN = NO3-N + NH4-N + NO2-N) export for the upper Jiaojiang River catchment in eastern China over the 1980-2010 time period and examined how NANI, hydroclimate, and land-use practices influenced riverine DIN export. Over the 31-yr study period, riverine DIN yield increased by 1.6-fold, which mainly results from a ∼77% increase in NANI and increasing fractional delivery of NANI due to a ∼55% increase in developed land area. An empirical model that utilizes an exponential function of NANI and a power function of combining annual water discharge and developed land area percentage could account for 89% of the variation in annual riverine DIN yields in 1980-2010. Applying this model, annual NANI, catchment storage, and natural background sources were estimated to contribute 57%, 22%, and 21%, respectively, of annual riverine DIN exports on average. Forecasting based on a likely future climate change scenario predicted a 19.6% increase in riverine DIN yield by 2030 due to a 4% increase in annual discharge with no changes in NANI and land-use compared to the 2000-2010 baseline condition. Anthropogenic activities have increased both the N inputs available for export and the fractional export of N inputs, while climate change can further enhance riverine N export. An integrated N management strategy that considers the influence of anthropogenic N inputs, land-use and climate change is required to effectively control N inputs to coastal areas.

  12. Effects of nitrate and phosphate supply on chromophoric and fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic: a mesocosm study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loginova, A. N.; Borchard, C.; Meyer, J.; Hauss, H.; Kiko, R.; Engel, A.

    2015-12-01

    In open-ocean regions, as is the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic (ETNA), pelagic production is the main source of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and is affected by dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and phosphorus (DIP) concentrations. Changes in pelagic production under nutrient amendments were shown to also modify DOM quantity and quality. However, little information is available about the effects of nutrient variability on chromophoric (CDOM) and fluorescent (FDOM) DOM dynamics. Here we present results from two mesocosm experiments ("Varied P" and "Varied N") conducted with a natural plankton community from the ETNA, where the effects of DIP and DIN supply on DOM optical properties were studied. CDOM accumulated proportionally to phytoplankton biomass during the experiments. Spectral slope (S) decreased over time indicating accumulation of high molecular weight DOM. In Varied N, an additional CDOM portion, as a result of bacterial DOM reworking, was determined. It increased the CDOM fraction in DOC proportionally to the supplied DIN. The humic-like FDOM component (Comp.1) was produced by bacteria proportionally to DIN supply. The protein-like FDOM component (Comp.2) was released irrespectively to phytoplankton or bacterial biomass, but depended on DIP and DIN concentrations. Under high DIN supply, Comp.2 was removed by bacterial reworking, leading to an accumulation of humic-like Comp.1. No influence of nutrient availability on amino acid-like FDOM component in peptide form (Comp.3) was observed. Comp.3 potentially acted as an intermediate product during formation or degradation of Comp.2. Our findings suggest that changes in nutrient concentrations may lead to substantial responses in the quantity and quality of optically active DOM and, therefore, might bias results of the applied in situ optical techniques for an estimation of DOC concentrations in open-ocean regions.

  13. Seasonal dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus budgets for two sub-tropical estuaries in south Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzelli, C.; Wan, Y.; Doering, P. H.; Boyer, J. N.

    2013-02-01

    Interactions among watershed nutrient loading, circulation, and biogeochemical cycling determine the capacity of estuaries to accommodate introduced nutrients. Baseline quantification of loading, flushing time, export, and internal processes is essential to understand responses of sub-tropical estuaries to variable climate and nutrient loading. The goal of this study was to develop seasonal dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and phosphorus (DIP) budgets for the two estuaries in south Florida, the Caloosahatchee River Estuary (CRE) and the St. Lucie Estuary (SLE), from 2002-2008 spanning various climatic conditions. The Land Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) Biogeochemical Model was used to generate water, salt, and (DIN and DIP) budgets. The predicted increase in internal DIN production for the CRE vs. the SLE was associated with increased external DIN loading. Water column DIN concentrations decreased and stabilized in both estuaries as flushing time increased to > 10 d. The CRE demonstrated heterotrophy or balanced metabolism across all seasonal budgets. Although the SLE was also sensitive to DIN loading, system autotrophy and net ecosystem metabolism increased with DIP loading to this estuary. This included a huge DIP consumption and bloom of a cyanobacterium (Microcystis aeruginosa) following hurricane-induced discharge in 2005. Additionally, while denitrification offered a loss pathway for inorganic nitrogen in the CRE, this potential was not evident for the smaller and more anthropogenically altered St. Lucie Estuary. Disparities between total and inorganic loading ratios suggested that management actions should examine the role of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in attempts to reduce both nitrogen and phosphorus inputs to the SLE. Establishment of quantitative loading limits for anthropogenically impacted estuaries requires an understanding of the inter-seasonal and inter-annual relationships for both N and P, circulation and flushing

  14. Sources, loads and dispersion of dissolved inorganic nutrients in Paranaguá Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizerkowski, Byanka Damian; Hesse, Karl-J.; Ladwig, Norbert; da Costa Machado, Eunice; Rosa, Rodrigo; Araujo, Taiana; Koch, Daniela

    2012-12-01

    The present study focuses on the nutrient sources and gradients in Paranaguá Bay (Southern Brazil), where nutrient inputs are related to losses from fertilizer loading in Paranaguá harbour and the discharge of untreated waste water. The input of dissolved inorganic nutrients to the bay from the harbour and city, as well as from river and atmospheric deposition, amounted to 642 t year-1 DIN-N and 92 t year-1 PO4-P. Harbour losses accounted for 6 % of total DIN-N and 39 % of total PO4-P loads to the bay, whereas sewage inputs from the city were responsible for 21 % and 22 %, respectively. River inputs made up 68 % of DIN-N, mainly in the form of nitrate, and 35 % of PO4-P loads, while atmospheric wet deposition was estimated to be in the order of 5 % of DIN-N and 4 % of PO4-P loads. Local maxima in nutrient levels deriving from highly concentrated sewage discharge were observed in front of the harbour and city of Paranaguá, but the plumes are diluted rapidly due to short residence times. DIN concentrations are negatively correlated with salinity, indicating the importance of freshwater input as a main factor controlling nitrogen distribution. Elevated phosphate levels in the stratified middle section of the bay may result both from harbour emissions and phosphate remobilization from sediments. Generally lower DIN and PO4 concentrations during the warmer rainy season are supposed to be due to intensified assimilation rates especially in the middle section of the bay where dense phytoplankton blooms are observed. The bay as a whole cannot be classified as being seriously eutrophic, albeit eutrophication symptoms prevail in some restricted locations in front of Paranaguá harbour.

  15. Radar interferometry from space for surface deformation investigation: 25 years of developments and observations (Christiaan Huygens Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanari, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    This contribution will provide an overview on the evolution of the space-borne Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) scenario in the last 25 years. The DInSAR techniques have continuously evolved during the past decades, becoming important "tools" for the investigation of Earth surface deformation. Indeed, they are widely exploited both for studying the deformation phenomena relevant to natural events (i.e., earthquakes, volcanic unrests, landslides) and for analyzing displacements due to anthropogenic actions, such as underground resources exploitation. Originally, the DInSAR methodology has been successfully applied to analyze single deformation episodes thanks to its capability to generate spatially dense deformation maps of large areas, with centimeter to millimeter accuracy. However, benefiting from the availability of large SAR data archives, the interest of the scientific community has progressively moved towards the study of the temporal evolution of the detected displacements. To do this, advanced DInSAR techniques have been developed, allowing the computation of deformation time series from multi-temporal sequences of SAR images relevant to the areas of interest. This contribution will start by briefly introducing the basic rationale of the DInSAR methods for the investigation of single surface deformation episodes and their temporal evolution. Subsequently, a series of results will be presented to analyze the DInSAR scenario evolution moving from the first generation SAR sensors, as for the case of ERS-1/2 systems of ESA, to the new Sentinel-1 satellites of the COPERNICUS Programme of the European Union, highlighting the achieved drastic improvements of the surface deformation mapping capabilities. In particular, interesting results will be shown with reference to the earthquakes which have recently affected Central Italy.

  16. Modeling the terrestrial N processes in a small mountain catchment through INCA-N: A case study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lu, Meng-Chang; Chang, Chung-Te; Lin, Teng-Chiu; Wang, Lih-Jih; Wang, Chiao-Ping; Hsu, Ting-Chang; Huang, Jr-Chuan

    2017-09-01

    Riverine dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) is an important indicator of trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. High riverine DIN export in Taiwan, ~3800kg-Nkm(-2)yr(-1), which is ~18 times higher than the global average, urges the need of thorough understanding of N cycling processes. We applied INCA-N (Integrated Nitrogen Catchment Model) to simulate riverine DIN export and infer terrestrial N processes using weekly rainwater and streamwater samples collected at the Fushan Experimental Forest (FEF) of northern Taiwan. Results showed that the modeled discharge and nitrate export are in good agreement with observations, suggesting the validity of our application. Based on our modeling, the three main N removal processes, in the order of descending importance, were plant uptake, riverine N transport and denitrification at FEF. The high plant uptake rate, 4920kg-Nkm(-2)yr(-1), should have led to accumulation of large biomass but biomass at FEF was relatively small compared to other tropical forests, likely due to periodic typhoon disruptions. The low nitrate concentration but high DIN export highlights the importance of hydrological control over DIN export, particularly during typhoons. The denitrification rate, 750kg-Nkm(-2)yr(-1), at FEF was also low compared to other tropical forest ecosystems, likely resulting from quick water drainage through the coarse-loamy top soils. The high DIN export to atmospheric deposition ratio, 0.45, suggests that FEF may be in advanced stages of N excess. This simulation provides useful insights for establishing monitoring programs and improves our understanding N cycling in subtropical watersheds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Seasonal dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus budgets for two sub-tropical estuaries in south Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzelli, C.; Wan, Y.; Doering, P. H.; Boyer, J. N.

    2013-10-01

    Interactions among geomorphology, circulation, and biogeochemical cycling determine estuary responses to external nutrient loading. In order to better manage watershed nutrient inputs, the goal of this study was to develop seasonal dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and phosphorus (DIP) budgets for the two estuaries in south Florida, the Caloosahatchee River estuary (CRE) and the St. Lucie Estuary (SLE), from 2002 to 2008. The Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) approach was used to generate water, salt, and DIN and DIP budgets. Results suggested that internal DIN production increases with increased DIN loading to the CRE in the wet season. There were hydrodynamic effects as water column concentrations and ecosystem nutrient processing stabilized in both estuaries as flushing time increased to >10 d. The CRE demonstrated heterotrophy (net ecosystem metabolism or NEM < 0.0) across all wet and dry season budgets. While the SLE was sensitive to DIN loading, system autotrophy (NEM > 0.0) increased significantly with external DIP loading. This included DIP consumption and a bloom of a cyanobacterium (Microcystis aeruginosa) following hurricane-induced discharge to the SLE in 2005. Additionally, while denitrification provided a microbially-mediated N loss pathway for the CRE, this potential was not evident for the SLE where N2 fixation was favored. Disparities between total and inorganic loading ratios suggested that the role of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) should be assessed for both estuaries. Nutrient budgets indicated that net internal production or consumption of DIN and DIP fluctuated with inter- and intra-annual variations in freshwater inflow, hydrodynamic flushing, and primary production. The results of this study should be included in watershed management plans in order to maintain favorable conditions of external loading relative to internal material cycling in both dry and wet seasons.

  18. Impacts of Labile Organic Carbon Concentration on Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Utilization by a Stream Biofilm Bacterial Community

    PubMed Central

    Leff, Laura G.

    2013-01-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, carbon (C) availability strongly influences nitrogen (N) dynamics. One manifestation of this linkage is the importance in the dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), which can serve as both a C and an N source, yet our knowledge of how specific properties of DOM influence N dynamics are limited. To empirically examine the impact of labile DOM on the responses of bacteria to DON and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), bacterial abundance and community composition were examined in controlled laboratory microcosms subjected to various combinations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DON, and DIN treatments. Bacterial communities that had colonized glass beads incubated in a stream were treated with various glucose concentrations and combinations of inorganic and organic N (derived from algal exudate, bacterial protein, and humic matter). The results revealed a strong influence of C availability on bacterial utilization of DON and DIN, with preferential uptake of DON under low C concentrations. Bacterial DON uptake was affected by the concentration and by its chemical nature (labile versus recalcitrant). Labile organic N sources (algal exudate and bacterial protein) were utilized equally well as DIN as an N source, but this was not the case for the recalcitrant humic matter DON treatment. Clear differences in bacterial community composition among treatments were observed based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) of 16S rRNA genes. C, DIN, and DON treatments likely drove changes in bacterial community composition that in turn affected the rates of DON and DIN utilization under various C concentrations. PMID:24038688

  19. Inter-annual variability of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in the Biobío River, Central Chile: an analysis base on a decadal database along with 1-D reactive transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yévenes, M.; Figueroa, R.; Parra, O.; Farías, L.

    2015-01-01

    Rivers may act as important sinks (filters) or sources for inorganic nutrients between the land and the sea, depending on the biogeochemical processes and nutrient inputs along the river. This study examines the inter-annual variability of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) seasonal (wet-dry) cycle for the Biobío River, one of the largest and most industrialized rivers of Central Chile (36°45'-38°49' S and 71°00'-73°20' W). Long-term water flow (1990-2012) and water quality datasets (2004-2012) were used along with a one-dimensional reactive transport ecosystem model to evaluate the effects of water flow and N inputs on seasonal pattern of DIN. From 2004 to 2012, annual average nitrate levels significantly increased from 1.73 ± 2.17 μmol L-1 (upstream of the river) to 18.4 ± 12.7 μmol L-1 (in the river mouth); while the annual average oxygen concentration decreased from 348 ± 22 to 278 ± 42 μmol L-1 between upstream and downstream, indicating an additional oxygen consumption. Variability in the mid-section of the river (station BB8) was identified as a major influence on the inter-annual variability and appeared to be the site of a major anthropogenic disturbance. However, there was also an influence of climate on riverine DIN concentrations; high DIN production occurred during wet years, whereas high consumption proceeded during dry years. Extremely reduced river flow and drought during summer also strongly affected the annual DIN concentration, reducing the DIN production. Additionally, summer storm events during drought periods appeared to cause significant runoff resulting in nitrate inputs to the river. The total DIN input reaching the river mouth was 0.159 Gmol yr-1, implying that internal production exceeds consumption processes, and identifying nitrification as one of the predominant processes occurring in the estuary. In the following, the impact on the river of DIN increases as a nutrient source, as well as climate and biogeochemical factors

  20. Freshwater and Saline Loads of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen to Hood Canal and Lynch Cove, Western Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulson, Anthony J.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Frans, Lonna M.; Noble, Marlene; Kendall, Carol; Josberger, Edward G.; Huffman, Raegan L.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2006-01-01

    Hood Canal is a long (110 kilometers), deep (175 meters) and narrow (2 to 4 kilometers wide) fjord of Puget Sound in western Washington. The stratification of a less dense, fresh upper layer of the water column causes the cold, saltier lower layer of the water column to be isolated from the atmosphere in the late summer and autumn, which limits reaeration of the lower layer. In the upper layer of Hood Canal, the production of organic matter that settles and consumes dissolved oxygen in the lower layer appears to be limited by the load of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN): nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia. Freshwater and saline loads of DIN to Hood Canal were estimated from available historical data. The freshwater load of DIN to the upper layer of Hood Canal, which could be taken up by phytoplankton, came mostly from surface and ground water from subbasins, which accounts for 92 percent of total load of DIN to the upper layer of Hood Canal. Although DIN in rain falling on land surfaces amounts to about one-half of the DIN entering Hood Canal from subbasins, rain falling directly on the surface of marine waters contributed only 4 percent of the load to the upper layer. Point-source discharges and subsurface flow from shallow shoreline septic systems contributed less than 4 percent of the DIN load to the upper layer. DIN in saline water flowing over the sill into Hood Canal from Admiralty Inlet was at least 17 times the total load to the upper layer of Hood Canal. In September and October 2004, field data were collected to estimate DIN loads to Lynch Cove - the most inland marine waters of Hood Canal that routinely contain low dissolved-oxygen waters. Based on measured streamflow and DIN concentrations, surface discharge was estimated to have contributed about one-fourth of DIN loads to the upper layer of Lynch Cove. Ground-water flow from subbasins was estimated to have contributed about one-half of total DIN loads to the upper layer. In autumn 2004, the relative

  1. Moisture-dependent frictional and aerodynamic properties of safflower seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, M.; Bastaban, S.; Öztürk, I.; Kalkan, F.; Yildiz, C.

    2012-04-01

    The seeds of two safflower cultivars were investigated in order to determine their frictional and aerodynamic properties as a function of moisture content. The coefficients of dynamic friction of cultivars on aluminium, plywood, fibreglass and steel surfaces increased by 87, 56, 78, and 129% for cv. Remzibey-05 seed, and by 91, 31, 71, and 131% for cv. Dinçer seed, respectively, between the initial and final moisture content levels. The terminal velocities of the Remzibey-05 and Dinçer seeds increased by 15 and 11%, respectively, with increase in moisture content between the initial and final levels.

  2. Ten Years Of Subsidence Monitoring With SAR Interferometry And Its Contribution To Risk Management In Aguascalientes, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquivel, Ruben; Castaneda, Laura; Taud, Hind; Lira, Jorge

    2013-12-01

    A Study involving GPS and differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) monitoring is developed to investigate a subsidence phenomenon in Aguascalientes valley and to obtain displacement models concerned with risk management applications and geodetic purposes. DInSAR study with archived Envisat data allows accumulated displacement mapping yearly, and recent TerraSAR-X data implementation provides a more accurate estimation of displacements, which is used for developing models to correct geodetic positions. The maximum subsidence rate calculated is 15 cm/year with a decreasing rate throughout time in some areas.

  3. Axons guided by insulin receptor in Drosophila visual system.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianbo; Wu, Lingling; Chen, Zun; Kohanski, Ronald A; Pick, Leslie

    2003-04-18

    Insulin receptors are abundant in the central nervous system, but their roles remain elusive. Here we show that the insulin receptor functions in axon guidance. The Drosophila insulin receptor (DInR) is required for photoreceptor-cell (R-cell) axons to find their way from the retina to the brain during development of the visual system. DInR functions as a guidance receptor for the adapter protein Dock/Nck. This function is independent of Chico, the Drosophila insulin receptor substrate (IRS) homolog.

  4. Macroalgae δ15N values in well-mixed estuaries: Indicator of anthropogenic nitrogen input or macroalgae metabolism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimonet, Mélanie; Guillou, Gaël; Mornet, Françoise; Richard, Pierre

    2013-03-01

    Although nitrogen stable isotope ratio (δ15N) in macroalgae is widely used as a bioindicator of anthropogenic nitrogen inputs to the coastal zone, recent studies suggest the possible role of macroalgae metabolism in δ15N variability. Simultaneous determinations of δ15N of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) along the land-sea continuum, inter-species variability of δ15N and its sensitivity to environmental factors are necessary to confirm the efficiency of macroalgae δ15N in monitoring nitrogen origin in mixed-use watersheds. In this study, δ15N of annual and perennial macroalgae (Ulva sp., Enteromorpha sp., Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus) are compared to δ15N-DIN along the Charente Estuary, after characterizing δ15N of the three main DIN sources (i.e. cultivated area, pasture, sewage treatment plant outlet). During late winter and spring, when human activities produce high DIN inputs, DIN sources exhibit distinct δ15N signals in nitrate (NO) and ammonium (NH): cultivated area (+6.5 ± 0.6‰ and +9.0 ± 11.0‰), pasture (+9.2 ± 1.8‰ and +12.4‰) and sewage treatment plant discharge (+16.9 ± 8.7‰ and +25.4 ± 5.9‰). While sources show distinct δN- in this multiple source catchment, the overall mixture of NO sources - generally >95% DIN - leads to low variations of δN-NO at the mouth of the estuary (+7.7 to +8.4‰). Even if estuarine δN-NO values are not significantly different from pristine continental and oceanic site (+7.3‰ and +7.4‰), macroalgae δ15N values are generally higher at the mouth of the estuary. This highlights high anthropogenic DIN inputs in the estuary, and enhanced contribution of 15N-depleted NH in oceanic waters. Although seasonal variations in δN-NO are low, the same temporal trends in macroalgae δ15N values at estuarine and oceanic sites, and inter-species differences in δ15N values, suggest that macroalgae δ15N values might be modified by the metabolic response of macroalgae to environmental parameters (e

  5. Moisture-dependent frictional and aerodynamic properties of safflower seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, M.; Bastaban, S.; Öztürk, I.; Kalkan, F.; Yildiz, C.

    2012-04-01

    The seeds of two safflower cultivars were investigated in order to determine their frictional and aerodynamic properties as a function of moisture content. The coefficients of dynamic friction of cultivars on aluminium, plywood, fibreglass and steel surfaces increased by 87, 56, 78, and 129% for cv. Remzibey-05 seed, and by 91, 31, 71, and 131% for cv. Dinçer seed, respectively, between the initial and final moisture content levels. The terminal velocities of the Remzibey-05 and Dinçer seeds increased by 15 and 11%, respectively, with increase in moisture content between the initial and final levels.

  6. Deep inelastic neutron scattering in condensed hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bafile, Ubaldo; Celli, Milva; Zoppi, Marco

    1996-02-01

    The neutron cross-section of molecular hydrogen that is measured by deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS) is compared with two distinct models. One is a generalization of the molecular Young and Koppel model (1964) that takes into account the modification to the translational kinetic energy that is induced by quantum effects. The second model assumes a free particle wave function for the final state of the proton (C. Andreani et al., 1995). The comparison between these two models, and with the experimental results, provides information on the crossover between the molecular and atomic regime of hydrogen in DINS.

  7. De-eutrophication of effluent wastewater from fish aquaculture by using marine green alga Ulva pertusa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Zengfu; Lin, Wei

    2010-03-01

    The de-eutrophication abilities and characteristics of Ulva pertusa, a marine green alga, were investigated in Qingdao Yihai Hatchery Center from spring to summer in 2005 by analyzing the dynamic changes in NH{4/+}, NO{3/-}, NO{2/-} as well as the total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). The results show that the effluent wastewater produced by fish aquaculture had typical eutrophication levels with an average of 34.3 μmol L-1 DIN. This level far exceeded the level IV quality of the national seawater standard and could easily lead to phytoplankton blooms in nature if discarded with no treatment. The de-eutrophication abilities of U. pertusa varied greatly and depended mainly on the original eutrophic level the U. pertusa material was derived from. U. pertusa used to living in low DIN conditions had poor DIN removal abilities, while materials cultured in DIN-enriched seawater showed strong de-eutrophication abilities. In other words, the de-eutrophication ability of U. pertusa was evidently induced by high DIN levels. The de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa seemed to also be light dependent, because it was weaker in darkness than under illumination. However, no further improvement in the de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa was observed once the light intensity exceeded 300 μmol M2 S-1. Results of semi-continuous wastewater replacement experiments showed that U. pertusa permanently absorbed nutrients from eutrophicated wastewater at a mean rate of 299 mg/kg fresh weight per day (126 mg/kg DIN during the night, 173 mg/kg in daytime). Based on the above results, engineered de-eutrophication of wastewater by using a U. pertusa filter system seems feasible. The algal quantity required to purify all the eutrophicated outflow wastewater from the Qingdao Yihai Hatchery Center into oligotrophic level I clean seawater was also estimated using the daily discharged wastewater, the average DIN concentration released and the de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa.

  8. Quantification and characterization of dissolved organic nitrogen in wastewater effluents by electrodialysis treatment followed by size-exclusion chromatography with nitrogen detection.

    PubMed

    Chon, Kangmin; Lee, Yunho; Traber, Jacqueline; von Gunten, Urs

    2013-09-15

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) can act as a precursor of nitrogenous disinfection byproducts during oxidative water treatment. Quantification and characterization of DON are still challenging for waters with high concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, including ammonia, nitrate and nitrite) relative to total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) due to the cumulative analytical errors of independently measured nitrogen species (i.e., DON = TDN - NO2(-) - NO3(-) - NH4(+)/NH3) and interference of DIN species to TDN quantification. In this study, a novel electrodialysis (ED)-based treatment for selective DIN removal was developed and optimized with respect to type of ion-exchange membrane, sample pH, and ED duration. The optimized ED method was then coupled with size-exclusion chromatography with organic carbon, UV, and nitrogen detection (SEC-OCD-ND) for advanced DON analysis in wastewater effluents. Among the tested ion-exchange membranes, the PC-AR anion- and CMT cation-exchange membranes showed the lowest DOC loss (1-7%) during ED treatment of a wastewater effluent at ambient pH (8.0). A good correlation was found between the decrease of the DIN/TDN ratio and conductivity. Therefore, conductivity has been adopted as a convenient way to determine the optimal duration of the ED treatment. In the pH range of 7.0-8.3, ED treatment of various wastewater effluents with the PC-AR/CMT membranes showed that the relative residual conductivity could be reduced to less than 0.50 (DIN removal >90%; DIN/TDN ratio ≤ 0.60) with lower DOC losses (6%) than the previous dialysis and nanofiltration methods (DOC loss >10%). In addition, the ED method is shorter (0.5 h) than the previous methods (>1-24 h). The relative residual conductivity was further reduced to ≈ 0.20 (DIN removal >95%; DIN/TDN ratio ≤ 0.35) by increasing the ED duration to 0.7 h (DOC loss = 8%) for analysis by SEC-OCD-ND, which provided new information on distribution and ratio of organic carbon and

  9. Mechanisms of basin-scale nitrogen load reductions under intensified irrigated agriculture.

    PubMed

    Törnqvist, Rebecka; Jarsjö, Jerker; Thorslund, Josefin; Rao, P Suresh C; Basu, Nandita B; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture can modify the cycling and transport of nitrogen (N), due to associated water diversions, water losses, and changes in transport flow-paths. We investigate dominant processes behind observed long-term changes in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations and loads of the extensive (465,000 km2) semi-arid Amu Darya River basin (ADRB) in Central Asia. We specifically considered a 40-year period (1960-2000) of large irrigation expansion, reduced river water flows, increased fertilizer application and net increase of N input into the soil-water system. Results showed that observed decreases in riverine DIN concentration near the Aral Sea outlet of ADRB primarily were due to increased recirculation of irrigation water, which extends the flow-path lengths and enhances N attenuation. The observed DIN concentrations matched a developed analytical relation between concentration attenuation and recirculation ratio, showing that a fourfold increase in basin-scale recirculation can increase DIN attenuation from 85 to 99%. Such effects have previously only been observed at small scales, in laboratory experiments and at individual agricultural plots. These results imply that increased recirculation can have contributed to observed increases in N attenuation in agriculturally dominated drainage basins in different parts of the world. Additionally, it can be important for basin scale attenuation of other pollutants, including phosphorous, metals and organic matter. A six-fold lower DIN export from ADRB during the period 1981-2000, compared to the period 1960-1980, was due to the combined result of drastic river flow reduction of almost 70%, and decreased DIN concentrations at the basin outlet. Several arid and semi-arid regions around the world are projected to undergo similar reductions in discharge as the ADRB due to climate change and agricultural intensification, and may therefore undergo comparable shifts in DIN export as shown here for the ADRB

  10. Mechanisms of Basin-Scale Nitrogen Load Reductions under Intensified Irrigated Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Törnqvist, Rebecka; Jarsjö, Jerker; Thorslund, Josefin; Rao, P. Suresh C.; Basu, Nandita B.; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture can modify the cycling and transport of nitrogen (N), due to associated water diversions, water losses, and changes in transport flow-paths. We investigate dominant processes behind observed long-term changes in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations and loads of the extensive (465,000 km2) semi-arid Amu Darya River basin (ADRB) in Central Asia. We specifically considered a 40-year period (1960–2000) of large irrigation expansion, reduced river water flows, increased fertilizer application and net increase of N input into the soil-water system. Results showed that observed decreases in riverine DIN concentration near the Aral Sea outlet of ADRB primarily were due to increased recirculation of irrigation water, which extends the flow-path lengths and enhances N attenuation. The observed DIN concentrations matched a developed analytical relation between concentration attenuation and recirculation ratio, showing that a fourfold increase in basin-scale recirculation can increase DIN attenuation from 85 to 99%. Such effects have previously only been observed at small scales, in laboratory experiments and at individual agricultural plots. These results imply that increased recirculation can have contributed to observed increases in N attenuation in agriculturally dominated drainage basins in different parts of the world. Additionally, it can be important for basin scale attenuation of other pollutants, including phosphorous, metals and organic matter. A six-fold lower DIN export from ADRB during the period 1981–2000, compared to the period 1960–1980, was due to the combined result of drastic river flow reduction of almost 70%, and decreased DIN concentrations at the basin outlet. Several arid and semi-arid regions around the world are projected to undergo similar reductions in discharge as the ADRB due to climate change and agricultural intensification, and may therefore undergo comparable shifts in DIN export as shown here for the

  11. Validation of a Computer-Administered Version of the Digits-in-Noise Test for Hearing Screening in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Folmer, Robert L.; Vachhani, Jay; McMillan, Garnett P.; Watson, Charles; Kidd, Gary R.; Feeney, M. Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background The sooner people receive treatment for hearing loss, the quicker they are able to recognize speech and to master hearing aid technology. Unfortunately, a majority of people with hearing loss wait until their impairments have progressed from moderate to severe levels before seeking auditory rehabilitation. In order to increase the number of individuals with hearing loss who pursue and receive auditory rehabilitation, it is necessary to improve methods for identifying and informing these people via widely accessible hearing screening procedures. Screening for hearing loss is the first in a chain of events that must take place in order to increase the number of patients who enter the hearing healthcare system. New methods for hearing screening should be readily accessible through a common medium (e.g, telephone or computer) and should be relatively easy and quick for people to self-administer. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess a digits-in-noise (DIN) hearing screening test that was delivered via personal computer. Research Design Participants completed the Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults (HHIA) questionnaire, audiometric testing in a sound booth, and computerized DIN testing. During the DIN test, sequences of 3 spoken digits were presented in noise via headphones at varying signal-to-noise ratios. Participants entered each three-digit sequence they heard using an on-screen keypad. Study Sample Forty adults (16 females, 24 males) participated in the study, 20 of whom had normal hearing and 20 with hearing loss (pure-tone average [PTA] thresholds for 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz >25 dB HL). Data Collection and Analysis DIN signal-to-noise (SNR) and PTA data were analyzed and compared for each ear tested. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves based on these data were plotted. A measure of overall accuracy of a screening test is the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). This measures the average true positive rate

  12. Education in Spotlight on Statewide Ballots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Education issues are poised to break through the din of presidential politics and economic anxiety in more than a dozen states next month, as voters confront ballot questions and constitutional amendments involving K-12 policy and school finance. High on the list are gambling referendums in six states--Arkansas, Colorado, Maine, Maryland,…

  13. Mass balances of mercury and nitrogen in burned and unburned forested watersheds at Acadia National Park, Maine, USA.

    PubMed

    Nelson, S J; Johnson, K B; Kahl, J S; Haines, T A; Fernandez, I J

    2007-03-01

    Precipitation and streamwater samples were collected from 16 November 1999 to 17 November 2000 in two watersheds at Acadia National Park, Maine, and analyzed for mercury (Hg) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, nitrate plus ammonium). Cadillac Brook watershed burned in a 1947 fire that destroyed vegetation and soil organic matter. We hypothesized that Hg deposition would be higher at Hadlock Brook (the reference watershed, 10.2 microg/m(2)/year) than Cadillac (9.4 microg/m(2)/year) because of the greater scavenging efficiency of the softwood vegetation in Hadlock. We also hypothesized the Hg and DIN export from Cadillac Brook would be lower than Hadlock Brook because of elemental volatilization during the fire, along with subsequently lower rates of atmospheric deposition in a watershed with abundant bare soil and bedrock, and regenerating vegetation. Consistent with these hypotheses, Hg export was lower from Cadillac Brook watershed (0.4 microg/m(2)/year) than from Hadlock Brook watershed (1.3 microg/m(2)/year). DIN export from Cadillac Brook (11.5 eq/ha/year) was lower than Hadlock Brook (92.5 eq/ha/year). These data show that approximately 50 years following a wildfire there was lower atmospheric deposition due to changes in forest species composition, lower soil pools, and greater ecosystem retention for both Hg and DIN.

  14. Purification and characterisation of an extracellular phytase from Aspergillus niger 11T53A9

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Ralf; da Silva, Lucineia Gomes; Couri, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    An extracellular phytase from Aspergillus niger 11T53A9 was purified about 51-fold to apparent homogeneity with a recovery of 20.3% referred to the phytase activity in the crude extract. Purification was achieved by ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion chromataography and gel filtration. The purified enzyme behaved as a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of about 85 kDa and exhibited maximal phytate-degrading activity at pH 5.0. Optimum temperature for the degradation of phytate was 55°C. The kinetic parameters for the hydrolysis of sodium phytate were determined to be KM = 54 µmol l-1 and kcat = 190 sec-1 at pH 5.0 and 37°C. The purified enzyme was rather specific for phytate dephosphorylation. It was shown that the phytase preferably dephosphorylates myo-inositol hexakisphosphate in a stereospecific way by sequential removal of phosphate groups via D-Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P5, D-Ins(1,2,5,6)P4, D-Ins(1,2,6)P3, D-Ins(1,2)P2 to finally Ins(2)P. PMID:24031427

  15. PHOSPHORUS-RICH WATERS AT GLOVERS REEF, BELIZE? (R830414)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Table 1. Concentrations (small mu, GreekM) of ammonium, nitrate, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN=ammonium + nitrate + nitrite), PO43−–P (...

  16. 75 FR 65035 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... be used to: (a) Trace the movement of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) stored in glacier ice into... between global climate change and mobilization of glacier reservoirs of contaminants, and is likely to serve as a case study for understanding the potential future impact of contaminants store din...

  17. Dissolved organic nitrogen budgets for upland, forested ecosystems in New England

    Treesearch

    John L. Campbell; James W. Hornbeck; William H. McDowell; Donald C. Buso; James B. Shanley; Gene E. Likens

    2000-01-01

    Relatively high deposition of nitrogen (N) in the northeastern United States has caused concern because sites could become N saturated. In the past, mass-balance studies have been used to monitor the N status of sites and to investigate the impact of increased N deposition. Typically, these efforts have focused on dissolved inorganic forms of N (DIN = NH4-...

  18. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction Quarterly Report to the United States Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-30

    Cooperation and Development (ACTED) Agriculture and food security; economic recovery and market systems; water, sanitation, and hygiene Muthanna...recovery and market systems; water, sanitation, and hygiene Baghdad, Basrah, and Ninewa International Relief and Development Agriculture and food...security; water, sanitation, and hygiene Babylon, Baghdad, Ninewa, Salah Al-Din, and Tameem Save the Children/U.S. Protection; water, sanitation, and

  19. Glassy Transformation and Structural Change in Ge2Sb2Te5 Studied by Impedance Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Quer6taro, Ap. Postal 1- 798, 76001, Quer6taro, Qro., Mexico. bDivisi6n de Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria , UAQ, Querdtaro, Mexico. The...was controlled with a Watlow’s Series 982, 1/8 DIN microprocessor-based, with ramping controller . The temperature controller was programmed to produce a

  20. THE DEVELOPMENT OF IODINE BASED IMPINGER SOLUTIONS FOR THE EFFICIENT CAPTURE OF HG USING DIRECT INJECTION NEBULIZATION - INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) with direct injection nebulization (DIN) was used to evaluate novel impinger solution compositions capable of capturing elemental mercury (Hgo) in EPA Method 5 type sampling. An iodine based impinger solutoin proved to be ver...

  1. Nitrogen addition alters elemental stoichiometry within soil aggregates in a temperate steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jinfei; Wang, Ruzhen; Liu, Heyong; Feng, Xue; Xu, Zhuwen; Jiang, Yong

    2016-11-01

    Ongoing increases in anthropogenic nitrogen (N) inputs have largely affected soil carbon (C) and nutrient cycling in most terrestrial ecosystems. Numerous studies have concerned the effects of elevated N inputs on soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic N (DIN), available phosphorus (AP), exchangeable calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), and available iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn). However, few have emphasized the stoichiometric traits of these soil parameters, especially within different soil aggregate fractions. In a semiarid grassland of Inner Mongolia, we studied the effect of N addition on the ratios of DOC : DIN, DOC : AP, DIN : AP, exchangeable Ca : Mg, available Fe : Mn within three soil aggregate classes of large macroaggregates (> 2000 µm), small macroaggregates (250-2000 µm), and microaggregates (< 250 µm). Elevated N inputs significantly decreased the DOC : DIN ratio within three soil aggregates. The soil DOC : AP ratio significantly decreased along with increasing N gradients within large macroaggregates and microaggregates. Nitrogen significantly decreased the ratio of exchangeable Ca : Mg within soil macroaggregates. The ratio of available Fe : Mn decreased with N addition within three soil aggregate classes. Alteration of elemental stoichiometry within soil fractions that are characterized by different nutrient retention capacity will influence the chemical composition of soil microorganisms and plant quality.

  2. Rocket Radiation Handbook, Volume 2. Model Equations for Photon Emission Rates and Absorption Cross-Sections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-12-01

    cm2) (Refs. 7 and 9) (9Cross-Section, a(10- 16 cm 2) First Second At ~ Atom or Fuchtbauer., Molecule Joos and Zemansky Kunze Din kelac ke r Hg He 15.0...G. and M. W. Zemansky , Resonance Radiation and ExcitedI4 Atoms, Cambridge, 1934. 10. Herzberg, G., Infrared and Raman Spectra, Van Nostrand, 1945. 11

  3. WATER QUALITY MODELING IN THE RIO CHONE ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality in the Rio Chone Estuary, a seasonally inverse, tropical estuary, in Ecuador was characterized by modeling the distribution of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) within the water column. These two variables are modeled using modif...

  4. A Connector between Active Laboratory Probes and Computer Interfaces of Different Brands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Kaleonui J.; Coney, John P.; Binder, P.-M.

    2016-01-01

    In PASCO's Technical Article #763, it is stated that "PASCO [also] makes sensors with an 8-pin DIN connector. These sensors cannot be used with the Vernier interfaces, as they have different power requirements." Recently we had the need to make such connections in a 10-station freshman lab. Since the Vernier input is a 6-way BT 631A plug…

  5. Functional characterization of two toxin-antitoxin systems of Xylella fastidiosa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) encodes multiple toxin-antitoxin (TA) system homologues, including relE/dinJ and mqsR/ygiT. Phylogenetic analyses indicate these two Xf TA systems have distinct evolutionary histories. Comparisons among Xf subspecies/strains reveal TA systems are often embedded in prophage ...

  6. THE DEVELOPMENT OF IODINE BASED IMPINGER SOLUTIONS FOR THE EFFICIENT CAPTURE OF HG USING DIRECT INJECTION NEBULIZATION - INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) with direct injection nebulization (DIN) was used to evaluate novel impinger solution compositions capable of capturing elemental mercury (Hgo) in EPA Method 5 type sampling. An iodine based impinger solutoin proved to be ver...

  7. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-04

    activity was never such that it could more effectively prevent the incessant growth of that racket and din which made it impossible even for Franz Kafka ...Bratislava and Vienna, really so much greater than was for Kafka the distance from Plana to Georgental in Thuringia. Somehow our constant fear of

  8. Factors influencing export of dissolved inorganic nitrogen by major rivers: A new seasonal, spatially explicit, global model - 2012

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods Substantial effort has focused on understanding spatial variation in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export to the coastal zone and specific basins have been studied in some depth. Much less is known, however, about seasonal patterns and zone and ...

  9. Factors influencing export of dissolved inorganic nitrogen by major rivers: a new seasonal, spatially explicit, global model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods Substantial effort has focused on understanding spatial variation in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export to the coastal zone and specific basins have been studied in some depth. Much less is known, however, about seasonal patterns and controls ...

  10. Precipitation control over inorganic nitrogen import-export budgets across watersheds: a synthesis of long-term ecological research

    Treesearch

    E.S. Kane; E.F. Betts; A.J. Burgin; H.M. Cliverd; C.L. Crenshaw; J.B. Fellman; I.H. Myers-Smith; J.A. O' Donnell; D.J. Sobota; W.J. Van Verseveld; J.B. Jones

    2008-01-01

    We investigated long-term and seasonal patterns of N imports and exports, as well as patterns following climate perturbations, across biomes using data from 15 watersheds from nine Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites in North America. Mean dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) import-export budgets (N import via precipitation-N export via stream flow) for common...

  11. REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF INORGANIC NITROGEN YIELD AND RETENTION IN HIGH-ELEVATION ECOSYSTEMS OF THE SIERRA NEVADA AND ROCKY MOUNTAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yields and retention of inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and nitrate concentrations in surface runoff are summarized for 28 high elevation watersheds in the Sierra Nevada, California and Rocky Mountains of Wyoming and Colorado. Catchments ranged in elevation from 2475 to 3603 m and from...

  12. Refining U.S. Reconstruction Strategy in Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-30

    operating in the provinces of Tamim, Ninewa, Babil, Baghdad, Anbar, Diyala, Salah ad- Din , Basrah, and Dhi Qar.24 State Department personnel staffing... 833 schools (education sector), 7 health clinics and 14 hospitals (health sector), 419,000 cubic meters/day fresh water capacity added (water sector

  13. Monitoring nitrogen deposition in typical forest ecosystems along a large transect in China.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Wenping; Yu, Guirui; Jiang, Chunming; Yan, Junhua; Liu, Yunfen; Wang, Silong; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Junhui; Wang, Chuankuan; Zhou, Mei; Jia, Bingrui

    2013-01-01

    The nitrogen (N) deposition fluxes were investigated in eight typical forest ecosystems along the North-South Transect of Eastern China (NSTEC; based on the ChinaFLUX network) by ion-exchange resin (IER) columns from May 2008 to April 2009. Our results demonstrated that the method of IER columns was both labor cost saving and reliable for measuring dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) deposition at the remote forest stations. The deposition of DIN in the throughfall ranged from 1.3 to 29.5 kg N ha(-1) a(-1), increasing from north to south along NSTEC. The relatively high average ratio of ammonium to nitrate in deposition (1.83) indicated that the N deposition along the NSTEC in China mostly originated in farming and animal husbandry rather than in industry and vehicle activities. For seasonal variability, the DIN deposition showed a single peak in the growing season in the northern part of NSTEC, while, in the southern part, it exhibited double-peaks in the early spring and the mid-summer, respectively. On the annual scale, the DIN deposition variations of the eight sites could be mainly explained by precipitation and the distances from forest stations to provincial capital cities.

  14. Extended (16-Hour) Tourniquet Application After Combat Wounds: A Case Report and Review of the Current Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    the upper limb. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2002;84:202–204. 25. Din R, Geddes T. Skin protection beneath the tourniquet. A prospective randomized trial...reports. J Trauma. 1995;39: 787–791. 34. Tremblay LN, Feliciano DV, Rozycki GS. Secondary extremity compartment syndrome. J Trauma. 2002;53: 833 –837

  15. Evaluation of a direct injection nebulizer interface for flow injection analysis and high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic detection

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, K.E.

    1986-06-01

    A direct injection nebulizer (DIN) was designed, developed, and evaluated to determine its potential utilization as an effective interface for flow injection analysis (FIA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic detection. The analytical figures of merit for the DIN when used as an interface for FIA-ICP-AES were found to be comparable to or better than those obtained with conventional pneumatic nebulization in terms of limits of detection (LODs), reproducibility, linearity, and interelement effects. Stable plasma operation was maintained for the DIN sample introduction of a variety of pure organic solvents, including acetonitrile, methanol, methylisobutylketone, and pyridine. The HPLC-DIN-ICP-AES facility was specifically applied for the speciation of inorganic and organometallic species contained in synthetic mixtures, vanilla extracts, and a variety of energy-related materials, such as shale oil process water, coal extracts, shale oil, crude oil, and an SRC II. Suggestions for future research are also considered. 227 refs., 44 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. ICP-MS nebulizer performance for analysis of SRS high salt simulated radioactive waste tank solutions ({number_sign}3053)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, V.D.

    1997-11-01

    High Level Radioactive Waste Tanks at the Savannah River Site are high in salt content. The cross-flow nebulizer provided the most stable signal for all salt matrices with the smallest signal loss/suppression due to this matrix. The DIN exhibited a serious lack of tolerance for TDS; possibly due to physical de-tuning of the nebulizer efficiency.

  17. Wind induced resonant cross flow vibrations on Norwegian offshore flare booms

    SciTech Connect

    Oppen, A.N.; Kvitrud, A.

    1995-12-31

    Vibrations and fatigue cracking have occurred, for some years, i flare boom structures on a number of platforms on the Norwegian continental shelf. In view of this, the objective of this paper is to: (1) Describe the vibrations and its characteristics on Statfjord A and Heimdal which had the largest vibrations, the vibrations can`t be predicted by vortex induced vibrations of individual members but could be caused by wake effects, local frame vibrations or global dynamic effects. (2) Review the evaluation of cracks in other flare boom structures, the work has been based on DIN 4133 and includes vibrations of both individual members and frames. (3) Review the design practice and operational experience with design parameters especially measurements of damping on individual tubular members and observed vibrations of individual members and frames. Possible limitations of the DIN standard will be discussed. (4) A promising device for reducing the vibrations is described. The problems have mainly been caused by the methods used in design, however, evidence of welding defects initiating fatigue cracks has also been found. A review of the existing methods has led to the recommendation of using the German DIN 4133 code for design purposes. This code is to a large extent similar to the proposed Eurocode-1. A design procedure based on DIN 4133 is proposed including additional parametric boundaries for avoiding resonant vibration.

  18. Experiences with new European standards for calculation of flanged joints including necessary gasket factors

    SciTech Connect

    Bartonicek, J.; Kockelmann, H.; Schoeckle, F.

    1996-12-01

    The correct function of a flanged joint in a given construction (flanges, bolts) and with given loads (pressure, temperature, additional forces) depends on the following: (1) choice of the gasket for the operation environment; (2) determination of the gasket stress for assembly conditions; and (3) gasket stress in operation, i.e., the conditions when leakage has to be minimized. For the correct choice of a gasket it is necessary to have gasket factors available, as given by DIN 28090 (Sept. 95) together with the test procedures. These gasket factors determine the tightening characteristics as well as the deformation capability of the gaskets. Furthermore, these gasket factors must be available for use in calculations. On the basis of calculations a stress analysis (i.e. a limitation of the stresses in flanges and bolts) must be possible as well as the determination of the bolt forces for the assembly state and of the gasket stress for operating conditions. This is one of the goals of the standard pr DIN EN 1591. The paper first introduces the actual European standards. Calculations are reviewed using test data from special test rigs and from real flanged joints. The calculations were made according to DIN 2505 (initial German standard for flanged joints) and pr DIN EN 1591. Additionally, 2D and 3D Finite Element analysis calculations were performed.

  19. Mass balances of mercury and nitrogen in burned and unburned forested watersheds at Acadia National Park, Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, S.J.; Johnson, K.B.; Kahl, J.S.; Haines, T.A.; Fernandez, I.J.

    2007-01-01

    Precipitation and streamwater samples were collected from 16 November 1999 to 17 November 2000 in two watersheds at Acadia National Park, Maine, and analyzed for mercury (Hg) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, nitrate plus ammonium). Cadillac Brook watershed burned in a 1947 fire that destroyed vegetation and soil organic matter. We hypothesized that Hg deposition would be higher at Hadlock Brook (the reference watershed, 10.2 ??g/m2/year) than Cadillac (9.4 ??g/m2/year) because of the greater scavenging efficiency of the softwood vegetation in Hadlock. We also hypothesized the Hg and DIN export from Cadillac Brook would be lower than Hadlock Brook because of elemental volatilization during the fire, along with subsequently lower rates of atmospheric deposition in a watershed with abundant bare soil and bedrock, and regenerating vegetation. Consistent with these hypotheses, Hg export was lower from Cadillac Brook watershed (0.4 ??g/m2/year) than from Hadlock Brook watershed (1.3 ??g/m2/year). DIN export from Cadillac Brook (11.5 eq/ ha/year) was lower than Hadlock Brook (92.5 eq/ha/year). These data show that ??50 years following a wildfire there was lower atmospheric deposition due to changes in forest species composition, lower soil pools, and greater ecosystem retention for both Hg and DIN. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2006.

  20. INPUT-OUTPUT BUDGETS OF INORGANIC NITROGEN FOR 24 FOREST WATERSHEDS IN THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Input-output budgets for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) are summarized for 24 small watersheds at 15 locations in the northeasternUnited States. The study watersheds are completely forested, free of recent physical disturbances, and span a geographical region bounded by West ...

  1. CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS COUPLED ON-LINE WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR ELEMENTAL SPECIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel interface to connect a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICPMS) detector is reported here. The interface was built using a direct injection nebulizer (DIN) system. In this interface, the CE capillary was placed co...

  2. Education in Spotlight on Statewide Ballots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Education issues are poised to break through the din of presidential politics and economic anxiety in more than a dozen states next month, as voters confront ballot questions and constitutional amendments involving K-12 policy and school finance. High on the list are gambling referendums in six states--Arkansas, Colorado, Maine, Maryland,…

  3. THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF NUTRIENT ENRICHMENT AND HERBIVORY ON MACROALGAL COMMUNITIES NEAR NORMAN'S POND CAY, EXUMAS CAYS, BAHAMAS: A "NATURAL" ENRICHMENT EXPERIMENT. (R830414)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The simultaneous effects of grazing and nutrient enrichment on macroalgal communities were experimentally investigated using plastic mesh enclosure/exclosure cages along a natural nutrient (DIN, SRP) gradient from the discharge of a tidal mangrove creek on the west side of Nor...

  4. CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS COUPLED ON-LINE WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR ELEMENTAL SPECIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel interface to connect a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICPMS) detector is reported here. The interface was built using a direct injection nebulizer (DIN) system. In this interface, the CE capillary was placed co...

  5. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, TEDION 90% MITICIDE, 07 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-13

    ... D,\\\\fACES: B,,~''r', ur ""'r', .·~dll,i\\'E" rt·m('rl,· fo, dam.ll;'·~ for hrealh ·,f \\\\anan~' or 11I·"Ii.;, !It·" ,h .• il I,.. IU'litl't1 !o UIff'l'I cama!1;f""5 nnt .·"vt·din!! ...

  6. Atmospheric input of inorganic nitrogen to Delaware Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Scudlark, J.R.; Church, T.M. )

    1993-12-01

    The coastal waters of the mid-Atlantic region of the United States receive inputs of atmospheric pollutants as a consequence of being located downwind from major industrial and urban emission. These inputs are potentially the largest received by any marine area of the country. Of current interest is the atmospheric input of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN = NO[sub 3][sup [minus

  7. What Paradox? Referential Cues Allow for Infant Use of Phonetic Detail in Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennell, Christopher T.; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2010-01-01

    Past research has uncovered a surprising paradox: Although 14-month-olds have exquisite phonetic discrimination skills (e.g., distinguishing [b] from [d]), they have difficulty using phonetic detail when mapping "novel" words to objects in laboratory tasks (confusing "bin" and "din"). While some have attributed infants' difficulty to immature word…

  8. Inorganic nitrogen retention by watersheds at Fernow Experimental Forest and Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory

    Treesearch

    Mary Beth Adams; Jennifer D. Knoepp; Jackson R. Webster

    2014-01-01

    Because elevated N loading can impair both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, understanding the abiotic and biotic controls over retention and export of dissolved inorganic N (DIN) is crucial. Long-term research has been conducted on experimental watersheds at two U.S. Forest Service experimental forests in the Appalachian region: Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF) in...

  9. A Method to Use Modis Water Vapor Products For Correction of Atmospheric-Induced Phase in Interferogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeratikasikorn, Chaiyapon; Trisirisatayawong, Itthi

    2011-01-01

    DInSAR is a major space-geodetic technique widely used in the study of earth surface deformation. A major source of phase errors in DInSAR technique is heterogeneous phase delay caused mainly by variation of water vapors in troposphere, which is a factor limiting applications of DInSAR mainly to arid areas. This paper presents study results of three methods to correct atmospheric phase errors in DInSAR interferograms formed by TerraSAR-X images. The first method is the use of wet delay derived directly from MODIS precipitable water vapor product. The second method employs ground-based meteorological data to calibrate MODIS PWV before computing phase delays. The third method improves the second method by estimating the expected MODIS PWV value at the time of the TerraSAR-X image acquisitions which over the Bangkok test area is 5 hour earlier than that of MODIS. The time-shifted linear fit model along with the IDW interpolation is used to estimate more realistic phase delays over entire imaging area. From the study of this tropical test area, this time-corrected method provides best results while the second method also achieves a significantly better result than those obtained from direct use of MODIS PWV data.

  10. The microbial food web in the Doñana marshland: Influence of trophic state and hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Àvila, Núria; López-Flores, Rocío; Quintana, Xavier D.; Serrano, Laura

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the composition of the microbial food web in the marshland of Doñana National Park (SW Spain). We analysed factors affecting the predominance of autotrophic (A) or heterotrophic (H) microorganisms in a set of 16 marshland water bodies that differ in their hydrological pattern. Autotrophic organisms were predominant in the Doñana marshland, with autotrophs between 0.3 and 25.3 times higher than heterotrophs in biomass. The variance partitioning analysis using the log A:H biomass ratio (A/H) as a response variable revealed that water body spatial position accounted for the largest portion of total variance (16% of unique effects), followed by environmental variables (13%), with a shared variation of 24%. Zooplankton biomass had no significant influence on A/H ratio. The two first axes of RDA analysis were related to soluble reactive phosphate (SRP) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations respectively. Cyanobacteria were predominant in waters with high SRP, while other organisms were distributed in relation to DIN by their size, with small organisms predominating with low DIN and large ones with high DIN. Spatial effects reflect the importance of location with respect to the water source in this marshland, where flooding areas are very much dominated by autotrophs, while confined areas, which are a long way from nutrient sources, have a more balanced abundance of autotrophs and heterotrophs.

  11. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, , 10/04/1983

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... in to tb 11.11 • lood hth.,u" at th, "'tlf' bdy. f .. ,""I ,ft"lfl, ,Hmlt I,th", to ,fnt." '" tolltltt Mill din ret If 1',,1 10 "nn.'., R,n\\l' With "lfm wll, •. R"", ". ft' I". "ntl '". th". ...

  12. Model-aided quantification of dissolved carbon and nitrogen release after windthrow disturbance in an Austrian karst system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, A.; Kobler, J.; Kralik, M.; Dirnböck, T.; Humer, F.; Weiler, M.

    2016-01-01

    Karst systems are important for drinking water supply. Future climate projections indicate increasing temperature and a higher frequency of strong weather events. Both will influence the availability and quality of water provided from karst regions. Forest disturbances such as windthrow can disrupt ecosystem cycles and cause pronounced nutrient losses from the ecosystems. In this study, we consider the time period before and after the wind disturbance period (2007/08) to identify impacts on DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen) and DOC (dissolved organic carbon) with a process-based flow and solute transport simulation model. When calibrated and validated before the disturbance, the model disregards the forest disturbance and its consequences on DIN and DOC production and leaching. It can therefore be used as a baseline for the undisturbed system and as a tool for the quantification of additional nutrient production. Our results indicate that the forest disturbance by windthrow results in a significant increase of DIN production lasting ˜ 3.7 years and exceeding the pre-disturbance average by 2.7 kg ha-1 a-1 corresponding to an increase of 53 %. There were no significant changes in DOC concentrations. With simulated transit time distributions we show that the impact on DIN travels through the hydrological system within some months. However, a small fraction of the system outflow (< 5 %) exceeds mean transit times of > 1 year.

  13. Oscillometric blood pressure standards for children.

    PubMed

    Park, M K; Menard, S W; Schoolfield, J

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported blood pressure (BP) readings obtained by the Dinamap (DIN) (Model 8100) were 10 mmHg higher than those obtained by auscultatory methods and thus were not interchangeable. DIN BP data on 7208 schoolchildren ages 5 to 17 were analyzed to generate normative DIN BP standards and to examine the rational for presenting BP standards according to age and height percentiles. Three BP measurements were taken in the sitting position using a BP cuff width 40% to 50% of the circumference of the arm. Boys' systolic pressures (SP) were significantly (p < 0.05) greater (up to 11 mmHg) than those of the girls in subjects age 13 to 17 years. SP levels were most closely correlated with weight (r = 0.595), followed by height (r = 0.560) and age (r = 0.518). When BP levels were adjusted for age and weight, the correlation coefficient of DIN SP with height was negligible (r = 0.026 for boys; r = 0.085 for girls), whereas when adjusted for age and height, the correlation of SP with weight remained high (r = 0.303 for boys; r = 0.216 for girls), indicating that height is not an important independent predictor of BP levels. In conclusion, Dinamap-specific BP standards presented in this report are the only standards that have been generated according to the current BP guidelines recommended by national committees. We found no rational for presenting BP standards according to age and height percentiles.

  14. THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF NUTRIENT ENRICHMENT AND HERBIVORY ON MACROALGAL COMMUNITIES NEAR NORMAN'S POND CAY, EXUMAS CAYS, BAHAMAS: A "NATURAL" ENRICHMENT EXPERIMENT. (R830414)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The simultaneous effects of grazing and nutrient enrichment on macroalgal communities were experimentally investigated using plastic mesh enclosure/exclosure cages along a natural nutrient (DIN, SRP) gradient from the discharge of a tidal mangrove creek on the west side of Nor...

  15. Coupled cycling of dissolved organic nitrogen and carbon in a forest stream

    Treesearch

    E.N. Jack Brookshire; H. Maurice Valett; Steven A. Thomas; Jackson R. Webster

    2005-01-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is an abundant but poorly understood pool of N in many ecosystems. We assessed DON cycling in a N-limited headwater forest stream via whole-ecosystem additions of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and labile dissolved organic matter (DOM), hydrologic transport and biogeochemical modeling, and laboratory experiments with native...

  16. REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF INORGANIC NITROGEN YIELD AND RETENTION IN HIGH-ELEVATION ECOSYSTEMS OF THE SIERRA NEVADA AND ROCKY MOUNTAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yields and retention of inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and nitrate concentrations in surface runoff are summarized for 28 high elevation watersheds in the Sierra Nevada, California and Rocky Mountains of Wyoming and Colorado. Catchments ranged in elevation from 2475 to 3603 m and from...

  17. Variability Associated with As in Vivo–in Vitro Correlations When Using Different Bioaccessibility Methodologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate the capabilities of in vitro assays to predict arsenic (As) relative bioavailability (RBA), we examined the relationship between As bioaccessibility, determined using a number of in vitro bioaccessibility (IVBA) methodologies (SBRC, IVG, PBET, DIN and UBM) and As RBA ...

  18. Cultural and Technical Evaluation of Heating Alternatives to Improve Indoor Air Quality on the Navajo Nation

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Navajo Nation it is estimated that 62% of households use wood as their primary means of heating1. A 2010 study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Diné College found that in Shiprock, NM, the largest town in the Navajo Nation (pop. = 8,300)2, heating is often w...

  19. Reimagining Reading: Creating a Classroom Culture That Embraces Independent Choice Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Many of us are plagued by negative memories of sustained silent reading. In some of these memories, we are the students, attempting to read a book that didn't hold our interest or trying to read over the din of our disengaged classmates. In other memories, we are the teachers, suffering through a ten-minute classroom management nightmare, deciding…

  20. INPUT-OUTPUT BUDGETS OF INORGANIC NITROGEN FOR 24 FOREST WATERSHEDS IN THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Input-output budgets for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) are summarized for 24 small watersheds at 15 locations in the northeasternUnited States. The study watersheds are completely forested, free of recent physical disturbances, and span a geographical region bounded by West ...

  1. Beneath the Surface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    Discusses wood-flooring components for athletic facilities, what materials make up these floors, and how they affect a floor's performance once installed. The pros and cons of anchored versus floating systems are examined, including the issue of moisture resistance. Also discussed is the influence of Deutsches Institut fur Normans (DIN) standards…

  2. In-Sourcing or Outsourcing: What Makes Sense in Today’s Operating Environment?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    thinking of outsourcing oversight of its security contracts. In a memorandum to Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, Senator Russell D. Feingold (D...In his memo, he cited that criminal investigations are inherently governmental functions that should not be outsourced ( Feingold , 2008). The...authority or the establishment of procedures and processes related to the oversight of monetary transactions or entitlements ( Daniels , 2003). Department

  3. Factors influencing export of dissolved inorganic nitrogen by major rivers: a new seasonal, spatially explicit, global model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods Substantial effort has focused on understanding spatial variation in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export to the coastal zone and specific basins have been studied in some depth. Much less is known, however, about seasonal patterns and controls ...

  4. Factors influencing export of dissolved inorganic nitrogen by major rivers: A new seasonal, spatially explicit, global model - 2012

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods Substantial effort has focused on understanding spatial variation in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export to the coastal zone and specific basins have been studied in some depth. Much less is known, however, about seasonal patterns and zone and ...

  5. Cultural and Technical Evaluation of Heating Alternatives to Improve Indoor Air Quality on the Navajo Nation

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Navajo Nation it is estimated that 62% of households use wood as their primary means of heating1. A 2010 study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Diné College found that in Shiprock, NM, the largest town in the Navajo Nation (pop. = 8,300)2, heating is often w...

  6. Instandhaltung und Normung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenkranz-Wuttig, Angela

    Das DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. ist ein eingetragener Verein mit Sitz in Berlin. Das DIN erarbeitet gemeinsam mit den Experten der interessierten Kreise Normen und Standards als Dienstleistung für Wirtschaft, Staat und Gesellschaft. Die Kenntnis entsprechender Normen, Standards oder Regeln, sowie deren richtiger Einsatz, ist unter den heutigen Marktbedingungen für jedes Unternehmen ein nicht zu unterschätzender wirtschaftlicher Faktor. Normen schaffen Effizienz bei Produktionsabläufen und sorgen durch eine gleichbleibende sowie vergleichbare Produktqualität für Vertrauen bei den Endverbrauchern. Darüber hinaus stehen Normen unter rechtlichen Aspekten für mehr Sicherheit - Hersteller erreichen bei Anwendung und Einhaltung von Normen ein hohes Maß an rechtlicher Absicherung. Das DIN vertritt die deutschen Interessen in den europäischen und weltweiten Normungsorganisationen, siehe Abb. 1. Zuständig für die elektrotechnische Normung in Deutschland sowie als deutscher Repräsentant in den übernationalen Gremien ist die DKE Deutsche Kommission Elektrotechnik Elektronik Informationstechnik im DIN und VDE.

  7. A mechanistic assessment of nutrient flushing at the catchment scale

    Treesearch

    Willem J. van Verseveld; Jeffrey J. McDonnell; Kate Lajtha

    2008-01-01

    This paper mechanistically assesses the flushing mechanism of DOC, DON, and DIN at the hillslope and catchment scales during two storm events, in a small catchment (WS10), H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in the western Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Using a combination of natural tracer and hydrometric data, and end-member mixing analysis, we were able to describe the...

  8. The Flogging of For-Profit Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassler, Richard P.

    2006-01-01

    A din of opprobrium rises from the academy against for-profit education. But a name like "The University of Phoenix" is not misleading to students, Richard P. Hassler argues, even though the dividends that that large public corporation pays its shareholders derive narrowly from career preparation, rather than from more rarefied…

  9. Challenging Texts: Teaching Deliberately--Reading Henry David Thoreau's "Walden"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    One of the more difficult 19th-century American texts for high school students to read is undoubtedly Henry David Thoreau's "Walden." His erudite allusions, often page-long sentences, and sophisticated sense of the ironic initially leave many students cold. Still, the author encourages them to read amid the din of a cultural cacophony that shouts…

  10. Stereospecificity of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate dephosphorylation by a phytate-degrading enzyme of baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Greiner, R; Alminger, M L; Carlsson, N G

    2001-05-01

    During food processing such as baking, phytate is dephosphorylated to produce degradation products, such as myo-inositol pentakis-, tetrakis-, tris-, bis-, and monophosphates. Certain myo-inositol phosphates have been proposed to have positive effects on human health. The position of the phosphate groups on the myo-inositol ring is thereby of great significance for their physiological functions. Using a combination of high-performance ion chromatography analysis and kinetic studies the stereospecificity of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate dephosphorylation by a phytate-degrading enzyme from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was established. The data demonstrate that the phytate-degrading enzyme from baker's yeast dephosphorylates myo-inositol hexakisphosphate in a stereospecific way by sequential removal of phosphate groups via D-Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P(5), D-Ins(1,2,5,6)P(4), D-Ins(1,2,6)P(3), D-Ins(1,2)P(2), to finally Ins(2)P (notation 3/4/5/6/1). Knowledge of the absolute stereochemical specificity of the baker's yeast phytase allows use of the enzyme to produce defined myo-inositol phosphates for kinetic and physiological studies.

  11. A Connector between Active Laboratory Probes and Computer Interfaces of Different Brands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Kaleonui J.; Coney, John P.; Binder, P.-M.

    2016-01-01

    In PASCO's Technical Article #763, it is stated that "PASCO [also] makes sensors with an 8-pin DIN connector. These sensors cannot be used with the Vernier interfaces, as they have different power requirements." Recently we had the need to make such connections in a 10-station freshman lab. Since the Vernier input is a 6-way BT 631A plug…

  12. Challenging Texts: Teaching Deliberately--Reading Henry David Thoreau's "Walden"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    One of the more difficult 19th-century American texts for high school students to read is undoubtedly Henry David Thoreau's "Walden." His erudite allusions, often page-long sentences, and sophisticated sense of the ironic initially leave many students cold. Still, the author encourages them to read amid the din of a cultural cacophony that shouts…

  13. WATER QUALITY MODELING IN THE RIO CHONE ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality in the Rio Chone Estuary, a seasonally inverse, tropical estuary, in Ecuador was characterized by modeling the distribution of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) within the water column. These two variables are modeled using modif...

  14. Vitamin D Levels and Related Genetic Polymorphisms, Sun Exposure, Skin Color, and Risk of Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Holick:, M.. P. (l 998). Rede .. 1initt~ vitaDin D insufflcriecxy. Lallai, lll, IKls.mti. Mebu:ned, M.. L , AlllCC, B., MXbt», E. D., ~. T. H...278, 40-79y/o AA men (190 healthy controls & 88 incident PCa cases) in 3 Urology clinics. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D), demographic, social

  15. Integrating seasonal information on nutrients and benthic algal biomass into stream water quality monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher P.; Munn, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Benthic chlorophyll a (BChl a) and environmental factors that influence algal biomass were measured monthly from February through October in 22 streams from three agricultural regions of the United States. At-site maximum BChl a ranged from 14 to 406 mg/m2 and generally varied with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN): 8 out of 9 sites with at-site median DIN >0.5 mg/L had maximum BChl a >100 mg/m2. BChl aaccrued and persisted at levels within 50% of at-site maximum for only one to three months. No dominant seasonal pattern for algal biomass accrual was observed in any region. A linear model with DIN, water surface gradient, and velocity accounted for most of the cross-site variation in maximum chlorophyll a(adjusted R2 = 0.7), but was no better than a single value of DIN = 0.5 mg/L for distinguishing between low and high-biomass sites. Studies of nutrient enrichment require multiple samples to estimate algal biomass with sufficient precision given the magnitude of temporal variability of algal biomass. An effective strategy for regional stream assessment of nutrient enrichment could be based on a relation between maximum BChl a and DIN based on repeat sampling at sites selected to represent a gradient in nutrients and application of the relation to a larger number of sites with synoptic nutrient information.

  16. 77 FR 42697 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines: Continuation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ...), whether finished or unfinished. The product encompasses all grades of stainless steel and ``commodity... specification for Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings, or its foreign equivalents (e.g., DIN or... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and...

  17. 76 FR 79651 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... pipe size), whether finished or unfinished. The product encompasses all grades of stainless steel and... specification for Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings, or its foreign equivalents (e.g., DIN or... subject merchandise and foreign like product: (1) The type of fitting; (2) the grade of steel; (3)...

  18. 77 FR 14002 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines: Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... unfinished. The product encompasses all grades of stainless steel and ``commodity'' and ``specialty... Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings, or its foreign equivalents (e.g., DIN or JIS specifications... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and...

  19. Monitoring of Land Subsidence in Ravenna Municipality Using Integrated SAR - GPS Techniques: Description and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artese, G.; Fiaschi, S.; Di Martire, D.; Tessitore, S.; Fabris, M.; Achilli, V.; Ahmed, A.; Borgstrom, S.; Calcaterra, D.; Ramondini, M.; Artese, S.; Floris, M.; Menin, A.; Monego, M.; Siniscalchi, V.

    2016-06-01

    The Emilia Romagna Region (N-E Italy) and in particular the Adriatic Sea coastline of Ravenna, is affected by a noticeable subsidence that started in the 1950s, when the exploitation of on and off-shore methane reservoirs began, along with the pumping of groundwater for industrial uses. In such area the current subsidence rate, even if lower than in the past, reaches the -2 cm/y. Over the years, local Authorities have monitored this phenomenon with different techniques: spirit levelling, GPS surveys and, more recently, Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) techniques, confirming the critical situation of land subsidence risk. In this work, we present the comparison between the results obtained with DInSAR and GPS techniques applied to the study of the land subsidence in the Ravenna territory. With regard to the DInSAR, the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) and the Coherent Pixel Technique (CPT) techniques have been used. Different SAR datasets have been exploited: ERS-1/2, ENVISAT, TerraSAR-X and Sentinel-1. Some GPS campaigns have been also carried out in a subsidence prone area. 3D vertices have been selected very close to existing persistent scatterers in order to link the GPS measurement results to the SAR ones. GPS data were processed into the International reference system and the comparisons between the coordinates, for the first 6 months of the monitoring, provided results with the same trend of the DInSAR data, even if inside the precision of the method.

  20. Assessing the potential to decrease the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone with Midwest US perennial cellulosic feedstock production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of this research is to determine the changes in streamflow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) leaching and export to the Gulf of Mexico associated with a range of large-scale dedicated perennial cellulosic bioenergy production scenarios within in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin (MA...

  1. Involuntary Rehearsal of Second Languages in Beginning and Advanced Performers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Patricia Chapman; Krashen, Stephen D.

    1986-01-01

    Two studies of elementary, intermediate, and advanced second language learners indicated that involuntary rehearsal of second languages ("Din in the Head") is more frequently experienced by elementary and intermediate students and much less prevalent among advanced students, suggesting that the phenomenon is related to language…

  2. Input-output budgets of inorganic nitrogen for 24 forest watersheds in the northeastern United States: a review

    Treesearch

    John L. Campbell; James W. Hornbeck; Myron J. Mitchell; Mary Beth Adams; Mark S. Castro; Charles T. Driscoll; Jeffrey S. Kahl; James N. Kochenderfer; Gene E. Likens; James A. Lynch; Peter S. Murdoch; Sarah J. Nelson; James B. Shanley

    2004-01-01

    Input-output budgets for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) are summarized for 24 small watersheds at 15 locations in the northeastern United States. The study watersheds are completely forested, free of recent physical disturbances, and span a geographical region bounded by West Virginia on the south and west, and Maine on the north and east. Total N budgets are not...

  3. Spatiotemporal variations of inorganic nutrients along the Jiangsu coast, China, and the occurrence of macroalgal blooms (green tides) in the southern Yellow Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongmei; Zhang, Yongyu; Tang, Hongjie; Shi, Xiaoyong; Rivkin, Richard B; Legendre, Louis

    2017-03-01

    Large macroalgal blooms (i.e. green tides of Ulva prolifera) occurred in the southern Yellow Sea, China, yearly from 2007 to 2016. They were among the largest of such outbreaks around the world, and these blooms likely originated along the coast of the Jiangsu Province, China. Understanding the roles of nutrients in the onset of these macroalgal blooms is needed to identify their origin. This study analyzes the spatiotemporal variations in dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus (DIN and PO4-P) and the N/P ratio along the Jiangsu coast from 1996 to 2014 during late-March to April, the months which corresponds to the pre-bloom period of green tides since 2007. A zone of high DIN and PO4-P concentrations has developed along the Jiangsu coast, between the cities of Sheyang and Nantong, since 1996. There was an 18-year trend of increasing DIN concentrations during the pre-bloom period as well as a positive correlation between the U. prolifera biomass and DIN concentrations. Nutrient inputs from rivers and mariculture in the Jiangsu Province may have provided nitrogen that contributed the magnitude of macroalgal blooms that subsequently spread into the southern Yellow Sea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Alternative futures of dissolved inorganic nitrogen export from the Mississippi River Basin: influence of crop management, atmospheric deposition, and population growth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) export from the Mississippi River Basin contributes to seasonal hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). We explored monthly dissolved inorganic N (DIN) export to the GOM for a historical year (2002) and two future scenarios (year 2022) by linking macroeonomic energy, ag...

  5. Managing & Re-Using Didactical Expertise: The Didactical Object Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlowski, Jan M.; Bick, Markus

    2006-01-01

    The DIN Didactical Object Model extends the approaches of existing Educational Modeling Languages introducing specifications for contexts and experiences. In this paper, we show how the Didactical Object Model can be used for sharing didactical expertise. Educational Modeling Languages change the design paradigm from content orientation towards…

  6. Variability Associated with As in Vivo–in Vitro Correlations When Using Different Bioaccessibility Methodologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate the capabilities of in vitro assays to predict arsenic (As) relative bioavailability (RBA), we examined the relationship between As bioaccessibility, determined using a number of in vitro bioaccessibility (IVBA) methodologies (SBRC, IVG, PBET, DIN and UBM) and As RBA ...

  7. Distribution of myofibroblast cells and microvessels around invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and comparing with the adjacent range of their normal-to-DCIS zones.

    PubMed

    Dabiri, Shahriar; Talebi, Amin; Shahryari, Jahanbanoo; Meymandi, Manzoumeh Shamsi; Safizadeh, Hossein

    2013-02-01

    This study seeks to determine the relationships between manifestation of myofibroblasts in the stroma tissue of hyperplastic pre-invasive breast lesions to invasive cancer by investigating clinicopathological data of patients, their effect on steroid receptor expression and HER2, and angiogenesis according to CD34 antigen expression. 100 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma were immunohistochemically investigated for the presence of smooth muscle actin (SMA), ER/PR, HER2, anti-CD34 antibody and microvessel count (MVC). Patients were scored in four different zones of invasive areas: invasive cancer, DCIS, fibrocystic disease ± ductal intraepithelial neoplasia (FCD ± DIN), and normal tissue.  There was a significant difference in stromal myofibroblasts between all areas except for the stroma of DCIS and FCD ± DIN (P < 0.001). We observed positive significant correlations between stromal myofibroblasts, HER2 expression, and the numbers of involved lymph nodes in invasive cancer, DCIS, and FCD ± DIN (P < 0.001). More myofibroblasts were present in grade III cases, with the least frequent observed among grade I cases in the stroma of those with invasive disease, DCIS, and FCD ± DIN (P < 0.001).  MVC was inversely related to stromal myofibroblasts in invasive cancer (P < 0.001) and DCIS (P < 0.001), whereas there was a positive correlation in the stroma of FCD ± DIN (P = 0.002) and normal areas (P = 0.054). There was a significant difference in MVC observed in all areas except for DCIS and FCD ± DIN (P < 0.001). We noted significant inverse correlations between MVC, HER2 expression, and the numbers of involved lymph nodes in invasive cancer and DCIS (P < 0.001). Most MVC were present in grade I, with the least frequent observed in grade III cases in the stroma of invasive cancer, DCIS and FCD ± DIN (P < 0.001).  Angiogenesis can be observed before any significant myofibroblastic changes in the pre-invasive breast lesions. The elevated content of myofibroblasts

  8. Historical trend of nitrogen and phosphorus loads from the upper Yangtze River basin and their responses to the Three Gorges Dam.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chengchun; Shen, Zhenyao; Liu, Ruimin; Xiong, Ming; Ma, Fangbing; Zhang, Ouyang; Li, Yangyang; Chen, Lei

    2013-12-01

    Excessive inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus (N and P) degrade surface water quality worldwide. Impoundment of reservoirs alters the N and P balance of a basin. In this study, riverine nutrient loads from the upper Yangtze River basin (YRB) at the Yichang station were estimated using Load Estimator (LOADEST). Long-term load trends and monthly variabilities during three sub-periods based on the construction phases of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) were analyzed statistically. The dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) loads from the upper YRB for the period from 1990 to 2009 ranged from 30.47 × 10(4) to 78.14 × 10(4) t, while the total phosphorus (TP) loads ranged from 2.54 × 10(4) to 7.85 × 10(4) t. DIN increased rapidly from 1995 to 2002 mainly as a result of increased fertilizer use. Statistics of fertilizer use in the upper YRB agreed on this point. However, the trend of the TP loads reflected the combined effect of removal by sedimentation in reservoirs and increased anthropogenic inputs. After the TGD impoundment in 2003, decreasing trends in both DIN and TP loads were found. The reduction in DIN was mainly caused by ammonium consumption and transference. From an analysis of monthly loads, it was found that DIN had a high correlation to discharges. For TP loads, an average decrease of 4.91 % in October was found when the TGD impoundment occurred, but an increase of 4.23 % also occurred in July, corresponding to the washout from sediment deposited in the reservoir before July. Results of this study revealed the TGD had affected nutrient loads in the basin, and it had played a role in nutrient reduction after its operation.

  9. Tide-corrected strain rate and crevasses of Campbell Glacier Tongue in East Antarctica measured by SAR interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, H.; Lee, H.

    2016-12-01

    Measurement of flow velocity strain rate of a floating glacier is critical to the investigation of detailed flow regime and crevassing mechanism. We measured the surface deformation of Campbell Glacier Tongue (CGT) in East Antarctica from the 14 COSMO-SkyMed one-day tandem differential interferometric SAR (DInSAR) image pairs obtained in 2011. By removing the vertical tidal deflection obtained from the double-differential InSAR (DDInSAR) signals, we derived the tide-corrected ice-flow velocity and strain rate of CGT. The vertical tidal deflection of CGT was estimated by multiplying the tidal variations corresponding to the DInSAR images by the DDInSAR-derived tide deflection ratio, which was removed from the DInSAR signals to extract ice velocity only. The orientation of crevasses in CGT was nearly perpendicular to the direction of the most tensile strain rate calculated from the tide-corrected ice velocity. This demonstrates that the crevasses form by ice flow in respect of the DInSAR accuracy, not by tidal deflection. The tide correction of DInSAR signals over floating glaciers by using the DDInSAR-derived tide deflection ratio is useful for estimating accurate ice velocity and strain rate for analyzing crevasses. The tide-corrected ice velocity and strain rate will thus be of great value in a better understating of ice dynamics of floating glaciers. This research was funded by National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2016R1D1A1A09916630).

  10. Constraining nitrogen inputs to urban streams from leaking sewer infrastructure using inverse modeling: Implications for urban water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, M. T.; Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Excess fixed nitrogen contributes to stream degradation in densely populated regions, compounding problems of surface water contamination in urban landscapes. In particular, leaking sewer infrastructure is an acknowledged source of non-point source (NPS) nitrogen pollution to ground- and surface water in urban areas; however quantification of such contributions is exceedingly limited. This lack of knowledge inhibits efforts to understand urban nitrogen retention and export, despite the potential for this source to impact downstream water quality. Nine Mile Run (NMR), a restored urban stream in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA), drains a 1600 hectare urban watershed characterized by a high degree of impervious surface cover (38%). For years known locally as "stink creek," NMR remains significantly impacted by combined sewer overflows, leaky sewers, and degraded water quality. In order to assess sources of impairment, water samples were collected from four locations bi-weekly over two years, intensive sampling was conducted during one summer storm and DIN concentrations in water samples were analyzed (where DIN = nitrate + nitrite + ammonium). Using DIN concentrations, discharge records, published estimates of urban watershed nitrogen retention, and known inputs of atmospherically deposited nitrogen, a watershed nitrogen budget was constructed for NMR and subsequently inverted to constrain potential sewage inputs. Retention estimates ranging from 65 to 85% were applied and resulting calculations indicate that DIN contributions from sewage ranged from 5.5 to 25 kg ha-1yr-1. This research documents the potential contribution of sewage to DIN loads in urban streams and highlights the challenges of reducing nutrient pollution to receiving waters in cities with aging, degraded sewer lines.

  11. Simulating the responses of a low-trophic ecosystem in the East China Sea to decadal changes in nutrient load from the Changjiang (Yangtze) River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yucheng; Guo, Xinyu; Zhao, Liang

    2017-04-01

    Using a three-dimensional coupled biophysical model, we simulated the responses of a low-trophic ecosystem in the East China Sea (ECS) to long-term changes in nutrient load from the Changjiang (Yangtze) River over the period of 1960-2005. Two major factors affected changes in nutrient load: changes in river discharge and the concentration of nutrients in the river water. Increasing or decreasing Changjiang discharge induced different responses in the concentrations of nutrients, phytoplankton, and detritus in the ECS. Changes in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), silicate (SIL), phytoplankton, and detritus could be identified over a large area of the ECS shelf, but changes in dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) were limited to a small area close to the river mouth. The high DIN:DIP and SIL:DIP ratios in the river water were likely associated with the different responses in DIN, DIP, and SIL. As DIP is a candidate limiting nutrient, perturbations in DIP resulting from changes in the Changjiang discharge are quickly consumed through primary production. It is interesting that an increase in the Changjiang discharge did not always lead to an increase in phytoplankton levels in the ECS. Phytoplankton decreases could be found in some areas close to the river mouth. A likely cause of the reduction in phytoplankton was a change in the hydrodynamic field associated with the river plume, although the present model is not suitable for examining the possibility in detail. Increases in DIN and DIP concentrations in the river water primarily led to increases in DIN, DIP, phytoplankton, and detritus levels in the ECS, whereas decreases in the SIL concentration in river water led to lower SIL concentrations in the ECS, indicating that SIL is not a limiting nutrient for photosynthesis, based on our model results from 1960 to 2005. In both of the above-mentioned cases, the sediment accumulation rate of detritus exhibited a large spatial variation near the river mouth, suggesting

  12. Changes in wet nitrogen deposition in the United States between 1985 and 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Enzai; de Vries, Wim; Galloway, James N.; Hu, Xueyang; Fang, Jingyun

    2014-09-01

    The United States (US) is among the global hotspots of nitrogen (N) deposition and assessing the temporal trends of wet N deposition is relevant to quantify the effectiveness of existing N regulation policies and its consequent environmental effects. This study analyzed changes in observed wet deposition of dissolved inorganic N (DIN = ammonium + nitrate) in the US between 1985 and 2012 by applying a Mann-Kendall test and Regional Kendall test. Current wet DIN deposition (2011-2012) data were used to gain insight in the current pattern of N deposition. Wet DIN deposition generally decreased going from Midwest > Northeast > South > West region with a national mean rate of 3.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Ammonium dominated wet DIN deposition in the Midwest, South and West regions, whereas nitrate and ammonium both contributed a half in the Northeast region. Wet DIN deposition showed no significant change at the national scale between 1985 and 2012, but profound changes occurred in its components. Wet ammonium deposition showed a significant increasing trend at national scale (0.013 kg N ha-1 yr-2), with the highest increase in the Midwest and eastern part of the South region. Inversely, wet nitrate deposition decreased significantly at national scale (-0.014 kg N ha-1 yr-2), with the largest reduction in the Northeast region. Overall, ratios of ammonium versus nitrate in wet deposition showed a significant increase in all the four regions, resulting in a transition of the dominant N species from nitrate to ammonium. Distinct magnitudes, trends and patterns of wet ammonium and nitrate deposition suggest the needs to control N emissions by species and regions to avoid negative effects of N deposition on ecosystem health and function in the US.

  13. yneA mRNA instability is involved in temporary inhibition of cell division during the SOS response of Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Meike; Nahrstedt, Hannes; Pillukat, Mike H; Deppe, Veronika; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2013-08-01

    The SOS response, a mechanism enabling bacteria to cope with DNA damage, is strictly regulated by the two major players, RecA and LexA (Bacillus homologue DinR). Genetic stress provokes formation of ssDNA-RecA nucleoprotein filaments, the coprotease activity of which mediates the autocatalytic cleavage of the transcriptional repressor DinR and ensures the expression of a set of din (damage-inducible) genes, which encode proteins that enhance repair capacity, accelerate mutagenesis rate and cause inhibition of cell division (ICD). In Bacillus subtilis, the transcriptional activation of the yneAB-ynzC operon is part of the SOS response, with YneA being responsible for the ICD. Pointing to its cellular function in Bacillus megaterium, overexpression of homologous YneA led to filamentous growth, while ICD was temporary during the SOS response. Genetic knockouts of the individual open reading frames of the yneAB-ynzC operon increased the mutagenic sensitivity, proving - for the first time in a Bacillus species - that each of the three genes is in fact instrumental in coping with genetic stress. Northern- and quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed - in contrast to other din genes (exemplified for dinR, uvrBA) - transient mRNA-presence of the yneAB-ynzC operon irrespective of persisting SOS-inducing conditions. Promoter test assays and Northern analyses suggest that the decline of the ICD is at least partly due to yneAB-ynzC mRNA instability.

  14. Mexico City land subsidence in 2014-2015 with Sentinel-1 IW TOPS: Results using the Intermittent SBAS (ISBAS) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowter, Andrew; Bin Che Amat, Moh.; Cigna, Francesca; Marsh, Stuart; Athab, Ahmed; Alshammari, Lubna

    2016-10-01

    Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) can be considered as an efficient and cost effective technique for monitoring land subsidence due to its large spatial coverage and high accuracy provided. The recent commissioning of the first Sentinel-1 satellite offers improved support to operational surveys using DInSAR due to regular observations from a wide-area product. In this paper we show the results of an intermittent small-baseline subset (ISBAS) time-series analysis of 18 Interferometric Wide swath (IW) products of a 39,000 km2 area of Mexico acquired between 3 October 2014 and 7 May 2015 using the Terrain Observation with Progressive Scans in azimuth (TOPS) imaging mode. The ISBAS processing was based upon the analysis of 143 small-baseline differential interferograms. After the debursting, merging and deramping steps necessary to process Sentinel-1 IW products, the method followed a standard approach to the DInSAR analysis. The Sentinel-1 ISBAS results confirm the magnitude and extent of the deformation that was observed in Mexico City, Chalco, Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl and Iztapalapa by other C-band and L-band DInSAR studies during the 1990s and 2000s. Subsidence velocities from the Sentinel-1 analysis are, in places, in excess of -24 cm/year along the satellite line-of-sight, equivalent to over ∼40 cm/year vertical rates. This paper demonstrates the potential of Sentinel-1 IW TOPS imagery to support wide-area DInSAR surveys over what is a very large and diverse area in terms of land cover and topography.

  15. Benthic metabolism and nitrogen dynamics in a sub-tropical coastal lagoon: Microphytobenthos stimulate nitrification and nitrate reduction through photosynthetic oxygen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Ryan J. K.; Welsh, David T.; Jordan, Mark A.; Waltham, Nathan J.; Lemckert, Charles J.; Teasdale, Peter R.

    2012-11-01

    Benthic oxygen and nutrient fluxes, and rates of nitrate reduction, were determined seasonally under light and dark conditions at four sites within a sub-tropical coastal lagoon (Coombabah Lake, Australia). Sediments at all sites were strongly heterotrophic acting as strong oxygen sinks and sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in all seasons during both light and dark incubations. Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) and DIN effluxes were greatest during summer, but showed only a relatively small degree of seasonal variation. In contrast, there was a strong spatial trend in SOD and DIN effluxes, which were consistently greater at the sites with fine grained compared to the coarser sediments. Microphytobenthos (MPB) directly influenced SOD and DIN effluxes, with lower SOD and DIN effluxes measured during all light incubations. Strong correlations were found between sediment chlorophyll-a content and light-dark shifts in oxygen and ammonium fluxes (ΔO2 and ΔNH4+), and between ΔO2 and ΔNH4+. Rates of total nitrate reduction were relatively low ranging from 3 to 26 μmol N m-2 h-1 and exhibited only minor seasonal variations. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) was the dominant pathway for nitrate reduction, accounting for on average, 65 and 68% of total nitrate reduction during light and dark incubations, respectively. Nitrification was the dominant source of nitrate fuelling nitrate reduction processes, accounting for approximately 90% of total nitrate supply. In contrast to typical MPB colonised sediments, rates of nitrification and, as a consequence, nitrate reduction rates were consistently stimulated in the light, indicating that MPB primarily influenced these processes through photosynthetic oxygen evolution rather than through competition for inorganic N-species.

  16. Estimating the terrestrial N processes in subtropical mountainous forestry catchment through INCA-N: A case study in FuShan catchment, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Meng-Chang; Huang, -Chuan, Jr.; Chang, Chung-Te; Shih, Yu-Ting; Lin, Teng-Chiu

    2016-04-01

    The riverine DIN is a crucial indicator for eutrophication in river network. The riverine DIN export in Taiwan is featured by the extremely high yield, ~3800 kg-N km-2yr-1, nearly 20-fold than the global average, showing the interesting terrestrial N process yet rarely documented. In this study we collected the DIN samples in rainwater, soil water, and stream water in a mountainous forest watershed, FuShan experimental forest watershed 1 (WS1) which is a natural broadleaf forest without human activities. Based on the intensive observations, we applied the INCA-N to simulate the riverine DIN response and thus estimate the terrestrial N processes in a global synthesis. The result showed that both discharge and DIN yield were simulated well with the average Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient of 0.83 and 0.76 , respectively. Among all N processes, N uptake, mineralization, nitrification, denitrfication, and immobilization are significantly positive correlated with soil moisture (R2>0.99), which indicates that soil moisture greatly influences N cycle processes. The average rate of mineralization and nitrification in wet years are consistent with documented values, whereas the rates in dry years are lower than the observations. Despite the high nitrification rate, the secondary forest may uptake abundant N indicating the plant uptake, which responds for removing considerable nitrate, is a controlling factor in forest ecosystem. Our simulated denitrification rate falls between the documented rates of temperate forest and agricultural area, and that may be affected by the high N-deposition in Taiwan. Simulated in-stream denitrification rate is less than 10% of the rate in soil, and is a little lower than that in temperate forest. This preliminary simulation provides an insightful guide to establish the monitoring programme and improve the understanding of N cycle in subtropical.

  17. Comparison of inorganic nitrogen uptake dynamics following snowmelt and at peak biomass in subalpine grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legay, N.; Grassein, F.; Robson, T. M.; Personeni, E.; Bataillé, M.-P.; Lavorel, S.; Clément, J.-C.

    2013-05-01

    Subalpine grasslands are highly seasonal environments and likely subject to strong variability in nitrogen (N) dynamics. Plants and microbes typically compete for N acquisition during the growing season and particularly at plant peak biomass. During snowmelt, plants could potentially benefit from a decrease in competition by microbes because of greater plant N uptake associated with active growth and freeze-thaw cycles restricting microbial growth. In managed subalpine grasslands, we expect these interactions to be influenced by recent changes in agricultural land-use, and associated modifications in plant and microbial communities. At a subalpine grassland site in the Central French Alps, a pulse of 15N was added to the soil at the end of snowmelt, allowing us to compare the dynamics of inorganic N uptake in plants and microbes during this period with that previously reported at the peak biomass in July. In all grasslands, specific plant (per g of biomass) dissolved inorganic N (DIN) uptake was two to five times greater at snow-melt than at peak biomass, whereas the specific microbial DIN uptakes were similar between the two sampling dates. On an area basis, plant communities took more DIN than microbial communities at the end of snowmelt, and the intensity of this DIN uptake by plants differed across land use types. Consequently, N partitioning after snowmelt switches in favor of plant communities allowing them to support their growing capacities at this period of the year. Seasonal differences in microbial and plant N-related dynamics were also affected by past (terraced vs. unterraced) rather than current (mown vs. unmown) land use. In terraced grasslands, microbial biomass N remained similar across seasons, whereas in unterraced grasslands, microbial biomass N was higher and microbial C : N lower at the end of snowmelt as compared to peak biomass. Further investigations on microbial community composition and their organic N uptake dynamics are required to

  18. Reviews and syntheses: measuring ecosystem nitrogen status - a comparison of proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaraz, Maya; Porder, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    There are many proxies used to measure nitrogen (N) availability in watersheds, but the degree to which they do (or do not) correlate within a watershed has not been systematically addressed. We surveyed the literature for intact forest or grassland watersheds globally, in which several metrics of nitrogen availability have been measured. Our metrics included the following: foliar δ15N, soil δ15N, net nitrification, net N mineralization, and the ratio of dissolved inorganic to organic nitrogen (DIN : DON) in soil solution and streams. We were particularly interested in whether terrestrial and stream based proxies for N availability were correlated where they were measured in the same place. Not surprisingly, the strongest correlation (Kendall's τ) was between net nitrification and N mineralization (τ = 0.71, p < 0.0001). Net nitrification and N mineralization were each correlated with foliar and soil δ15N (p < 0.05). Foliar and soil δ15N were more tightly correlated in tropical sites (τ = 0.68, p < 0.0001), than in temperate sites (τ = 0.23, p = 0.02). The only significant correlations between terrestrial- and water-based metrics were those of net nitrification (τ = 0.48, p = 0.01) and N mineralization (τ = 0.69, p = 0.0001) with stream DIN : DON. The relationship between stream DIN : DON with both net nitrification and N mineralization was significant only in temperate, but not tropical regions. To our surprise, we did not find a significant correlation between soil δ15N and stream DIN : DON, despite the fact that both have been used to infer spatially or temporally integrated N status. Given that both soil δ15N and stream DIN : DON are used to infer long-term N status, their lack of correlation in watersheds merits further investigation.

  19. In situ measurements of microbially-catalyzed nitrification and nitrate reduction rates in an ephemeral drainage channel receiving water from coalbed natural gas discharge, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, S.H.; Smith, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrification and nitrate reduction were examined in an ephemeral drainage channel receiving discharge from coalbed natural gas (CBNG) production wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. CBNG co-produced water typically contains dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), primarily as ammonium. In this study, a substantial portion of discharged ammonium was oxidized within 50??m of downstream transport, but speciation was markedly influenced by diel fluctuations in dissolved oxygen (> 300????M). After 300??m of transport, 60% of the initial DIN load had been removed. The effect of benthic nitrogen-cycling processes on stream water chemistry was assessed at 2 locations within the stream channel using acrylic chambers to conduct short-term (2-6??h), in-stream incubations. The highest ambient DIN removal rates (2103????mol N m- 2 h- 1) were found at a location where ammonium concentrations > 350????M. This occurred during light incubations when oxygen concentrations were highest. Nitrification was occurring at the site, however, net accumulation of nitrate and nitrite accounted for < 12% of the ammonium consumed, indicating that other ammonium-consuming processes were also occurring. In dark incubations, nitrite and nitrate consumption were dominant processes, while ammonium was produced rather than consumed. At a downstream location nitrification was not a factor and changes in DIN removal rates were controlled by nitrate reduction, diel fluctuations in oxygen concentration, and availability of electron donor. This study indicates that short-term adaptation of stream channel processes can be effective for removing CBNG DIN loads given sufficient travel distances, but the long-term potential for nitrogen remobilization and nitrogen saturation remain to be determined.

  20. Modeling nitrous oxide emission from rivers: a global assessment.

    PubMed

    Hu, Minpeng; Chen, Dingjiang; Dahlgren, Randy A

    2016-11-01

    Estimates of global riverine nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions contain great uncertainty. We conducted a meta-analysis incorporating 169 observations from published literature to estimate global riverine N2 O emission rates and emission factors. Riverine N2 O flux was significantly correlated with NH4 , NO3 and DIN (NH4  + NO3 ) concentrations, loads and yields. The emission factors EF(a) (i.e., the ratio of N2 O emission rate and DIN load) and EF(b) (i.e., the ratio of N2 O and DIN concentrations) values were comparable and showed negative correlations with nitrogen concentration, load and yield and water discharge, but positive correlations with the dissolved organic carbon : DIN ratio. After individually evaluating 82 potential regression models based on EF(a) or EF(b) for global, temperate zone and subtropical zone datasets, a power function of DIN yield multiplied by watershed area was determined to provide the best fit between modeled and observed riverine N2 O emission rates (EF(a): R(2)  = 0.92 for both global and climatic zone models, n = 70; EF(b): R(2)  = 0.91 for global model and R(2)  = 0.90 for climatic zone models, n = 70). Using recent estimates of DIN loads for 6400 rivers, models estimated global riverine N2 O emission rates of 29.6-35.3 (mean = 32.2) Gg N2 O-N yr(-1) and emission factors of 0.16-0.19% (mean = 0.17%). Global riverine N2 O emission rates are forecasted to increase by 35%, 25%, 18% and 3% in 2050 compared to the 2000s under the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment's Global Orchestration, Order from Strength, Technogarden, and Adapting Mosaic scenarios, respectively. Previous studies may overestimate global riverine N2 O emission rates (300-2100 Gg N2 O-N yr(-1) ) because they ignore declining emission factor values with increasing nitrogen levels and channel size, as well as neglect differences in emission factors corresponding to different nitrogen forms. Riverine N2 O emission estimates will be further enhanced through

  1. Export of dissolved inorganic nutrients to the northern Indian Ocean from the Indian monsoonal rivers during discharge period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, M. S.; Prasad, M. H. K.; Rao, D. B.; Viswanadham, R.; Sarma, V. V. S. S.; Reddy, N. P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal regions are highly productive due to the nutrients largely supplied by rivers. To examine the contribution of dissolved inorganic nutrients (DIN) by Indian rivers to coastal waters, data were collected near the freshwater heads of 27 monsoonal rivers of peninsular India during three weeks in late July to mid-August, the middle of the principal runoff period of the southwest monsoon of 2011. Twelve researchers in four groups, equipped with car and portable laboratory equipment, sampled mid-stream of each estuary using mechanized boat, and filtered and partly analyzed the water in the evening. The estimated exports were 0.22 ± 0.05, 0.11 ± 0.03, and 1.03 ± 0.26 Tg yr-1 for dissolved inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus and silicate, respectively. Higher amounts of DIN reach the Bay of Bengal than the Arabian Sea due to the higher volume (∼76%) of discharge to the former. In contrast, the export of dissolved inorganic nitrogen is almost same to the Bay of Bengal (0.12 ± 0.03 Tg yr-1) and Arabian Sea (0.10 ± 0.02 Tg yr-1) principally due to the polluted Narmada and Tapti rivers in the northwest. Including input from the glacial rivers, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Indus, it is estimated that the northern Indian Ocean receives ∼1.84 ± 0.46, 0.28 ± 0.07 and 3.58 ± 0.89 Tg yr-1 of nitrate, phosphate and silicate, respectively, which are significantly lower than the earlier estimates of DIN export from the Indian rivers based on DIN measured in the mid or upstream rivers. Such low fluxes in this study were attributed to efficient retention/elimination of DIN (∼91%) before reaching the coastal ocean. Hence, this study suggests that the importance of sampling locations for estimating nutrient fluxes to the coastal ocean. Riverine DIN export of 1.84 ± 0.46 Tg yr-1 would support 12.2 ± 3.1 Tg C yr-1 of new production in coastal waters of the northern Indian Ocean that results in a removal of 12.2 ± 3.1 Tg atmospheric CO2 yr-1.

  2. Summer nutrients structure and phytoplankton growth under the influence of freshwater-saline water mixing in the Changjiang River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Kui; Chen, Jianfang

    2015-04-01

    The spatial distribution of NO3-, PO43-, SiO32- in summer were studied in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary and the adjacent East China Sea(ECS), the nutrients distribution was mainly controlled by the Changjiang dilution water and offshore seawater mixing. NO3-, PO43-, SiO32- were high west and low east, presenting two tongues shape nearshore. Combined with the nutrient structure difference along the estuary gradient, the potential relative nutrient limitation of surface water at each station was distinguished. Coastal water was featured with excess nitrogen, in summer DIN/P ratio was up to 160 in the frequent algae blooms area, while Si/N reached as low as 0.5, which could be caused by luxury consumption of P and Si by diatom bloom. For better understanding the process of nutrients structure variation and influence on phytoplankton growth under the Changjiang dilution water and seawater mixing, we also conducted field incubation simulating different fresh-saline water mixing scale, by 100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0% for about 3 days. The results were as follows: (1) The lower the percentage of freshwater, the lower the growth rate and pH increase rate of phytoplankton during the exponential growth period; (2) Macronutrients were apparently consumed. PO43- in the 100%, 75% and 50% dilution treatments were depleted within 48 h, suggesting that PO43- limit phytoplankton growth below salinity of 26. (3) For the 100% treatment the DIN/P ratio doubled as PO43- was consumed rapidly, while DIN decreased slowly. The DIN/Si ratio decreased to about 0.7 times the original level during the first 48 h, reflecting the lower initial DIN/Si value compared to the diatom uptake ratio (dDIN/dSi) during the incubation period. The incubation presented the phytoplankton growth extent and rate difference during fresh-saline water mixing, which makes nutrients gradient, and this mixing process may cause local blooms to change the nutrient structure, then might result in phytoplankton

  3. Measurements of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in water samples with nanofiltration pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Li, Da-Peng; Li, Wei; Xia, Sheng-Ji; Lin, Yi-Li; Hu, Chen-Yan; Zhang, Cao-Jie; Gao, Nai-Yun

    2010-10-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) measurements for water samples with a high dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, including nitrite, nitrate and ammonia) to total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) ratio using traditional methods are inaccurate due to the cumulative analytical errors of independently measured nitrogen species (TDN and DIN). In this study, we present a nanofiltration (NF) pretreatment to increase the accuracy and precision of DON measurements by selectively concentrating DON while passing through DIN species in water samples to reduce the DIN/TDN ratio. Three commercial NF membranes (NF90, NF270 and HL) were tested. The rejection efficiency of finished water from the Yangshupu drinking water treatment plant (YDWTP) is 12%, 31%, 8% of nitrate, 26%, 28%, 23% of ammonia, 77%, 78%, 82% of DOC (dissolved organic carbon), and 83%, 87% 88% of UV(254) for HL, NF90 and NF270, respectively. NF270 showed the best performance due to its high DIN permeability and DON retention (∼80%). NF270 can lower the DIN/TDN ratio from around 1 to less than 0.6 mg N/mg N, and satisfactory DOC recoveries as well as DON measurements in synthetic water samples were obtained using optimized operating parameters. Compared to the available dialysis pretreatment method, the NF pretreatment method shows a similar improved performance for DON measurement for aqueous samples and can save at least 20 h of operating time and a large volume of deionized water, which is beneficial for laboratories involved in DON analysis. DON concentration in the effluent of different treatment processes at the YDWTP and the SDWTP (Shijiuyang DWTP) in China were investigated with and without NF pretreatment; the results showed that DON with NF pretreatment and DOC both gradually decreased after each water treatment process at both treatment plants. The advanced water treatment line, including biological pretreatment, clarification, sand filtration, ozone-BAC processes at the SDWTP showed greater efficiency of DON

  4. [Measurement of dissolved organic nitrogen with nanofiltration pretreatment and its distribution characteristics in landscape water].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong-Lei; Huo, Shou-Liang; Yang, Zhou-Sheng; Xi, Bei-Dou; Zan, Feng-Yu; Zhang, Jing-Tian

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we present a nanofiltration (NF90, NF270) pretreatment to increase the precision of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) measurements in water samples. The variations of DON measurements with and without NF pretreatment were investigated. And the effects on the removal of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) by NF90 and NF270 were compared. As shown in the results, the average removal rates reached 30.7%, 55.9% of NH4(+)-N, 50.0%, 73.1% of NO3(-) -N and 42.9%, 72.0% of NO2(-)-N for NF90 and NF270 pretreatment, respectively. NF270 was obviously more effective to remove the DIN species. Concentrations of DON measured using traditional methods varied from 0.09 to 0.46 mg x L(-1), with negative concentration (-0.08 mg x L(-1)) at site 2 and the DIN/TDN ratio ranged from 85.3% to 105%; while the concentrations of DON measurements varied from 0.03 to 0.58 mg x L(-1), and the DIN/TDN ratio ranged from 76.1% to 90.6% for NF90 pretreatment and varied from 0.10 to 0.59 mg x L(-1), and the DIN/TDN ratio ranged from 47.5% to 84.5% for NF270 pretreatment. The results indicated that nanofiltration pretreatment could effectively remove the DIN species, decrease the standard deviation of DON measurements and increase the precision of DON measurements. The distribution of DON in water samples of Beijing Olympic Forest Park was investigated. The results showed that there was seasonal variation in the concentrations of DON in landscape water from the Olympic Forest Park. And there was significant difference between the north and south part. The DON concentrations were less than 0.2 mg x L(-1) in November, March and May and higher in July in the north part, while the DON concentrations were lower in May and higher in November and March in the south part, ranging from 0.40-0.65 mg x L(-1).

  5. Mapping Slumgullion Landslide in Colorado, USA Using Airborne Repeat-Pass InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Shrestha, R. L.; Carter, W. E.; Glennie, C. L.; Wang, G.; Lu, Z.; Fernandez-Diaz, J. C.; Cao, N.; Zaugg, E.

    2015-12-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) uses two or more SAR images over the same area to determine landscape topography or ground deformation. An interferogram, generated by the phase components of two coherent SAR images, depicts range changes between the radar and the ground resolution elements, and can be used to derive both landscape topography and subtle changes in surface elevation. However, spaceborne repeat-pass interferometry has two main drawbacks: effects due to differences in atmospheric temperature, pressure, and water vapour at two observation times, and loss of coherence due to long spatial and temporal baselines between observations. Airborne repeat-pass interferometry does not suffer from these drawbacks. The atmospheric effect in case of airborne DInSAR becomes negligible due to smaller swath coverage, and the coherence can be maintained by using smaller spatial and temporal baselines. However, the main technical limitation concerning airborne DInSAR is the need of precise motion compensation with an accurate navigation system to correct for the significant phase errors due to typical flight instability from air turbulence. Here, we present results from a pilot study conducted on July 2015 using both X-band and L-band SlimSAR airborne system over the Slumgullion landslide in Colorado in order to (1) acquire the differential interferograms from the airborne platform, (2) understand their source of errors, and (3) pave a way to improve the precision of the derived surface deformation. The landslide movement estimated from airborne DInSAR is also compared with coincident GPS, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), airborne LiDAR, and spaceborne DInSAR measurements using COSMO-SkyMed images. The airborne DInSAR system has a potential to provide time-transient variability in land surface topography with high-precision and high-resolution, and provide researchers with greater flexibility in selecting the temporal and spatial baselines of the data

  6. Retrieval of the Long Term Ground Settlement of the Ocean Reclaimed Land in Shanghai with Multi Platform Time-Series InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qing; Pepe, Antonio; Bonano, Manuela; Gao, Wei; Li, Xiaofeng; Lu, Zhong; Calo, Fabiana; Manunta, Michele; Lanari, Riccardo

    2016-08-01

    n this study, we present a Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) analysis of the ground displacement that impacts the ocean-reclaimed areas of the Nanhui New City of Shanghai (China), based on jointly exploiting Persistent Scatterers (PS) and Small Baseline (SB) approaches. The mean deformation velocity maps and corresponding interferometric time-series of deformation were initially cross-compared. We also performed a joint C-/X- band DInSAR analysis through the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) algorithm over the ocean-reclaimed areas to better understand the long-lasting ground settlement process. The joint exploitation of different sets of SAR acquisitions collected at distinctive frequency bands and the knowledge of time-dependent models for the expected subsidence in ocean-reclaimed platforms is helpful to retrieve long-term displacement time series, thus allowing us to get new insights about the future evolution of the reclamation area settlements over the next years.

  7. Assessment of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ag leaching from electronics waste using four extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Keith, Ashley; Keesling, Kara; Fitzwater, Kendra K; Pichtel, John; Houy, Denise

    2008-12-01

    Heavy metals present in electronic components may leach upon disposal and therefore pose significant environmental hazards. The potential leaching of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ag from PC cathode ray tubes, printed circuit boards (PCBs), PC mice, TV remote controls, and mobile phones was assessed. After controlled crushing, each component was extracted using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), EPA Method 1312 (SPLP), NEN 7371 (Dutch Environmental Agency), and DIN S4 (Germany). The TCLP consistently leached the greatest amounts of Pb from all components. The SPLP, NEN 7371 and DIN S4 extracted relatively small amounts of metals compared with the TCLP and were not considered effective as leaching tests for e-waste. The smallest size fraction (< 2 mm) of CRT glass and PCBs leached significantly (p < 0.05) highest Pb via the TCLP. A modified TCLP removed 50.9% more extractable Pb compared with the conventional procedure.

  8. Warum Normen für die Instandhaltung?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschuschke, Werner E.

    Viele kennen Normen wie Konstruktionsnormen, in denen z. B. der Außendurchmesser, die Steigung, der Flankenwinkel und andere Maße eines Gewindes festgelegt sind. Es gibt Prüfnormen aber auch Normen eines Managementsystems wie des Qualitätsmanagements in der DIN-EN-ISO-9000-Familie. Aber warum Normen für die Instandhaltung? Begonnen hat es mit der DIN 31051, die 1985 veröffentlicht wurde. Es war die erste Instandhaltungsnorm weltweit und sie wurde von der Schweiz und Österreich übernommen. In ihr sind Begriffe der Instandhaltung, Grundlagen zum Abnutzungsprozess und Aktivitäten der Instandhaltung beschrieben. Es wurde der Begriff Instandsetzung statt Reparatur publiziert: Nicht mehr Flickschustern sondern einen funktionsfähigen Anlagenzustand möglichst erhalten.

  9. [Implementation of a quality management system for research and teaching in a university department of epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Berghöfer, Anne; de Bucourt, Maximilian; Willich, Stefan N

    2007-01-01

    The present article analyses the development and implementation of quality management systems at institutes for clinical and theoretical research as exemplified by the Charité University Medical Centre's Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology, and Health Economics in Berlin. The Institute established its quality management system independently (i.e. without external consultants) and was able to fulfil the standard requirements within one year. The quality management system was successfully certified under European Standard DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 by an authorized external DIN-accredited inspection authority in October 2005 and recertified one year later. The certification covered the areas of research, teaching, and supporting administration. Our description of the individual steps involved and the corresponding timeline may be useful to organizations of a similar type and size seeking professional external certification.

  10. Increased groundwater to stream discharge from permafrost thawing in the Yukon River basin: Potential impacts on lateral export of carbon and nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walvoord, M.A.; Striegl, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Arctic and subarctic watersheds are undergoing climate warming, permafrost thawing, and thermokarst formation resulting in quantitative shifts in surface water - groundwater interaction at the basin scale. Groundwater currently comprises almost one fourth of Yukon River water discharged to the Bering Sea and contributes 5-10% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) and 35-45% of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and nitrogen (DIN) loads. Long-term strearnflow records (>30 yrs) of the Yukon River basin indicate a general upward trend in groundwater contribution to streamflow of 0.7-0.9%/yr and no pervasive change in annual flow. We propose that the increases in groundwater contributions were caused predominately by climate warming and permafrost thawing that enhances infiltration and supports deeper flowpaths. The increased groundwater fraction may result in decreased DOC and DON and increased DIC and DIN export when annual flow remains unchanged.

  11. Topics in Optical Materials and Device Research - II. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    DIN ) Note: When any message (in this case the RQS STB) has been "hand- shaken through" the bus, the byte in (BI) status bit of the Interrupt Status 1 ...0 data-in &data-out 10014 0020 DIN EQU PRT91+0 ;Data-in reg 00015 0020 DOUT EQU PRT91+0 ;Data-out req 00016 00017 ;Reg # 1 Interrupt 1 Constants 00018...BARRETT, H HASKEL. C E RYAN F19628-78-C-0OSG UNCLASSIFIED RADC-TR-81-372-VOL-2 ML 1.0 825 1 .125 I1. A , t, 1 A AN j. RADC-TR-81-372, Vol 11 (of two) Final

  12. Spatially resolved measurements of size and velocity distributions of aerosol droplets from a direct injection nebulizer

    SciTech Connect

    Shum, S.C.K.; Johnson, S.K.; Pang, H.M.; Houk, R.S. )

    1993-05-01

    Aerosol droplet sizes and velocities from a direct injection nebulizer (DIN) are measured with radial and axial spatial resolution by phase Doppler particle analysis (PDPA). The droplets on the central axis of the spray become finer and their size becomes more uniform when [approx]20% methanol is added to the usual aqueous solvent. This could explain why the analyte signal is a maximum at this solvent composition when the DIN is used for inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Mean droplet velocities are 12 to 22 m s[sup [minus]1] with standard deviations of [plus minus]4 to [plus minus]7 m s[sup [minus]1]. The outer fringes of the aerosol plume tend to be enriched in large droplets. The Sauter mean diameter (D[sub 3,2]) and velocity of the droplets also vary substantially with axial position in the aerosol plume. 35 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Oxidation of the guanine nucleotide pool underlies cell death by bactericidal antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Foti, James J; Devadoss, Babho; Winkler, Jonathan A; Collins, James J; Walker, Graham C

    2012-04-20

    A detailed understanding of the mechanisms that underlie antibiotic killing is important for the derivation of new classes of antibiotics and clinically useful adjuvants for current antimicrobial therapies. Our efforts to understand why DinB (DNA polymerase IV) overproduction is cytotoxic to Escherichia coli led to the unexpected insight that oxidation of guanine to 8-oxo-guanine in the nucleotide pool underlies much of the cell death caused by both DinB overproduction and bactericidal antibiotics. We propose a model in which the cytotoxicity of beta-lactams and quinolones predominantly results from lethal double-strand DNA breaks caused by incomplete repair of closely spaced 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine lesions, whereas the cytotoxicity of aminoglycosides might additionally result from mistranslation due to the incorporation of 8-oxo-guanine into newly synthesized RNAs.

  14. Pressure Sensitive Mats as Safety Devices in Danger Zones.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, Stanisław; Brański, Zygfryd

    1998-01-01

    Developing prototypes of pressure sensitive mats and testing their practical application were the aims of this study. Two contact plate mats were designed and constructed: rubber-rubber (R) and metal-metal (M). A recipe for rubber mixes and the production technology were prepared. Two laboratory test stands for measuring the actuating force, response time, static pressure resistance, and the durability of the mats were constructed. Computer software was written to control the operation of those test stands. Methods of testing pressure sensitive mats were based on PrDIN 31 006 (Deutsches Institut fur Normung [DIN], 1990) and EN 1760-1 (Comite Europeen de Normalisation [CEN], 1997). Both prototypes of contact plate mats were tested under laboratory and industrial conditions. The test results proved that the design was correct, the setup requirements were fulfilled, and the mats were efficient and reliable in the industrial environment.

  15. Decadal changes in nutrient fluxes and environmental effects in the Jiulong River Estuary.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gaojie; Cao, Wenzhi; Huang, Zheng; Kao, Chih-Ming; Chang, Chang-Tang; Chiang, Pen-Chi; Wang, Feifei

    2017-02-04

    Estuaries are areas of both freshwater and seawater that are partially enclosed with contact to the open sea and a flow of fresh water. Although the Jiulong River Estuary has a relatively small catchment, this area was found to exhibit high nutrient fluxes. The nutrient fluxes showed obvious fluctuations for different years. The Jiulong River Estuary was predominantly P-limited, and was slowly moving towards higher DIN:DIP and DSi:DIP ratios as the nitrate concentrations increased. The high nutrient fluxes into the estuary may affect estuarine ecosystems by the alteration of DO concentrations in bottom waters, causing harm to benthic fauna due to a lack of oxygen, triggering algal blooms. Additionally, the Jiulong River Estuary was slowly moving towards lower DSi:DIN and DSi:DIP ratios along with the change of time scales, which caused nutrient limitation of phytoplankton growth as P and Si levels decreased and became more limiting.

  16. Monitoring of Land Surface Displacements within the Areas with Intensnsive Oil Production Using Satellite Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugmanov, Ilmir; Olga, Chernova

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess the informative value of differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR) as applied to estimation of modern crustal movements within the oil-producing regions of the Republic of Tatarstan (RT). For the first time in the RT, the earth’s surface displacement maps were created using ERS and ALOS PALSAR data for different time periods in order to show possibility of using radar data to monitor urban areas. Interferometry results were then compared with geodetic leveling data. It is obvious that DInSAR resolution is incomparably greater than resolution of traditional methods used for monitoring of the earth's surface displacements. In the authors’ opinion, the technology of using radar data to monitor the earth’s surface displacements can become a principal approach to forecasting and prevention of industrial and natural disasters any time soon.

  17. Measurement of odour with focus on sampling techniques.

    PubMed

    Bockreis, A; Steinberg, I

    2005-01-01

    The treatment of waste and many manufacturing processes cause odour emissions. In order to prevent odours, the residents and businesses in the neighbourhood of such plants complain about odour, and it becomes necessary to reduce the emissions. To achieve that, the emissions have to be investigated and evaluated in a representative and reproducible manner. The DIN EN 13725 (2003) [DIN EN 13725. 2003. Luftbeschaffenheit--Bestimmung der Geruchsstoffkonzentration mit dynamischer Olfaktometrie--Air quality--Determination of odour concentration by dynamic olfactometry, Deutsche Fassung EN 13725:2003. Beuth Verlag, Berlin (DE)] provides a European standard for the measurement of odour. Nevertheless, the subject of sampling is not standardised; even though it has a substantial influence on the results of the measurements. In this paper, the odour measurement itself, as well as the different kinds of sampling methods (depending on the specific type of source), will be presented and discussed.

  18. Do-It-Now building maintenance reengineering project

    SciTech Connect

    Apoddaca, L.; Ayotte, A.; Coffman, J.; Dukes, L.; Jojola, S.; Kadlec, J.; Letourneau, S.; Matthews, R.; Paul, G.

    1996-09-01

    The Do-It-Now (DIN) building maintenance system is proposed to reduce the cost of routine building maintenance and repairs and to improve customer satisfaction with maintenance services. DIN uses a team approach to periodically inspect buildings and provide maintenance services on the spot. It emphasizes communications between the customers and the craftspeople performing the work. The system was designed using a reengineering approach that characterized the existing maintenance work control system, analyzed comparable systems in other DOE laboratories, envisioned an ideal system, and proposed a workable, testable system for initial implementation. At each stage, input was solicited from customer representatives and Facilities management to ensure meeting customer requirements with an implementable system.

  19. Derivation of Ground Settlement Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Reclaimed Area in Nanhui New City, Shanghai, China, from Time-Series InSAR Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qing; Pepe, Antonio; Gao, Wei; Li, Xiaofeng; Lu, Zhong; Bonano, Manuela; Manunta, Michele; Lanari, Riccardo

    2014-11-01

    The Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) and the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) techniques are employed to determine settlement rates and subsidence history of Nanhui New City, Shanghai, China. Inter-comparison of settlement results between ASAR PSI and ASAR SBAS, and their validation against levelling survey measurements are carried out to access the accuracy of DInSAR observations. Comparing DInSAR derived ground deformation map to alluvial deposit distribution in Nanhui New City, we find that the trend of ground settlement depends on the type of alluvial deposit and consolidation time. The Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) is adopted to obtain the trends of ASAR PSI, ASAR SBAS, and levelling time series measurements at a typical levelling benchmark. The results show that the three data sets follow almost the same trend.

  20. Derivation of Ground Settlement Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Reclaimed Area in Nanhui New City, Shanghai, China, from Time-Series in InSAR Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qing; Pepe, Antonio; Gao, Wei; Li, Xiaofeng; Lu, Zhong; Bonano, Manuela; Manunta, Michele; Lanari, Riccardo

    2014-11-01

    The Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) and the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) techniques are employed to determine settlement rates and subsidence history of Nanhui New City, Shanghai, China. Intercomparison of settlement results between ASAR PSI and ASAR SBAS, and their validation against levelling survey measurements are carried out to access the accuracy of DInSAR observations. Comparing DInSAR derived ground deformation map to alluvial deposit distribution in Nanhui New City, we find that the trend of ground settlement depends on the type of alluvial deposit and consolidation time. The Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) is adopted to obtain the trends of ASAR PSI, ASAR SBAS, and levelling time series measurements at a typical levelling benchmark. The results show that the three data sets follow almost the same trend.

  1. Filmless radiology: The design, integration, implementation, and evaluation of a digital-imaging network. The applicability of digital imaging to the US Army combat medical care system. Annual report, 1 March 1986-28 February 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Kerlin, B.D.; Cerva, J.R.; Glenn, M.E.

    1987-11-01

    To date, most of the U.S. Army's medical imaging requirements for combat care have been satisfied by conventional x-ray techniques. While effective, units employing such techniques require extensive logistics support and provide somewhat limited capabilities in the combat zone. Digital technology may offer an opportunity to improve capabilities while reducing the logistical support for field radiology. This paper provides a top-down perspective of the Army's medical digital imaging needs with an eye towards promoting further discussions on the role, operations, and evaluation of a Digital Imaging Network System (DINS). A DINS is an automated and integrated information management system for processing, storing, retrieving, and displaying radiological images and related clinical information. This report was first published in November 1987 and has been revised to reflect the sponsor's subsequent review.

  2. Wasserundurchlässige Bauten aus Beton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmeyer, Gottfried C. O.

    Für die Dichtigkeit von Bauwerken oder Bauteilen ist außer der Verwendung geeigneter Abdichtungsstoffe auch eine günstige Konstruktion von Bedeutung. Sofern die Abdichtung nicht nach DIN 18195 "Bauwerksabdichtungen“ mit den dort genannten Stoffen erfolgt (z.B. Bitumen- oder Kunststoffdichtungsbahnen) oder Sonderabdichtungen zum Einsatz kommen, ist die Abdichtung mit Beton auszuführen, der einen hohen Wassereindringwiderstand aufweist. Dieser Beton wird auch als wasserundurchlässiger Beton (WU-Beton) bezeichnet. Maßgebend für das Bauen mit wasserundurchlässigem Beton sind die Normen DIN 1045-1 bis 1045-4 "Tragwerke aus Beton, Stahlbeton und Spannbeton“ [10.1, 10.2] und die Richtlinie "Wasserundurchlässige Bauwerke aus Beton (WU-Richtlinie)“ vom Deutschen Ausschuss für Stahlbeton DAfStb [10.19].

  3. Very shallow dyke intrusion and potential slope failure imaged by ground deformation: The 28 December 2014 eruption on Mount Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    On 28 December 2014, eruptive activity resumed at Mount Etna with fire fountain activity feeding two lava flows on the eastern and southwestern upper flanks of the volcano. Unlike all previous summit activity, this eruption produced clear deformation at the summit of the volcano. GPS displacements and Sentinel-1A ascending interferograms were calculated in order to image the ground deformation pattern accompanying the eruption. The displacements observed by GPS depict a local ground deformation pattern, affecting only the upper part of the volcano. Despite snow cover on the summit, differential interferometry synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) data allowed obtaining more detail on the ground deformation pattern on the upper eastern side of the volcano. Three-dimensional GPS displacements inversion located a very shallow NE-SW intrusion just beneath the New Southeast Crater. However, this model cannot justify all the deformation observed by DInSAR thus revealing a gravitational failure of the lava flow field.

  4. Department of Defense picture archiving and communication system acceptance testing: results and identification of problem components.

    PubMed

    Allison, Scott A; Sweet, Clifford F; Beall, Douglas P; Lewis, Thomas E; Monroe, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    The PACS implementation process is complicated requiring a tremendous amount of time, resources, and planning. The Department of Defense (DOD) has significant experience in developing and refining PACS acceptance testing (AT) protocols that assure contract compliance, clinical safety, and functionality. The DOD's AT experience under the initial Medical Diagnostic Imaging Support System contract led to the current Digital Imaging Network-Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (DIN-PACS) contract AT protocol. To identify the most common system and component deficiencies under the current DIN-PACS AT protocol, 14 tri-service sites were evaluated during 1998-2000. Sixteen system deficiency citations with 154 separate types of limitations were noted with problems involving the workstation, interfaces, and the Radiology Information System comprising more than 50% of the citations. Larger PACS deployments were associated with a higher number of deficiencies. The most commonly cited systems deficiencies were among the most expensive components of the PACS.

  5. Degradation dynamics and bioavailability of land-based dissolved organic nitrogen in the Bohai Sea: Linking experiment with modeling.

    PubMed

    Li, Keqiang; Ma, Yunpeng; Dai, Aiquan; Wang, Xiulin

    2017-02-24

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is the major nitrogen form in the Bohai Sea. Land-based DON is released into the nitrogen pool and degraded by planktonic microbiota in coastal ocean. In this study, we evaluated the degradation of land-based DON, particularly its dynamics and bioavailability, in coastal water by linking experiment and modeling. Results showed that the degradation rate constant of DON from sewage treatment plant was significantly faster than those of other land-based sources (P<0.05). DON was classified into three categories based on dynamics and bioavailability. The supply of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) pool from the DON pool of Liao River, Hai River, and Yellow River was explored using a 3D hydrodynamic multi-DON biogeochemical model in the Bohai Sea. In the model, large amounts of DIN were supplied from DON of Liao River than the other rivers because of prolonged flushing time in Liaodong Bay.

  6. SOS mutator DNA polymerase IV functions in adaptive mutation and not adaptive amplification.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, G J; Lee, P L; Lombardo, M J; Hastings, P J; Rosenberg, S M

    2001-03-01

    Adaptive point mutation and amplification are induced responses to environmental stress, promoting genetic changes that can enhance survival. A specialized adaptive mutation mechanism has been documented in one Escherichia coli assay, but its enzymatic basis remained unclear. We report that the SOS-inducible, error-prone DNA polymerase (pol) IV, encoded by dinB, is required for adaptive point mutation in the E. coli lac operon. A nonpolar dinB mutation reduces adaptive mutation frequencies by 85% but does not affect adaptive amplification, growth-dependent mutation, or survival after oxidative or UV damage. We show that pol IV, together with the major replicase, pol III, can account for all adaptive point mutations at lac. The results identify a role for pol IV in inducible genetic change.

  7. Abiotic factors influencing biomass accumulation of green tide causing Ulva spp. on Pyropia culture rafts in the Yellow Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Keesing, John K; Liu, Dongyan; Shi, Yajun; Wang, Yujue

    2016-04-15

    Annually recurrent green-tides in the Yellow Sea have been shown to result from direct disposal into the sea of fouling Ulva from Pyropia aquaculture. The role abiotic factors play in Ulva biomass accumulation on rafts was studied to find ways to mitigate this problem. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) was very high at all sites, but the highest Ulva biomass was associated with the lowest DIN and anthropogenic N. Under luxuriant background nutrient conditions, variability in temperature and periods of emersion, rather than pH, light and salinity determined Ulva biomass. Two dominant species of Ulva displayed differing tolerances to temperature and desiccation which helped explain why Ulva prolifera dominates floating green-tides. Rather than trying to mitigate green-tides only by reducing nutrient pollution, an earlier harvest of Pyropia in southern Jiangsu Province especially before temperatures increase greatly above 10°C during April, could reduce the biomass of U. prolifera disposed from rafts.

  8. Antioxidant response is a protective mechanism against nutrient deprivation in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jun; Wu, Qin-Yi; Ma, Yi-Cheng; Chen, Yuan-Li; Zou, Cheng-Gang

    2017-01-01

    Animals often experience periods of nutrient deprivation; however, the molecular mechanisms by which animals survive starvation remain largely unknown. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the nuclear receptor DAF-12 acts as a dietary and environmental sensor to orchestrate diverse aspects of development, metabolism, and reproduction. Recently, we have reported that DAF-12 together with co-repressor DIN-1S is required for starvation tolerance by promoting fat mobilization. In this report, we found that genetic inactivation of the DAF-12 signaling promoted the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during starvation. ROS mediated systemic necrosis, thereby inducing organismal death. The DAF-12/DIN-1S complex up-regulated the expression of antioxidant genes during starvation. The antioxidant enzyme GST-4 in turn suppressed ROS formation, thereby conferring worm survival. Our findings highlight the importance of antioxidant response in starvation tolerance and provide a novel insight into multiple organisms survive and adapt to periods of nutrient deprivation. PMID:28230214

  9. [Cardiac index, oxygen and serum lactate consumption in infants with hypovolemic and septic shock].

    PubMed

    Gaytán Becerril, A; Olvera Hidalgo, C; Vieto Rodríguez, E E; Chávez Angeles, D S; Elena Salas, M

    1980-01-01

    Determination was made of cardiac output (using the stain dilution technique), gases in blood and serum lactate levels in eight infants with hypovolemic shock and sixteen with septic shock. The data were carried to indexes (values per square meter of body surface). In children with hypovolemic shock the cardiac index was 1.88 +/- 0.031/min/m,2 while in septic patients it was 4.02 +/- 1.011/min/m2. The peripheral resistances were 3,079 din/min/cm.5 in hypovolemic cases and 907 din/min in the septic. In both groups serum lactante levels rised close to 4 mM 61. Oxigen consumption was found low in hypovolemic patients and slightly high in the septic. It is concluded that our data are similar to those reported in similar studies in adults and hypodynamic shock is shown in hypovolemic patients, while hyperdynamic shock appears in septic cases.

  10. Comparative studies on algal toxicity testing using fluorometric microplate and Erlenmeyer flask growth-inhibition assays.

    PubMed

    Eisentraeger, Adolf; Dott, Wolfgang; Klein, Joern; Hahn, Stefan

    2003-03-01

    Two fluorometric microplate algae growth-inhibition assays with a liquid volume of 2 mL and 200 microL per well are presented, and comparative studies on the toxicity of chemicals are carried out with Erlenmeyer flask assays. The test procedures are in accordance with the standards ISO 8692 (DIN 38412 L9 and EN 28692), OECD 201 and DIN 38412 L33. By testing four toxicants several times laboratory internal repeatability is proven. Statistical evaluation demonstrates that the results obtained with both the 24-well and the 96-well microplates are nearly identical with the results of the Erlenmeyer flask assay. Therefore, the microplate growth-inhibition assays can be applied for the testing of a wide range of chemicals and environmental samples if some methodical aspects are taken into account. Apart from that, there is a strong need for harmonization if the dependency of the EC values on the toxicological endpoint is considered.

  11. Testing the toxicity of influents to activated sludge plants with the Vibrio fischeri bioassay utilising a sludge matrix.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, C; Christofi, N

    2001-10-01

    To protect the bioceonosis within activated sludge, a method of predicting the toxic effect of influents to the biological treatment stage of waste water treatment plants, based on DIN method 38412 L 34, has been developed. A population of the luminescent marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri was incorporated into a sludge testing matrix derived from a model laboratory and real activated sludge plants. The sludge was challenged with different concentrations of pure toxicants and complex aqueous samples, and light output by V. fischeri monitored. The results were compared to toxicant testing in the absence of sludge (standard test). The modified method was found to be less sensitive for some toxicants tested than the standard DIN and other bioluminescent tests, but considered more realistic as it provides buffering and takes into account sorption which can affect the sensitivity of the test towards some compounds. The method is comparable in terms of ease of use, speed, reproducibility and cost effectiveness to standard V. fischeri luminescence methods.

  12. Estructura orbital en el Problema Restringido Rectilíneo Isósceles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, R. B.

    Para definir problemas en Mecánica Celeste se utilizan diferentes parámetros. El conocimiento de la dinámica del problema para valores particulares de estos parámetros nos permite entender el comportamiento en casos más generales. El Problema Restringido Rectilíneo Isósceles puede ser considerado como el caso límite del Problema de Sitnikov cuando la excentricidad tiende a uno o como el Problema Isósceles cuando la masa central tiende a cero. Se ha compactificado el espacio de fases y analizado la dinámica en el límite. Esto ha permitido separar el espacio de fases en diferentes regiones dependiendo de las clases de órbitas.

  13. Virtual management of radiology examinations in the virtual radiology environment using common object request broker architecture services.

    PubMed

    Martinez, R; Rozenblit, J; Cook, J F; Chacko, A K; Timboe, H L

    1999-05-01

    In the Department of Defense (DoD), US Army Medical Command is now embarking on an extremely exciting new project--creating a virtual radiology environment (VRE) for the management of radiology examinations. The business of radiology in the military is therefore being reengineered on several fronts by the VRE Project. In the VRE Project, a set of intelligent agent algorithms determine where examinations are to routed for reading bases on a knowledge base of the entire VRE. The set of algorithms, called the Meta-Manager, is hierarchical and uses object-based communications between medical treatment facilities (MTFs) and medical centers that have digital imaging network picture archiving and communications systems (DIN-PACS) networks. The communications is based on use of common object request broker architecture (CORBA) objects and services to send patient demographics and examination images from DIN-PACS networks in the MTFs to the DIN-PACS networks at the medical centers for diagnosis. The Meta-Manager is also responsible for updating the diagnosis at the originating MTF. CORBA services are used to perform secure message communications between DIN-PACS nodes in the VRE network. The Meta-Manager has a fail-safe architecture that allows the master Meta-Manager function to float to regional Meta-Manager sites in case of server failure. A prototype of the CORBA-based Meta-Manager is being developed by the University of Arizona's Computer Engineering Research Laboratory using the unified modeling language (UML) as a design tool. The prototype will implement the main functions described in the Meta-Manager design specification. The results of this project are expected to reengineer the process of radiology in the military and have extensions to commercial radiology environments.

  14. Christopher Lasch and Prairie Populism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauck, Jon K.

    2012-01-01

    Christopher Lasch was born in Omaha in 1932. By the end of his life, cut short at age sixty-one, he had become one of the most famous intellectuals in the world. During his life of active writing from the time of the early Cold War until the fall of the Soviet Union, Lasch's distinctive voice pierced through the din of the nation's noisy political…

  15. An Empirical Comparison of Software Fault Tolerance and Fault Elimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    Tuan Nguyen, Brad Nold, Blaise O’Brien, Kenneth Oertle, Stephen Omnus, Pauline Otah, Ya-Ching Pan, Gary Petersen, David Stapleton, Victor Tam, Hien...here. George Dins- more and Robin Kane of TRW corporation were most helpful in the supervision of the experiment. Phyllis Frankl and Elaine Weyuker...No. 3, September 1976, pp. 305-330. [15] P. Frankl and E. Weyuker, "Data Flow Testing in the Presence of Unexecutable Paths", Workshop on Software

  16. SAR interferometry and optical remote sensing for analysis of co-seismic deformation, source characteristics and mass wasting pattern of Lushan (China, April 2013) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, John; Majumdar, Ritwik; Kumar, K. Vinod

    2015-03-01

    Co-seismic deformation associated with the Lushan (China) earthquake that occurred along the south-western segment of the Longmenshan Fault Zone (LFZ) on the 20th April 2013 has been estimated by differential interferometric SAR (DInSAR) technique using Radarsat-2 data. The Lushan earthquake resulted in the deformation of the Sichuan basin and the Longmenshan ranges in proximity to the LFZ. The line of sight (LOS) displacement values obtained from DInSAR technique mainly range between -4.0 cm to +3.0 cm. The western Sichuan basin shows oblique westward movement with predominant downward component in areas farther from LFZ and predominant westward component over the downward movement in areas closer to the source fault. Inversion modelling has been used to derive the seismic source characteristics from DInSAR derived deformation values using elastic dislocation source type. The linear inversion model converged at a double-fault source solution consisting of a deeper, steep, NW dipping fault plane-1 of 60 km × 16 km dimension and a shallower, gentle, NW dipping fault plane-2 of 60 km × 15 km dimension, with distributed slip values varying between 0 to 2.26 m. These fault planes (fault planes-1 and -2) coincide with the Dachuan-Shuangshi fault and the buried Range Front Fault, respectively. The inversion model gives a moment magnitude of 6.81 and the geodetic moment of 2.07 × 1019 Nm, comparable to those given in literature, derived using teleseismic body wave data. Thus DInSAR technique helped to quantify the co-seismic deformation and to retrieve the source characteristics from the estimated deformation values. The study also evaluated the distribution pattern of earthquake induced landslides (EIL) triggered fresh or re-activated during the Lushan earthquake and found that they show spatial association with the seismic source zone and also with various pre-conditioning factors of slope instability.

  17. Benthic nutrient fluxes in the Eastern Gotland Basin (Baltic Sea) with particular focus on microbial mat ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noffke, A.; Sommer, S.; Dale, A. W.; Hall, P. O. J.; Pfannkuche, O.

    2016-06-01

    Benthic fluxes and water column distributions of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and total dissolved phosphate (PO43 -) were measured in situ at 7 sites across a redox gradient from oxic to anoxic bottom waters in the Eastern Gotland Basin (Baltic Sea). The study area was divided into the oxic zone (60 to ca. 80 m water depth, O2 > 30 μM), the hypoxic transition zone (HTZ, ca. 80 to 120 m, O2 < 30 μM) and the deep anoxic and sulfidic basin (> ca. 120 m). Sediments in the HTZ were covered by mats of vacuolated sulfur bacteria. Ammonium (NH4+) fluxes in the deep basin and the HTZ were elevated at 0.6 mmol m- 2 d- 1 and 1 mmol m- 2 d- 1, respectively. Nitrate (NO3-) fluxes were directed into the sediment at all stations in the HTZ and were zero in the deep basin. PO43 - release was highest in the HTZ at 0.23 mmol m- 2 d- 1, with a further release of 0.2 mmol m- 2 d- 1 in the deep basin. Up-scaling the benthic fluxes to the Baltic Proper equals 109 kt yr- 1 of PO43 - and 266 kt yr- 1 of DIN. This is eight- and two-fold higher than the total external load of P (14 kt yr- 1) and DIN (140 kt yr- 1) in 2006 (HELCOM 2009b). The HTZ makes an important contribution to the internal nutrient loading in the Baltic Proper, releasing 70% of P (76 kt yr- 1) and 75% of DIN (200 kt yr- 1) despite covering only 51% of area.

  18. National Counterterrorism Center: 2007 Report on Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-30

    responsibility. On 3 February 2007, in the morning, north of Samarra’, Salah ad Din, Iraq, armed assailants attacked a police checkpoint with mortar...a suicide bomber detonated a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED) at a police checkpoint , killing seven police officers, six civilians...suicide bomber detonated a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED) near a police checkpoint , killing between one and three police officers

  19. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution abatement cost functions in central portugal.

    PubMed

    Roebeling, P C; Rocha, J; Nunes, J P; Fidélis, T; Alves, H; Fonseca, S

    2014-01-01

    Coastal aquatic ecosystems are increasingly affected by diffuse source nutrient water pollution from agricultural activities in coastal catchments, even though these ecosystems are important from a social, environmental and economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance marginal costs from coastal catchment water pollution abatement and associated marginal benefits from coastal resource appreciation. Diffuse-source water pollution abatement costs across agricultural sectors are not easily determined given the spatial heterogeneity in biophysical and agro-ecological conditions as well as the available range of best agricultural practices (BAPs) for water quality improvement. We demonstrate how the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) can be used to estimate diffuse-source water pollution abatement cost functions across agricultural land use categories based on a stepwise adoption of identified BAPs for water quality improvement and corresponding SWAT-based estimates for agricultural production, agricultural incomes, and water pollution deliveries. Results for the case of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) surface water pollution by the key agricultural land use categories ("annual crops," "vineyards," and "mixed annual crops & vineyards") in the Vouga catchment in central Portugal show that no win-win agricultural practices are available within the assessed BAPs for DIN water quality improvement. Estimated abatement costs increase quadratically in the rate of water pollution abatement, with largest abatement costs for the "mixed annual crops & vineyards" land use category (between 41,900 and 51,900 € tDIN yr) and fairly similar abatement costs across the "vineyards" and "annual crops" land use categories (between 7300 and 15,200 € tDIN yr). Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Protocol Handbook,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    General Colunel de Aviacion Colonel Tenlente Coronel de Aviacion Lt Colonel Mayor de Aviacion :.lajor Capitan Le Aviacion Captain Tenionto de Aviacion Ist...Lieutenant Subtviiunte de Aviacion 2d Lieutenant Cdflada (Canadian Forces - no separate air torc ) General (Chief, Defense Staff, CF) General...Major Major D-2 Canada (Cont) Captain CaptaIi Lieutenant (2 grades) Ist/Zu LIeutr’dinL Chili General de Aire General General de Aviacion Major

  1. A Review of In-Office Dynamic Image Navigation for Extraction of Complex Mandibular Third Molars.

    PubMed

    Emery, Robert W; Korj, Oxana; Agarwal, Ravi

    2017-08-01

    We performed a retrospective review of in-office removal of complex mandibular third molars with a dynamic image navigation system (DINS). A retrospective review was conducted of cases completed from 2010 to 2014 by a single oral and maxillofacial surgeon. The average age of the patients was 47 years (range, 27 to 72 years). Extraction complexity was classified with Juodzbalys and Daugela's classification system. The included study cases had complexity scores of 9 or greater. Each patient received custom intraoral splints to secure the tracking array and underwent cone beam computed tomography image acquisition. All surgical procedures were performed with a precalibrated tracking straight handpiece under dynamic navigation. All 25 cases were treated successfully with the use of the DINS. Twelve of these cases were associated with pathologic lesions. Three patients were noted to have inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia. One patient sustained a pathologic fracture at week 2. Postoperative infections were noted in 7 cases, 2 of which had a pre-existing infection. One patient reported temporary limitation of mouth opening. A coronectomy was performed in 1 case. We present results using a new technology, the DINS, for removal of complex mandibular third molars. Potential advantages are 1) improved visualization and localization of anatomic structures such as the inferior alveolar nerve, lingual cortical plate, and adjacent roots; 2) improved control during osteotomy; 3) decreased surgical access requirements and reduction in overall bone removal; 4) ability to perform complex procedures successfully in an in-office setting; 5) decreased surgical time resulting from improved visualization; and 6) potential use as a teaching tool. Possible limitations of the use of an in-office DINS include increased cost, increased time attributed to presurgical planning, initial learning curve, and optical array interference by the surgeon or assistants during surgery. Copyright

  2. A novel computer software for the evaluation of dynamic visual acuity

    PubMed Central

    Quevedo, Lluïsa; Aznar-Casanova, José Antonio; Merindano-Encina, Dolores; Cardona, Genís; Solé-Fortó, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is defined as the ability to discriminate fine details in a moving target. Albeit a growing interest in DVA, there is a lack of standardized, validated instrumentation and procedures for the assessment of this visual function parameter. The aim of the present study was to analyze qualitative construct validity and test–retest reliability of a novel, computer-assisted instrument (DinVA 3.0) for the measurement of DVA. Methods Two different experiments are presented, involving the participation of 33 subjects. The first experiment aimed at testing qualitative construct validity of the DinVA 3.0 by comparing the outcome of a series of trials consisting in different speeds, contrasts and trajectories of the target stimuli with those reported in the literature. The second experiment assessed test–retest reliability by repeating a series of trials at three different time intervals, at maximum target stimuli contrast and either high or low speed configurations. Results The results of the first experiment gave support to the qualitative construct validity of DinVA 3.0, as the DVA scores were found to be modulated by the speed of the moving target (high speeds yielded lower DVA), contrast (high contrast resulted in better DVA) and trajectory (DVA was better at horizontal rather than oblique trajectories). Test–retest reliability was found to be good, with a small insignificant trend towards improvement with learning. Conclusion The DinVA 3.0 proved to be a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of DVA and may be considered a promising tool for both clinicians and researchers.

  3. A Connector Between Active Laboratory Probes and Computer Interfaces of Different Brands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Kaleonui J.; Coney, John P.; Binder, P.-M.

    2016-04-01

    In PASCO's Technical Article # 763, it is stated that "PASCO [also] makes sensors with an 8-pin DIN connector. These sensors cannot be used with the Vernier interfaces, as they have different power requirements." Recently we had the need to make such connections in a 10-station freshman lab. Since the Vernier input is a 6-way BT 631A plug also used in TI and Casio equipment, our experience may be of interest to a broad audience of lab coordinators.

  4. Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams.

    PubMed

    Ciparis, Serena; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Voshell, J Reese

    2012-01-01

    Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO(4)-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17β-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations >1 ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (>1000 μg/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R(2) = 0.56-0.81) and E2Eq (R(2) = 0.39-0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO(4)-P were weaker, but were also significant (R(2) = 0.27-0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO(4)-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO(4)-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Manufacturing: A Report on the Industry 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    to Sustaining the Productivity Boom,” White paper from National Coalition for Advanced Manufacturing, May 30, 2003. Instituto Nacional de... Empleo ”. Universidad Autónoma de México, 1994 Maskell, Brian, “The Age of Agile Manufacturing”, Supply Chain Management, Vol 6, Issue 1, 2001. From...en la manufactura Mexicana: La dinámica Tecnológica de los Sectores de Mayor Competitividad” Universidad Nacional Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo

  6. Measuring the Strategic Value of the Armed Forces Health Longitudinal Technology Application (AHLTA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    purchased care). In January 2004, the MHS’s Clinical Information Technology Program Office (CITPO) began implementation of the Armed Forces Health ...2) reviewed the literature on the measured iv Measuring the Strategic Value of AHLTA benefits of health information technology , (3) consulted...grateful to Michael Din- neen and Paul Tibbits for sharing their insights on the role of health information technology in the strategic transformation

  7. On the importance of atmospheric inputs of inorganic nitrogen species on the productivity of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouvarakis, G.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Tselepides, A.; Stavrakakis, S.

    2001-12-01

    To assess the importance of the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) on the productivity of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, measurements of both wet and dry deposition of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) have been performed at a remote coastal area in the island of Crete (Finokalia) during a 3-year period (1996-1999). The estimation of dry deposition of DIN is based on measurements of both gaseous (HNO3 and NH3) and particulate phase (NO3- and NH4+) nitrogen compounds. The results of the wet and dry deposition obtained at Finokalia have been compared with data of particulate organic nitrogen (PON) obtained during two yearly (1994-1995 and 1997-1998) surveys (CINCS and MATER) in the Cretan Sea by using sediment traps deployed at 200 and 500 m depths. Our results show that the atmospheric deposition of DIN can account for up to 370% of the measured PON in the sediment traps, indicating that atmospheric pathway alone can sufficiently account for the measured new nitrogen production. On the basis of the primary productivity induced by the imported DIN and the productivity of the southeastern Mediterranean derived from in situ measurements a mean f ratio of 0.24 is calculated indicating that from the N point of view, the eastern Mediterranean can no longer be considered as among the most oligotrophic seas of the world. Other elements, most probably phosphorus (P), can account for the oligotrophic character of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. To our knowledge this is the first attempt to understand the role of the atmospheric input of nitrogen on the productivity of the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

  8. Impairment of 8-iso-PGF(2ALPHA) isoprostane metabolism by dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA).

    PubMed

    Iannone, Anna; Petroni, Anna; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Carta, Gianfranca; Melis, Maria Paola; Bergamini, Stefania; Casa, Lara Della; Cappiello, Laura; Carissimi, Romina; O'Shea, Marianne; Bell, Doris; De Santis, Enrico; Banni, Sebastiano

    2009-01-01

    8-iso-PGF(2alpha) isoprostane (IP) is one of the most-used markers of lipid peroxidation in experimental models and humans. After its formation, it is promptly metabolized to 2,3 dinor (DIN) in peroxisomes. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is preferentially beta-oxidized in peroxisomes which may compete with IP, and thereby may affect its metabolism. In order to verify whether CLA is able to influence IP formation and/or metabolism and to explain the mechanism, we challenged rats supplemented with CLA or with triolein (as a control fatty acid), with a single dose of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) or of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results showed that IP and its precursor arachidonic acid hydroperoxide, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA), increase significantly in the liver of rats challenged with CCl(4), irrespective of the diet, while in LPS-treated rats only nitrites in liver and isoprostane in plasma increase. On the other hand, the peroxisomal beta-oxidation products of IP, the DIN, is significantly lower in the CLA group with respect to control and triolein groups. To further investigate whether this is due to competition between CLA and IP at the cellular level, we incubated human fibroblasts from healthy subjects or patients with adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), with CLA and/or commercially available IP. The rationale of this approach is based on the deficient peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fibroblasts from ALD patients, leading to a reduced formation of DIN. In both normal and ALD cells, the presence of CLA significantly inhibits the formation of DIN from IP. We may conclude that both in vitro and in vivo studies strongly suggest that CLA may impair IP catabolism in peroxisomes. Consequently an increase of IP, as a sole result of CLA intake, cannot be considered as a marker of lipid peroxidation.

  9. National Guard Forces in the Cyber Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-22

    Component; cyber domain; Unified land operations; cyber threats; cyber mission forces; Cyber Protection Team; Computer Network Defense Team...Guard C/TAA Coordinate, Train, Advise, and Assist CMF Cyber Mission Force CND-T Computer Network Defense Teams CPT Cyber Protection...Team DHS Department of Homeland Security DoD Department of Defense DoDIN Department of Defense Information Networks DSCA Defense

  10. Resistance to nitrophenolic herbicides and metronidazole in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 as a result of the inactivation of a nitroreductase-like protein encoded by drgA gene.

    PubMed

    Elanskaya, I V; Chesnavichene, E A; Vernotte, C; Astier, C

    1998-05-29

    Dinoseb is a herbicide known to inhibit photosystem II electron transfer like DCMU, triazine and phenolic-type herbicides. The mutant Din7 of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, selected for resistance to dinoseb, and the mutant Ins2, constructed by the insertion of the kanamycin resistance cassette into the drgA gene, were cross-resistant to other nitrophenolic herbicides (DNOC, 2,4-dinitrophenol) and to the cell inhibitor metronidazole but not to the photosystem II inhibitors DCMU or ioxynil. The Din7 mutant had the same characteristics of photosystem II inhibition by dinoseb as the wild type. This result suggested the existence of another site for dinoseb inhibition. The wild type cells modified dinoseb to a non-toxic product that gave an absorption spectrum similar to that of dithionite treated dinoseb containing reduced nitro groups. In contrast, the Din7 mutant did not modify dinoseb. These phenomena were controlled by the drgA gene encoding a protein which showed similarity to several enzymes having nitroreductase activity. The addition of superoxide dismutase to the medium relieved the toxic effect of dinoseb in wild type cells but not in Din7. It is proposed that in wild type cells of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 the DrgA protein is involved in detoxification of dinoseb via the reduction of the nitro group(s) and this process is accompanied by the formation of toxic superoxide anions. Mutations blocking the activity of the DrgA protein lead to the development of resistance to nitrophenolic herbicides and metronidazole.

  11. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen pools and surface flux under different brackish marsh vegetation types, common reed (Phragmites australis) and salt hay (Spartina patens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windham-Myers, L.

    2005-01-01

    The current expansion of Phragmites australis into the high marsh shortgrass (Spartina patens, Distichlis spicata) communities of eastern U.S. salt marshes provided an opportunity to identify the influence of vegetation types on pools and fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). Two brackish tidal marshes of the National Estuarine Research Reserve system were examined, Piermont Marsh of the Hudson River NERR in New York and Hog Island in the Jacques Coustaeu NERR of New Jersey. Pools of DIN in porewater and rates of DIN surface flux were compared in replicated pairs of recently-expanded P. australis and neighboring S. patens-dominated patches on the high marsh surface. Both marshes generally imported nitrate (NO3-) and exported ammonium (NH4+), such that overall DIN was exported. No differences in surface exchange of NO3- or NH4+ were observed between vegetation types. Depth-averaged porewater NH4+ concentrations over the entire growing season were 56% lower under P. australis than under S. patens (average 1.4 vs. 3.2 mg NH4+ L-1) with the most profound differences in November. Porewater profiles showed an accumulation of NH4+ at depth in S. patens and constant low concentrations in P. australis from the soil surface to 50 cm depth, with no significant differences in porewater salinity. Despite these profound differences in porewater, NH 4+ diffusion from soils of P. australis and S. patens were not measurably different, were similar to other published rates, and were well below estimated rates based on passive diffusion alone. Rapid adsorption and uptake by litter and microbes in surface soils of both communities may buffer NH4+ loss to flooding tides in both communities, thereby reducing the impact of P. australis invasion on NH4+ flux to flooding waters. ?? Springer 2005.

  12. Traveling a Long and Winding Road Toward Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    OTROMPKE, JOHN

    2006-01-01

    To a third-party payer, perhaps the most interesting activity at this year’s Biotechnology Industry Organization convention was not the din from the array of manufacturers and the states and countries hoping to land their business, but the sessions that addressed the viability of the biotech pipeline and its potential for providing competitive products. In Chicago, our man at BIO talked with the principals and reports on what they are saying. PMID:23424374

  13. Nitrogen and phosphorus budgets of the Changjiang River estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang'an; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Cao, Xihua; Yuan, Yongquan

    2011-07-01

    Eutrophication has emerged as a key environmental problem in Chinese coastal waters, especially in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary. In this area, large nutrient inputs result in frequent harmful algal blooms and serious hypoxia in bottom waters. Four cruises were made in the estuary in 2006 to assess the concentration and distribution of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and phosphorus (DIP). The concentration of DIN decreased gradually in a linear relationship with salinity from the river mouth to outer waters, while DIP was relatively more dispersed. A modified box budget method was used to estimate nutrient fluxes in the estuary and its adjacent waters. Water and nutrient budgets as well as primary production and denitrification rates were estimated from the box budget model. Estimated water residence time in the estuary was about 11 d. The turbid mixing zone released 33% of DIN and 49% of DIP, while in the adjacent outer sea 17.9 mmol DIN/m2·d and 0.36 mmol DIP/m2·d were fixed. Dissolved inorganic phosphorus was imported from the deep open sea waters, supporting primary production and population growth in this zone. Net ecosystem production (NEP) was calculated at 38.2 mmol/m2·d in the outer estuary and the estimated rate (N-fixation minus denitrification) was negative (1.92 mmol/m2·d), implying that a large amount of input nitrogen was taken up by algae and recycled through denitrification in bottom water and sediment.

  14. Does the Menstrual Cycle Influence the Sensitivity of Vagally Mediated Baroreflexes?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    Venous distensibility during the menstrual cycle. Am. J. Obstet . Gynecol . 86, 640–645 10 Goldstein, D. S., Levinson, P. and Keiser, H. R. (1983...Plasma and urinary catecholamines during the human ovulatory cycle. Am. J. Obstet . Gynecol . 146, 824–829 11 Williams, J. K., Adams, M. R., Herrington, D...in women with normal pregnancy, preeclampsia, or gestational hypertension. Am. J. Obstet . Gynecol . 184, 1189–1195 19 Kent, B. B., Drane, J. W

  15. The Vanguard. Volume 16, Number 1, January 2011. The Influence of Islamic Law on Intelligence and Law Enforcement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    the late Colonel Charles Hamilton; the Darru’l Mukhtar , by Alu ‘d- din, (A.H. 1088), the Sharhu’l-Wiqayah, by Ubaidu ‘Ilah ibn Masud, (A.H. 745), the...Publications, Beltsville, MD: (1994) 29 Reliance of the Traveller, written in 14th Century by Ahmad ibn Naqib al Misri (d. 769/1368), and translated and

  16. Evaluation and Management of Patients with Inhalation Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    and wheezing, are often ( de- effect f early atelectasis consequent to occlusion of the layed onset (2). Conversely, the presence of carbonaceous small...least in part the atelectasis that tation, may produce a falsely negative scan if the scan is occurs in patients with inhalation injury. The adminis...injury makes the maintenance of form the more sophisticated tests and the essentiality of ventilation and prevention of atelectasis a primary din

  17. Modifications to Army Facilities Components System Drawings to Reflect Use of Metric-Sized Lumber.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    2040 x 915 PHENAPAN DEUTSCHE NOVOPAN SP ISO-Verle- NSCM: XN003 geplatte V 100 - 00-V02-473! 19.0 2050 x 925 2040 x 915 ditto ditto Si: - 00-V02-4732...use: Build-in furniture Spanplatte, beide Seiten geschliffen, Gueteklasse I-I Verwcndungszweck: Fuer Einbaumoebel CODE 5530 Staerke Abmessungen...laminated, flat pressed, both sides sanded, for general purpose; DIN 68761 Holzspanplatte (Flachpressplatte), beide Seiten geschliffen, fuer allgemeine

  18. Supplemental Environmental Assessment for the Mid-Bay Bridge Connector Phases 2 and 3, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-03

    Mail Station 2A Tallahassee, Fl. 32399 Ms. Barbara Ruth FDEP Northwest District 160 Governmental Center Pensacola, Fl. 32505 Mr. Scott M. Stroh... MCCLINTOCK . Colonel, USAF Commander. 96th Air Base Wing STATE OF FLORJDA By: ~ ~"’ llv* Jim Ve!f. Exceuti’-1 Din:cto<, Mid· Bay Bridge Aulhoriry...Andrews FDEP Aquatic Preserves: Shelley Alexander USFWS: Mary Mittiga The Nature Conservancy: Barbara Albrecht Channing St. Aubin URS

  19. Massive Cloud Computing Processing of P-SBAS Time Series for Displacement Analyses at Large Spatial Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casu, F.; de Luca, C.; Lanari, R.; Manunta, M.; Zinno, I.

    2016-12-01

    A methodology for computing surface deformation time series and mean velocity maps of large areas is presented. Our approach relies on the availability of a multi-temporal set of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data collected from ascending and descending orbits over an area of interest, and also permits to estimate the vertical and horizontal (East-West) displacement components of the Earth's surface. The adopted methodology is based on an advanced Cloud Computing implementation of the Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) Parallel Small Baseline Subset (P-SBAS) processing chain which allows the unsupervised processing of large SAR data volumes, from the raw data (level-0) imagery up to the generation of DInSAR time series and maps. The presented solution, which is highly scalable, has been tested on the ascending and descending ENVISAT SAR archives, which have been acquired over a large area of Southern California (US) that extends for about 90.000 km2. Such an input dataset has been processed in parallel by exploiting 280 computing nodes of the Amazon Web Services Cloud environment. Moreover, to produce the final mean deformation velocity maps of the vertical and East-West displacement components of the whole investigated area, we took also advantage of the information available from external GPS measurements that permit to account for possible regional trends not easily detectable by DInSAR and to refer the P-SBAS measurements to an external geodetic datum. The presented results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach that paves the way to the extensive use of the available ERS and ENVISAT SAR data archives. Furthermore, the proposed methodology can be particularly suitable to deal with the very huge data flow provided by the Sentinel-1 constellation, thus permitting to extend the DInSAR analyses at a nearly global scale. This work is partially supported by: the DPC-CNR agreement, the EPOS-IP project and the ESA GEP project.

  20. Sources, behaviors and degradation of dissolved organic matter in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Yang, Gui-Peng; Liu, Li; Zhang, Peng-Yan; Leng, Wei-Song

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and its major compound classes-total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) were measured at 4 cross-shelf transects of the East China Sea in July 2011. Surface concentrations of DOC, DIN, DON and THAA at the nearshore stations were mostly in excess of those found at the offshore sites, indicating either substantial autochthonous production or allochthonous inputs from the Changjiang River. The vertical distributions of DOC, DON and THAA showed similar trends with higher values in the surface layer, whereas the elevated concentrations of DIN were observed in the bottom layer. Major constituents of THAA presented in the study area were glycine, serine, alanine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid and valine. The mole percentages of neutral amino acids increased from surface water to bottom water, whereas acidic and hydroxy amino acids decreased with the water depth. Concentrations of DOC and THAA were negatively correlated to the ΔDIN values (the difference between the real concentration and theoretical concentration), respectively, indicating the coupling relation between dissolved organic matter (DOM) remineralization and nutrient regeneration in the water column. The C/N ratios in the water column exhibited different characteristics with elevated values appearing in the surface and bottom layers. Box and whisker plots showed that both degradation index (DI) values and THAA yields displayed a decreasing trend from the surface layer to the bottom layer, implying increasing degradation with the water depth. Our data revealed that glycine and alanine increased in relative abundance with decreasing DI, while tyrosine, valine, phenylalanine and isoleucine increased with increasing DI.