Science.gov

Sample records for instrument calibration reduction

  1. Aquarius Instrument Science Calibration During the Risk Reduction Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Christopher S.

    2004-01-01

    This final report presents the results of work performed under NASA Grant NAG512726 during the period 15 January 2003 through 30 June 2004. An analysis was performed of a possible vicarious calibration method for use by Aquarius to monitor and stabilize the absolute and relative calibration of its microwave radiometer. Stationary statistical properties of the brightness temperature (T(sub B)) measured by a low Earth orbiting radiometer operating at 1.4135 GHz are considered as a means of validating its absolute calibration. The global minimum, maximum, and average T(sub B) are considered, together with a vicarious cold reference method that detects the presence of a sharp lower bound on naturally occurring values for T(sub B). Of particular interest is the reliability with which these statistics can be extracted from a realistic distribution of T(sub B) measurements that would be observed by a typical sensor. Simulations of measurements are performed that include the effects of instrument noise and variable environmental factors such as the global water vapor and ocean surface temperature, salinity and wind distributions. Global minima can vary widely due to instrument noise and are not a reliable calibration reference. Global maxima are strongly influenced by several environmental factors as well as instrument noise and are even less stationary. Global averages are largely insensitive to instrument noise and, in most cases, to environmental conditions as well. The global average T(sub B) varies at only the 0.1 K RMS level except in cases of anomalously high winds, when it can increase considerably more. The vicarious cold reference is similarly insensitive to instrument effects and most environmental factors. It is not significantly affected by high wind conditions. The stability of the vicarious reference is, however, found to be somewhat sensitive (at the several tenths of Kelvins level) to variations in the background cold space brightness, T(sub c). The global

  2. Validation of smart sensor technologies for instrument calibration reduction in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemian, H M; Mitchell, D W; Petersen, K M; Shell, C S

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary results of a research and development project on the validation of new techniques for on-line testing of calibration drift of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants. These techniques generally involve a computer-based data acquisition and data analysis system to trend the output of a large number of instrument channels and identify the channels that have drifted out of tolerance. This helps limit the calibration effort to those channels which need the calibration, as opposed to the current nuclear industry practice of calibrating essentially all the safety-related instrument channels at every refueling outage.

  3. Micro-Arcsec mission: implications of the monitoring, diagnostic and calibration of the instrument response in the data reduction chain. .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busonero, D.; Gai, M.

    The goals of 21st century high angular precision experiments rely on the limiting performance associated to the selected instrumental configuration and observational strategy. Both global and narrow angle micro-arcsec space astrometry require that the instrument contributions to the overall error budget has to be less than the desired micro-arcsec level precision. Appropriate modelling of the astrometric response is required for optimal definition of the data reduction and calibration algorithms, in order to ensure high sensitivity to the astrophysical source parameters and in general high accuracy. We will refer to the framework of the SIM-Lite and the Gaia mission, the most challenging space missions of the next decade in the narrow angle and global astrometry field, respectively. We will focus our dissertation on the Gaia data reduction issues and instrument calibration implications. We describe selected topics in the framework of the Astrometric Instrument Modelling for the Gaia mission, evidencing their role in the data reduction chain and we give a brief overview of the Astrometric Instrument Model Data Analysis Software System, a Java-based pipeline under development by our team.

  4. SOFIE instrument ground calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Scott; Fish, Chad; Romrell, Devin; Gordley, Larry; Hervig, Mark

    2006-08-01

    Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL), in partnership with GATS, Inc., designed and built an instrument to conduct the Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment (SOFIE). SOFIE is the primary infrared sensor in the NASA Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) instrument suite. AIM's mission is to study polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs). SOFIE will make measurements in 16 separate spectral bands, arranged in eight pairs between 0.29 and 5.3 μm. Each band pair will provide differential absorption limb-path transmission profiles for an atmospheric component of interest, by observing the sun through the limb of the atmosphere during solar occultation as AIM orbits Earth. A pointing mirror and imaging sun sensor coaligned with the detectors are used to track the sun during occultation events and maintain stable alignment of the sun on the detectors. Ground calibration experiments were performed to measure SOFIE end-to-end relative spectral response, nonlinearity, and spatial characteristics. SDL's multifunction infrared calibrator #1 (MIC1) was used to present sources to the instrument for calibration. Relative spectral response (RSR) measurements were performed using a step-scan Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). Out-of-band RSR was measured to approximately 0.01% of in-band peak response using the cascaded filter Fourier transform spectrometer (CFFTS) method. Linearity calibration was performed using a calcium fluoride attenuator in combination with a 3000K blackbody. Spatial characterization was accomplished using a point source and the MIC1 pointing mirror. SOFIE sun sensor tracking algorithms were verified using a heliostat and relay mirrors to observe the sun from the ground. These techniques are described in detail, and resulting SOFIE performance parameters are presented.

  5. Calibration of shaft alignment instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemming, Bjorn

    1998-09-01

    Correct shaft alignment is vital for most rotating machines. Several shaft alignment instruments, ranging form dial indicator based to laser based, are commercially available. At VTT Manufacturing Technology a device for calibration of shaft alignment instruments was developed during 1997. A feature of the developed device is the similarity to the typical use of shaft alignment instruments i.e. the rotation of two shafts during the calibration. The benefit of the rotation is that all errors of the shaft alignment instrument, for example the deformations of the suspension bars, are included. However, the rotation increases significantly the uncertainty of calibration because of errors in the suspension of the shafts in the developed device for calibration of shaft alignment instruments. Without rotation the uncertainty of calibration is 0.001 mm for the parallel offset scale and 0,003 mm/m for the angular scale. With rotation the uncertainty of calibration is 0.002 mm for the scale and 0.004 mm/m for the angular scale.

  6. ALTEA: The instrument calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaconte, V.; Belli, F.; Bidoli, V.; Casolino, M.; di Fino, L.; Narici, L.; Picozza, P.; Rinaldi, A.; Sannita, W. G.; Finetti, N.; Nurzia, G.; Rantucci, E.; Scrimaglio, R.; Segreto, E.; Schardt, D.

    2008-05-01

    The ALTEA program is an international and multi-disciplinary project aimed at studying particle radiation in space environment and its effects on astronauts’ brain functions, as the anomalous perception of light flashes first reported during Apollo missions. The ALTEA space facility includes a 6-silicon telescopes particle detector, and is onboard the International Space Station (ISS) since July 2006. In this paper, the detector calibration at the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS18 at GSI Darmstadt will be presented and compared to the Geant 3 Monte Carlo simulation. Finally, the results of a neural network analysis that was used for ion discrimination on fragmentation data will also be presented.

  7. Calibration of the COBE FIRAS instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Cheng, E. S.; Cottingham, D. A.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Hewagama, T.; Isaacman, R. B.; Jensen, K. A.; Mather, J. C.; Massa, D. L.; Meyer, S. S.

    1994-01-01

    The Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite was designed to accurately measure the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) in the frequency range 1-95/cm with an angular resolution of 7 deg. We describe the calibration of this instrument, including the method of obtaining calibration data, reduction of data, the instrument model, fitting the model to the calibration data, and application of the resulting model solution to sky observations. The instrument model fits well for calibration data that resemble sky condition. The method of propagating detector noise through the calibration process to yield a covariance matrix of the calibrated sky data is described. The final uncertainties are variable both in frequency and position, but for a typical calibrated sky 2.6 deg square pixel and 0.7/cm spectral element the random detector noise limit is of order of a few times 10(exp -7) ergs/sq cm/s/sr cm for 2-20/cm, and the difference between the sky and the best-fit cosmic blackbody can be measured with a gain uncertainty of less than 3%.

  8. SOFIE instrument ground calibration update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Scott; Fish, Chad; Shumway, Andrew; Gordley, Larry; Hervig, Mark

    2007-09-01

    Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL), in partnership with GATS, Inc., designed and built an instrument to conduct the Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment (SOFIE). SOFIE is an infrared sensor in the NASA Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) instrument suite. AIM's mission is to study polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs). SOFIE will make measurements in 16 separate spectral bands, arranged in 8 pairs between 0.29 and 5.3 μm. Each band pair will provide differential absorption limb-path transmission profiles for an atmospheric component of interest, by observing the sun through the limb of the atmsophere during solar occulation as AIM orbits Earth. The AIM mission was launched in April, 2007. SOFIE originally completed calibration and was delivered in March 2006. The design originally included a steering mirror coaligned with the science detectors to track the sun during occultation events. During spacecraft integration, a test anomaly resulted in damage to the steering mirror mechanism, resulting in the removal of this hardware from the instrument. Subsequently, additional ground calibration experiments were performed to validate the sensor performance following the change. Measurements performed in this additional phase of calibration testing included SOFIE end-to-end relative spectral response, nonlinearity, and spatial characterization. SDL's multifunction infrared calibrator #1 (MIC1) was used to present sources to the instrument for calibration. Relative spectral response (RSR) measurements were performed using a step-scan Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). Out-of-band RSR was measured to approximately 0.01% of in-band peak response using the cascaded filter Fourier transform spectrometer (CFFTS) method. Linearity calibration was performed using a calcium fluoride attenuator in combination with a 3000K blackbody. Spatial characterization was accomplished using a point source and the MIC1 pointing mirror. These techniques are described in detail, and resulting

  9. Rotary mode system initial instrument calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    The attached report contains the vendor calibration procedures used for the initial instrument calibration of the rotary core sampling equipment. The procedures are from approved vendor information files.

  10. A statistical approach to instrument calibration

    Treesearch

    Robert R. Ziemer; David Strauss

    1978-01-01

    Summary - It has been found that two instruments will yield different numerical values when used to measure identical points. A statistical approach is presented that can be used to approximate the error associated with the calibration of instruments. Included are standard statistical tests that can be used to determine if a number of successive calibrations of the...

  11. Microfabricated field calibration assembly for analytical instruments

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Alex L [Albuquerque, NM; Manginell, Ronald P [Albuquerque, NM; Moorman, Matthew W [Albuquerque, NM; Rodacy, Philip J [Albuquerque, NM; Simonson, Robert J [Cedar Crest, NM

    2011-03-29

    A microfabricated field calibration assembly for use in calibrating analytical instruments and sensor systems. The assembly comprises a circuit board comprising one or more resistively heatable microbridge elements, an interface device that enables addressable heating of the microbridge elements, and, in some embodiments, a means for positioning the circuit board within an inlet structure of an analytical instrument or sensor system.

  12. Strain Gauge Balance Calibration and Data Reduction at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, A. T. Judy

    1999-01-01

    This paper will cover the standard force balance calibration and data reduction techniques used at Langley Research Center. It will cover balance axes definition, balance type, calibration instrumentation, traceability of standards to NIST, calibration loading procedures, balance calibration mathematical model, calibration data reduction techniques, balance accuracy reporting, and calibration frequency.

  13. Metrology on VLT Instruments and CRIRES+ Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, Paul

    2017-09-01

    "There are many examples of "metrology" to be found in ESO telescopes instrumentation. We will consider here automated calibration measurements coupled to corrective feedback. After an overview of several such systems on VLT instruments, we will look in more detail at the example of the metrology system first implemented for the original CRIRES instrument and now being adapted for CRIRES+"

  14. Calibration Changes in EUV Solar Satellite Instruments.

    PubMed

    Reeves, E M; Parkinson, W H

    1970-05-01

    This paper reviews the problem of absolute photometric calibration in the extreme uv range with particular reference to a solar satellite instrument. EUV transfer standards, the use of predispersing spectrometers, and polarization effects at near normal incidence are discussed. Changes in preflight calibration associated with the general problems of contamination are given as the background to the main discussion relating to changes in photometric calibration during orbital operation. Conclusions relating to adequate photometric measurements in orbit are drawn, with a short list of the "best" solar flux measurements for reference. Finally, the importance of rocket flights for photometric calibration of satellite instruments is indicated.

  15. Spacecraft instrument calibration and stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gille, J. C.; Feldman, P.; Hudson, R.; Lean, J.; Madden, R.; Mcmaster, L.; Mount, G.; Rottman, G.; Simon, P. C.

    1989-01-01

    The following topics are covered: instrument degradation; the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) Experiment; the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS); the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 1 (SAGE-1) and SAGE-2 instruments; the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UV ozone and near infrared airglow instruments; and the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS).

  16. Gaia astrometric instrument calibration and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaneda, J.; Fabricius, C.; Portell, J.; Garralda, N.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Clotet, M.; Torra, J.

    2017-03-01

    The astrometric instrument calibration and image processing is an integral and critical part of the Gaia mission. The data processing starts with a preliminary treatment on daily basis of the most recent data received and continues with the execution of several processing chains included in a cyclic reduction system. The cyclic processing chains are reprocessing all the accumulated data again in each iteration, thus adding the latest measurements and recomputing the outputs to obtain better quality on their results. This cyclic processing lasts until the convergence of the results is achieved and the catalogue is consolidated and published periodically. In this paper we describe the core of the data processing which has made possible the first catalogue release from the Gaia mission.

  17. Instrument Calibration and Certification Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R. Wesley

    2016-05-31

    The Amptec 640SL-2 is a 4-wire Kelvin failsafe resistance meter, designed to reliably use very low-test currents for its resistance measurements. The 640SL-1 is a 2-wire version, designed to support customers using the Reynolds Industries type 311 connector. For both versions, a passive (analog) dual function DC Milliameter/Voltmeter allows the user to verify the actual 640SL output current level and the open circuit voltage on the test leads. This procedure includes tests of essential performance parameters. Any malfunction noticed during calibration, whether specifically tested for or not, shall be corrected before calibration continues or is completed.

  18. MODIS Instrument Operation and Calibration Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Angal, A.; Madhavan, S.; Link, D.; Geng, X.; Wenny, B.; Wu, A.; Chen, H.; Salomonson, V.

    2014-01-01

    Terra and Aqua MODIS have successfully operated for over 14 and 12 years since their respective launches in 1999 and 2002. The MODIS on-orbit calibration is performed using a set of on-board calibrators, which include a solar diffuser for calibrating the reflective solar bands (RSB) and a blackbody for the thermal emissive bands (TEB). On-orbit changes in the sensor responses as well as key performance parameters are monitored using the measurements of these on-board calibrators. This paper provides an overview of MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities, and instrument long-term performance. It presents a brief summary of the calibration enhancements made in the latest MODIS data collection 6 (C6). Future improvements in the MODIS calibration and their potential applications to the S-NPP VIIRS are also discussed.

  19. Uncertainty Analysis of Instrument Calibration and Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, John S.; Tcheng, Ping

    1999-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic researchers require estimated precision and bias uncertainties of measured physical quantities, typically at 95 percent confidence levels. Uncertainties of final computed aerodynamic parameters are obtained by propagation of individual measurement uncertainties through the defining functional expressions. In this paper, rigorous mathematical techniques are extended to determine precision and bias uncertainties of any instrument-sensor system. Through this analysis, instrument uncertainties determined through calibration are now expressed as functions of the corresponding measurement for linear and nonlinear univariate and multivariate processes. Treatment of correlated measurement precision error is developed. During laboratory calibration, calibration standard uncertainties are assumed to be an order of magnitude less than those of the instrument being calibrated. Often calibration standards do not satisfy this assumption. This paper applies rigorous statistical methods for inclusion of calibration standard uncertainty and covariance due to the order of their application. The effects of mathematical modeling error on calibration bias uncertainty are quantified. The effects of experimental design on uncertainty are analyzed. The importance of replication is emphasized, techniques for estimation of both bias and precision uncertainties using replication are developed. Statistical tests for stationarity of calibration parameters over time are obtained.

  20. HPS instrument calibration laboratory accreditation program

    SciTech Connect

    Masse, F.X; Eisenhower, E.H.; Swinth, K.L.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an accurate overview of the development and structure of the program established by the Health Physics Society (HPS) for accrediting instrument calibration laboratories relative to their ability to accurately calibrate portable health physics instrumentation. The purpose of the program is to provide radiation protection professionals more meaningful direct and indirect access to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) national standards, thus introducing a means for improving the uniformity, accuracy, and quality of ionizing radiation field measurements. The process is designed to recognize and document the continuing capability of each accredited laboratory to accurately perform instrument calibration. There is no intent to monitor the laboratory to the extent that each calibration can be guaranteed by the program; this responsibility rests solely with the accredited laboratory.

  1. Carbon Footprint Reduction Instruments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page outlines the major differences between Renewable Energy Certificates (REC) and Project Offsets and what types of claims each instrument allows the organization to make in regards to environmental emissions claims.

  2. NASA AURA HIRDLS instrument calibration facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepplewhite, Christopher L.; Barnett, John J.; Watkins, Robert E. J.; Row, Frederick; Wolfenden, Roger; Djotni, Karim; Oduleye, Olusoji O.; Whitney, John G.; Walton, Trevor W.; Arter, Philip I.

    2003-11-01

    A state-of-the-art calibration facility was designed and built for the calibration of the HIRDLS instrument at the University of Oxford, England. This paper describes the main features of the facility, the driving requirements and a summary of the performance that was achieved during the calibration. Specific technical requirements and a summary of the performance that was achieved during the calibration. Specific technical requirements and other constaints determined the design solutions that were adopted and the implementation methodology. The main features of the facility included a high performance clean room, vacuum chamber with thermal environmental control as well as the calibration sources. Particular attention was paid to maintenance of cleanliness (molecular and particulate), ESD control, mechanical isolation and high reliability. Schedule constraints required that all the calibration sources were integrated into the facility so that the number of re-press and warm up cycles was minimized and so that all the equipment could be operated at the same time.

  3. Status of MODIS Instruments and Calibration Improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, X.; Angal, A.; Geng, X.; Wilson, T.; Wu, A.

    2016-12-01

    Terra and Aqua MODIS instruments have successfully operated for more than 16 and 14 years, respectively. A broad range of science products has been routinely generated from MODIS observations to support users worldwide for their studies of the Earth's system and changes in its key geophysical parameters. Though in their extended missions, both MODIS instruments continue to operate nominally with all of the key on-board calibrators (OBC) working effectively. MODIS reflective solar bands (RSB) are calibrated primarily by a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) and the thermal emissive bands (TEB) by an on-board blackbody (BB). Since launch, extensive calibration and characterization efforts have been made by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) to derive and deliver Level 1B (L1B) calibration look-up tables (LUT) in order to maintain MODIS product quality. In this presentation, we provide an overview of MODIS instrument operation and calibration activities, and on-orbit performance. We discuss in particular our recent activities developed to address several key challenging issues, such as on-orbit changes in sensor response versus scan angle (RVS), polarization sensitives, and electronic crosstalk that have had noticeable impact on sensor calibration, and proposed or implemented calibration strategies and improvements.

  4. HIRDLS instrument radiometric calibration black body targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepplewhite, Christopher L.; Watkins, Robert E. J.; Row, Frederick; Barnett, John J.; Peters, Daniel M.; Palmer, Christopher W. P.; Wolfenden, Roger; Djotni, Karim; Arter, Philip I.

    2003-11-01

    The pre-launch calibration of the HIRDLS instrument took place in a dedicated facility at the University of Oxford. One aspect of this calibration was the determination of the response of the instrument to black body radiation. This was achieved with the use of purpose built full aperture black body targets which were mounted in the vacuum chamber together with all of the calibration equipment. Special attention was placed on the absolute knowledge of the emission from these targets. This was done through a combination of thermometric sensor calibration traceable to the International Temperature Standard (ITS-90), surface emission measurements, cavity design and modeling and controlling the stray light sources in the vacuum chamber. This paper describes the design requirements, implementation and performance achieved.

  5. Postlaunch calibration of spacecraft attitude instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, W.; Hashmall, J.; Garrick, J.; Harman, R.

    1993-01-01

    The accuracy of both onboard and ground attitude determination can be significantly enhanced by calibrating spacecraft attitude instruments (sensors) after launch. Although attitude sensors are accurately calibrated before launch, the stresses of launch and the space environment inevitably cause changes in sensor parameters. During the mission, these parameters may continue to drift requiring repeated on-orbit calibrations. The goal of attitude sensor calibration is to reduce the systematic errors in the measurement models. There are two stages at which systematic errors may enter. The first occurs in the conversion of sensor output into an observation vector in the sensor frame. The second occurs in the transformation of the vector from the sensor frame to the spacecraft attitude reference frame. This paper presents postlaunch alignment and transfer function calibration of the attitude sensors for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE).

  6. 10 CFR 35.61 - Calibration of survey instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calibration of survey instruments. 35.61 Section 35.61... § 35.61 Calibration of survey instruments. (a) A licensee shall calibrate the survey instruments used... of calibration. (b) A licensee may not use survey instruments if the difference between the...

  7. 10 CFR 35.61 - Calibration of survey instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calibration of survey instruments. 35.61 Section 35.61... § 35.61 Calibration of survey instruments. (a) A licensee shall calibrate the survey instruments used... of calibration. (b) A licensee may not use survey instruments if the difference between the...

  8. Invited Article: Deep Impact instrument calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Klaasen, Kenneth P.; Mastrodemos, Nickolaos; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Farnham, Tony; Groussin, Olivier; Ipatov, Sergei; Li Jianyang; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Sunshine, Jessica; Wellnitz, Dennis; Baca, Michael; Delamere, Alan; Desnoyer, Mark; Thomas, Peter; Hampton, Donald; Lisse, Carey

    2008-09-15

    Calibration of NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft instruments allows reliable scientific interpretation of the images and spectra returned from comet Tempel 1. Calibrations of the four onboard remote sensing imaging instruments have been performed in the areas of geometric calibration, spatial resolution, spectral resolution, and radiometric response. Error sources such as noise (random, coherent, encoding, data compression), detector readout artifacts, scattered light, and radiation interactions have been quantified. The point spread functions (PSFs) of the medium resolution instrument and its twin impactor targeting sensor are near the theoretical minimum [{approx}1.7 pixels full width at half maximum (FWHM)]. However, the high resolution instrument camera was found to be out of focus with a PSF FWHM of {approx}9 pixels. The charge coupled device (CCD) read noise is {approx}1 DN. Electrical cross-talk between the CCD detector quadrants is correctable to <2 DN. The IR spectrometer response nonlinearity is correctable to {approx}1%. Spectrometer read noise is {approx}2 DN. The variation in zero-exposure signal level with time and spectrometer temperature is not fully characterized; currently corrections are good to {approx}10 DN at best. Wavelength mapping onto the detector is known within 1 pixel; spectral lines have a FWHM of {approx}2 pixels. About 1% of the IR detector pixels behave badly and remain uncalibrated. The spectrometer exhibits a faint ghost image from reflection off a beamsplitter. Instrument absolute radiometric calibration accuracies were determined generally to <10% using star imaging. Flat-field calibration reduces pixel-to-pixel response differences to {approx}0.5% for the cameras and <2% for the spectrometer. A standard calibration image processing pipeline is used to produce archival image files for analysis by researchers.

  9. Invited Article: Deep Impact instrument calibration.

    PubMed

    Klaasen, Kenneth P; A'Hearn, Michael F; Baca, Michael; Delamere, Alan; Desnoyer, Mark; Farnham, Tony; Groussin, Olivier; Hampton, Donald; Ipatov, Sergei; Li, Jianyang; Lisse, Carey; Mastrodemos, Nickolaos; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Sunshine, Jessica; Thomas, Peter; Wellnitz, Dennis

    2008-09-01

    Calibration of NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft instruments allows reliable scientific interpretation of the images and spectra returned from comet Tempel 1. Calibrations of the four onboard remote sensing imaging instruments have been performed in the areas of geometric calibration, spatial resolution, spectral resolution, and radiometric response. Error sources such as noise (random, coherent, encoding, data compression), detector readout artifacts, scattered light, and radiation interactions have been quantified. The point spread functions (PSFs) of the medium resolution instrument and its twin impactor targeting sensor are near the theoretical minimum [ approximately 1.7 pixels full width at half maximum (FWHM)]. However, the high resolution instrument camera was found to be out of focus with a PSF FWHM of approximately 9 pixels. The charge coupled device (CCD) read noise is approximately 1 DN. Electrical cross-talk between the CCD detector quadrants is correctable to <2 DN. The IR spectrometer response nonlinearity is correctable to approximately 1%. Spectrometer read noise is approximately 2 DN. The variation in zero-exposure signal level with time and spectrometer temperature is not fully characterized; currently corrections are good to approximately 10 DN at best. Wavelength mapping onto the detector is known within 1 pixel; spectral lines have a FWHM of approximately 2 pixels. About 1% of the IR detector pixels behave badly and remain uncalibrated. The spectrometer exhibits a faint ghost image from reflection off a beamsplitter. Instrument absolute radiometric calibration accuracies were determined generally to <10% using star imaging. Flat-field calibration reduces pixel-to-pixel response differences to approximately 0.5% for the cameras and <2% for the spectrometer. A standard calibration image processing pipeline is used to produce archival image files for analysis by researchers.

  10. Validating instrument models through the calibration process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, G. E.; Tansock, J. J.

    2006-08-01

    The performance of modern IR instruments is becoming so good that meeting science requirements requires an accurate instrument model be used throughout the design and development process. The huge cost overruns on recent major programs are indicative that the design and cost models being used to predict performance have lagged behind anticipated performance. Tuning these models to accurately reflect the true performance of target instruments requires a modeling process that has been developed over several instruments and validated by careful calibration. The process of developing a series of Engineering Development Models is often used on longer duration programs to achieve this end. The accuracy of the models and their components has to be validated by a carefully planned calibration process, preferably considered in the instrument design. However, a good model does not satisfy all the requirements to bring acquisition programs under control. Careful detail in the specification process and a similar, validated model on the government side will also be required. This paper discusses the model development process and calibration approaches used to verify and update the models of several new instruments, including Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) and Far Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST).

  11. Calibration facility for environment dosimetry instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercea, Sorin; Celarel, Aurelia; Cenusa, Constantin

    2013-12-01

    In the last ten years, the nuclear activities, as well as the major nuclear events (see Fukushima accident) had an increasing impact on the environment, merely by contamination with radioactive materials. The most conferment way to quickly identify the presence of some radioactive elements in the environment, is to measure the dose-equivalent rate H. In this situation, information concerning the values of H due only to the natural radiation background must exist. Usually, the values of H due to the natural radiation background, are very low (˜10-9 - 10-8 Sv/h). A correct measurement of H in this range involve a performing calibration of the measuring instruments in the measuring range corresponding to the natural radiation background lead to important problems due to the presence of the natural background itself the best way to overlap this difficulty is to set up the calibration stand in an area with very low natural radiation background. In Romania, we identified an area with such special conditions at 200 m dept, in a salt mine. This paper deals with the necessary requirements for such a calibration facility, as well as with the calibration stand itself. The paper includes also, a description of the calibration stand (and images) as well as the radiological and metrological parameters. This calibration facilities for environment dosimetry is one of the few laboratories in this field in Europe.

  12. DESIGN NOTE: Reduction of uncertainties in temperature calibrations by comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drnovsek, Janko; Pusnik, Igor; Bojkovski, Jovan

    1998-11-01

    The objective of this design note is to discuss and define the total uncertainty in temperature calibrations by comparison, by analysing most of the likely error sources. As a result of the proposed and developed uncertainty analysis, further reductions of uncertainties could be realized if/when better equipment becomes available. The analysis is performed as a case study using state-of-the-art calibration equipment described in the design note. This equipment is located in the authors' own secondary temperature calibration laboratory. Accreditation for this laboratory has been granted through The Dutch Council of Accreditation (RVA) for calibrations in the temperature range -55 to 0957-0233/9/11/017/img1C. In temperature calibrations by comparison the four main groups of uncertainties are the reproducibility, uncertainty of a reference thermometer, uncertainty of a calibration bath or a furnace and uncertainty of a measuring device. Special care is taken, using a thorough evaluation procedure, to ensure that the uncertainty contribution of the calibration bath or furnace is as low as possible. This is necessary because the total uncertainty assigned to an instrument under calibration is larger than the largest individual uncertainty contribution. In temperature calibrations the largest uncertainty is most likely to be the uncertainty of the calibration bath or a furnace. Therefore this uncertainty typically represents the lowest limit for further reduction of the total uncertainty of the calibration process. The analysis performed allows optimal use of temperature calibration equipment for calibration of thermometers by comparison. In this way most practical calibration needs are satisfied in a more economical way than by using substantially more expensive fixed point calibrations.

  13. Portable calibration instrument of hemodialysis unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Liang-bing; Li, Dong-sheng; Chen, Ai-jun

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of meeting the rapid development of blood purification in China, improve the level of blood purification treatment, and get rid of the plight of the foreign technology monopolization to promise patients' medical safety, a parameter-calibrator for the hemodialysis unit, which can detect simultaneously multi-parameter, is designed. The instrument includes a loop, which connects to the hemodialysis unit. Sensors are in the loop in series, so that the dialysis can flow through this loop and the sensors can acquisitive data of various parameters. In order to facilitate detection and carrying, the integrated circuit part modularly based on the ultralow-power microcontrollers,TI MSP430 is designed. High-performance and small-packaged components are used to establish a modular, high-precision, multi-functional, portable system. The functions and the key technical indexes of the instrument have reached the level of products abroad.

  14. Prelaunch calibration of the HIRDLS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, John J.; Darbyshire, A. G.; Hepplewhite, Christopher L.; Palmer, Christopher W.; Row, F.; Venters, P.; Watkins, R. E.; Whitney, John G.; Gille, John C.; Johnson, Brian R.

    1998-11-01

    The High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) instrument is being built jointly by the UK and USA, and is scheduled for launch on the NASA EOS Chem satellite in 2002. HIRDLS will measure the concentration of trace species and aerosol, and temperature and pressure variations in the Earth's atmosphere between about 8 and 100 km altitude. It is an infrared limb emission sounder, and a primary aim is that it should measure to much finder spatial resolution than has previously been achieved, with simultaneous 1 km vertical and 500 km horizontal resolutions, globally, every 12 hours. Achieving these objectives will depend upon very precise pre-launch calibration. This will be undertaken at Oxford University in a test laboratory that is currently being constructed specifically for the task. The instrument will be surrounded by cryogenically cooled walls, and mounted together with the test equipment on an optical table contained in a vacuum chamber. The table will be mounted independently of the chamber, on an inertial mass supported on pneumatic isolators. Test equipment is being manufactured to measure (1) the radiometric response (with an absolute accuracy equivalent to 70 mK) using full aperture black body targets, (2) the spectral response of each of the filter channels using a grating monochromator, (3) the spatial response of the instrument field of view, including low level out-of-field contributions, to 10 (mu) rad accuracy using a monochromator. The methods and equipment used are described together with the principal requirements.

  15. Comparison of Spectral Radiance Calibration Techniques Used for Backscatter Ultraviolet Satellite Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalewski, Matthew G.; Janz, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Methods for determining the absolute radiometric calibration sensitivities of backscatter ultraviolet (BUV) satellite instruments are compared as part of an effort to minimize pre-launch calibration errors. An internally illuminated integrating sphere source has been used for the Shuttle Solar BUV (SSBUV), Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) using standardized procedures traceable to national standards. These sphere-based sensitivities agree to within three percent [k equals 2] relative to calibrations performed using an external diffuser illuminated by standard irradiance sources, the customary radiance calibration method for BUV instruments. The uncertainty for these calibration techniques as implemented at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Centers Radiometric Calibration and Development Laboratory is shown to be 4 percent at 250nm [k equals 2] when using a single traceable calibration standard. Significant reduction in the uncertainty of nearly 1 percent is demonstrated when multiple calibration standards are used.

  16. Onboard calibration status of the ASTER instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, Fumihiro; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Inada, Hitomi; Akagi, Shigeki; Ono, Hidehiko

    2012-11-01

    The ASTER Instrument is one of the five sensors on the NASA's Terra satellite on orbit since December 1999. ASTER consists of three radiometers, VNIR, SWIR and TIR whose spatial resolutions are 15 m, 30 m and 90 m, respectively. Unfortunately SWIR stopped taking images since May 2008 due to the offset rise caused by the detector temperature rise, but VNIR and TIR are taking Earth images of good quality. VNIR and TIR experienced responsivity degradation while SWIR showed little change. Band 1 (0.56 μm) decreased most among three VNIR bands and 30 % in twelve years. Band 12 (9.1 μm) decreased 40 % and most among five TIR bands. There are some discussions of the causes of the responsivity degradation of VNIR and TIR. Possible causes are contamination accretion by silicone outgas, thruster plume and plasma interaction. We marked hydrazine which comes out unburned in the thruster plume during the inclination adjust maneuver (IAM). Hydrazine has the absorption spectra corresponding to the TIR responsivity degradation in the infrared region. We studied the IAM effect on the ASTER by allocating the additional onboard calibration activities just before and after the IAM while the normal onboard calibration activity is operated once in 49 days. This experiment was carried out three times in fiscal year 2011.

  17. Instrument calibration architecture of Radar Imaging Satellite (RISAT-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, T.; Bhan, R.; Putrevu, D.; Mehrotra, P.; Nandy, P. S.; Shukla, S. D.; Rao, C. V. N.; Dave, D. B.; Desai, N. M.

    2016-05-01

    Radar Imaging Satellite (RISAT-1) payload system is configured to perform self-calibration of transmit and receive paths before and after imaging sessions through a special instrument calibration technique. Instrument calibration architecture of RISAT-1 supported ground verification and validation of payload including active array antenna. During on-ground validation of 126 beams of active array antenna which needed precise calibration of boresight pointing, a unique method called "collimation coefficient error estimation" was utilized. This method of antenna calibration was supported by special hardware and software calibration architecture of RISAT-1. This paper concentrates on RISAT-1 hardware and software architecture which supports in-orbit and on-ground instrument calibration. Efforts are also put here to highlight use of special calibration scheme of RISAT-1 instrument to evaluate system response during ground verification and validation.

  18. Calibration and postlaunch performance of the Meteor 3/TOMS instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Jaross, G.; Krueger, A.; Cebula, R.P.; Seftor, C.; Hartmann, U.; Haring, R.; Burchfield, D. ||

    1995-02-01

    Prelaunch and postlaunch calibration results for the Meteor 3/total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) instrument are presented here. Ozone amounts are retrieved from measurements of Earth albedo in the 312- to 380-nm range. The accuracy of albedo measurements is primarily tied to knowledge of the reflective properties of diffusers used in the calibrations and to the instrument`s wavelength selection. These and other important prelaunch calibrations are presented. Their estimated accuracies are within the bounds necessary to determine column ozone to better than 1%. However, postlaunch validation results indicate some prelaunch calibration uncertainties may be larger than originally estimated. Instrument calibrations have been maintained postlaunch to within a corresponding 1% error in retrieved ozone. Onboard calibrations, including wavelength monitoring and a three-diffuser solar measurement system, are described and specific results are presented. Other issues, such as the effects of orbital precession on calibration and recent chopper wheel malfunctions, are also discussed.

  19. Calibrating coastal GNSS-R instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfgren, Johan; Haas, Rüdiger; Hobiger, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Since 2011, a GNSS-R (Global Navigation Satellite System - Reflectometry) instrument for local sea level observations is operated at the Onsala Space Observatory (Löfgren et al., 2011). The Onsala Space Observatory is the Swedish geodetic fundamental station, located at the Swedish West Coast, and contributes to the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) by a variety of geodetic and geophysical observations. The Onsala GNSS-R instrumentation consists of two GNSS antennas that are mounted back-to-back on a bar at the coastline extending over the open sea in southward direction. One of the antennas is upward oriented and receives the direct satellite signals, while the other antenna is downward oriented and receives the satellite signals that reflect off the sea surface. The antennas are connected to a commercial GNSS receiver each and data are recorded with sampling rate of up to 20 Hz. Satellite signals of several GNSS are received and are analysed with various different analysis strategies to provide sea level results with different temporal resolution and precision (Larson et al., 2013; Löfgren and Haas, 2014). Since the instrumentation uses GNSS signals, it is possible to derive both local sea level, i.e. relative to the coast, and absolute sea level, i.e. relative to the geocentre as realised by the GNSS. The bar carrying the two antennas can be placed in 10 different vertical positions covering a height difference of 2.5 m between the highest and lowest position. We present results from a calibration campaign of the Onsala GNSS-R instrumentation performed in 2014. During this several weeks long campaign the antennas were placed at different vertical positions for several days at each position. The recorded data are analysed with the different analysis strategies, and the results are compared to the results derived from the co-located tide gauge equipment. References - Löfgren J, Haas R, Scherneck H-G (2011). Three months of local sea-level derived from

  20. Brookhaven National Laboratory meteorological services instrument calibration plan and procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser .

    2013-02-16

    This document describes the Meteorological Services (Met Services) Calibration and Maintenance Schedule and Procedures, The purpose is to establish the frequency and mechanism for the calibration and maintenance of the network of meteorological instrumentation operated by Met Services. The goal is to maintain the network in a manner that will result in accurate, precise and reliable readings from the instrumentation.

  1. Calibration of space instruments at the Metrology Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R. Fliegauf, R.; Gottwald, A.; Kolbe, M.; Paustian, W.; Reichel, T.; Richter, M.; Thornagel, R.; Ulm, G.

    2016-07-27

    PTB has more than 20 years of experience in the calibration of space-based instruments using synchrotron radiation to cover the UV, VUV and X-ray spectral range. New instrumentation at the electron storage ring Metrology Light Source (MLS) opens up extended calibration possibilities within this framework. In particular, the set-up of a large vacuum vessel that can accommodate entire space instruments opens up new prospects. Moreover, a new facility for the calibration of radiation transfer source standards with a considerably extended spectral range has been put into operation. Besides, characterization and calibration of single components like e.g. mirrors, filters, gratings, and detectors is continued.

  2. Data reduction of digitized images processed from calibrated photographic and spectroscopic films obtained from terrestial, rocket and space shuttle telescopic instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The Microvax 2 computer, the basic software in VMS, and the Mitsubishi High Speed Disk were received and installed. The digital scanning tunneling microscope is fully installed and operational. A new technique was developed for pseudocolor analysis of the line plot images of a scanning tunneling microscope. Computer studies and mathematical modeling of the empirical data associated with many of the film calibration studies were presented. A gas can follow-up experiment which will be launched in September, on the Space Shuttle STS-50, was prepared and loaded. Papers were presented on the structure of the human hair strand using scanning electron microscopy and x ray analysis and updated research on the annual rings produced by the surf clam of the ocean estuaries of Maryland. Scanning electron microscopic work was conducted by the research team for the study of the Mossbauer and Magnetic Susceptibility Studies on NmNi(4.25)Fe(.85) and its Hydride.

  3. Calibration procedure for Slocum glider deployed optical instruments.

    PubMed

    Cetinić, Ivona; Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Ragan, Matthew; Oberg, Carl; Jones, Burton H

    2009-08-31

    Recent developments in the field of the autonomous underwater vehicles allow the wide usage of these platforms as part of scientific experiments, monitoring campaigns and more. The vehicles are often equipped with sensors measuring temperature, conductivity, chlorophyll a fluorescence (Chl a), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence, phycoerithrin (PE) fluorescence and spectral volume scattering function at 117 degrees, providing users with high resolution, real time data. However, calibration of these instruments can be problematic. Most in situ calibrations are performed by deploying complementary instrument packages or water samplers in the proximity of the glider. Laboratory calibrations of the mounted sensors are difficult due to the placement of the instruments within the body of the vehicle. For the laboratory calibrations of the Slocum glider instruments we developed a small calibration chamber where we can perform precise calibrations of the optical instruments aboard our glider, as well as sensors from other deployment platforms. These procedures enable us to obtain pre- and post-deployment calibrations for optical fluorescence instruments, which may differ due to the biofouling and other physical damage that can occur during long-term glider deployments. We found that biofouling caused significant changes in the calibration scaling factors of fluorescent sensors, suggesting the need for consistent and repetitive calibrations for gliders as proposed in this paper.

  4. Report on the ''2017 ESO Calibration Workshop: The Second-Generation VLT Instruments and Friends''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smette, A.; Kerber, F.; Kaufer, A.

    2017-03-01

    The participants at the 2017 ESO Calibration Workshop shared their experiences and the challenges encountered in calibrating VLT second-generation instruments and the upgraded first-generation instruments, and discussed improvements in the characterisation of the atmosphere and data reduction. A small group of ESO participants held a follow-up retreat and identified possible game changers in the future operations of the La Silla Paranal Observatory: feedback on the proposals is encouraged.

  5. IECM calibration and data reduction requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wills, F. D.; Davis, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    The induced environment contamination monitor (IECM) tape recorder format, as it relates to the ouput of meaningful data from the IECM instrument, is explained. Eight-bit words (or bytes) generate numbers that represent voltage levels of electronic detection probes for each experiment. This information is amalgamated by the IECM Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS). In some cases bits represent certain status situations concerning an experiment, such as whether a valve is opened or closed. Voltages are transformed into meaningful physical phenomena through equations of calibration. Data formats and plots are generated as requested for each IECM experimenter.

  6. Geometric calibration of rotational kaleidoscopic instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havran, Vlastimil; Němcová, Šárka; Čáp, Jiří; Hošek, Jan; Bittner, Jiří; Macúchová, Karolina

    2016-11-01

    The measurement of spatially varying surface reflectance is required for faithful reproduction of real world to allow for predictive look of computer generated images. One such proposed method uses a rotational kaleidoscopic imaging, where illumination and imaging paths are realized by subimages on kaleidoscopic mirrors and illumination is carried out by a DLP projector. We describe a novel geometric calibration method for a rotational kaleidoscope that is necessary to get aligned and accurate data from measurement. The calibration has two stages. The first stage mechanically adjusts the camera, the projector, and the autocollimator against the kaleidoscope mirrors. The second stage is based on the software. By random perturbation of camera and projector in corresponding mathematical model of the kaleidoscope we estimate better real positions of camera and projector in a physical setup, comparing the computed images from the software simulator and the acquired images from the physical setup.

  7. IOT Overview: Calibrations of the VLTI Instruments (MIDI and AMBER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, S.; Rantakyrö, F.; Rivinius, T.; Stefl, S.; Hummel, C.; Brillant, S.; Schöller, M.; Percheron, I.; Wittkowski, M.; Richichi, A.; Ballester, P.

    We present here a short review of the calibration processes that are currently applied to the instruments AMBER and MIDI of the VLTI (Very Large Telescope Interferometer) at Paranal. We first introduce the general principles to calibrate the raw data (the "visibilities") that have been measured by long-baseline optical interferometry. Then, we focus on the specific case of the scientific operation of the VLTI instruments. We explain the criteria that have been used to select calibrator stars for the observations with the VLTI instruments, as well as the routine internal calibration techniques. Among these techniques, the "P2VM" (Pixel-to-Visibility Matrix) in the case of AMBER is explained. Also, the daily monitoring of AMBER and MIDI, that has recently been implemented, is shortly introduced.

  8. Proceedings of the workshop on radiation survey instruments and calibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, J.M.; Swinth, K.L.; Vallario, E.J.; Murphy, B.L.

    1985-11-01

    The workshop was held to discuss two topics: first, a performance standard for radiation survey instruments and the potential for a testing program based on that standard; and second, a system of secondary standards laboratories to provide instrument calibrations and related services. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual presentations. (ACR)

  9. Data reduction and calibration for LAMOST survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ali; Zhang, Jiannan; Chen, Jianjun; Song, Yihan; Wu, Yue; Bai, Zhongrui; Wang, Fengfei; Du, Bing; Zhang, Haotong

    2014-01-01

    There are three data pipelines for LAMOST survey. The raw data is reduced to one dimension spectra by the data reduction pipeline(2D pipeline), the extracted spectra are classified and measured by the spectral analysis pipeline(1D pipeline), while stellar parameters are measured by LASP pipeline. (a) The data reduction pipeline. The main tasks of the data reduction pipeline include bias calibration, flat field, spectra extraction, sky subtraction, wavelength calibration, exposure merging and wavelength band connection. (b) The spectra analysis pipeline. This pipeline is designed to classify and identify objects from the extracted spectra and to measure their redshift (or radial velocity). The PCAZ (Glazebrook et al. 1998) method is applied to do the classification and redshift measurement. (c) Stellar parameters LASP. Stellar parameters pipeline (LASP) is to estimate stellar atmospheric parameters, e.g. effective temperature Teff, surface gravity log g, and metallicity [Fe/H], for F, G and K type stars. To effectively determine those fundamental stellar measurements, three steps with different methods are employed. The first step utilizes the line indices to approximately define the effective temperature range of the analyzed star. Secondly, a set of the initial approximate values of the three parameters are given based on template fitting method. Finally, we exploit ULySS (Koleva et al. 2009) to give the final values of parameters through minimizing the χ 2 value between the observed spectrum and a multidimensional grid of model spectra which is generated by an interpolating of ELODIE library. There are two other classification for A type star and M type star. For A type star, standard MK system is employed (Gray et al. 2009) to give each object temperature class and luminosity type. For M type star, they are classified into subclasses by an improved Hammer method, and metallicity of each objects is also given. During the pilot survey, algorithms were improved

  10. A calibration service for biomedical instrumentation maintenance laboratories.

    PubMed

    Barnes, A; Evans, A L; Job, H M; Laing, R; Smith, D C

    1999-01-01

    An in-house calibration laboratory for the Biomedical Instrumentation Maintenance Services of the hospitals in the West of Scotland was established in 1993. This paper describes the development of this calibration service in the context of an overall quality system and also estimates its costs. Not only does the in-house service have many advantages but it is shown to be cost effective for workloads exceeding 260 items per annum.

  11. Evaluation of two gas-dilution methods for instrument calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Two gas dilution methods were evaluated for use in the calibration of analytical instruments used in air pollution studies. A dual isotope fluorescence carbon monoxide analyzer was used as the transfer standard. The methods are not new but some modifications are described. The rotary injection gas dilution method was found to be more accurate than the closed loop method. Results by the two methods differed by 5 percent. This could not be accounted for by the random errors in the measurements. The methods avoid the problems associated with pressurized cylinders. Both methods have merit and have found a place in instrument calibration work.

  12. USE OF THE SDO POINTING CONTROLLERS FOR INSTRUMENT CALIBRATION MANEUVERS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vess, Melissa F.; Starin, Scott R.; Morgenstern, Wendy M.

    2005-01-01

    During the science phase of the Solar Dynamics Observatory mission, the three science instruments require periodic instrument calibration maneuvers with a frequency of up to once per month. The command sequences for these maneuvers vary in length from a handful of steps to over 200 steps, and individual steps vary in size from 5 arcsec per step to 22.5 degrees per step. Early in the calibration maneuver development, it was determined that the original attitude sensor complement could not meet the knowledge requirements for the instrument calibration maneuvers in the event of a sensor failure. Because the mission must be single fault tolerant, an attitude determination trade study was undertaken to determine the impact of adding an additional attitude sensor versus developing alternative, potentially complex, methods of performing the maneuvers in the event of a sensor failure. To limit the impact to the science data capture budget, these instrument calibration maneuvers must be performed as quickly as possible while maintaining the tight pointing and knowledge required to obtain valid data during the calibration. To this end, the decision was made to adapt a linear pointing controller by adjusting gains and adding an attitude limiter so that it would be able to slew quickly and still achieve steady pointing once on target. During the analysis of this controller, questions arose about the stability of the controller during slewing maneuvers due to the combination of the integral gain, attitude limit, and actuator saturation. Analysis was performed and a method for disabling the integral action while slewing was incorporated to ensure stability. A high fidelity simulation is used to simulate the various instrument calibration maneuvers.

  13. JWST Mid-Infrared Instrument Data Reduction Pipeline and Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, Stacey N.; Gordon, Karl D.; Chen, Christine; MIRI Team

    2017-06-01

    We present the James Webb Space Telescope Mid-Infrared Instrument (JWST/MIRI) data reduction pipeline and resulting data products. MIRI operates from 5 to 28.5 microns and provides imaging, coronagraphy, low-resolution spectroscopy (LRS), and medium-resolution spectroscopy (MRS) via an integral field unit.The MIRI pipeline is designed to maximize the scientific return from the instrument by providing high-level data products. The pipeline is divided into three stages: 1) raw to slope image, 2) calibrated slope image, 3) high quality final data products. The final data products include calibrated mosaics for imaging observations, PSF subtracted images for coronograph observations, extracted spectra for LRS observations, and spectral cubes for MRS observations.

  14. 10 CFR 35.61 - Calibration of survey instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calibration of survey instruments. 35.61 Section 35.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements... to show compliance with this part and 10 CFR Part 20 before first use, annually, and following...

  15. Contact Instrument Calibration Targets on Mars Rover Curiosity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-07

    Two instruments at the end of the robotic arm on NASA Mars rover Curiosity will use calibration targets attached to a shoulder joint of the arm. The penny is a size reference giving the public a familiar object for perceiving size on Mars easily.

  16. Instrument calibration plan of the Technical Support Section

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, K.L.; Davis, B.C.; Smith, H.E.; Hylton, J.O.; Robbins, W.L.

    1997-06-01

    This document describes the Calibration Program for the Instrumentation and Controls Division`s Technical Support Section (TSS). The implementation of the program is the responsibility of TSS; however, determining whether or not equipment is to be calibrated is the responsibility of the equipment`s custodian or user. The Calibration Program is a planned, systematic schedule of actions necessary to provide confidence that equipment used to make measurements or quality judgments meets established technical requirements and that its performance is traceable to nationally recognized standards. It is imperative that all parties maintain timely and effective dialogue to ensure that the process is adequate to meet the needs of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It is especially important to place this guidance in the proper context. ORNL instrumentation support at the shop and facility level is the primary application. Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMER) and site policy provide the umbrella guidance for overall measuring and test equipment support.

  17. Calibration and testing of wide-field UV instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Loicq, J.; Habraken, S.

    2017-06-01

    As with all optical systems the calibration of wide-field ultraviolet (UV) systems includes three main areas: sensitivity, imaging quality, and imaging capability. The one thing that makes UV calibrations difficult is the need for working in vacuum substantially extending the required time and effort compared to visible systems. In theory a ray tracing and characterization of each individual component of the optical system (mirrors, windows, and grating) should provide the transmission efficiency of the combined system. However, potentially unknown effects (contamination, misalignment, and measurement errors) can make the final error too large and unacceptable for most applications. Therefore, it is desirable to test and measure the optical properties of the whole system in vacuum and compare the overall response to the response of a calibrated photon detector. A proper comparison then allows the quantification of individual sources of uncertainty and ensures that the whole instrument performance is within acceptable tolerances or pinpoints which parts fail to meet requirements. Based on the experience with the IMAGE Spectrographic Imager, the Wide-band Imaging Camera, and the ICON Far Ultraviolet instruments, we discuss the steps and procedures for the proper radiometric sensitivity and passband calibration, spot size, imaging distortions, flatfield, and field of view determination.Plain Language SummaryAs with all optical systems the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of wide-field ultraviolet (UV) systems includes three main areas: sensitivity, imaging quality, and imaging capability. The one thing that makes UV <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> difficult is the need for working in vacuum substantially extending the required time and effort compared to visible systems. Based on the experience with the IMAGE Spectrographic Imager, the Wide-band Imaging Camera (WIC), and the ICON Far Ultraviolet <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, we discuss the steps and procedures for the proper</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9894978','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9894978"><span>Universal <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of surgical <span class="hlt">instruments</span> for spinal stereotaxy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, K D; Johnson, J P; Masciopinto, J E; Bloch, O; Saracen, M J; Villablanca, J P</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>To describe new software applications and interchangeable <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> enabling the use of standard surgical <span class="hlt">instruments</span> with image-guided systems for stereotactic spinal procedures. The ability to adapt essentially any surgical <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for stereotactic procedures will improve the safety and accuracy of image-guided spinal surgery. Using universal dynamic registration hardware and software, standard surgical <span class="hlt">instruments</span> are adapted for real-time image-guided surgery. The Radionics Optical Tracking System (Radionics, Inc., Burlington, MA) has custom software applications and universal hardware adaptation devices for spinal stereotaxy that allows the use of standard <span class="hlt">instruments</span> for intraoperative guidance. An array of light-emitting diodes can be attached to essentially any rigid <span class="hlt">instrument</span> with a definable tip and can then be <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> to the system for intraoperative use. Stereotactic guidance of a drill, tap, and screwdriver may improve screw placement accuracy in spinal surgery because every step of the procedure can be monitored in real time. Most stereotactic systems have only a standard probe or limited <span class="hlt">instruments</span> for localization, targeting, and tracking a procedure. The surgeon then resumes the operation using standard surgical <span class="hlt">instruments</span> without the benefit of image guidance for the key steps of the procedure. Because each surgical step for screw placement in the spine has a potential for error, use of multiple <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that can be interchanged for real-time image-guided spinal surgery may increase the accuracy and safety of spinal <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> procedures. These techniques can also be applied to intracranial image-guided surgery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/908085','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/908085"><span>Traceable Micro-Force Sensor for <span class="hlt">Instrumented</span> Indentation <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Smith, D T; Shaw, G A; Seugling, R M; Xiang, D; Pratt, J R</p> <p>2007-04-02</p> <p><span class="hlt">Instrumented</span> indentation testing (IIT), commonly referred to as nanoindentation when small forces are used, is a popular technique for determining the mechanical properties of small volumes of material. Sample preparation is relatively easy, usually requiring only that a smooth surface of the material to be tested be accessible to a contact probe, and <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that combine sophisticated automation with straightforward user interfaces are available commercially from several manufacturers. In addition, documentary standards are now becoming available from both the International Standards Organization (ISO 14577) and ASTM International (E28 WK382) that define test methods and standard practices for IIT, and will allow the technique to be used to produce material property data that can be used in product specifications. These standards also define the required level of accuracy of the force data produced by IIT <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, as well as methods to verify that accuracy. For forces below 10 mN, these requirements can be difficult to meet, particularly for <span class="hlt">instrument</span> owners who need to verify the performance of their <span class="hlt">instrument</span> as it is installed at their site. In this paper, we describe the development, performance and application of an SI-traceable force sensor system for potential use in the field <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of commercial IIT <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The force sensor itself, based on an elastically deforming capacitance gauge, is small enough to mount in a commercial <span class="hlt">instrument</span> as if it were a test specimen, and is used in conjunction with an ultra-high accuracy capacitance bridge. The sensor system is <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> with NIST-traceable masses over the range 5.0 {micro}N through 5.0 mN. We will present data on its accuracy and precision, as well its potential application to the verification of force in commercial <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> indentation <span class="hlt">instruments</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/250243','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/250243"><span>New <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> facility for the DOE Savannah River Site</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wilkie, W.H.; Polz, E.J.</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>A new laboratory facility is being designed, constructed, and equipped at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a fiscal year 1992 line item project. This facility will provide space and equipment for test, evaluation, repair, maintenance, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of radiation monitoring <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>. The project will replace an obsolete facility and will allow implementation of program upgrades necessary to meet ANSI N323 requirements and National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) criteria for accreditation of federally owned secondary <span class="hlt">calibration</span> laboratories. An outline of the project is presented including description, scope, cost, management organization, chronology, and current status. Selected design criteria and their impacts on the project are discussed. The upgraded SRS <span class="hlt">calibration</span> program is described, and important features of the new facility and equipment that will accommodate this program are listed. The floor plan for the facility is shown, and equipment summaries and functional descriptions for each area are provided.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008501&hterms=dichroism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Ddichroism','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008501&hterms=dichroism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Ddichroism"><span>The Gemini Planet Imager <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Wavefront Sensor <span class="hlt">Instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wallace, J. Kent; Burruss, Rick S.; Bartos, Randall D.; Trinh, Thang Q.; Pueyo, Laurent A.; Fregoso, Santos F.; Angione, John R.; Shelton, J. Chris</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The Gemini Planet Imager is an extreme adaptive optics system that will employ an apodized-pupil coronagraph to make direct detections of faint companions of nearby stars to a contrast level of the 10(exp -7) within a few lambda/D of the parent star. Such high contrasts from the ground require exquisite wavefront sensing and control both for the AO system as well as for the coronagraph. Un-sensed non-common path phase and amplitude errors after the wavefront sensor dichroic but before the coronagraph would lead to speckles which would ultimately limit the contrast. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> wavefront system for GPI will measure the complex wavefront at the system pupil before the apodizer and provide slow phase corrections to the AO system to mitigate errors that would cause a loss in contrast. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> wavefront sensor <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for GPI has been built. We will describe the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and its performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008501&hterms=gemini&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dgemini','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008501&hterms=gemini&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dgemini"><span>The Gemini Planet Imager <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Wavefront Sensor <span class="hlt">Instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wallace, J. Kent; Burruss, Rick S.; Bartos, Randall D.; Trinh, Thang Q.; Pueyo, Laurent A.; Fregoso, Santos F.; Angione, John R.; Shelton, J. Chris</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The Gemini Planet Imager is an extreme adaptive optics system that will employ an apodized-pupil coronagraph to make direct detections of faint companions of nearby stars to a contrast level of the 10(exp -7) within a few lambda/D of the parent star. Such high contrasts from the ground require exquisite wavefront sensing and control both for the AO system as well as for the coronagraph. Un-sensed non-common path phase and amplitude errors after the wavefront sensor dichroic but before the coronagraph would lead to speckles which would ultimately limit the contrast. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> wavefront system for GPI will measure the complex wavefront at the system pupil before the apodizer and provide slow phase corrections to the AO system to mitigate errors that would cause a loss in contrast. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> wavefront sensor <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for GPI has been built. We will describe the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and its performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10107613','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10107613"><span><span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> plan of the Technical Support Department</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Allison, K.L.; Duncan, D.M.; McIntyre, T.J.; Millet, A.J.; Swabe, T.E.; Vines, R.A.</p> <p>1993-11-01</p> <p>This document describes the management of the <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Program of the <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> and Controls Division`s Technical Support Department (ISD). The implementation of the program is the responsibility of ISD; however, the decision as to whether or not equipment is <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> is the responsibility of the end user. It is imperative that all parties maintain timely and effective dialogue to ensure that the process is adequate to meet the needs of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The program is a planned, systematic schedule of actions necessary to provide confidence that equipment used to make measurements or quality judgments conforms to established technical requirements and is traceable to nationally recognized standards. It is especially important to place this guidance in the context for which it is intended. ORNL <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> support at the shop and facility level is the primary application. Energy Systems and site policy provide the umbrella guidance needed for overall measuring and test equipment support.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9904E..4VR','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9904E..4VR"><span>Xenon arc lamp spectral radiance modelling for satellite <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rolt, Stephen; Clark, Paul; Schmoll, Jürgen; Shaw, Benjamin J. R.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Precise radiometric measurements play a central role in many areas of astronomical and terrestrial observation. We focus on the use of continuum light sources in the absolute radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of detectors in an imaging spectrometer for space applications. The application, in this instance, revolves around the ground based <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the Sentinel-4/UVN <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. This imaging spectrometer <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is expected to be deployed in 2019 and will make spatially resolved spectroscopic measurements of atmospheric chemistry. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, which operates across the UV/VIS and NIR spectrum from 305-775 nm, is designed to measure the absolute spectral radiance of the Earth and compare it with the absolute spectral irradiance of the Sun. Of key importance to the fidelity of these absolute measurements is the ground based <span class="hlt">calibration</span> campaign. Continuum lamp sources that are temporally stable and are spatially well defined are central to this process. Xenon short arc lamps provide highly intense and efficient continuum illumination in a range extending from the ultra-violet to the infra-red and their spectrum is well matched to this specific application. Despite their widespread commercial use, certain aspects of their performance are not well documented in the literature. One of the important requirements in this <span class="hlt">calibration</span> application is the delivery of highly uniform, collimated illumination at high radiance. In this process, it cannot be assumed that the xenon arc is a point source; the spatial distribution of the radiance must be characterised accurately. We present here careful measurements that thoroughly characterise the spatial distribution of the spectral radiance of a 1000W xenon lamp. A mathematical model is presented describing the spatial distribution. Temporal stability is another exceptionally important requirement in the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> process. As such, the paper also describes strategies to re-inforce the temporal stability of the lamp output by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24497292','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24497292"><span>PROSAD: a powerful platform for <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and quantification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Floridia, Matteo; Cristoni, Simone</p> <p>2014-03-15</p> <p>There is critical need for <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and correction procedures that can improve the quality of mass spectral quantitative results. Currently, mass spectrometry (MS) technologies suffer from certain biases related to <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> responses, which tend to restrict its application. To overcome these biases, we developed the PROgressive SAmple Dosage (PROSAD) platform and tested it. PROSAD, an optimized sample preparation and data analysis method, is used in conjunction with a liquid chromatography (LC)/MS system and a low-voltage ionization source (e.g., no-discharge atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (ND-APCI)). The mass spectrometers used for this report were an HCT Ultra ion trap, a LTQ XL Orbitrap, and a TSQ Vantage triple-stage quadrupole. The PROSAD elaborative system, because of its dedicated mathematical algorithm, provided a dynamic linear <span class="hlt">calibration</span> check and correction. We tested PROSAD using a leucomalachite green-fish homogenate assay. Atrazine in tea matrix samples were also quantified. Better quantification was achieved using PROSAD compared with the classic linear, static <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedure in both test cases. PROSAD provides a dynamically optimized <span class="hlt">calibration</span> curve that affords increased stability, accuracy, and precision for the quantification of MS data. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1187978','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1187978"><span>Precision Spectrophotometric <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> System for Dark Energy <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schubnell, Michael S.</p> <p>2015-06-30</p> <p>For this research we build a precision <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system and carried out measurements to demonstrate the precision that can be achieved with a high precision spectrometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system. It was shown that the system is capable of providing a complete spectrophotometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> at the sub-pixel level. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system uses a fast, high precision monochromator that can quickly and efficiently scan over an instrument’s entire spectral range with a spectral line width of less than 0.01 nm corresponding to a fraction of a pixel on the CCD. The system was extensively evaluated in the laboratory. Our research showed that a complete spectrophotometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standard for spectroscopic survey <span class="hlt">instruments</span> such as DESI is possible. The monochromator precision and repeatability to a small fraction of the DESI spectrograph LSF was demonstrated with re-initialization on every scan and thermal drift compensation by locking to multiple external line sources. A projector system that mimics telescope aperture for point source at infinity was demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110015245','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110015245"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the Reflected Solar <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thome, Kurtis; Barnes, Robert; Baize, Rosemary; O'Connell, Joseph; Hair, Jason</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) plans to observe climate change trends over decadal time scales to determine the accuracy of climate projections. The project relies on spaceborne earth observations of SI-traceable variables sensitive to key decadal change parameters. The mission includes a reflected solar <span class="hlt">instrument</span> retrieving at-sensor reflectance over the 320 to 2300 nm spectral range with 500-m spatial resolution and 100-km swath. Reflectance is obtained from the ratio of measurements of the earth s surface to those while viewing the sun relying on a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approach that retrieves reflectance with uncertainties less than 0.3%. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is predicated on heritage hardware, <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of sensor complexity, adherence to detector-based <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standards, and an ability to simulate in the laboratory on-orbit sources in both size and brightness to provide the basis of a transfer to orbit of the laboratory <span class="hlt">calibration</span> including a link to absolute solar irradiance measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9605E..1BW','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9605E..1BW"><span>The CHEOPS <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on-ground <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wildi, F. P.; Chazelas, B.; Deline, A.; Sordet, M.; Sarajlic, M.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) is a joint ESA-Switzerland space mission dedicated to the search for exoplanet photometric transits. Its launch readiness is expected at the end of 2017. The CHEOPS <span class="hlt">instrument</span> will be the first space telescope dedicated to search for transits on bright stars already known to host planets. By being able to point at nearly any location on the sky, it will provide the unique capability of determining accurate radii for a subset of those planets for which the mass has already been estimated from ground-based spectroscopic surveys. To reach its goals CHEOPS will measure photometric signals with a precision of 20 ppm in 6 hours of integration time for a 9th magnitude star. This corresponds to a signal-to-noise ratio of 5 for a transit of an Earth-sized planet orbiting a solar-sized star. Achieving the precision goal requires thorough post-processing of the data acquired by the CHEOPS' <span class="hlt">instrument</span> system (CIS) in order to remove as much as possible the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>'s signature. To this purpose, a rigorous <span class="hlt">calibration</span> campaign will be conducted after the CIS tests in order to measure, its behavior under the different environmental conditions. The main tool of this <span class="hlt">calibration</span> campaign is a custom-made <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system that will inject a stimulus beam in the CIS and measure its response to the variation of electrical and environmental parameters. These variations will be compiled in a correction model. Ultimately, the CIS photometric performance will be measured on an artificial star, applying the correction model This paper addresses the requirements applicable to the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system, its design and its design performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980JApMe..19.1300L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980JApMe..19.1300L"><span>The Hailpad: Materials, Data <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Long, Alexis B.; Matson, Richard J.; Crow, Edwin L.</p> <p>1980-11-01</p> <p>This paper reports on work carried out in the National Hail Research Experiment (NHRE) on hailpad materials, on procedures for reducing hailpad data, and on hailpad <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. A recommendation is made for a pad constructed of 2.5 cm thick type-SI Styrofoam (manufactured by Dow Chemical USA) and sprayed with a 25-50 m coating of white latex paint for protection from the deteriorating effects of sun-light. <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the hailpad provides a relation between the minor axis of a dent in the pad and the dimensions of the stone producing the dent. It is recommended that measurements of the minor axis be categorized in size intervals no wider than 4 mm.The NHRE laboratory technique for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> hailpads involves simulating a hailstone impact by dropping a steel sphere onto a pad from a height such that the impact kinetic energy achieved by the sphere equals that of a hailstone of equal diameter falling onto the pad in an environment with known horizontal wind. The pad is tilted to preserve the stone impact angle found in nature. A second-degree polynomial in sphere diameter D satisfactorily describes the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> relation between D and the dent minor axis. Application of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> relation developed for the particular case of no wind to hailpads which have been hit by hail falling in a wind leads to an overestimate of hailstone diameter of approximately 0.5-1% per meter per second of wind speed. This effect of the wind is about twice as large as that found by others.A theoretical expression is developed that explicitly relates the minor axis of a dent produced by a sphere to the diameter of the sphere. Two controlling parameters in this expression are the impact kinetic energy of the sphere and a factor p, with dimensions of pressure, which quantitatively embodies the response of a pad to a sphere impact. The effect of variations in p on the sphere diameter derived from dent minor axis and information supplied by Dow Chemical USA on possible variability</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol1-sec35-2061.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol1-sec35-2061.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.2061 - Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. 35... § 35.2061 Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. A licensee shall maintain a record of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> required by § 35.61 for 3 years. The record must include the model...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol1-sec35-2061.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol1-sec35-2061.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.2061 - Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. 35... § 35.2061 Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. A licensee shall maintain a record of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> required by § 35.61 for 3 years. The record must include the model...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title10-vol1-sec35-2061.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title10-vol1-sec35-2061.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.2061 - Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. 35... § 35.2061 Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. A licensee shall maintain a record of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> required by § 35.61 for 3 years. The record must include the model...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol1-sec35-2061.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol1-sec35-2061.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.2061 - Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. 35... § 35.2061 Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. A licensee shall maintain a record of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> required by § 35.61 for 3 years. The record must include the model...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title10-vol1-sec35-2061.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title10-vol1-sec35-2061.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.2061 - Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. 35... § 35.2061 Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. A licensee shall maintain a record of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> required by § 35.61 for 3 years. The record must include the model...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23263144','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23263144"><span>Terahertz time-domain spectroscopic ellipsometry: <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> and <span class="hlt">calibration</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Neshat, Mohammad; Armitage, N P</p> <p>2012-12-17</p> <p>We present a new <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedure for terahertz time-domain spectroscopic ellipsometry (THz-TDSE) that is a newly established characterization technique. The experimental setup is capable of providing arbitrary angle of incidence in the range of 15°-85° in the reflection geometry, and with no need for realignment. The setup is also configurable easily into transmission geometry. For this setup, we successfully used hollow core photonic band gap fiber with no pre-chirping in order to deliver a femtosecond laser into a THz photoconductive antenna detector, which is the first demonstration of this kind. The proposed <span class="hlt">calibration</span> scheme can compensate for the non-ideality of the polarization response of the THz photoconductive antenna detector as well as that of wire grid polarizers used in the setup. In the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> scheme, the ellipsometric parameters are obtained through a regression algorithm which we have adapted from the conventional regression <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method developed for rotating element optical ellipsometers, and used here for the first time for THz-TDSE. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, results are presented for a high resistivity silicon substrate as well as an opaque Si substrate with a high phosphorus concentration. We also demonstrate the capacity to measure a few micron thick grown thermal oxide on top of Si. Each sample was characterized by THz-TDSE in reflection geometry with different angle of incidence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SSRv..141..277M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SSRv..141..277M"><span>The THEMIS ESA Plasma <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> and In-flight <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McFadden, J. P.; Carlson, C. W.; Larson, D.; Ludlam, M.; Abiad, R.; Elliott, B.; Turin, P.; Marckwordt, M.; Angelopoulos, V.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The THEMIS plasma <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is designed to measure the ion and electron distribution functions over the energy range from a few eV up to 30 keV for electrons and 25 keV for ions. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> consists of a pair of “top hat” electrostatic analyzers with common 180°×6° fields-of-view that sweep out 4 π steradians each 3 s spin period. Particles are detected by microchannel plate detectors and binned into six distributions whose energy, angle, and time resolution depend upon <span class="hlt">instrument</span> mode. On-board moments are calculated, and processing includes corrections for spacecraft potential. This paper focuses on the ground and in-flight <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of the 10 sensors on five spacecraft. Cross-<span class="hlt">calibrations</span> were facilitated by having all the plasma measurements available with the same resolution and format, along with spacecraft potential and magnetic field measurements in the same data set. Lessons learned from this effort should be useful for future multi-satellite missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9556M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9556M"><span>SMOS <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Performance and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> after 3 Years in Orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martin-Neira, Manuel; Corbella, Ignasi; Torres, Francesc; Kainulainen, Juha; Oliva, Roger; Closa, Josep; Cabot, François; Castro, Rita; Barbosa, Jose; Gutierrez, Antonio; Anterrieu, Eric; Tenerelli, Joe; Martin-Porqueras, Fernando; Buenadicha, Guillermo; Delwart, Steven; Crapolicchio, Raffaele; Suess, Martin</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission has been in orbit for already over 3 years which has allowed the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and data processing team consolidating both the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> strategy and the Level-1 processor which transforms the raw visibility samples into polarimetric brightness temperature images. The payload on board SMOS, MIRAS, is quite unique in that it is the first microwave radiometer in space ever capable to generate wide field of view images at every snapshot measurement. This means that most of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> as well as image processing techniques are being developed for the first time with little heritage from any previous space mission. Issues intrinsically attached to its wide field of view such as spatial ripples across the snapshot images are particular to MIRAS and to no other earlier radiometer. Even the fundamental theory behind the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was put at test, first on ground inside an electromagnetic compatibility chamber, and now in orbit when imaging the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation of the cold sky. A groundbreaking effort is being carried out by the SMOS project team to understand and master all <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and image reconstruction issues of this novel microwave interferometer payload. MIRAS in-orbit performance is driven by the amplitude of spatial ripples across the image and orbital and seasonal radiometer stability. Spatial ripples are unique to interferometric radiometers and are produced by (a) a limited knowledge of the antenna patterns and, in general, of the model of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, (b) some fundamental limitations related to the inverse problem of image reconstruction in undetermined conditions and (c) subtle data processing inconsistencies which are discovered and corrected. To reduce the spatial ripples sea surface salinity retrievals are performed by first removing the brightness temperature spatial errors using a uniform region of the Pacific Ocean. However soil moisture retrievals cannot benefit of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150004069','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150004069"><span>GMI <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Spin Balance Method, Optimization, <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Test</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ayari, Laoucet; Kubitschek, Michael; Ashton, Gunnar; Johnston, Steve; Debevec, Dave; Newell, David; Pellicciotti, Joseph</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Global Microwave Imager (GMI) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> must spin at a constant rate of 32 rpm continuously for the 3-year mission life. Therefore, GMI must be very precisely balanced about the spin axis and center of gravity (CG) to maintain stable scan pointing and to minimize disturbances imparted to the spacecraft and attitude control on-orbit. The GMI <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is part of the core Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) spacecraft and is used to make <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> radiometric measurements at multiple microwave frequencies and polarizations. The GPM mission is an international effort managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to improve climate, weather, and hydro-meteorological predictions through more accurate and frequent precipitation measurements. Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation (BATC) was selected by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to design, build, and test the GMI <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. The GMI design has to meet a challenging set of spin balance requirements and had to be brought into simultaneous static and dynamic spin balance after the entire <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was already assembled and before environmental tests began. The focus of this contribution is on the analytical and test activities undertaken to meet the challenging spin balance requirements of the GMI <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. The novel process of measuring the residual static and dynamic imbalances with a very high level of accuracy and precision is presented together with the prediction of the optimal balance masses and their locations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140006391','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140006391"><span>GMI <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Spin Balance Method, Optimization, <span class="hlt">Calibration</span>, and Test</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ayari, Laoucet; Kubitschek, Michael; Ashton, Gunnar; Johnston, Steve; Debevec, Dave; Newell, David; Pellicciotti, Joseph</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Global Microwave Imager (GMI) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> must spin at a constant rate of 32 rpm continuously for the 3 year mission life. Therefore, GMI must be very precisely balanced about the spin axis and CG to maintain stable scan pointing and to minimize disturbances imparted to the spacecraft and attitude control on-orbit. The GMI <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is part of the core Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) spacecraft and is used to make <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> radiometric measurements at multiple microwave frequencies and polarizations. The GPM mission is an international effort managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to improve climate, weather, and hydro-meteorological predictions through more accurate and frequent precipitation measurements. Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation (BATC) was selected by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to design, build, and test the GMI <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. The GMI design has to meet a challenging set of spin balance requirements and had to be brought into simultaneous static and dynamic spin balance after the entire <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was already assembled and before environmental tests began. The focus of this contribution is on the analytical and test activities undertaken to meet the challenging spin balance requirements of the GMI <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. The novel process of measuring the residual static and dynamic imbalances with a very high level of accuracy and precision is presented together with the prediction of the optimal balance masses and their locations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6433054','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6433054"><span><span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> plan of the Maintenance Management Department</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Blanton, J.D.; Cooper, M.H.; Millet, A.J.; Vines, R.A.</p> <p>1990-10-01</p> <p>This document describes the methods and procedures for management of the <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> and Controls I C Division Maintenance Management Department <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Program. The implementation of the Program rests primarily with the I C Division Maintenance shops and the services supplied by the I C Division Metrology Research and Development Laboratory. An important aspect of the overall program is the user or customer interface. Support activities are initiated and maintained through an active participation of operations and research organizations. It is imperative that all parties involved in the process maintain timely and effective dialogue to ensure that the process is adequate for the needs of the Laboratory. 1 ref., 6 figs.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...843...55M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...843...55M"><span>The JCMT Transient Survey: Data <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mairs, Steve; Lane, James; Johnstone, Doug; Kirk, Helen; Lacaille, Kevin; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Bell, Graham S.; Graves, Sarah; Chapman, Scott; The JCMT Transient Team</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Though there has been a significant amount of work investigating the early stages of low-mass star formation in recent years, the evolution of the mass assembly rate onto the central protostar remains largely unconstrained. Examining in depth the variation in this rate is critical to understanding the physics of star formation. Instabilities in the outer and inner circumstellar disk can lead to episodic outbursts. Observing these brightness variations at infrared or submillimeter wavelengths constrains the current accretion models. The JCMT Transient Survey is a three-year project dedicated to studying the continuum variability of deeply embedded protostars in eight nearby star-forming regions at a one-month cadence. We use the SCUBA-2 <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to simultaneously observe these regions at wavelengths of 450 and 850 μm. In this paper, we present the data <span class="hlt">reduction</span> techniques, image alignment procedures, and relative flux <span class="hlt">calibration</span> methods for 850 μm data. We compare the properties and locations of bright, compact emission sources fitted with Gaussians over time. Doing so, we achieve a spatial alignment of better than 1″ between the repeated observations and an uncertainty of 2%-3% in the relative peak brightness of significant, localized emission. This combination of imaging performance is unprecedented in ground-based, single-dish submillimeter observations. Finally, we identify a few sources that show possible and confirmed brightness variations. These sources will be closely monitored and presented in further detail in additional studies throughout the duration of the survey.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/871213','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/871213"><span>Monocrystalline test structures, and use for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Cresswell, Michael W.; Ghoshtagore, R. N.; Linholm, Loren W.; Allen, Richard A.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>An improved test structure for measurement of width of conductive lines formed on substrates as performed in semiconductor fabrication, and for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> <span class="hlt">instruments</span> for such measurements, is formed from a monocrystalline starting material, having an insulative layer formed beneath its surface by ion implantation or the equivalent, leaving a monocrystalline layer on the surface. The monocrystalline surface layer is then processed by preferential etching to accurately define components of the test structure. The substrate can be removed from the rear side of the insulative layer to form a transparent window, such that the test structure can be inspected by transmissive-optical techniques. Measurements made using electrical and optical techniques can be correlated with other measurements, including measurements made using scanning probe microscopy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110007091','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110007091"><span>Comparison of Two Methodologies for <span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> Satellite <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> in the Visible and Near Infrared</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barnes, Robert A.; Brown, Steven W.; Lykke, Keith R.; Guenther, Bruce; Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Butler, James J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Traditionally, satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that measure Earth-reflected solar radiation in the visible and near infrared wavelength regions have been <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> for radiance response in a two-step method. In the first step, the spectral response of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is determined using a nearly monochromatic light source, such a lamp-illuminated monochromator. Such sources only provide a relative spectral response (RSR) for the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, since they do not act as <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> sources of light nor do they typically fill the field-of-view of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. In the second step, the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> views a <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> source of broadband light, such as lamp-illuminated integrating sphere. In the traditional method, the RSR and the sphere spectral radiance are combined and, with the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>'s response, determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. More recently, an absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system using widely tunable monochromatic laser systems has been developed, Using these sources, the absolute spectral responsivity (ASR) of an <span class="hlt">instrument</span> can be determined on a wavelength-hy-wavelength basis. From these monochromatic ASRs. the responses of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> bands to broadband radiance sources can be calculated directly, eliminating the need for <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> broadband light sources such as integrating spheres. Here we describe the laser-based <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and the traditional broad-band source-based <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the NPP VIIRS sensor, and compare the derived <span class="hlt">calibration</span> coefficients for the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Finally, we evaluate the impact of the new <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approach on the on-orbit performance of the sensor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011A%26A...534A..45S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011A%26A...534A..45S"><span>Stokes imaging polarimetry using image restoration: a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> strategy for Fabry-Pérot based <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schnerr, R. S.; de La Cruz Rodríguez, J.; van Noort, M.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Context. The combination of image restoration and a Fabry-Pérot interferometer (FPI) based <span class="hlt">instrument</span> in solar observations results in specific <span class="hlt">calibration</span> issues. FPIs generally show variations over the field-of-view, while in the image restoration process, the 1-to-1 relation between pixel space and image space is lost, thus complicating any correcting for such variations. Aims: We develop a data <span class="hlt">reduction</span> method that takes these issues into account and minimizes the resulting errors. Methods: By accounting for the time variations in the telescope's Mueller matrix and using separate <span class="hlt">calibration</span> data optimized for the wavefront sensing in the MOMFBD image restoration process and for the final deconvolution of the data, we have removed most of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> artifacts from the resulting data. Results: Using this method to reduce full Stokes data from CRISP at the SST, we find that it drastically reduces the <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> and image restoration artifacts resulting from cavity errors, reflectivity variations, and the polarization dependence of flatfields. The results allow for useful scientific interpretation. Inversions of restored data from the δ sunspot AR11029 using the Nicole inversion code, reveal strong (~10 km s-1) downflows near the disk center side of the umbra. Conclusions: The use of image restoration in combination with an FPI-based <span class="hlt">instrument</span> leads to complications in the <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> and intrinsic limitations to the accuracy that can be achieved. We find that for CRISP, the resulting errors can be kept mostly below the polarimetric accuracy of ~10-3. Similar <span class="hlt">instruments</span> aiming for higher polarimetric and high spectroscopic accuracy, will, however, need to take these problems into account.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1018523','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1018523"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of LSST <span class="hlt">Instrumental</span> and Atmospheric Photometric Passbands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Burke, David L.; Axelrod, T.; Barrau, Aurelien; Baumont, Sylvain; Blondin, Stephane; Claver, Chuck; Gorecki, Alexia; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jones, Lynne; Krabbendam, Victor; Liang, Ming; Saha, Abhijit; Smith, Allyn; Smith, R.Chris; Stubbs, Christopher W.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.</p> <p>2011-07-06</p> <p>The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will continuously image the entire sky visible from Cerro Pachon in northern Chile every 3-4 nights throughout the year. The LSST will provide data for a broad range of science investigations that require better than 1% photometric precision across the sky (repeatability and uniformity) and a similar accuracy of measured broadband color. The fast and persistent cadence of the LSST survey will significantly improve the temporal sampling rate with which celestial events and motions are tracked. To achieve these goals, and to optimally utilize the observing calendar, it will be necessary to obtain excellent photometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of data taken over a wide range of observing conditions - even those not normally considered 'photometric'. To achieve this it will be necessary to routinely and accurately measure the full optical passband that includes the atmosphere as well as the <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> telescope and camera system. The LSST mountain facility will include a new monochromatic dome illumination projector system to measure the detailed wavelength dependence of the <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> passband for each channel in the system. The facility will also include an auxiliary spectroscopic telescope dedicated to measurement of atmospheric transparency at all locations in the sky during LSST observing. In this paper, we describe these systems and present laboratory and observational data that illustrate their performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008APS..DMP.E1130F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008APS..DMP.E1130F"><span><span class="hlt">Instrumental</span> Asymmetry <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> in Polarized Electron Beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fabrikant, M. I.; Trantham, K. W.; Gay, T. J.</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>We report progress in the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> asymmetries (IAs) related to the photoemission of polarized electrons from GaAs caused by circularly-polarized diode laser beams [1]. Such asymmetries can mask true helicity-dependent interactions between the emitted electrons and chiral targets. Minimization of laser intensity IAs is achieved by chopping two spatially separated light beams with orthogonal polarizations which are recombined and passed through a quarter-wave plate to yield a single beam with rapidly flipping helicity. We have demonstrated the ability to reduce intensity IAs of the laser beam itself to less than 2 x 10-6 [2]. We have also investigated the IAs of the photemission current from the GaAs. At present, we are able to reduce the photoemission asymmetry to values that are comparable to the laser intensity asymmetry. Implications for experiments measuring effects due to electron circular dichroism [3] will be discussed. [1]Trantham K.W. et al J. Phys. B. 28 L543 (1995) [2] Fabrikant M.I. et al submitted to Appl. Opt. [3] Mayer S., Kessler J. Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4803 (1995) Funding for this project was provided by Undergraduate Creative Activities and Research Experiences (UCARE) and the National Science Foundation (PHY-0653379).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AIPC..568..501C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AIPC..568..501C"><span>Statistical self-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> of SPOT satellite imaging <span class="hlt">instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carfantan, H.; Idier, J.; Beghin, B.; Meygret, A.; Rougé, B.</p> <p>2001-05-01</p> <p>SPOT satellites imaging <span class="hlt">instruments</span> acquire rows of up to 6000 elements using a CCD linear array. The other dimension is obtained by the column-wise scanning resulting from the motion of the satellite. In practice, the responses of the detectors are not strictly identical along the array, which generates a stripe effect in the direction of columns. Our aim is to perform the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the detectors response from the observed image, without supervision, in the restricted case of perfectly linear responses. In a Bayesian framework, we rely on a first-order Markov model for the image and on a Gaussian model for the gains of the detector. The MAP estimate minimizes a criterion, quadratic, convex, or nonconvex according to the chosen Markov model. In the quadratic case, MAP computation amounts to solving a tridiagonal linear system. In the other cases, we take advantage of introducing an equivalent augmented half-quadratic criterion, which can be minimized by iterately solving tridiagonal linear systems. Minimizing nonconvex criteria provides the best results, although convergence towards the global minimizer is not ensured in this case. .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol1-sec35-61.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol1-sec35-61.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.61 - <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of survey <span class="hlt">instruments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements... repair that affects the <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. A licensee shall— (1) <span class="hlt">Calibrate</span> all scales with readings up to 10 mSv (1000 mrem) per hour with a radiation source; (2) <span class="hlt">Calibrate</span> two separated readings on each scale...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol1-sec35-61.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol1-sec35-61.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.61 - <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of survey <span class="hlt">instruments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements... repair that affects the <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. A licensee shall— (1) <span class="hlt">Calibrate</span> all scales with readings up to 10 mSv (1000 mrem) per hour with a radiation source; (2) <span class="hlt">Calibrate</span> two separated readings on each scale...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RaSc...47.3004A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RaSc...47.3004A"><span>Measurement <span class="hlt">reduction</span> for mutual coupling <span class="hlt">calibration</span> in DOA estimation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aksoy, Taylan; Tuncer, T. Engin</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Mutual coupling is an important source of error in antenna arrays that should be compensated for super resolution direction-of-arrival (DOA) algorithms, such as Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm. A crucial step in array <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is the determination of the mutual coupling coefficients for the antenna array. In this paper, a system theoretic approach is presented for the mutual coupling characterization of antenna arrays. The comprehension and implementation of this approach is simple leading to further advantages in <span class="hlt">calibration</span> measurement <span class="hlt">reduction</span>. In this context, a measurement <span class="hlt">reduction</span> method for antenna arrays with omni-directional and identical elements is proposed which is based on the symmetry planes in the array geometry. The proposed method significantly decreases the number of measurements during the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> process. This method is evaluated using different array types whose responses and the mutual coupling characteristics are obtained through numerical electromagnetic simulations. It is shown that a single <span class="hlt">calibration</span> measurement is sufficient for uniform circular arrays. Certain important and interesting characteristics observed during the experiments are outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25625686','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25625686"><span>Direct Reading Particle Counters: <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Verification and Multiple <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Agreement via Bump Testing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jankovic, John; Zontek, Tracy L; Ogle, Burton R; Hollenbeck, Scott</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> records of two direct reading <span class="hlt">instruments</span> designated as condensation particle counters were examined to determine the number of times they were found to be out of tolerance at annual manufacturer's recalibration. Both <span class="hlt">instruments</span> were found to be out of tolerance more times than within tolerance. And, it was concluded that annual <span class="hlt">calibration</span> alone was insufficient to provide operational confidence in an <span class="hlt">instrument</span>'s response. Therefore, a method based on subsequent agreement with data gathered from a newly <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was developed to confirm operational readiness between annual <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>, hereafter referred to as bump testing. The method consists of measuring source particles produced by a gas grille spark igniter in a gallon-size jar. Sampling from this chamber with a newly <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to determine the <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> response over the particle concentration range of interest serves as a reference. Agreement between this reference response and subsequent responses at later dates implies that the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is performing as it was at the time of <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. Side-by-side sampling allows the level of agreement between two or more <span class="hlt">instruments</span> to be determined. This is useful when simultaneously collected data are compared for differences, i.e., background with process aerosol concentrations. A reference set of data was obtained using the spark igniter. The generation system was found to be reproducible and suitable to form the basis of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> verification. The bump test is simple enough to be performed periodically throughout the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> year or prior to field monitoring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1287008','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1287008"><span>Direct Reading Particle Counters: <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Verification and Multiple <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Agreement via Bump Testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jankovic, John; Zontek, Tracy L.; Ogle, Burton R.; Hollenbeck, Scott</p> <p>2015-01-27</p> <p>We examined the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> records of two direct reading <span class="hlt">instruments</span> designated as condensation particle counters in order to determine the number of times they were found to be out of tolerance at annual manufacturer's recalibration. For both <span class="hlt">instruments</span> were found to be out of tolerance more times than within tolerance. And, it was concluded that annual <span class="hlt">calibration</span> alone was insufficient to provide operational confidence in an <span class="hlt">instrument</span>'s response. Thus, a method based on subsequent agreement with data gathered from a newly <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was developed to confirm operational readiness between annual <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>, hereafter referred to as bump testing. The method consists of measuring source particles produced by a gas grille spark igniter in a gallon-size jar. Sampling from this chamber with a newly <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to determine the <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> response over the particle concentration range of interest serves as a reference. Agreement between this reference response and subsequent responses at later dates implies that the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is performing as it was at the time of <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. Side-by-side sampling allows the level of agreement between two or more <span class="hlt">instruments</span> to be determined. This is useful when simultaneously collected data are compared for differences, i.e., background with process aerosol concentrations. A reference set of data was obtained using the spark igniter. The generation system was found to be reproducible and suitable to form the basis of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> verification. Finally, the bump test is simple enough to be performed periodically throughout the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> year or prior to field monitoring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730003770','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730003770"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of combined bending-torsion fatigue reliability data <span class="hlt">reduction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kececioglu, D.; Mcconnell, J. B.</p> <p>1969-01-01</p> <p>The combined bending-torsion fatigue reliability research machines are described. Three such machines are presently in operation. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of these machines is presented in depth. Fatigue data generated with these machines for SAE 4340 steel grooved specimens subjected to reversed bending and steady torque loading are given. The data <span class="hlt">reduction</span> procedure is presented. Finally, some comments are made about notch sensitivity and stress concentration as applied to combined fatigue.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MeScR..10...50J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MeScR..10...50J"><span>Generic System for Remote Testing and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of Measuring <span class="hlt">Instruments</span>: Security Architecture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jurčević, M.; Hegeduš, H.; Golub, M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Testing and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of laboratory <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and reference standards is a routine activity and is a resource and time consuming process. Since many of the modern <span class="hlt">instruments</span> include some communication interfaces, it is possible to create a remote <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system. This approach addresses a wide range of possible applications and permits to drive a number of different devices. On the other hand, remote <span class="hlt">calibration</span> process involves a number of security issues due to recommendations specified in standard ISO/IEC 17025, since it is not under total control of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> laboratory personnel who will sign the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> certificate. This approach implies that the traceability and integrity of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> process directly depends on the collected measurement data. The reliable and secure remote control and monitoring of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> is a crucial aspect of internet-enabled <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Metro..52..145K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Metro..52..145K"><span>Comparison of spectral radiance responsivity <span class="hlt">calibration</span> techniques used for backscatter ultraviolet satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kowalewski, M. G.; Janz, S. J.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Methods of absolute radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of backscatter ultraviolet (BUV) satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span> are compared as part of an effort to minimize pre-launch <span class="hlt">calibration</span> uncertainties. An internally illuminated integrating sphere source has been used for the Shuttle Solar BUV, Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, Ozone Mapping <span class="hlt">Instrument</span>, and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 using standardized procedures traceable to national standards. These sphere-based spectral responsivities agree to within the derived combined standard uncertainty of 1.87% relative to <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> performed using an external diffuser illuminated by standard irradiance sources, the customary spectral radiance responsivity <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method for BUV <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The combined standard uncertainty for these <span class="hlt">calibration</span> techniques as implemented at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center’s Radiometric <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Development Laboratory is shown to less than 2% at 250 nm when using a single traceable <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standard.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950004705','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950004705"><span>A new method for monitoring long term <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the SBUV and TOMS <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ahmad, Z.; Seftor, C.; Wellemeyer, C.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A new method has been developed to monitor the long-term <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. It is based on the fact that the radiance in one channel can be expressed as a linear sum of the radiances in neighboring channels. Using simulated radiances for the SBUV and TOMS <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, various scenarios of changes in <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> are investigated. Results from sample processing of SBUV data are also presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090004225','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090004225"><span>Positioning system for single or multi-axis sensitive <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system for use therewith</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Finley, Tom D. (Inventor); Parker, Peter A. (Inventor)</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A positioning and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system are provided for use in <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> a single or multi axis sensitive <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, such as an inclinometer. The positioning system includes a positioner that defines six planes of tangential contact. A mounting region within the six planes is adapted to have an inclinometer coupled thereto. The positioning system also includes means for defining first and second flat surfaces that are approximately perpendicular to one another with the first surface adapted to be oriented relative to a local or induced reference field of interest to the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> being <span class="hlt">calibrated</span>, such as a gravitational vector. The positioner is positioned such that one of its six planes tangentially rests on the first flat surface and another of its six planes tangentially contacts the second flat surface. A <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system is formed when the positioning system is used with a data collector and processor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010013','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010013"><span>Radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> stability and inter-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> of solar-band <span class="hlt">instruments</span> in orbit using the moon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stone, T.C.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>With the increased emphasis on monitoring the Earth's climate from space, more stringent <span class="hlt">calibration</span> requirements are being placed on the data products from remote sensing satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Among these are stability over decade-length time scales and consistency across sensors and platforms. For radiometer <span class="hlt">instruments</span> in the solar reflectance wavelength range (visible to shortwave infrared), maintaining <span class="hlt">calibration</span> on orbit is difficult due to the lack of absolute radiometric standards suitable for flight use. The Moon presents a luminous source that can be viewed by all <span class="hlt">instruments</span> in Earth orbit. Considered as a solar diffuser, the lunar surface is exceedingly stable. The chief difficulty with using the Moon is the strong variations in the Moon's brightness with illumination and viewing geometry. This mandates the use of a photometric model to compare lunar observations, either over time by the same <span class="hlt">instrument</span> or between <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The U.S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff, Arizona, under NASA sponsorship, has developed a model for the lunar spectral irradiance that explicitly accounts for the effects of phase, the lunar librations, and the lunar surface reflectance properties. The model predicts variations in the Moon's brightness with precision ???1% over a continuous phase range from eclipse to the quarter lunar phases. Given a time series of Moon observations taken by an <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, the geometric prediction capability of the lunar irradiance model enables sensor <span class="hlt">calibration</span> stability with sub-percent per year precision. Cross-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> with similar passbands can be achieved with precision comparable to the model precision. Although the Moon observations used for intercomparison can be widely separated in phase angle and/or time, SeaWiFS and MODIS have acquired lunar views closely spaced in time. These data provide an example to assess inter-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> biases between these two <span class="hlt">instruments</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27782587','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27782587"><span>A virtual <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to standardise the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of atomic force microscope cantilevers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sader, John E; Borgani, Riccardo; Gibson, Christopher T; Haviland, David B; Higgins, Michael J; Kilpatrick, Jason I; Lu, Jianing; Mulvaney, Paul; Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Thorén, Per-Anders; Tran, Jim; Zhang, Heyou; Zhang, Hongrui; Zheng, Tian</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Atomic force microscope (AFM) users often <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the spring constants of cantilevers using functionality built into individual <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. This <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is performed without reference to a global standard, hindering the robust comparison of force measurements reported by different laboratories. Here, we describe a virtual <span class="hlt">instrument</span> (an internet-based initiative) whereby users from all laboratories can instantly and quantitatively compare their <span class="hlt">calibration</span> measurements to those of others-standardising AFM force measurements-and simultaneously enabling non-invasive <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of AFM cantilevers of any geometry. This global <span class="hlt">calibration</span> initiative requires no additional <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> or data processing on the part of the user. It utilises a single website where users upload currently available data. A proof-of-principle demonstration of this initiative is presented using measured data from five independent laboratories across three countries, which also allows for an assessment of current <span class="hlt">calibration</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RScI...87i3711S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RScI...87i3711S"><span>A virtual <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to standardise the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of atomic force microscope cantilevers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sader, John E.; Borgani, Riccardo; Gibson, Christopher T.; Haviland, David B.; Higgins, Michael J.; Kilpatrick, Jason I.; Lu, Jianing; Mulvaney, Paul; Shearer, Cameron J.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Thorén, Per-Anders; Tran, Jim; Zhang, Heyou; Zhang, Hongrui; Zheng, Tian</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Atomic force microscope (AFM) users often <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the spring constants of cantilevers using functionality built into individual <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. This <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is performed without reference to a global standard, hindering the robust comparison of force measurements reported by different laboratories. Here, we describe a virtual <span class="hlt">instrument</span> (an internet-based initiative) whereby users from all laboratories can instantly and quantitatively compare their <span class="hlt">calibration</span> measurements to those of others—standardising AFM force measurements—and simultaneously enabling non-invasive <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of AFM cantilevers of any geometry. This global <span class="hlt">calibration</span> initiative requires no additional <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> or data processing on the part of the user. It utilises a single website where users upload currently available data. A proof-of-principle demonstration of this initiative is presented using measured data from five independent laboratories across three countries, which also allows for an assessment of current <span class="hlt">calibration</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......144K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......144K"><span>Improving RR Lyrae Distance Indicators Through <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span>, Observation, and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klein, Christopher Robert</p> <p></p> <p>Due to technological limitations and peculiarities of Nature, classes of astronomical distance indicators are applicable only in specific distance ranges. The Cosmic Distance Ladder is the framework by which we link together distance indicators, climbing from one rung to the next, in order to measure physical distance on an absolute scale. The object of this dissertation is one category of distance indicators, called RR Lyrae pulsating variable stars, which has commanded substantial scientific study for more than a century. RR Lyrae stars are low mass (M ≈ 0.7 Msol), old (age > 1010 yr) Population II objects that are found mixed in with any stellar population of requisite age. They are unstable to radial harmonic oscillations (pulsations) because of their specific mass, metallicity content, and interior composition. It has been empirically determined, and theoretically justified, that the pulsation periods of individual RR Lyrae stars are correlated with their intrinsic luminosity; hereafter referred to as the RR Lyrae period--luminosity relation. Thus, if one can measure the period of a star (a relatively straightforward task given sufficient observations), then one can use that star as a standard candle and infer its distance. The work in this dissertation is aimed at improving our understanding of the period--luminosity relation of RR Lyrae stars, and particularly at improving the precision of RR Lyrae distance measurements. By leveraging (and advancing) new observational facilities, gathering an abundance of new classical observations, and developing new statistical methods to combine a wealth of multi-wavelength data, this goal has been accomplished. In this dissertation I describe the involved methodology and report distances to a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> sample of 134 RR Lyrae stars with a median fractional distance error of 0.66 per cent. In the following chapters I describe the arc of this research. First, I present an <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> development project that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec92-117.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec92-117.pdf"><span>40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, particulate measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol20-sec92-117.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol20-sec92-117.pdf"><span>40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, particulate measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec92-117.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec92-117.pdf"><span>40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, particulate measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol21-sec92-117.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol21-sec92-117.pdf"><span>40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, particulate measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol21-sec92-117.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol21-sec92-117.pdf"><span>40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, particulate measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=245023','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=245023"><span>Transfer of <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> for barley quality from dispersive intrument to fourier transform near-infrared <span class="hlt">instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This study deals with transferring the near-infrared (NIR) <span class="hlt">calibration</span> models for quality assessment of barley between two <span class="hlt">instruments</span> with different resolutions and number of data points, a Fourier transform <span class="hlt">instrument</span> (master) and a dispersive <span class="hlt">instrument</span> (slave). A file of spectra from 206 ground ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.772a2017F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.772a2017F"><span>Evaluation applications of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> research findings in psychology for very small samples</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fisher, W. P., Jr.; Petry, P.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Many published research studies document item <span class="hlt">calibration</span> invariance across samples using Rasch's probabilistic models for measurement. A new approach to outcomes evaluation for very small samples was employed for two workshop series focused on stress <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and joyful living conducted for health system employees and caregivers since 2012. Rasch-<span class="hlt">calibrated</span> self-report <span class="hlt">instruments</span> measuring depression, anxiety and stress, and the joyful living effects of mindfulness behaviors were identified in peer-reviewed journal articles. Items from one <span class="hlt">instrument</span> were modified for use with a US population, other items were simplified, and some new items were written. Participants provided ratings of their depression, anxiety and stress, and the effects of their mindfulness behaviors before and after each workshop series. The numbers of participants providing both pre- and post-workshop data were low (16 and 14). Analysis of these small data sets produce results showing that, with some exceptions, the item hierarchies defining the constructs retained the same invariant profiles they had exhibited in the published research (correlations (not disattenuated) range from 0.85 to 0.96). In addition, comparisons of the pre- and post-workshop measures for the three constructs showed substantively and statistically significant changes. Implications for program evaluation comparisons, quality improvement efforts, and the organization of communications concerning outcomes in clinical fields are explored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9608E..0SN','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9608E..0SN"><span>Thermal Earth Resource Monitoring <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> (THERMI) size, weight and power <span class="hlt">reduction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Newswander, T.; Bergen, Z.; Hancock, J.; Hansen, S.; Shumway, A.; Stauder, J.; Williams, D.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The Thermal Earth Resource Monitoring <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> (THERMI) has been designed to meet stringent Landsat heritage requirements with reduced size, weight and power (SWaP). The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> design provides Earth resource monitoring through the use of two long-wave infrared bands that measure the land surface temperatures. These bands are especially valuable for monitoring water resources and water use. <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> subsystems, including electronics, cryocooler, thermal management, optical telescope assembly, focal plane module, in-flight <span class="hlt">calibrator</span>, and scene select mirror were studied and conceptually designed to reduce overall THERMI SWaP. <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> in SWaP make it possible for THERMI to fit on a small satellite bus with room available for an additional optical <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Since mission cost historically correlates well with mass and power on-orbit, it is expected that significant cost savings will result from the predicted SWaP <span class="hlt">reductions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JATIS...2d4002K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JATIS...2d4002K"><span>Source-based <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of space <span class="hlt">instruments</span> using calculable synchrotron radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klein, Roman; Fliegauf, Rolf; Kroth, Simone; Paustian, Wolfgang; Reichel, Thomas; Richter, Mathias; Thornagel, Reiner</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has more than 20 years of experience in the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of space-based <span class="hlt">instruments</span> using synchrotron radiation to cover the ultraviolet (UV), vacuum UV (VUV), and x-ray spectral range. Over the past decades, PTB has performed <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> for numerous space missions within scientific collaborations and has become an important partner for activities in this field. New <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> at the electron storage ring, metrology light source, creates additional <span class="hlt">calibration</span> possibilities within this framework. A new facility for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of radiation transfer source standards with a considerably extended spectral range has been put into operation. The commissioning of a large vacuum vessel that can accommodate entire space <span class="hlt">instruments</span> opens up new prospects. Finally, an existing VUV transfer <span class="hlt">calibration</span> source was upgraded to increase the spectral range coverage to a band from 15 to 350 nm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090023624','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090023624"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> for Measuring Wind Velocity and Direction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vogler, Raymond D.; Pilny, Miroslav J.</p> <p>1950-01-01</p> <p>Signal Corps wind equipment AN/GMQ-1 consisting of a 3-cup anemometer and wind vane was <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> for wind velocities from 1 to 200 miles per hour. Cup-shaft failure prevented <span class="hlt">calibration</span> at higher wind velocities. The action of the wind vane was checked and found to have very poor directional accuracy below a velocity of 8 miles per hour. After shaft failure was reported to the Signal Corps, the cup rotors were redesigned by strengthening the shafts for better operation at high velocities. The anemometer with the redesigned cup rotors was recalibrated, but cup-shaft failure occurred again at a wind velocity of approximately 220 miles per hour. In the course of this <span class="hlt">calibration</span> two standard generators were checked for signal output variation, and a wind-speed meter was <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> for use with each of the redesigned cup rotors. The variation of pressure coefficient with air-flow direction at four orifices on a disk-shaped pitot head was obtained for wind velocities of 37.79 53.6, and 98.9 miles per hour. A pitot-static tube mounted in the nose of a vane was <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> up to a dynamic pressure of 155 pounds per square foot, or approximately 256 miles per hour,</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170003104','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170003104"><span>L-band Radiometer <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Consistency Assessment for the SMOS, SMAP, and Aquarius <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dinnat, Emmanuel; Le Vine, David</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Three L-band radiometers have been observing the Earth in order to retrieve soil moisture and ocean salinity. They use different <span class="hlt">instrument</span> configurations and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and retrieval algorithms. In any case, the brightness temperature retrieved at the Earth surface should be consistent between all <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. One reason for inconsistency would be the use of different approaches for the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> or the use of different models to retrieve surface brightness temperature. We report on the different approaches used for the SMOS, SMAP and Aquarius <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and their impact on the observations consistency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1287008-direct-reading-particle-counters-calibration-verification-multiple-instrument-agreement-via-bump-testing','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1287008-direct-reading-particle-counters-calibration-verification-multiple-instrument-agreement-via-bump-testing"><span>Direct Reading Particle Counters: <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Verification and Multiple <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Agreement via Bump Testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Jankovic, John; Zontek, Tracy L.; Ogle, Burton R.; ...</p> <p>2015-01-27</p> <p>We examined the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> records of two direct reading <span class="hlt">instruments</span> designated as condensation particle counters in order to determine the number of times they were found to be out of tolerance at annual manufacturer's recalibration. For both <span class="hlt">instruments</span> were found to be out of tolerance more times than within tolerance. And, it was concluded that annual <span class="hlt">calibration</span> alone was insufficient to provide operational confidence in an <span class="hlt">instrument</span>'s response. Thus, a method based on subsequent agreement with data gathered from a newly <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was developed to confirm operational readiness between annual <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>, hereafter referred to as bump testing. The methodmore » consists of measuring source particles produced by a gas grille spark igniter in a gallon-size jar. Sampling from this chamber with a newly <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to determine the <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> response over the particle concentration range of interest serves as a reference. Agreement between this reference response and subsequent responses at later dates implies that the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is performing as it was at the time of <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. Side-by-side sampling allows the level of agreement between two or more <span class="hlt">instruments</span> to be determined. This is useful when simultaneously collected data are compared for differences, i.e., background with process aerosol concentrations. A reference set of data was obtained using the spark igniter. The generation system was found to be reproducible and suitable to form the basis of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> verification. Finally, the bump test is simple enough to be performed periodically throughout the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> year or prior to field monitoring.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017sgvi.confE...2B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017sgvi.confE...2B"><span>Polarimetric <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Accuracy: Lessons Learnt from Present <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bagnulo, Stefano</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>"We will discuss several sources of non-photon noise that may prevent the current polarimetric <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> from reaching the accuracy needed in various astronomical applications, from the detection of weak magnetic fields to the characterisation of (exo) planetary atmospheres and the search of extra-terrestrial life. Lessons learnt today will help to improve the design of future <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>."</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740002187','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740002187"><span>NASA-6 atmospheric measuring station. [<span class="hlt">calibration</span>, functional checks, and operation of measuring <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Information required to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span>, functionally check, and operate the <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> Branch equipment on the NASA-6 aircraft is provided. All procedures required for preflight checks and in-flight operation of the NASA-6 atmospheric measuring station are given. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> section is intended for only that portion of the system maintained and <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> by IN-MSD-12 Systems Operation contractor personnel. Maintenance is not included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860052267&hterms=Satellite+locations&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DSatellite%2Blocations','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860052267&hterms=Satellite+locations&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DSatellite%2Blocations"><span>Which <span class="hlt">calibration</span>-pulse location method is robust?. [for satellite imaging <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gunther, F. J.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The Threshold method, with high threshold and contiguous-block parameter values, was found to be a robust method of locating <span class="hlt">calibration</span> pulses in the presence of light-leak and shutter-edge pulses within the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> window. Tests used digitized <span class="hlt">calibration</span>-window background and light-pulse data from the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, analyzed by special software on an Apple II+ personal computer and on a VAX 11/780 minicomputer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26836861','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26836861"><span>Comparison of two methodologies for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span> in the visible and near-infrared.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barnes, Robert A; Brown, Steven W; Lykke, Keith R; Guenther, Bruce; Butler, James J; Schwarting, Thomas; Turpie, Kevin; Moyer, David; DeLuccia, Frank; Moeller, Christopher</p> <p>2015-12-10</p> <p>Traditionally, satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that measure Earth-reflected solar radiation in the visible and near infrared wavelength regions have been <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> for radiance responsivity in a two-step method. In the first step, the relative spectral response (RSR) of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is determined using a nearly monochromatic light source such as a lamp-illuminated monochromator. These sources do not typically fill the field of view of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> nor act as <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> sources of light. Consequently, they only provide a relative (not absolute) spectral response for the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. In the second step, the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> views a <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> source of broadband light, such as a lamp-illuminated integrating sphere. The RSR and the sphere's absolute spectral radiance are combined to determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity (ASR) of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. More recently, a full-aperture absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approach using widely tunable monochromatic lasers has been developed. Using these sources, the ASR of an <span class="hlt">instrument</span> can be determined in a single step on a wavelength-by-wavelength basis. From these monochromatic ASRs, the responses of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> bands to broadband radiance sources can be calculated directly, eliminating the need for <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> broadband light sources such as lamp-illuminated integrating spheres. In this work, the traditional broadband source-based <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the Suomi National Preparatory Project Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite sensor is compared with the laser-based <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the sensor. Finally, the impact of the new full-aperture laser-based <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approach on the on-orbit performance of the sensor is considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800015773','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800015773"><span><span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and control of a continuous-flow cryogenic tunnel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ladson, C. L.; Kilgore, R. A.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Those aspects of selection and application of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and control <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> that are influenced by the extremes in the temperature environment to be found in cryogenic tunnels are described with emphasis on the <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> and data acquisition system used in the Langley 0.3 m transonic cryogenic tunnel. Typical <span class="hlt">calibration</span> results obtained in a 20 by 60 cm two dimensional test section are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4959044','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4959044"><span>Comparison of two methodologies for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span> in the visible and near infrared</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Barnes, Robert A.; Brown, Steven W.; Lykke, Keith R.; Guenther, Bruce; Butler, James J.; Schwarting, Thomas; Moyer, David; Turpie, Kevin; DeLuccia, Frank; Moeller, Christopher</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Traditionally, satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that measure Earth-reflected solar radiation in the visible and near infrared wavelength regions have been <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> for radiance responsivity in a two-step method. In the first step, the relative spectral response (RSR) of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is determined using a nearly monochromatic light source such as a lamp-illuminated monochromator. These sources do not typically fill the field-of-view of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> nor act as <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> sources of light. Consequently, they only provide a relative (not absolute) spectral response for the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. In the second step, the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> views a <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> source of broadband light, such as a lamp-illuminated integrating sphere. The RSR and the sphere absolute spectral radiance are combined to determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity (ASR) of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. More recently, a full-aperture absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approach using widely tunable monochromatic lasers has been developed. Using these sources, the ASR of an <span class="hlt">instrument</span> can be determined in a single step on a wavelength-by-wavelength basis. From these monochromatic ASRs, the responses of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> bands to broadband radiance sources can be calculated directly, eliminating the need for <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> broadband light sources such as integrating spheres. In this work, the traditional broadband source-based <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the Suomi National Preparatory Project (SNPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor is compared with the laser-based <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the sensor. Finally, the impact of the new full-aperture laser-based <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approach on the on-orbit performance of the sensor is considered. PMID:26836861</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810007912','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810007912"><span>Specifying and <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> <span class="hlt">instrumentations</span> for wideband electronic power measurements. [in switching circuits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lesco, D. J.; Weikle, D. H.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The wideband electric power measurement related topics of electronic wattmeter <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and specification are discussed. Tested <span class="hlt">calibration</span> techniques are described in detail. Analytical methods used to determine the bandwidth requirements of <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> for switching circuit waveforms are presented and illustrated with examples from electric vehicle type applications. Analog multiplier wattmeters, digital wattmeters and calculating digital oscilloscopes are compared. The <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> characteristics which are critical to accurate wideband power measurement are described.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000371','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000371"><span>Comparison of Two Methodologies for <span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> Satellite <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> in the Visible and Near-Infrared</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barnes, Robert A.; Brown, Steven W.; Lykke, Keith R.; Guenther, Bruce; Butler, James J.; Schwarting, Thomas; Turpie, Kevin; Moyer, David; DeLuccia, Frank; Moeller, Christopher</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Traditionally, satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that measure Earth-reflected solar radiation in the visible and near infrared wavelength regions have been <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> for radiance responsivity in a two-step method. In the first step, the relative spectral response (RSR) of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is determined using a nearly monochromatic light source such as a lamp-illuminated monochromator. These sources do not typically fill the field-of-view of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> nor act as <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> sources of light. Consequently, they only provide a relative (not absolute) spectral response for the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. In the second step, the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> views a <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> source of broadband light, such as a lamp-illuminated integrating sphere. The RSR and the sphere absolute spectral radiance are combined to determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity (ASR) of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. More recently, a full-aperture absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approach using widely tunable monochromatic lasers has been developed. Using these sources, the ASR of an <span class="hlt">instrument</span> can be determined in a single step on a wavelength-by-wavelength basis. From these monochromatic ASRs, the responses of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> bands to broadband radiance sources can be calculated directly, eliminating the need for <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> broadband light sources such as lamp-illuminated integrating spheres. In this work, the traditional broadband source-based <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the Suomi National Preparatory Project (SNPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor is compared with the laser-based <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the sensor. Finally, the impact of the new full-aperture laser-based <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approach on the on-orbit performance of the sensor is considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013066','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013066"><span>Absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of Landsat <span class="hlt">instruments</span> using the moon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kieffer, H.H.; Wildey, R.L.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A lunar observation by Landsat could provide improved radiometric and geometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of both the Thematic Mapper and the Multispectral Scanner in terms of absolute radiometry, determination of the modulation transfer function, and sensitivity to scattered light. A pitch of the spacecraft would be required. -Authors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/90922','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/90922"><span>On-line <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of process <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> channels in nuclear power plants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hashemian, H.M.; Farmer, J.P.</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>An on-line <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> monitoring system was developed and validated for use in nuclear power plants. This system continuously monitors the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> status of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> channels and determines whether or not they require manual <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. This is accomplished by comparing the output of each <span class="hlt">instrument</span> channel to an estimate of the process it is monitoring. If the deviation of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> channel from the process estimate is greater than an allowable limit, then the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is said to be {open_quotes}out of <span class="hlt">calibration</span>{close_quotes} and manual adjustments are made to correct the <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. The success of the on-line monitoring system depends on the accuracy of the process estimation. The system described in this paper incorporates both simple intercomparison techniques as well as analytical approaches in the form of data-driven empirical modeling to estimate the process. On-line testing of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of process <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> channels will reduce the number of manual <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> currently performed, thereby reducing both costs to utilities and radiation exposure to plant personnel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H43H1629O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H43H1629O"><span>SMOS <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Performance and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> After 6 Years in Orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oliva, R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission has been in orbit for over 6 years, and its Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) in two dimensions keeps working well. The data for this whole period has been recently reprocessed with the new fully polarimetric version (v620) of the Level-1 processor which also includes refined <span class="hlt">calibration</span> schema for the antenna losses. This reprocessing has allowed the assessment of an improved performance benchmark. The long term drift exhibited by the previous processor version has been significantly mitigated thanks to a better <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the antenna losses and the use of only the most accurate Noise Injection Radiometer. These improvements have also reduced the orbital and seasonal variations, although residual drifts still remain, in particular during the satellite eclipse season. The spatial tilt existing in the images produced with the previous version of the Level-1 processor has been considerably decreased, removing the negative trend at low incidence angles and reducing the overall standard deviation of the spatial ripples. The expected improvement in the 3rd and 4th Stokes, after correcting the use of the cross-polar antenna patterns, has been confirmed, enabling accurate retrieval of the Faraday rotation angle. Finally, a better Sun and RFI flagging strategy has been implemented, allowing for the removal of the corrupted data. A problem which still persist in the new Level-1 data is the land-sea contamination. However, recent progress in the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> investigations has shed new light on the origin of the land-sea contamination, linking it to visibility amplitude <span class="hlt">calibration</span> errors. Thus, future versions of the Level-1 processor will have very much reduced land-sea contamination. An overview of the results and the progress achieved in both <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and image reconstruction will be presented in this contribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26109515','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26109515"><span>Impact of Lean on surgical <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span>: Less is more.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wannemuehler, Todd J; Elghouche, Alhasan N; Kokoska, Mimi S; Deig, Christopher R; Matt, Bruce H</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>To determine whether <span class="hlt">instrument</span> sets that are frequently used by multiple surgeons can be substantially reduced in size with consensus. Prospective quality improvement study using Lean Six Sigma for purposeful and consensual <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of non-value-added <span class="hlt">instruments</span> in adenotonsillectomy <span class="hlt">instrument</span> sets. Value stream mapping was utilized to determine <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> usage and reprocessing workflow. Preintervention <span class="hlt">instrument</span> utilization surveys allowed consensual and intelligent set <span class="hlt">reduction</span>. Non-value-added <span class="hlt">instruments</span> were targeted for waste elimination by placement in a supplemental set. Times for pre- and postintervention <span class="hlt">instrument</span> assembly, Mayo setup, and surgery were collected for adenotonsillectomies. Postintervention satisfaction surveys of surgeons and staff were conducted. Adenotonsillectomy sets were reduced from 52 to 24 <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Median assembly times were significantly reduced from 8.4 to 4.7 minutes (P < .0001) with a set assembly cost <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of 44%. Following natural log transformations, mean Mayo setup times were significantly reduced from 97.6 to 76.1 seconds (P < .0001), and mean operative times were not significantly affected (1,773 vs. 1,631 seconds, P > .05). The supplemental set was opened in only 3.6% of cases. Satisfaction was >90% regarding the intervention. Set build cost was reduced by $1,468.99 per set. Lean Six Sigma improves efficiency and reduces waste by empowering team members to improve their environment. <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> set <span class="hlt">reduction</span> is ideal for waste elimination because of tool accumulation over time and <span class="hlt">instrument</span> obsolescence as newer technologies are adopted. Similar interventions could easily be applied to larger sinus, mastoidectomy, and spine sets. NA. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6686470','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6686470"><span>A Sr-90/Y-90 field <span class="hlt">calibrator</span> for performance testing of beta-gamma survey <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Olsher, R.H.; Haynie, J.S.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>ANSI and regulatory agency guidelines prescribe periodic performance tests for radiation protection <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>. Reference readings should be obtained for one point on each scale or decade normally used. A small and lightweight <span class="hlt">calibrator</span> has been developed that facilitates field testing of beta-gamma survey <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The <span class="hlt">calibrator</span> uses a 45 microcurie Sr-90/Y-90 beta source with a filter wheel to generate variable dose rates in the range from 4 to 400 mrad/hr. Thus, several ranges may be checked by dialing in appropriate filters. The design, use, and typical applications of the <span class="hlt">calibrator</span> are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1813d0004R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1813d0004R"><span>Application of six sigma and AHP in analysis of variable lead time <span class="hlt">calibration</span> process <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rimantho, Dino; Rahman, Tomy Abdul; Cahyadi, Bambang; Tina Hernawati, S.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> equipment in the pharmaceutical industry is an important activity to determine the true value of a measurement. Preliminary studies indicated that occur lead-time <span class="hlt">calibration</span> resulted in disruption of production and laboratory activities. This study aimed to analyze the causes of lead-time <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. Several methods used in this study such as, Six Sigma in order to determine the capability process of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> of equipment. Furthermore, the method of brainstorming, Pareto diagrams, and Fishbone diagrams were used to identify and analyze the problems. Then, the method of Hierarchy Analytical Process (AHP) was used to create a hierarchical structure and prioritize problems. The results showed that the value of DPMO around 40769.23 which was equivalent to the level of sigma in <span class="hlt">calibration</span> equipment approximately 3,24σ. This indicated the need for improvements in the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> process. Furthermore, the determination of problem-solving strategies Lead Time <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> such as, shortens the schedule preventive maintenance, increase the number of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibrators</span>, and train personnel. Test results on the consistency of the whole matrix of pairwise comparisons and consistency test showed the value of hierarchy the CR below 0.1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE10155E..0XY','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE10155E..0XY"><span>Design and realization of photoelectric <span class="hlt">instrument</span> binocular optical axis parallelism <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ying, Jia-ju; Chen, Yu-dan; Liu, Jie; Wu, Dong-sheng; Lu, Jun</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The maladjustment of photoelectric <span class="hlt">instrument</span> binocular optical axis parallelism will affect the observe effect directly. A binocular optical axis parallelism digital <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system is designed. On the basis of the principle of optical axis binocular photoelectric <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, the scheme of system is designed, and the binocular optical axis parallelism digital <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system is realized, which include four modules: multiband parallel light tube, optical axis translation, image acquisition system and software system. According to the different characteristics of thermal infrared imager and low-light-level night viewer, different algorithms is used to localize the center of the cross reticle. And the binocular optical axis parallelism <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is realized for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> low-light-level night viewer and thermal infrared imager.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930080997','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930080997"><span>An Altitude Chamber for the Study and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of Aeronautical <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reid, J E; Kirchner, Otto E</p> <p>1925-01-01</p> <p>The design and construction of an altitude chamber, in which both pressure and temperature can be varied independently, was carried out by the NACA at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory for the purpose of studying the effects of temperature and pressure on aeronautical research <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Temperatures from +20c to -50c are obtained by the expansion of CO2from standard containers. The chamber can be used for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of research <span class="hlt">instruments</span> under altitude conditions simulating those up to 45,000 feet. Results obtained with this chamber have a direct application in the design and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used in free flight research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9639E..19G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9639E..19G"><span>Preparation of a new autonomous <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> site: Gobabeb, Namib Desert</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Greenwell, Claire; Bialek, Agnieszka; Marks, Amelia; Woolliams, Emma; Berthelot, Béatrice; Meygret, Aimé; Marcq, Sébastien; Bouvet, Marc; Fox, Nigel</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>A new permanently <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> site for high/medium resolution imaging satellite sensors is currently under development, focussing on the visible and near infra-red parts of the spectrum. The site will become a European contribution to the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) initiative RadCalNet (Radiometric <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Network). The exact location of the permanent monitoring <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> will be defined following the initial site characterisation. The new ESA/CNES RadCalNet site will have a robust uncertainty budget and its data fully SI traceable through detailed characterisation and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> by NPL of the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and artefacts to be used on the site. This includes a CIMEL sun photometer (the permanent <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>) an ASD FieldSpec spectroradiometer, Gonio Radiometric Spectrometer System (GRASS), and reference reflectance standards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol33/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol33-sec1066-130.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol33/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol33-sec1066-130.pdf"><span>40 CFR 1066.130 - Measurement <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> and verifications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... air flow; the linearity verification described in § 1066.135 applies for the following measurements... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment, Measurement <span class="hlt">Instruments</span>, Fuel, and... apply for engine speed, torque, fuel rate, or intake air flow. (b) The linearity verification...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9607E..1LS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9607E..1LS"><span>S-NPP VIIRS <span class="hlt">instrument</span> telemetry and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> data trend study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, ZiPing; De Luccia, Frank J.; Cardema, Jason C.; Moy, Gabriel</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) employs a large number of temperature and voltage sensors (telemetry points) to monitor <span class="hlt">instrument</span> health and performance. We have collected data and built tools to study telemetry and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> parameters trends. The telemetry points are organized into groups based on locations and functionalities. Examples of the groups are: telescope motor, focal plane array (FPA), scan cavity bulkhead, radiators, solar diffuser and Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM). We have performed daily monitoring and long-term trending studies. Daily monitoring processes are automated with alarms built into the software to indicate if pre-defined limits are exceeded. Long-term trending studies focus on <span class="hlt">instrument</span> performance and sensitivities of Sensor Data Record (SDR) products and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> look-up tables (LUTs) to <span class="hlt">instrument</span> temperature and voltage variations. VIIRS uses a DC Restore (DCR) process to periodically correct the analog offsets of each detector of each spectral band to ensure that the FPA output signals are always within the dynamic range of the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). The offset values are updated based on observations of the On-Board <span class="hlt">Calibrator</span> Blackbody source. We have performed a long-term trend study of DCR offsets and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> parameters to explore connections of the DCR offsets with onboard <span class="hlt">calibrators</span>. The study also shows how the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> parameters respond to the VIIRS Petulant Mode, spacecraft (SC) anomalies and flight software (FSW) updates. We have also shown that trending studies of telemetry and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> parameters may help to improve the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> processes and SDR Quality Flags.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009995','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009995"><span>CheMin <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Performance and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> on Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D. F.; Morookian, J. M.; Yen, A. S.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Achilles, C. N.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Morrison, S. M.; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20130009995'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20130009995_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20130009995_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20130009995_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20130009995_hide"></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity uses a CCD detector and a Co-anode X-ray tube source to acquire both mineralogy (from the pattern of Co diffraction) and chemical information (from energies of fluoresced X-rays). A key component of the CheMin <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is the ability to move grains within sample cells during analysis, providing multiple, random grain orientations that disperse diffracted X-ray photons along Debye rings rather than producing discrete Laue spots. This movement is accomplished by piezoelectric vibration of the sample cells. A cryocooler is used to maintain the CCD at a temperature at about -50 C in order to obtain energy resolution better than 250 eV, allowing discrimination of diffracted Co K X-rays from Fe K and other fluorescent X-rays. A detailed description of CheMin is provided in [1]. The CheMin flight model (FM) is mounted within the body of Curiosity and has been operating on Mars since August 6, 2012. An essentially identical sister <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, the CheMin demonstration model (DM), is operated in a Mars environment chamber at JPL.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SoPh..289.2377B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SoPh..289.2377B"><span>Photometric and Thermal Cross-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> of Solar EUV <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boerner, P. F.; Testa, P.; Warren, H.; Weber, M. A.; Schrijver, C. J.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>We present an assessment of the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> measurements and atomic physics models that go into calculating the SDO/AIA response as a function of wavelength and temperature. The wavelength response is tested by convolving SDO/EVE and Hinode/EIS spectral data with the AIA effective area functions and by comparing the predictions with AIA observations. For most channels, the AIA intensities summed over the disk agree with the corresponding measurements derived from the current version (V2) of the EVE data to within the estimated 25 % <span class="hlt">calibration</span> error. This agreement indicates that the AIA effective areas are generally stable in time. The AIA 304 Å channel, however, does show degradation by a factor of almost 3 from May 2010 through September 2011, when the throughput apparently reached a minimum. We also found some inconsistencies in the 335 Å passband, possibly due to higher-order contamination of the EVE data. The intensities in the AIA 193 Å channel agree to within the uncertainties with the corresponding measurements from EIS full CCD observations. Analysis of high-resolution X-ray spectra of the solar-like corona of Procyon and of EVE spectra allowed us to investigate the accuracy and completeness of the CHIANTI database in the AIA shorter wavelength passbands. We found that in the 94 Å channel, the spectral model significantly underestimates the plasma emission owing to a multitude of missing lines. We derived an empirical correction for the AIA temperature responses by performing differential emission measure (DEM) inversion on a broad set of EVE spectra and adjusting the AIA response functions so that the count rates predicted by the full-disk DEMs match the observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NIMPA.852...62E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NIMPA.852...62E"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the GNU and HSREM neutron survey <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eakins, J. S.; Hager, L. G.; Leake, J. W.; Mason, R. S.; Tanner, R. J.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Two innovative designs of neutron survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> have recently been developed to estimate ambient dose equivalent in the workplace: the GNU has an improved energy-independence of response in the meV to TeV range; the HSREM is a comparatively lightweight device covering the meV to 10 MeV range. Both designs offer good detection sensitivity, allowing measurements to be made efficiently and thereby minimizing the exposure to their users. Prototypes of both devices have been constructed and exposed to sets of well-characterized reference fields: the resulting measured responses are presented and discussed here, compared against comprehensive Monte Carlo data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AIPC..854..154G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AIPC..854..154G"><span>Software System for the <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of X-Ray Measuring <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gaytán-Gallardo, E.; Tovar-Muñoz, V. M.; Cruz-Estrada, P.; Vergara-Martínez, F. J.; Rivero-Gutiérrez, T.</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>A software system that facilities the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of X-ray measuring <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used in medical applications is presented. The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of the Nuclear Research National Institute in México (ININ in Spanish), supports activities concerning with ionizing radiations in medical area. One of these activities is the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of X-ray measuring <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, in terms of air kerma or exposure by substitution method in an X-ray beam at a point where the rate has been determined by means of a standard ionization chamber. To automatize this process, a software system has been developed, the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system is composed by an X-ray unit, a Dynalizer IIIU X-ray meter by RADCAL, a commercial data acquisition card, the software system and the units to be tested and <span class="hlt">calibrated</span>. A quality control plan has been applied in the development of the software system, ensuring that quality assurance procedures and standards are being followed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18784780','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18784780"><span>Long-term analysis of GOME in-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span> parameters and <span class="hlt">instrument</span> degradation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie; Slijkhuis, Sander; Aberle, Bernd; Loyola, Diego</p> <p>2008-09-10</p> <p>Since 1995, the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) has measured solar and backscattered spectra in the ultraviolet and visible wavelength range. Now, the extensive data set of the most important <span class="hlt">calibration</span> parameters has been investigated thoroughly in order to analyze the long-term stability and performance of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. This study focuses on GOME in-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and degradation for the solar path. Monitoring the sensor degradation yields an intensity decrease of 70% to 90% in 240-316 nm and 35% to 65% in 311-415 nm. The spectral <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is very stable over the whole period, although a very complex interaction between predisperser temperature and wavelength was found. The leakage current and the pixel-to-pixel gain increased significantly during the mission, which requires an accurate correction of the measured radiance and irradiance signals using proper <span class="hlt">calibration</span> parameters. Finally, several outliers in the data sets can be directly assigned to <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and satellite anomalies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20888199','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20888199"><span>Software System for the <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of X-Ray Measuring <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gaytan-Gallardo, E.; Tovar-Munoz, V. M.; Cruz-Estrada, P.; Vergara-Martinez, F. J.; Rivero-Gutierrez, T.</p> <p>2006-09-08</p> <p>A software system that facilities the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of X-ray measuring <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used in medical applications is presented. The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of the Nuclear Research National Institute in Mexico (ININ in Spanish), supports activities concerning with ionizing radiations in medical area. One of these activities is the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of X-ray measuring <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, in terms of air kerma or exposure by substitution method in an X-ray beam at a point where the rate has been determined by means of a standard ionization chamber. To automatize this process, a software system has been developed, the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system is composed by an X-ray unit, a Dynalizer IIIU X-ray meter by RADCAL, a commercial data acquisition card, the software system and the units to be tested and <span class="hlt">calibrated</span>. A quality control plan has been applied in the development of the software system, ensuring that quality assurance procedures and standards are being followed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150004556&hterms=visible+spectroscopy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dvisible%2Bspectroscopy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150004556&hterms=visible+spectroscopy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dvisible%2Bspectroscopy"><span>Design Through Integration of On-Board <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Device with Imaging Spectroscopy <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stange, Michael</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The main purpose of the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy (AVIRIS) project is to "identify, measure, and monitor constituents of the Earth's surface and atmosphere based on molecular absorption and particle scattering signatures." The project designs, builds, and tests various imaging spectroscopy <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that use On-Board <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> devices (OBC) to check the accuracy of the data collected by the spectrometers. The imaging <span class="hlt">instrument</span> records the spectral signatures of light collected during flight. To verify the data is correct, the OBC shines light which is collected by the imaging spectrometer and compared against previous <span class="hlt">calibration</span> data to track spectral response changes in the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. The spectral data has the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> applied to it based on the readings from the OBC data in order to ensure accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150004556&hterms=spectroscopy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dspectroscopy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150004556&hterms=spectroscopy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dspectroscopy"><span>Design Through Integration of On-Board <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Device with Imaging Spectroscopy <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stange, Michael</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The main purpose of the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy (AVIRIS) project is to "identify, measure, and monitor constituents of the Earth's surface and atmosphere based on molecular absorption and particle scattering signatures." The project designs, builds, and tests various imaging spectroscopy <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that use On-Board <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> devices (OBC) to check the accuracy of the data collected by the spectrometers. The imaging <span class="hlt">instrument</span> records the spectral signatures of light collected during flight. To verify the data is correct, the OBC shines light which is collected by the imaging spectrometer and compared against previous <span class="hlt">calibration</span> data to track spectral response changes in the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. The spectral data has the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> applied to it based on the readings from the OBC data in order to ensure accuracy.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900002683','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900002683"><span>Droplet sizing <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> used for icing research: Operation, <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and accuracy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hovenac, Edward A.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The accuracy of the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP) is determined using laboratory tests, wind tunnel comparisons, and computer simulations. Operation in an icing environment is discussed and a new <span class="hlt">calibration</span> device for the FSSP (the rotating pinhole) is demonstrated to be a valuable tool. Operation of the Optical Array Probe is also presented along with a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> device (the rotating reticle) which is suitable for performing detailed analysis of that <span class="hlt">instrument</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21352655','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21352655"><span>Multivariate <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and <span class="hlt">instrument</span> standardization for the rapid detection of diethylene glycol in glycerin by Raman spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gryniewicz-Ruzicka, Connie M; Arzhantsev, Sergey; Pelster, Lindsey N; Westenberger, Benjamin J; Buhse, Lucinda F; Kauffman, John F</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>The transfer of a multivariate <span class="hlt">calibration</span> model for quantitative determination of diethylene glycol (DEG) contaminant in pharmaceutical-grade glycerin between five portable Raman spectrometers was accomplished using piecewise direct standardization (PDS). The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> set was developed using a multi-range ternary mixture design with successively reduced impurity concentration ranges. It was found that optimal selection of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> transfer standards using the Kennard-Stone algorithm also required application of the algorithm to multiple successively reduced impurity concentration ranges. Partial least squares (PLS) <span class="hlt">calibration</span> models were developed using the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> set measured independently on each of the five spectrometers. The performance of the models was evaluated based on the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), calculated using independent validation samples. An F-test showed that no statistical differences in the variances were observed between models developed on different <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Direct cross-<span class="hlt">instrument</span> prediction without standardization was performed between a single primary <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and each of the four secondary <span class="hlt">instruments</span> to evaluate the robustness of the primary <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> model. Significant increases in the RMSEP values for the secondary <span class="hlt">instruments</span> were observed due to <span class="hlt">instrument</span> variability. Application of piecewise direct standardization using the optimal <span class="hlt">calibration</span> transfer subset resulted in the lowest values of RMSEP for the secondary <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Using the optimal <span class="hlt">calibration</span> transfer subset, an optimized <span class="hlt">calibration</span> model was developed using a subset of the original <span class="hlt">calibration</span> set, resulting in a DEG detection limit of 0.32% across all five <span class="hlt">instruments</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSH53B4218P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSH53B4218P"><span>Suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicles as an Opportunity to Consolidate and <span class="hlt">Calibrate</span> Ground Based and Satellite <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Papadopoulos, K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>XCOR Aerospace, a commercial space company, is planning to provide frequent, low cost access to near-Earth space on the Lynx suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicle (sRLV). Measurements in the external vacuum environment can be made and can launch from most runways on a limited lead time. Lynx can operate as a platform to perform suborbital in situ measurements and remote sensing to supplement models and simulations with new data points. These measurements can serve as a quantitative link to existing <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and be used as a basis to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> detectors on spacecraft. Easier access to suborbital data can improve the longevity and cohesiveness of spacecraft and ground-based resources. A study of how these measurements can be made on Lynx sRLV will be presented. At the boundary between terrestrial and space weather, measurements from <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on Lynx can help develop algorithms to optimize the consolidation of ground and satellite based data as well as assimilate global models with new data points. For example, current tides and the equatorial electrojet, essential to understanding the Thermosphere-Ionosphere system, can be measured in situ frequently and on short notice. Furthermore, a negative-ion spectrometer and a Faraday cup, can take measurements of the D-region ion composition. A differential GPS receiver can infer the spatial gradient of ionospheric electron density. <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> and optics on spacecraft degrade over time, leading to <span class="hlt">calibration</span> drift. Lynx can be a cost effective platform for deploying a reference <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> satellites with a frequent and fast turnaround and a successful return of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. A <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> reference <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on Lynx can make collocated observations as another <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and corrections are made for the latter, thus ensuring data consistency and mission longevity. Aboard a sRLV, atmospheric conditions that distort remotely sensed data (ground and spacecraft based) can be measured in situ. Moreover, an</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.A21B0441K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.A21B0441K"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and intercomparison of water vapor <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> used on the NSF/NCAR HIAPER aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kraemer, D.; Campos, T.; Flocke, F.; Jensen, J.; Wang, J.; Cole, H.; Korn, E.; Lauritsen, D.; Kraemer, M.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Subject of the study is the characterization of a Kahn DCS-80 water vapor <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system and the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of two water vapor sensors used on research aircraft, namely a Buck <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> B-1001 chilled mirror sensor and a MayComm Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Hygrometer. A series of Vaisala drop sondes were also characterized and compared to the aircraft <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. In an effort to assess the precision of the water vapor sensors that are being used on board the NSF/NACR GV aircraft (HIAPER), the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> were tested at ambient pressure (800 mbar) inside an environmental chamber to simulate temperature conditions during flight. Tested dewpoints ranged from -70 to +20 degrees Celsius. The TDL - hygrometer was <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> in preparation for an international water vapor measurement intercomparison campaign at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany. We will present the detailed <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and characterization procedure, the laboratory setup for the different sensors, results from the <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of all <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, assess their precision and useful operating range, and present some preliminary results from the international intercomparison campaign.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A33E0228M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A33E0228M"><span>Inter-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> and validation of observations from SAPHIR and ATMS <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moradi, I.; Ferraro, R. R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We present the results of evaluating observations from microwave <span class="hlt">instruments</span> aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP, ATMS <span class="hlt">instrument</span>) and Megha-Tropiques (SAPHIR <span class="hlt">instrument</span>) satellites. The study includes inter-comparison and inter-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> of observations of similar channels from the two <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, evaluation of the satellite data using high-quality radiosonde data from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program and GPS Radio Occultaion Observations from COSMIC mission, as well as geolocation error correction. The results of this study are valuable for generating climate data records from these <span class="hlt">instruments</span> as well as for extending current climate data records from similar <span class="hlt">instruments</span> such as AMSU-B and MHS to the ATMS and SAPHIR <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Reference: Moradi et al., Intercalibration and Validation of Observations From ATMS and SAPHIR Microwave Sounders. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 01/2015; DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2015.2427165</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790030752&hterms=insolation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dinsolation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790030752&hterms=insolation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dinsolation"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> standards and field <span class="hlt">instruments</span> for the precision measurement of insolation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reid, M. S.; Berdahl, C. M.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The paper describes the development of an absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standard for irradiance measurements. This field <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, designated the Kendall Radiometer System Mark 3, is identical to the PACRAD (Primary Absolute Cavity Radiometer) except for a modification to ensure all weather operation. Two Mark 3 radiometers have been in operation at the JPL's Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex for over two years and are continuing to provide data which are within plus or minus 1% of the absolute value. A <span class="hlt">calibration</span> stability analysis is presented for the two <span class="hlt">instruments</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSA21A4042S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSA21A4042S"><span>Updated Global Data from the Guvi <span class="hlt">Instrument</span>: New Products, Updated <span class="hlt">Calibration</span>, and a New Web Interface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schaefer, R. K.; Paxton, L. J.; Romeo, G.; Wolven, B. C.; Zhang, Y.; Comberiate, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>With it's high inclination orbit, GUVI provides global coverage of the ionosphere/thermosphere system, revisiting each polar region 15 times a day. The GUVI <span class="hlt">instrument</span> has long been a resource for the ITM community with a panoply of data products available from the GUVI website (http://guvi.jhuapl.edu). GUVI is in a high inclination orbit and so provides coverage of both hemispheres. With the release last year of the data products from the DMSO/SSUSI <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, particularly more detailed auroral zone products (Q, E0, Hemispheric Power, discrete auroral arcs, proton precipitation regions), new equatorial ionospheric products (3D electron densities, bubbles), a whole new set of UV data products has become available. SSUSI are available from http://ssusi.jhuapl.edu. To leverage the experience and knowledge gained from running all of these <span class="hlt">instruments</span> we have adapted the SSUSI products so they can be made from GUVI telemetry. There are now updated versions of GUVI legacy products as well as brand new products. In addition, better on-orbit <span class="hlt">calibration</span> techniques developed for SSUSI have now been applied to the GUVI <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> - there is now a common set of software for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> both <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. With a common data format, <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and product definition, the data from all SSUSI and GUVI <span class="hlt">instruments</span> can now be easily combined to get multiple <span class="hlt">instruments</span> to cover the hemispheres to do a variety of global studies. In addition, the GUVI spectrographic mode data provides great detail about spectrographic features (e.g. O/N2 ratios, NO band emission) that are important for understanding dynamical processes in the thermosphere. A new version of the GUVI website (with the same interface as the SSUSI website) has been launched from guvi.jhuapl.edu to showcase the legacy products made with the new <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and also highlight the newly developed products for the GUVI imaging and spectrographic modes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050147486&hterms=datasets&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Ddatasets','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050147486&hterms=datasets&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Ddatasets"><span>Development of Long-term Datasets from Satellite BUV <span class="hlt">Instruments</span>: The "Soft" <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bhartia, Pawan K.; Taylor, Steven; Jaross, Glen</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The first BUV <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was launched in April 1970 on NASA's Nimbus4 satellite. More than a dozen <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, broadly based on the same principle, but using very different technologies, have been launched in the last 35 years on NASA, NOAA, Japanese and European satellites. In this paper we describe the basic principles of the "soft" <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approach that we have successfully applied to the data from many of these <span class="hlt">instruments</span> to produce a consistent long-term record of total ozone, ozone profile and aerosols. This approach is based on using accurate radiative transfer models and assumed/known properties of the atmosphere in ultraviolet to derive <span class="hlt">calibration</span> parameters. Although the accuracy of the results inevitably depends upon how well the assumed atmospheric properties are known, the technique has several built-in cross- checks that improve the robustness of the method. To develop further confidence in the data the soft <span class="hlt">calibration</span> technique can be combined with data collected from few well- <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> ground-based <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. We will use examples from past and present BUV <span class="hlt">instruments</span> to show how the method works.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1176469','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1176469"><span>Neutron monitoring systems including gamma thermometers and methods of <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> nuclear <span class="hlt">instruments</span> using gamma thermometers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Moen, Stephan Craig; Meyers, Craig Glenn; Petzen, John Alexander; Foard, Adam Muhling</p> <p>2012-08-07</p> <p>A method of <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> a nuclear <span class="hlt">instrument</span> using a gamma thermometer may include: measuring, in the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, local neutron flux; generating, from the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, a first signal proportional to the neutron flux; measuring, in the gamma thermometer, local gamma flux; generating, from the gamma thermometer, a second signal proportional to the gamma flux; compensating the second signal; and <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> a gain of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> based on the compensated second signal. Compensating the second signal may include: calculating selected yield fractions for specific groups of delayed gamma sources; calculating time constants for the specific groups; calculating a third signal that corresponds to delayed local gamma flux based on the selected yield fractions and time constants; and calculating the compensated second signal by subtracting the third signal from the second signal. The specific groups may have decay time constants greater than 5.times.10.sup.-1 seconds and less than 5.times.10.sup.5 seconds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612277S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612277S"><span>Development and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of Space Flight <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> at the University of Bern</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scheer, Jürgen A.; Wurz, Peter</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Since more than 40 years the division for Space Research and Planetary Sciences of the Physical Institute of the University of Bern develops space flight <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, such as mass spectrometers, pressure gauges, laser altimeters, and more. Consequently, space flight <span class="hlt">instruments</span> developed in Bern or with Bernese participation were flown on multiple space missions, for example GEOS, GIOTTO, ULYSSES, SOHO, ROSETTA, and IBEX. All these <span class="hlt">instruments</span> need to be tested for functionality upon their different development stages (prototypes and engineering units) and the flight units need to be <span class="hlt">calibrated</span>. Furthermore, these <span class="hlt">instruments</span> do also need to be tested for survival regarding vibration, shock and thermal loads. Over the years different facilities have been set up at the Physical Institute of the University of Bern to do such work. This report will present these facilities with special respect to the aspect of <span class="hlt">calibration</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008670','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008670"><span>Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Summary. Version 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Kimberly Ennico; Colaprete, Anthony; Shirley, Mark H.; Wooden, Diane H.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This document describes the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the LCROSS <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. It will be released to the public via the Planetary Data System. We need a quick review, if possible, because the data has been delivered to the PDS, and this document is needed to interpret the LCROSS impact data fully. [My mistake [shirley) in not realizing this needed to be treated as a normal publication.] The LCROSS <span class="hlt">instruments</span> are commercially available units except for one designed and built at Ames. The commercially available <span class="hlt">instruments</span> don't seem to me to present ITAR issues (Sony video camera, thermal camera from England, and so on.) Also, the internal design details of the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> are not included in this report, only the process of <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> them against standard targets. Only very high-level descriptions of the spacecraft are included, comparable to the level of detail included in the public web pages on nasa.gov.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003721','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003721"><span>Status of Aqua MODIS <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> On-Orbit Operation and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Xiong, Jack; Angal, Amit; Madhaven, Sri; Choi, Jason; Wenny, Brian; Sun, Junqiang; Wu, Aisheng; Chen, Hongda; Salomonson, Vincent; Barnes, William</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The Aqua MOderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has successfully operated for nearly a decade, since its launch in May 2002. MODIS was developed and designed with improvements over its heritage sensors in terms of its overall spectral, spatial, and temporal characteristics, and with more stringent <span class="hlt">calibration</span> requirements. MODIS carries a set of on-board <span class="hlt">calibrators</span> that can be used to track and monitor its on-orbit radiometric, spectral, and spatial performance. Since launch, extensive <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and characterization activities have been scheduled and executed by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST). These efforts are made to assure the quality of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and L 1B data products, as well as support all science disciplines (land, ocean, and atmospheric) for continuous improvements of science data product quality. MODIS observations from both Terra and Aqua have significantly contributed to the science and user community over a wide range of research activities and applications. This paper provides an overview of Aqua MODIS on-orbit operation and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> activities, <span class="hlt">instrument</span> health status, and on-board <span class="hlt">calibrators</span> (OBC) performance. On-orbit changes of key sensor parameters, such as spectral band radiometric responses, center wavelengths, and bandwidth, are illustrated and compared with those derived from its predecessor, Terra MODIS. Lessons and challenges identified from Aqua MODIS performance are also discussed in this paper. These lessons are not only critical to future improvements of Aqua MODIS on-orbit operation and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> but also beneficial to its follow-on <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) to be launched on NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) spacecraft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22319320','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22319320"><span>A new automatic system for angular measurement and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> in radiometric <span class="hlt">instruments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marquez, Jose Manuel Andujar; Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel Martínez; Garcia, Jonathan Medina; Nieto, Francisco Jose Aguilar</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This paper puts forward the design, construction and testing of a new automatic system for angular-response measurement and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> in radiometric <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Its main characteristics include precision, speed, resolution, noise immunity, easy programming and operation. The developed system calculates the cosine error of the radiometer under test by means of a virtual <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, from the measures it takes and through a mathematical procedure, thus allowing correcting the radiometer with the aim of preventing cosine error in its measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3274241','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3274241"><span>A New Automatic System for Angular Measurement and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> in Radiometric <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Marquez, Jose Manuel Andujar; Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel Martínez; Garcia, Jonathan Medina; Nieto, Francisco Jose Aguilar</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This paper puts forward the design, construction and testing of a new automatic system for angular-response measurement and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> in radiometric <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Its main characteristics include precision, speed, resolution, noise immunity, easy programming and operation. The developed system calculates the cosine error of the radiometer under test by means of a virtual <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, from the measures it takes and through a mathematical procedure, thus allowing correcting the radiometer with the aim of preventing cosine error in its measurements. PMID:22319320</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26901198','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26901198"><span>Inertial Sensor Error <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> through <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Sensor Fusion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lambrecht, Stefan; Nogueira, Samuel L; Bortole, Magdo; Siqueira, Adriano A G; Terra, Marco H; Rocon, Eduardo; Pons, José L</p> <p>2016-02-17</p> <p>This paper presents the comparison between cooperative and local Kalman Filters (KF) for estimating the absolute segment angle, under two <span class="hlt">calibration</span> conditions. A simplified <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, that can be replicated in most laboratories; and a complex <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, similar to that applied by commercial vendors. The cooperative filters use information from either all inertial sensors attached to the body, Matricial KF; or use information from the inertial sensors and the potentiometers of an exoskeleton, Markovian KF. A one minute walking trial of a subject walking with a 6-DoF exoskeleton was used to assess the absolute segment angle of the trunk, thigh, shank, and foot. The results indicate that regardless of the segment and filter applied, the more complex <span class="hlt">calibration</span> always results in a significantly better performance compared to the simplified <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. The interaction between filter and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> suggests that when the quality of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is unknown the Markovian KF is recommended. Applying the complex <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, the Matricial and Markovian KF perform similarly, with average RMSE below 1.22 degrees. Cooperative KFs perform better or at least equally good as Local KF, we therefore recommend to use cooperative KFs instead of local KFs for control or analysis of walking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4801611','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4801611"><span>Inertial Sensor Error <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> through <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Sensor Fusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lambrecht, Stefan; Nogueira, Samuel L.; Bortole, Magdo; Siqueira, Adriano A. G.; Terra, Marco H.; Rocon, Eduardo; Pons, José L.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents the comparison between cooperative and local Kalman Filters (KF) for estimating the absolute segment angle, under two <span class="hlt">calibration</span> conditions. A simplified <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, that can be replicated in most laboratories; and a complex <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, similar to that applied by commercial vendors. The cooperative filters use information from either all inertial sensors attached to the body, Matricial KF; or use information from the inertial sensors and the potentiometers of an exoskeleton, Markovian KF. A one minute walking trial of a subject walking with a 6-DoF exoskeleton was used to assess the absolute segment angle of the trunk, thigh, shank, and foot. The results indicate that regardless of the segment and filter applied, the more complex <span class="hlt">calibration</span> always results in a significantly better performance compared to the simplified <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. The interaction between filter and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> suggests that when the quality of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is unknown the Markovian KF is recommended. Applying the complex <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, the Matricial and Markovian KF perform similarly, with average RMSE below 1.22 degrees. Cooperative KFs perform better or at least equally good as Local KF, we therefore recommend to use cooperative KFs instead of local KFs for control or analysis of walking. PMID:26901198</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28024426','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28024426"><span>Across-subject <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of an <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> glove to measure hand movement for clinical purposes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gracia-Ibáñez, Verónica; Vergara, Margarita; Buffi, James H; Murray, Wendy M; Sancho-Bru, Joaquín L</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Motion capture of all degrees of freedom of the hand collected during performance of daily living activities remains challenging. <span class="hlt">Instrumented</span> gloves are an attractive option because of their higher ease of use. However, subject-specific <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of gloves is lengthy and has limitations for individuals with disabilities. Here, a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedure is presented, consisting in the recording of just a simple hand position so as to allow capture of the kinematics of 16 hand joints during daily life activities even in case of severe injured hands. 'across-subject gains' were obtained by averaging the gains obtained from a detailed subject-specific <span class="hlt">calibration</span> involving 44 registrations that was repeated three times on multiple days to 6 subjects. In additional 4 subjects, joint angles that resulted from applying the 'across-subject <span class="hlt">calibration</span>' or the subject-specific <span class="hlt">calibration</span> were compared. Global errors associated with the 'across-subject <span class="hlt">calibration</span>' relative to the detailed, subject-specific protocol were small (bias: 0.49°; precision: 4.45°) and comparable to those that resulted from repeating the detailed protocol with the same subject on multiple days (0.36°; 3.50°). Furthermore, in one subject, performance of the 'across-subject <span class="hlt">calibration</span>' was directly compared to another fast <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method, expressed relative to a videogrammetric protocol as a gold-standard, yielding better results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-iss026e029180.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-iss026e029180.html"><span>Coleman performs VO2 Max PFS Software <span class="hlt">Calibrations</span> and <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Check</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-02-24</p> <p>ISS026-E-029180 (24 Feb. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman, Expedition 26 flight engineer, performs VO2max portable Pulmonary Function System (PFS) software <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> and <span class="hlt">instrument</span> check while using the Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation System (CEVIS) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008360','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008360"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer of the Sample Analysis at Mars <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Suite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mahaffy, P. R.; Trainer, M. G.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Franz, H. B.; Stern, J. C.; Harpold, D.; Conrad, P. G.; Raaen, E.; Lyness, E.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The SAM suite of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on the "Curiosity" Rover of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is designed to provide chemical and isotopic analysis of organic and inorganic volatiles for both atmospheric and solid samples. The mission of the MSL investigations is to advance beyond the successful search for aqueous transformation in surface environments at Mars toward a quantitative assessment of habitability and preservation through a series of chemical and geological measurements. The SAM suite was delivered in December 2010 (Figure 1) to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for integration into the Curiosity Rover. We previously outlined the range of SAM solid and gas <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> implemented or planned and here we discuss a specific set of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> experiments to establish the response of the SAM Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS) to the four most abundant gases in the Martian atmosphere CO2, N2, Ar, and O2, A full SAM <span class="hlt">instrument</span> description and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> report is presently in preparation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A31H..04S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A31H..04S"><span>Inter-<span class="hlt">calibrating</span>, Multi-<span class="hlt">instrument</span> Microwave Ocean Data Records over Three Decades</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, D. K.; Wentz, F. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Satellite microwave radiometers have been in continuous operation since 1987. When inter-<span class="hlt">calibrated</span> and consistently processed, the data from a series of DMSP SSM/I and SSMIS sensors, TRMM TMI, Coriolis WindSat, Aqua AMSR-E, GCOM-W1 AMSR2, and GPM GMI collectively result in a long-term high-quality ocean data set of surface winds, atmospheric water vapor, cloud liquid water content, rain rate, and for some <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, sea surface temperature and wind direction. Slight variations in frequencies, design and satellite orbits stress the need for carefully implementing an inter-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> method, so as not to introduce trends or jumps when new <span class="hlt">instruments</span> begin or when old <span class="hlt">instruments</span> drift and/or die. The authors have developed a robust inter-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> method using a published, well-developed and validated radiative transfer model (RTM) as the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standard. Most of the sensor data for this nearly 30-year period are available as the Version-7 RTM standard. The GMI sensor, recently launched in 2014, has strict <span class="hlt">calibration</span> accuracy requirements and was built to have greater precision than any previous microwave sensor. We have utilized the dual <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and non-linearity-measurement systems built into GMI to improve the RTM, which is now Version-8. In this talk we will present an overview of our <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedures and outline the steps required to produce climate quality earth data records. We also intend to present the latest validation results and provide information on recent changes in distribution, format, and availability for these already-popular data products.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994ASPC...61..395D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994ASPC...61..395D"><span>The <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Data Archive and Analysis system for PDS, the high energy <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on board the SAX satellite.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>dal Fiume, Daniele; Frontera, Filippo; Orlandini, Mauro; Trifoglio, Massimo</p> <p></p> <p>The PDS (Phoswich Detection System) is an array of four phoswich scintillation detectors (800 cm geometric area) to be flown on board the Italian astronomical satellite SAX (Frontera et al., Advances in Space Research , 11 , 281 ). On ground tests and <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> on the assembled <span class="hlt">instrument</span> are scheduled to start by the end of this year and to continue, with various steps, up to the pre--launch phase. Tests on electronics were already performed (Frontera et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. , in press). During the operational phase the PDS group at TeSRE will continue to monitor the in flight performance of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, and will mantain an archive containing in flight data and <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> to be used for this monitoring. In this paper we report the architectural design of the data analysis and archival system for PDS <span class="hlt">calibration</span> data. The data will be obtained both from ground <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>, and during the operative phase of SAX. The system is based on a network of workstations, with one of them (a HP9000/735 workstation) acting as a database server, and the others as clients. The system includes ~ 3 GB of magnetic disc space (current figure; to be upgraded in the next phases), magnetooptical rewritable disks, CD-ROMs. The data archival is based on a commercial relational database. Data hierarchy will be described and data retrieval will be outlined. Data analysis will be based on both home--made tools and on IDL. Even if PDS is a non--imaging <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, moderate capability to manipulate pseudo--images (matrices of counts versus Pulse Height Amplitude versus Pulse Shape) is required. Some of the required functionalities are non--standard image manipulations. A scheme of data <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and of data manipulation will be presented. Current status of the realization will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780050608&hterms=insolation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dinsolation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780050608&hterms=insolation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dinsolation"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> standards and field <span class="hlt">instruments</span> for the precision measurement of insolation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reid, M. S.; Berdahl, C. M.; Kendall, J. M., Sr.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The design of a fieldworthy survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> based on a developed radiation <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standard is discussed. The radiometer system, a fieldworthy modification of Pacrad, is an all-weather solar radiometer, and a field test is described which demonstrates the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>'s stability in severe environments over an extended period of time. It is suggested that the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> may be considered a transfer standard as well as a radiometer. It is hoped that future modifications might reduce the 15-deg view angle and improve the tracking system to eliminate weekly manual declination adjustments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=267337','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=267337"><span>Characterization of <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> and <span class="hlt">calibrators</span> for quantitative microfluorometry for immunofluorescence tests.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kaplan, D S; Picciolo, G L</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The current method for measuring reagents for immunofluorescence microscopy involves a subjective evaluation of the endpoint (titer) with a negative or positive (1+ to 4+) scale. Variability is due to the biological constituents of the reagent, the observer, and the <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>. To have reliable methods for evaluation of performance of these products, we are developing a quantitative method that uses photometric measurements of microscopically observed epifluorescence of slide preparations. A computer-controlled microscope-photometer converts the light intensity into a voltage measurement. Our goal is to replace the subjective endpoint determination with an objective, quantitative method. The <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> and its operating characteristics are presented in this paper. Selected commercially available fluorescent materials were evaluated as <span class="hlt">calibrators</span> for the <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>. These materials showed consistency in measurement and thus demonstrated their suitability for various levels of <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. It is possible that they will prove useful as a reference standard for interlaboratory comparisons. PMID:2654179</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860047833&hterms=Neutralization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DNeutralization','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860047833&hterms=Neutralization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DNeutralization"><span>Integrated development facility for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of low-energy charged particle flight <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biddle, A. P.; Reynolds, J. M.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The design of a low-energy ion facility for development and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of thermal ion <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> is examined. A directly heated cathode provides the electrons used to produce ions by impact ionization and an applied magnetic field increases the path length followed by the electrons. The electrostatic and variable geometry magnetic mirror configuration in the ion source is studied. The procedures for the charge neutralization of the beam and the configuration and function of the 1.4-m drift tube are analyzed. A microcomputer is utilized to control and monitor the beam energy and composition, and the mass- and angle-dependent response of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> under testing. The facility produces a high-quality ion beam with an adjustable range of energies up to 150 eV; the angular divergence and uniformity of the beam is obtained from two independent retarding potential analyzers. The procedures for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> being developed are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9143E..4VC','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9143E..4VC"><span>Polarimetric <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> and astronomical polarimetry in the V-band with Solar Orbiter/METIS <span class="hlt">instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Capobianco, Gerardo; Fineschi, Silvano; Focardi, Mauro; Andretta, Vincenzo; Massone, Giuseppe; Bemporad, Alessandro; Romoli, Marco; Antonucci, Ester; Naletto, Giampiero; Nicolini, Gianalfredo; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Spadaro, Daniele</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>METIS is one of the remote sensing <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on board the ESA- Solar Orbiter mission, that will be launched in July 2017. The Visible Light Channel (VLC) of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is composed by an achromatic LC-based polarimeter for the study of the linearly polarized solar K-corona in the 580-640 nm bandpass. The laboratory <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> with spectropolarimetric techniques and the in-flight <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of this channel, using some well knows linearly polarized stars in the FoV of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> with a degree of linear polarization DOLP > 10% are here discussed. The selection of the stars and the use of other astronomical targets (i.e. planets, comets,…) and the opportunity of measurements of the degree of linear polarization in the visible bandpass of some astronomical objects (i.e. Earth, comets,…) are also objects of this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910025765&hterms=range+sidelobe&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Drange%2Bsidelobe','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910025765&hterms=range+sidelobe&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Drange%2Bsidelobe"><span>Millipol, a millimeter/submillimeter wavelength polarimeter - <span class="hlt">Instrument</span>, operation, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clemens, Dan P.; Kane, Brian D.; Leach, Robert W.; Barvainis, Richard</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">instrument</span> capable of measuring the polarization characteristics of weakly polarized, cold dust at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths is presented in detail. The operation and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of this polarimeter at a wavelength of 1300 microns, configured for the NRAO 12-meter telescope, are discussed. Deep observations of Jupiter using this <span class="hlt">instrument</span> revealed a main-beam <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> polarization at, or below, the 0.2 percent level. Lunar limb observations revealed a sidelobe polarization sensitivity, in the range 0.25 percent - 1.0 percent. Further, through these efforts the nonthermal polarized flux from Jupiter at a level of about 0.04 percent of the thermal flux has been detected. Astronomical polarization measurements to 0.03 percent are possible, limited by the uncertainties in the <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> polarization. This <span class="hlt">instrument</span> has been primarily employed to measure and map magnetic-field directions in the very optically opaque cores of massive molecular clouds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol1-sec35-2060.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol1-sec35-2060.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.2060 - Records of <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material. 35.2060 Section 35.2060 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2060 Records of <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol1-sec35-2060.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol1-sec35-2060.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.2060 - Records of <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material. 35.2060 Section 35.2060 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2060 Records of <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol1-sec35-60.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol1-sec35-60.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.60 - Possession, use, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Possession, use, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material. 35.60 Section 35.60 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material. (a) For...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol1-sec35-2060.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol1-sec35-2060.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.2060 - Records of <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material. 35.2060 Section 35.2060 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2060 Records of <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997AdSpR..19.1325S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997AdSpR..19.1325S"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of high resolution remote sensing <span class="hlt">instruments</span> in the visible and near infrared</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schüller, L.; Fischer, J.; Armbruster, W.; Bartsch, B.</p> <p>1997-05-01</p> <p>Measurements of the reflected solar radiation with high spectral resolution airborne <span class="hlt">instruments</span> are usually used to develop new remote sensing techniques. The observed spectral features in the signals provide the possibility to define useful band settings for future satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. A precise wavelength and radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is a prerequisite for such tasks. In this paper, a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedure for the airborne spectrometer OVID is presented. The Optical Visible and near Infrared Detector consists of two similar detector systems, (600 - 1100 nm = VIS and 900 - 1700 nm = NIR). The spectral resolution is ~1.7 nm for the VIS-system and ~6 nm for the IR-system. This <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is applied for the retrieval of water vapour content, aerosol and cloud properties. Besides the spectral and intensity <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, also corrections for the dark current signals and for defective pixels have been performed. An indirect verification of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedure by the comparison of OVID measurements in cloudy and cloud free atmospheres with radiative transfer simulations is discussed in this paper. The used radiation transfer model MOMO is based on the matrix operator method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995STIN...9533206R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995STIN...9533206R"><span>An <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for gravimetric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of flow devices with corrosive gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Remenyik, Carl J.; Hylton, James O.</p> <p></p> <p>An <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was developed for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of mass flow controllers primarily used in the production of semiconductor wafers. Almost all other types of such <span class="hlt">calibrators</span> require measurement of temperature, pressure, and volume. This <span class="hlt">instrument</span> measures the weight of gas collected in a container and makes measuring those thermodynamic variables unnecessary. The need to measure the weight of the gas container is eliminated by submerging it in a liquid (presently water) and balancing its weight with the force of buoyancy. The accuracy of this gravimetric <span class="hlt">calibrator</span> is unaffected by the pressure and temperature of the gas. The <span class="hlt">calibrator</span> can also measure reactive, corrosive, and nonideal gases. The container remains connected to the process by a torsion capillary, and a load cell measures the changing gas weight continuously throughout the measuring process. A prototype was designed for gas flows ranging from 1 sccm of hydrogen to 10,000 sccm of tungsten hexafluoride, constructed, tested, and used to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> flow devices. Experience with the prototype and results are presented, and plans for further developments are discussed. Design of a version for the flow range from 0.1 sccm to 100 sccm is in progress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/52825','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/52825"><span>An <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for gravimetric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of flow devices with corrosive gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Remenyik, C.J.; Hylton, J.O.</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was developed for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of mass flow controllers primarily used in the production of semiconductor wafers. Almost all other types of such <span class="hlt">calibrators</span> require measurement of temperature, pressure and volume. This <span class="hlt">instrument</span> measures the weight of gas collected in a container and makes measuring those thermodynamic variables unnecessary. The need to measure the weight of the gas container is eliminated by submerging it in a liquid (presently water) and balancing its weight with the force of buoyancy. The accuracy of this Gravimetric <span class="hlt">Calibrator</span> is unaffected by the pressure and temperature of the gas. The <span class="hlt">Calibrator</span> can also measure reactive, corrosive, and non-ideal gases. The container remains connected to the process by a torsion capillary, and a load cell measures the changing gas weight continuously throughout the measuring process. A prototype was designed for gas flows ranging from 1 sccm of hydrogen to 10,000 sccm of tungsten hexafluoride, constructed, tested, and used to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> flow devices. Experience with the prototype and results are presented, and plans for further developments are discussed. Design of a version for the flow range from 0.1 sccm to 100 sccm is in progress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMTD....8.8645M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMTD....8.8645M"><span>The GOME-2 <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on the Metop series of satellites: <span class="hlt">instrument</span> design, <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and level 1 data processing - an overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Munro, R.; Lang, R.; Klaes, D.; Poli, G.; Retscher, C.; Lindstrot, R.; Huckle, R.; Lacan, A.; Grzegorski, M.; Holdak, A.; Kokhanovsky, A.; Livschitz, J.; Eisinger, M.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) flies on the Metop series of satellites, the space component of the EUMETSAT Polar System. In this paper we will provide an overview of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> design, the on-ground <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and characterisation activities, in-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and level 0 to 1 data processing. The quality of the level 1 data is presented and points of specific relevance to users are highlighted. Long-term level 1 data consistency is also discussed and plans for future work are outlined. The information contained in this paper summarises a large number of technical reports and related documents containing information that is not currently available in the published literature. These reports and documents are however made available on the EUMETSAT web pages (http://www.eumetsat.int) and readers requiring more details than can be provided in this overview paper will find appropriate references at relevant points in the text.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AMT.....9.1279M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AMT.....9.1279M"><span>The GOME-2 <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on the Metop series of satellites: <span class="hlt">instrument</span> design, <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and level 1 data processing - an overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Munro, Rosemary; Lang, Rüdiger; Klaes, Dieter; Poli, Gabriele; Retscher, Christian; Lindstrot, Rasmus; Huckle, Roger; Lacan, Antoine; Grzegorski, Michael; Holdak, Andriy; Kokhanovsky, Alexander; Livschitz, Jakob; Eisinger, Michael</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) flies on the Metop series of satellites, the space component of the EUMETSAT Polar System. In this paper we will provide an overview of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> design, the on-ground <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and characterization activities, in-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and level 0 to 1 data processing. The current status of the level 1 data is presented and points of specific relevance to users are highlighted. Long-term level 1 data consistency is also discussed and plans for future work are outlined. The information contained in this paper summarizes a large number of technical reports and related documents containing information that is not currently available in the published literature. These reports and documents are however made available on the EUMETSAT web pages and readers requiring more details than can be provided in this overview paper will find appropriate references at relevant points in the text.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/481897','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/481897"><span>Preparation of high purity plutonium oxide for radiochemistry <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standards and working standards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wong, A.S.; Stalnaker, N.D.</p> <p>1997-04-01</p> <p>Due to the lack of suitable high level National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable plutonium solution standards from the NIST or commercial vendors, the CST-8 Radiochemistry team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has prepared <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standards and working standards from a well-characterized plutonium oxide. All the aliquoting steps were performed gravimetrically. When a {sup 241}Am standardized solution obtained from a commercial vendor was compared to these <span class="hlt">calibration</span> solutions, the results agreed to within 0.04% for the total alpha activity. The aliquots of the plutonium standard solutions and dilutions were sealed in glass ampules for long term storage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810016227','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810016227"><span>Viking lander camera geometry <span class="hlt">calibration</span> report. Volume 1: Test methods and data <span class="hlt">reduction</span> techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wolf, M. B.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The determination and removal of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> signature from Viking Lander camera geometric data are described. All tests conducted as well as a listing of the final database (<span class="hlt">calibration</span> constants) used to remove <span class="hlt">instrument</span> signature from Viking Lander flight images are included. The theory of the geometric aberrations inherent in the Viking Lander camera is explored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/137413','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/137413"><span>On-line testing of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of process <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> channels in nuclear power plants. Phase 2, Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hashemian, H.M.</p> <p>1995-11-01</p> <p>The nuclear industry is interested in automating the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of process <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> channels; this report provides key results of one of the sponsored projects to determine the validity of automated <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. Conclusion is that the normal outputs of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> channels in nuclear plants can be monitored over a fuel cycle while the plant is operating to determine <span class="hlt">calibration</span> drift in the field sensors and associated signal conversion and signal conditioning equipment. The procedure for on-line <span class="hlt">calibration</span> tests involving calculating the deviation of each <span class="hlt">instrument</span> channel from the best estimate of the process parameter that the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is measuring. Methods were evaluated for determining the best estimate. Deviation of each signal from the best estimate is updated frequently while the plant is operating and plotted vs time for entire fuel cycle, thereby providing time history plots that can reveal channel drift and other anomalies. Any <span class="hlt">instrument</span> channel that exceeds allowable drift or channel accuracy band is then scheduled for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> during a refueling outage or sooner. This provides <span class="hlt">calibration</span> test results at the process operating point, one of the most critical points of the channel operation. This should suffice for most narrow-range <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, although the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of some <span class="hlt">instruments</span> can be verified at other points throughout their range. It should be pointed out that the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of some process signals such as the high pressure coolant injection flow in BWRs, which are normally off- scale during plant operation, can not be tested on-line.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/59241','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/59241"><span><span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> report 1: specification, design, <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and installation of <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> for an experimental, high-level, nuclear waste storage facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brough, W.G.; Patrick, W.C.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is being conducted 420 m underground at the Nevada Test Site under the auspices of the US Department of Energy. The test facility houses 11 spent fuel assemblies from an operating commercial nuclear reactor and numerous other thermal sources used to simulate the near-field effects of a large repository. We developed a large-scale <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> plan to ensure that a sufficient quality and quantity of data were acquired during the three- to five-year test. These data help satisfy scientific, operational, and radiation safety objectives. Over 800 data channels are being scanned to measure temperature, electrical power, radiation, air flow, dew point, stress, displacement, and equipment operation status (on/off). This document details the criteria, design, specifications, installation, <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and current performance of the entire <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> package.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26193139','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26193139"><span><span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> system errors of large scale three-dimensional profile measurement <span class="hlt">instruments</span> by subaperture stitching method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dong, Zhichao; Cheng, Haobo; Feng, Yunpeng; Su, Jingshi; Wu, Hengyu; Tam, Hon-Yuen</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>This study presents a subaperture stitching method to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> system errors of several ∼2  m large scale 3D profile measurement <span class="hlt">instruments</span> (PMIs). The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> process was carried out by measuring a Φ460  mm standard flat sample multiple times at different sites of the PMI with a length gauge; then the subaperture data were stitched together using a sequential or simultaneous stitching algorithm that minimizes the inconsistency (i.e., difference) of the discrete data in the overlapped areas. The system error can be used to compensate the measurement results of not only large flats, but also spheres and aspheres. The feasibility of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> was validated by measuring a Φ1070  mm aspheric mirror, which can raise the measurement accuracy of PMIs and provide more reliable 3D surface profiles for guiding grinding, lapping, and even initial polishing processes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010048749&hterms=Optical+Engineering&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DOptical%2BEngineering','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010048749&hterms=Optical+Engineering&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DOptical%2BEngineering"><span>A Simple Approach of CCD Camera <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> for Optical Diagnostics <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cha, Soyoung Stephen; Leslie, Fred W.; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Solid State array sensors are ubiquitous nowadays for obtaining gross field images in numerous scientific and engineering applications including optical diagnostics and <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>. Linear responses of these sensors are often required as in interferometry, light scattering and attenuation measurements, and photometry. In most applications, the linearity is usually taken to be granted without thorough quantitative assessment or correction through <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. Upper-grade CCD cameras of high price may offer better linearity: however, they also require linearity checking and correction if necessary. Intermediate- or low-grade CCD cameras are more likely to need <span class="hlt">calibration</span> for linearity . Here, we present two very simple approaches: one for quickly checking camera linearity without any additional setup and one for precisely correcting nonlinear sensor responses. It is believed that after <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, those sensors of intermediate or low grade can function as effectively as their expensive counterpart.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPD....4811104L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPD....4811104L"><span>Solar Spectral Lines with Special Polarization Properties for the <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Polarization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Wenxian; Casini, Roberto; Judge, Phil; del Pino Alemná, Tanausú</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>We investigate atomic transitions that have previously been identified as having zero polarization from the Zeeman effect. Our goal is to identify spectral lines that can be used for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> polarization of large astronomical and solar telescopes, such as the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope, which is currently under construction on Haleakala. We use a numerical model that takes into account the generation of scattering polarization and its modification by the presence of a magnetic field (Hanle effect, Zeeman effect, and incomplete Paschen-Back effect). We adopt values for the Landé factors from spectroscopic measurements or semi-empirical results, thus relaxing the common assumption of LS-coupling previously used in the literature. The mechanisms dominating the polarization of particular transitions are identified, and we summarize groups of various spectral lines useful for the polarization <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of spectro-polarimetric <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, classified according to their polarization properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Metro..54..674W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Metro..54..674W"><span>The CLARA/NORSAT-1 solar absolute radiometer: <span class="hlt">instrument</span> design, characterization and <span class="hlt">calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walter, Benjamin; Levesque, Pierre-Luc; Kopp, Greg; Andersen, Bo; Beck, Ivo; Finsterle, Wolfgang; Gyo, Manfred; Heuerman, Karl; Koller, Silvio; Mingard, Nathan; Remesal Oliva, Alberto; Pfiffner, Daniel; Soder, Ricco; Spescha, Marcel; Suter, Markus; Schmutz, Werner</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>The compact lightweight absolute radiometer (CLARA) experiment aims at measuring the total solar irradiance (TSI) in space and is scheduled to fly on the Norwegian NORSAT-1 micro satellite. The CLARA experiment will contribute to the long term monitoring of the TSI variability to support the analysis of potential long term trends in the Sun’s variability. CLARA is traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology radiometric scale and will provide further evidence for the TSI value on an absolute scale. In this paper we present the design, characterization, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> details of the CLARA <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. The combined measurement uncertainty for the <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> SI-traceable CLARA flight <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is 567-912 ppm (k  =  1) depending on the measuring channel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/250251','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/250251"><span>A method for automating <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and records management for <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> and dosimetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>O`Brien, J.M. Jr.; Rushton, R.O.; Burns, R.E. Jr.</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>Current industry requirements are becoming more stringent on quality assurance records and documentation for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and dosimetry. A novel method is presented here that will allow a progressive automation scheme to be used in pursuit of that goal. This concept is based on computer-controlled irradiators that can act as stand-alone devices or be interfaced to other components via a computer local area network. In this way, complete systems can be built with modules to create a records management system to meet the needs of small laboratories or large multi-building <span class="hlt">calibration</span> groups. Different database engines or formats can be used simply by replacing a module. Modules for temperature and pressure monitoring or shipping and receiving can be added, as well as equipment modules for direct IEEE-488 interface to electrometers and other <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150007821&hterms=global+climate+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bclimate%2Bchange','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150007821&hterms=global+climate+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bclimate%2Bchange"><span>Inter-<span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Concatenation of Climate Quality Infrared Cloudy Radiances from Multiple <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Behrangi, Ali; Aumann, Hartmut H.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A change in climate is not likely captured from any single <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, since no single <span class="hlt">instrument</span> can span decades of time. Therefore, to detect signals of global climate change, observations from many <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on different platforms have to be concatenated. This requires careful and detailed consideration of <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> differences such as footprint size, diurnal cycle of observations, and relative biases in the spectral brightness temperatures. Furthermore, a common basic assumption is that the data quality is independent of the observed scene and therefore can be determined using clear scene data. However, as will be demonstrated, this is not necessarily a valid assumption as the globe is mostly cloudy. In this study we highlight challenges in inter-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> and concatenation of infrared radiances from multiple <span class="hlt">instruments</span> by focusing on the analysis of deep convective or anvil clouds. TRMM/VIRS is potentially useful <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to make correction for observational differences in the local time and foot print sizes, and thus could be applied retroactively to vintage <span class="hlt">instruments</span> such as AIRS, IASI, IRIS, AVHRR, and HIRS. As the first step, in this study, we investigate and discuss to what extent AIRS and VIRS agree in capturing deep cloudy radiances at the same local time. The analysis also includes comparisons with one year observations from CrIS. It was found that the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> show <span class="hlt">calibration</span> differences of about 1K under deep cloudy scenes that can vary as a function of land type and local time of observation. The sensitivity of footprint size, view angle, and spectral band-pass differences cannot fully explain the observed differences. The observed discrepancies can be considered as a measure of the magnitude of issues which will arise in the comparison of legacy data with current data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150007821&hterms=climate+change+over+time&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dclimate%2Bchange%2Bover%2Btime','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150007821&hterms=climate+change+over+time&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dclimate%2Bchange%2Bover%2Btime"><span>Inter-<span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Concatenation of Climate Quality Infrared Cloudy Radiances from Multiple <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Behrangi, Ali; Aumann, Hartmut H.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A change in climate is not likely captured from any single <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, since no single <span class="hlt">instrument</span> can span decades of time. Therefore, to detect signals of global climate change, observations from many <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on different platforms have to be concatenated. This requires careful and detailed consideration of <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> differences such as footprint size, diurnal cycle of observations, and relative biases in the spectral brightness temperatures. Furthermore, a common basic assumption is that the data quality is independent of the observed scene and therefore can be determined using clear scene data. However, as will be demonstrated, this is not necessarily a valid assumption as the globe is mostly cloudy. In this study we highlight challenges in inter-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> and concatenation of infrared radiances from multiple <span class="hlt">instruments</span> by focusing on the analysis of deep convective or anvil clouds. TRMM/VIRS is potentially useful <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to make correction for observational differences in the local time and foot print sizes, and thus could be applied retroactively to vintage <span class="hlt">instruments</span> such as AIRS, IASI, IRIS, AVHRR, and HIRS. As the first step, in this study, we investigate and discuss to what extent AIRS and VIRS agree in capturing deep cloudy radiances at the same local time. The analysis also includes comparisons with one year observations from CrIS. It was found that the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> show <span class="hlt">calibration</span> differences of about 1K under deep cloudy scenes that can vary as a function of land type and local time of observation. The sensitivity of footprint size, view angle, and spectral band-pass differences cannot fully explain the observed differences. The observed discrepancies can be considered as a measure of the magnitude of issues which will arise in the comparison of legacy data with current data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040040125&hterms=moon+phases&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmoon%2Bphases','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040040125&hterms=moon+phases&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmoon%2Bphases"><span>On-Orbit Cross-<span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of AM Satellite Remote Sensing <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> using the Moon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Butler, James J.; Kieffer, Hugh H.; Barnes, Robert A.; Stone, Thomas C.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>On April 14,2003, three Earth remote sensing spacecraft were maneuvered enabling six satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span> operating in the visible through shortwave infrared wavelength region to view the Moon for purposes of on-orbit cross-<span class="hlt">calibration</span>. These <span class="hlt">instruments</span> included the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) radiometer on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft, the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Hyperion <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft, and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on the SeaStar spacecraft. Observations of the Moon were compared using a spectral photometric mode for lunar irradiance developed by the Robotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) project located at the United States Geological Survey in Flagstaff, Arizona. The ROLO model effectively accounts for variations in lunar irradiance corresponding to lunar phase and libration angles, allowing intercomparison of observations made by <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on different spacecraft under different time and location conditions. The spacecraft maneuvers necessary to view the Moon are briefly described and results of using the lunar irradiance model in comparing the radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> scales of the six satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span> are presented here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040040125&hterms=moon+phases&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dmoon%2Bphases','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040040125&hterms=moon+phases&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dmoon%2Bphases"><span>On-Orbit Cross-<span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of AM Satellite Remote Sensing <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> using the Moon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Butler, James J.; Kieffer, Hugh H.; Barnes, Robert A.; Stone, Thomas C.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>On April 14,2003, three Earth remote sensing spacecraft were maneuvered enabling six satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span> operating in the visible through shortwave infrared wavelength region to view the Moon for purposes of on-orbit cross-<span class="hlt">calibration</span>. These <span class="hlt">instruments</span> included the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) radiometer on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft, the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Hyperion <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft, and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on the SeaStar spacecraft. Observations of the Moon were compared using a spectral photometric mode for lunar irradiance developed by the Robotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) project located at the United States Geological Survey in Flagstaff, Arizona. The ROLO model effectively accounts for variations in lunar irradiance corresponding to lunar phase and libration angles, allowing intercomparison of observations made by <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on different spacecraft under different time and location conditions. The spacecraft maneuvers necessary to view the Moon are briefly described and results of using the lunar irradiance model in comparing the radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> scales of the six satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span> are presented here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980202026','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980202026"><span>The 1997 HST <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Workshop with a New Generation of <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Casertano, S. (Editor); Jedrzejewski, R. (Editor); Keyes, T. (Editor); Stevens, M. (Editor)</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The Second Servicing mission in early 1997 has brought major changes to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Two of the original <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) and Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS), were taken out, and replaced by completely new <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and the Near Infrared Camera Multi-Object Spectrograph (NICMOS). Two new types of detectors were installed, and for the first time, HST gained infrared capabilities. A new Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) was installed, with an alignment mechanism that could improve substantially both guiding and astrometric capabilities. With all these changes come new challenges. The characterization of the new <span class="hlt">instruments</span> has required a major effort, both by their respective Investigation Definition Teams and at the Space Telescope Science Institute. All necessary final <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> for the retired spectrographs needed to be carried out, and their properties definitively characterized. At the same time, work has continued to improve our understanding of the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that have remained on board. The results of these activities were discussed in the 1997 HST (Hubble Space Telescope) <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Workshop. The main focus of the Workshop was to provide users with the tools and the understanding they need to use HST's <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and archival data to the best of their possibilities. This book contains the written record of the Workshop. As such, it should provide a valuable tool to all interested in using existing HST data or in proposing for new observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA587276','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA587276"><span>The Fermi Large Area Telescope on Orbit: Event Classification, <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Response Functions, and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ON ORBIT: EVENT CLASSIFICATION, <span class="hlt">INSTRUMENT</span> RESPONSE FUNCTIONS, AND <span class="hlt">CALIBRATION</span>...dimensional ( 3D ) imaging calorimeter. This is achieved by arranging the CsI crystals in each tower module in 8 layers, each with 12 crystal logs (with...Thus, the CAL provides a 3D image of the energy deposition for each event. Since the CAL is only 8.6 radiation lengths thick at normal incidence</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120007485','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120007485"><span>Optical Comb from a Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator for Spectroscopy and Astronomy <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Yu, Nam; Thompson, Robert J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The most accurate astronomical data is available from space-based observations that are not impeded by the Earth's atmosphere. Such measurements may require spectral samples taken as long as decades apart, with the 1 cm/s velocity precision integrated over a broad wavelength range. This raises the requirements specifically for <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used in astrophysics research missions -- their stringent wavelength resolution and accuracy must be maintained over years and possibly decades. Therefore, a stable and broadband optical <span class="hlt">calibration</span> technique compatible with spaceflights becomes essential. The space-based spectroscopic <span class="hlt">instruments</span> need to be <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> in situ, which puts forth specific requirements to the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> sources, mainly concerned with their mass, power consumption, and reliability. A high-precision, high-resolution reference wavelength comb source for astronomical and astrophysics spectroscopic observations has been developed that is deployable in space. The optical comb will be used for wavelength <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of spectrographs and will enable Doppler measurements to better than 10 cm/s precision, one hundred times better than the current state-of-the- art.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7631','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7631"><span>An <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> for Gravimetric <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of Flow Devices with Corrosive Gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hylton, J.O.; Remenyik, C.J.</p> <p>1999-06-27</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was developed for the direct mass flow <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of gas flowmeters that does not require measurement of temperature, pressure, or specific volume. This <span class="hlt">instrument</span> measures the weight of gas collected in a container and makes measuring those thermodynamic variables unnecessary. The need to measure the weight of the gas container is eliminated by submerging it in a liquid (presently water) and balancing its weight with the force of buoyancy. The accuracy of this Gravimetric <span class="hlt">Calibrator</span> is unaffected by the pressure and temperature of the gas. The <span class="hlt">Calibrator</span> can also measure reactive, corrosive, and non-ideal gases. The container remains connected to the process by a torsion capillary, and a load cell measures the changing gas weight continuously throughout the measuring process. A prototype was designed for gas flows ranging from 1 sccm of hydrogen to 10,000 sccm of tungsten hexafluoride, constructed, tested, and used to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> flow devices. Experience with the prototype and results are presented, and plans for further developments are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7082E..0VD','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7082E..0VD"><span>Best practice for pre-launch characterization and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> for remote sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Datla, Raju</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>The pre-launch characterization and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of remote sensing <span class="hlt">instruments</span> should be planned and carried out in conjunction with their design and development to meet the mission requirements. In the case of infrared <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, the onboard <span class="hlt">calibrators</span> such as blackbodies and the sensors such as spectral radiometers should be characterized and <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> using SI traceable standards. In the case of earth remote sensing, this allows intercomparison and intercalibration of different sensors in space to create global time series of climate records of high accuracy where some inevitable data gaps can be easily bridged. In the case of ballistic missile defense, this provides sensor quality assurance based on SI traceable measurements. The recommended best practice for this pre-launch effort is presented based on experience gained at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) working with National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Department of Defense (DoD) programs in the past two decades. Examples of infrared standards and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> facilities at NIST for serving the remote sensing community will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930039578&hterms=spectralon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dspectralon','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930039578&hterms=spectralon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dspectralon"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of passive remote observing optical and microwave <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 3-5, 1991</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Guenther, Bruce W. (Editor)</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Various papers on the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of passive remote observing optical and microwave <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> are presented. Individual topics addressed include: on-board <span class="hlt">calibration</span> device for a wide field-of-view <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, <span class="hlt">calibration</span> for the medium-resolution imaging spectrometer, cryogenic radiometers and intensity-stabilized lasers for EOS radiometric <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>, radiometric stability of the Shuttle-borne solar backscatter ultraviolet spectrometer, ratioing radiometer for use with a solar diffuser, requirements of a solar diffuser and measurements of some candidate materials, reflectance stability analysis of Spectralon diffuse <span class="hlt">calibration</span> panels, stray light effects on <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> using a solar diffuser, radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of SPOT 23 HRVs, surface and aerosol models for use in radiative transfer codes. Also addressed are: <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> intercepts for solar radiometers used in remote sensor <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of an airborne multispectral scanner, in-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of a helicopter-mounted Daedalus multispectral scanner, technique for improving the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of large-area sphere sources, remote colorimetry and its applications, spatial sampling errors for a satellite-borne scanning radiometer, <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of EOS multispectral imaging sensors and solar irradiance variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980237452','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980237452"><span>Analysis of the Cyclotron Facility <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Aircraft Results Obtained by LIULIN-3M <span class="hlt">Instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dachev, T. P.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.; Matviichuk, Y. N.; Shurshakov, V. A.; Petrov, V. M.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The LIULIN-3M <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is a further development of the LIULIN dosimeter-radiometer, which has been used on the NffR space station in the 1988-1994 time period, The LIULIN-3M is designed for continuous monitoring of the radiation environment during the BION-12 satellite flight in 1999. A semiconductor detector with 1 mm thickness and 1 cm(exp 2) area is used in the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Pulse high analysis technique is used for measurement of the energy losses in the detector. The final data sets from the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> are the flux and the dose rate for the exposition time and 256 channels of LET spectra if a non-nal coincidence of the particles to the detector is considered. The LIULIN-3M <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> by proton fluxes with different energies at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility in June 1997 and was used for space radiation measurements during commercial aircraft flights. Obtained <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and flight results are analyzed in the paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE10000E..0UT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE10000E..0UT"><span>Application of new techniques in the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the TROPOMI-SWIR <span class="hlt">instrument</span> (Conference Presentation)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tol, Paul; van Hees, Richard; van Kempen, Tim; Krijger, Matthijs; Cadot, Sidney; Aben, Ilse; Ludewig, Antje; Dingjan, Jos; Persijn, Stefan; Hoogeveen, Ruud</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The Tropospheric Monitoring <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> (TROPOMI) on-board the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite is an Earth-observing spectrometer with bands in the ultraviolet, visible, near infrared and short-wave infrared (SWIR). It provides daily global coverage of atmospheric trace gases relevant for tropospheric air quality and climate research. Three new techniques will be presented that are unique for the TROPOMI-SWIR spectrometer. The retrieval of methane and CO columns from the data of the SWIR band requires for each detector pixel an accurate <span class="hlt">instrument</span> spectral response function (ISRF), i.e. the normalized signal as a function of wavelength. A new determination method for Earth-observing <span class="hlt">instruments</span> has been used in the on-ground <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, based on measurements with a SWIR optical parametric oscillator (OPO) that was scanned over the whole TROPOMI-SWIR spectral range. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> algorithm derives the ISRF without needing the absolute wavelength during the measurement. The same OPO has also been used to determine the two-dimensional stray-light distribution for each SWIR pixel with a dynamic range of 7 orders. This was achieved by combining measurements at several exposure times and taking saturation into account. The correction algorithm and data are designed to remove the mean stray-light distribution and a reflection that moves relative to the direct image, within the strict constraints of the available time for the L01b processing. A third new technique is an alternative <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the SWIR absolute radiance and irradiance using a black body at the temperature of melting silver. Unlike a standard FEL lamp, this source does not have to be <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> itself, because the temperature is very stable and well known. Measurement methods, data analyses, correction algorithms and limitations of the new techniques will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10105435','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10105435"><span>Environmental Assessment for the Health Protection <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Facility at the Savannah River Site</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1993-08-01</p> <p>The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to review the possible environmental consequences associated with the construction and operation of a Health Protection <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Facility on the Savannah River Site (SRS). The proposed replacement <span class="hlt">calibration</span> facility would be located in B Area of SRS and would replace an inadequate existing facility currently located within A Area of SRS (Building 736-A). The new facility would provide laboratories, offices, test equipment and the support space necessary for the SRS Radiation Monitoring <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Program to comply with DOE Orders 5480.4 (Environmental Protection, Safety and Health Protection Standards) and 5480.11 (Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers). The proposed facility would serve as the central site source for the evaluation, selection, inspection, testing, <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and maintenance of all SRS radiation monitoring <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>. The proposed facility would be constructed on a currently undeveloped portion in B Area of SRS. The exact plot associated with the proposed action is a 1.2 hectare (3 acre) tract of land located on the west side of SRS Road No. 2. The proposed facility would lie approximately 4.4 km (2.75 mi) from the nearest SRS site boundary. The proposed facility would also lie within the confines of the existing B Area, and SRS safeguards and security systems. Archaeological, ecological, and land use reviews have been conducted in connection with the use of this proposed plot of land, and a detailed discussion of these reviews is contained herein. Socioeconomic, operational, and accident analyses were also examined in relation to the proposed project and the findings from these reviews are also contained in this EA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511603S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511603S"><span>Development and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of Space Flight <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> at the University of Bern</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scheer, Jürgen; Wurz, Peter</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>For more than 40 years the Physical Institute of the University of Bern is active in space flight <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>. What started in the late 60ies with foil experiments to collect solar wind particles on Apollo missions grew quickly into development of mass spectrometers for different space missions, such as GEOS (1976), GIOTTO (1985), and more. Nowadays, the division for Space Research and Planetary Sciences of the Physical Institute develops in addition to mass spectrometers as well other <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, such as pressure gauges, laser altimeters, etc. All these <span class="hlt">instruments</span> need to be tested and eventually <span class="hlt">calibrated</span>. Over the years different facilities have been set up at the Physical Institute to do such work. This report will present these facilities with special respect to their unique properties and previous, current and future use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013hsa7.conf..945F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013hsa7.conf..945F"><span>TES-based microcalorimeter for future X-ray astronomy missions. Software development for <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fraga-Encinas, R.; Cobo, B.; Ceballos, M.; Schuurmans, J.; van der Kuur, J.; Carrera, F.; Barcons, X.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The XMS (X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer) is an <span class="hlt">instrument</span> prototype with imaging capability in X-rays and high-spectral resolution. This <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is a microcalorimeter based on transition edge sensors. As part of the Spanish contribution to the advancement of the XMS, we present the work carried out by the X-ray astronomy group at the Instituto de Física de Cantabria in collaboration with The Netherlands Institute for Space Research. The main work hereby presented includes the development and testing of software for this prototype with the purpose of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and characterization, X-ray pulse detection and energy resolution calculations (Bergmann 2004, Tekst. Proefschrift Universiteit Utrecht; Boyce et al. 1999, Proc SPIE 3765; Den Herder et al. 2011, SRON-XMS-RP-2011-033; ATHENA Assessment Study Report, ESA/SRE(2011)17)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...594A...8P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...594A...8P"><span>Planck 2015 results. VIII. High Frequency <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> data processing: <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and maps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Planck Collaboration; Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bertincourt, B.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leahy, J. P.; Lellouch, E.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moreno, R.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Mottet, S.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Sauvé, A.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>This paper describes the processing applied to the cleaned, time-ordered information obtained from the Planck High Frequency <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> (HFI) with the aim of producing photometrically <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> maps in temperature and (for the first time) in polarization. The data from the entire 2.5-year HFI mission include almost five full-sky surveys. HFI observes the sky over a broad range of frequencies, from 100 to 857 GHz. To obtain the best accuracy on the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> over such a large range, two different photometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> schemes have been used. The 545 and 857 GHz data are <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> using models of planetary atmospheric emission. The lower frequencies (from 100 to 353 GHz) are <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> using the time-variable cosmological microwave background dipole, which we call the orbital dipole. This source of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> only depends on the satellite velocity with respect to the solar system. Using a CMB temperature of TCMB = 2.7255 ± 0.0006 K, it permits an independent measurement of the amplitude of the CMB solar dipole (3364.3 ± 1.5 μK), which is approximatively 1σ higher than the WMAP measurement with a direction that is consistent between the two experiments. We describe the pipeline used to produce the maps ofintensity and linear polarization from the HFI timelines, and the scheme used to set the zero level of the maps a posteriori. We also summarize the noise characteristics of the HFI maps in the 2015 Planck data release and present some null tests to assess their quality. Finally, we discuss the major systematic effects and in particular the leakage induced by flux mismatch between the detectors that leads to spurious polarization signal.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994cpai.book.....A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994cpai.book.....A"><span>Compendium of Practical Astronomy. Volume 1: <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> and <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Techniques.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Augensen, H. J.; Heintz, W. D.; Roth, Günter D.</p> <p></p> <p>The Compendium of Practical Astronomy is a revised and enlarged English version of the fourth edition of G. Roth's famous handbook for stargazers. In three volumes 28 carefully edited articles, aimed especially at amateur astronomers and students and teachers of astronomy in high schools and colleges, cover the length and breadth of practical astronomy. Volume 1 contains information on modern <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> and <span class="hlt">reduction</span> techniques, including spherical astronomy, error estimations, telescope mountings, astrophotography, and more. Volume 2 covers the planetary system, with contributions on artificial satellites, comets, the polar aurorae, and the effects of the atmosphere on observational data. Volume 3 is devoted to stellar objects, variable stars and binary stars in particular. An introduction to the astronomical literature and a comprehensive chapter on astronomy education and instructional aids make the Compendium a useful complement to any college library, in addition to its being essential reading for all practical astronomers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MeScT..23i4017U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MeScT..23i4017U"><span>Interferometric 30 m bench for <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of 1D scales and optical distance measuring <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Unkuri, J.; Rantanen, A.; Manninen, J.; Esala, V.-P.; Lassila, A.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>During construction of a new metrology building for MIKES, a 30 m interferometric bench was designed. The objective was to implement a straight, stable, adjustable and multifunctional 30 m measuring bench for <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. Special attention was paid to eliminating the effects of thermal expansion and inevitable concrete shrinkage. The linear guide, situated on top of a monolithic concrete beam, comprises two parallel round shafts with adjustable fixtures every 1 m. A carriage is moved along the rail and its position is followed by a reference interferometer. Depending on the measurement task, one or two retro-reflectors are fixed on the carriage. A microscope with a CCD camera and a monitor can be used to detect line mark positions on different line standards. When <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> optical distance measuring <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, various targets can be fixed to the carriage. For the most accurate measurements an online Abbe-error correction based on simultaneous carriage pitch measurement by a separate laser interferometer is applied. The bench is used for <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of machinist scales, tapes, circometers, electronic distance meters, total stations and laser trackers. The estimated expanded uncertainty for 30 m displacement for highest accuracy <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> is 2.6 µm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015mgm..conf.1679L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015mgm..conf.1679L"><span>The Microscope Space Mission and the In-Orbit <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Plan for its <span class="hlt">Instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Levy, Agnès Touboul, Pierre; Rodrigues, Manuel; Onera, Émilie Hardy; Métris, Gilles; Robert, Alain</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The MICROSCOPE space mission aims at testing the Equivalence Principle (EP) with an accuracy of 10-15. This principle is one of the basis of the General Relativity theory; it states the equivalence between gravitational and inertial mass. The test is based on the precise measurement of a gravitational signal by a differential electrostatic accelerometer which includes two cylindrical test masses made of different materials. The accelerometers constitute the payload accommodated on board a drag-free micro-satellite which is controlled inertial or rotating about the normal to the orbital plane. The acceleration estimates used for the EP test are disturbed by the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> physical parameters and by the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> environment conditions on-board the satellite. These parameters are partially measured with ground tests or during the integration of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> in the satellite (alignment). Nevertheless, the ground evaluations are not sufficient with respect to the EP test accuracy objectives. An in-orbit <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is therefore needed to characterize them finely. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> process for each parameter has been defined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPSC....8..657H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPSC....8..657H"><span>Laboratory <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of the PP-SESAME <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on Philae for measuring the cometary surface permittivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hamelin, M.; Le Gall, A.; Caujolle-Bert, S.; Schmidt, W.; Grard, R.; Laasko, H.; Ciarletti, V.; Seidensticker, K.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>The complex permittivity of terrestrial and planetary grounds can be derived from Mutual Impedance (MI) measurements using a four-electrode array [1]; the system is working at a fixed frequency with the electrodes not necessarily in contact with the ground and with a dedicated electronic system. This concept was used to build the Permittivity Probe (PP) as part of the SESAME experiment of the Philae Rosetta cometary lander. However severe constraints due to the payload facilities and to the particular environment lead to the actual design of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Unfortunately it was not possible to perform <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of the full system before lauch and the ground model consists of several parts used by various <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Here we report the results of basic <span class="hlt">calibration</span> tests performed with a model of the Philae Landing Gear built in DLR. These tests involve only the three feet electrodes and a mockup of the the Philae body with very simple and well defined targets for characterizing the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Further measurements on natural targets would be the next step.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28579658','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28579658"><span>Human-Robot Collaboration Dynamic Impact Testing and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> for Disposable Robot Safety Artifacts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dagalakis, Nicholas G; Yoo, Jae Myung; Oeste, Thomas</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Dynamic Impact Testing and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> (DITCI) is a simple <span class="hlt">instrument</span> with a significant data collection and analysis capability that is used for the testing and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of biosimulant human tissue artifacts. These artifacts may be used to measure the severity of injuries caused in the case of a robot impact with a human. In this paper we describe the DITCI adjustable impact and flexible foundation mechanism, which allows the selection of a variety of impact force levels and foundation stiffness. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> can accommodate arrays of a variety of sensors and impact tools, simulating both real manufacturing tools and the testing requirements of standards setting organizations. A computer data acquisition system may collect a variety of impact motion, force, and torque data, which are used to develop a variety of mathematical model representations of the artifacts. Finally, we describe the fabrication and testing of human abdomen soft tissue artifacts, used to display the magnitude of impact tissue deformation. Impact tests were performed at various maximum impact force and average pressure levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5455783','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5455783"><span>Human-Robot Collaboration Dynamic Impact Testing and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> for Disposable Robot Safety Artifacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dagalakis, Nicholas G.; Yoo, Jae Myung; Oeste, Thomas</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The Dynamic Impact Testing and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> (DITCI) is a simple <span class="hlt">instrument</span> with a significant data collection and analysis capability that is used for the testing and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of biosimulant human tissue artifacts. These artifacts may be used to measure the severity of injuries caused in the case of a robot impact with a human. In this paper we describe the DITCI adjustable impact and flexible foundation mechanism, which allows the selection of a variety of impact force levels and foundation stiffness. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> can accommodate arrays of a variety of sensors and impact tools, simulating both real manufacturing tools and the testing requirements of standards setting organizations. A computer data acquisition system may collect a variety of impact motion, force, and torque data, which are used to develop a variety of mathematical model representations of the artifacts. Finally, we describe the fabrication and testing of human abdomen soft tissue artifacts, used to display the magnitude of impact tissue deformation. Impact tests were performed at various maximum impact force and average pressure levels. PMID:28579658</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SSRv..tmp...35E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SSRv..tmp...35E"><span>Michelson Interferometer for Global High-Resolution Thermospheric Imaging (MIGHTI): <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Design and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Englert, Christoph R.; Harlander, John M.; Brown, Charles M.; Marr, Kenneth D.; Miller, Ian J.; Stump, J. Eloise; Hancock, Jed; Peterson, James Q.; Kumler, Jay; Morrow, William H.; Mooney, Thomas A.; Ellis, Scott; Mende, Stephen B.; Harris, Stewart E.; Stevens, Michael H.; Makela, Jonathan J.; Harding, Brian J.; Immel, Thomas J.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The Michelson Interferometer for Global High-resolution Thermospheric Imaging (MIGHTI) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was built for launch and operation on the NASA Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) mission. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was designed to measure thermospheric horizontal wind velocity profiles and thermospheric temperature in altitude regions between 90 km and 300 km, during day and night. For the wind measurements it uses two perpendicular fields of view pointed at the Earth's limb, observing the Doppler shift of the atomic oxygen red and green lines at 630.0 nm and 557.7 nm wavelength. The wavelength shift is measured using field-widened, temperature compensated Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne (DASH) spectrometers, employing low order échelle gratings operating at two different orders for the different atmospheric lines. The temperature measurement is accomplished by a multichannel photometric measurement of the spectral shape of the molecular oxygen A-band around 762 nm wavelength. For each field of view, the signals of the two oxygen lines and the A-band are detected on different regions of a single, cooled, frame transfer charge coupled device (CCD) detector. On-board <span class="hlt">calibration</span> sources are used to periodically quantify thermal drifts, simultaneously with observing the atmosphere. The MIGHTI requirements, the resulting <span class="hlt">instrument</span> design and the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870003395','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870003395"><span>The Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS): <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> description, <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and data quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jedlovec, G. J.; Menzel, W. P.; Atkinson, R.; Wilson, G. S.; Arvesen, J.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">instrument</span> has been developed to produce high resolution imagery in eight visible and three infared spectral bands from an aircraft platform. An analysis of the data and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedures has shown that useful data can be obtained at up to 50 m resolution with a 2.5 milliradian aperture. Single sample standard errors for the measurements are 0.5, 0.2, and 0.9 K for the 6.5, 11.1, and 12.3 micron spectral bands, respectively. These errors are halved when a 5.0 milliradian aperture is used to obtain 100 m resolution data. Intercomparisons with VAS and AVHRR measurements show good relative <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. MAMS development is part of a larger program to develop multispectral Earth imaging capabilities from space platforms during the 1990s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC51E0474S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC51E0474S"><span>Improvements in Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Products Based on <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibrations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, N. M.; Priestley, K.; Loeb, N. G.; Thomas, S.; Shankar, M.; Walikainen, D.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) mission is <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> in providing highly accurate radiance measurements that are critical for monitoring the Earth's radiation budget. Two identical CERES <span class="hlt">instruments</span> are deployed aboard NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites Terra and Aqua. Each CERES <span class="hlt">instrument</span> consists of scanning thermistor bolometer sensors that measure broadband radiances in the shortwave (0.3 to 5 micron), total (0.3 to < 100 micron) and water vapor window (8 to 12 micron) regions. CERES <span class="hlt">instruments</span> have the capability of scanning in either the cross-track or rotating azimuth plane (RAP) scan mode. Cross-track scanning, the primary mode of CERES operation, allows for the geographical mapping of the radiation fields while RAP scanning enables the acquisition of data over a more extensive combination of viewing configurations, needed for developing vastly improved angular distribution models used in radiance to flux conversion. To evaluate, achieve and maintain radiometric stability, a rigorous and comprehensive radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and validation protocol is implemented. <span class="hlt">Calibrations</span> and validation studies have indicated spectral changes in the reflected solar spectral regions of the shortwave and total sensors. Spectral darkening is detected in the shortwave channel optics, which is more prominent while the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> operates in RAP mode. In the absence of a climatological explanation for this darkening, this likely occurs during part of the RAP scan cycle when the scan plane is aligned with the direction of motion, making the optics more susceptible to increased UV exposure and molecular contamination. Additionally, systematic daytime-nighttime longwave top-of-atmosphere (TOA) flux inconsistency was also detected during validation, which highlights the changes in the shortwave region of the total sensor. This paper briefly describes the strategy to correct for the sensor response changes and presents the improvements in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160004355','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160004355"><span>Post-Launch <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Testing of Space Weather <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> on GOES-R Satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tadikonda, Sivakumara S. K.; Merrow, Cynthia S.; Kronenwetter, Jeffrey A.; Comeyne, Gustave J.; Flanagan, Daniel G.; Todirita, Monica</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite - R (GOES-R) is the first of a series of satellites to be launched, with the first launch scheduled for October 2016. The three <span class="hlt">instruments</span> - Solar Ultra Violet Imager (SUVI), Extreme ultraviolet and X-ray Irradiance Sensor (EXIS), and Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS) provide the data needed as inputs for the product updates National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides to the public. SUVI is a full-disk extreme ultraviolet imager enabling Active Region characterization, filament eruption, and flare detection. EXIS provides inputs to solar backgrounds/events impacting climate models. SEISS provides particle measurements over a wide energy-and-flux range that varies by several orders of magnitude and these data enable updates to spacecraft charge models for electrostatic discharge. EXIS and SEISS have been tested and <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> end-to-end in ground test facilities around the United States. Due to the complexity of the SUVI design, data from component tests were used in a model to predict on-orbit performance. The ground tests and model updates provided inputs for designing the on-orbit <span class="hlt">calibration</span> tests. A series of such tests have been planned for the Post-Launch Testing (PLT) of each of these <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, and specific parameters have been identified that will be updated in the Ground Processing Algorithms, on-orbit parameter tables, or both. Some of SUVI and EXIS <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> require slewing them off the Sun, while no such maneuvers are needed for SEISS. After a six-month PLT period the GOES-R is expected to be operational. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> details are presented in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9881E..0LT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9881E..0LT"><span>Post-launch <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and testing of space weather <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on GOES-R satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tadikonda, Sivakumara S. K.; Merrow, Cynthia S.; Kronenwetter, Jeffrey A.; Comeyne, Gustave J.; Flanagan, Daniel G.; Todirita, Monica</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite - R (GOES-R) is the first of a series of satellites to be launched, with the first launch scheduled for October 2016. The three <span class="hlt">instruments</span> -- Solar UltraViolet Imager (SUVI), Extreme ultraviolet and X-ray Irradiance Sensor (EXIS), and Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS) provide the data needed as inputs for the product updates National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides to the public. SUVI is a full-disk extreme ultraviolet imager enabling Active Region characterization, filament eruption, and flare detection. EXIS provides inputs to solar backgrounds/events impacting climate models. SEISS provides particle measurements over a wide energy-and-flux range that varies by several orders of magnitude and these data enable updates to spacecraft charge models for electrostatic discharge. EXIS and SEISS have been tested and <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> end-to-end in ground test facilities around the United States. Due to the complexity of the SUVI design, data from component tests were used in a model to predict on-orbit performance. The ground tests and model updates provided inputs for designing the on-orbit <span class="hlt">calibration</span> tests. A series of such tests have been planned for the Post-Launch Testing (PLT) of each of these <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, and specific parameters have been identified that will be updated in the Ground Processing Algorithms, on-orbit parameter tables, or both. Some of SUVI and EXIS <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> require slewing them off the Sun, while no such maneuvers are needed for SEISS. After a six-month PLT period the GOES-R is expected to be operational. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> details are presented in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160004690','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160004690"><span>Post-Launch <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Testing of Space Weather <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> on GOES-R Satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tadikonda, S. K.; Merrow, Cynthia S.; Kronenwetter, Jeffrey A.; Comeyne, Gustave J.; Flanagan, Daniel G.; Todrita, Monica</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite - R (GOES-R) is the first of a series of satellites to be launched, with the first launch scheduled for October 2016. The three <span class="hlt">instruments</span> Solar UltraViolet Imager (SUVI), Extreme ultraviolet and X-ray Irradiance Sensor (EXIS), and Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS) provide the data needed as inputs for the product updates National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides to the public. SUVI is a full-disk extreme ultraviolet imager enabling Active Region characterization, filament eruption, and flare detection. EXIS provides inputs to solar back-ground-sevents impacting climate models. SEISS provides particle measurements over a wide energy-and-flux range that varies by several orders of magnitude and these data enable updates to spacecraft charge models for electrostatic discharge. EXIS and SEISS have been tested and <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> end-to-end in ground test facilities around the United States. Due to the complexity of the SUVI design, data from component tests were used in a model to predict on-orbit performance. The ground tests and model updates provided inputs for designing the on-orbit <span class="hlt">calibration</span> tests. A series of such tests have been planned for the Post-Launch Testing (PLT) of each of these <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, and specific parameters have been identified that will be updated in the Ground Processing Algorithms, on-orbit parameter tables, or both. Some of SUVI and EXIS <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> require slewing them off the Sun, while no such maneuvers are needed for SEISS. After a six-month PLT period the GOES-R is expected to be operational. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> details are presented in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A51J..06K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A51J..06K"><span>Lessons Learned from GOSAT; <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Design, <span class="hlt">Calibration</span>, Operation, Data Processing, and International Collaboration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuze, A.; Suto, H.; Shiomi, K.; Nakajima, M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Advantage of satellite observation is its ability to monitor long term and global distribution with a single <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Ozone observation from space has been successful for long term monitoring purposes. Monitoring gradual increase and distribution of greenhouse gases in the troposphere with sub-percent accuracy has become a challenging subject. Interference of cloud and aerosol in radiative transfer has to be corrected for troposphere measurement. Accurate O2-A band measurement can retrieve surface pressure and aerosol distribution property. We have selected a Fourier Transform spectrometer (FTS) to achieve high throughput and wide spectral coverage with uniform spectral resolution. On the other hand, it is difficult to modulate short wave such as 0.76μm and avoid micro vibration interference. Prelaunch, we took special care to select optical components of excellent surface quality and isolate vibration. Design parameters such as IFOV, spectral resolution, observation interval within limited satellite resources must be carefully optimized. Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) has been providing global high spectral resolution data for almost 4 years. <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> performance, radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, radiative transfer calculation and laboratory spectroscopy are all important. The first step was to reduce bias of column-averaged dry air mole fractions (the Level 2 product) of CO2 and CH4 (XCO2 and XCH4) and validate using well <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> data such as TCCON. After 2 years of operation, latitudinal distribution of zonal mean and seasonal variation at these sites can be measured with better than 2ppm accuracy. However, validations are limited to ideal conditions. Next step is to evaluate consistency of measured values from long periods since launch, different surface types, and various input radiance with different <span class="hlt">instrument</span> gain. For long term radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, we have uses vicarious, onboard solar diffuser, and lunar <span class="hlt">calibration</span> data. Over the ocean</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860013443','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860013443"><span>An integrated development facility for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of low-energy charged particle flight <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biddle, A. P.; Reynolds, J. M.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A system was developed for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and development of thermal ion <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>. The system provides an extended beam with usable current rates, approx. 1 pA/sq cm, at beam energies as low as 1 eV, with much higher values available with increasing energy. A tandem electrostatic and variable geometry magnetic mirror configuration within the ion source optimizes the use of the ionizing electrons. The system is integrated under microcomputer control to allow automatic control and monitoring of the beam energy and composition and the mass and angle-dependent response of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> under test. The system is pumped by a combination of carbon vane and cryogenic sorption roughing pumps and ion and liquid helium operating pumps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12665091','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12665091"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> procedures and correction of detector signal relaxations for the CRISTA infrared satellite <span class="hlt">instrument</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ern, Manfred; Offermann, Dirk; Preusse, Peter; Grossmann, Klaus-Ulrich; Oberheide, Jens</p> <p>2003-03-20</p> <p>Remote sensing from space has become a common method for deriving geophysical parameters such as atmospheric temperature and composition. The Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was designed to sound the middle and the upper atmosphere (10-180 km) with high spatial resolution. Atmospheric IR emissions were measured with Si:Ga bulk or Si:As blocked impurity band detectors for a wavelength interval of 4-17 microm and Ge:Ga bulk detectors for 56-71 microm. An overview of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and the correction of detector signal relaxations for the Si:Ga detectors are given, both of which are necessary to provide high-quality IR radiance data as input for the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and trace gas mixing ratios. Laboratory and flight data are shown to demonstrate the quality of the results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730052306&hterms=harvard&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dharvard','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730052306&hterms=harvard&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dharvard"><span>The Harvard experiment on OSO-6 - <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span>, <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, operation, and description of observations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Huber, M. C. E.; Dupree, A. K.; Goldberg, L.; Parkinson, W. H.; Reeves, E. M.; Withbroe, G. L.; Noyes, R. W.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The Harvard experiment carried by OSO-6 was an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer-spectroheliometer with a wavelength range of 285 to 1385 A, a spatial and spectral bandwidth of 35 x 35(arc sec) squared and 3 A, respectively. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> acquired data that have been deposited with the National Space Science Data Center and World Data Center A at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and are now available in their entirety to the scientific community. Aspects of the experiment that are relevant to potential users of the data are described - namely, <span class="hlt">instrument</span> configuration and parameters, laboratory and inflight <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>, as well as operational capabilities and procedures. The observations obtained are reported, and the nature, number, and dates of observation, where relevant, are listed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSA43A4103S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSA43A4103S"><span>The <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of a Large Number of Scientific <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> for the Auroral Spatial Structures Probe Sub-Orbital Mission.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Swenson, A.; Miller, J.; Neilsen, T. L.; Fish, C. S.; Swenson, C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Auroral Spatial Structures Probe (ASSP) is a NASA sounding rocket mission to be launched in the early January 2015 time frame from the Poker Flat Research Range. The primary scientific objective of this mission is to determine the contribution of small spatial and temporal scale fluctuations of the electric fields to the larger-scale processes during active aurora. This will be accomplished through the use of a constellation of six small payloads ejected at high velocity from a sounding rocket. The multiple baseline observations of the electric and magnetic fields will be used to observe variability of both the E-field and the Poynting flux. These observations will be placed in the context of available data, including winds, large scale E-fields, and proxy conductivity (airglow images) observations.Each sub-payload will carry a crossed pair of electric field double-probe sensors, a three-axis magnetometer, and a Langmuir probe. In total there are eight of each <span class="hlt">instrument</span> type requireing <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. Since the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> need to be <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> over temperature a full <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of a single <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is very time-consuming. The decision was made to automate the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> process. Measurements were taken using a relay switch-box connecting the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> to test sources. <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> data were saved into a database. Using post-processing scripts on these databases a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> for each <span class="hlt">instrument</span> at each temperature point was made. This approach is a prototype process that might be used for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> a large constellation of CubeSats with similar <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. In this poster we review the ASSP science and mission, and the results of the pre-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the science <span class="hlt">instruments</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015P%26SS..117...82P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015P%26SS..117...82P"><span>The pre-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span> setup of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> SIMBIO-SYS onboard the mission BepiColombo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poulet, F.; Rodriguez-Ferreira, J.; Arondel, A.; Dassas, K.; Eng, P.; Lami, P.; Langevin, Y.; Longval, Y.; Pradel, P.; Dami, M.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>BepiColombo, an European Space Agency (ESA) mission being conducted in cooperation with the Japan space agency, will explore Mercury with a set of eleven <span class="hlt">instruments</span> onboard the spacecraft Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO). Among them, SIMBIO-SYS (Spectrometers and Imagers for MPO BepiColombo Integrated Observatory SYStem) is a complex <span class="hlt">instrument</span> that will provide images and spectra in the 400-2000 nm wavelength range of the entire surface of Mercury. Pre-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the SYMBIO-SYS <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is mandatory for reliable scientific interpretation of images and spectra returned from the planet Mercury. This paper presents the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> device designed and implemented for the specific requirements of this <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. It mainly consists of a thermal vacuum chamber simulating the space environment, an optical bench collecting <span class="hlt">calibration</span> sources and optical elements that simulate the conditions of Mercury observations, mechanical interfaces used for positioning the three channels inside the vacuum chamber, thermal interfaces to explore the operating temperatures, computer interfaces that allow to communicate with both the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> elements and synchronize the <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> sequences with the status of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> device. As the major goal is the characterization of the radiometric performances of the three channels of SIMBIO-SYS, radiometric performances of the test setup evaluated by simulations and measurements are emphasized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080032896&hterms=rio+tinto&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Drio%2Btinto','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080032896&hterms=rio+tinto&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Drio%2Btinto"><span>Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) for Advanced Life Detection <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> Development and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Glavin, Daniel; Brinkerhoff, Will; Dworkin, Jason; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Franz, Heather; Mahaffy, Paul; Stern, Jen; Blake, Daid; Sandford, Scott; Fries, marc; Steele, Andrew; Amashukeli, Xenia; Fisher, Anita; Grunthaner, Frank; Aubrey, Andrew; Bada, Jeff; Chiesl, Tom; Stockton, Amanda; Mathies, Rich</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Scientific ground-truth measurements for near-term Mars missions, such as the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, are essential for validating current in situ flight <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> and for the development of advanced <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> technologies for life-detection missions over the next decade. The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) has recently funded a consortium of researchers called the Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) to analyze an identical set of homogenized martian analog materials in a "round-robin" style using both state-of-the-art laboratory techniques as well as in-situ flight <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> including the SAM gas chromatograph mass spectrometer and CHEMIN X-ray diffraction/fluorescence <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on MSL and the Urey and MOMA organic analyzer <span class="hlt">instruments</span> under development for the 2013 ExoMars missions. The analog samples studied included an Atacama Desert soil from Chile, the Murchison meteorite, a gypsum sample from the 2007 AMASE Mars analog site, jarosite from Panoche Valley, CA, a hydrothermal sample from Rio Tinto, Spain, and a "blind" sample collected during the 2007 MSL slow-motion field test in New Mexico. Each sample was distributed to the team for analysis to: (1) determine the nature and inventory of organic compounds, (2) measure the bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition, (3) investigate elemental abundances, mineralogy and matrix, and (4) search for biological activity. The experimental results obtained from the ASAP Mars analog research consortium will be used to build a framework for understanding the biogeochemistry of martian analogs, help <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> current spaceflight <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>, and enhance the scientific return from upcoming missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SSRv..170..341B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SSRv..170..341B"><span>Characterization and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the CheMin Mineralogical <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> on Mars Science Laboratory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blake, David; Vaniman, David; Achilles, Cherie; Anderson, Robert; Bish, David; Bristow, Tom; Chen, Curtis; Chipera, Steve; Crisp, Joy; Des Marais, David; Downs, Robert T.; Farmer, Jack; Feldman, Sabrina; Fonda, Mark; Gailhanou, Marc; Ma, Hongwei; Ming, Doug W.; Morris, Richard V.; Sarrazin, Philippe; Stolper, Ed; Treiman, Allan; Yen, Albert</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>A principal goal of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity is to identify and characterize past habitable environments on Mars. Determination of the mineralogical and chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils constrains their formation and alteration pathways, providing information on climate and habitability through time. The CheMin X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on MSL will return accurate mineralogical identifications and quantitative phase abundances for scooped soil samples and drilled rock powders collected at Gale Crater during Curiosity's 1-Mars-year nominal mission. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> has a Co X-ray source and a cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) detector arranged in transmission geometry with the sample. CheMin's angular range of 5∘ to 50∘ 2 θ with <0.35∘ 2 θ resolution is sufficient to identify and quantify virtually all minerals. CheMin's XRF requirement was descoped for technical and budgetary reasons. However, X-ray energy discrimination is still required to separate Co K α from Co K β and Fe K α photons. The X-ray energy-dispersive histograms (EDH) returned along with XRD for <span class="hlt">instrument</span> evaluation should be useful in identifying elements Z>13 that are contained in the sample. The CheMin XRD is equipped with internal chemical and mineralogical standards and 27 reusable sample cells with either Mylar® or Kapton® windows to accommodate acidic-to-basic environmental conditions. The CheMin flight model (FM) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> will be <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> utilizing analyses of common samples against a demonstration-model (DM) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and CheMin-like laboratory <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The samples include phyllosilicate and sulfate minerals that are expected at Gale crater on the basis of remote sensing observations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080032896&hterms=gypsum&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dgypsum','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080032896&hterms=gypsum&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dgypsum"><span>Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) for Advanced Life Detection <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> Development and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Glavin, Daniel; Brinkerhoff, Will; Dworkin, Jason; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Franz, Heather; Mahaffy, Paul; Stern, Jen; Blake, Daid; Sandford, Scott; Fries, marc; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20080032896'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20080032896_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20080032896_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20080032896_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20080032896_hide"></p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Scientific ground-truth measurements for near-term Mars missions, such as the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, are essential for validating current in situ flight <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> and for the development of advanced <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> technologies for life-detection missions over the next decade. The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) has recently funded a consortium of researchers called the Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) to analyze an identical set of homogenized martian analog materials in a "round-robin" style using both state-of-the-art laboratory techniques as well as in-situ flight <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> including the SAM gas chromatograph mass spectrometer and CHEMIN X-ray diffraction/fluorescence <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on MSL and the Urey and MOMA organic analyzer <span class="hlt">instruments</span> under development for the 2013 ExoMars missions. The analog samples studied included an Atacama Desert soil from Chile, the Murchison meteorite, a gypsum sample from the 2007 AMASE Mars analog site, jarosite from Panoche Valley, CA, a hydrothermal sample from Rio Tinto, Spain, and a "blind" sample collected during the 2007 MSL slow-motion field test in New Mexico. Each sample was distributed to the team for analysis to: (1) determine the nature and inventory of organic compounds, (2) measure the bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition, (3) investigate elemental abundances, mineralogy and matrix, and (4) search for biological activity. The experimental results obtained from the ASAP Mars analog research consortium will be used to build a framework for understanding the biogeochemistry of martian analogs, help <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> current spaceflight <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>, and enhance the scientific return from upcoming missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150006584&hterms=beamforming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbeamforming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150006584&hterms=beamforming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbeamforming"><span>Digitally <span class="hlt">Calibrated</span> TR Modules Enabling Real-Time Beamforming SweepSAR Architectures for DESDynI-Class Radar <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hoffman, James Patrick; Peral, Eva; Veilluex, Louise; Perkovic, Dragana; Shaffer, Scott</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Real-time digital beamforming, combined with lightweight, large aperture reflectors, enable SweepSAR architectures such as that of the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> (or DSI). SweepSAR promises significant increases in <span class="hlt">instrument</span> capability for solid earth and biomass remote sensing, while reducing mission mass and cost. This new <span class="hlt">instrument</span> concept requires new methods for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> the multiple channels, which must be combined on-board, in real-time. We are developing new methods for digitally <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> digital beamforming arrays to reduce development time, risk and cost of precision <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> TR modules for array architectures by accurately tracking modules' characteristics through closed-loop Digital <span class="hlt">Calibration</span>, thus tracking systematic changes regardless of temperature</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol19/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol19-sec86-120-94.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol19/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol19-sec86-120-94.pdf"><span>40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... Procedures § 86.120-94 Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol19/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol19-sec86-120-94.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol19/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol19-sec86-120-94.pdf"><span>40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... Procedures § 86.120-94 Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol18/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol18-sec86-120-94.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol18/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol18-sec86-120-94.pdf"><span>40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... Procedures § 86.120-94 Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol19/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol19-sec86-120-94.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol19/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol19-sec86-120-94.pdf"><span>40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... Procedures § 86.120-94 Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol18/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol18-sec86-120-94.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol18/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol18-sec86-120-94.pdf"><span>40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... Procedures § 86.120-94 Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060039376&hterms=instruments+Description&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dinstruments%2BDescription','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060039376&hterms=instruments+Description&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dinstruments%2BDescription"><span>TOPEX/Poseidon Microwave Radiometer (TMR): 1. <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Description and Antenna Temperature <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ruf, C. S.; Keihm, S. J.; Janssen, M. A.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The TOPEX/Poseidon Microwave Radiometer (TMR) is a 3-frequency radiometer flown on the TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) satellite in low Earth orbit. It operates at 18, 21 and 37 GHz in a nadir only viewing direction which is co-aligned with the T/P radar altimeters. TMR monitors and corrects for the electrical path delay of the altimeter radar signal due to water vapor and non-precipitating liquid water in the atmosphere. This paper describes the TMR <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and the radiometric <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> required to derive antenna temperature (T_A) from the raw digital data. T_A precision of 0.4 K is predicted on orbit in all expected thermal environments. T_A accuracy of 0.5-0.6 K is expected following a post-launch field <span class="hlt">calibration</span> campaign. When uncertainties related to antenna sidelobe corrections are included, this T_A accuracy yields a brightness temperature accuracy of 0.7- 0.8 K...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AMTD....5.2315B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AMTD....5.2315B"><span>Soot Reference Materials for <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and intercomparisons: a workshop summary with recommendations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baumgardner, D.; Popovicheva, O.; Allan, J.; Bernardoni, V.; Cao, J.; Cavalli, F.; Cozic, J.; Diapouli, E.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Genberg, P. J.; Gonzalez, C.; Gysel, M.; John, A.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Kuhlbusch, T. A. J.; Laborde, M.; Lack, D.; Müller, T.; Niessner, R.; Petzold, A.; Piazzalunga, A.; Putaud, J. P.; Schwarz, J.; Sheridan, P.; Subramanian, R.; Swietlicki, E.; Valli, G.; Vecchi, R.; Viana, M.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Soot, which is produced from biomass burning and the incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass fuels, has been linked to regional and global climate change and to negative health problems. Scientists measure soot using a variety of methods in order to quantify source emissions and understand its atmospheric chemistry, reactivity under emission conditions, interaction with solar radiation, influence on clouds, and health impacts. A major obstacle currently limiting progress is the absence of established standards or reference materials for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> the many <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the various properties of soot. The current state of availability and practicability of soot standard reference materials (SRMs) was reviewed by a group of 50 international experts during a workshop in June of 2011. The workshop was convened to summarize the current knowledge on soot measurement techniques, identify the measurement uncertainties and limitations related to the lack of SRMs, and identify attributes of SRMs that, if developed, would reduce measurement uncertainties. The workshop established that suitable SRMs are available for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> some, but not all, measurement methods. The community of single-particle sootphotometer (SP2) users identified a suitable SRM, fullerene soot, but users of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that measure light absorption by soot collected on filters did not. Similarly, those who use thermal optical analysis (TOA) to analyze the organic and elemental carbon components of soot were not satisfied with current SRMs. The workshop produced recommendations for the development of new SRMs that would be suitable for the different soot measurement methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060039376&hterms=digital+microwave&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddigital%2Bmicrowave','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060039376&hterms=digital+microwave&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddigital%2Bmicrowave"><span>TOPEX/Poseidon Microwave Radiometer (TMR): 1. <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Description and Antenna Temperature <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ruf, C. S.; Keihm, S. J.; Janssen, M. A.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The TOPEX/Poseidon Microwave Radiometer (TMR) is a 3-frequency radiometer flown on the TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) satellite in low Earth orbit. It operates at 18, 21 and 37 GHz in a nadir only viewing direction which is co-aligned with the T/P radar altimeters. TMR monitors and corrects for the electrical path delay of the altimeter radar signal due to water vapor and non-precipitating liquid water in the atmosphere. This paper describes the TMR <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and the radiometric <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> required to derive antenna temperature (T_A) from the raw digital data. T_A precision of 0.4 K is predicted on orbit in all expected thermal environments. T_A accuracy of 0.5-0.6 K is expected following a post-launch field <span class="hlt">calibration</span> campaign. When uncertainties related to antenna sidelobe corrections are included, this T_A accuracy yields a brightness temperature accuracy of 0.7- 0.8 K...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22370432','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22370432"><span>A fully Bayesian method for jointly fitting <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and X-ray spectral models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Xu, Jin; Yu, Yaming; Van Dyk, David A.; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Drake, Jeremy; Ratzlaff, Pete; Connors, Alanna; Meng, Xiao-Li E-mail: yamingy@ics.uci.edu E-mail: vkashyap@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: jdrake@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: meng@stat.harvard.edu</p> <p>2014-10-20</p> <p>Owing to a lack of robust principled methods, systematic <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> uncertainties have generally been ignored in astrophysical data analysis despite wide recognition of the importance of including them. Ignoring <span class="hlt">calibration</span> uncertainty can cause bias in the estimation of source model parameters and can lead to underestimation of the variance of these estimates. We previously introduced a pragmatic Bayesian method to address this problem. The method is 'pragmatic' in that it introduced an ad hoc technique that simplified computation by neglecting the potential information in the data for narrowing the uncertainty for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> product. Following that work, we use a principal component analysis to efficiently represent the uncertainty of the effective area of an X-ray (or γ-ray) telescope. Here, however, we leverage this representation to enable a principled, fully Bayesian method that coherently accounts for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> uncertainty in high-energy spectral analysis. In this setting, the method is compared with standard analysis techniques and the pragmatic Bayesian method. The advantage of the fully Bayesian method is that it allows the data to provide information not only for estimation of the source parameters but also for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> product—here the effective area, conditional on the adopted spectral model. In this way, it can yield more accurate and efficient estimates of the source parameters along with valid estimates of their uncertainty. Provided that the source spectrum can be accurately described by a parameterized model, this method allows rigorous inference about the effective area by quantifying which possible curves are most consistent with the data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AMT.....5.1869B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AMT.....5.1869B"><span>Soot reference materials for <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and intercomparisons: a workshop summary with recommendations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baumgardner, D.; Popovicheva, O.; Allan, J.; Bernardoni, V.; Cao, J.; Cavalli, F.; Cozic, J.; Diapouli, E.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Genberg, P. J.; Gonzalez, C.; Gysel, M.; John, A.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Kuhlbusch, T. A. J.; Laborde, M.; Lack, D.; Müller, T.; Niessner, R.; Petzold, A.; Piazzalunga, A.; Putaud, J. P.; Schwarz, J.; Sheridan, P.; Subramanian, R.; Swietlicki, E.; Valli, G.; Vecchi, R.; Viana, M.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Soot, which is produced from biomass burning and the incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass fuels, has been linked to regional and global climate change and to negative health problems. Scientists measure the properties of soot using a variety of methods in order to quantify source emissions and understand its atmospheric chemistry, reactivity under emission conditions, interaction with solar radiation, influence on clouds, and health impacts. A major obstacle currently limiting progress is the absence of established standards or reference materials for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> the many <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the various properties of soot. The current state of availability and practicability of soot standard reference materials (SRMs) was reviewed by a group of 50 international experts during a workshop in June of 2011. The workshop was convened to summarize the current knowledge on soot measurement techniques, identify the measurement uncertainties and limitations related to the lack of soot SRMs, and identify attributes of SRMs that, if developed, would reduce measurement uncertainties. The workshop established that suitable SRMs are available for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> some, but not all, measurement methods. The community of users of the single-particle soot-photometer (SP2), an <span class="hlt">instrument</span> using laser-induced incandescence, identified a suitable SRM, fullerene soot, but users of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that measure light absorption by soot collected on filters did not. Similarly, those who use thermal optical analysis (TOA) to analyze the organic and elemental carbon components of soot were not satisfied with current SRMs. The workshop, and subsequent, interactive discussions, produced a number of recommendations for the development of new SRMs, and their implementation, that would be suitable for the different soot measurement methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615823J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615823J"><span>Application of Allan Deviation to Assessing Uncertainties of Continuous-measurement <span class="hlt">Instruments</span>, and Optimizing <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Schemes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jacobson, Gloria; Rella, Chris; Farinas, Alejandro</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Technological advancement of <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> in atmospheric and other geoscience disciplines over the past decade has lead to a shift from discrete sample analysis to continuous, in-situ monitoring. Standard error analysis used for discrete measurements is not sufficient to assess and compare the error contribution of noise and drift from continuous-measurement <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, and a different statistical analysis approach should be applied. The Allan standard deviation analysis technique developed for atomic clock stability assessment by David W. Allan [1] can be effectively and gainfully applied to continuous measurement <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. As an example, P. Werle et al has applied these techniques to look at signal averaging for atmospheric monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) [2]. This presentation will build on, and translate prior foundational publications to provide contextual definitions and guidelines for the practical application of this analysis technique to continuous scientific measurements. The specific example of a Picarro G2401 Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (CRDS) analyzer used for continuous, atmospheric monitoring of CO2, CH4 and CO will be used to define the basics features the Allan deviation, assess factors affecting the analysis, and explore the time-series to Allan deviation plot translation for different types of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> noise (white noise, linear drift, and interpolated data). In addition, the useful application of using an Allan deviation to optimize and predict the performance of different <span class="hlt">calibration</span> schemes will be presented. Even though this presentation will use the specific example of the Picarro G2401 CRDS Analyzer for atmospheric monitoring, the objective is to present the information such that it can be successfully applied to other <span class="hlt">instrument</span> sets and disciplines. [1] D.W. Allan, "Statistics of Atomic Frequency Standards," Proc, IEEE, vol. 54, pp 221-230, Feb 1966 [2] P. Werle, R. Miicke, F. Slemr, "The Limits</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6405E..01R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6405E..01R"><span>Infrared <span class="hlt">calibration</span> for climate: a perspective on present and future high-spectral resolution <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Revercomb, Henry E.; Anderson, James G.; Best, Fred A.; Tobin, David C.; Knuteson, Robert O.; LaPorte, Daniel D.; Taylor, Joe K.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The new era of high spectral resolution infrared <span class="hlt">instruments</span> for atmospheric sounding offers great opportunities for climate change applications. A major issue with most of our existing IR observations from space is spectral sampling uncertainty and the lack of standardization in spectral sampling. The new ultra resolution observing capabilities from the AIRS grating spectrometer on the NASA Aqua platform and from new operational FTS <span class="hlt">instruments</span> (IASI on Metop, CrIS for NPP/NPOESS, and the GIFTS for a GOES demonstration) will go a long way toward improving this situation. These new observations offer the following improvements: 1. Absolute accuracy, moving from issues of order 1 K to <0.2-0.4 K brightness temperature, 2. More complete spectral coverage, with Nyquist sampling for scale standardization, and 3. Capabilities for unifying IR <span class="hlt">calibration</span> among different <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and platforms. However, more needs to be done to meet the immediate needs for climate and to effectively leverage these new operational weather systems, including 1. Place special emphasis on making new <span class="hlt">instruments</span> as accurate as they can be to realize the potential of technological investments already made, 2. Maintain a careful validation program for establishing the best possible direct radiance check of long-term accuracy--specifically, continuing to use aircraft-or balloon-borne <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that are periodically checked directly with NIST, and 3. Commit to a simple, new IR mission that will provide an ongoing backbone for the climate observing system. The new mission would make use of Fourier Transform Spectrometer measurements to fill in spectral and diurnal sampling gaps of the operational systems and provide a benchmark with better than 0.1K 3-sigma accuracy based on standards that are verifiable in-flight.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9904E..42S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9904E..42S"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> results using highly aberrated images for aligning the JWST <span class="hlt">instruments</span> to the telescope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Koby Z.; Acton, D. Scott; Gallagher, Ben B.; Knight, J. Scott; Dean, Bruce H.; Jurling, Alden S.; Zielinski, Thomas P.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p> mostly of 3rd-order astigmatism and coma. This is because the elliptical tertiary mirror of the AOS is used off of its ideal foci locations without the compensating wavefront effects of the JWST primary and secondary mirrors. Therefore, the PSFs created are highly asymmetric with relatively complex structure and the centroid and encircled energy analyses traditionally used to locate images are not sufficient for ensuring the AOS to ISIM alignment. A novel approach combining phase retrieval and spatial metrology was developed to both locate the images with respect to the AOS and provide <span class="hlt">calibration</span> information for eventual AOS to ISIM alignment verification. During final JWST OTE and ISIM (OTIS) testing, only a single thru-focus image will be collected by the <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Therefore, tools and processes were developed to perform single-image phase retrieval on these highly aberrated images such that any single image of the ASPA source can provide <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> knowledge of the <span class="hlt">instruments</span>' position relative to the AOS. This paper discusses the results of the methodology, hardware, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> performed to ensure that the AOS and ISIM are aligned within their respective tolerances at JWST OTIS testing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23314644','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23314644"><span>Far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere: <span class="hlt">instrument</span> description and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> performance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Latvakoski, Harri; Mlynczak, Martin G; Johnson, David G; Cageao, Richard P; Kratz, David P; Johnson, Kendall</p> <p>2013-01-10</p> <p>The far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is a Fourier transform spectrometer developed to measure the Earth's thermal emission spectrum with a particular emphasis on far-infrared (far-IR) wavelengths greater than 15 μm. FIRST was developed under NASA's <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Incubator Program to demonstrate technology for providing measurements from 10 to 100 μm (1000 to 100 cm(-1)) on a single focal plane with a spectral resolution finer than 1 cm(-1). Presently no spectrometers in orbit are capable of directly observing the Earth's far-IR spectrum. This fact, coupled with the fundamental importance of the far-IR to Earth's climate system, provided the impetus for the development of FIRST. In this paper the FIRST <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is described and results of a detailed absolute laboratory <span class="hlt">calibration</span> are presented. Specific channels in FIRST are shown to be accurate in the far-IR to better than 0.3 K at 270 K scene temperature, 0.5 K at 247 K, and 1 K at 225 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7154E..0AB','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7154E..0AB"><span>On-orbit radiometric validation and field-of-view <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of spaceborne microwave sounding <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blackwell, William J.; Bickmeier, Laura J.; Jairam, Laura G.; Leslie, R. Vincent</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Two <span class="hlt">calibration</span>/validation efforts planned for current and future spaceborne microwave sounding <span class="hlt">instruments</span> will be presented. First, the NPOESS Aircraft Sounder Testbed-Microwave (NAST-M) airborne sensor is used to directly validate the microwave radiometers (AMSU and MHS) on several operational satellites. Comparison results for underflights of the Aqua, NOAA, and MetOp-A satellites will be shown. Second, a potential approach will be presented for on-orbit field-of-view (FOV) <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). A variety of proposed spacecraft maneuvers that could facilitate the characterization of the radiometric boresight of all 22 ATMS channels will be discussed. Radiance observations from the NAST-M airborne sensor can be used to directly validate the radiometric performance of spaceborne sensors. NAST-M includes a total of four spectrometers, with three operating near the oxygen lines at 50-57, 118.75, and 424.76 GHz, and a fourth spectrometer centered on the water vapor absorption line at 183.31 GHz. All four feedhorns are co-located, have 3-dB (full-width at half-maximum) beamwidths of 7.5° (translating to 2.5-km nominal pixel diameter at nadir incidence), and are directed at a single mirror that scans cross-track beneath the aircraft with a nominal swath width of 100 km. We will present results for two recent validation efforts: 1) the Pacific THORpex (THe Observing-system Research and predictability experiment) Observing System Test (PTOST 2003, Honolulu, HI) and 2) the Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx 2007, Houston, TX). Radiance differences between the NAST-M sensor and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the Microwave Humidity Sensor (MHS) were found to be less than 1K for most channels. Comparison results for ocean underflights of the Aqua, NOAA, and MetOp-A satellites are shown. We also present an approach for on-orbit FOV <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the ATMS satellite <span class="hlt">instrument</span> using vicarious</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AAS...22923828M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AAS...22923828M"><span><span class="hlt">Instrumental</span> and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Advancements for the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Monsalve, Raul A.; Burns, Jack O.; Bradley, Richard F.; Tauscher, Keith; Nhan, Bang; Bowman, Judd D.; Purcell, William R.; Newell, David; Draper, David</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) is a space mission concept proposed to NASA to measure with high precision the monopole component of the redshifted 21-cm signal from neutral hydrogen originated during cosmic dawn at redshifts 35 > z > 11. For the 21-cm line, these high redshifts correspond to the frequency range 40-120 MHz. Through its spectral features, this signal will provide a wealth of information about the large-scale physics of the first stars, galaxies and black holes. The signal is expected to have an absolute amplitude below 200 mK, which is five orders of magnitude smaller than the diffuse foregrounds dominated by Galactic synchrotron radiation. In order to avoid the impact of the Earth’s ionosphere, which corrupts low-frequency radio waves through refraction, absorption, and emission, this measurement is conducted from orbit above the far side of the Moon. This location is ideal because it enables the Moon to shield the spacecraft from Solar radiation and terrestrial radio-frequency interference. The DARE <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is designed around a dual-polarization, widefield, wideband, biconical antenna, which provides full-Stokes capabilities in order to measure and remove the low-level polarized component of the foregrounds. The spacecraft is rotated about its boresight axis at 1 RPM to modulate the foregrounds and separate them from the spatially uniform cosmological signal. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> requires exquisite <span class="hlt">calibration</span> to reach a sensitivity of a few mK in the presence of strong foregrounds. For this purpose, the frequency-dependent antenna beam is characterized to 20 ppm. This is accomplished through a combination of electromagnetic simulations, anechoic chamber measurements, and on-orbit mapping using a <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> high-power ground-based source. The DARE front-end receiver is characterized on the ground in terms of its input impedance, gain, noise properties, and stability. Its performance is verified when operating on-orbit at a fixed temperature</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150013968','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150013968"><span>Using Lunar Observations to Validate In-Flight <span class="hlt">Calibrations</span> of Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Daniels, Janet L.; Smith, G. Louis; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The validation of in-orbit <span class="hlt">instrument</span> performance requires stability in both <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> source. This paper describes a method of validation using lunar observations scanning near full moon by the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Unlike internal <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>, the Moon offers an external source whose signal variance is predictable and non-degrading. From 2006 to present, in-orbit observations have become standardized and compiled for the Flight Models-1 and -2 aboard the Terra satellite, for Flight Models-3 and -4 aboard the Aqua satellite, and beginning 2012, for Flight Model-5 aboard Suomi-NPP. <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> performance parameters which can be gleaned are detector gain, pointing accuracy and static detector point response function validation. Lunar observations are used to examine the stability of all three detectors on each of these <span class="hlt">instruments</span> from 2006 to present. This validation method has yielded results showing trends per CERES data channel of 1.2% per decade or less.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950044660&hterms=plot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dplot','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950044660&hterms=plot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dplot"><span>Application of the Langley plot method to the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the solar backscattered ultraviolet <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on the Nimbus 7 satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bhartia, P. K.; Taylor, S.; Mcpeters, R. D.; Wellemeyer, C.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The concept of the well-known Langley plot technique, used for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of ground-based <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, has been generalized for application to satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. In polar regions, near summer solstice, the solar backscattered ultraviolet (SBUV) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on the Nimbus 7 satellite samples the same ozone field at widely different solar zenith angles. These measurements are compared to assess the long-term drift in the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. Although the technique provides only a relative wavelength-to-wavelength <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, it can be combined with existing techniques to determine the drift of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> at any wavelength. Using this technique, we have generated a 12-year data set of ozone vertical profiles from SBUV with an estimated accuracy of +/- 5% at 1 mbar and +/- 2% at 10 mbar (95% confidence) over 12 years. Since the method is insensitive to true changes in the atmospheric ozone profile, it can also be used to compare the <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of similar SBUV <span class="hlt">instruments</span> launched without temporal overlap.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750003216','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750003216"><span><span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> for one-way satellite PTTI applications. [<span class="hlt">calibration</span> and synchronization of clocks from navigation satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Osborne, A. E.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>A review of general principles and operational procedures illustrates how the typical passive user and omni receiving antenna can recover Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) information from a low altitude navigation satellite system for clock <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and synchronization. Detailed discussions of concepts and theory of the receiver design are presented. The importance of RF correlation of the received and local PN encoded sequences is emphasized as a means of reducing delay uncertainties of the <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> to values compatible with nanosecond to submicrosecond PTTI objectives. Two receiver configurations were fabricated for use in satellite-to-laboratory experiments. In one receiver the delay-locked loop for PN signals synchronization used a dithered amplitude detection process while the second receiver used a complex sums phase detection method for measurement of delay error. The necessity for compensation of Doppler shift is discussed. Differences in theoretical signal acquisition and tracking performance of the design concepts are noted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25911408','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25911408"><span>Development of a primary thoron activity standard for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of thoron measurement <span class="hlt">instruments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sabot, B; Pierre, S; Cassette, P; Michielsen, N; Bondiguel, S</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The LNHB and IRSN are working on a reference atmosphere for thoron ((220)Rn) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. The LNHB, as the national metrology institute for activity measurement in France, has to create a new thoron reference standard in order to estimate with accuracy the thoron concentration of a reference atmosphere. The measurement system presented in this paper is based on a reference volume using an alpha detector, which is able to measure thoron and its decay products to define the thoron concentration of a thoron reference atmosphere. This paper presents the first results with this new system using a well-known radon ((222)Rn) atmosphere and a thoron ((220)Rn) atmosphere. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900017248','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900017248"><span>An automated <span class="hlt">calibration</span> laboratory for flight research <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>: Requirements and a proposed design approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Oneill-Rood, Nora; Glover, Richard D.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>NASA's Dryden Flight Research Facility (Ames-Dryden), operates a diverse fleet of research aircraft which are heavily <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> to provide both real time data for in-flight monitoring and recorded data for postflight analysis. Ames-Dryden's existing automated <span class="hlt">calibration</span> (AUTOCAL) laboratory is a computerized facility which tests aircraft sensors to certify accuracy for anticipated harsh flight environments. Recently, a major AUTOCAL lab upgrade was initiated; the goal of this modernization is to enhance productivity and improve configuration management for both software and test data. The new system will have multiple testing stations employing distributed processing linked by a local area network to a centralized database. The baseline requirements for the new AUTOCAL lab and the design approach being taken for its mechanization are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMIN33C1056F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMIN33C1056F"><span>Contributions of the SDR Task Network tool to <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Validation of the NPOESS Preparatory Project <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feeley, J.; Zajic, J.; Metcalf, A.; Baucom, T.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Validation (Cal/Val) team is planning post-launch activities to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the NPP sensors and validate Sensor Data Records (SDRs). The IPO has developed a web-based data collection and visualization tool in order to effectively collect, coordinate, and manage the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and validation tasks for the OMPS, ATMS, CrIS, and VIIRS <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. This tool is accessible to the multi-institutional Cal/Val teams consisting of the Prime Contractor and Government Cal/Val leads along with the NASA NPP Mission team, and is used for mission planning and identification/resolution of conflicts between sensor activities. Visualization techniques aid in displaying task dependencies, including prerequisites and exit criteria, allowing for the identification of a critical path. This presentation will highlight how the information is collected, displayed, and used to coordinate the diverse <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>/validation teams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880031282&hterms=Internal+Combustion+Engine&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DInternal%2BCombustion%2BEngine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880031282&hterms=Internal+Combustion+Engine&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DInternal%2BCombustion%2BEngine"><span>Design, <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and error analysis of <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ferguson, C. R.; Tree, D. R.; Dewitt, D. P.; Wahiduzzaman, S. A. H.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The paper reports the methodology and uncertainty analyses of <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines. Results are presented for determining the local wall heat flux in an internal combustion engine (using a surface thermocouple-type heat flux gage) and the apparent flame-temperature and soot volume fraction path length product in a diesel engine (using two-color pyrometry). It is shown that a surface thermocouple heat transfer gage suitably constructed and <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> will have an accuracy of 5 to 10 percent. It is also shown that, when applying two-color pyrometry to measure the apparent flame temperature and soot volume fraction-path length, it is important to choose at least one of the two wavelengths to lie in the range of 1.3 to 2.3 micrometers. Carefully <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> two-color pyrometer can ensure that random errors in the apparent flame temperature and in the soot volume fraction path length will remain small (within about 1 percent and 10-percent, respectively).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..497R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..497R"><span>Scientific <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and analysis of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> data for the CaSSIS <span class="hlt">instrument</span> of the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roloff, V.; Gambicorti, L.; Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) is a camera, the development of which is led by the University of Bern (CH), with hardware contributions from the University of Padova (I) and the Space Research Center of Warsaw (Pl). It will take high resolution stereo images in 4 colours of the Martian surface, from on board the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter. Our <span class="hlt">calibration</span> facility stands ready to perform the required measurements. We are currently testing the procedures on a dummy system and we will report on <span class="hlt">calibration</span> results of the CaSSIS <span class="hlt">instrument</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RScI...87a3506C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RScI...87a3506C"><span>Post <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the two-dimensional electron cyclotron emission imaging <span class="hlt">instrument</span> with electron temperature characteristics of the magnetohydrodynamic instabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, M. J.; Park, H. K.; Yun, G. S.; Nam, Y. B.; Choe, G. H.; Lee, W.; Jardin, S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is widely used to study the local electron temperature (Te) fluctuations by measuring the ECE intensity IECE ∝ Te in tokamak plasmas. The ECEI measurement is often processed in a normalized fluctuation quantity against the time averaged value due to complication in absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. In this paper, the ECEI channels are relatively <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> using the flat Te assumption of the sawtooth crash or the tearing mode island and a proper extrapolation. The 2-D relatively <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> electron temperature (Te,rel) images are reconstructed and the displacement amplitude of the magnetohydrodynamic modes can be measured for the accurate quantitative growth analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A31H..01W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A31H..01W"><span>Overview of Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (NPP) Satellite <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Validation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weng, F.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite carries five <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on board including ATMS, CrIS, VIIRS, OMPS and CERES. During the SNPP intensive calval, ATMS was pitched over to observe the cold space radiation. This unique data set was used for diagnostics of the ATMS scan-angle dependent bias and a scan-to-scan variation. A new algorithm is proposed to correct the ATMS scan angle dependent bias related to the reflector emission. ATMS radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is also revised in IDPS with the full radiance processing (FRP). CrIS is the first Fourier transform Michelson interferometer and measures three infrared spectral bands from 650 to 1095, 1210 to 1750 and 2155 to 2550 cm-1 with spectral resolutions of 0.625 cm-1, respectively. Its spectral <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is with an accuracy of better than 2 ppm and its noise is also well characterized with the Allan variance. Since CrIS was switched to the transmission of full spectral resolution (FSR) of RDR data to the ground in January 2015. The CrIS FSR SDR data are also produced offline at NOAA STAR. VIIRS has 22 spectral bands covering the spectrum between 0.412 μm and 12.01 μm, including 16 moderate resolution bands (M-bands) with a spatial resolution of 750 m at nadir, five imaging resolution bands (I-bands) with a spatial resolution of 375 m at nadir, and one day-night band (DNB) with a nearly-constant 750 m spatial resolution throughout the scan. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of VIIRS reflective solar bands (RSB) requires a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). Using the SNPP yaw maneuver data, SDSM screen transmission function can be updated to better capture the fine structures of the vignetting function. For OMPS nadir mapper (NM) and nadir profiler (NP), the detector signal-to-noise ratio, and sensor signal-to-noise ratio meet the system requirement. Detector gain and bias performance trends are generally stable. System linearity performance is stable and highly consistent with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19044452','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19044452"><span>SI traceable <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of an <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> indentation sensor spring constant using electrostatic force.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chung, Koo-Hyun; Scholz, Stefan; Shaw, Gordon A; Kramar, John A; Pratt, Jon R</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>We present a measurement scheme for creating reference electrostatic forces that are traceable to the International System of Units. This scheme yields reference forces suitable for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> the force sensitivity of <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> indentation machines and atomic force microscopes. Forces between 10 and 200 muN were created and expressed in terms of the voltage, length, and capacitance between a pair of interacting electrodes. The electrodes comprised an electrically conductive sphere mounted as a tip on an <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> indentation sensor, and a planar counterelectrode fixed to a sample stage in close proximity to the sphere. For comparison, we applied mechanical forces of similar magnitudes, first using deadweights and then using a reference force sensor. The deflection of the sensor due to the various applied forces was measured using an interferometer. A spring constant for the sensor was computed from the observed records of force versus displacement. Each procedure yielded a relative standard uncertainty of approximately 1%; however, the electrostatic technique is scalable and could provide traceable reference forces as small as a few hundred piconewtons, a range far below anything yet achieved using deadweights.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21266443','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21266443"><span>SI traceable <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of an <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> indentation sensor spring constant using electrostatic force</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chung, Koo-Hyun; Scholz, Stefan; Shaw, Gordon A.; Kramar, John A.; Pratt, Jon R.</p> <p>2008-09-15</p> <p>We present a measurement scheme for creating reference electrostatic forces that are traceable to the International System of Units. This scheme yields reference forces suitable for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> the force sensitivity of <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> indentation machines and atomic force microscopes. Forces between 10 and 200 {mu}N were created and expressed in terms of the voltage, length, and capacitance between a pair of interacting electrodes. The electrodes comprised an electrically conductive sphere mounted as a tip on an <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> indentation sensor, and a planar counterelectrode fixed to a sample stage in close proximity to the sphere. For comparison, we applied mechanical forces of similar magnitudes, first using deadweights and then using a reference force sensor. The deflection of the sensor due to the various applied forces was measured using an interferometer. A spring constant for the sensor was computed from the observed records of force versus displacement. Each procedure yielded a relative standard uncertainty of approximately 1%; however, the electrostatic technique is scalable and could provide traceable reference forces as small as a few hundred piconewtons, a range far below anything yet achieved using deadweights.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28402488','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28402488"><span>Evaluation of the 24-Hour Recall as a Reference <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> for <span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> Other Self-Report <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> in Nutritional Cohort Studies: Evidence From the Validation Studies Pooling Project.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Freedman, Laurence S; Commins, John M; Willett, Walter; Tinker, Lesley F; Spiegelman, Donna; Rhodes, Donna; Potischman, Nancy; Neuhouser, Marian L; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Kipnis, Victor; Baer, David J; Arab, Lenore; Prentice, Ross L; Subar, Amy F</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> dietary self-report <span class="hlt">instruments</span> is recommended as a way to adjust for measurement error when estimating diet-disease associations. Because biomarkers available for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> are limited, most investigators use self-reports (e.g., 24-hour recalls (24HRs)) as the reference <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. We evaluated the performance of 24HRs as reference <span class="hlt">instruments</span> for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> food frequency questionnaires (FFQs), using data from the Validation Studies Pooling Project, comprising 5 large validation studies using recovery biomarkers. Using 24HRs as reference <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, we estimated attenuation factors, correlations with truth, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> equations for FFQ-reported intakes of energy and for protein, potassium, and sodium and their densities, and we compared them with values derived using biomarkers. Based on 24HRs, FFQ attenuation factors were substantially overestimated for energy and sodium intakes, less for protein and potassium, and minimally for nutrient densities. FFQ correlations with truth, based on 24HRs, were substantially overestimated for all dietary components. <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> equations did not capture dependencies on body mass index. We also compared predicted bias in estimated relative risks adjusted using 24HRs as reference <span class="hlt">instruments</span> with bias when making no adjustment. In disease models with energy and 1 or more nutrient intakes, predicted bias in estimated nutrient relative risks was reduced on average, but bias in the energy risk coefficient was unchanged. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22390618','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22390618"><span>Nanobeacon: A low cost time <span class="hlt">calibration</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Calvo, David [IFIC. Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, C Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration</p> <p>2014-11-18</p> <p>The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of a matrix of pressure resistant glass spheres holding each one a set (31) of small area photomultipliers. The main goal of the telescope is to observe cosmic neutrinos through the Cherenkov light induced in sea water by charged particles produced in neutrino interactions with the surrounding medium. A relative time <span class="hlt">calibration</span> between photomultipliers of the order of 1 ns is required to achieve an optimal performance. Due to the high volume to be covered by KM3NeT, a cost <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of the different systems is a priority. To this end a very low price <span class="hlt">calibration</span> device, the so called Nanobeacon, has been designed and developed. At present one of such devices has already been integrated successfully at the KM3NeT telescope and eight of them in the Nemo Tower Phase II. In this article the main properties and operation of this device are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950005965','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950005965"><span>A new algorithm for five-hole probe <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, data <span class="hlt">reduction</span>, and uncertainty analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reichert, Bruce A.; Wendt, Bruce J.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A new algorithm for five-hole probe <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and data <span class="hlt">reduction</span> using a non-nulling method is developed. The significant features of the algorithm are: (1) two components of the unit vector in the flow direction replace pitch and yaw angles as flow direction variables; and (2) symmetry rules are developed that greatly simplify Taylor's series representations of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> data. In data <span class="hlt">reduction</span>, four pressure coefficients allow total pressure, static pressure, and flow direction to be calculated directly. The new algorithm's simplicity permits an analytical treatment of the propagation of uncertainty in five-hole probe measurement. The objectives of the uncertainty analysis are to quantify uncertainty of five-hole results (e.g., total pressure, static pressure, and flow direction) and determine the dependence of the result uncertainty on the uncertainty of all underlying experimental and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> measurands. This study outlines a general procedure that other researchers may use to determine five-hole probe result uncertainty and provides guidance to improve measurement technique. The new algorithm is applied to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> and reduce data from a rake of five-hole probes. Here, ten individual probes are mounted on a single probe shaft and used simultaneously. Use of this probe is made practical by the simplicity afforded by this algorithm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160011149','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160011149"><span>The <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the DSCOVR EPIC Multiple Visible Channel <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Using MODIS and VIIRS as a Reference</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Haney, Conor; Doeling, David; Minnis, Patrick; Bhatt, Rajendra; Scarino, Benjamin; Gopalan, Arun</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), launched on 11 February 2015, is a satellite positioned near the Lagrange-1 (L1) point, carrying several <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that monitor space weather, and Earth-view sensors designed for climate studies. The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard DSCOVR continuously views the sun-illuminated portion of the Earth with spectral coverage in the UV, VIS, and NIR bands. Although the EPIC <span class="hlt">instrument</span> does not have any onboard <span class="hlt">calibration</span> abilities, its constant view of the sunlit Earth disk provides a unique opportunity for simultaneous viewing with several other satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. This arrangement allows the EPIC sensor to be inter-<span class="hlt">calibrated</span> using other well-characterized satellite <span class="hlt">instrument</span> reference standards. Two such <span class="hlt">instruments</span> with onboard <span class="hlt">calibration</span> are MODIS, flown on Aqua and Terra, and VIIRS, onboard Suomi-NPP. The MODIS and VIIRS reference <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> will be transferred to the EPIC <span class="hlt">instrument</span> using both all-sky ocean and deep convective clouds (DCC) ray-matched EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS radiance pairs. An automated navigation correction routine was developed to more accurately align the EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS granules. The automated navigation correction routine dramatically reduced the uncertainty of the resulting <span class="hlt">calibration</span> gain based on the EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS radiance pairs. The SCIAMACHY-based spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) applied to the MODIS/ VIIRS radiances were found to successfully adjust the reference radiances to the spectral response of the specific EPIC channel for over-lapping spectral channels. The SBAF was also found to be effective for the non-overlapping EPIC channel 10. Lastly, both ray-matching techniques found no discernable trends for EPIC channel 7 over the year of publically released EPIC data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22721851','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22721851"><span>Roller compaction process development and scale up using Johanson model <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> with <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> roll data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nesarikar, Vishwas V; Patel, Chandrakant; Early, William; Vatsaraj, Nipa; Sprockel, Omar; Jerzweski, Robert</p> <p>2012-10-15</p> <p> and <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> using a subset of placebo run data obtained on WP120. The roll force values were calculated using vendor supplied equation. The nip angle was expressed as a function of gap and RFU. The nip angle, gap and RFU were used in a new roll force equation to estimate normal stress P2 at the center of the ribbon. Using ratios P1/P2 and P3/P2 from the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> data set, P1 and P2 were estimated. The ribbon width over which P1, P2, and P3 are effective was determined by minimizing sum square error between the model predicted vs. experimental ribbon densities of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> set. The model predicted ribbon densities of the placebo runs compared well with the experimental data. The placebo model also predicted with reasonable accuracy the ribbon densities of active A, B, and C blends prepared at various combinations of process parameters. The placebo model was then used to calculate scale up parameters from WP120 to WP200 roller compactor. While WP120 has a single screw speed, WP200 is equipped with a twin feed screw system. A limited number of roller compaction runs on WP200 was used as a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> set to determine normal stress profile across ribbon width. The nip angle equation derived from <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> roll data collected on WP120 was applied to estimate nip angles on WP200 at various processing conditions. The roll force values calculated from vendor supplied equation and the nip angle values were used in roll force equation to estimate normal stress P2 at the tip of the feed screws. Based on feed screw design, it was assumed that the normal stress at the center of the ribbon was equal to those calculated at the tip of the feed screws. The ratio of normal stress at the edge of the ribbon Pe to the normal stress P2 at the feed screw tip was optimized to minimize sum square error between model predicted vs. experimental ribbon densities of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> set. The model predicted ribbon densities of the batches prepared on WP200 compared well with the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESASP.718E..18T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESASP.718E..18T"><span>Design, Building and Testing of a Sun <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Mechanism for the MSI-VNS <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> on EarthCARE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tabak, Erik; de Goeij, Bryan; van Riel, Luud; Meijer, Ellart; van der Knaap, Frits; Doornink, Jan; de Graaf, Harm-Jan</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>TNO has developed a mechanism to perform sun and dark <span class="hlt">calibration</span> as a module of the Visible-NIR-SWIR Optical Unit (VNS) in the context of the ESA EarthCARE mission. This paper will address the conceptual and detailed design and modelling approach of the mechanism. Finally the production and testing of the Life Test Model (LTM) will be presented.The rotating part of the mechanism (<span class="hlt">calibration</span> carousel) is the supporting structure of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> diffusers. By rotating the carousel either the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> nominal, sun <span class="hlt">calibration</span> or dark <span class="hlt">calibration</span>/safe modes can be selected. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> carousel is suspended in (a.o.) hard preloaded angular contact bearings and driven by a Phytron stepper motor. FE Modelling has been used to derive the bearing- and motor forces and accelerations. These analysis results were used as input to the CABARET analyses performed by ESTL (UK). Using the analysis results the bearing stress, stiffness, gapping and friction torque were predicted.A flight representative Life Test Model (LTM) has been manufactured assembled and was successfully subjected to ground cycles testing, vibration-, thermal vacuum- and life cycle testing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4550341','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4550341"><span>Best Practice Guidelines for Pre-Launch Characterization and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> for Passive Optical Remote Sensing1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Datla, R. U.; Rice, J. P.; Lykke, K. R.; Johnson, B. C.; Butler, J. J.; Xiong, X.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The pre-launch characterization and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of remote sensing <span class="hlt">instruments</span> should be planned and carried out in conjunction with their design and development to meet the mission requirements. The onboard <span class="hlt">calibrators</span> such as blackbodies and the sensors such as spectral radiometers should be characterized and <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> using SI traceable standards. In the case of earth remote sensing, this allows inter-comparison and intercalibration of different sensors in space to create global time series of climate records of high accuracy where some inevitable data gaps can be easily bridged. The recommended best practice guidelines for this pre-launch effort is presented based on experience gained at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) programs over the past two decades. The currently available radiometric standards and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> facilities at NIST serving the remote sensing community are described. Examples of best practice <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> and intercomparisons to build SI (international System of Units) traceable uncertainty budget in the <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> used for preflight satellite sensor <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and validation are presented. PMID:26989588</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008153','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008153"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the MSL/ChemCam/LIBS Remote Sensing Composition <span class="hlt">Instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wiens, R. C.; Maurice S.; Bender, S.; Barraclough, B. L.; Cousin, A.; Forni, O.; Ollila, A.; Newsom, H.; Vaniman, D.; Clegg, S.; Lasue, J. A.; Blaney, D.; DeFlores, L.; Morris, R. V.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The ChemCam <span class="hlt">instrument</span> suite on board the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, Curiosity, will provide remote-sensing composition information for rock and soil samples within seven meters of the rover using a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system, and will provide context imaging with a resolution of 0.10 mradians using the remote micro-imager (RMI) camera. The high resolution is needed to image the small analysis footprint of the LIBS system, at 0.2-0.6 mm diameter. This fine scale analytical capability will enable remote probing of stratigraphic layers or other small features the size of "blueberries" or smaller. ChemCam is intended for rapid survey analyses within 7 m of the rover, with each measurement taking less than 6 minutes. Repeated laser pulses remove dust coatings and provide depth profiles through weathering layers, allowing detailed investigation of rock varnish features as well as analysis of the underlying pristine rock composition. The LIBS technique uses brief laser pulses greater than 10 MW/square mm to ablate and electrically excite material from the sample of interest. The plasma emits photons with wavelengths characteristic of the elements present in the material, permitting detection and quantification of nearly all elements, including the light elements H, Li, Be, B, C, N, O. ChemCam LIBS projects 14 mJ of 1067 nm photons on target and covers a spectral range of 240-850 nm with resolutions between 0.15 and 0.60 nm FWHM. The Nd:KGW laser is passively cooled and is tuned to provide maximum power output from -10 to 0 C, though it can operate at 20% degraded energy output at room temperature. Preliminary <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> were carried out on the flight model (FM) in 2008. However, the detectors were replaced in 2009, and final <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> occurred in April-June, 2010. This presentation describes the LIBS <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and characterization procedures and results, and details plans for final analyses during rover system thermal testing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol1-sec35-60.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol1-sec35-60.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.60 - Possession, use, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Possession, use, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material. 35.60 Section 35.60 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.60 Possession, use,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol1-sec35-60.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol1-sec35-60.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.60 - Possession, use, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Possession, use, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material. 35.60 Section 35.60 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.60 Possession, use,...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title10-vol1-sec35-60.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title10-vol1-sec35-60.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.60 - Possession, use, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Possession, use, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material. 35.60 Section 35.60 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.60 Possession, use,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title10-vol1-sec35-60.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title10-vol1-sec35-60.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.60 - Possession, use, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Possession, use, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material. 35.60 Section 35.60 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.60 Possession, use,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ASPC..503...37S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ASPC..503...37S"><span>Addressing the Photometric <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Challenge: Explicit Determination of the <span class="hlt">Instrumental</span> Response and Atmospheric Response Functions, and Tying it All Together.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stubbs, C. W.; Tonry, J. L.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Photometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is currently the dominant source of systematic uncertainty in exploiting type Ia supernovae to determine the nature of the dark energy. We review our ongoing program to address this <span class="hlt">calibration</span> challenge by performing measurements of both the <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> response function and the optical transmission function of the atmosphere. A key aspect of this approach is to complement standard star observations by using NIST-<span class="hlt">calibrated</span> photodiodes as a metrology foundation for optical flux measurements. We present our first attempt to assess photometric consistency between synthetic photometry and observations, by comparing predictions based on a NIST-diode-based determination of the PanSTARRS-1 <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> response and empirical atmospheric transmission measurements, with fluxes we obtained from observing spectrophotometric standards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9144E..4UG','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9144E..4UG"><span>The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of flight mirror modules for the ART-XC <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on board the SRG mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Zavlin, V.; Swartz, D.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>MSFC is fabricating x-ray optics for the Astronomical Roentgen Telescope - X-Ray Concentrator (ART-XC or ART for short) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> under agreements with the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI). ART-XC is one of two <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that will be launched on the Russian-German Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) Mission to be launched in 20161. Delivery of the flight optics for ART-XC (7 mirror modules) is currently scheduled for summer/fall of 20142. MSFC has to date completed assembly of four modules and has performed extensive <span class="hlt">calibration</span> on two of these. These <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> show that the modules meet effective area requirements and greatly exceed the angular resolution requirements. Details of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedure and an overview of the results obtained to date are presented here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27951470','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27951470"><span>Portable near-infrared <span class="hlt">instruments</span>: Application for quality control of polymorphs in pharmaceutical raw materials and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> transfer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>da Silva, Vitor Hugo; da Silva, Jailson José; Pereira, Claudete Fernandes</p> <p>2017-02-05</p> <p>This work presents an evaluation of the analytical performance of three different portable near-infrared (NIR) <span class="hlt">instruments</span> (denominated Port.1, Port.2 and Port.3) for quantifying mebendazole polymorphs (A, B and C) in pharmaceutical raw materials using multivariate <span class="hlt">calibration</span> models. The performance of the portable <span class="hlt">instruments</span> was compared with a benchtop one (FT-NIR Frontier spectrometer). In addition, <span class="hlt">calibration</span> transfer between the benchtop and one of the portable <span class="hlt">instruments</span> was also performed. For polymorph A, the Port.1 presented the lowest RMSEP value (1.01% w/w) even when compared to the FT-NIR <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. For polymorphs B and C, the same Port.1 <span class="hlt">instrument</span> presented RMSEP values of 2.09% w/w and 2.41% w/w, respectively, which were statistically similar to those obtained with the benchtop <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. The LOD ranges (3.9-5.5 for polymorph A, 3.6-5.1 for polymorph B and 5.7-7.7 for polymorph C) obtained with the Port.1 was higher than those achieved with the benchtop NIR <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, with high spectral resolution, signal-to-noise ratio and better wavelength reproducibility. <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> transfer was performed between the benchtop NIR and Port.1 <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. According to the results, the transferability of models is possible. The results obtained for complete recalibration of the portable <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and those for the benchtop are comparable. The methods developed demonstrated a flexible, easy, cheap and fast way for quality control of MBZ polymorphs in incoming material, mainly in pharmaceutical laboratory chains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017117','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017117"><span>The <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Target for the Mars 2020 SHERLOC <span class="hlt">Instrument</span>: Multiple Science Roles for Future Manned and Unmanned Mars Exploration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fries, M.; Bhartia, R.; Beegle, L.; Burton, A.; Ross, A.; Shahar, A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman & Luminescence for Organics & Chemicals (SHERLOC) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is a deep ultraviolet (UV) Raman/fluorescence <span class="hlt">instrument</span> selected as part of the Mars 2020 rover <span class="hlt">instrument</span> suite. SHERLOC will be mounted on the rover arm and its primary role is to identify carbonaceous species in martian samples, which may be selected for inclusion into a returnable sample cache. The SHERLOC <span class="hlt">instrument</span> will require the use of a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> target, and by design, multiple science roles will be addressed in the design of the target. Samples of materials used in NASA Extravehicular Mobility unit (EMU, or "space suit") manufacture have been included in the target to serve as both solid polymer <span class="hlt">calibration</span> targets for SHERLOC <span class="hlt">instrument</span> function, as well as for testing the resiliency of those materials under martian ambient conditions. A martian meteorite will also be included in the target to serve as a well-characterized example of a martian rock that contains trace carbonaceous material. This rock will be the first rock that we know of that has completed a round trip between planets and will therefore serve an EPO role to attract public attention to science and planetary exploration. The SHERLOC <span class="hlt">calibration</span> target will address a wide range of NASA goals to include basic science of interest to both the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17433815','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17433815"><span>Design, <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and pre-clinical testing of an <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> tibial tray.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heinlein, Bernd; Graichen, Friedmar; Bender, Alwina; Rohlmann, Antonius; Bergmann, Georg</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> tibial tray was developed that enables the measurement of six load components in a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The design is fully compatible with a commonly available knee arthroplasty product since it uses the original tibial insert and femoral component. Two plates with hollow stems made from titanium alloy are separated by a small gap. Six semiconductor strain gages are used for measuring the load-dependent deformation of the inner hollow stem. A 9-channel telemetry unit with a radio-frequency transmitter is encapsulated hermetically in the cavity of the prosthesis. The telemetry is powered inductively and strain gage signals are transmitted via a small antenna at the tip of the implant. The mean sampling rate is 125Hz. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the prosthesis resulted in an accuracy better than 2% mean measuring error. Fatigue testing of the implant was performed up to 10 million loading cycles and showed no failure. The pending in vivo application will give further insight into the kinetics of TKA. The measured values will enhance the quality of future pre-clinical testing, numerical modeling in knee biomechanics and the patients' physiotherapy and rehabilitation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/983049','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/983049"><span>RADBALL TECHNOLOGY TESTING IN THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HEALTH PHYSICS <span class="hlt">INSTRUMENT</span> <span class="hlt">CALIBRATION</span> LABORATORY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Farfan, E.</p> <p>2010-07-08</p> <p>The United Kingdom's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) has developed a radiation-mapping device that can locate and quantify radioactive hazards within contaminated areas of the nuclear industry. The device, known as RadBall{trademark}, consists of a colander-like outer collimator that houses a radiation-sensitive polymer sphere. The collimator has over two hundred small holes; thus, specific areas of the polymer sphere are exposed to radiation becoming increasingly more opaque in proportion to the absorbed dose. The polymer sphere is imaged in an optical-CT scanner that produces a high resolution 3D map of optical attenuation coefficients. Subsequent analysis of the optical attenuation data provides information on the spatial distribution of sources in a given area forming a 3D characterization of the area of interest. The RadBallTM technology has been deployed in a number of technology trials in nuclear waste reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the United Kingdom and facilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This paper summarizes the tests completed at SRNL Health Physics <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Laboratory (HPICL).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110011243','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110011243"><span>A New Radiometric <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Paradigm for the OMPS Nadir Total Column and Profile <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Heath, Donald; Georgiew, Georgi</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A fused silica Mie Scattering Diffuser (MSD) has been developed at Ball Aerospace & Technology Corp. that has measured characteristics which could be used to increase the accuracy of the spectral albedo <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) Nadir ozone total column and profile <span class="hlt">instrument</span> by almost an order of magnitude. Measurements have been made of the optical characteristics on both natural and synthetic forms of fused silica MSDs. Preliminary measurements suggest that MSDs are useable in the solar reflective wavelength region from 250 nm to 3.7 m. To date synthetic and natural MSDs have been irradiated for 60 hours of UV radiation from a solar simulator, and synthetic MSDs have been irradiated with increasing doses of Co-60 gamma rays at 30, 500 krads up to 1.5 Mrads, and 30 krads of 200 MeV protons. The principal effects have been small loses in transmittance at wavelengths < 350 nm. The high energy particle irradiation measurements were provided by Neal Nickles and Dean Spieth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120013486','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120013486"><span>James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Module <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Verification of High-Accuracy <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> to Measure Heat Flow in Cryogenic Testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Comber, Brian; Glazer, Stuart</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is an upcoming flagship observatory mission scheduled to be launched in 2018. Three of the four science <span class="hlt">instruments</span> are passively cooled to their operational temperature range of 36K to 40K, and the fourth <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is actively cooled to its operational temperature of approximately 6K. The requirement for multiple thermal zoned results in the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> being thermally connected to five external radiators via individual high purity aluminum heat straps. Thermal-vacuum and thermal balance testing of the flight <span class="hlt">instruments</span> at the Integrated Science <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Module (ISIM) element level will take place within a newly constructed shroud cooled by gaseous helium inside Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Space environment Simulator (SES). The flight external radiators are not available during ISIM-level thermal vacuum/thermal testing, so they will be replaced in test with stable and adjustable thermal boundaries with identical physical interfaces to the flight radiators. Those boundaries are provided by specially designed test hardware which also measures the heat flow within each of the five heat straps to an accuracy of less than 2 mW, which is less than 5% of the minimum predicted heat flow values. Measurement of the heat loads to this accuracy is essential to ISIM thermal model correlation, since thermal models are more accurately correlated when temperature data is supplemented by accurate knowledge of heat flows. It also provides direct verification by test of several high-level thermal requirements. Devices that measure heat flow in this manner have historically been referred to a "Q-meters". Perhaps the most important feature of the design of the JWST Q-meters is that it does not depend on the absolute accuracy of its temperature sensors, but rather on knowledge of precise heater power required to maintain a constant temperature difference between sensors on two stages, for which a table is empirically developed during a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9972E..0PH','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9972E..0PH"><span>The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the DSCOVR EPIC multiple visible channel <span class="hlt">instrument</span> using MODIS and VIIRS as a reference</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haney, Conor; Doelling, David; Minnis, Patrick; Bhatt, Rajendra; Scarino, Benjamin; Gopalan, Arun</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), launched on 11 February 2015, is a satellite positioned near the Lagrange-1 (L1) point, carrying several <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that monitor space weather, and Earth-view sensors designed for climate studies. The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard DSCOVR continuously views the sun illuminated portion of the Earth with spectral coverage in the UV, VIS, and NIR bands. Although the EPIC <span class="hlt">instrument</span> does not have any onboard <span class="hlt">calibration</span> abilities, its constant view of the sunlit Earth disk provides a unique opportunity for simultaneous viewing with several other satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. This arrangement allows the EPIC sensor to be intercalibrated using other well-characterized satellite <span class="hlt">instrument</span> reference standards. Two such <span class="hlt">instruments</span> with onboard <span class="hlt">calibration</span> are MODIS, flown on Aqua and Terra, and VIIRS, onboard Suomi-NPP. The MODIS and VIIRS reference <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> will be transferred to the EPIC <span class="hlt">instrument</span> using both all-sky ocean and deep convective clouds (DCC) ray-matched EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS radiance pairs. An automated navigation correction routine was developed to more accurately align the EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS granules. The automated navigation correction routine dramatically reduced the uncertainty of the resulting <span class="hlt">calibration</span> gain based on the EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS radiance pairs. The SCIAMACHY-based spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) applied to the MODIS/ VIIRS radiances were found to successfully adjust the reference radiances to the spectral response of the specific EPIC channel for over-lapping spectral channels. The SBAF was also found to be effective for the non overlapping EPIC channel 10. Lastly, both ray-matching techniques found no discernable trends for EPIC channel 7 over the year of publically released EPIC data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DFDD29004N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DFDD29004N"><span>Four-sensor Hot-Wire Probes: A <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Data <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Strategy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Neal, Douglas; Foss, John</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Four-sensor hot-wire probes are capable of simultaneously measuring three components of the velocity vector with a high temporal resolution. Effective use of these probes requires sophisticated <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and data <span class="hlt">reduction</span> techniques and a number of different approaches have been published. Lavoie and Pollard (2003) evaluated four of these approaches and found them to vary significantly in terms of complexity, computational costs and accuracy of the results. Lavoie and Pollard showed the work of Wittmer (1998) is the least complicated to implement and has the smallest computational expense. The work of Doebbling (1990) has the best accuracy. A new technique for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and data <span class="hlt">reduction</span> will be presented and compared against the methods of Wittmer (1998) and Doebbling (1990), using the same methodology and evaluation criteria. The results will be shown for a double x-array configuration over the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> region of +/- 36° in pitch and yaw, but these methods are directly applicable to other four-sensor geometries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9880E..2JB','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9880E..2JB"><span>On accuracy of radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of hyperspectral visible/NIR satellite remote sensing <span class="hlt">instruments</span> using test sites of different altitudes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borovski, Alexander; Ivanov, Victor; Pankratova, Natalia; Postylyakov, Oleg</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>To provide accurate data the regular on-board absolute radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of a satellite hyperspectral <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is required. Together with the internal <span class="hlt">calibration</span> the external <span class="hlt">calibration</span> using comparison of radiance measurements above special ground test sites and calculated radiances is performed. The top of the atmosphere radiances are calculated using a radiative transfer model basing on atmospheric and surface characteristics measured at the test sites. The paper presents preliminary results of the comparative theoretical analysis of the errors of a satellite hyperspectral <span class="hlt">instrument</span> radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> using test sites located at 200 m.a.s.l. and 2000 m.a.s.l. with the atmospheric composition and surface reflectance measurements. The analysis is performed for an <span class="hlt">instrument</span> with the spectral resolution of 1-8 nm which is typical for special regime of payload GSA of Russian satellite Resurs-P. The errors related with the atmospheric composition and albedo measurement errors and scenarios of the aerosol vertical distribution were theoretically examined. The error is less than 4% in all the cases at all the wavelengths between 400 nm and 1000 nm with the exception of the absorption bands of water vapor. In the absorption bands of water vapor about 720 nm and 820 nm the errors reach 5% at the mountain site and 10% at the downcountry site. In the absorption band of 950 nm the errors reach 15% in mountains and 35% in downcountry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/40204900','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/40204900"><span>Nitrogen dioxide and kerosene-flame soot <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of photoacoustic <span class="hlt">instruments</span> for measurement of light absorption by aerosols</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Arnott, W. Patrick; Moosmu''ller, Hans; Walker, John W.</p> <p>2000-12-01</p> <p>A nitrogen dioxide <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method is developed to evaluate the theoretical <span class="hlt">calibration</span> for a photoacoustic <span class="hlt">instrument</span> used to measure light absorption by atmospheric aerosols at a laser wavelength of 532.0 nm. This method uses high concentrations of nitrogen dioxide so that both a simple extinction and the photoacoustically obtained absorption measurement may be performed simultaneously. Since Rayleigh scattering is much less than absorption for the gas, the agreement between the extinction and absorption coefficients can be used to evaluate the theoretical <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, so that the laser gas spectra are not needed. Photoacoustic theory is developed to account for strong absorption of the laser beam power in passage through the resonator. Findings are that the photoacoustic absorption based on heat-balance theory for the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> compares well with absorption inferred from the extinction measurement, and that both are well within values represented by published spectra of nitrogen dioxide. Photodissociation of nitrogen dioxide limits the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method to wavelengths longer than 398 nm. Extinction and absorption at 532 and 1047 nm were measured for kerosene-flame soot to evaluate the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method, and the single scattering albedo was found to be 0.31 and 0.20 at these wavelengths, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26979909','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26979909"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of an <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> treadmill using a precision-controlled device with artificial neural network-based error corrections.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hsieh, Hong-Jung; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Lu, Hsuan-Lun; Chen, Ting-Yi; Lu, Tung-Wu</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Instrumented</span> treadmills (ITs) are used to measure reaction forces (RF) and center of pressure (COP) movements for gait and balance assessment. Regular in situ <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is essential to ensure their accuracy and to identify conditions when a factory re-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> is needed. The current study aimed to develop and <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> in situ an IT using a portable, precision-controlled <span class="hlt">calibration</span> device with an artificial neural network (ANN)-based correction method. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> device was used to apply static and dynamic <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> loads to the surface of the IT at 189 and 25 grid-points, respectively, at four belt speeds (0, 4, 6 and 8 km/h) without the need of a preset template. Part of the applied and measured RF and COP were used to train a threelayered, back-propagation ANN model while the rest of the data were used to evaluate the performance of the ANN. The percent errors of Fz and errors of the Px and Py were significantly decreased from a maximum of -1.15%, -1.64 mm and -0.73 mm to 0.02%, 0.02 mm and 0.03 mm during static <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, respectively. During dynamic <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, the corresponding values were decreasing from -3.65%, 2.58 mm and -4.92 mm to 0.30%, -0.14 mm and -0.47 mm, respectively. The results suggest that the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> device and associated ANN will be useful for correcting measurement errors in vertical loads and COP for ITs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AAS...22924406G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AAS...22924406G"><span>Spectroscopic <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> of White Dwarf Stars to Support Dark Energy Survey <span class="hlt">Calibrations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gulledge, Deborah Jean; Robertson, Jacob M.; Tucker, Douglas Lee; Smith, J. Allyn; Wester, William; Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel; Fix, Mees B.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The Dark Energy Survey is an imaging survey that covers 5000 square degrees in the Southern hemisphere to map galaxies and gather information on dark energy. Science requirements for the survey require a 0.5% uncertainty in color, driven by supernova science. The Dark Energy Survey relies a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> technique that uses white dwarf stars to set zero points. These white dwarf spectra are fit to models which are used to generate synthetic photometry. These values are compared to the measured values from the survey to verify that the zero points are correct. We present results to date of the spectroscopic <span class="hlt">reductions</span> of these white dwarf stars in support of the <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> for the Dark Energy Survey.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5179731','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5179731"><span>Apparatus for in-situ <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that measure fluid depth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Campbell, M.D.</p> <p>1994-01-11</p> <p>The present invention provides a method and apparatus for in-situ <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of distance measuring equipment. The method comprises obtaining a first distance measurement in a first location, then obtaining at least one other distance measurement in at least one other location of a precisely known distance from the first location, and calculating a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> constant. The method is applied specifically to calculating a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> constant for obtaining fluid level and embodied in an apparatus using a pressure transducer and a spacer of precisely known length. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> constant is used to calculate the depth of a fluid from subsequent single pressure measurements at any submerged position. 8 figures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/869116','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/869116"><span>Apparatus for in-situ <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that measure fluid depth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Campbell, Melvin D.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The present invention provides a method and apparatus for in-situ <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of distance measuring equipment. The method comprises obtaining a first distance measurement in a first location, then obtaining at least one other distance measurement in at least one other location of a precisely known distance from the first location, and calculating a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> constant. The method is applied specifically to calculating a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> constant for obtaining fluid level and embodied in an apparatus using a pressure transducer and a spacer of precisely known length. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> constant is used to calculate the depth of a fluid from subsequent single pressure measurements at any submerged position.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/539248','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/539248"><span>Mathematical <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of Ge detectors, and the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that use them</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bronson, F.L.; Young, B.</p> <p>1997-11-01</p> <p>Efficiency <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> for Ge detectors are typically done with the use of multiple energy <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> sources which are added to a bulk matrix intended to simulate the measurement sample, and then deposited in the sample container. This is rather easy for common laboratory samples. Bu, even there, for many environmental samples, waste assay samples, and operational health physics samples, accurate <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> are difficult. For these situations, various mathematical corrections or direct <span class="hlt">calibration</span> techniques are used at Canberra. EML has pioneered the use of mathematical <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> following source-based detector characterization measurements for in situ measurements of environmental fallout. Canberra has expanded this by the use of MCNP for the source measurements required in EML. For other <span class="hlt">calibration</span> situations, MCNP was used directly, as the primary <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method. This is demonstrated to be at least as accurate as source based measurements, and probably better. Recently, a new method [ISOCS] has been developed and is nearing completion. This promises to be an easy to use <span class="hlt">calibration</span> software that can be used by the customer for in situ gamma spectroscopy to accurately measure many large sized samples, such as boxes, drums, pipes, or to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> small laboratory-type samples. 8 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DMP.K1063B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DMP.K1063B"><span><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of Helicity-Dependent <span class="hlt">Instrumental</span> Laser Intensity Asymmetries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burtwistle, Samantha; Dreiling, Joan; Gay, Timothy</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>We present a new optical system that greatly reduces helicity-dependent <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> intensity asymmetries. The optical setup is similar to that described in Fabrikant et al., where two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations are sent through a chopper, allowing only one beam to pass through the optical system at a time. The two temporally-separated beams are then spatially recombined. We now use a system, with a second active polarization changing element, that is analogous to that described in Gay and Dunning, which compensates for false asymmetries in Mott polarimetry. In our setup, the orthogonal linear polarizations are now circularly polarized by a Pockels cell switching between a retardance of + λ /4 and - λ/4 at the same frequency as the chopper, but with a 90-degree phase shift. Using this method, we have been able to control the standard deviation of the mean of our asymmetries, as measured by a photodiode with lock-in signal processing, to 3*10-8.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/952983','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/952983"><span>Investigations into Cost <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> of X-band <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Van Winkle, D.; Dolgashev, V.A.; Fox, J.D.; Tantawi, S.G.; /SLAC</p> <p>2009-05-15</p> <p>The prohibitive costs of commercial test equipment for making fast and accurate pulsed phase and amplitude measurements at X-Band result in decreased productivity due to shortages of shared equipment across the test laboratory. In addition, most current set-ups rely on the use of pulsed power heads which do not allow for the measurement of phase thereby limiting the flexibility of available measurements. In this paper, we investigate less expensive in-house designed <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> based upon commercial satellite down converters and widely available logarithmic detector amplifiers and phase detectors. The techniques are used to measure X-Band pulses with widths of 50 ns to 10's of usec. We expect a dynamic range of 30-40 dB with accuracies of better than +/- 0.1 dB and +/- 1 degree of phase. We show preliminary results of the built and tested modules. Block diagrams of the down conversion scheme, and the architecture of a multi-signal X-band RF monitor and measurement system is illustrated. Measured results, and possible modifications and upgrades are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120014254','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120014254"><span>Test Plan for a <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Demonstration System for the Reflected Solar <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; Hair, Jason; McAndrew, Brendan; Daw, Adrian; Jennings, Donald; Rabin, Douglas</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission addresses the need to observe high-accuracy, long-term climate change trends and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change. One of the major objectives of CLARREO is to advance the accuracy of SI traceable absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> at infrared and reflected solar wavelengths. This advance is required to reach the on-orbit absolute accuracy required to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps while remaining sufficiently accurate to observe climate change to within the uncertainty of the limit of natural variability. While these capabilities exist at NIST in the laboratory, there is a need to demonstrate that it can move successfully from NIST to NASA and/or <span class="hlt">instrument</span> vendor capabilities for future spaceborne <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The current work describes the test plan for the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. The goal of the CDS is to allow the testing and evaluation of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approaches , alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft <span class="hlt">instrument</span> design modifications. The end result of efforts with the SOLARIS CDS will be an SI-traceable error budget for reflectance retrieval using solar irradiance as a reference and methods for laboratory-based, absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> suitable for climate-quality data collections. The CLARREO mission addresses the need to observe high-accuracy, long-term climate change trends and advance the accuracy of SI traceable absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. The current work describes the test plan for the SOLARIS which is the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> demonstration</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482820','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482820"><span>Post <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the two-dimensional electron cyclotron emission imaging <span class="hlt">instrument</span> with electron temperature characteristics of the magnetohydrodynamic instabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Choi, M. J.; Park, H. K.; Yun, G. S.; Nam, Y. B.; Choe, G. H.; Lee, W.; Jardin, S.</p> <p>2016-01-15</p> <p>The electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is widely used to study the local electron temperature (T{sub e}) fluctuations by measuring the ECE intensity I{sub ECE} ∝ T{sub e} in tokamak plasmas. The ECEI measurement is often processed in a normalized fluctuation quantity against the time averaged value due to complication in absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. In this paper, the ECEI channels are relatively <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> using the flat T{sub e} assumption of the sawtooth crash or the tearing mode island and a proper extrapolation. The 2-D relatively <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> electron temperature (T{sub e,rel}) images are reconstructed and the displacement amplitude of the magnetohydrodynamic modes can be measured for the accurate quantitative growth analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SoPh..257..185T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SoPh..257..185T"><span>SOLAR/SOLSPEC: Scientific Objectives, <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Performance and Its Absolute <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Using a Blackbody as Primary Standard Source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thuillier, G.; Foujols, T.; Bolsée, D.; Gillotay, D.; Hersé, M.; Peetermans, W.; Decuyper, W.; Mandel, H.; Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Taubert, D. R.; Hartmann, J.</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>SOLAR is a set of three solar <span class="hlt">instruments</span> measuring the total and spectral absolute irradiance from 16 nm to 3080 nm for solar, atmospheric and climatology physics. It is an external payload for the COLUMBUS laboratory launched on 7 February 2008. The mission’s primary objective is the measurement of the solar irradiance with the highest possible accuracy, and its variability using the following <span class="hlt">instruments</span>: SOL-ACES (SOLar Auto-<span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> EUV/UV Spectrophotometers) consists of four grazing incidence planar gratings measuring from 16 nm to 220 nm; SOLSPEC (SOLar SPECtrum) consists of three double gratings spectrometers, covering the range 165 nm to 3080 nm; and SOVIM (SOlar Variability Irradiance Monitor) is combining two types of absolute radiometers and three-channel filter - radiometers. SOLSPEC and SOL-ACES have been <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> by primary standard radiation sources of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Below we describe SOLSPEC, and its performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8870E..08T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8870E..08T"><span>Error budget for a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> demonstration system for the reflected solar <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for the climate absolute radiance and refractivity observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; McAndrew, Brendan</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>A goal of the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission is to observe highaccuracy, long-term climate change trends over decadal time scales. The key to such a goal is to improving the accuracy of SI traceable absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> across infrared and reflected solar wavelengths allowing climate change to be separated from the limit of natural variability. The advances required to reach on-orbit absolute accuracy to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps exist at NIST in the laboratory, but still need demonstration that the advances can move successfully from to NASA and/or <span class="hlt">instrument</span> vendor capabilities for spaceborne <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The current work describes the radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> error budget for the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. The goal of the CDS is to allow the testing and evaluation of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approaches, alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft <span class="hlt">instrument</span> design modifications. The resulting SI-traceable error budget for reflectance retrieval using solar irradiance as a reference and methods for laboratory-based, absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> suitable for climatequality data collections is given. Key components in the error budget are geometry differences between the solar and earth views, knowledge of attenuator behavior when viewing the sun, and sensor behavior such as detector linearity and noise behavior. Methods for demonstrating this error budget are also presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150023302','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150023302"><span>Error Budget for a <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Demonstration System for the Reflected Solar <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; McAndrew, Brendan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A goal of the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission is to observe highaccuracy, long-term climate change trends over decadal time scales. The key to such a goal is to improving the accuracy of SI traceable absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> across infrared and reflected solar wavelengths allowing climate change to be separated from the limit of natural variability. The advances required to reach on-orbit absolute accuracy to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps exist at NIST in the laboratory, but still need demonstration that the advances can move successfully from to NASA and/or <span class="hlt">instrument</span> vendor capabilities for spaceborne <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The current work describes the radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> error budget for the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. The goal of the CDS is to allow the testing and evaluation of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approaches, alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft <span class="hlt">instrument</span> design modifications. The resulting SI-traceable error budget for reflectance retrieval using solar irradiance as a reference and methods for laboratory-based, absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> suitable for climatequality data collections is given. Key components in the error budget are geometry differences between the solar and earth views, knowledge of attenuator behavior when viewing the sun, and sensor behavior such as detector linearity and noise behavior. Methods for demonstrating this error budget are also presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22118566','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22118566"><span>The extended wedge method: Atomic force microscope friction <span class="hlt">calibration</span> for improved tolerance to <span class="hlt">instrument</span> misalignments, tip offset, and blunt probes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Khare, H. S.; Burris, D. L.</p> <p>2013-05-15</p> <p>One of the major challenges in understanding and controlling friction is the difficulty in bridging the length and time scales of macroscale contacts and those of the single asperity interactions they comprise. While the atomic force microscope (AFM) offers a unique ability to probe tribological surfaces in a wear-free single-asperity contact, <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> challenges have limited the usefulness of this technique for quantitative nanotribological studies. A number of lateral force <span class="hlt">calibration</span> techniques have been proposed and used, but none has gained universal acceptance due to practical considerations, configuration limitations, or sensitivities to unknowable error sources. This paper describes a simple extension of the classic wedge method of AFM lateral force <span class="hlt">calibration</span> which: (1) allows simultaneous <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and measurement on any substrate, thus eliminating prior tip damage and confounding effects of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> setup adjustments; (2) is insensitive to adhesion, PSD cross-talk, transducer/piezo-tube axis misalignment, and shear-center offset; (3) is applicable to integrated tips and colloidal probes; and (4) is generally applicable to any reciprocating friction coefficient measurement. The method was applied to AFM measurements of polished carbon (99.999% graphite) and single crystal MoS{sub 2} to demonstrate the technique. Carbon and single crystal MoS{sub 2} had friction coefficients of {mu}= 0.20 {+-} 0.04 and {mu}= 0.006 {+-} 0.001, respectively, against an integrated Si probe. Against a glass colloidal sphere, MoS{sub 2} had a friction coefficient of {mu}= 0.005 {+-} 0.001. Generally, the measurement uncertainties ranged from 10%-20% and were driven by the effect of actual frictional variation on the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> rather than <span class="hlt">calibration</span> error itself (i.e., due to misalignment, tip-offset, or probe radius).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031298','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031298"><span>Prime candidate earth targets for the post-launch radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of space-based optical imaging <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Teillet, P.M.; Barsi, J.A.; Chander, G.; Thome, K.J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This paper provides a comprehensive list of prime candidate terrestrial targets for consideration as benchmark sites for the post-launch radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of space-based <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The key characteristics of suitable sites are outlined primarily with respect to selection criteria, spatial uniformity, and temporal stability. The establishment and utilization of such benchmark sites is considered an important element of the radiometric traceability of satellite image data products for use in the accurate monitoring of environmental change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA138301','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA138301"><span>Evaluation of <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Landing System DDM (Difference in Depth of Modulation) <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Accuracies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1983-12-01</p> <p>provided invaluable help in the development and completion of this thesis project. Sincere appreciation is expressed to Mr. William E. Herod , Chief of...0.01728 :I ; Fig. IV-13. <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Hierarchy & Accuracies. IV-18 L Ley ’ ! It is clear that if the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> accuracies of figure IV-13 can be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GPC...139..151M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GPC...139..151M"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of speleothem δ18O records against hydroclimate <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> records in Central Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moquet, J. S.; Cruz, F. W.; Novello, V. F.; Stríkis, N. M.; Deininger, M.; Karmann, I.; Santos, R. Ventura; Millo, C.; Apaestegui, J.; Guyot, J.-L.; Siffedine, A.; Vuille, M.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Santini, W.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>δ18O in speleothems is a powerful proxy for reconstruction of precipitation patterns in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The aim of this study is to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the δ18O record of speleothems against historical precipitation and river discharge data in central Brazil, a region directly influenced by the Southern Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ), a major feature of the South American Monsoon System (SAMS). The present work is based on a sub-annual resolution speleothem record covering the last 141 years (the period between the years 1870 and 2011) from a cave in central Brazil. The comparison of this record with <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> hydroclimate records since 1921 allows defining a strong relationship between precipitation variability and stable oxygen isotope ratios from speleothems. The results from a monitoring program of climatic parameters and isotopic composition of rainfall and cave seepage waters performed in the same cave, show that the rain δ18O variability is dominated by the amount effect in this region, while δ18O drip water remains almost constant over the monitored period (1.5 years). The δ18O of modern calcite, on the other hand, shows clear seasonal variations, with more negative values observed during the rainy season, which implies that other factors also influence the isotopic composition of carbonate. However, the relationship between δ18O of carbonate deposits and rainwater is supported by the results from the comparison between speleothem δ18O records and historical hydroclimate records. A significant correlation between speleothem δ18O and monsoon rainfall variability is observed on sub-decadal time scales, especially for the monsoon period (DJFM and NDJFM), once the rainfall record have been smoothed with a 7-9 years running mean. This study confirms that speleothem δ18O is directly associated with monsoon rainfall variability in central Brazil. The relationship between speleothem δ18O records and hydroclimatic historical records allows</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510134Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510134Z"><span>A new <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system for lightweight, compact and mobile Cavity-Enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zielcke, Johannes; Horbanski, Martin; Pöhler, Denis; Frieß, Udo; Platt, Ulrich</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Absorption Spectroscopy has been employed for several decades now to study the earth's atmosphere. While the focus has been on remote sensing for a long time, lately there has been a renewed interest in in-situ methods, as point measurements allow an easier interpretation for highly inhomogeneous distributions of gases of interest compared to the integration approach of most remote sensing methods. One comparatively new method offering both advantages of in-situ measurements as well as being contactless is open-path Cavity-Enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE-DOAS). Broadband open-path CE-DOAS <span class="hlt">instruments</span> have been used for ten years now, and in the meantime allow the measurement of numerous atmospheric trace gases (e.g. NO2, NO3, IO, CHOCHO, HCHO). While those <span class="hlt">instruments</span> were bulky and not very mobile at first, recent developments resulted in relatively lightweight (< 30 kg) <span class="hlt">instruments</span> with a relatively low power consumption allowing mobile open-path measurements at remote field locations. An important operational issue has been the path length <span class="hlt">calibration</span> in the field, necessary for the determination of the concentration of measured gases. Until now, often <span class="hlt">calibration</span> gases were used with different scattering properties than air or known concentrations. However this methods has several major shortcomings, being rather inconvenient and cumbersome in the field with the need for compressed gas cylinders, as well as time consuming, preventing a quick check of the state of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> in the field after changing measurement locations. Here we present a new wavelength-resolved method for broadband CE-DOAS path length <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. A small, custom made ring-down system is employed with a pulsed LED as light source. The wavelength is then resolved by tilting a narrow band interference filter. The system not only allows quick, automated path length <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> without physical interaction on the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, but also saves weight, space and the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3355425','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3355425"><span>An <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> for In Situ Measuring the Volume Scattering Function of Water: Design, <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Primary Experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Cai; Cao, Wenxi; Yu, Jing; Ke, Tiancun; Lu, Guixin; Yang, Yuezhong; Guo, Chaoying</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The optical volume scattering function (VSF) of seawater is a fundamental property used in the calculation of radiative transfer for applications in the study of the upper-ocean heat balance, the photosynthetic productivity of the ocean, and the chemical transformation of photoreactive compounds. A new <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to simultaneously measure the VSF in seven directions between 20° to 160°, the attenuation coefficient, and the depth of water is presented. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is self-contained and can be automatically controlled by the depth under water. The self-contained data can be easily downloaded by an ultra-short-wave communication system. A <span class="hlt">calibration</span> test was performed in the laboratory based on precise estimation of the scattering volume and optical radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the detectors. The measurement error of the VSF measurement <span class="hlt">instrument</span> has been estimated in the laboratory based on the Mie theory, and the average error is less than 12%. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was used to measure and analyze the variation characteristics of the VSF with angle, depth and water quality in Daya Bay for the first time. From these in situ data, we have found that the phase functions proposed by Fournier-Forand, measured by Petzold in San Diego Harbor and Sokolov in Black Sea do not fit with our measurements in Daya. These discrepancies could manly due to high proportion of suspended calcium carbonate mineral-like particles with high refractive index in Daya Bay. PMID:22666043</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SoPh..275..229S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SoPh..275..229S"><span>Design and Ground <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schou, J.; Scherrer, P. H.; Bush, R. I.; Wachter, R.; Couvidat, S.; Rabello-Soares, M. C.; Bogart, R. S.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Liu, Y.; Duvall, T. L.; Akin, D. J.; Allard, B. A.; Miles, J. W.; Rairden, R.; Shine, R. A.; Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. M.; Wolfson, C. J.; Elmore, D. F.; Norton, A. A.; Tomczyk, S.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) investigation ( Solar Phys. doi:10.1007/s11207-011-9834-2, 2011) will study the solar interior using helioseismic techniques as well as the magnetic field near the solar surface. The HMI <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is part of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) that was launched on 11 February 2010. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is designed to measure the Doppler shift, intensity, and vector magnetic field at the solar photosphere using the 6173 Å Fe i absorption line. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> consists of a front-window filter, a telescope, a set of waveplates for polarimetry, an image-stabilization system, a blocking filter, a five-stage Lyot filter with one tunable element, two wide-field tunable Michelson interferometers, a pair of 40962 pixel cameras with independent shutters, and associated electronics. Each camera takes a full-disk image roughly every 3.75 seconds giving an overall cadence of 45 seconds for the Doppler, intensity, and line-of-sight magnetic-field measurements and a slower cadence for the full vector magnetic field. This article describes the design of the HMI <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and provides an overview of the pre-launch <span class="hlt">calibration</span> efforts. Overviews of the investigation, details of the <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>, data handling, and the science analysis are provided in accompanying articles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140007405','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140007405"><span>Design and Ground <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schou, J.; Scherrer, P. H.; Bush, R. I.; Wachter, R.; Couvidat, S.; Rabello-Soares, M. C.; Bogart, R. S.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Liu, Y.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20140007405'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20140007405_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20140007405_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20140007405_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20140007405_hide"></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) investigation will study the solar interior using helioseismic techniques as well as the magnetic field near the solar surface. The HMI <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is part of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) that was launched on 11 February 2010. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is designed to measure the Doppler shift, intensity, and vector magnetic field at the solar photosphere using the 6173 Fe I absorption line. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> consists of a front-window filter, a telescope, a set of wave plates for polarimetry, an image-stabilization system, a blocking filter, a five-stage Lyot filter with one tunable element, two wide-field tunable Michelson interferometers, a pair of 4096(exo 2) pixel cameras with independent shutters, and associated electronics. Each camera takes a full-disk image roughly every 3.75 seconds giving an overall cadence of 45 seconds for the Doppler, intensity, and line-of-sight magnetic-field measurements and a slower cadence for the full vector magnetic field. This article describes the design of the HMI <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and provides an overview of the pre-launch <span class="hlt">calibration</span> efforts. Overviews of the investigation, details of the <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>, data handling, and the science analysis are provided in accompanying articles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22118496','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22118496"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of erythemally weighted broadband <span class="hlt">instruments</span>: A comparison between PMOD/WRC and MSL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Swift, Neil; Nield, Kathryn; Hamlin, John; Huelsen, Gregor; Groebner, Julian</p> <p>2013-05-10</p> <p>A Yankee Environmental Systems (YES) UVB-1 ultraviolet pyranometer, designed to measure erythemally weighted total solar irradiance, was <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> by the Measurement Standards Laboratory (MSL) in Lower Hutt, New Zealand during August 2010. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> was then repeated during July and August 2011 by the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Obervatorium Davos, World Radiation Center (PMOD/WRC) located in Davos, Switzerland. <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> results show that measurements of the relative spectral and angular response functions at the two institutes are in excellent agreement, thus providing a good degree of confidence in these measurement facilities. However, measurements to convert the relative spectral response into an absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> disagree significantly depending on whether an FEL lamp or solar spectra are used to perform this scaling. This is the first serious comparison of these scaling methods to formally explore the potential systematic errors which could explain the discrepancy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8516E..02T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8516E..02T"><span>Test plan for a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> demonstration system for the reflected solar <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for the climate absolute radiance and refractivity observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; Hair, Jason; McAndrew, Brendan; Daw, Adrian; Jennings, Donald; Rabin, Douglas</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission addresses the need to observe highaccuracy, long-term climate change trends and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change. One of the major objectives of CLARREO is to advance the accuracy of SI traceable absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> at infrared and reflected solar wavelengths. This advance is required to reach the on-orbit absolute accuracy required to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps while remaining sufficiently accurate to observe climate change to within the uncertainty of the limit of natural variability. While these capabilities exist at NIST in the laboratory, there is a need to demonstrate that it can move successfully from NIST to NASA and/or <span class="hlt">instrument</span> vendor capabilities for future spaceborne <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The current work describes the test plan for the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. The goal of the CDS is to allow the testing and evaluation of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approaches, alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft <span class="hlt">instrument</span> design modifications. The end result of efforts with the SOLARIS CDS will be an SI-traceable error budget for reflectance retrieval using solar irradiance as a reference and methods for laboratory-based, absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> suitable for climate-quality data collections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21583130','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21583130"><span>ABSOLUTE FLUX <span class="hlt">CALIBRATION</span> OF THE IRAC <span class="hlt">INSTRUMENT</span> ON THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE USING HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE FLUX STANDARDS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bohlin, R. C.; Gordon, K. D.; Deustua, S.; Ferguson, H. C.; Flanagan, K.; Kalirai, J.; Meixner, M.; Rieke, G. H.; Engelbracht, C.; Su, K. Y. L.; Ardila, D.; Tremblay, P.-E.</p> <p>2011-05-15</p> <p>The absolute flux <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be based on a set of stars observed by the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. In order to cross-<span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the two facilities, several A, G, and white dwarf stars are observed with both Spitzer and Hubble and are the prototypes for a set of JWST <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standards. The flux <span class="hlt">calibration</span> constants for the four Spitzer IRAC bands 1-4 are derived from these stars and are 2.3%, 1.9%, 2.0%, and 0.5% lower than the official cold-mission IRAC <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of Reach et al., i.e., in agreement within their estimated errors of {approx}2%. The causes of these differences lie primarily in the IRAC data <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and secondarily in the spectral energy distributions of our standard stars. The independent IRAC 8 {mu}m band-4 fluxes of Rieke et al. are about 1.5% {+-} 2% higher than those of Reach et al. and are also in agreement with our 8 {mu}m result.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AMT....10...59C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AMT....10...59C"><span>The on-orbit performance of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and its radiometrically <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crisp, David; Pollock, Harold R.; Rosenberg, Robert; Chapsky, Lars; Lee, Richard A. M.; Oyafuso, Fabiano A.; Frankenberg, Christian; O'Dell, Christopher W.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Doran, Gary B.; Eldering, Annmarie; Fisher, Brendan M.; Fu, Dejian; Gunson, Michael R.; Mandrake, Lukas; Osterman, Gregory B.; Schwandner, Florian M.; Sun, Kang; Taylor, Tommy E.; Wennberg, Paul O.; Wunch, Debra</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) carries and points a three-channel imaging grating spectrometer designed to collect high-resolution, co-boresighted spectra of reflected sunlight within the molecular oxygen (O2) A-band at 0.765 microns and the carbon dioxide (CO2) bands at 1.61 and 2.06 microns. These measurements are <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> and then combined into soundings that are analyzed to retrieve spatially resolved estimates of the column-averaged CO2 dry-air mole fraction, XCO2. Variations of XCO2 in space and time are then analyzed in the context of the atmospheric transport to quantify surface sources and sinks of CO2. This is a particularly challenging remote-sensing observation because all but the largest emission sources and natural absorbers produce only small (< 0.25 %) changes in the background XCO2 field. High measurement precision is therefore essential to resolve these small variations, and high accuracy is needed because small biases in the retrieved XCO2 distribution could be misinterpreted as evidence for CO2 fluxes. To meet its demanding measurement requirements, each OCO-2 spectrometer channel collects 24 spectra s-1 across a narrow (< 10 km) swath as the observatory flies over the sunlit hemisphere, yielding almost 1 million soundings each day. On monthly timescales, between 7 and 12 % of these soundings pass the cloud screens and other data quality filters to yield full-column estimates of XCO2. Each of these soundings has an unprecedented combination of spatial resolution (< 3 km2/sounding), spectral resolving power (λ/Δλ > 17 000), dynamic range (˜ 104), and sensitivity (continuum signal-to-noise ratio > 400). The OCO-2 <span class="hlt">instrument</span> performance was extensively characterized and <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> prior to launch. In general, the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> has performed as expected during its first 18 months in orbit. However, ongoing <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and science analysis activities have revealed a number of subtle radiometric and spectroscopic challenges that affect</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28489056','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28489056"><span>MERITXELL: The Multifrequency Experimental Radiometer with Interference Tracking for Experiments over Land and Littoral-<span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Description, <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Performance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Querol, Jorge; Tarongí, José Miguel; Forte, Giuseppe; Gómez, José Javier; Camps, Adriano</p> <p>2017-05-10</p> <p>MERITXELL is a ground-based multisensor <span class="hlt">instrument</span> that includes a multiband dual-polarization radiometer, a GNSS reflectometer, and several optical sensors. Its main goals are twofold: to test data fusion techniques, and to develop Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI) detection, localization and mitigation techniques. The former is necessary to retrieve complementary data useful to develop geophysical models with improved accuracy, whereas the latter aims at solving one of the most important problems of microwave radiometry. This paper describes the hardware design, the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> control architecture, the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the radiometer, and several captures of RFI signals taken with MERITXELL in urban environment. The multiband radiometer has a dual linear polarization total-power radiometer topology, and it covers the L-, S-, C-, X-, K-, Ka-, and W-band. Its back-end stage is based on a spectrum analyzer structure which allows to perform real-time signal processing, while the rest of the sensors are controlled by a host computer where the off-line processing takes place. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the radiometer is performed using the hot-cold load procedure, together with the tipping curves technique in the case of the five upper frequency bands. Finally, some captures of RFI signals are shown for most of the radiometric bands under analysis, which evidence the problem of RFI in microwave radiometry, and the limitations they impose in external <span class="hlt">calibration</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5470471','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5470471"><span>MERITXELL: The Multifrequency Experimental Radiometer with Interference Tracking for Experiments over Land and Littoral—<span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Description, <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Querol, Jorge; Tarongí, José Miguel; Forte, Giuseppe; Gómez, José Javier; Camps, Adriano</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>MERITXELL is a ground-based multisensor <span class="hlt">instrument</span> that includes a multiband dual-polarization radiometer, a GNSS reflectometer, and several optical sensors. Its main goals are twofold: to test data fusion techniques, and to develop Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI) detection, localization and mitigation techniques. The former is necessary to retrieve complementary data useful to develop geophysical models with improved accuracy, whereas the latter aims at solving one of the most important problems of microwave radiometry. This paper describes the hardware design, the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> control architecture, the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the radiometer, and several captures of RFI signals taken with MERITXELL in urban environment. The multiband radiometer has a dual linear polarization total-power radiometer topology, and it covers the L-, S-, C-, X-, K-, Ka-, and W-band. Its back-end stage is based on a spectrum analyzer structure which allows to perform real-time signal processing, while the rest of the sensors are controlled by a host computer where the off-line processing takes place. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the radiometer is performed using the hot-cold load procedure, together with the tipping curves technique in the case of the five upper frequency bands. Finally, some captures of RFI signals are shown for most of the radiometric bands under analysis, which evidence the problem of RFI in microwave radiometry, and the limitations they impose in external <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. PMID:28489056</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034303','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034303"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of Nu-<span class="hlt">Instruments</span> Noblesse multicollector mass spectrometers for argon isotopic measurements using a newly developed reference gas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Coble, M.A.; Grove, M.; Calvert, A.T.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The greatest challenge limiting 40Ar/39Ar multicollection measurements is the availability of appropriate standard gasses to intercalibrate detectors. In particular, use of zoom lens ion-optics to steer and focus ion beams into a fixed detector array (i.e., Nu <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> Noblesse) makes intercalibration of multiple detectors challenging because different ion-optic tuning conditions are required for optimal peak shape and sensitivity at different mass stations. We have found that detector efficiency and mass discrimination are affected by changes in ion-optic tuning parameters. Reliance upon an atmospheric Ar standard to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the Noblesse is problematic because there is no straightforward way to relate atmospheric 40Ar and 36Ar to measurements of 40Ar and 39Ar if they are measured on separate detectors. After exploring alternative <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approaches, we have concluded that <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the Noblesse is best performed using exactly the same source, detector, and ion-optic tuning settings as those used in routine 40Ar/39Ar analysis. To accomplish this, we have developed synthetic reference gasses containing 40Ar, 39Ar and 38Ar produced by mixing gasses derived from neutron-irradiated sanidine with an enriched 38Ar spike. We present a new method for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> the Noblesse based on use of both atmospheric Ar and the synthetic reference gasses. By combining atmospheric Ar and synthetic reference gas in different ways, we can directly measure 40Ar/39Ar, 38Ar/39Ar, and 36Ar/39Ar correction factors over ratios that vary from 0.5 to 460. These correction factors are reproducible to better than ??0.5??? (2?? standard error) over intervals spanning ~24h but can vary systematically by ~4% over 2weeks of continuous use when electron multiplier settings are held constant. Monitoring this variation requires daily <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Application of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method to 40Ar/39Ar multicollection measurements of widely used sanidine reference materials</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23556861','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23556861"><span>Note: Rapid offset <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of impedance bridges taking into account <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> damping and phase shifting.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van der Wel, C M; Kortschot, R J; Bakelaar, I A; Erné, B H; Kuipers, B W M</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The sensitivity of an imperfectly balanced impedance bridge is limited by the remaining offset voltage. Here, we present a procedure for offset <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in impedance measurements using a lock-in amplifier, by applying a complex compensating voltage external to the bridge. This procedure takes into account <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> damping and phase shifting, which generally occur at the high end of the operational frequency range. Measurements demonstrate that the output of the circuit rapidly converges to the <span class="hlt">instrumentally</span> limited noise at any frequency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4003995','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4003995"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> between Color Camera and 3D LIDAR <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> with a Polygonal Planar Board</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Park, Yoonsu; Yun, Seokmin; Won, Chee Sun; Cho, Kyungeun; Um, Kyhyun; Sim, Sungdae</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> between color camera and 3D Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) equipment is an essential process for data fusion. The goal of this paper is to improve the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> accuracy between a camera and a 3D LIDAR. In particular, we are interested in <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> a low resolution 3D LIDAR with a relatively small number of vertical sensors. Our goal is achieved by employing a new methodology for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> board, which exploits 2D-3D correspondences. The 3D corresponding points are estimated from the scanned laser points on the polygonal planar board with adjacent sides. Since the lengths of adjacent sides are known, we can estimate the vertices of the board as a meeting point of two projected sides of the polygonal board. The estimated vertices from the range data and those detected from the color image serve as the corresponding points for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. Experiments using a low-resolution LIDAR with 32 sensors show robust results. PMID:24643005</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAG...140...84S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAG...140...84S"><span>System stability and <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> for hand-held electromagnetic frequency domain <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saksa, Pauli J.; Sorsa, Joona</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>There are a few multiple-frequency domain electromagnetic induction (EMI) hand-held rigid boom systems available for shallow geophysical resistivity investigations. They basically measure secondary field real and imaginary components after the system <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. One multiple-frequency system, the EMP-400 Profiler from Geophysical Survey Systems Inc., was tested for system <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>, stability and various effects present in normal measurements like height variation, tilting, signal stacking and time stability. Results indicated that in test conditions, repeatable high-accuracy imaginary component values can be recorded for near-surface frequency soundings. In test conditions, real components are also stable but vary strongly in normal surveying measurements. However, certain <span class="hlt">calibration</span> issues related to the combination of user influence and measurement system height were recognised as an important factor in reducing for data errors and for further processing like static offset corrections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007A%26A...472.1041D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007A%26A...472.1041D"><span>Theoretical model atmosphere spectra used for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of infrared <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Decin, L.; Eriksson, K.</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>Context: One of the key ingredients in establishing the relation between input signal and output flux from a spectrometer is accurate determination of the spectrophotometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. In the case of spectrometers onboard satellites, the accuracy of this part of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> pedigree is ultimately linked to the accuracy of the set of reference spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that the spectrophotometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is built on. Aims: In this paper, we deal with the spectrophotometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of infrared (IR) spectrometers onboard satellites in the 2 to 200 μm wavelength range. We aim at comparing the different reference SEDs used for the IR spectrophotometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. The emphasis is on the reference SEDs of stellar standards with spectral type later than A0, with special focus on the theoretical model atmosphere spectra. Methods: Using the MARCS model atmosphere code, spectral reference SEDs were constructed for a set of IR stellar standards (A dwarfs, solar analogs, G9-M0 giants). A detailed error analysis was performed to estimate proper uncertainties on the predicted flux values. Results: It is shown that the uncertainty on the predicted fluxes can be as high as 10%, but in case high-resolution observational optical or near-IR data are available, and IR excess can be excluded, the uncertainty on medium-resolution SEDs can be reduced to 1-2% in the near-IR, to ~3% in the mid-IR, and to ~5% in the far-IR. Moreover, it is argued that theoretical stellar atmosphere spectra are at the moment the best representations for the IR fluxes of cool stellar standards. Conclusions: When aiming at a determination of the spectrophotometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of IR spectrometers better than 3%, effort should be put into constructing an appropriate set of stellar reference SEDs based on theoretical atmosphere spectra for some 15 standard stars with spectral types between A0 V and M0 III.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8442E..35T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8442E..35T"><span>Design concept of the electrical ground support equipment for the AIV and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the Euclid NISP <span class="hlt">instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trifoglio, Massimo; Bonoli, Carlotta; Bortoletto, Favio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Butler, Chris. R.; Colodro-Conde, Carlos; Conforti, Vito; Corcione, Leonardo; Franceschi, Enrico; Gianotti, Fulvio; Ligori, Sebastiano; Maciaszek, Thierry; Morgante, Gianluca; Muñoz, Jacinto; Nicastro, Luciano; Prieto, Eric; Rebolo-López, Rafael; Riva, Mario; Spano, Paolo; Toledo-Moreo, Rafael; Valenziano, Luca; Villó, Isidro; Zerbi, Filippo Maria</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The Near Infrared Spectro-Photometer (NISP) on board the Euclid ESA mission will be developed and tested at various levels of integration using various test equipment which shall be designed and procured through a collaborative and coordinated effort. In this paper we describe the Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) which shall be required to support the assembly, integration, verification and testing (AIV/AIT) and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> activities at <span class="hlt">instrument</span> level before delivery to ESA, and at satellite level, when the NISP <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is mounted on the spacecraft. We present the EGSE conceptual design as defined in order to be compliant with the AIV/AIT and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> requirements. The proposed concept is aimed at maximizing the re-use in the EGSE configuration of the Test Equipment developed for subsystem level activities, as well as, at allowing a smooth transition from <span class="hlt">instrument</span> level to satellite level, and, possibly, at Ground Segment level. This paper mainly reports the technical status at the end of the Definition phase and it is presented on behalf of the Euclid Consortium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJS..231...10A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJS..231...10A"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the Large Area X-Ray Proportional Counter (LAXPC) <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> on board AstroSat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Antia, H. M.; Yadav, J. S.; Agrawal, P. C.; Verdhan Chauhan, Jai; Manchanda, R. K.; Chitnis, Varsha; Paul, Biswajit; Dedhia, Dhiraj; Shah, Parag; Gujar, V. M.; Katoch, Tilak; Kurhade, V. N.; Madhwani, Pankaj; Manojkumar, T. K.; Nikam, V. A.; Pandya, A. S.; Parmar, J. V.; Pawar, D. M.; Pahari, Mayukh; Misra, Ranjeev; Navalgund, K. H.; Pandiyan, R.; Sharma, K. S.; Subbarao, K.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>We present the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and background model for the Large Area X-ray Proportional Counter (LAXPC) detectors on board AstroSat. The LAXPC <span class="hlt">instrument</span> has three nominally identical detectors to achieve a large collecting area. These detectors are independent of each other, and in the event analysis mode they record the arrival time and energy of each photon that is detected. The detectors have a time resolution of 10 μs and a dead-time of about 42 μs. This makes LAXPC ideal for timing studies. The energy resolution and peak channel-to-energy mapping were obtained from <span class="hlt">calibration</span> on the ground using radioactive sources coupled with GEANT4 simulations of the detectors. The response matrix was further refined from observations of the Crab after launch. At around 20 keV the energy resolution of the detectors is 10%-15%, while the combined effective area of the three detectors is about 6000 cm2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70156829','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70156829"><span>Borehole strainmeter measurements spanning the 2014, Mw6.0 South Napa Earthquake, California: The effect from <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Langbein, John O.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The 24 August 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa, California earthquake produced significant offsets on 12 borehole strainmeters in the San Francisco Bay area. These strainmeters are located between 24 and 80 km from the source and the observed offsets ranged up to 400 parts-per-billion (ppb), which exceeds their nominal precision by a factor of 100. However, the observed offsets of tidally <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> strains differ by up to 130 ppb from predictions based on a moment tensor derived from seismic data. The large misfit can be attributed to a combination of poor <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and better modeling of the strain fit from the earthquake. Borehole strainmeters require in-situ <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, which historically has been accomplished by comparing their measurements of Earth tides with the strain-tides predicted by a model. Although the borehole strainmeter accurately measure the deformation within the borehole, the long-wavelength strain signals from tides or other tectonic processes recorded in the borehole are modified by the presence of the borehole and the elastic properties of the grout and the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Previous analyses of surface-mounted, strainmeter data and their relationship with the predicted tides suggest that tidal models could be in error by 30%. The poor fit of the borehole strainmeter data from this earthquake can be improved by simultaneously varying the components of the model tides up to 30% and making small adjustments to the point-source model of the earthquake, which reduces the RMS misfit from 130 ppb to 18 ppb. This suggests that relying on tidal models to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> borehole strainmeters significantly reduces their accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920065606&hterms=refraction&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Drefraction','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920065606&hterms=refraction&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Drefraction"><span>The slant path atmospheric refraction <span class="hlt">calibrator</span> - An <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to measure the microwave propagation delays induced by atmospheric water vapor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Walter, Steven J.; Bender, Peter L.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The water vapor-induced propagation delay experienced by a radio signal traversing the atmosphere is characterized by the Slant Path Atmospheric Refraction <span class="hlt">Calibrator</span> (SPARC), which measures the difference in the travel times between an optical and a microwave signal propagating along the same atmospheric path with an accuracy of 15 picosec or better. Attention is given to the theoretical and experimental issues involved in measuring the delay induced by water vapor; SPARC measurements conducted along a 13.35-km ground-based path are presented, illustrating the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>'s stability, precision, and accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003NewA....8..727S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003NewA....8..727S"><span>Absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and beam reconstruction of MITO(a ground-based <span class="hlt">instrument</span> in the millimetric region)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Savini, G.; Orlando, A.; Battistelli, E. S.; De Petris, M.; Lamagna, L.; Luzzi, G.; Palladino, E.</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p>An efficient sky data reconstruction derives from a precise characterization of the observing <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Here we describe the reconstruction of performances of a single-pixel 4-band photometer installed at MITO (Millimeter and Infrared Testagrigia Observatory) focal plane. The strategy of differential sky observations at millimeter wavelengths, by scanning the field of view at constant elevation wobbling the subreflector, induces a good knowledge of beam profile and beam-throw amplitude, allowing efficient data recovery. The problems that arise estimating the detectors throughput by drift scanning on planets are shown. Atmospheric transmission, monitored by skydip technique, is considered for deriving final responsivities for the 4 channels using planets as primary <span class="hlt">calibrators</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920065606&hterms=Refraction&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DRefraction','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920065606&hterms=Refraction&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DRefraction"><span>The slant path atmospheric refraction <span class="hlt">calibrator</span> - An <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to measure the microwave propagation delays induced by atmospheric water vapor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Walter, Steven J.; Bender, Peter L.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The water vapor-induced propagation delay experienced by a radio signal traversing the atmosphere is characterized by the Slant Path Atmospheric Refraction <span class="hlt">Calibrator</span> (SPARC), which measures the difference in the travel times between an optical and a microwave signal propagating along the same atmospheric path with an accuracy of 15 picosec or better. Attention is given to the theoretical and experimental issues involved in measuring the delay induced by water vapor; SPARC measurements conducted along a 13.35-km ground-based path are presented, illustrating the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>'s stability, precision, and accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS41C1749T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS41C1749T"><span><span class="hlt">Instrument</span> development and field application of the in situ pH <span class="hlt">Calibrator</span> at the Ocean Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tan, C.; Ding, K.; Seyfried, W. E.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>A novel, self-<span class="hlt">calibrating</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for in-situ measurement of pH in deep sea environments up to 4000 m has recently been developed. The device utilizes a compact fluid delivery system to perform measurement and two-point <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the solid state pH sensor array (Ir|IrOx| Ag|AgCl), which is sealed in a flow cell to enhance response time. The fluid delivery system is composed of a metering pump and valves, which periodically deliver seawater samples into the flow cell to perform measurements. Similarly, pH buffer solutions can be delivered into the flow cell to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the electrodes under operational conditions. Sensor signals are acquired and processed by a high resolution (0.25 mV) datalogger circuit with a size of 114 mm×31 mm×25 mm. Eight input channels are available: two high impedance sensor input channels, two low impedance sensor input channel, two thermocouple input channels and two thermistor input channels. These eight channels provide adequate measurement flexibility to enhance applications in deep sea environments. The two high impedance channels of the datalogger are especially designed with the input impedance of 1016 Ω for YSZ (yittria-stabilized zirconia) ceramic electrodes characterized by the extremely low input bias current and high resistance. Field tests have been performed in 2008 by ROV at the depth up to 3200 m. Using the continuous power supply and TCP/IP network capability of the Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) ocean observatory, the so-called "pH <span class="hlt">Calibrator</span>" has the capability of long term operation up to six months. In the observatory mode, the electronics are configured with DC-DC power converter modules and Ethernet to serial module to gain access to the science port of seafloor junction box. The pH <span class="hlt">Calibrator</span> will be deployed at the ocean observatory in October and the in situ data will be on line on the internet. The pH <span class="hlt">Calibrator</span> presents real time pH data at high pressures and variable temperatures, while</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950004710','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950004710"><span>Procedures to validate/correct <span class="hlt">calibration</span> error in solar backscattered ultraviolet <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Taylor, Steven L.; Mcpeters, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The Nimbus 7 SBUV measures the same latitude ozone at widely different sun angle conditions at the ascent and descent part of the orbit during the summer solstice. This situation is used in a particular procedure (Ascent/Descent) to obtain the relative channel-to-channel <span class="hlt">calibration</span> error for channels 273 nm to 306 nm. These estimated errors are combined with results from the Pair Justification procedure to correct the sun-view diffuser drift in <span class="hlt">calibration</span> from November 1978 to February 1987 for the shorter wavelength channels that measure upper stratospheric ozone. Some preliminary re-calirated Nimbus 7 SBUV data in 1989 is compared with the first set of SBUV measurements flown on the Space Shuttle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5230393','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5230393"><span>Guide for establishing and maintaining a <span class="hlt">calibration</span>-constancy intercomparison system for microwave-oven-compliance survey <span class="hlt">instruments</span> (revised)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1988-03-01</p> <p>Public Law 90-602, the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968 (the Act), directs the Department of Health and Human Services to evaluate production-testing and quality-control programs carried out by the industry to assure adequacy of safeguards against hazardous electronic-product radiation and to assure that the products comply with performance standards. Under the Act, manufacturers of microwave ovens, a product listed under 21 CFR 1002.61, are required to certify that their microwave ovens are in compliance with all of the applicable provisions of the Federal Performance Standard for Microwave Ovens, 21 CFR 1030.10. In order to comply with microwave-emission-level provisions of the performance standard, manufacturers must use properly <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> microwave-leakage measurement <span class="hlt">instruments</span> in their production and quality control testing programs. This document was prepared in order to assist the microwave oven manufacturers in establishing and maintaining a <span class="hlt">calibration</span>-constancy intercomparison system for compliance survey <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and replaces guidance previously issued by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (the Center).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V31A2298C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V31A2298C"><span>New gas standard for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of Nu-<span class="hlt">instruments</span> Noblesse multi-collector mass spectrometers for argon-isotopic measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coble, M. A.; Grove, M.; Calvert, A. T.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>A new generation of noble gas multi-collector mass spectrometers with fixed collector arrays has been designed by Nu <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> for improved precision, sensitivity, dynamic range, and high analysis throughput. The natural mass dispersion of the most flexible configuration (one Faraday and three electron multipliers) allows simultaneous measurement of 40Ar, 38Ar, and 36Ar on the high, axial, and low mass stations. Peak hopping is thus required to measure 39Ar and 37Ar. While mechanically simple, use of zoom lens ion-optics to steer and focus ion beams into a fixed collector array makes intercalibration of multiple collectors challenging because different ion-optic tuning conditions are required for optimal peak shape and sensitivity at different axial mass stations. Detector gain and mass discrimination are sensitive functions of tuning parameters. While <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of detector gain and mass discrimination can be combined into a single correction factor, reliance upon an atmospheric gas standard to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is problematic because there is no straightforward way to relate 40Ar-38Ar-36Ar measurements to 39Ar and 37Ar. After exploring alternative <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approaches, we have concluded that <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the Noblesse is best performed using exactly the same source, multi-collector, and ion-optic tuning settings as those used in routine 40Ar/39Ar analysis. We have thus developed methods for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> the Noblesse that are based upon combined use of both atmospheric and synthetic gas standards. Our current synthetic gas standard was produced by mixing neutron-irradiated sanidine with an enriched 38Ar spike to yield a 40Ar/39Ar and 38Ar/39Ar of 2.995 and 3.801 respectively. By combining the atmospheric and synthetic gas standards in different ways, we can directly measure 40Ar/39Ar, 38Ar/39Ar, and 36Ar/39Ar correction factors over ratios that vary from unity to 475. We have found that these correction factors are generally reproducible within error</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22036477','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22036477"><span><span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> the ChemCam laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for carbonate minerals on Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lanza, Nina L.; Wiens, Roger C.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Ollila, Ann M.; Humphries, Seth D.; Newsom, Horton E.; Barefield, James E.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The ChemCam <span class="hlt">instrument</span> suite onboard the NASA Mars Science Laboratory rover includes the first laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for extraterrestrial applications. Here we examine carbonate minerals in a simulated martian environment to better understand the LIBS signature of these materials on Mars. Both chemical composition and rock type are determined using multivariate analysis techniques. Composition is confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. Our results show that ChemCam can recognize and differentiate between different types of carbonate materials on Mars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28749809','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28749809"><span>Beyond Californium-A Neutron Generator Alternative for Dosimetry and <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> in the U.S.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Piper, Roman K; Mozhayev, Andrey V; Murphy, Mark K; Thompson, Alan K</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Evaluations of neutron survey <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, area monitors, and personal dosimeters rely on reference neutron radiations, which have evolved from the heavy reliance on (α,n) sources to a shared reliance on (α,n) and the spontaneous fission neutrons of californium-252 (Cf). Capable of producing high dose equivalent rates from an almost point source geometry, the characteristics of Cf are generally more favorable when compared to the use of (α,n) and (γ,n) sources or reactor-produced reference neutron radiations. Californium-252 is typically used in two standardized configurations: unmoderated, to yield a fission energy spectrum; or with the capsule placed within a heavy-water moderating sphere to produce a softened spectrum that is generally considered more appropriate for evaluating devices used in nuclear power plant work environments. The U.S. Department of Energy Cf Loan/Lease Program, a longtime origin of affordable Cf sources for research, testing and <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, was terminated in 2009. Since then, high-activity sources have become increasingly cost-prohibitive for laboratories that formerly benefited from that program. Neutron generators, based on the D-T and D-D fusion reactions, have become economically competitive with Cf and are recognized internationally as important <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and test standards. Researchers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are jointly considering the practicality and technical challenges of implementing neutron generators as <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standards in the U.S. This article reviews the characteristics of isotope-based neutron sources, possible isotope alternatives to Cf, and the rationale behind the increasing favor of electronically generated neutron options. The evaluation of a D-T system at PNNL has revealed characteristics that must be considered in adapting generators to the task of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and testing where accurate determination of a dosimetric quantity is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JInst..10C8001R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JInst..10C8001R"><span>SNLS <span class="hlt">calibrations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Regnault, N.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) is a massive imaging survey, conducted between 2003 and 2008, with the MegaCam <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, mounted on the CFHT-3.6-m telescope. With a 1 degree wide focal plane, made of 36 2048 × 4612 sensors totalling 340 megapixels, MegaCam was at the time the largest imager on the sky. The Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) uses the cadenced observations of the 4 deg2 wide "DEEP" layer of the CFHTLS to search and follow-up Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and study the acceleration of the cosmic expansion. The <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the CFHTLS/SNLS datasets has posed a series of challenges. In what follows, we give a brief account of the photometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> work that has been performed on the SNLS data over the last decade.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA529205','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA529205"><span>Design and <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> of a Measurement and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> System for an Acoustic Telemetry System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-03-31</p> <p>a Measurement and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> System for an Acoustic Telemetry System Zhiqun Deng 1,*, Mark Weiland 1, Thomas Carlson 1 and M. Brad Eppard 2 1...of Engineers, Portland District. References 1. McMichael, G.A.; Eppard, M.B.; Carlson, T.J.; Carter, J.A.; Ebberts, B.D.; Brown, R.S.; Weiland , M.A...Ploskey, G.R.; Harnish, R.A.; Deng, Z.D. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System: a new tool. Fisheries 2010, 35, 9-22. 2. Weiland , M.A</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1356610-fermi-large-area-telescope-orbit-event-classification-instrument-response-functions-calibration','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1356610-fermi-large-area-telescope-orbit-event-classification-instrument-response-functions-calibration"><span>The Fermi Large Area Telescope on Orbit: Event Classification, <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Response Functions, and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; ...</p> <p>2012-10-12</p> <p>The Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy γ-ray telescope, covering the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. During the first years of the mission, the LAT team has gained considerable insight into the in-flight performance of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Accordingly, we have updated the analysis used to reduce LAT data for public release as well as the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> response functions (IRFs), the description of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> performance provided for data analysis. In this study, we describe the effects thatmore » motivated these updates. Furthermore, we discuss how we originally derived IRFs from Monte Carlo simulations and later corrected those IRFs for discrepancies observed between flight and simulated data. We also give details of the validations performed using flight data and quantify the residual uncertainties in the IRFs. In conclusion, we describe techniques the LAT team has developed to propagate those uncertainties into estimates of the systematic errors on common measurements such as fluxes and spectra of astrophysical sources.« less</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22089819','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22089819"><span>THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ON ORBIT: EVENT CLASSIFICATION, <span class="hlt">INSTRUMENT</span> RESPONSE FUNCTIONS, AND <span class="hlt">CALIBRATION</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bogart, J. R.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Bouvier, A.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E. E-mail: luca.baldini@pi.infn.it; and others</p> <p>2012-11-15</p> <p>The Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy {gamma}-ray telescope, covering the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. During the first years of the mission, the LAT team has gained considerable insight into the in-flight performance of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Accordingly, we have updated the analysis used to reduce LAT data for public release as well as the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> response functions (IRFs), the description of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> performance provided for data analysis. In this paper, we describe the effects that motivated these updates. Furthermore, we discuss how we originally derived IRFs from Monte Carlo simulations and later corrected those IRFs for discrepancies observed between flight and simulated data. We also give details of the validations performed using flight data and quantify the residual uncertainties in the IRFs. Finally, we describe techniques the LAT team has developed to propagate those uncertainties into estimates of the systematic errors on common measurements such as fluxes and spectra of astrophysical sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120015699','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120015699"><span>The Fermi Large Area Telescope on Orbit: Event Classification, <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Response Functions, and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20120015699'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20120015699_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20120015699_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20120015699_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20120015699_hide"></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy -ray telescope, covering the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. During the first years of the mission the LAT team has gained considerable insight into the in-flight performance of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Accordingly, we have updated the analysis used to reduce LAT data for public release as well as the <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Response Functions (IRFs), the description of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> performance provided for data analysis. In this paper we describe the effects that motivated these updates. Furthermore, we discuss how we originally derived IRFs from Monte Carlo simulations and later corrected those IRFs for discrepancies observed between flight and simulated data. We also give details of the validations performed using flight data and quantify the residual uncertainties in the IRFs. Finally, we describe techniques the LAT team has developed to propagate those uncertainties into estimates of the systematic errors on common measurements such as fluxes and spectra of astrophysical sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESASP.727E.133V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESASP.727E.133V"><span>Mechanical Testing on the Sun <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Mechanism for the MSI-VNS <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> on EarthCARE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van der Knaap, Frits; de Goeij, Bryan; van Riel, Luud; Tabak, Erik</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>TNO has developed a mechanism to perform sun and dark <span class="hlt">calibration</span> as a module of the Visible-NIR-SWIR <span class="hlt">instrument</span> (VNS) in the context of EarthCARE. The EarthCARE mission objective is the observation of clouds and aerosols from low Earth orbit. The VNS is a subassembly of the Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI) being one of four <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on EarthCARE.This paper will address the mechanism Design, Development & Verification (DD&V) aspects.This contains setup design, execution of mechanical testing and verification.Results of the successful qualification campaign are presented including the obtained lessons learned.The VNS mechanism is equipped with MoS2 coated bearings mounted in a 440C bush.The mechanism is driven by a stepper motor; the 4 functional positions are indicated by opto-couplers, the safe position additionally with a micro switch.The verification of the VNS mechanism has been performed by two models; Life Test Model (LTM) and a flight representative Engineering Confidence Model (ECM). These models have been subjected to a mechanical qualification test program. In this test program the motorization margin has been verified prior and after the mechanical testing, including operational use with the qualification margins, of the mechanism.In preparation of the mechanical tests of both LTM and ECM, Finite Element Modelling has been used to derive the bearing- and motor forces and accelerations. The FE modelling also supported the suitability of the designed setups.The ECM has been used to build the confidence for the entire <span class="hlt">instrument</span> including the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> mechanism. After exposure to vibration and thermal vacuum test the ECM was still in perfect working order.The method of verification by testing is presented in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/978933','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/978933"><span>Design and <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> of a Measurement and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> System for an Acoustic Telemetry System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Eppard, M. B.</p> <p>2010-03-31</p> <p>The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) is an active sensing technology developed by Portland District, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for detecting and tracking small fish. It is used at hydroelectric projects and in the laboratory for evaluating behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System to the Pacific Ocean. It provides critical data for salmon protection and development of more “fish-friendly” hydroelectric facilities. The objective of this study was to design and build a measurement and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system for evaluating the JSATS component, because the JSATS requires comprehensive acceptance and performance testing in a controlled environment before it is deployed in the field. The system consists of a reference transducer, a water test tank lined with anechoic material, a motion control unit, a reference receiver, a signal conditioner and amplifier unit, a data acquisition board, MATLAB control and analysis interface, and a computer. The fully integrated system has been evaluated successfully at various simulated distances and using different encoded signals at frequencies within the bandwidth of the JSATS transmitter. It provides accurate acoustic mapping capability in a controlled environment and automates the process that allows real-time measurements and evaluation of the piezoelectric transducers, sensors, or the acoustic fields. The measurement and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system has been in use since 2009 for acceptance and performance testing of, and further improvements to, the JSATS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/806854','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/806854"><span>Development of a Pattern Recognition Methodology for Determining Operationally Optimal Heat Balance <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Schedules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kurt Beran; John Christenson; Dragos Nica; Kenny Gross</p> <p>2002-12-15</p> <p>The goal of the project is to enable plant operators to detect with high sensitivity and reliability the onset of decalibration drifts in all of the <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> used as input to the reactor heat balance calculations. To achieve this objective, the collaborators developed and implemented at DBNPS an extension of the Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET) pattern recognition methodology pioneered by ANAL. The extension was implemented during the second phase of the project and fully achieved the project goal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910001219','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910001219"><span>Comparison and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of NCAR electra <span class="hlt">instruments</span>: July 5 and 7, 1987</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Austin, Philip H.; Boers, Reinout</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Measurements of temperature, water vapor, cloud liquid water, and lidar cloud height taken by the National Center for Aeronautical Research (NCAR) Electra are analyzed for two days of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) stratocumulus field program. Examination of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> time series, correlations between sensors, soundings through the layer, and lidar measurements of cloud base height are used to correct sensor offset problems, check for probe wetting, and choose the most accurate measurements of temperature, humidity, and cloud liquid water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1913169S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1913169S"><span>Use of multiple in situ <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and remote sensed satellite data for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> tests at Solfatara (Campi Flegrei volcanic area)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silvestri, Malvina; Musacchio, Massimo; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Doumaz, Fawzi; Andres Diaz, Jorge</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Monitoring natural hazards such as active volcanoes requires specific <span class="hlt">instruments</span> to measure many parameters (gas emissions, surface temperatures, surface deformation etc.) to determine the activity level of a volcano. Volcanoes in most cases present difficult and dangerous environment for scientists who need to take in situ measurements. Remote Sensing systems on board of satellite permit to measure a large number of parameters especially during the eruptive events but still show large limits to monitor volcanic precursors and phenomena at local scale (gas species emitted by fumarole or summit craters degassing plumes and surface thermal changes of few degrees) for their specific risk. For such reason unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) mounting a variety of multigas sensors <span class="hlt">instruments</span> (such as miniature mass spectrometer) or single specie sensors (such as electrochemical and IR sensors) allow a safe monitoring of volcanic activities. With this technology, it is possible to perform monitoring measurements of volcanic activity without risking the lives of scientists and personnel performing analysis during the field campaigns in areas of high volcanic activity and supporting the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and validation of satellite data measurements. These systems allowed the acquisition of real-time information such as temperature, pressure, relative humidity, SO2, H2S, CO2 contained in degassing plume and fumaroles, with GPS geolocation. The acquired data are both stored in the sensor and transmitted to a computer for real time viewing information. Information in the form of 3D concentration maps can be returned. The equipment used during the campaigns at Solfatara Volcano (in 2014, 2015 and 2016) was miniaturized <span class="hlt">instruments</span> allowed measurements conducted either by flying drones over the fumarolic sites and by hand carrying into the fumaroles. We present the results of the field campaign held in different years at the Solfatara of Pozzuoli, near Naples, concerning measurements</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/975990','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/975990"><span>Shielding calculations and verifications for the new Radiation <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>George, G. L.; Olsher, R. H.; Seagraves, D. T.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>MCNP-4C1 was used to perform the shielding design for the new Central Health Physics <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Facility (CHPCF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The problem of shielding the facility was subdivided into three separate components: (1) Transmission; (2) Skyshine; and (3) Maze Streaming/ Transmission. When possible, actual measurements were taken to verify calculation results. The comparison of calculation versus measurement results shows excellent agreement for neutron calculations. For photon comparisons, calculations resulted in conservative estimates of the Effective Dose Equivalent (EDE) compared to measured results. This disagreement in the photon measurements versus calculations is most likely due to several conservative assumptions regarding shield density and composition. For example, reinforcing steel bars (Rebar) in the concrete shield walls were not included in the shield model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110006350','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110006350"><span>Overview of NASA Earth Observing Systems Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Algorithms and On-Orbit Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wenny, Brian N.; Barnes, William L.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Since launch, the Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) <span class="hlt">instruments</span> have successfully operated on-orbit for more than 9 and 6.5 years, respectively. Iv1ODIS, a key <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for the NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) missions, was designed to make continuous observations for studies of Earth's land, ocean, and atmospheric properties and to extend existing data records from heritage earth-observing sensors. In addition to frequent global coverage, MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands, covering both solar reflective and thermal emissive spectral regions. Nearly 40 data products are routinely generated from MODIS' observations and publicly distributed for a broad range of applications. Both <span class="hlt">instruments</span> have produced an unprecedented amount of data in support of the science community. As a general reference for understanding sensor operation and <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and thus science data quality, we ;provide an overview of the MODIS <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and their pre-launch <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and characterization, and describe their on-orbit <span class="hlt">calibration</span> algorithms and performance. On-orbit results from both Terra and Aqua MODIS radiometric, spectral, and "spatial <span class="hlt">calibration</span> are discussed. Currently, both <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, including their on-board <span class="hlt">calibration</span> devices, are healthy and are expected to continue operation for several }rears to come.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20646479','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20646479"><span><span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> methods for the multichannel measurement of phase and amplitude in optical tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nissilae, Ilkka; Noponen, Tommi; Kotilahti, Kalle; Katila, Toivo; Lipiaeinen, Lauri; Tarvainen, Tanja; Schweiger, Martin; Arridge, Simon</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>In this article, we describe the multichannel implementation of an intensity modulated optical tomography system developed at Helsinki University of Technology. The system has two time-multiplexed wavelengths, 16 time-multiplexed source fibers and 16 parallel detection channels. The gain of the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) is individually adjusted during the measurement sequence to increase the dynamic range of the system by 10{sup 4}. The PMT used has a high quantum efficiency in the near infrared (8% at 800 nm), a fast settling time, and low hysteresis. The gain of the PMT is set so that the dc anode current is below 80 nA, which allows the measurement of phase independently of the intensity. The system allows measurements of amplitude at detected intensities down to 1 fW, which is sufficient for transmittance measurements of the female breast, the forearm, and the brain of early pre-term infants. The mean repeatability of phase and the logarithm of amplitude (ln A) at 100 MHz were found to be 0.08 deg. and 0.004, respectively, in a measurement of a 7 cm phantom with an imaging time of 5 s per source and source optical power of 8 mW. We describe a three-step method of <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> the phase and amplitude measurements so that the absolute absorption and scatter in tissue may be measured. A phantom with two small cylindrical targets and a second phantom with three rods are measured and reconstructions made from the <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> data are shown and compared with reconstructions from simulated data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005RScI...76d4302N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005RScI...76d4302N"><span><span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> methods for the multichannel measurement of phase and amplitude in optical tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nissilä, Ilkka; Noponen, Tommi; Kotilahti, Kalle; Katila, Toivo; Lipiäinen, Lauri; Tarvainen, Tanja; Schweiger, Martin; Arridge, Simon</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>In this article, we describe the multichannel implementation of an intensity modulated optical tomography system developed at Helsinki University of Technology. The system has two time-multiplexed wavelengths, 16 time-multiplexed source fibers and 16 parallel detection channels. The gain of the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) is individually adjusted during the measurement sequence to increase the dynamic range of the system by 104. The PMT used has a high quantum efficiency in the near infrared (8% at 800nm), a fast settling time, and low hysteresis. The gain of the PMT is set so that the dc anode current is below 80nA, which allows the measurement of phase independently of the intensity. The system allows measurements of amplitude at detected intensities down to 1fW, which is sufficient for transmittance measurements of the female breast, the forearm, and the brain of early pre-term infants. The mean repeatability of phase and the logarithm of amplitude (lnA) at 100MHz were found to be 0.08° and 0.004, respectively, in a measurement of a 7cm phantom with an imaging time of 5s per source and source optical power of 8mW. We describe a three-step method of <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> the phase and amplitude measurements so that the absolute absorption and scatter in tissue may be measured. A phantom with two small cylindrical targets and a second phantom with three rods are measured and reconstructions made from the <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> data are shown and compared with reconstructions from simulated data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990107328','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990107328"><span>Flight Data <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of Wake Velocity Measurements Using an <span class="hlt">Instrumented</span> OV-10 Airplane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vicroy, Dan D.; Stuever, Robert A.; Stewart, Eric C.; Rivers, Robert A.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A series of flight tests to measure the wake of a Lockheed C- 130 airplane and the accompanying atmospheric state have been conducted. A specially <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> North American Rockwell OV-10 airplane was used to measure the wake and atmospheric conditions. An integrated database has been compiled for wake characterization and validation of wake vortex computational models. This paper describes the wake- measurement flight-data <span class="hlt">reduction</span> process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4662860','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4662860"><span>Regression <span class="hlt">calibration</span> with <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> variables for longitudinal models with interaction terms, and application to air pollution studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Strand, M; Sillau, S; Grunwald, G K; Rabinovitch, N</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we derive forms of estimators and associated variances for regression <span class="hlt">calibration</span> with <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> variables in longitudinal models that include interaction terms between two unobservable predictors and interactions between these predictors and covariates not measured with error; the inclusion of the latter interactions generalize results we previously reported. The methods are applied to air pollution and health data collected on children with asthma. The new methods allow for the examination of how the relationship between health outcome leukotriene E4 (LTE4, a biomarker of inflammation) and two unobservable pollutant exposures and their interaction are modified by the presence or absence of upper respiratory infections. The pollutant variables include secondhand smoke and ambient (outdoor) fine particulate matter. Simulations verify the accuracy of the proposed methods under various conditions. PMID:26640396</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJWC.11923005S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJWC.11923005S"><span>The System of the <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> for Visibility Measurement <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Under the Atmospheric Aerosol Simulation Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shu, Zhifeng; Yang, ShaoChen; Xu, Wenjing</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Visibility is one of the most important parameters for meteorological observation and numerical weather prediction (NWP).It is also an important factor in everyday life, mainly for surface and air traffic especially in the Aeronautical Meteorology. The visibility decides the taking off and landing of aircraft. If the airport visibility is lower than requirement for aircraft taking off stipulated by International Civil Aviation Administration, then the aircraft must be parked at the airport. So the accurate measurement of visibility is very important. Nowadays, many devices can be measured the visibility or meteorological optical range (MOR) such as Scatterometers, Transmissometers and visibility lidar. But there is not effective way to verify the accuracy of these devices expect the artificial visual method. We have developed a visibility testing system that can be <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and verification these devices. The system consists of laser transmitter, optical chopper, phase-locking amplifier, the moving optic receiving system, signal detection and data acquisition system, atmospheric aerosol simulation chamber. All of them were placed in the atmosphere aerosol simulation chamber with uniform aerosol concentration. The Continuous wave laser, wavelength 550nm, has been transmitted into the collimation system then the laser beam expanded into 40mm diameter for compressing the laser divergence angle before modulated by optical chopper. The expanding beam transmitting in the atmosphere aerosol cabin received by the optic receiving system moving in the 50m length precision guide with 100mm optical aperture. The data of laser signal has been acquired by phase-locking amplifier every 5 meter range. So the 10 data points can be detected in the 50 meters guide once. The slope of the fitting curve can be obtained by linear fitting these data using the least square method. The laser extinction coefficient was calculated from the slope using the Koschmieder formula, then it been</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PASP..124.1295N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PASP..124.1295N"><span>Lifetime and Failure Characteristics of Pt/Ne Hollow Cathode Lamps Used as <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Sources for UV Space <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nave, Gillian; Sansonetti, Craig J.; Penton, Steven V.; Cunningham, Nathaniel; Beasley, Matthew; Osterman, Steven; Kerber, Florian; (Tony Keyes, Charles D.; Rosa, Michael R.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We report accelerated aging tests on three Pt/Ne lamps from the same manufacturing run as lamps installed on the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS). One lamp was aged in air at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) at a current of 10 mA and 50% duty cycle (30 s on, 30 s off) until failure. Two other lamps were aged by the COS <span class="hlt">instrument</span> development team in a vacuum chamber. Initial radiometrically <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> spectra were taken of all three lamps at NIST. <span class="hlt">Calibrated</span> spectra of the air-aged lamp were taken after 206, 500, 778, 783 and 897 hr of operation. Spectra of the vacuum-aged lamps were taken after 500 hr for both lamps, and after 1000 hr for one of the lamps. During vacuum aging, the lamp voltage, photometric stability and temperature were monitored. All three lamps lasted for over 900 hr (100,000 cycles) when run at 10 mA, sufficient for 10–12 years of operation on COS. The total output dropped by less than 15% over 500 hr, with short-term repeatability within a few percent. We recommend that future space operation of these lamps include the lamp voltage in the telemetry as a diagnostic for the lamp aging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70189061','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70189061"><span>The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) imaging spectrometerfor lunar science: <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> description, <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, on‐orbit measurements, science data <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and on‐orbit validation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>C. Pieters,; P. Mouroulis,; M. Eastwood,; J. Boardman,; Green, R.O.; Glavich, T.; Isaacson, P.; Annadurai, M.; Besse, S.; Cate, D.; Chatterjee, A.; Clark, R.; Barr, D.; Cheek, L.; Combe, J.; Dhingra, D.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Goswami, J.N.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Head, J.; Hovland, L.; Hyman, S.; Klima, R.; Koch, T.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, A.S.K.; Lee, K.; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; McLaughlin, S.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Rodriguez, J.; Runyon, C.; Sellar, G.; Smith, C.; Sobel, H.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Thaisen, K.; Tompkins, S.; Tseng, H.; Vane, G.; Varanasi, P.; White, M.; Wilson, D.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Discovery Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was selected to pursue a wide range of science objectives requiring measurement of composition at fine spatial scales over the full lunar surface. To pursue these objectives, a broad spectral range imaging spectrometer with high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio capable of measuring compositionally diagnostic spectral absorption features from a wide variety of known and possible lunar materials was required. For this purpose the Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was designed and developed that measures the spectral range from 430 to 3000 nm with 10 nm spectral sampling through a 24 degree field of view with 0.7 milliradian spatial sampling. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> has a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 400 for the specified equatorial reference radiance and greater than 100 for the polar reference radiance. The spectral cross-track uniformity is >90% and spectral instantaneous field-of-view uniformity is >90%. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper was launched on Chandrayaan-1 on the 22nd of October. On the 18th of November 2008 the Moon Mineralogy Mapper was turned on and collected a first light data set within 24 h. During this early checkout period and throughout the mission the spacecraft thermal environment and orbital parameters varied more than expected and placed operational and data quality constraints on the measurements. On the 29th of August 2009, spacecraft communication was lost. Over the course of the flight mission 1542 downlinked data sets were acquired that provide coverage of more than 95% of the lunar surface. An end-to-end science data <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system was developed and all measurements have been passed through this system and delivered to the Planetary Data System (PDS.NASA.GOV). An extensive effort has been undertaken by the science team to validate the Moon Mineralogy Mapper science measurements in the context of the mission objectives. A focused spectral, radiometric</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036293','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036293"><span>The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) imaging spectrometer for lunar science: <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> description, <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, on-orbit measurements, science data <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and on-orbit validation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Green, R.O.; Pieters, C.; Mouroulis, P.; Eastwood, M.; Boardman, J.; Glavich, T.; Isaacson, P.; Annadurai, M.; Besse, S.; Barr, D.; Buratti, B.; Cate, D.; Chatterjee, A.; Clark, R.; Cheek, L.; Combe, J.; Dhingra, D.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Goswami, J.N.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Head, J.; Hovland, L.; Hyman, S.; Klima, R.; Koch, T.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, A.S.K.; Lee, Kenneth; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; McLaughlin, S.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Rodriquez, J.; Runyon, C.; Sellar, G.; Smith, C.; Sobel, H.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Thaisen, K.; Tompkins, S.; Tseng, H.; Vane, G.; Varanasi, P.; White, M.; Wilson, D.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Discovery Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was selected to pursue a wide range of science objectives requiring measurement of composition at fine spatial scales over the full lunar surface. To pursue these objectives, a broad spectral range imaging spectrometer with high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio capable of measuring compositionally diagnostic spectral absorption features from a wide variety of known and possible lunar materials was required. For this purpose the Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was designed and developed that measures the spectral range from 430 to 3000 nm with 10 nm spectral sampling through a 24 degree field of view with 0.7 milliradian spatial sampling. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> has a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 400 for the specified equatorial reference radiance and greater than 100 for the polar reference radiance. The spectral cross-track uniformity is >90% and spectral instantaneous field-of-view uniformity is >90%. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper was launched on Chandrayaan-1 on the 22nd of October. On the 18th of November 2008 the Moon Mineralogy Mapper was turned on and collected a first light data set within 24 h. During this early checkout period and throughout the mission the spacecraft thermal environment and orbital parameters varied more than expected and placed operational and data quality constraints on the measurements. On the 29th of August 2009, spacecraft communication was lost. Over the course of the flight mission 1542 downlinked data sets were acquired that provide coverage of more than 95% of the lunar surface. An end-to-end science data <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system was developed and all measurements have been passed through this system and delivered to the Planetary Data System (PDS.NASA.GOV). An extensive effort has been undertaken by the science team to validate the Moon Mineralogy Mapper science measurements in the context of the mission objectives. A focused spectral, radiometric</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3274180','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3274180"><span>Design and <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> of a Measurement and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> System for an Acoustic Telemetry System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark; Carlson, Thomas; Eppard, M. Brad</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) is an active sensing technology developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, for detecting and tracking small fish. It is used primarily for evaluating behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System to the Pacific Ocean. It provides critical data for salmon protection and development of more “fish-friendly” hydroelectric facilities. The objective of this study was to design and build a Measurement and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> System (MCS) for evaluating the JSATS components, because the JSATS requires comprehensive acceptance and performance testing in a controlled environment before it is deployed in the field. The MCS consists of a reference transducer, a water test tank lined with anechoic material, a motion control unit, a reference receiver, a signal conditioner and amplifier unit, a data acquisition board, MATLAB control and analysis interface, and a computer. The fully integrated MCS has been evaluated successfully at various simulated distances and using different encoded signals at frequencies within the bandwidth of the JSATS transmitter. The MCS provides accurate acoustic mapping capability in a controlled environment and automates the process that allows real-time measurements and evaluation of the piezoelectric transducers, sensors, or the acoustic fields. The MCS has been in use since 2009 for acceptance and performance testing of, and further improvements to, the JSATS. PMID:22319288</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22319288','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22319288"><span>Design and <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> of a measurement and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system for an acoustic telemetry system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark; Carlson, Thomas; Eppard, M Brad</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) is an active sensing technology developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, for detecting and tracking small fish. It is used primarily for evaluating behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System to the Pacific Ocean. It provides critical data for salmon protection and development of more "fish-friendly" hydroelectric facilities. The objective of this study was to design and build a Measurement and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> System (MCS) for evaluating the JSATS components, because the JSATS requires comprehensive acceptance and performance testing in a controlled environment before it is deployed in the field. The MCS consists of a reference transducer, a water test tank lined with anechoic material, a motion control unit, a reference receiver, a signal conditioner and amplifier unit, a data acquisition board, MATLAB control and analysis interface, and a computer. The fully integrated MCS has been evaluated successfully at various simulated distances and using different encoded signals at frequencies within the bandwidth of the JSATS transmitter. The MCS provides accurate acoustic mapping capability in a controlled environment and automates the process that allows real-time measurements and evaluation of the piezoelectric transducers, sensors, or the acoustic fields. The MCS has been in use since 2009 for acceptance and performance testing of, and further improvements to, the JSATS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20864314','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20864314"><span>Construction and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of an <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for three-dimensional ion imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Koszinowski, Konrad; Goldberg, Noah T.; Pomerantz, Andrew E.; Zare, Richard N.</p> <p>2006-10-07</p> <p>We describe a new <span class="hlt">instrument</span> based on a delay-line detector for imaging the complete three-dimensional velocity distribution of photoionized products from photoinitiated reactions. Doppler-free [2+1] resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) of H and D atoms formed upon photolysis of HBr and DBr in the range 203 nm{<=}{lambda}{sub photolysis}{<=}243 nm yields radial speeds measured to be accurate within 1% of those calculated. The relative speed resolution is about 5% and limited by photoionization recoil broadening. A relative speed resolution of 3.4% is obtained for [3+1] REMPI, which minimizes the ionization recoil. We also determine the branching ratio between ground-state and spin-orbit-excited product channels and their associated anisotropies. We find that DBr photolysis dynamics differs slightly from its HBr counterpart.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/909851','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/909851"><span>On-Line Self-<span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kristie Cooper; Anbo Wang</p> <p>2007-03-31</p> <p>This report summarizes technical progress October 2006 - March 2007 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-<span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. During the second phase, an alternative high temperature sensing system based on Fabry-Perot interferometry was developed that offers a number of advantages over the BPDI solution. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. The sapphire wafer-based interferometric sensing system that was installed at TECO's Polk Power Station remained in operation for seven months. Our efforts have been focused on monitoring and analyzing the real-time data collected, and preparing for a second field test.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/840478','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/840478"><span>ON-LINE SELF-<span class="hlt">CALIBRATING</span> SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR <span class="hlt">INSTRUMENTATION</span> FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang; Yizheng Zhu</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>This report summarizes technical progress October 2004-March 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-<span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/822308','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/822308"><span>ON-LINE SELF-<span class="hlt">CALIBRATING</span> SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR <span class="hlt">INSTRUMENTATION</span> FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang</p> <p>2003-11-01</p> <p>This report summarizes technical progress over the second six month period of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-<span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on evaluating corrosion effects in single crystal sapphire at temperatures up to 1400 C, and designing the sensor mechanical packaging with input from Wabash River Power Plant. Upcoming meetings will establish details for the gasifier field test.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/820870','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/820870"><span>ON-LINE SELF-<span class="hlt">CALIBRATING</span> SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR <span class="hlt">INSTRUMENTATION</span> FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>This report summarizes technical progress over the first six months of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-<span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on analyzing and testing factors that impact performance degradation of the initially designed sensor prototype, including sensing element movement within the sensing probe and optical signal quality degradation. Based these results, a new version of the sensing system was designed by combining the sapphire disk sensing element and the single crystal zirconia right angle light reflector into one novel single crystal sapphire right angle prism. The new sensor prototype was tested up to 1650 C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/825291','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/825291"><span>ON-LINE SELF-<span class="hlt">CALIBRATING</span> SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR <span class="hlt">INSTRUMENTATION</span> FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang</p> <p>2004-04-01</p> <p>This report summarizes technical progress over the third six month period of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-<span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on sensor probe design and machining, sensor electronics design, software algorithm design, sensor field installation procedures, and sensor remote data access and control. Field testing will begin in the next several weeks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/860180','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/860180"><span>On-Line Self-<span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>This report summarizes technical progress April-September 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-<span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report. The sensing system will be installed and tested at TECO's Polk Power Station. Following a site visit in June 2005, our efforts have been focused on preparing for that field test, including he design of the sensor mechanical packaging, sensor electronics, the data transfer module, and the necessary software codes to accommodate this application.. We are currently ready to start sensor fabrication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050180314','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050180314"><span>The <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Characterization of Earth Remote Sensing and Environmental Monitoring <span class="hlt">Instruments</span>. Chapter 10</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Butler, James J.; Johnson, B. Carol; Barnes, Robert A.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The use of remote sensing <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on orbiting satellite platforms in the study of Earth Science and environmental monitoring was officially inaugurated with the April 1, 1960 launch of the Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) [1]. The first TIROS accommodated two television cameras and operated for only 78 days. However, the TIROS program, in providing in excess of 22,000 pictures of the Earth, achieved its primary goal of providing Earth images from a satellite platform to aid in identifying and monitoring meteorological processes. This marked the beginning of what is now over four decades of Earth observations from satellite platforms. reflected and emitted radiation from the Earth using <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on satellite platforms. These measurements are input to climate models, and the model results are analyzed in an effort to detect short and long-term changes and trends in the Earth's climate and environment, to identify the cause of those changes, and to predict or influence future changes. Examples of short-term climate change events include the periodic appearance of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the tropical Pacific Ocean [2] and the spectacular eruption of Mount Pinatubo on the Philippine island of Luzon in 1991. Examples of long term climate change events, which are more subtle to detect, include the destruction of coral reefs, the disappearance of glaciers, and global warming. Climatic variability can be both large and small scale and can be caused by natural or anthropogenic processes. The periodic El Nino event is an example of a natural process which induces significant climatic variability over a wide range of the Earth. A classic example of a large scale anthropogenic influence on climate is the well-documented rapid increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide occurring since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution [3]. An example of the study of a small-scale anthropogenic influence in climate variability is the Atlanta Land</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7821E..25I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7821E..25I"><span>High accuracy laser based machine vision for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of linear encoders and dial <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iordache, Iuliana; Schiopu, Paul; Apostol, Dan; Damian, Victor</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>A laser interferometer, a vision system, and 1-D precision translation stage are used to develop a high precision measuring station with a working range of 12 mm. The object inspected by the laser-and-vision system is moved using a linear translation stage (LUMINOS INDUSTRIES I1000 - 1-Axis Stage) so that the camera can take images of the feature points of the object at two (or more) different positions. Meanwhile, the displacement of the table is measured using a laser interferometer. Putting these two feature points successively in focus the distance between them can be evaluated and adding the displacement measured by the laser interferometer, the real distance between these two feature points is obtained. The developed 1-D laser-and-vision measuring system is used to measure the geometric size (pitch) of grating type linear encoders or industrial line scales. Software counts automatically the number of lines and the laser interferometer produces the corresponding length. For dial <span class="hlt">instruments</span> the vision machine observes the coincidence of the moving needle with divisions representing (sub) units of length. The displacements measured by laser interferometer are compared with dial indicator and the measuring errors are observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030032364','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030032364"><span>The Use of Transfer Radiometers in Validating the Visible through Shortwave Infrared <span class="hlt">Calibrations</span> of Radiance Sources Used by <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> in NASA's Earth Observing System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Butler, James J.; Barnes, Robert A.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The detection and study of climate change over a time frame of decades requires successive generations of satellite, airborne, and ground-based <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> carefully <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> against a common radiance scale. In NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS) program, the pre-launch radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of these <span class="hlt">instruments</span> in the wavelength region from 400 nm to 2500 nm is accomplished using internally illuminated integrating spheres and diffuse reflectance panels illuminated by irradiance standard lamps. Since 1995, the EOS <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Program operating within the EOS Project Science Office (PSO) has enlisted the expertise of national standards laboratories and government and university metrology laboratories in an effort to validate the radiance scales assigned to sphere and panel radiance sources by EOS <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> facilities. This state-of-the-art program has been accomplished using ultra-stable transfer radiometers independently <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> by the above participating institutions. In ten comparisons since February 1995, the agreement between the radiance measurements of the transfer radiometers is plus or minus 1.80% at 411 nm, plus or minus 1.31% at 552.5 nm, plus or minus 1.32% at 868.0 nm, plus or minus 2.54% at 1622nm, and plus or minus 2.81% at 2200nm (sigma =1).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A31F..03W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A31F..03W"><span>Pressure and temperature dependence of OH and HO2 detection sensitivities for an LIF based FAGE <span class="hlt">instrument</span> - a comparison of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> methods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Winiberg, F.; Bejan, I.; Brumby, C.; Farrugia, L. N.; Malkin, T. L.; Smith, S. C.; Orr, S. C.; Heard, D. E.; Seakins, P. W.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Instruments</span> based on the Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) of OH radicals have been widely applied to fieldwork measurements - on the ground and in aircraft - as well as in atmospheric simulation chambers. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure concentrations of HOx worldwide have traditionally relied on a single method of generating known concentrations of HOx from H2O vapour photolysis in a turbulent flow tube impinging just outside the sample inlet. The FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gaseous Expansion) apparatus designed for HOx measurements in the Highly <span class="hlt">Instrumented</span> Reactor for Atmospheric Chemistry (HIRAC) has been <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> using the conventional method over a range of internal cell pressures (1.8 - 3.8 mbar) and external cell temperatures (270 - 340 K). Two alternative <span class="hlt">calibration</span> techniques for OH and HO2 were developed using the HIRAC chamber over the same pressure and temperature range to verify the observations. The alternative methods, agreement and disagreement with the conventional <span class="hlt">calibration</span> methods will be discussed. The outcome of these studies will enable future operation of the FAGE <span class="hlt">instrument</span> in the HIRAC chamber away from STP conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ATsir1635....1M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ATsir1635....1M"><span>Mars Albedo Measurement in the Near IR Range for Additional <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the TIRVIM <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> of the ExoMars-2016 Mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maslov, I. A.; Shenavrin, V. I.; Grigoriev, A. V.; Moshkin, B. E.; Shakun, A. V.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Results of ground-based measurements of the Mars albedo in the spectral range 1-5 μm, which were held in the days close to the session of measurements from the Mars orbit by the Russian device TIRVIM, are presented. The obtained data can be used to refine the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM41A2470G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM41A2470G"><span>Design, <span class="hlt">Calibration</span>, and Expected On-Orbit Performance of the GOES-R MPS-LO Suprathermal Plasma Analyzer <span class="hlt">Instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Golightly, M. J.; McGarity, J. O.; Dichter, B. K.; Galica, G. E.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The next generation U.S. geosynchronous weather satellite—GOES series R-U—will include for the first time a suprathermal plasma analyzer. The Magnetospheric Particle Sensor-Low (MPS-LO), an electrostatic analyzer utilizing triquadrispheric geometry (270° turn)deflection electrodes, will measure the flux of electrons and ions with energies between 30 eV - 30 keV in fifteen logarithmically-spaced differential energy channels and arrival direction in twelve angular bins. MPS-LO consists of two sensor heads mounted in a common electronics box. Each sensor head contains a set of deflection electrodes, microchannel plates, and segmented detector anodes. The common electronics box provides the power and I/O interface with a data processing unit, voltage supplies for all of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>'s electronics, high voltage for the deflection electrodes, in-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span> pulsers, and the digital electronics to process signals from sensor heads' detector anodes. Great care was taken in the manufacture and mounting of the triquadrisphere deflection electrodes; each electrode was machined from a single piece of aluminum and specific electrode combinations were mounted with precision machined spacers and matched drilling. The precise fabrication and assembly resulted in near perfect spherical electric fields between the electrodes. The triquadrispheric electrode shape also prevents photons from reaching the detection elements-as a result, MPS-LO is solar blind. The combined field-of-view for the two sensor heads is 180° x 5°, with the larger angle in a plane perpendicular to the spacecraft's orbit and its central axis oriented anti-Earthward. An incident particle's arrival direction is determined in one of twelve 15° x 5° angular zones. A set of shielded anodes is used to measure the background caused by penetrating charged particles that reach the MCPs; this background data is used to correct the MPS-LO data. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span>'s energy resolution ΔE/E is 5.8%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011HEAD...12.3609P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011HEAD...12.3609P"><span>Cross-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> Of The X-ray <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> Onboard The Chandra, Suzaku, Swift, And XMM-Newton Observatories Using 1E 0102.2-7219</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Plucinsky, Paul P.; Beardmore, A. P.; DePasquale, J. M.; Dewey, D.; Foster, A. R.; Haberl, F.; Miller, E.; Pollock, A. M. T.; Sembay, S.; Smith, R. K.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the spectral response of CCD <span class="hlt">instruments</span> below 1.5 keV is difficult in general because of the lack of strong lines in the on-board <span class="hlt">calibration</span> sources. This <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is also a function of time due to the effects of radiation damage on the CCDs and/or the accumulation of a contamination layer on the filters or CCDs. We desire a simple comparison of the absolute effective areas of the current generation of CCD <span class="hlt">instruments</span> in the 0.5-1.0 keV range, specifically: Chandra ACIS, XMM-Newton EPIC (MOS and pn), Suzaku XIS, and Swift XRT. We have been using 1E 0102.2-7219 (hereafter E0102) since it has strong lines of O, Ne, and Mg below 1.5 keV and little or no Fe emission. The spectrum of E0102 has been well-characterized using the RGS grating <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on XMM-Newton and the HETG grating <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on Chandra. We have developed an empirical model for E0102 that includes Gaussians for the identified lines, two absorption components (one for the Galaxy and one for the SMC), and two continuum components with different temperatures. In our fits, the model is highly constrained in that only the normalizations of the four brightest line complexes (the O VII triplet, the O VIII Ly-α line, the Ne IX triplet, and the Ne X Ly-α line) and an overall normalization are allowed to vary. In our previous study in 2008, we found that most of the fitted line normalizations agreed to within +/- 10% (28 of 32 line normalizations). We have now expanded this study to include more recent data from these missions using the latest <span class="hlt">calibration</span> updates and we will report on the current level of agreement amongst these <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. This work is based on the activities of the International Astronomical Consortium for High Energy <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> (IACHEC).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992AAS...181.4601M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992AAS...181.4601M"><span>Data Types, <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Techniques, and Analysis Tools for the Compton Observatory OSSE <span class="hlt">Instrument</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Messina, D. C.; Cameron, R. A.; Johnson, W. N.; Kroeger, R. A.; Kurfess, J. D.; Strickman, M. S.; Starr, C. H.; Grabelsky, D. A.; Matz, S. M.; Purcell, W. R.; Ulmer, M. P.</p> <p>1992-12-01</p> <p>The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) is one of four <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on board NASA's Arthur Holly Compton Observatory. The OSSE <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, developed at the Naval Research Laboratory, consists of 4 large, actively-shielded NaI(Tl)--CsI(Na) phoswich detectors each capable of independent orientations. Each detector has a 3.8deg times 11.4deg (FWHM) field of view defined by a passive tungsten collimator. OSSE measures gamma-ray line and continuum spectra in the 0.05 -- 10 MeV energy range, with timing resolution of up to 125 mu sec for variable sources. A summary of the various OSSE data acquisition modes and data product types will be presented. Data analysis techniques will be described, together with examples of such techniques using data <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and analysis tools in the IGORE (Interactive GRO/OSSE <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Environment) software package that have been developed for the processing and analysis of OSSE data. IGORE runs on a VAX/VMS system in an IDL environment. Viewing support and observation planning tools will also be described as well as related <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and spacecraft observation constraints. OSSE data products and the IGORE analysis software package will be archived at the Compton Observatory Science Support Center (COSSC) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. The availability of data products and procedures for their access at the COSSC and NRL will be presented. The COSSC facilities can be utilized locally at GSFC or remotely over the Internet and SPAN/DECnet computer networks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3652901','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3652901"><span>The Household Risk Perception <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> and the Self-Efficacy in Environmental Risk <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> <span class="hlt">Instrument</span>: psychometric testing using principal component analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Oneal, Gail; Odom-Maryon, Tamara; Postma, Julie; Hill, Wade; Butterfield, Patricia</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Aim This paper is a report of psychometric testing of the Household Risk Perception and Self-Efficacy in Environmental Risk <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> using principle components analysis. Background There are limited <span class="hlt">instruments</span> available to test household risk perception and self-efficacy related to environmental health behaviors. The Household Risk Perception <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> was developed to measure personal perceptions of household environmental health risks. The Self-Efficacy in Environmental Risk <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> was designed to measure caregivers’ confidence in taking steps to reduce household risks. Method Baseline data from 235 caregivers enrolled in a randomized clinical trial testing a healthy housing intervention were collected between 2006 and 2009. Principal components analysis was used to determine principal components from measured responses to each <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Results Components were explored and compared to constructs used to design the original <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. A five component structure showed the simplest solution and explained 65% of variance in the Household Risk Perception analysis. Cronbach’s alpha values indicated satisfactory internal consistency for four of five identified components. Risk perception varied according to available sensory input of the specific risk. A four component structure explained 64% of the variance in the Self-Efficacy in Environmental Risk <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> analysis. Cronbach’s alpha values were satisfactory. Items mapped to steps in an action-oriented process versus agent-specific actions. Results from both analyses suggest that Environmental Tobacco Smoke is perceived differently than other household risks. Conclusion Previously, both <span class="hlt">instruments</span> relied on item reliability and content validity testing. This study provides a basis for further <span class="hlt">instrument</span> revision and theoretical testing. PMID:23294314</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27250376','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27250376"><span>High precision tilt stage as a key element to a universal test mirror for characterization and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of slope measuring <span class="hlt">instruments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yashchuk, Valeriy V; Artemiev, Nikolay A; Centers, Gary; Chaubard, Arthur; Geckeler, Ralf D; Lacey, Ian; Marth, Harry; McKinney, Wayne R; Noll, Tino; Siewert, Frank; Winter, Mathias; Zeschke, Thomas</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The ultimate performance of surface slope metrology <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>, such as long trace profilers and auto-collimator based deflectometers, is limited by systematic errors that are increased when the entire angular range is used for metrology of significantly curved optics. At the ALS X-Ray Optics Laboratory, in collaboration with the HZB/BESSY-II and PTB (Germany) metrology teams, we are working on a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method for deflectometers, based on a concept of a universal test mirror (UTM) [V. V. Yashchuk et al., Proc. SPIE 6704, 67040A (2007)]. Potentially, the UTM method provides high performance <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and accounts for peculiarities of the optics under test (e.g., slope distribution) and the experimental arrangement (e.g., the distance between the sensor and the optic under test). At the same time, the UTM <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method is inherently universal, applicable to a variety of optics and experimental arrangements. In this work, we present the results of tests with a key component of the UTM system, a custom high precision tilt stage, which has been recently developed in collaboration with Physik <span class="hlt">Instrumente</span>, GmbH. The tests have demonstrated high performance of the stage and its capability (after additional <span class="hlt">calibration</span>) to provide angular <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of surface slope measuring profilers over the entire <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> dynamic range with absolute accuracy better than 30 nrad. The details of the stage design and tests are presented. We also discuss the foundation of the UTM method and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> algorithm, as well as the possible design of a full scale UTM system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19710000512','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19710000512"><span>Anemometer <span class="hlt">calibrator</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bate, T.; Calkins, D. E.; Price, P.; Veikins, O.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Calibrator</span> generates accurate flow velocities over wide range of gas pressure, temperature, and composition. Both pressure and flow velocity can be maintained within 0.25 percent. <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> is essentially closed loop hydraulic system containing positive displacement drive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28843552','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28843552"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> transfer of a Raman spectroscopic quantification method for the assessment of liquid detergent compositions between two at-line <span class="hlt">instruments</span> installed at two liquid detergent production plants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brouckaert, D; Uyttersprot, J-S; Broeckx, W; De Beer, T</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> transfer of partial least squares (PLS) quantification models is established between two Raman spectrometers located at two liquid detergent production plants. As full recalibration of existing <span class="hlt">calibration</span> models is time-consuming, labour-intensive and costly, it is investigated whether the use of mathematical correction methods requiring only a handful of standardization samples can overcome the dissimilarities in spectral response observed between both measurement systems. Univariate and multivariate standardization approaches are investigated, ranging from simple slope/bias correction (SBC), local centring (LC) and single wavelength standardization (SWS) to more complex direct standardization (DS) and piecewise direct standardization (PDS). The results of these five <span class="hlt">calibration</span> transfer methods are compared reciprocally, as well as with regard to a full recalibration. Four PLS quantification models, each predicting the concentration of one of the four main ingredients in the studied liquid detergent composition, are aimed at transferring. Accuracy profiles are established from the original and transferred quantification models for validation purposes. A reliable representation of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> models performance before and after transfer is thus established, based on β-expectation tolerance intervals. For each transferred model, it is investigated whether every future measurement that will be performed in routine will be close enough to the unknown true value of the sample. From this validation, it is concluded that <span class="hlt">instrument</span> standardization is successful for three out of four investigated <span class="hlt">calibration</span> models using multivariate (DS and PDS) transfer approaches. The fourth transferred PLS model could not be validated over the investigated concentration range, due to a lack of precision of the slave <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Comparing these transfer results to a full recalibration on the slave <span class="hlt">instrument</span> allows comparison of the predictive power of both Raman</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780008034','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780008034"><span>Viking lander camera radiometry <span class="hlt">calibration</span> report, volume 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wolf, M. R.; Atwood, D. L.; Morrill, M. E.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The test methods and data <span class="hlt">reduction</span> techniques used to determine and remove <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> signatures from Viking Lander camera radiometry data are described. Gain, offset, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> constants are presented in tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010084972','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010084972"><span>On-Orbit <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of Redundant Spacecraft Gyros by Optimal <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> to Three Axes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Radomski, M. S.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The Aqua spacecraft will carry four single-axis gyros configured with three orthogonal axes and one skew axis. This redundancy presents a challenge for batch methods of on-orbit gyro <span class="hlt">calibration</span> that use a spacecraft rotation model deterministically related to gyro data, in that sensor data can respond to at most three angular velocity components. When the number of gyros, N, is greater than 3, the 3xN matrix, G, that reduces the N gyro measurements to three body-frame angular-velocity components cannot be fully determined by such methods; there are many such matrices that produce essentially the same angular velocity history. In such a case, spacecraft operators require information about the Nx3 gyro linear response matrix, R, that relates gyro outputs to the body-frame angular velocities causing them. This matrix provides sufficient information to determine multiple reduced-dimension G-matrices for use in case of failure or degradation of one or more gyros, as well as to determine an optimal 3xN G for the fully-functional configuration. A viable proposal is to apply a 3xN pre-filter matrix, F, to the N gyro outputs before carrying out a conventional gyro <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedure. The angular-velocity history emerging from conventional <span class="hlt">calibration</span> may then be used as input data, together with the same gyro data that generated it, to fit the alignment, scale-factor, and bias parameters of each gyro axis in turn. A difficulty of such a proposal is the arbitrariness in the choice of F. Due to gyro noise, different pre-filter matrices produce different <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. This paper presents a method of choosing F that is based on optimizing gyro consistency in the limit of infinite weight on gyro data, as compared to sensor data. The choice of F is independent of a priori alignment and is based on the gyro data alone. The method is applicable to any N of three or more, but reduces to conventional batch-estimation methodologies when N = 3. Results of computational comparison</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017sgvi.confE..36R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017sgvi.confE..36R"><span>GPI <span class="hlt">Calibrations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>"The Gemini Planet Imager requires a large set of <span class="hlt">Calibrations</span>. These can be split into two major sets, one set associated with each observation and one set related to biweekly <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. The observation set is to optimize the correction of miscroshifts in the IFU spectra and the latter set is for correction of detector and <span class="hlt">instrument</span> cosmetics."</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160003503','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160003503"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the Fluorine, Chlorine and Hydrogen Content of Apatites With the ChemCam LIBS <span class="hlt">Instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Meslin, P.-Y.; Cicutto, L.; Forni, O.; Drouet, C.; Rapin, W.; Nachon, M.; Cousin, A.; Blank, J. G.; McCubbin, F. M.; Gasnault, O.; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20160003503'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20160003503_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20160003503_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20160003503_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20160003503_hide"></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Determining the composition of apatites is important to understand the behavior of volatiles during planetary differentiation. Apatite is an ubiquitous magmatic mineral in the SNC meteorites. It is a significant reservoir of halogens in these meteorites and has been used to estimate the halogen budget of Mars. Apatites have been identified in sandstones and pebbles at Gale crater by ChemCam, a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscometer (LIBS) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> onboard the Curiosity rover. Their presence was inferred from correlations between calcium, fluorine (using the CaF molecular band centered near 603 nm, whose detection limit is much lower that atomic or ionic lines and, in some cases, phosphorus (whose detection limit is much larger). An initial quantification of fluorine, based on fluorite (CaF2)/basalt mixtures and obtained at the LANL laboratory, indicated that the excess of F/Ca (compared to the stoichiometry of pure fluorapatites) found on Mars in some cases could be explained by the presence of fluorite. Chlorine was not detected in these targets, at least above a detection limit of 0.6 wt% estimated from. Fluorapatite was later also detected by X-ray diffraction (with CheMin) at a level of approx.1wt% in the Windjana drill sample (Kimberley area), and several points analyzed by ChemCam in this area also revealed a correlation between Ca and F. The in situ detection of F-rich, Cl-poor apatites contrasts with the Cl-rich, F-poor compositions of apatites found in basaltic shergottites and in gabbroic clasts from the martian meteorite NWA 7034, which were also found to be more Cl-rich than apatites from basalts on Earth, the Moon, or Vesta. The in situ observations could call into question one of the few possible explanations brought forward to explain the SNC results, namely that Mars may be highly depleted in fluorine. The purpose of the present study is to refine the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the F, Cl, OH and P signals measured by the ChemCam LIBS <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, initiated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ISSIR...7..117W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ISSIR...7..117W"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wurz, Peter; Balogh, Andre; Coffey, Victoria; Dichter, Bronislaw K.; Kasprzak, Wayne T.; Lazarus, Alan J.; Lennartsson, Walter; McFadden, James P.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and characterization of particle <span class="hlt">instruments</span> with supporting flight electronics is necessary for the correct interpretation of the returned data. Generally speaking, the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> will always return a measurement value (typically in form of a digital number), for example a count rate, for the measurement of an external quantity, which could be an ambient neutral gas density, an ion composition (species measured and amount), or electron density. The returned values are used then to derive parameters associated with the distribution such as temperature, bulk flow speed, differential energy flux and others. With the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> the direct relationship between the external quantity and the returned measurement value has to be established so that the data recorded during flight can be correctly interpreted. While <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and characterization of an <span class="hlt">instrument</span> are usually done in ground-based laboratories prior to integration of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> in the spacecraft, it can also be done in space.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5063016','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5063016"><span>Risk <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of Needle Stick Injuries Due to Continuous Shift from Unsafe to Safe <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> at a German University Hospital</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Frickmann, Hagen; Schmeja, Wibke; Reisinger, Emil; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Mitzner, Karen; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Warnke, Philipp; Podbielski, Andreas</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study assessed protective effects of a continuous introduction of safe <span class="hlt">instruments</span> in terms of <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of needle stick injuries. The retrospective study analyzed correlations between the increasing proportion of safe <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and a <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of the incidence of needle stick injuries linked to such <span class="hlt">instruments</span> in a German university hospital over 5 years. Incidents declined about 17.6% from 80.3 incidents per 1000 employees to 66.2, associated with an increase in the proportions of injuries due to <span class="hlt">instruments</span> without protective mechanisms such as scalpels or hypodermic needles by 12.2%. For injuries due to venipuncture cannulae in various surgical and internal medicine departments, there was a negative association between the proportion of safe <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and the incidence of injuries. For injection needles, portacath needles, and lancets in selected internal medicine departments, the number of injuries also dropped during this study interval. However, there was no clear-cut association with the percentage of safe <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. This observational study suggests a correlation between the implementation of use of safe <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of needle stick injuries in a case of a graduated implementation. However, the effects are much less pronounced than in previous interventional studies. PMID:27766172</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JMM%26M..16b4003D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JMM%26M..16b4003D"><span>Multiple-<span class="hlt">instrument</span> evaluation of the consistency and long-term stability of tip width <span class="hlt">calibration</span> for critical dimension atomic force microscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dixson, Ronald G.; Orji, Ndubuisi G.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Since 2004, standards for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of critical dimension atomic force microscope (CD-AFM) tip width have been available both commercially and through the National Metrology Institutes, such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology in the United States. There have been interlaboratory and intermethod comparisons performed on such samples, but less attention has been paid to the long-term stability of standards and monitoring for damage, wear, or contamination. Using three different CD-AFM <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, we have tested the consistency and long-term stability of two independent reference <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> for CD-AFM tip width. Both of these tip width <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> were based on independently implemented transmission electron microscope reference measurements. There were circumstances in which damage occurred or samples needed to be cleaned. Nevertheless, our results show agreement within the uncertainties and stability over a period exceeding 10 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013HEAD...1312321P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013HEAD...1312321P"><span>Cross-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> Onboard the Chandra, Suzaku, Swift, and XMM-Newton Observatories Using 1E 0102.2-7219: An IACHEC Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Plucinsky, Paul P.; Beardmore, A. P.; DePasquale, J. M.; Dewey, D.; Foster, A.; Haberl, F.; Miller, E. D.; Pollock, A.; Posson-Brown, J.; Sembay, S.; Smith, R. K.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>We report on our continuing efforts to compare the time-dependent <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of the current generation of CCD <span class="hlt">instruments</span> onboard the Chandra, Suzaku, Swift, and XMM-Newton observatories using the brightest supernova remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud, 1E0102.2-7219 (hereafter E0102). This <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is a function of time due to the effects of radiation damage on the CCDs and the accumulation of a contamination layer on the filters or CCDs. We desire a simple comparison of the absolute effective areas in the 0.5-1.0 keV bandpass. The spectrum of E0102 has been well-characterized using the RGS grating <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on XMM-Newton and the HETG grating <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on Chandra. We have developed an empirical model for E0102 that includes Gaussians for the identified lines, two absorption components, and two continuum components with different temperatures. In our fits, the model is highly constrained in that only the normalizations of the four brightest line complexes (the O VII triplet, the O VIII Ly-alpha line, the Ne IX triplet, and the Ne X Ly-alpha line) and an overall normalization are allowed to vary. In our previous study, we found that based on observations early in the missions, most of the fitted line normalizations agreed to within +/- 10%. We have now expanded this study to include more recent data from these missions using the latest <span class="hlt">calibration</span> updates and we will report on the current level of agreement amongst these <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. This work is based on the activities of the International Astronomical Consortium for High Energy <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> (IACHEC).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HEAD...1511611P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HEAD...1511611P"><span>Cross-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the CCD <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> onboard the Chandra, Suzaku, Swift, and XMM-Newton Observatories using 1E 0102.2-7219</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Plucinsky, Paul P.; Beardmore, Andrew P.; Foster, Adam; Guainazzi, Matteo; Haberl, Frank; Miller, Eric; Pollock, Andrew; Sembay, Steve; Stuhlinger, Martin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We report on our continuing efforts to compare the time-dependent <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of the current generation of CCD <span class="hlt">instruments</span> onboard the Chandra, Suzaku, Swift, and XMM-Newton observatories using the brightest supernova remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud, 1E 0102.2-7219 (hereafter E0102). This <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is a function of time due to the effects of radiation damage on the CCDs and the accumulation of a contamination layer on the filters or CCDs. We desire a simple comparison of the absolute effective areas in the 0.5-1.0 keV bandpass. The spectrum of E0102 has been well-characterized using the RGS grating <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on XMM-Newton and the HETG grating <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on Chandra. We have developed an empirical model for E0102 that includes Gaussians for the identified lines, two absorption components, and two continuum components with different temperatures. In our fits, the model is highly constrained in that only the normalizations of the four brightest line complexes (the O VII triplet, the O VIII Ly-alpha line, the Ne IX triplet, and the Ne X Ly-alpha line) and an overall normalization are allowed to vary. In our previous study, we found that based on observations early in the missions, most of the fitted line normalizations agreed to within +/- 10%. We have now expanded this study to include more recent data from these missions using the latest <span class="hlt">calibration</span> updates and we will report on the current level of agreement amongst these <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. This work is based on the activities of the International Astronomical Consortium for High Energy <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> (IACHEC).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HEAD...1411608P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HEAD...1411608P"><span>Cross-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the X-ray <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> onboard the Chandra, Suzaku, Swift, & XMM-Newton Observatories using 1E 0102.2-7219</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Plucinsky, Paul P.; Beardmore, Andrew P; Dewey, Daniel; Foster, Adam; Haberl, Frank; Miller, Eric D.; Pollock, Andrew; Sembay, Steve; Smith, Randall K.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>We report on our continuing efforts to compare the time-dependent <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of the current generation of CCD <span class="hlt">instruments</span> onboard the Chandra, Suzaku, Swift, and XMM-Newton observatories using the brightest supernova remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud, 1E 0102.2-7219 (hereafter E0102). This <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is a function of time due to the effects of radiation damage on the CCDs and the accumulation of a contamination layer on the filters or CCDs. We desire a simple comparison of the absolute effective areas in the 0.5-1.0 keV bandpass. The spectrum of E0102 has been well-characterized using the RGS grating <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on XMM-Newton and the HETG grating <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on Chandra. We have developed an empirical model for E0102 that includes Gaussians for the identified lines, two absorption components, and two continuum components with different temperatures. In our fits, the model is highly constrained in that only the normalizations of the four brightest line complexes (the O VII triplet, the O VIII Ly-alpha line, the Ne IX triplet, and the Ne X Ly-alpha line) and an overall normalization are allowed to vary. In our previous study, we found that based on observations early in the missions, most of the fitted line normalizations agreed to within +/- 10%. We have now expanded this study to include more recent data from these missions using the latest <span class="hlt">calibration</span> updates and we will report on the current level of agreement amongst these <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. This work is based on the activities of the International Astronomical Consortium for High Energy <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> (IACHEC).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27798478','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27798478"><span>Use of Transportable Radiation Detection <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> to Assess Internal Contamination from Intakes of Radionuclides Part II: <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Factors and ICAT Computer Program.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anigstein, Robert; Olsher, Richard H; Loomis, Donald A; Ansari, Armin</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The detonation of a radiological dispersion device or other radiological incidents could result in widespread releases of radioactive materials and intakes of radionuclides by affected individuals. Transportable radiation monitoring <span class="hlt">instruments</span> could be used to measure radiation from gamma-emitting radionuclides in the body for triaging individuals and assigning priorities to their bioassay samples for in vitro assessments. The present study derived sets of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> factors for four <span class="hlt">instruments</span>: the Ludlum Model 44-2 gamma scintillator, a survey meter containing a 2.54 × 2.54-cm NaI(Tl) crystal; the Captus 3000 thyroid uptake probe, which contains a 5.08 × 5.08-cm NaI(Tl) crystal; the Transportable Portal Monitor Model TPM-903B, which contains two 3.81 × 7.62 × 182.9-cm polyvinyltoluene plastic scintillators; and a generic <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, such as an ionization chamber, that measures exposure rates. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> factors enable these <span class="hlt">instruments</span> to be used for assessing inhaled or ingested intakes of any of four radionuclides: Co, I, Cs, and Ir. The derivations used biokinetic models embodied in the DCAL computer software system developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNPX radiation transport code. The three physical <span class="hlt">instruments</span> were represented by MCNP models that were developed previously. The affected individuals comprised children of five ages who were represented by the revised Oak Ridge National Laboratory pediatric phantoms, and adult men and adult women represented by the Adult Reference Computational Phantoms described in Publication 110 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. These <span class="hlt">calibration</span> factors can be used to calculate intakes; the intakes can be converted to committed doses by the use of tabulated dose coefficients. These <span class="hlt">calibration</span> factors also constitute input data to the ICAT computer program, an interactive Microsoft Windows-based software package that estimates intakes of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23331179','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23331179"><span><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> in bacterial counts in infected root canals after rotary or hand nickel-titanium <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>--a clinical study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rôças, I N; Lima, K C; Siqueira, J F</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>To compare the antibacterial efficacy of two <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> techniques, one using hand nickel-titanium (NiTi) <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and the other using rotary NiTi <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, in root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis. Root canals from single-rooted teeth were <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> using either hand NiTi <span class="hlt">instruments</span> in the alternated rotation motion technique or rotary BioRaCe <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The irrigant used in both groups was 2.5% NaOCl. DNA extracts from samples taken before and after <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> were subjected to quantitative analysis by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Qualitative analysis was also performed using presence/absence data from culture and qPCR assays. Bacteria were detected in all S1 samples by both methods. In culture analysis, 45% and 35% of the canals were still positive for bacterial presence after hand and rotary NiTi <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>, respectively (P > 0.05). Rotary NiTi <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> resulted in significantly fewer qPCR-positive cases (60%) than hand NiTi <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> (95%) (P = 0.01). Intergroup comparison of quantitative data showed no significant difference between the two techniques. There was no significant difference in bacterial <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in infected canals after <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> using hand or rotary NiTi <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. In terms of incidence of positive results for bacteria, culture also showed no significant differences between the groups, but the rotary NiTi <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> resulted in more negative results in the more sensitive qPCR analysis. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940009897','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940009897"><span>Radio metric errors due to mismatch and offset between a DSN antenna beam and the beam of a troposphere <span class="hlt">calibration</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Linfield, R. P.; Wilcox, J. Z.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Two components of the error of a troposphere <span class="hlt">calibration</span> measurement were quantified by theoretical calculations. The first component is a beam mismatch error, which occurs when the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span> senses a conical volume different from the cylindrical volume sampled by a Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna. The second component is a beam offset error, which occurs if the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is not mounted on the axis of the DSN antenna. These two error sources were calculated for both delay (e.g., VLBI) and delay rate (e.g., Doppler) measurements. The beam mismatch error for both delay and delay rate drops rapidly as the beamwidth of the troposphere <span class="hlt">calibration</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span> (e.g., a water vapor radiometer or an infrared Fourier transform spectrometer) is reduced. At a 10-deg elevation angle, the instantaneous beam mismatch error is 1.0 mm for a 6-deg beamwidth and 0.09 mm for a 0.5-deg beam (these are the full angular widths of a circular beam with uniform gain out to a sharp cutoff). Time averaging for 60-100 sec will reduce these errors by factors of 1.2-2.2. At a 20-deg elevation angle, the lower limit for current Doppler observations, the beam-mismatch delay rate error is an Allan standard deviation over 100 sec of 1.1 x 10(exp -14) with a 4-deg beam and 1.3 x 10(exp -l5) for a 0.5-deg beam. A 50-m beam offset would result in a fairly modest (compared to other expected error sources) delay error (less than or equal to 0.3 mm for 60-sec integrations at any elevation angle is greater than or equal to 6 deg). However, the same offset would cause a large error in delay rate measurements (e.g., an Allan standard deviation of 1.2 x 10(exp -14) over 100 sec at a 20-deg elevation angle), which would dominate over other known error sources if the beamwidth is 2 deg or smaller. An on-axis location is essential for accurate troposphere <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of delay rate measurements. A half-power beamwidth (for a beam with a tapered gain profile) of 1.2 deg or smaller is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5037023','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5037023"><span>ORNL <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Berger, C.D.; Gupton, E.D.; Lane, B.H.; Miller, J.H.; Nichols, S.W.</p> <p>1982-08-01</p> <p>The ORNL <span class="hlt">Calibrations</span> Facility is operated by the <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> Group of the Industrial Safety and Applied Health Physics Division. Its primary purpose is to maintain radiation <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standards for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of ORNL health physics <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and personnel dosimeters. This report includes a discussion of the radioactive sources and ancillary equipment in use and a step-by-step procedure for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of those survey <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and personnel dosimeters in routine use at ORNL.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5659707','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5659707"><span>National Uranium Resource Evaluation. General procedure for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of aerial gamma-ray measurements: specification BFEC 1250-B</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Purvance, D.; Novak, E.</p> <p>1983-12-01</p> <p>The information contained in this specification was acquired over the course of the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program during the period 1974 through 1982. NURE was a program of the DOE Grand Junction Area Office to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States. Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) has been the operating contractor for the DOE Grand Junction facility. The requirements stipulated herein had been incorporated as contractual specifications for the various subcontractors engaged in the aerial gamma-ray surveys, which were a major aspect of the NURE program. Although this phase of NURE activities has been completed, there exists valuable knowledge gained from these years of experience in the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of gamma-ray spectrometer systems and in the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> data. Specification BFEC 1250-B is being open-filed by the US Department of Energy at this time to make this knowledge available to those desiring to apply gamma-ray spectrometry to other geophysical problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2637862','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2637862"><span>Loss of Notch signalling induced by Dll4 causes arterial <span class="hlt">calibre</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> by increasing endothelial cell response to angiogenic stimuli</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Benedito, Rui; Trindade, Alexandre; Hirashima, Masanori; Henrique, Domingos; da Costa, Luis Lopes; Rossant, Janet; Gill, Parkash S; Duarte, António</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Background In the vascular system, Notch receptors and ligands are expressed mainly on arteries, with Delta-like 4 (Dll4) being the only ligand known to be expressed early during the development of arterial endothelial cells and capillaries. Dll4 null embryos die very early in development with severely reduced arterial <span class="hlt">calibre</span> and lumen and loss of arterial cell identity. Results The current detailed analysis of these mutants shows that the arterial defect precedes the initiation of blood flow and that the arterial Dll4-/- endothelial cells proliferate and migrate more actively. Dll4-/- mutants reveal a defective basement membrane around the forming aorta and increased endothelial cell migration from the dorsal aorta to peripheral regions, which constitute the main causes of arterial lumen <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in these embryos. The increased proliferation and migration of Dll4-/- endothelial cells was found to coincide with increased expression of the receptors VEGFR-2 and Robo4 and with downregulation of the TGF-β accessory receptor Endoglin. Conclusion Together, these results strongly suggest that Notch signalling can increase arterial stability and <span class="hlt">calibre</span> by decreasing the response of arterial endothelial cells to local gradients of pro-angiogenic factors like VEGF. PMID:19087347</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18987414','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18987414"><span>[Reliability of plural measuring <span class="hlt">instruments</span> for quantitative PET measurement -performance of dose-<span class="hlt">calibrator</span>, auto well gamma counter, continuous blood sampling system, and PET scanner].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matsumoto, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Seiichi; Wada, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Keiji; Murase, Kenya; Senda, Michio</p> <p>2008-10-20</p> <p>Positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful tool for measuring in vivo functions such as blood flow, metabolism, enzyme activity, receptors, and transporters. However, plural measuring <span class="hlt">instruments</span> (i.e., the dose-<span class="hlt">calibrator</span>, the auto well gamma counter, the continuous blood sampling system) are necessary for the quantitative PET measurement as well as the PET scanner. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of plural measuring <span class="hlt">instruments</span> from the maintenance data for 6 years. Four kinds of measuring <span class="hlt">instrument</span> were evaluated: a dose-<span class="hlt">calibrator</span> (CAPINTEC, CRC-15R), an auto well gamma counter (ALOKA, ARC-400), a continuous blood sampling system (ESPEC Techno, PH type), and a dedicated PET scanner (Siemens, ECAT EXACT HR+). We examined whether the initial performance for system sensitivity is maintained. The reliability of the PET scanner was evaluated from the value of mean time between failures (MTBF) for each part of the system obtained from the maintenance data for 6 years. The sensitivity of a dose-<span class="hlt">calibrator</span> and an auto well gamma counter were maintained virtually constant during the 6 years, but the sensitivity of a continuous blood sampling system was 0.1+/-3.2%. The sensitivity of a PET scanner was decreased to 92.3% of the initial value. Fifty-one percent of the problems with the PET scanner were for detector block (DB) and analog processor (AP) board. The MTBF of DB and AP board module were 199 and 244 days, respectively. The MTBF of the PET scanner was 56 days. The performance of three measuring <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, excepting the PET scanner, was relatively stable. The reliability of the PET scanner strongly depends on the MTBF of the DB and AP board. For quantitative PET measurement, it is effective to evaluate the reliability of the system and to make it known to the users.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24064860','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24064860"><span>Design, <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and validation of a novel 3D printed <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> spatial linkage that measures changes in the rotational axes of the tibiofemoral joint.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bonny, Daniel P; Hull, M L; Howell, S M</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>An accurate axis-finding technique is required to measure any changes from normal caused by total knee arthroplasty in the flexion-extension (F-E) and longitudinal rotation (LR) axes of the tibiofemoral joint. In a previous paper, we computationally determined how best to design and use an <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> spatial linkage (ISL) to locate the F-E and LR axes such that rotational and translational errors were minimized. However, the ISL was not built and consequently was not <span class="hlt">calibrated</span>; thus the errors in locating these axes were not quantified on an actual ISL. Moreover, previous methods to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> an ISL used <span class="hlt">calibration</span> devices with accuracies that were either undocumented or insufficient for the device to serve as a gold-standard. Accordingly, the objectives were to (1) construct an ISL using the previously established guidelines,(2) <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the ISL using an improved method, and (3) quantify the error in measuring changes in the F-E and LR axes. A 3D printed ISL was constructed and <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> using a coordinate measuring machine, which served as a gold standard. Validation was performed using a fixture that represented the tibiofemoral joint with an adjustable F-E axis and the errors in measuring changes to the positions and orientations of the F-E and LR axes were quantified. The resulting root mean squared errors (RMSEs) of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> residuals using the new <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method were 0.24, 0.33, and 0.15 mm for the anterior-posterior, medial-lateral, and proximal-distal positions, respectively, and 0.11, 0.10, and 0.09 deg for varus-valgus, flexion-extension, and internal-external orientations, respectively. All RMSEs were below 0.29% of the respective full-scale range. When measuring changes to the F-E or LR axes, each orientation error was below 0.5 deg; when measuring changes in the F-E axis, each position error was below 1.0 mm. The largest position RMSE was when measuring a medial-lateral change in the LR axis (1.2 mm). Despite the large size</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9885312','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9885312"><span>The tabletting machine as an analytical <span class="hlt">instrument</span>: qualification of the measurement devices for punch forces and validation of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Belda, P M; Mielck, J B</p> <p>1998-11-01</p> <p>The quality of force measurement in an eccentric tabletting machine equipped with piezo-electric load washers mounted under pre-stress at the upper and lower punches, and the reliability of their <span class="hlt">calibration</span> in situ and under working conditions were carefully investigated, since this tabletting machine is used as an 'analytical <span class="hlt">instrument</span>' for the evaluation of the compression behaviour of pharmaceutical materials. For a quasistatic <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedure the repeatability under standard conditions and the robustness against variations in machine settings, installation conditions, equipment and handling were evaluated. Two differently constructed reference load cells equipped with strain gauges were used for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the upper punch sensor. The lower punch sensor was <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> against the upper one. Except for a mechanical hysteresis, owing to uneven stress distribution over the piezo-electric sensors, the results of the quasistatic measurements are assessed to be satisfactory. In addition, dynamic <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> were performed. One of the strain-gauged load cells was used in addition to two piezo-electric load washers installed without pre-stress. The dynamic behaviour of all the transducers used is deficient. While for the piezo-electric sensors a significant change in the slope of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> function with respect to the quasistatic behaviour was observed, for the strain-gauged load cell a pronounced hysteresis must be noted. Comparing the dynamic behaviour at different profiles of rates of force development generated by variations in machine speed and by maximum force setting, the variability in the sensitivity of the upper and lower punch piezo-electric load washers is comparatively small.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22265176','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22265176"><span>Characterization of thermal desorption <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> with a direct liquid deposition <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method for trace 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene quantitation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Field, Christopher R; Giordano, Braden C; Rogers, Duane A; Lubrano, Adam L; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L</p> <p>2012-03-02</p> <p>The use of thermal desorption systems for the analysis of trace vapors typically requires establishing a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> curve from vapors generated with a permeation tube. The slow equilibration time of permeation tubes causes such an approach to become laborious when covering a wide dynamic range. Furthermore, many analytes of interest, such as explosives, are not available as permeation tubes. A method for easily and effectively establishing <span class="hlt">calibration</span> curves for explosive vapor samples via direct deposition of standard solutions on thermal desorption tubes was investigated. The various components of the thermal desorption system were compared to a standard split/splitless inlet. <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> curves using the direct liquid deposition method with a thermal desorption unit coupled to a cryo-focusing inlet were compared to a standard split/splitless inlet, and a statistical difference was observed but does not eliminate or deter the use of the direct liquid deposition method for obtaining quantitative results for explosive vapors. Published by Elsevier B.V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol19/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol19-sec86-1320-90.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol19/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol19-sec86-1320-90.pdf"><span>40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1320-90 Gas meter or flow..., methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol19/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol19-sec86-1320-90.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol19/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol19-sec86-1320-90.pdf"><span>40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1320-90 Gas meter or flow..., methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> to...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol20-sec86-1320-90.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol20-sec86-1320-90.pdf"><span>40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1320-90 Gas meter or flow..., methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol20-sec86-1320-90.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol20-sec86-1320-90.pdf"><span>40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1320-90 Gas meter or flow..., methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21895058','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21895058"><span>In situ <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of atmospheric-infrasound sensors including the effects of wind-noise-<span class="hlt">reduction</span> pipe systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gabrielson, Thomas B</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>A worldwide network of more than 40 infrasound monitoring stations has been established as part of the effort to ensure compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Each station has four to eight individual infrasound elements in a kilometer-scale array for detection and bearing determination of acoustic events. The frequency range of interest covers a three-decade range-roughly from 0.01 to 10 Hz. A typical infrasound array element consists of a receiving transducer connected to a multiple-inlet pipe network to average spatially over the short-wavelength turbulence-associated "wind noise." Although the frequency response of the transducer itself may be known, the wind-noise <span class="hlt">reduction</span> system modifies that response. In order to understand the system's impact on detection and identification of acoustical events, the overall frequency response must be determined. This paper describes a technique for measuring the absolute magnitude and phase of the frequency response of an infrasound element including the wind-noise-<span class="hlt">reduction</span> piping by comparison <span class="hlt">calibration</span> using ambient noise and a reference-microphone system. Measured coherence between the reference and the infrasound element and the consistency between the magnitude and the phase provide quality checks on the process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10168124','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10168124"><span>Overview of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> control and data <span class="hlt">reduction</span> software in the Sandia data acquisition system at the Nevada Test Site</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boyer, W.B.</p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p>Sandia National Laboratories has developed a sophisticated custom digital data acquisition system to record data from a wide variety of experiments conducted on nuclear weapons effects tests at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Software is a critical part of this data acquisition system. In particular software has been developed to support an <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>/experiment setup database, interactive and automated <span class="hlt">instrument</span> control, remote data readout and processing, plotting, interactive data analysis, and automated <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. Some software is also used as firmware in custom subsystems incorporating embedded microprocessors. The software operations are distributed across the nearly 40 computer nodes that comprise the NTS Wide Area Computer Network. This report is an overview of the software developed to support this data acquisition system. The report also provides a brief description of the computer network and the various recording systems used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSM31A4162D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSM31A4162D"><span>Design, <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Specifications of the Space Environment in-Situ Suite (SEISSS) Space Weather <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> for the GOES-R Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dichter, B.; Galica, G. E.; McGarity, J. O.; Mullen, E. G.; Hanser, F. A.; Tsui, S.; Lopate, C.; Connell, J. J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The next generation GOES spacecraft will continue the long-term operational measurement of the charged particle environment in geosynchronous orbit with the SEISS space environment monitors. The suite comprises five <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that measure electrons and ions in multiple energy ranges and a data processing unit. Two of the <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, MPS-LO and EHIS provide new measurement capabilities compared with previous GOES environmental monitors. The MPS-LO (new to GOES) is an electrostatic <span class="hlt">instrument</span> that measures electrons and ions from 30 eV to 30 keV in 15 logarithmically spaced energy bins. Its twelve 15ox5o angular channels provide a 180o FOV oriented north to south. The MPS-HI <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, using solid state Si detector telescopes, covers the energy range of 50 keV to 4 MeV for electrons and 80 keV to 10 MeV for protons each along five 15o half angle look angles spaced 35o apart. High energy solar and galactic protons in the range of 1 to 500 MeV are measured by the SGPS, which also has an integral channel above 500 MeV. This broad energy range is divided into three sub-ranges, 1-25, 25-80 and 80-500 MeV, each measured by a separate Si detector telescope. The opening half-angles of the telescopes are 30o, 30o and 45o respectively. There are east and west oriented SGPS <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Energetic heavy ions are detected by EHIS, also consisting of solid state detectors, in thirty individual species from H to Ni and in five logarithmically spaced energy bands from 10 MeV/n to 200 MeV/n. The FOV is a 30oopening half-angle cone. Extensive <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> at accelerator facilities have been performed to verify the 25% accuracy of each <span class="hlt">instrument</span>'s geometric factor. In addition, performances of the solid state detector <span class="hlt">instruments</span> have been modeled using the GEANT and FLUKA Monte Carlo codes and the results compared to <span class="hlt">calibration</span> measurements. Energy overlap regions of the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> will be used to improve the quality and self-consistency of the data sets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020046539&hterms=repose+angle&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Drepose%2Bangle','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020046539&hterms=repose+angle&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Drepose%2Bangle"><span>The SNOOPY Angle of Repose Experiment: <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of an <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> to Determine the Angle of Repose of Martian Dust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Moeller, L. E.; Kuhlman, K. R.; Marshall, J. R.; Towner, M. C.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The present work <span class="hlt">calibrates</span> the Student Nanoexperiments for Outreach and Observational Planetary Inquiry (SNOOPY) Angle of Repose experiment. Using particulate collection on small marbles, the measured angles of repose compare well to experimental data and theoretical predictions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LPI....40.2296V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LPI....40.2296V"><span>Fabrication of Sulfate-bearing Ceramic <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Targets for the ChemCam Laser Spectroscopy <span class="hlt">Instrument</span>, Mars Science Lander</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vaniman, D. T.; Clegg, S.; Lanza, N.; Newsom, H.; Wiens, R. C.; Chemcam Team</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>A need for sulfur-bearing <span class="hlt">calibration</span> targets for LIBS analysis by ChemCam on the Mars Science Lander required development of low-fire ceramics. A range of sulfur contents can be obtained that mimic soil or rock at the potential landing sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPJWC..5913019H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPJWC..5913019H"><span>In situ <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the Gamma Reaction History <span class="hlt">instrument</span> using reference samples ("pucks") for areal density measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoffman, N. M.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Hsu, H. H.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Wilson, D. C.; Stoeffl, W. W.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; Miller, E. K.; Grafil, E.; Evans, S. C.; Sedillo, T. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Duffy, T.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>The introduction of a sample of carbon, for example a disk or "puck", near an imploding DT-filled capsule creates a source of 12C gamma rays that can serve as a reference for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> the response of the Gamma Reaction History (GRH) detector [1]. Such <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is important in the measurement of ablator areal density ⟨ρR⟩abl in plastic-ablator DT-filled capsules at OMEGA [2], by allowing ⟨ρR⟩abl to be inferred as a function of ratios of signals rather than from absolute measurements of signal magnitudes. Systematic uncertainties in signal measurements and detector responses therefore cancel, permitting more accurate measurements of ⟨ρR⟩abl.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26SS....4..396B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26SS....4..396B"><span>The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover Mastcam <span class="hlt">instruments</span>: Preflight and in-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, validation, and data archiving</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bell, J. F.; Godber, A.; McNair, S.; Caplinger, M. A.; Maki, J. N.; Lemmon, M. T.; Van Beek, J.; Malin, M. C.; Wellington, D.; Kinch, K. M.; Madsen, M. B.; Hardgrove, C.; Ravine, M. A.; Jensen, E.; Harker, D.; Anderson, R. B.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Morris, R. V.; Cisneros, E.; Deen, R. G.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>The NASA Curiosity rover Mast Camera (Mastcam) system is a pair of fixed-focal length, multispectral, color CCD imagers mounted 2 m above the surface on the rover's remote sensing mast, along with associated electronics and an onboard <span class="hlt">calibration</span> target. The left Mastcam (M-34) has a 34 mm focal length, an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 0.22 mrad, and a FOV of 20° × 15° over the full 1648 × 1200 pixel span of its Kodak KAI-2020 CCD. The right Mastcam (M-100) has a 100 mm focal length, an IFOV of 0.074 mrad, and a FOV of 6.8° × 5.1° using the same detector. The cameras are separated by 24.2 cm on the mast, allowing stereo images to be obtained at the resolution of the M-34 camera. Each camera has an eight-position filter wheel, enabling it to take Bayer pattern red, green, and blue (RGB) "true color" images, multispectral images in nine additional bands spanning 400-1100 nm, and images of the Sun in two colors through neutral density-coated filters. An associated Digital Electronics Assembly provides command and data interfaces to the rover, 8 Gb of image storage per camera, 11 bit to 8 bit companding, JPEG compression, and acquisition of high-definition video. Here we describe the preflight and in-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of Mastcam images, the ways that they are being archived in the NASA Planetary Data System, and the ways that <span class="hlt">calibration</span> refinements are being developed as the investigation progresses on Mars. We also provide some examples of data sets and analyses that help to validate the accuracy and precision of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70190518','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70190518"><span>The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover Mastcam <span class="hlt">instruments</span>: Preflight and in-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, validation, and data archiving</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bell, James F.; Godber, A.; McNair, S.; Caplinger, M.A.; Maki, J.N.; Lemmon, M.T.; Van Beek, J.; Malin, M.C.; Wellington, D.; Kinch, K.M.; Madsen, M.B.; Hardgrove, C.; Ravine, M.A.; Jensen, E.; Harker, D.; Anderson, Ryan; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Morris, R.V.; Cisneros, E.; Deen, R.G.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Curiosity rover Mast Camera (Mastcam) system is a pair of fixed-focal length, multispectral, color CCD imagers mounted ~2 m above the surface on the rover's remote sensing mast, along with associated electronics and an onboard <span class="hlt">calibration</span> target. The left Mastcam (M-34) has a 34 mm focal length, an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 0.22 mrad, and a FOV of 20° × 15° over the full 1648 × 1200 pixel span of its Kodak KAI-2020 CCD. The right Mastcam (M-100) has a 100 mm focal length, an IFOV of 0.074 mrad, and a FOV of 6.8° × 5.1° using the same detector. The cameras are separated by 24.2 cm on the mast, allowing stereo images to be obtained at the resolution of the M-34 camera. Each camera has an eight-position filter wheel, enabling it to take Bayer pattern red, green, and blue (RGB) “true color” images, multispectral images in nine additional bands spanning ~400–1100 nm, and images of the Sun in two colors through neutral density-coated filters. An associated Digital Electronics Assembly provides command and data interfaces to the rover, 8 Gb of image storage per camera, 11 bit to 8 bit companding, JPEG compression, and acquisition of high-definition video. Here we describe the preflight and in-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of Mastcam images, the ways that they are being archived in the NASA Planetary Data System, and the ways that <span class="hlt">calibration</span> refinements are being developed as the investigation progresses on Mars. We also provide some examples of data sets and analyses that help to validate the accuracy and precision of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998AAS...192.8106P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998AAS...192.8106P"><span>Spectal Responsivity <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the Large Format Si:As FPAs in the Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) <span class="hlt">Instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peterson, J.; Sevilla, P.; Gibbons, W.; Herter, T.</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>The Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) is a small cryogenic spaceborne infrared telescope being readied for launch in September 1998 as the fifth of NASA's Small Explorers. WIRE illuminates two 128 x 128 Si:As Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) produced by Boeing North American with a 30 cm diameter Ritchey Cretien diamond turned mirror system. A dichroic beam splitter and band-pass filter define two broad pass bands for a deep pointed survey to search for protogalaxies and to study the evolution of starburst galaxies. The Space Dynamics Laboratory at Utah State University (SDL/USU) measured the spectral responsivity of the WIRE sensor using the SDL multifunction infrared <span class="hlt">calibrator</span> (MIC2) and a step- scan interferometer. The primary objective of the spectral responsivity <span class="hlt">calibration</span> was the array-average relative spectral responsivity (RSR) measurement of each WIRE FPA under nominal operating conditions. The array-average RSR measurement is composed of two parts, a high spectral resolution in-band measurement and an out-of-band measurement that extended the noise floor of the RSR measurement outside the WIRE spectral passbands to approximately 1E-5 of the in-band peak. In addition to the array average RSR at nominal operating conditions, SDL personnel also investigated the WIRE RSR sensitivity to FPA position, temperature and bias voltage. The WIRE spectral <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method is described, and the results are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1888780','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1888780"><span>Readily synthesized <span class="hlt">calibration</span> compounds for quadrupole and magnetic <span class="hlt">instruments</span> for use over the mass range to 2000 daltons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hsu, F F; Tyler, A N; Sherman, W R</p> <p>1991-06-01</p> <p>Volatile mass <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standards have been prepared by esterifying beta-cellobiose (4-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose) with a mixture of heptafluorobutyric (HFB) anhydride and pentafluoropropionic (PFP) anhydride. The mixed esters produce spectra that are useful for mass spectrometer <span class="hlt">calibration</span> with positive or negative ion methane chemical ionization and electron impact over the mass range 300-2000. The spectra contain prominent ions spaced at m/z 20 and m/z 50 intervals. Using the mixed ester with direct insertion probe introduction gives intense spectra that persist for tens of minutes. All signals above m/z 194 derived from these substances disappear rapidly upon withdrawal of the probe. The composition and exact masses are given for the positive and negative ion spectra of a mixed HFB/PFP ester of beta-cellobiose. Two other <span class="hlt">calibrants</span> are described: one made from beta-cellobiose using a mixture of HFB, PFP and trifluoroacetic anhydrides, and another the HFB/PFP mixed ester of perseitol. These are examples of the flexibility of this approach with respect to mass range and ion composition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B51M0601M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B51M0601M"><span>Detecting trends in regional ecosystem functioning: the importance of field data for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> and validating NEON airborne remote sensing <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and science data products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCorkel, J.; Kuester, M. A.; Johnson, B. R.; Krause, K.; Kampe, T. U.; Moore, D. J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a research facility under development by the National Science Foundation to improve our understanding of and ability to forecast the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on ecology. The infrastructure, designed to operate over 30 years or more, includes site-based flux tower and field measurements, coordinated with airborne remote sensing observations to observe key ecological processes over a broad range of temporal and spatial scales. NEON airborne data on vegetation biochemical, biophysical, and structural properties and on land use and land cover will be captured at 1 to 2 meter resolution by an imaging spectrometer, a small-footprint waveform-LiDAR and a high-resolution digital camera. Annual coverage of the 60 NEON sites and capacity to support directed research flights or respond to unexpected events will require three airborne observation platforms (AOP). The integration of field and airborne data with satellite observations and other national geospatial data for analysis, monitoring and input to ecosystem models will extend NEON observations to regions across the United States not directly sampled by the observatory. The different spatial scales and measurement methods make quantitative comparisons between remote sensing and field data, typically collected over small sample plots (e.g. < 0.2 ha), difficult. New approaches to developing temporal and spatial scaling relationships between these data are necessary to enable validation of airborne and satellite remote sensing data and for incorporation of these data into continental or global scale ecological models. In addition to consideration of the methods used to collect ground-based measurements, careful <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the remote sensing <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> and an assessment of the accuracy of algorithms used to derive higher-level science data products are needed. Furthermore, long-term consistency of the data collected by all</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008MNRAS.388.1775H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008MNRAS.388.1775H"><span>Radio source <span class="hlt">calibration</span> for the Very Small Array and other cosmic microwave background <span class="hlt">instruments</span> at around 30 GHz</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hafez, Yaser A.; Davies, Rod D.; Davis, Richard J.; Dickinson, Clive; Battistelli, Elia S.; Blanco, Francisco; Cleary, Kieran; Franzen, Thomas; Genova-Santos, Ricardo; Grainge, Keith; Hobson, Michael P.; Jones, Michael E.; Lancaster, Katy; Lasenby, Anthony N.; Padilla-Torres, Carmen P.; Rubiño-Martin, José Alberto; Rebolo, Rafael; Saunders, Richard D. E.; Scott, Paul F.; Taylor, Angela C.; Titterington, David; Tucci, Marco; Watson, Robert A.</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>Accurate <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of data is essential for the current generation of cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. Using data from the Very Small Array (VSA), we describe procedures which will lead to an accuracy of 1 per cent or better for experiments such as the VSA and CBI. Particular attention is paid to the stability of the receiver systems, the quality of the site and frequent observations of reference sources. At 30 GHz the careful correction for atmospheric emission and absorption is shown to be essential for achieving 1 per cent precision. The sources for which a 1 per cent relative flux density <span class="hlt">calibration</span> was achieved included Cas A, Cyg A, Tau A and NGC 7027 and the planets Venus, Jupiter and Saturn. A flux density, or brightness temperature in the case of the planets, was derived at 33 GHz relative to Jupiter which was adopted as the fundamental <span class="hlt">calibrator</span>. A spectral index at ~30 GHz is given for each. Cas A, Tau A, NGC 7027 and Venus were examined for variability. Cas A was found to be decreasing at 0.394 +/- 0.019 per cent yr-1 over the period 2001 March to 2004 August. In the same period Tau A was decreasing at 0.22 +/- 0.07 per cent yr-1. A survey of the published data showed that the planetary nebula NGC 7027 decreased at 0.16 +/- 0.04 per cent yr-1 over the period 1967-2003. Venus showed an insignificant (1.5 +/- 1.3 per cent) variation with Venusian illumination. The integrated polarization of Tau A at 33 GHz was found to be 7.8 +/- 0.6 per cent at position angle =148° +/- 3°.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720007492','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720007492"><span>Station to <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> aircraft L-band telemetry system and RF signal controller for spacecraft simulations and station <span class="hlt">calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Scaffidi, C. A.; Stocklin, F. J.; Feldman, M. B.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>An L-band telemetry system designed to provide the capability of near-real-time processing of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> data is described. The system also provides the capability of performing computerized spacecraft simulations, with the aircraft as a data source, and evaluating the network response. The salient characteristics of a telemetry analysis and simulation program (TASP) are discussed, together with the results of TASP testing. The results of the L-band system testing have successfully demonstrated the capability of near-real-time processing of telemetry test data, the control of the ground-received signal to within + or - 0.5 db, and the computer generation of test signals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1356610','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1356610"><span>The <i>Fermi</i> Large Area Telescope on Orbit: Event Classification, <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Response Functions, and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bogart, J. R.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Corbet, R.; Cutini, S.; D’Ammando, F.; Davis, D. S.; de Angelis, A.; DeKlotz, M.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lavalley, C.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nemmen, R.; Nishino, S.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Racusin, J. L.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Reyes, L. C.; Ritz, S.; Rochester, L. S.; Romoli, C.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.; Sanchez, D. A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Sbarra, C.; Scargle, J. D.; Sgrò, C.; Siegal-Gaskins, J.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stephens, T. E.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Klaveren, B.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wallace, E.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.; Zimmer, S.</p> <p>2012-10-12</p> <p>The Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy γ-ray telescope, covering the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. During the first years of the mission, the LAT team has gained considerable insight into the in-flight performance of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Accordingly, we have updated the analysis used to reduce LAT data for public release as well as the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> response functions (IRFs), the description of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> performance provided for data analysis. In this study, we describe the effects that motivated these updates. Furthermore, we discuss how we originally derived IRFs from Monte Carlo simulations and later corrected those IRFs for discrepancies observed between flight and simulated data. We also give details of the validations performed using flight data and quantify the residual uncertainties in the IRFs. In conclusion, we describe techniques the LAT team has developed to propagate those uncertainties into estimates of the systematic errors on common measurements such as fluxes and spectra of astrophysical sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24068840','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24068840"><span>Complete elliptical ring geometry provides energy and <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> for synchrotron-based two-dimensional X-ray diffraction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hart, Michael L; Drakopoulos, Michael; Reinhard, Christina; Connolley, Thomas</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>A complete <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method to characterize a static planar two-dimensional detector for use in X-ray diffraction at an arbitrary wavelength is described. This method is based upon geometry describing the point of intersection between a cone's axis and its elliptical conic section. This point of intersection is neither the ellipse centre nor one of the ellipse focal points, but some other point which lies in between. The presented solution is closed form, algebraic and non-iterative in its application, and gives values for the X-ray beam energy, the sample-to-detector distance, the location of the beam centre on the detector surface and the detector tilt relative to the incident beam. Previous techniques have tended to require prior knowledge of either the X-ray beam energy or the sample-to-detector distance, whilst other techniques have been iterative. The new <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedure is performed by collecting diffraction data, in the form of diffraction rings from a powder standard, at known displacements of the detector along the beam path.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9764S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9764S"><span>Rigorous noise test and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> check of strong-motion <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> at the Conrad Observatory in Austria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Steiner, R.; Costa, G.; Lenhardt, W.; Horn, N.; Suhadolc, P.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>In the framework of the European InterregIV Italy/Austria project: "HAREIA - Historical and Recent Earthquakes in Italy and Austria" the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) and Mathematic and Geosciences Department of University of Trieste (DMG) are upgrading the transfrontier seismic network of South-Eastern Alps with new 12 accelerometric stations to enhance the strong motion <span class="hlt">instrument</span> density near the Austria/Italy border. Various public institutions of the provinces Alto Adige (Bolzano Province), Veneto (ARPAV) and Friuli Venezia Giulia (Regional Civil Defense) in Italy and in the Austrian province of Tyrol are involved in the project. The site selection was carried out to improve the present local network geometry thus meeting the needs of public Institutions in the involved regions. In Tyrol and Alto Adige some strategic buildings (hospitals and public buildings) have been selected, whereas in Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia the sites are in the free field, mainly located near villages. The <span class="hlt">instruments</span> will be installed in an innovative box, designed by ZAMG, that provides electric and water isolation. The common choice regarding the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> selection has been the new Kinemetrics Basalt ® accelerograph to guarantee homogeneity with the already installed <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> and compatibility with the software already in use at the different seismic institutions in the area. Prior to deployment the equipment was tested at the Conrad Observatory and a common set-up has been devised. The Conrad Observatory, seismically particularly quiet, permits to analyze both the sensor and the acquisition system noise. The <span class="hlt">instruments</span> were connected to the network and the data sent in real-time to the ZAMG data center in Vienna and the DMG data center in Trieste. The data have been collected in the database and analyzed using signal processing modules PQLX and Matlab. The data analysis of the recordings at the ultra-quiet Conrad Observatory pointed out</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/543186','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/543186"><span>Joint implementation as a financing <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for global <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in greenhouse gas emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Metz, B.</p> <p>1995-11-01</p> <p>Joint implementation is based on the idea of cost-effectiveness by providing parties with the opportunity to partially off-set their own emissions with cheaper <span class="hlt">reductions</span> achieved elsewhere. Joint implementation can be defined as realization of <span class="hlt">reduction</span> emissions by one investor on the territory of another. Joint implementation could contribute to the North-South cooperation that is embedded in the Climate Convention.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM51A2518S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM51A2518S"><span><span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> MMS Electron Drift <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> (EDI) Ambient Electron Flux Measurements and Characterizing 3D Electric Field Signatures of Magnetic Reconnection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shuster, J. R.; Torbert, R. B.; Vaith, H.; Argall, M. R.; Li, G.; Chen, L. J.; Ergun, R. E.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Marklund, G. T.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Russell, C. T.; Magnes, W.; Le Contel, O.; Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The electron drift <span class="hlt">instruments</span> (EDIs) onboard each MMS spacecraft are designed with large geometric factors (~0.01cm2 str) to facilitate detection of weak (~100 nA) electron beams fired and received by the two gun-detector units (GDUs) when EDI is in its "electric field mode" to determine the local electric and magnetic fields. A consequence of the large geometric factor is that "ambient mode" electron flux measurements (500 eV electrons having 0°, 90°, or 180° pitch angle) can vary depending on the orientation of the EDI <span class="hlt">instrument</span> with respect to the magnetic field, a nonphysical effect that requires a correction. Here, we present determinations of the θ- and ø-dependent correction factors for the eight EDI GDUs, where θ (ø) is the polar (azimuthal) angle between the GDU symmetry axis and the local magnetic field direction, and compare the corrected fluxes with those measured by the fast plasma <span class="hlt">instrument</span> (FPI). Using these corrected, high time resolution (~1,000 samples per second) ambient electron fluxes, combined with the unprecedentedly high resolution 3D electric field measurements taken by the spin-plane and axial double probes (SDP and ADP), we are equipped to accurately detect electron-scale current layers and electric field waves associated with the non-Maxwellian (anisotropic and agyrotropic) particle distribution functions predicted to exist in the reconnection diffusion region. We compare initial observations of the diffusion region with distributions and wave analysis from PIC simulations of asymmetric reconnection applicable for modeling reconnection at the Earth's magnetopause, where MMS will begin Science Phase 1 as of September 1, 2015.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950004403','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950004403"><span>Continued <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and analysis of data from the Dynamics Explorer Plasma Wave <span class="hlt">Instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gurnett, Donald A.; Weimer, Daniel R.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The plasma wave <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on the Dynamics Explorer 1 spacecraft provided measurements of the electric and magnetic components of plasma waves in the Earth's magnetosphere. Four receiver systems processed signals from five antennas. Sixty-seven theses, scientific papers and reports were prepared from the data generated. Data processing activities and techniques used to analyze the data are described and highlights of discoveries made and research undertaken are tabulated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047547','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047547"><span>Pre-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and initial data processing for the ChemCam laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on the Mars Science Laboratory rover</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wiens, R.C.; Maurice, S.; Lasue, J.; Forni, O.; Anderson, R.B.; Clegg, S.; Bender, S.; Blaney, D.; Barraclough, B.L.; Cousin, A.; DeFlores, L.; Delapp, D.; Dyar, M.D.; Fabre, C.; Gasnault, O.; Lanza, N.; Mazoyer, J.; Melikechi, N.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Newsom, H.; Ollila, A.; Perez, R.; Tokar, R.; Vaniman, D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The ChemCam <span class="hlt">instrument</span> package on the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, is the first planetary science <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to employ laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine the compositions of geological samples on another planet. Pre-processing of the spectra involves subtracting the ambient light background, removing noise, removing the electron continuum, <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> for the wavelength, correcting for the variable distance to the target, and applying a wavelength-dependent correction for the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> response. Further processing of the data uses multivariate and univariate comparisons with a LIBS spectral library developed prior to launch as well as comparisons with several on-board standards post-landing. The level-2 data products include semi-quantitative abundances derived from partial least squares regression. A LIBS spectral library was developed using 69 rock standards in the form of pressed powder disks, glasses, and ceramics to minimize heterogeneity on the scale of the observation (350–550 μm dia.). The standards covered typical compositional ranges of igneous materials and also included sulfates, carbonates, and phyllosilicates. The provenance and elemental and mineralogical compositions of these standards are described. Spectral characteristics of this data set are presented, including the size distribution and integrated irradiances of the plasmas, and a proxy for plasma temperature as a function of distance from the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Two laboratory-based clones of ChemCam reside in Los Alamos and Toulouse for the purpose of adding new spectra to the database as the need arises. Sensitivity to differences in wavelength correlation to spectral channels and spectral resolution has been investigated, indicating that spectral registration needs to be within half a pixel and resolution needs to match within 1.5 to 2.6 pixels. Absolute errors are tabulated for derived compositions of each major element in each standard using PLS regression</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AMT.....3.1797T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AMT.....3.1797T"><span>Inherent <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of a blue LED-CE-DOAS <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to measure iodine oxide, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide, water vapour and aerosol extinction in open cavity mode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thalman, R.; Volkamer, R.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The combination of Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (CEAS) with broad-band light sources (e.g. Light-Emitting Diodes, LEDs) lends itself to the application of cavity enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE-DOAS) to perform sensitive and selective point measurements of multiple trace gases and aerosol extinction with a single <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. In contrast to other broad-band CEAS techniques, CE-DOAS relies only on the measurement of relative intensity changes, i.e. does not require knowledge of the light intensity in the absence of trace gases and aerosols (I0). We have built a prototype LED-CE-DOAS <span class="hlt">instrument</span> in the blue spectral range (420-490 nm) to measure nitrogen dioxide (NO2), glyoxal (CHOCHO), methyl glyoxal (CH3COCHO), iodine oxide (IO), water vapour (H2O) and oxygen dimers (O4). We demonstrate the first direct detection of methyl glyoxal, and the first CE-DOAS detection of CHOCHO and IO. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is further inherently <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> for light extinction from the cavity by observing O4 or H2O (at 477 nm and 443 nm) and measuring the pressure, relative humidity and temperature independently. This approach is demonstrated by experiments where laboratory aerosols of known size and refractive index were generated and their extinction measured. The measured extinctions were then compared to the theoretical extinctions calculated using Mie theory (3-7 × 10-7cm-1). Excellent agreement is found from both the O4 and H2O retrievals. This enables the first inherently <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> CEAS measurement at blue wavelengths in open cavity mode, and eliminates the need for sampling lines to supply air to the cavity, i.e., keep the cavity enclosed and/or aerosol free. Measurements in open cavity mode are demonstrated for CHOCHO, CH3COCHO, NO2, H2O and aerosol extinction. Our prototype LED-CE-DOAS provides a low cost, yet research grade innovative <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for applications in simulation chambers and in the open atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdSpR..56.1777L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdSpR..56.1777L"><span><span class="hlt">Instrument</span> study of the Lunar Dust eXplorer (LDX) for a lunar lander mission II: Laboratory model <span class="hlt">calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Yanwei; Strack, Heiko; Bugiel, Sebastian; Wu, Yiyong; Srama, Ralf</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>A dust trajectory detector placed on the lunar surface is exposed to extend people's knowledge on the dust environment above the lunar surface. The new design of Lunar Dust eXplorer (LDX) is well suited for lunar or asteroid landers with a broad range of particle charges (0.1-10 fC), speeds (few m s-1 to few km s-1) and sizes (0.1-10 μ m). The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of dust trajectory detector is important for the detector development. We do present experimental results to characterize the accuracy of the newly developed LDX laboratory model. Micron sized iron particles were accelerated to speed between 0.5 and 20 km s-1 with primary charges larger than 1 fC. The achieved accuracies of the detector are ± 5 % and ± 7 % for particle charge and speed, respectively. Dust trajectories can be determined with measurement accuracy better than ± 2°. A dust sensor of this type is suited for the exploration of the surface of small bodies without an atmosphere like the Earth's moon or asteroids in future, and the minisatellites are also suitable carriers for the study of interplanetary dust and manned debris on low Earth orbits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9820E..15L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9820E..15L"><span>Investigation of the dynamic thermal infrared signatures of a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> target <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> with a network of 1-wire temperature sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lewis, Gareth D.; Merken, Patrick</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>In this paper, we describe the temperature and thermal variations from a painted geometrical target (CUBI) fitted with a network of internally mounted 1-wire temperature sensors. The sensors, which were <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> in a temperature-controlled oven, were recorded every 20 seconds over a period from May to December 2015. This amounts to an archive of approximately 180 days of near uninterrupted data. Two meteorological stations collocated with the CUBI on a roof test site, record relevant environmental parameters every few minutes. In this paper, we analyze the data for only one day, 2 October 2015, for which a wavelet analysis highlights the contribution of different temporal fluctuations to total signature. We selected this specific day since it represented simple environmental conditions, and additionally images from a 3-5 microns (MWIR) thermal imager were recorded. Finally, we demonstrate that a wavelet decomposition of the temperature signature to be a useful method to characterize dynamic temperature changes, and perhaps a method to verify prediction models for varying fluctuation scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25546662','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25546662"><span><span class="hlt">Instrumented</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and monosegmental fusion for Meyerding Grade IV developmental spondylolisthesis: a report of 3 cases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mizuno, Kentaro; Mikami, Yasuo; Nagae, Masateru; Tonomura, Hitoshi; Ikeda, Takumi; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>There are numerous reports of treatment methods for spondylolisthesis with a Meyerding Grade of more than III. In high dysplastic spondylosthesis, surgical treatment was selected because there is considered to be a high possibility of low back pain and lower limb neurological symptoms worsening if slippage progresses. Monosegmental lumbar interbody fusion (L5-S1) with a pedicle screw system (PPS) was used to treat three cases of Meyerding Grade IV developmental spondylolisthesis. Patients gave written informed consent. The spondylolisthesis was reduced to Meyerding Grade I and sagittal balance improved in all three cases. In two cases with severe spinal instability, there were no postoperative neurological complications and the course was favorable. However, in one case with little spinal mobility due to vertebral body dysplasia, despite performing sufficient decompression of the nerve root at L5 and slow <span class="hlt">reduction</span> to avoid placing excessive tension on the nerve root, a transient neurological disorder was observed. A PPS was used to increase the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> strength and favorable <span class="hlt">reduction</span> was possible. However, in the case with a long clinical course and the case with poor spinal mobility, since the mobility and plasticity of the nerve root itself may have been reduced, it was considered that <span class="hlt">reduction</span> should be performed carefully using intraoperative neurological monitoring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4602615','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4602615"><span><span class="hlt">Instrumented</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and Monosegmental Fusion for Meyerding Grade IV Developmental Spondylolisthesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mizuno, Kentaro; Mikami, Yasuo; Nagae, Masateru; Tonomura, Hitoshi; Ikeda, Takumi; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Abstract There are numerous reports of treatment methods for spondylolisthesis with a Meyerding Grade of more than III. In high dysplastic spondylosthesis, surgical treatment was selected because there is considered to be a high possibility of low back pain and lower limb neurological symptoms worsening if slippage progresses. Monosegmental lumbar interbody fusion (L5–S1) with a pedicle screw system (PPS) was used to treat three cases of Meyerding Grade IV developmental spondylolisthesis. Patients gave written informed consent. The spondylolisthesis was reduced to Meyerding Grade I and sagittal balance improved in all three cases. In two cases with severe spinal instability, there were no postoperative neurological complications and the course was favorable. However, in one case with little spinal mobility due to vertebral body dysplasia, despite performing sufficient decompression of the nerve root at L5 and slow <span class="hlt">reduction</span> to avoid placing excessive tension on the nerve root, a transient neurological disorder was observed. A PPS was used to increase the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> strength and favorable <span class="hlt">reduction</span> was possible. However, in the case with a long clinical course and the case with poor spinal mobility, since the mobility and plasticity of the nerve root itself may have been reduced, it was considered that <span class="hlt">reduction</span> should be performed carefully using intraoperative neurological monitoring. PMID:25546662</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008eic..work..109M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008eic..work..109M"><span>IOT Overview: IR <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mason, E.</p> <p></p> <p>In this <span class="hlt">instrument</span> review chapter the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> plans of ESO IR <span class="hlt">instruments</span> are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR <span class="hlt">instrument</span> at VLT and whose <span class="hlt">calibration</span> plan served as prototype for the coming <span class="hlt">instruments</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040075853&hterms=basics+change+state&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbasics%2Bchange%2Bstate','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040075853&hterms=basics+change+state&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbasics%2Bchange%2Bstate"><span>Satellite <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> for Measuring Global Climate Change. Report of a Workshop at the University of Maryland Inn and Conference Center, College Park, MD. , November 12-14, 2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ohring, G.; Wielicki, B.; Spencer, R.; Emery, B.; Datla, R.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Measuring the small changes associated with long-term global climate change from space is a daunting task. To address these problems and recommend directions for improvements in satellite <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> some 75 scientists, including researchers who develop and analyze long-term data sets from satellites, experts in the field of satellite <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and physicists working on state of the art <span class="hlt">calibration</span> sources and standards met November 12 - 14, 2002 and discussed the issues. The workshop defined the absolute accuracies and long-term stabilities of global climate data sets that are needed to detect expected trends, translated these data set accuracies and stabilities to required satellite <span class="hlt">instrument</span> accuracies and stabilities, and evaluated the ability of current observing systems to meet these requirements. The workshop's recommendations include a set of basic axioms or overarching principles that must guide high quality climate observations in general, and a roadmap for improving satellite <span class="hlt">instrument</span> characterization, <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, inter-<span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and associated activities to meet the challenge of measuring global climate change. It is also recommended that a follow-up workshop be conducted to discuss implementation of the roadmap developed at this workshop.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040075853&hterms=global+climate+change&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bclimate%2Bchange','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040075853&hterms=global+climate+change&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bclimate%2Bchange"><span>Satellite <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> for Measuring Global Climate Change. Report of a Workshop at the University of Maryland Inn and Conference Center, College Park, MD. , November 12-14, 2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ohring, G.; Wielicki, B.; Spencer, R.; Emery, B.; Datla, R.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Measuring the small changes associated with long-term global climate change from space is a daunting task. To address these problems and recommend directions for improvements in satellite <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> some 75 scientists, including researchers who develop and analyze long-term data sets from satellites, experts in the field of satellite <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and physicists working on state of the art <span class="hlt">calibration</span> sources and standards met November 12 - 14, 2002 and discussed the issues. The workshop defined the absolute accuracies and long-term stabilities of global climate data sets that are needed to detect expected trends, translated these data set accuracies and stabilities to required satellite <span class="hlt">instrument</span> accuracies and stabilities, and evaluated the ability of current observing systems to meet these requirements. The workshop's recommendations include a set of basic axioms or overarching principles that must guide high quality climate observations in general, and a roadmap for improving satellite <span class="hlt">instrument</span> characterization, <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, inter-<span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and associated activities to meet the challenge of measuring global climate change. It is also recommended that a follow-up workshop be conducted to discuss implementation of the roadmap developed at this workshop.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830011810','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830011810"><span>SUMS <span class="hlt">calibration</span> test report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Robertson, G.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> was performed on the shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer (SUMS). The results of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and the as run test procedures are presented. The output data is described, and engineering data conversion factors, tables and curves, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> on <span class="hlt">instrument</span> gauges are included. Static <span class="hlt">calibration</span> results which include: <span class="hlt">instrument</span> sensitive versus external pressure for N2 and O2, data from each scan of <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, data plots from N2 and O2, and sensitivity of SUMS at inlet for N2 and O2, and ratios of 14/28 for nitrogen and 16/32 for oxygen are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110007791&hterms=china+emissions&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dchina%2Bemissions','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110007791&hterms=china+emissions&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dchina%2Bemissions"><span>Recent Large <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> in Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Chinese Power Plants Observed by the Ozone Monitoring <span class="hlt">Instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Li, Can; Zhang, Qiang; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Streets, David G.; He, Kebin; Tsay, Si-Chee; Gleason, James F.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The Ozone Monitoring <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> (OMI) aboard NASA's Aura satellite observed substantial increases in total column SO2 and tropospheric column NO2 from 2005 to 2007, over several areas in northern China where large coal-fired power plants were built during this period. The OMI-observed SO2/NO2 ratio is consistent with the SO2/ NO2, emissions estimated from a bottom-up approach. In 2008 over the same areas, OMI detected little change in NO2, suggesting steady electricity output from the power plants. However, dramatic <span class="hlt">reductions</span> of S0 2 emissions were observed by OMI at the same time. These <span class="hlt">reductions</span> confirm the effectiveness of the flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in reducing S02 emissions, which likely became operational between 2007 and 2008. This study further demonstrates that the satellite sensors can monitor and characterize anthropogenic emissions from large point sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110007791&hterms=China+next+power&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DChina%2Bnext%2Bpower','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110007791&hterms=China+next+power&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DChina%2Bnext%2Bpower"><span>Recent Large <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> in Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Chinese Power Plants Observed by the Ozone Monitoring <span class="hlt">Instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Li, Can; Zhang, Qiang; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Streets, David G.; He, Kebin; Tsay, Si-Chee; Gleason, James F.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The Ozone Monitoring <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> (OMI) aboard NASA's Aura satellite observed substantial increases in total column SO2 and tropospheric column NO2 from 2005 to 2007, over several areas in northern China where large coal-fired power plants were built during this period. The OMI-observed SO2/NO2 ratio is consistent with the SO2/ NO2, emissions estimated from a bottom-up approach. In 2008 over the same areas, OMI detected little change in NO2, suggesting steady electricity output from the power plants. However, dramatic <span class="hlt">reductions</span> of S0 2 emissions were observed by OMI at the same time. These <span class="hlt">reductions</span> confirm the effectiveness of the flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in reducing S02 emissions, which likely became operational between 2007 and 2008. This study further demonstrates that the satellite sensors can monitor and characterize anthropogenic emissions from large point sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2847551','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2847551"><span>An <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to assess quality of life in relation to nutrition: item generation, item <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and initial validation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background It is arguable that modification of diet, given its potential for positive health outcomes, should be widely advocated and adopted. However, food intake, as a basic human need, and its modification may be accompanied by sensations of both pleasure and despondency and may consequently affect to quality of life (QoL). Thus, the feasibility and success of dietary changes will depend, at least partly, on whether potential negative influences on QoL can be avoided. This is of particular importance in the context of dietary intervention studies and in the development of new food products to improve health and well being. <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> to measure the impact of nutrition on quality of life in the general population, however, are few and far between. Therefore, the aim of this project was to develop an <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for measuring QoL related to nutrition in the general population. Methods and results We recruited participants from the general population and followed standard methodology for quality of life <span class="hlt">instrument</span> development (identification of population, item selection, n = 24; item <span class="hlt">reduction</span>, n = 81; item presentation, n = 12; pretesting of questionnaire and initial validation, n = 2576; construct validation n = 128; and test-retest reliability n = 20). Of 187 initial items, 29 were selected for final presentation. Factor analysis revealed an <span class="hlt">instrument</span> with 5 domains. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> demonstrated good cross-sectional divergent and convergent construct validity when correlated with scores of the 8 domains of the SF-36 (ranging from -0.078 to 0.562, 19 out of 40 tested correlations were statistically significant and 24 correlations were predicted correctly) and good test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficients from 0.71 for symptoms to 0.90). Conclusions We developed and validated an <span class="hlt">instrument</span> with 29 items across 5 domains to assess quality of life related to nutrition and other aspects of food intake. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> demonstrated good face and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9908E..7XF','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9908E..7XF"><span>ProtoDESI: risk <span class="hlt">reduction</span> experiment for the Dark Energy Spectroscopic <span class="hlt">Instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fagrelius, Parker; Baltay, Charles; Bebek, Christopher; Besuner, Robert; Castander, Francisco J.; Dey, Arjun; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth; Elliott, Ann; Emmet, William; Flaugher, Brenna; Gershkovich, Irena; Honscheid, Klaus; Joyce, Dick; Kent, Stephen; Marshall, Robert; Probst, Ronald; Rabinowitz, David; Reil, Kevin; Schlegel, David; Schubnell, Michael; Serrano, Santiago; Silber, Joseph; Sprayberry, David; Tarle, Greg</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The Dark Energy Spectroscopic <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> (DESI) is under construction to measure the expansion history of the Universe using the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation technique. The spectra of 40 million galaxies over 14,000 sq. deg. will be measured during the life of the experiment. A new prime focus corrector for the KPNO Mayall telescope will deliver light to 5000 fiber optic positioners. The fibers in turn feed ten broad-band spectrographs. We describe the ProtoDESI experiment, planned for installation and commissioning at the Mayall telescope in the fall of 2016, which will test the fiber positioning system for DESI. The ProtoDESI focal plate, consisting of 10 fiber positioners, illuminated fiducials, and a guide, focus and alignment (GFA) sensor module, will be installed behind the existing Mosaic prime focus corrector. A Fiber View Camera (FVC) will be mounted to the lower surface of the primary mirror cell and a subset of the <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Control System (ICS) will control the ProtoDESI subsystems, communicate with the Telescope Control System (TCS), and collect <span class="hlt">instrument</span> monitoring data. Short optical fibers from the positioners will be routed to the back of the focal plane where they will be imaged by the Fiber Photometry Camera (FPC) or back-illuminated by a LED system. Target objects will be identified relative to guide stars, and using the GFA in a control loop with the ICS/TCS system, the guide stars will remain stable on pre-identified GFA pixels. The fiber positioners will then be commanded to the target locations and placed on the targets iteratively, using the FVC to centroid on back-illuminated fibers and fiducials to make corrective delta motions. When the positioners are aligned with the targets on-sky, the FPC will measure the intensities from the positioners' fibers which can then be dithered to look for intensity changes, indicating how well the fibers were initially positioned on target centers. The final goal is to operate ProtoDESI on the Mayall</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850010602','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850010602"><span><span class="hlt">Instrumental</span> background in balloon-borne gamma-ray spectrometers and techniques for its <span class="hlt">reduction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gehrels, N.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Instrumental</span> background in balloon-borne gamma-ray spectrometers is presented. The calculations are based on newly available interaction cross sections and new analytic techniques, and are the most detailed and accurate published to date. Results compare well with measurements made in the 20 keV to 10 MeV energy range by the Goddard Low Energy Gamma-ray Spectrometer (LEGS). The principal components of the continuum background in spectrometers with GE detectors and thick active shields are: (1) elastic neutron scattering of atmospheric neutrons on the Ge nuclei; (2) aperture flux of atmospheric and cosmic gamma rays; (3) beta decays of unstable nuclides produced by nuclear interactions of atmospheric protons and neutrons with Ge nuclei; and (4) shield leakage of atmospheric gamma rays. The improved understanding of these components leads to several recommended techniques for reducing the background.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AcSpe.114...81B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AcSpe.114...81B"><span>Definition of the limit of quantification in the presence of <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> and non-<span class="hlt">instrumental</span> errors. Comparison among various definitions applied to the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of zinc by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Badocco, Denis; Lavagnini, Irma; Mondin, Andrea; Favaro, Gabriella; Pastore, Paolo</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The limit of quantification (LOQ) in the presence of <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> and non-<span class="hlt">instrumental</span> errors was proposed. It was theoretically defined combining the two-component variance regression and LOQ schemas already present in the literature and applied to the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of zinc by the ICP-MS technique. At low concentration levels, the two-component variance LOQ definition should be always used above all when a clean room is not available. Three LOQ definitions were accounted for. One of them in the concentration and two in the signal domain. The LOQ computed in the concentration domain, proposed by Currie, was completed by adding the third order terms in the Taylor expansion because they are of the same order of magnitude of the second ones so that they cannot be neglected. In this context, the error propagation was simplified by eliminating the correlation contributions by using independent random variables. Among the signal domain definitions, a particular attention was devoted to the recently proposed approach based on at least one significant digit in the measurement. The relative LOQ values resulted very large in preventing the quantitative analysis. It was found that the Currie schemas in the signal and concentration domains gave similar LOQ values but the former formulation is to be preferred as more easily computable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880010376','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880010376"><span>DIRBE External <span class="hlt">Calibrator</span> (DEC)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wyatt, Clair L.; Thurgood, V. Alan; Allred, Glenn D.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Under NASA Contract No. NAS5-28185, the Center for Space Engineering at Utah State University has produced a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE). DIRBE is one of the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> aboard the Cosmic Background Experiment Observatory (COBE). The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is referred to as the DEC (Dirbe External <span class="hlt">Calibrator</span>). DEC produces a steerable, infrared beam of controlled spectral content and intensity and with selectable point source or diffuse source characteristics, that can be directed into the DIRBE to map fields and determine response characteristics. This report discusses the design of the DEC <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, its operation and characteristics, and provides an analysis of the systems capabilities and performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160006407','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160006407"><span>Design and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of a Raman Spectrometer for use in a Laser Spectroscopy <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Intended to Analyze Martian Surface and Atmospheric Characteristics for NASA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lucas, John F.; Hornef, James</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This project's goal is the design of a Raman spectroscopy <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to be utilized by NASA in an integrated spectroscopy strategy that will include Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser-Induced Florescence Spectroscopy (LIFS) for molecule and element identification on Mars Europa, and various asteroids. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is to be down scaled from a dedicated rover mounted <span class="hlt">instrument</span> into a compact unit with the same capabilities and accuracy as the larger <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. The focus for this design is a spectrometer that utilizes Raman spectroscopy. The spectrometer has a calculated range of 218 nm wavelength spectrum with a resolution of 1.23 nm. To filter out the laser source wavelength of 532 nm the spectrometer design utilizes a 532 nm wavelength dichroic mirror and a 532 nm wavelength notch filter. The remaining scatter signal is concentrated by a 20 x microscopic objective through a 25-micron vertical slit into a 5mm diameter, 1cm focal length double concave focusing lens. The light is then diffracted by a 1600 Lines per Millimeter (L/mm) dual holographic transmission grating. This spectrum signal is captured by a 1-inch diameter double convex 3 cm focal length capture lens. An Intensified Charge Couple Device (ICCD) is placed within the initial focal cone of the capture lens and the Raman signal captured is to be analyzed through spectroscopy imaging software. This combination allows for accurate Raman spectroscopy to be achieved. The components for the spectrometer have been bench tested in a series of prototype developments based on theoretical calculations, alignment, and scaling strategies. The mounting platform is 2.5 cm wide by 8.8 cm long by 7 cm height. This platform has been tested and <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> with various sources such as a neon light source and ruby crystal. This platform is intended to be enclosed in a ruggedized enclosure for mounting on a rover platform. The size and functionality of the Raman spectrometer allows for the rover to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4945338','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4945338"><span>Evaluation of Microbial <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> in Root Canals <span class="hlt">Instrumented</span> with Reciprocating and Rotary Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>DE OLIVEIRA, BRUNA PALOMA; AGUIAR, CARLOS MENEZES; CÂMARA, ANDRÉA CRUZ; DE ALBUQUERQUE, MIRACY MUNIZ; CORREIA, ANA CRISTINA REGIS DE BARROS; SOARES, MONICA FELTS DE LA ROCA</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the disinfection of root canal systems carried out with ReciprocTM and ProTaper UniversalTM systems using 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Methods Forty human single-rooted mandibular premolars were infected with Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, and twenty were not infected. The specimens were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 10): Group 1: ProTaper UniversalTM + 1% NaOCl; Group 2 (positive control): ProTaper UniversalTM + saline; Group 3 (negative control without microorganisms): ProTaper UniversalTM + saline; Group 4: ReciprocTM + 1% NaOCl; Group 5 (positive control): ReciprocTM + saline; Group 6 (negative control without microorganisms): ReciprocTM + saline. Samples were collected before and after the completion of specific treatments, and plated in specific media cultures. The Fisher exact test was used for the statistical analysis of differences in terms of presence or absence of microbial growth among groups. For all tested pathogens, significant differences (p < 0.001) were verified between the <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> systems used. Results ProTaper UniversalTM associated with 1% NaOCl completely eliminated all microorganisms. Microbial growth, however, was observed when ReciprocTM was used associated with 1% NaOCl. Conclusion According to the protocol executed for this study, the ReciprocTM system associated with 1% NaOCl was not able to completely eliminate E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and C. albicans from the root canal systems. PMID:27688413</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930048926&hterms=ice+cube&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dice%2Bcube','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930048926&hterms=ice+cube&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dice%2Bcube"><span>Charge-coupled device imaging spectroscopy of Mars. I - <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> and data <span class="hlt">reduction</span>/analysis procedures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bell, James F., III; Lucey, Paul G.; Mccord, Thomas B.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes the collection, <span class="hlt">reduction</span>, and analysis of 0.4-1.0-micron Mars imaging spectroscopy data obtained during the 1988 and 1990 oppositions from Mauna Kea Observatory and provides a general outline for the acquisition and analysis of similar imaging spectroscopy data sets. The U.H. 2.24-m Wide Field Grism CCD Spectrograph was used to collect 13 3D image cubes covering 90 percent of the planet south of 50 deg N in the 0.4-0.8 micron region and covering 55 percent of the planet south of 50 deg N in the 0.5-1.0 micron region. Spectra extracted from these image cubes reveal the detailed character of the Martian near-UV to visible spectrum. Images at red wavelengths reveal the 'classical' albedo markings at 100-500 km spatial resolution while images at blue wavelengths show little surface feature contrast and are dominated by condensate clouds/hazes and polar ice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930048926&hterms=spectroscopy+uv-+visible&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dspectroscopy%2Buv-%2Bvisible','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930048926&hterms=spectroscopy+uv-+visible&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dspectroscopy%2Buv-%2Bvisible"><span>Charge-coupled device imaging spectroscopy of Mars. I - <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> and data <span class="hlt">reduction</span>/analysis procedures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bell, James F., III; Lucey, Paul G.; Mccord, Thomas B.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes the collection, <span class="hlt">reduction</span>, and analysis of 0.4-1.0-micron Mars imaging spectroscopy data obtained during the 1988 and 1990 oppositions from Mauna Kea Observatory and provides a general outline for the acquisition and analysis of similar imaging spectroscopy data sets. The U.H. 2.24-m Wide Field Grism CCD Spectrograph was used to collect 13 3D image cubes covering 90 percent of the planet south of 50 deg N in the 0.4-0.8 micron region and covering 55 percent of the planet south of 50 deg N in the 0.5-1.0 micron region. Spectra extracted from these image cubes reveal the detailed character of the Martian near-UV to visible spectrum. Images at red wavelengths reveal the 'classical' albedo markings at 100-500 km spatial resolution while images at blue wavelengths show little surface feature contrast and are dominated by condensate clouds/hazes and polar ice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27733003','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27733003"><span>Standardization of Disposable <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> in Microvascular Breast Reconstruction: A Case Study in Cost <span class="hlt">Reduction</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Still, Brady R; Christianson, Laura W; Mhlaba, Julie M; O'Malley, Ian P; Song, David H; Langerman, Alexander J</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Background A key avoidable expense in the surgical setting is the wastage of disposable surgical items, which are discarded after cases even if they go unused. A major contributor to wastage of these items is the inaccuracy of surgeon preference cards, which are rarely examined or updated. The authors report the application of a novel technique called cost heatmapping to facilitate standardization of preference cards for microvascular breast reconstruction. Methods Preference card data were obtained for all surgeons performing microvascular breast reconstruction at the authors' institution. These data were visualized using the heatmap.2 function in the gplot package for R. The resulting cost heatmaps were shown to all surgeons performing microvascular breast reconstruction at our institution; each surgeon was asked to classify the items on the heatmap as "always needed," "sometimes needed," or "never needed." This feedback was used to generate a lean standardized preference card for all surgeons. This card was validated by all surgeons performing the case and by nursing leadership familiar with the supply needs of microvascular breast reconstruction before implementation. Cost savings associated with implementation were calculated. Results Implementation of the preference card changes will lead to an estimated per annum savings of $17,981.20 and a per annum <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in individual items listed on preference cards of 1,693 items. Conclusion Cost heatmapping is a powerful tool for increasing surgeon awareness of cost and for facilitating comparison and standardization of surgeon preference cards. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28065638','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28065638"><span>Iterative metal artefact <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in CT: can dedicated algorithms improve image quality after spinal <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aissa, J; Thomas, C; Sawicki, L M; Caspers, J; Kröpil, P; Antoch, G; Boos, J</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>To investigate the value of dedicated computed tomography (CT) iterative metal artefact <span class="hlt">reduction</span> (iMAR) algorithms in patients after spinal <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>. Post-surgical spinal CT images of 24 patients performed between March 2015 and July 2016 were retrospectively included. Images were reconstructed with standard weighted filtered back projection (WFBP) and with two dedicated iMAR algorithms (iMAR-Algo1, adjusted to spinal <span class="hlt">instrumentations</span> and iMAR-Algo2, adjusted to large metallic hip implants) using a medium smooth kernel (B30f) and a sharp kernel (B70f). Frequencies of density changes were quantified to assess objective image quality. Image quality was rated subjectively by evaluating the visibility of critical anatomical structures including the central canal, the spinal cord, neural foramina, and vertebral bone. Both iMAR algorithms significantly reduced artefacts from metal compared with WFBP (p<0.0001). Results of subjective image analysis showed that both iMAR algorithms led to an improvement in visualisation of soft-tissue structures (median iMAR-Algo1=3; interquartile range [IQR]:1.5-3; iMAR-Algo2=4; IQR: 3.5-4) and bone structures (iMAR-Algo1=3; IQR:3-4; iMAR-Algo2=4; IQR:4-5) compared to WFBP (soft tissue: median 2; IQR: 0.5-2 and bone structures: median 2; IQR: 1-3; p<0.0001). Compared with iMAR-Algo1, objective artefact <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and subjective visualisation of soft-tissue and bone structures were improved with iMAR-Algo2 (p<0.0001). Both iMAR algorithms reduced artefacts compared with WFBP, however, the iMAR algorithm with dedicated settings for large metallic implants was superior to the algorithm specifically adjusted to spinal implants. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AMTD....3.2681T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AMTD....3.2681T"><span>Inherent <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of a novel LED-CE-DOAS <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to measure iodine oxide, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide, water vapour and aerosol extinction in open cavity mode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thalman, R.; Volkamer, R.</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>The combination of Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (CEAS) with broad-band light sources (e.g. Light-Emitting Diodes, LEDs) lends itself to the application of cavity enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE-DOAS) to perform sensitive and selective point measurements of multiple trace gases and aerosol extinction with a single <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. In contrast to other broad-band CEAS techniques, CE-DOAS relies only on the measurement of relative intensity changes, i.e. does not require knowledge of the light intensity in the absence of trace gases and aerosols (I0). We have built a prototype LED-CE-DOAS <span class="hlt">instrument</span> in the blue spectral range (420-490 nm) to measure nitrogen dioxide (NO2), glyoxal (CHOCHO), methyl glyoxal (CH3COCHO), iodine oxide (IO), water vapour (H2O) and oxygen dimers (O4). We demonstrate the first CEAS detection of methyl glyoxal, and the first CE-DOAS detection of CHOCHO and IO. A further innovation consists in the measurement of extinction losses from the cavity, e.g. due to aerosols, at two wavelengths by observing O4 (477 nm) and H2O (443 nm) and measuring the pressure, relative humidity and temperature independently. This approach is demonstrated by experiments where laboratory aerosols of known size and refractive index were generated and their extinction measured. The measured extinctions were then compared to the theoretical extinctions calculated using Mie theory (3-7×10-7 cm-1). Excellent agreement is found from both the O4 and H2O retrievals. This enables the first inherently <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> CEAS measurement in open cavity mode (mirrors facing the open atmosphere), and eliminates the need for sampling lines to supply air to the cavity, and/or keep the cavity enclosed and aerosol free. Measurements in open cavity mode are demonstrated for CHOCHO, CH3COCHO, NO2, H2O and aerosol extinction at 477 nm and 443 nm. Our prototype LED-CE-DOAS provides a low cost, yet research grade innovative <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for applications in simulation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030054464','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030054464"><span>Derivation of the Data <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Equations for the <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the Six-component Thrust Stand in the CE-22 Advanced Nozzle Test Facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wong, Kin C.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>This paper documents the derivation of the data <span class="hlt">reduction</span> equations for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the six-component thrust stand located in the CE-22 Advanced Nozzle Test Facility. The purpose of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is to determine the first-order interactions between the axial, lateral, and vertical load cells (second-order interactions are assumed to be negligible). In an ideal system, the measurements made by the thrust stand along the three coordinate axes should be independent. For example, when a test article applies an axial force on the thrust stand, the axial load cells should measure the full magnitude of the force, while the off-axis load cells (lateral and vertical) should read zero. Likewise, if a lateral force is applied, the lateral load cells should measure the entire force, while the axial and vertical load cells should read zero. However, in real-world systems, there may be interactions between the load cells. Through proper design of the thrust stand, these interactions can be minimized, but are hard to eliminate entirely. Therefore, the purpose of the thrust stand <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is to account for these interactions, so that necessary corrections can be made during testing. These corrections can be expressed in the form of an interaction matrix, and this paper shows the derivation of the equations used to obtain the coefficients in this matrix.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28629463','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28629463"><span>How understanding and application of drug-related legal <span class="hlt">instruments</span> affects harm <span class="hlt">reduction</span> interventions in Cambodia: a qualitative study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tuot, Sovannary; Ngin, Chanrith; Pal, Khuondyla; Sou, Sochenda; Sawez, Ghazal; Morgan, Phylicia; Srey, Mony; Chan, Tola; Chhoun, Pheak; Golichenko, Olga; Choub, Sok Chamreun; Yi, Siyan</p> <p>2017-06-19</p> <p>Harm <span class="hlt">reduction</span> interventions in Cambodia face numerous obstacles because of conflicting understanding and interests and inconsistencies in the implementation by law enforcement officials. This study aims to examine how understanding and application of Drug Control Law (DCL) and Village/Commune Safety Policy (VCSP) affects harm <span class="hlt">reduction</span> interventions in Cambodia from the standpoints of law enforcement officials, people who inject drugs and people who use drugs (PWID/PWUD), as well as other key stakeholders. This qualitative study was conducted in the capital city of Phnom Penh in 2015. We held five focus group discussions (FGDs) with groups of PWID/PWUD, police officers, Sangkat/commune officers, and local non-governmental organization (NGO) field staff. We also conducted ten key informant interviews (KIIs) with representatives from government agencies, donor agencies, and NGOs. FGDs and KIIs with Cambodian participants were transcribed in Khmer and translated into English. KIIs with foreign participants were transcribed in English. Transcripts were read and re-read to identify emerging themes, which were reviewed and refined to develop common and divergent patterns. There was a huge gap between what the DCL and VCSP say and how law enforcement officers and PWID/PWUD understood them. The gap was also evident in how law enforcement officers implemented the DCL and VCSP. Harm <span class="hlt">reduction</span> services, including health- and non-health-related interventions, were limited and challenged by unsupportive attitudes, misinterpretation of the DCL and VCSP, and the lack of full engagement with NGOs in the development of these <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The needs of PWID/PWUD in accessing health care services were not met due to misconduct of authorities while practicing the DCL and VCSP. Further, the misconduct and enforcement of the law and policy lead to increased social discrimination and physical abuses against PWID/PWUD. There is a lack of common understanding of the drug-related law and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1028/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1028/"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of PS09, PS10, and PS11 trans-Alaska pipeline system strong-motion <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, with acceleration, velocity, and displacement records of the Denali fault earthquake, 03 November 2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Evans, John R.; Jensen, E. Gray; Sell, Russell; Stephens, Christopher D.; Nyman, Douglas J.; Hamilton, Robert C.; Hager, William C.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In September, 2003, the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company (APSC) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) embarked on a joint effort to extract, test, and <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the accelerometers, amplifiers, and bandpass filters from the earthquake monitoring systems (EMS) at Pump Stations 09, 10, and 11 of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). These were the three closest strong-motion seismographs to the Denali fault when it ruptured in the MW 7.9 earthquake of 03 November 2002 (22:12:41 UTC). The surface rupture is only 3.0 km from PS10 and 55.5 km from PS09 but PS11 is 124.2 km away from a small rupture splay and 126.9 km from the main trace. Here we briefly describe precision <span class="hlt">calibration</span> results for all three <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Included with this report is a link to the seismograms reprocessed using these new <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>: http://nsmp.wr.usgs.gov/data_sets/20021103_2212_taps.html <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> information in this paper applies at the time of the Denali fault earthquake (03 November 2002), but not necessarily at other times because equipment at these stations is changed by APSC personnel at irregular intervals. In particular, the equipment at PS09, PS10, and PS11 was changed by our joint crew in September, 2003, so that we could perform these <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. The equipment stayed the same from at least the time of the earthquake until that retrieval, and these <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> apply for that interval.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7807E..1AC','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7807E..1AC"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> support for NPP VIIRS SDR assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chiang, Kwo-Fu; Wu, Aisheng; Sun, Junqiang; Schwaller, Mathew R.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is one of the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> included in the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP), which is a joint mission between NASA and the NPOESS Integrated Program Office (IPO). The NPP provides a bridge between the current Earth Observing System (EOS) and future NPOESS missions by testing the pre-operational on-orbit system and providing risk <span class="hlt">reduction</span> for key NPOESS <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The VIIRS exploits design concepts of advanced sensors, such as the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and development of data products on the NASA EOS. It is designed to provide continuity of global observations of land, ocean, cloud, and atmospheric parameters, called Environmental Data Records (EDRs), for real-time meteorological operations and long-term climate change research. This paper provides a brief overview of the VIIRS <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on-orbit radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and characterization activities supported by the NASA NPP <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Support Element (NICSE). The NICSE is part of the Science Data Segment (SDS) within the NASA NPP program. This paper focuses on the capability and responsibility of NICSE, the tool development for post-launch <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and activities to assess sensor performance through the use of its On-board <span class="hlt">Calibrators</span> (OBCs), as well as to independently verify the quality of VIIRS Sensor Data Records (SDRs).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998ASPC..145..300B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998ASPC..145..300B"><span>The STScI NICMOS <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Pipeline</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bushouse, H. A.; Stobie, E.</p> <p></p> <p>The NICMOS data <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> pipeline employs file formats and software architecture techniques that are new and different from what has been used for previous HST <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. This paper describes the FITS file format used for NICMOS data, which includes error estimate and data quality arrays for each science image, and describes the approach used to associate multiple observations of a single target. The software architecture, which employs ANSI C language algorithms and C bindings to IRAF libraries, is also described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26275596','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26275596"><span>Watershed model <span class="hlt">calibration</span> framework developed using an influence coefficient algorithm and a genetic algorithm and analysis of pollutant discharge characteristics and load <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in a TMDL planning area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cho, Jae Heon; Lee, Jong Ho</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Manual <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is common in rainfall-runoff model applications. However, rainfall-runoff models include several complicated parameters; thus, significant time and effort are required to manually <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the parameters individually and repeatedly. Automatic <span class="hlt">calibration</span> has relative merit regarding time efficiency and objectivity but shortcomings regarding understanding indigenous processes in the basin. In this study, a watershed model <span class="hlt">calibration</span> framework was developed using an influence coefficient algorithm and genetic algorithm (WMCIG) to automatically <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the distributed models. The optimization problem used to minimize the sum of squares of the normalized residuals of the observed and predicted values was solved using a genetic algorithm (GA). The final model parameters were determined from the iteration with the smallest sum of squares of the normalized residuals of all iterations. The WMCIG was applied to a Gomakwoncheon watershed located in an area that presents a total maximum daily load (TMDL) in Korea. The proportion of urbanized area in this watershed is low, and the diffuse pollution loads of nutrients such as phosphorus are greater than the point-source pollution loads because of the concentration of rainfall that occurs during the summer. The pollution discharges from the watershed were estimated for each land-use type, and the seasonal variations of the pollution loads were analyzed. Consecutive flow measurement gauges have not been installed in this area, and it is difficult to survey the flow and water quality in this area during the frequent heavy rainfall that occurs during the wet season. The Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model was used to calculate the runoff flow and water quality in this basin. Using the water quality results, a load duration curve was constructed for the basin, the exceedance frequency of the water quality standard was calculated for each hydrologic condition class, and the percent <span class="hlt">reduction</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017A%26A...597A..35P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017A%26A...597A..35P"><span>SNR 1E 0102.2-7219 as an X-ray <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standard in the 0.5-1.0 keV bandpass and its application to the CCD <span class="hlt">instruments</span> aboard Chandra, Suzaku, Swift and XMM-Newton</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Plucinsky, Paul P.; Beardmore, Andrew P.; Foster, Adam; Haberl, Frank; Miller, Eric D.; Pollock, Andrew M. T.; Sembay, Steve</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Context. The flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the spectral response of charge-coupled device (CCD) <span class="hlt">instruments</span> below 1.5 keV is difficult in general because of the lack of strong lines in the on-board <span class="hlt">calibration</span> sources typically available. This <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is also a function of time due to the effects of radiation damage on the CCDs and/or the accumulation of a contamination layer on the filters or CCDs. Aims: We desire a simple comparison of the absolute effective areas of the current generation of CCD <span class="hlt">instruments</span> onboard the following observatories: Chandra ACIS-S3, XMM-Newton (EPIC-MOS and EPIC-pn), Suzaku XIS, and Swift XRT and a straightforward comparison of the time-dependent response of these <span class="hlt">instruments</span> across their respective mission lifetimes. Methods: We have been using 1E 0102.2-7219, the brightest supernova remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud, to evaluate and modify the response models of these <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. 1E 0102.2-7219 has strong lines of O, Ne, and Mg below 1.5 keV and little or no Fe emission to complicate the spectrum. The spectrum of 1E 0102.2-7219 has been well-characterized using the RGS gratings <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on XMM-Newton and the HETG gratings <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on Chandra. As part of the activities of the International Astronomical Consortium for High Energy <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> (IACHEC), we have developed a standard spectral model for 1E 0102.2-7219 and fit this model to the spectra extracted from the CCD <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The model is empirical in that it includes Gaussians for the identified lines, an absorption component in the Galaxy, another absorption component in the SMC, and two thermal continuum components with different temperatures. In our fits, the model is highly constrained in that only the normalizations of the four brightest lines/line complexes (the O vii Heα triplet, O viii Lyα line, the Ne ix Heα triplet, and the Ne x Lyα line) and an overall normalization are allowed to vary, while all other components are fixed. We adopted this approach to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16456509','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16456509"><span>[Survey and analysis of radiation safety management systems at medical institutions--second report: radiation measurement, <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of radiation survey meters, and periodic check of installations, equipment, and protection <span class="hlt">instruments</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Aburano, Tamio</p> <p>2006-01-20</p> <p>We carried out a questionnaire survey to determine the actual situation of radiation safety management measures in all medical institutions in Japan that had nuclear medicine facilities. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the evaluation of shielding capacity; radiation measurement; periodic checks of installations, equipment, and protection <span class="hlt">instruments</span>; and the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of radiation survey meters. The analysis was undertaken according to region, type of establishment, and number of beds. The overall response rate was 60 percent. For the evaluation of shielding capacity, the outsourcing rate was 53 percent of the total. For the radiation measurements of "leakage radiation dose and radioactive contamination" and "contamination of radioactive substances in the air," the outsourcing rates were 28 percent and 35 percent of the total, respectively (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). For the periodic check of radiation protection <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, the implementation rate was 98 percent, and the outsourcing rate was 32 percent for radiation survey meters and 47 percent for lead aprons. The non-implemented rate for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of radiation survey meters was 25 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). The outsourcing rate for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of radiation survey meters accounted for 87 percent of the total, and of these medical institutions, 72 percent undertook annual <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. The implementation rate for patient exposure measurement was 20 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to number of beds), and of these medical institutions 46 percent recorded measurement outcome.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150011083','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150011083"><span>Improved Detection System Description and New Method for Accurate <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of Micro-Channel Plate Based <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> and Its Use in the Fast Plasma Investigation on NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gliese, U.; Avanov, L. A.; Barrie, A. C.; Kujawski, J. T.; Mariano, A. J.; Tucker, C. J.; Chornay, D. J.; Cao, N. T.; Gershman, D. J.; Dorelli, J. C.; Zeuch, M. A.; Pollock, C. J.; Jacques, A. D.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) on NASAs Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission employs 16 Dual Electron Spectrometers (DESs) and 16 Dual Ion Spectrometers (DISs) with 4 of each type on each of 4 spacecraft to enable fast (30 ms for electrons; 150 ms for ions) and spatially differentiated measurements of the full 3D particle velocity distributions. This approach presents a new and challenging aspect to the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and operation of these <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on ground and in flight. The response uniformity, the reliability of their <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and the approach to handling any temporal evolution of these <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> characteristics all assume enhanced importance in this application, where we attempt to understand the meaning of particle distributions within the ion and electron diffusion regions of magnetically reconnecting plasmas. Traditionally, the micro-channel plate (MCP) based detection systems for electrostatic particle spectrometers have been <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> using the plateau curve technique. In this, a fixed detection threshold is set. The detection system count rate is then measured as a function of MCP voltage to determine the MCP voltage that ensures the count rate has reached a constant value independent of further variation in the MCP voltage. This is achieved when most of the MCP pulse height distribution (PHD) is located at higher values (larger pulses) than the detection system discrimination threshold. This method is adequate in single-channel detection systems and in multi-channel detection systems with very low crosstalk between channels. However, in dense multi-channel systems, it can be inadequate. Furthermore, it fails to fully describe the behavior of the detection system and individually characterize each of its fundamental parameters. To improve this situation, we have developed a detailed phenomenological description of the detection system, its behavior and its signal, crosstalk and noise sources. Based on this, we have devised a new detection</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/245617','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/245617"><span>Sandia WIPP <span class="hlt">calibration</span> traceability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schuhen, M.D.; Dean, T.A.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>This report summarizes the work performed to establish <span class="hlt">calibration</span> traceability for the <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> used by Sandia National Laboratories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during testing from 1980-1985. Identifying the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> traceability is an important part of establishing a pedigree for the data and is part of the qualification of existing data. In general, the requirement states that the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of Measuring and Test equipment must have a valid relationship to nationally recognized standards or the basis for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> must be documented. Sandia recognized that just establishing <span class="hlt">calibration</span> traceability would not necessarily mean that all QA requirements were met during the certification of test <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>. To address this concern, the assessment was expanded to include various activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ASPC..314..380S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ASPC..314..380S"><span>Data <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Software for the VLT Integral Field Spectrometer SPIFFI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schreiber, J.; Thatte, N.; Eisenhauer, F.; Tecza, M.; Abuter, R.; Horrobin, M.</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>A data <span class="hlt">reduction</span> software package is developed to reduce data of the near-IR integral field spectrometer SPIFFI built at MPE. The basic data <span class="hlt">reduction</span> routines are coded in ANSI C. The high level scripting language Python is used to connect the C-routines allowing fast prototyping. Several Python scripts are written to produce the needed <span class="hlt">calibration</span> data and to generate the final result, a wavelength <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> data cube with the <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> signatures removed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25424649','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25424649"><span>Mechanical <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of the intracanal Enterococcus faecalis population by Hyflex CM, K3XF, ProTaper Next, and two manual <span class="hlt">instrument</span> systems: an in vitro comparative study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tewari, Rajendra K; Ali, Sajid; Mishra, Surendra K; Kumar, Ashok; Andrabi, Syed Mukhtar-Un-Nisar; Zoya, Asma; Alam, Sharique</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>In the present study, the effectiveness of three rotary and two manual nickel titanium <span class="hlt">instrument</span> systems on mechanical <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of the intracanal Enterococcus faecalis population was evaluated. Mandibular premolars with straight roots were selected. Teeth were decoronated and <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> until 20 K file and irrigated with physiological saline. After sterilization by ethylene oxide gas, root canals were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis. The specimens were randomly divided into five groups for canal <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>: Manual Nitiflex and Hero Shaper nickel titanium files, and rotary Hyflex CM, ProTaper Next, and K3XF nickel titanium files. Intracanal bacterial sampling was done before and after <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>. After serial dilution, samples were plated onto the Mitis Salivarius agar. The c.f.u. grown were counted, and log10 transformation was calculated. All <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> systems significantly reduced the intracanal bacterial population after root canal preparation. ProTaper Next was found to be significantly more effective than Hyflex CM and manual Nitiflex and Hero Shaper. However, ProTaper Next showed no significant difference with K3XF. Canal <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> by all the file systems significantly reduced the intracanal Enterococcus faecalis counts. ProTaper Next was found to be most effective in reducing the number of bacteria than other rotary or hand <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990014135','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990014135"><span><span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> for Aerosol and Gas Speciation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Coggiola, Michael J.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Using support from NASA Grant No. NAG 2-963, SRI International successfully completed the project, entitled, '<span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> for Aerosol and Gas Speciation.' This effort (SRI Project 7383) covered the design, fabrication, testing, and deployment of a real-time aerosol speciation <span class="hlt">instrument</span> in NASA's DC-8 aircraft during the Spring 1996 SUbsonic aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS) mission. This final technical report describes the pertinent details of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> design, its abilities, its deployment during SUCCESS and the data acquired from the mission, and the post-mission <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, data <span class="hlt">reduction</span>, and analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004StaUN.247.....D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004StaUN.247.....D"><span>XRT -- ROSAT XRT Data <span class="hlt">Reduction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davenhall, A. C.; Platon, R. T.</p> <p></p> <p>XRT is a package for reducing data acquired with the ROSAT XRT <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The XRT (X-Ray Telescope) was the principal scientific payload of the ROSAT X-ray astronomy satellite. The XRT had two <span class="hlt">instruments</span>: the PSPC (Position Sensitive Proportional Counter) and the HRI (High Resolution Imager). The XRT package operates on data produced by these <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and can be used to transform them into <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> images, spectra, time-series etc. XRT was created by taking the ROSAT XRT-specific functions in the ASTERIX general X-ray astronomy data <span class="hlt">reduction</span> system and re-packaging them as stand-alone applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010071181&hterms=holly&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dholly','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010071181&hterms=holly&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dholly"><span>MIRO <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Switch Mechanism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Suchman, Jason; Salinas, Yuki; Kubo, Holly</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has designed, analyzed, built, and tested a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> switch mechanism for the MIRO <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on the ROSETTA spacecraft. MIRO is the Microwave <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> for the Rosetta Orbiter; this <span class="hlt">instrument</span> hopes to investigate the origin of the solar system by studying the origin of comets. Specifically, the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> will be the first to use submillimeter and millimeter wave heterodyne receivers to remotely examine the P-54 Wirtanen comet. In order to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, it needs to view a hot and cold target. The purpose of the mechanism is to divert the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>'s field of view from the hot target, to the cold target, and then back into space. This cycle is to be repeated every 30 minutes for the duration of the 1.5 year mission. The paper describes the development of the mechanism, as well as analysis and testing techniques.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35.2312Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35.2312Z"><span>ALTEA <span class="hlt">calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaconte, V.; Altea Team</p> <p></p> <p>The ALTEA project is aimed at studying the possible functional damages to the Central Nervous System (CNS) due to particle radiation in space environment. The project is an international and multi-disciplinary collaboration. The ALTEA facility is an helmet-shaped device that will study concurrently the passage of cosmic radiation through the brain, the functional status of the visual system and the electrophysiological dynamics of the cortical activity. The basic <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> is composed by six active particle telescopes, one ElectroEncephaloGraph (EEG), a visual stimulator and a pushbutton. The telescopes are able to detect the passage of each particle measuring its energy, trajectory and released energy into the brain and identifying nuclear species. The EEG and the Visual Stimulator are able to measure the functional status of the visual system, the cortical electrophysiological activity, and to look for a correlation between incident particles, brain activity and Light Flash perceptions. These basic <span class="hlt">instruments</span> can be used separately or in any combination, permitting several different experiments. ALTEA is scheduled to fly in the International Space Station (ISS) in November, 15th 2004. In this paper the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the Flight Model of the silicon telescopes (Silicon Detector Units - SDUs) will be shown. These measures have been taken at the GSI heavy ion accelerator in Darmstadt. First <span class="hlt">calibration</span> has been taken out in November 2003 on the SDU-FM1 using C nuclei at different energies: 100, 150, 400 and 600 Mev/n. We performed a complete beam scan of the SDU-FM1 to check functionality and homogeneity of all strips of silicon detector planes, for each beam energy we collected data to achieve good statistics and finally we put two different thickness of Aluminium and Plexiglas in front of the detector in order to study fragmentations. This test has been carried out with a Test Equipment to simulate the Digital Acquisition Unit (DAU). We are scheduled to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9908E..3AH','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9908E..3AH"><span>Gemini planet imager observational <span class="hlt">calibration</span> XII: photometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> in the polarimetry mode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hung, Li-Wei; Bruzzone, Sebastian; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Wang, Jason J.; Arriaga, Pauline; Metchev, Stanimir; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Perrin, Marshall D.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a high-contrast <span class="hlt">instrument</span> specially designed for direct imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanets and debris disks. GPI can also operate as a dual-channel integral field polarimeter. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> primarily operates in a coronagraphic mode which poses an obstacle for traditional photometric <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> since the majority of on-axis starlight is blocked. To enable accurate photometry relative to the occulted central star, a diffractive grid in a pupil plane is used to create a set of faint copies, named satellite spots, of the occulted star at specified locations and relative intensities in the field of view. We describe the method we developed to perform the photometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of coronagraphic observations in polarimetry mode using these fiducial satellite spots. With the currently available data, we constrain the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> uncertainty to be <13%, but the actual <span class="hlt">calibration</span> uncertainty is likely to be lower. We develop the associated <span class="hlt">calibration</span> scripts in the GPI Data <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Pipeline, which is available to the public. For testing, we use it to photometrically <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the HD 19467 B and β Pic b data sets taken in the H-band polarimetry mode. We measure the <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> flux of HD 19467 B and β Pic b to be 0:078+/-0:011 mJy and 4:87+/-0:73 mJy, both agreeing with other measurements found in the literature. Finally, we explore an alternative method which performs the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> by scaling the photometry in polarimetry mode to the photometrically <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> response in spectroscopy mode. By comparing the reduced observations in raw units, we find that observations in polarimetry mode are 1:03 0:01 brighter than those in spectroscopy mode.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870019347','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870019347"><span><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of ground noise in the transmitter crowbar <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> system by the use of baluns and other noise rejection methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Daeges, J.; Bhanji, A.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Electrical noise interference in the transmitter crowbar monitoring <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> system creates false sensing of crowbar faults during a crowbar firing. One predominant source of noise interference is the conduction of currents in the <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> cable shields. Since these circulating ground noise currents produce noise that is similar to the crowbar fault sensing signals, such noise interference reduces the ability to determine true crowbar faults.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H24F..02O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H24F..02O"><span>On combination of strict Bayesian principles with model <span class="hlt">reduction</span> technique or how stochastic model <span class="hlt">calibration</span> can become feasible for large-scale applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oladyshkin, S.; Schroeder, P.; Class, H.; Nowak, W.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Predicting underground carbon dioxide (CO2) storage represents a challenging problem in a complex dynamic system. Due to lacking information about reservoir parameters, quantification of uncertainties may become the dominant question in risk assessment. <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> on past observed data from pilot-scale test injection can improve the predictive power of the involved geological, flow, and transport models. The current work performs history matching to pressure time series from a pilot storage site operated in Europe, maintained during an injection period. Simulation of compressible two-phase flow and transport (CO2/brine) in the considered site is computationally very demanding, requiring about 12 days of CPU time for an individual model run. For that reason, brute-force approaches for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> are not feasible. In the current work, we explore an advanced framework for history matching based on the arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion (aPC) and strict Bayesian principles. The aPC [1] offers a drastic but accurate stochastic model <span class="hlt">reduction</span>. Unlike many previous chaos expansions, it can handle arbitrary probability distribution shapes of uncertain parameters, and can therefore handle directly the statistical information appearing during the matching procedure. We capture the dependence of model output on these multipliers with the expansion-based reduced model. In our study we keep the spatial heterogeneity suggested by geophysical methods, but consider uncertainty in the magnitude of permeability trough zone-wise permeability multipliers. Next combined the aPC with Bootstrap filtering (a brute-force but fully accurate Bayesian updating mechanism) in order to perform the matching. In comparison to (Ensemble) Kalman Filters, our method accounts for higher-order statistical moments and for the non-linearity of both the forward model and the inversion, and thus allows a rigorous quantification of <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> model uncertainty. The usually high computational costs of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800000516&hterms=programmable+calculator&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dprogrammable%2Bcalculator','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800000516&hterms=programmable+calculator&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dprogrammable%2Bcalculator"><span>Fast <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of gas flowmeters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lisle, R. V.; Wilson, T. L.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Digital unit automates <span class="hlt">calibration</span> sequence using calculator IC and programmable read-only memory to solve <span class="hlt">calibration</span> equations. Infrared sensors start and stop <span class="hlt">calibration</span> sequence. <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrates</span> mass flowmeters or rotameters where flow measurement is based on mass or volume. This automatic control reduces operator time by 80 percent. Solid-state components are very reliable, and digital character allows system accuracy to be determined primarily by accuracy of transducers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJWC.11919003P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJWC.11919003P"><span>Lidar <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Centre</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Freudenthaler, Volker; Nicolae, Doina; Mona, Lucia; Belegante, Livio; D'Amico, Giuseppe</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>This paper presents the newly established Lidar <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Centre, a distributed infrastructure in Europe, whose goal is to offer services for complete characterization and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of lidars and ceilometers. Mobile reference lidars, laboratories for testing and characterization of optics and electronics, facilities for inspection and debugging of <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, as well as for training in good practices are open to users from the scientific community, operational services and private sector. The Lidar <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Centre offers support for trans-national access through the EC HORIZON2020 project ACTRIS-2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20853300','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20853300"><span>Compact radiometric microwave <span class="hlt">calibrator</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fixsen, D. J.; Wollack, E. J.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Mirel, P.; Singal, J.; Fixsen, S. M.</p> <p>2006-06-15</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> methods for the ARCADE II <span class="hlt">instrument</span> are described and the accuracy estimated. The Steelcast coated aluminum cones which comprise the <span class="hlt">calibrator</span> have a low reflection while maintaining 94% of the absorber volume within 5 mK of the base temperature (modeled). The <span class="hlt">calibrator</span> demonstrates an absorber with the active part less than one wavelength thick and only marginally larger than the mouth of the largest horn and yet black (less than -40 dB or 0.01% reflection) over five octaves in frequency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960029171','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960029171"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> improvements to electronically scanned pressure systems and preliminary statistical assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Everhart, Joel L.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Orifice-to-orifice inconsistencies in data acquired with an electronically-scanned pressure system at the beginning of a wind tunnel experiment forced modifications to the standard, <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedures. These modifications included a large increase in the number of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> points which would allow a critical examination of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> curve-fit process, and a subsequent post-test <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of the pressure data. Evaluation of these data has resulted in an improved functional representation of the pressure-voltage signature for electronically-scanned pressures sensors, which can reduce the errors due to <span class="hlt">calibration</span> curve fit to under 0.10 percent of reading compared to the manufacturer specified 0.10 percent of full scale. Application of the improved <span class="hlt">calibration</span> function allows a more rational selection of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> set-point pressures. These pressures should be adjusted to achieve a voltage output which matches the physical shape of the pressure-voltage signature of the sensor. This process is conducted in lieu of the more traditional approach where a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> pressure is specified and the resulting sensor voltage is recorded. The fifteen <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> acquired over the two-week duration of the wind tunnel test were further used to perform a preliminary, statistical assessment of the variation in the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> process. The results allowed the estimation of the bias uncertainty for a single <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; and, they form the precursor for more extensive and more controlled studies in the laboratory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22515905','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22515905"><span><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of hard-tissue debris accumulation during rotary root canal <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> by etidronic acid in a sodium hypochlorite irrigant.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paqué, Frank; Rechenberg, Dan-Krister; Zehnder, Matthias</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Hard-tissue debris is accumulated during rotary <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>. This study investigated to what extent a calcium-complexing agent that has good short-term compatibility with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) could reduce debris accumulation when applied in an all-in-one irrigant during root canal <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>. Sixty extracted mandibular molars with isthmuses in the mesial root canal system were selected based on prescans using a micro-computed tomography system. Thirty teeth each were randomly assigned to be <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> with a rotary system and irrigated with either 2.5% NaOCl or 2.5% NaOCl containing 9% (wt/vol) etidronic acid (HEBP). Using a side-vented irrigating tip, 2 mL of irrigant was applied by 1 blinded investigator to the mesial canals after each <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Five milliliters of irrigant was applied per canal as the final rinse. Mesial root canal systems were scanned at high resolution before and after treatment, and accumulated hard-tissue debris was calculated as vol% of the original canal anatomy. Values between groups were compared using the Student's t test (α < .05). Irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl resulted in 5.5 ± 3.6 vol% accumulated hard-tissue debris compared with 3.8 ± 1.8 vol% when HEBP was contained in the irrigant (P < .05). A hypochlorite-compatible chelator can reduce but not completely prevent hard-tissue debris accumulation during rotary root canal <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140013464','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140013464"><span>Design and Lessons Learned on the Development of a Cryogenic Pupil Select Mechanism Used in the Testing and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the Integrated Science <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Module (ISIM) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mitchell, Alissa; Capon, Thomas; Guzek, Jeffrey; Hakun, Claef; Haney, Paul; Koca, Corina</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and testing of the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on the Integrated Science <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Module (ISIM) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is being performed by the use of a cryogenic, full-field, optical simulator that was constructed for this purpose. The Pupil Select Mechanism (PSM) assembly is one of several mechanisms and optical elements that compose the Optical Telescope Element SIMulator, or OSIM. The PSM allows for several optical elements to be inserted into the optical plane of OSIM, introducing a variety of aberrations, distortions, obscurations, and other <span class="hlt">calibration</span> states into the pupil plane. The following discussion focuses on the details of the design evolution, analysis, build, and test of this mechanism along with the challenges associated with creating a sub arc-minute positioning mechanism operating in an extreme cryogenic environment. In addition, difficult challenges in the control system design will be discussed including the incorporation of closed-loop feedback control into a system that was designed to operate in an open-loop fashion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150004068','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150004068"><span>Design and Lessons Learned on the Development of a Cryogenic Pupil Select Mechanism used in the Testing and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the Integrated Science <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Module (ISIM) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mitchell, Alissa; Capon, Thomas; Guzek, Jeffrey; Hakun, Claef; Haney, Paul; Koca, Corina</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and testing of the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on the Integrated Science <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Module (ISIM) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is being performed by the use of a cryogenic, full-field, optical simulator that was constructed for this purpose. The Pupil Select Mechanism (PSM) assembly is one of several mechanisms and optical elements that compose the Optical Telescope Element SIMulator, or OSIM. The PSM allows for several optical elements to be inserted into the optical plane of OSIM, introducing a variety of aberrations, distortions, obscurations, and other <span class="hlt">calibration</span> states into the pupil plane. The following discussion focuses on the details of the design evolution, analysis, build, and test of this mechanism along with the challenges associated with creating a sub arc-minute positioning mechanism operating in an extreme cryogenic environment. In addition, difficult challenges in the control system design will be discussed including the incorporation of closed-loop feedback control into a system that was designed to operate in an open-loop fashion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840057949&hterms=Fraunhofer+diffraction&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DFraunhofer%2Bdiffraction','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840057949&hterms=Fraunhofer+diffraction&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DFraunhofer%2Bdiffraction"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the Malvern particle sizer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dodge, L. G.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A relatively simple technique has been developed to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> particle- and droplet-sizing <span class="hlt">instruments</span> manufactured by Malvern and other similar Fraunhofer diffraction particle-sizing <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Measurements of standard reticles using an <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> in this manner demonstrate the effectiveness of the procedure. In addition, guidelines are presented to avoid errors due to vignetting of the scattered light signal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SPIE.5152..205H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SPIE.5152..205H"><span>HIRDLS monochromator <span class="hlt">calibration</span> equipment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hepplewhite, Christopher L.; Barnett, John J.; Djotni, Karim; Whitney, John G.; Bracken, Justain N.; Wolfenden, Roger; Row, Frederick; Palmer, Christopher W. P.; Watkins, Robert E. J.; Knight, Rodney J.; Gray, Peter F.; Hammond, Geoffory</p> <p>2003-11-01</p> <p>A specially designed and built monochromator was developed for the spectral <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the HIRDLS <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. The High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) is a precision infra-red remote sensing <span class="hlt">instrument</span> with very tight requirements on the knowledge of the response to received radiation. A high performance, vacuum compatible monochromator, was developed with a wavelength range from 4 to 20 microns to encompass that of the HIRDLS <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. The monochromator is integrated into a collimating system which is shared with a set of tiny broad band sources used for independent spatial response measurements (reported elsewhere). This paper describes the design and implementation of the monochromator and the performance obtained during the period of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the HIRDLS <span class="hlt">instrument</span> at Oxford University in 2002.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/968008','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/968008"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Monitor for Dark Energy Experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kaiser, M. E.</p> <p>2009-11-23</p> <p>The goal of this program was to design, build, test, and characterize a flight qualified <span class="hlt">calibration</span> source and monitor for a Dark Energy related experiment: ACCESS - 'Absolute Color <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Experiment for Standard Stars'. This <span class="hlt">calibration</span> source, the On-board <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Monitor (OCM), is a key component of our ACCESS spectrophotometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> program. The OCM will be flown as part of the ACCESS sub-orbital rocket payload in addition to monitoring <span class="hlt">instrument</span> sensitivity on the ground. The objective of the OCM is to minimize systematic errors associated with any potential changes in the ACCESS <span class="hlt">instrument</span> sensitivity. Importantly, the OCM will be used to monitor <span class="hlt">instrument</span> sensitivity immediately after astronomical observations while the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> payload is parachuting to the ground. Through monitoring, we can detect, track, characterize, and thus correct for any changes in <span class="hlt">instrument</span> senstivity over the proposed 5-year duration of the assembled and <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991igrs.conf.1401K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991igrs.conf.1401K"><span>First results in bistatic <span class="hlt">calibration</span> techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaehny, D.; Wiesbeck, W.; Schmitt, K.</p> <p></p> <p>A bistatic <span class="hlt">calibration</span> technique for wideband fully polarimetric <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> radars is presented. General bistatic scattering geometries and definitions are discussed. The theoretical scattering behavior of suitable <span class="hlt">calibration</span> targets, such as spheres and dihedral corner reflectors, is given. Based on a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approach for the monostatic <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> radar, an approach for the general bistatic case is deduced. For verification purposes measurements were performed on several targets. The verification measurements demonstrate the excellent performance of the <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> system, especially accuracy and cross-polarization purity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/al1209.photos.314788p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/al1209.photos.314788p/"><span>13. VIEW FROM COLD <span class="hlt">CALIBRATION</span> BLOCKHOUSE LOOKING DOWN CONNECTING TUNNEL ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>13. VIEW FROM COLD <span class="hlt">CALIBRATION</span> BLOCKHOUSE LOOKING DOWN CONNECTING TUNNEL TO COLD <span class="hlt">CALIBRATION</span> TEST STAND BASEMENT, SHOWING HARD WIRE CONNECTION (<span class="hlt">INSTRUMENTATION</span> AND CONTROL). - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Cold <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Test Stand, Huntsville, Madison County, AL</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAr39B1..549L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAr39B1..549L"><span>Pleiades Absolute <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> : Inflight <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Sites and Methodology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lachérade, S.; Fourest, S.; Gamet, P.; Lebègue, L.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>In-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of space sensors once in orbit is a decisive step to be able to fulfil the mission objectives. This article presents the methods of the in-flight absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> processed during the commissioning phase. Four In-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span> methods are used: absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, cross-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> with reference sensors such as PARASOL or MERIS, multi-temporal monitoring and inter-bands <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. These algorithms are based on acquisitions over natural targets such as African deserts, Antarctic sites, La Crau (Automatic <span class="hlt">calibration</span> station) and Oceans (<span class="hlt">Calibration</span> over molecular scattering) or also new extra-terrestrial sites such as the Moon and selected stars. After an overview of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and a description of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> sites, it is pointed out how each method is able to address one or several aspects of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. We focus on how these methods complete each other in their operational use, and how they help building a coherent set of information that addresses all aspects of in-orbit <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. Finally, we present the perspectives that the high level of agility of PLEIADES offers for the improvement of its <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and a better characterization of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015scop.confE..17P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015scop.confE..17P"><span>PIONIER: from a Expert mode to an ESO facility <span class="hlt">instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Percheron, Isabelle</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The PIONIER (Precision Integrated-Optics Near-infrared Imaging ExpeRiment) at the VLT Interferometer <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was originally a visitor <span class="hlt">instrument</span> from IPAG (Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble). It is now offered to the ESO community as a facility <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. As a Visitor monde <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, it was operated on selected nights by the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> team/consortium, the goal is now for the Paranal staff to run and monitor the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> as any other VLT/VLTI <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. This is done by fully integrating PIONIER in the ESO scheme. I will present here how this was done for the data <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and the quality assurance of the science data and their related <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019136','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019136"><span>Concept of ASTER <span class="hlt">calibration</span> requirement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ono, A.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The document of ASTER <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Requirement specifies the following items related to spectral and radiometric characteristics of the ASTER <span class="hlt">instrument</span>: (1) characteristics whose knowledge is specified, (2) requirement for knowledge of the characteristics, (3) methodology for characteristics evaluation, and (4) supplementary information and data related with characteristics evaluation. This document is applicable to the document of the ASTER <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Specification on Observational Performances, and will be a part of the ASTER <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Plan. ASTER <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Requirement is scheduled to establish the concept and framework by March 1992 when the 5th <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Data Validation Panel Meeting is held, and to determine details including requirement values and evaluation methodologies by October 1992 around which the <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Peer Review may be held. The ASTER <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Plan is planned to finish by the same time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110015826','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110015826"><span>Principal Component Noise Filtering for NAST-I Radiometric <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L., Sr.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Airborne Sounder Testbed- Interferometer (NAST-I) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is a high-resolution scanning interferometer that measures emitted thermal radiation between 3.3 and 18 microns. The NAST-I radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is achieved using internal blackbody <span class="hlt">calibration</span> references at ambient and hot temperatures. In this paper, we introduce a refined <span class="hlt">calibration</span> technique that utilizes a principal component (PC) noise filter to compensate for <span class="hlt">instrument</span> distortions and artifacts, therefore, further improve the absolute radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> accuracy. To test the procedure and estimate the PC filter noise performance, we form dependent and independent test samples using odd and even sets of blackbody spectra. To determine the optimal number of eigenvectors, the PC filter algorithm is applied to both dependent and independent blackbody spectra with a varying number of eigenvectors. The optimal number of PCs is selected so that the total root-mean-square (RMS) error is minimized. To estimate the filter noise performance, we examine four different scenarios: apply PC filtering to both dependent and independent datasets, apply PC filtering to dependent <span class="hlt">calibration</span> data only, apply PC filtering to independent data only, and no PC filters. The independent blackbody radiances are predicted for each case and comparisons are made. The results show significant <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in noise in the final <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> radiances with the implementation of the PC filtering algorithm.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850005890','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850005890"><span>LANDSAT <span class="hlt">instruments</span> characterization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Y. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Work performed for the LANDSAT <span class="hlt">instrument</span> characterization task in the areas of absolute radiometry, coherent noise analysis, and between-date smoothing is reported. Absolute radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> for LANDSAT-5 TM under ambient conditions was performed. The TM Radiometric Algorithms and Performance Program (TRAPP) was modified to create optional midscan data files and to match the TM Image Processing System (TIPS) algorithm for pulse determination. Several data <span class="hlt">reduction</span> programs were developed, including a linear regression and its plotted result. A fast Fourier transformation study was conducted on the resequenced TM data. Subscenes of homogeneous water within scenes over Pensacola, Florida were used for testing the FFT on the resequenced data. Finally, a gain and pulse height stability study of LANDSAT 5 TM spectral bands was performed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.772a2019S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.772a2019S"><span><span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> Communication Competencies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Surges Tatum, Donna</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The Many-faceted Rasch measurement model is used in the creation of a diagnostic <span class="hlt">instrument</span> by which communication competencies can be <span class="hlt">calibrated</span>, the severity of observers/raters can be determined, the ability of speakers measured, and comparisons made between various groups.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/878274','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/878274"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Systems Final Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Myers, Tanya L.; Broocks, Bryan T.; Phillips, Mark C.</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Systems project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is aimed towards developing and demonstrating compact Quantum Cascade (QC) laser-based <span class="hlt">calibration</span> systems for infrared imaging systems. These on-board systems will improve the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> technology for passive sensors, which enable stand-off detection for the proliferation or use of weapons of mass destruction, by replacing on-board blackbodies with QC laser-based systems. This alternative technology can minimize the impact on <span class="hlt">instrument</span> size and weight while improving the quality of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> for a variety of missions. The potential of replacing flight blackbodies is made feasible by the high output, stability, and repeatability of the QC laser spectral radiance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940031774','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940031774"><span>Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensors <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Handbook, version 4.0</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Holfeltz, S. T. (Editor)</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a revised version of the Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Handbook. The main goal of this edition is to help the potential General Observer (GO) learn how to most efficiently use the Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS's). First, the actual performance of the FGS's as scientific <span class="hlt">instruments</span> is reviewed. Next, each of the available operating modes of the FGS's are reviewed in turn. The status and findings of pertinent <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>, including Orbital Verification, Science Verification, and <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Scientist <span class="hlt">Calibrations</span> are included as well as the relevant data <span class="hlt">reduction</span> software.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3864463','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3864463"><span>High-Grade Adult Isthmic L5–S1 Spondylolisthesis: A Report of Intraoperative Slip Progression Treated with Surgical <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and Posterior <span class="hlt">Instrumented</span> Fusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mikhael, Mark M.; Shapiro, Gary S.; Wang, Jeffrey C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Adult isthmic spondylolisthesis most commonly occurs at the L5–S1 level of the lumbar spine. Slip progression is relatively rare in adults with this condition and slippage is typically associated with advanced degeneration of the disk below the pars defect. When symptomatic, radiculopathy is the typical complaint in adults with isthmic spondylolisthesis. When considering options for surgical treatment of adult isthmic spondylolisthesis, the surgeon must consider several different options, such as decompression, fusion, <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>, <span class="hlt">reduction</span>, and type of bone graft to be used. All of these decisions must be individualized as deemed appropriate for each particular patient. This report presents a case of intraoperative slip progression of a L5–S1 adult isthmic spondylolisthesis to a high-grade slip, which was treated with complete surgical <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and posterior <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> fusion. This case demonstrates the potential instability of this condition in adults and has not been previously reported. The case details and images are reviewed and the intraoperative decisions, treatment options, and patient outcome are discussed. PMID:24353957</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...592A..79N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...592A..79N"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of quasi-static aberrations in exoplanet direct-imaging <span class="hlt">instruments</span> with a Zernike phase-mask sensor. II. Concept validation with ZELDA on VLT/SPHERE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>N'Diaye, M.; Vigan, A.; Dohlen, K.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Caillat, A.; Costille, A.; Girard, J. H. V.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Fusco, T.; Blanchard, P.; Le Merrer, J.; Le Mignant, D.; Madec, F.; Moreaux, G.; Mouillet, D.; Puget, P.; Zins, G.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Warm or massive gas giant planets, brown dwarfs, and debris disks around nearby stars are now routinely observed by dedicated high-contrast imaging <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that are mounted on large, ground-based observatories. These facilities include extreme adaptive optics (ExAO) and state-of-the-art coronagraphy to achieve unprecedented sensitivities for exoplanet detection and their spectral characterization. However, low spatial frequency differential aberrations between the ExAO sensing path and the science path represent critical limitations for the detection of giant planets with a contrast lower than a few 10-6 at very small separations (<0.3'') from their host star. In our previous work, we proposed a wavefront sensor based on Zernike phase-contrast methods to circumvent this problem and measure these quasi-static aberrations at a nanometric level. We present the design, manufacturing, and testing of ZELDA, a prototype that was installed on VLT/SPHERE during its reintegration in Chile. Using the internal light source of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, we first performed measurements in the presence of Zernike or Fourier modes introduced with the deformable mirror. Our experimental results are consistent with the results in simulations, confirming the ability of our sensor to measure small aberrations (<50 nm rms) with nanometric accuracy. Following these results, we corrected the long-lived non-common path aberrations in SPHERE based on ZELDA measurements and estimated a contrast gain of 10 in the coronagraphic image at 0.2'', reaching the raw contrast limit set by the coronagraph in the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. In addition to this encouraging result, the simplicity of the design and its phase reconstruction algorithm makes ZELDA an excellent candidate for the online measurements of quasi-static aberrations during the observations. The implementation of a ZELDA-based sensing path on the current and future facilities (ELTs, future space missions) could facilitate the observation of cold gaseous</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850004610','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850004610"><span><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and analysis of data from the plasma wave <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on the IMP-6 and IMP-8 spacecraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gurnett, D. A.; Anderson, R. R.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The primary data <span class="hlt">reduction</span> effort during the reporting period was to process summary plots of the IMP 8 plasma wave data and to submit these data to the National Space Science Data Center. Features of the electrostatic noise are compared with simultaneous observations of the magnetic field, plasma and energetic electrons. Spectral characteristics of the noise and the results of this comparison both suggest that in its high frequency part at least the noise does not belong to normal modes of plasma waves but represents either quasi-thermal noise in the non-Maxwellian plasma or artificial noise generated by spacecraft interaction with the medium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27082602','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27082602"><span>Anterior <span class="hlt">Reduction</span>, Discectomy, and Three Cortical Iliac Bone Grafting With <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> to Treat A Huge Tear Drop Fracture of the Axis: A Case Report and Literature Review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Litai; Yang, Yi; Gong, Quan; Ding, Chen; Liu, Hao; Hong, Ying</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Fractures of the axis body have been little reported and treatment strategies remain controversial and individualized. Not more than 10 cases of huge tear drop fracture of the axis (HTDFA) have been reported in previous studies and the treatment method varies from conservative treatment to an anterior, or posterior, approach surgery. Considering the sparse knowledge of HTDFA, we present a special case report to share our experience and to explore the safety and effectiveness of anterior <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and fusion to treat HTDFA. A 24-year-old man was referred to our department; he presented with neck pain lasting for 12 h since being involved in a roll-over motor vehicle accident. His neck movement was limited but there was no neurological compromise. Physical examination of the patient showed myodynamia of four limbs Grade 5, Hoffmann sign (-), and Babinski sign (-). Three-dimensional reconstruction computed tomography (CT) confirmed a huge tear drop fracture of the anterior-inferior corner of the axis and discontinuity of the cortex of the axis. After discussion with the spinal surgeon team in the department and an effective conversation with the patient, surgery involving anterior <span class="hlt">reduction</span>, discectomy, and three cortical iliac bone grafts with <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> after transnasal induction of general anesthesia was performed. The patient was instructed to wear a cervical collar until he returned to our department for a follow-up examination some 3 months after surgery. The 3-month postoperative x-ray and CT scan showed a good position of the implant and bony fusion at the C2/3 segment. Anterior <span class="hlt">reduction</span>, discectomy, and three cortical iliac bone grafts with <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> to treat HTDFA are effective, safe, and simple. Of course, longer follow-up duration and more cases are warranted to verify this procedure. Anterior <span class="hlt">reduction</span>, discectomy, and bone grafting with <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> are warranted for most HTDFA cases. However, if HTDFA incorporates other complex</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4839846','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4839846"><span>Anterior <span class="hlt">Reduction</span>, Discectomy, and Three Cortical Iliac Bone Grafting With <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> to Treat A Huge Tear Drop Fracture of the Axis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ma, Litai; Yang, Yi; Gong, Quan; Ding, Chen; Liu, Hao; Hong, Ying</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Fractures of the axis body have been little reported and treatment strategies remain controversial and individualized. Not more than 10 cases of huge tear drop fracture of the axis (HTDFA) have been reported in previous studies and the treatment method varies from conservative treatment to an anterior, or posterior, approach surgery. Considering the sparse knowledge of HTDFA, we present a special case report to share our experience and to explore the safety and effectiveness of anterior <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and fusion to treat HTDFA. A 24-year-old man was referred to our department; he presented with neck pain lasting for 12 h since being involved in a roll-over motor vehicle accident. His neck movement was limited but there was no neurological compromise. Physical examination of the patient showed myodynamia of four limbs Grade 5, Hoffmann sign (–), and Babinski sign (–). Three-dimensional reconstruction computed tomography (CT) confirmed a huge tear drop fracture of the anterior–inferior corner of the axis and discontinuity of the cortex of the axis. After discussion with the spinal surgeon team in the department and an effective conversation with the patient, surgery involving anterior <span class="hlt">reduction</span>, discectomy, and three cortical iliac bone grafts with <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> after transnasal induction of general anesthesia was performed. The patient was instructed to wear a cervical collar until he returned to our department for a follow-up examination some 3 months after surgery. The 3-month postoperative x-ray and CT scan showed a good position of the implant and bony fusion at the C2/3 segment. Anterior <span class="hlt">reduction</span>, discectomy, and three cortical iliac bone grafts with <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> to treat HTDFA are effective, safe, and simple. Of course, longer follow-up duration and more cases are warranted to verify this procedure. Anterior <span class="hlt">reduction</span>, discectomy, and bone grafting with <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> are warranted for most HTDFA cases. However, if HTDFA incorporates other</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/14740','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/14740"><span><span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and measurement plan for the poorly measured/unmeasured category of highly enriched uranium at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Glosup, J; Mount, M E</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>In partial response to a Department of Energy (DOE) request to evaluate the state of measurements of special nuclear material, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) evaluated and classified all highly enriched uranium (HEU) metal and oxide items in its inventory. Because of a lack of traceable HEU standards, no items were deemed to fit the category of well measured. A subsequent DOE-HQ sponsored survey by New Brunswick Laboratory resulted in their preparation of a set of certified reference material (CRM) standards for HEU oxide (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) that are projected for delivery during September of 1999. However, CRM standards for HEU metal are neither in preparation nor are they expected to be prepared within the foreseeable future. Consequently, HEU metal working standards must be developed if the poorly measured/unmeasured portion of the LLNL inventory is to be reclassified. This paper describes the approach that LLNL will take to (1) develop a set of HEU metal working standards; (2) develop HEU metal and oxide <span class="hlt">calibration</span> curves for the passive-active neutron (PAN) shuffler that are functions of mass, enrichment, size, and shape; and (3) reclassify the poorly measured/unmeasured inventory through direct measurement or reprocessing of previously archived data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol33/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol33-sec1065-320.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol33/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol33-sec1065-320.pdf"><span>40 CFR 1065.320 - Fuel-flow <span class="hlt">calibration</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>...-flow <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. (a) <span class="hlt">Calibrate</span> fuel-flow meters upon initial installation. Follow the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>... system components for off-site <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. When installing a flow meter with an off-site <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, we... meter. We recommend specifying <span class="hlt">calibration</span> reference quantities that are NIST-traceable within...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720022216','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720022216"><span>Scan pointing <span class="hlt">calibration</span> for the Mariner Mars 1971 spacecraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Havens, W. F.; Jaivin, G. I.; Pace, G. D.; Virzi, R. A.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The methods used to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the pointing direction of the Mars 71 spacecraft scan platform are described. Accurate <span class="hlt">calibration</span> was required to meet the pointing accuracy requirements of the scientific <span class="hlt">instruments</span> mounted on the platform. A detailed ground <span class="hlt">calibration</span> was combined with an in-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span> utilizing narrow angle television pictures of stars. Results of these <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> are summarized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25881452','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25881452"><span>[Laser-based radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Zhi-gang; Zheng, Yu-quan</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Increasingly higher demands are put forward to spectral radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> accuracy and the development of new tunable laser based spectral radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> technology is promoted, along with the development of studies of terrestrial remote sensing, aeronautical and astronautical remote sensing, plasma physics, quantitative spectroscopy, etc. Internationally a number of national metrology scientific research institutes have built tunable laser based spectral radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> facilities in succession, which are traceable to cryogenic radiometers and have low uncertainties for spectral responsivity <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and characterization of detectors and remote sensing <span class="hlt">instruments</span> in the UK, the USA, Germany, etc. Among them, the facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> using uniform sources (SIRCCUS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the USA and the Tunable Lasers in Photometry (TULIP) facility at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany have more representatives. Compared with lamp-monochromator systems, laser based spectral radiometric <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> have many advantages, such as narrow spectral bandwidth, high wavelength accuracy, low <span class="hlt">calibration</span> uncertainty and so on for radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> applications. In this paper, the development of laser-based spectral radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and structures and performances of laser-based radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> facilities represented by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the UK, NIST and PTB are presented, technical advantages of laser-based spectral radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> are analyzed, and applications of this technology are further discussed. Laser-based spectral radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> facilities can be widely used in important system-level radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> measurements with high accuracy, including radiance temperature, radiance and irradiance <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> for space remote sensing <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, and promote the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990ITAP...38..903H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990ITAP...38..903H"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the CCRS airborne scatterometers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hawkins, Robert K.; Singh, Keshava; Farris-Manning, Peter J.; Gibson, John R.</p> <p>1990-06-01</p> <p>A series of experiments and associated analyses which were designed to lead to an end-to-end <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) fanbeam scatterometers are described. The method followed was originally introduced in 1984 by Yizhar et al. for the Ku-band scatterometer at one incidence angle. This work was extended to yield a full <span class="hlt">calibration</span> for the Ku-band and C-band scatterometers over the complete range of incidence angles accessible to the <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. An array of 12 trihedral corner reflectors was deployed in a grassy field near Ottawa. The CCRS CV-580, equipped with two scatterometers, repeatedly overflew the array collecting radar replicas of the targets proportional to the unknown two-dimensional antenna pattern. Data from inertial navigation systems and aerial photographs from a Wild RC-10 mapping camera were used to determine the exact track of the aircraft during the acquisition. This data, with a field survey, allowed the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of the scatterometer data from the reflector array to yield the unknown antenna pattern of the <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The cross-polarized antenna patterns were then deduced from the like-polarized results. The results show consistency within 0.5 dB and overall <span class="hlt">calibration</span> accuracy is estimated to be better than 1 dB.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006RMxAC..26..208D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006RMxAC..26..208D"><span>GTC Photometric <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>di Cesare, M. A.; Hammersley, P. L.; Rodriguez Espinosa, J. M.</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>We are currently developing the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> programme for GTC using techniques similar to the ones use for the space telescope <span class="hlt">calibration</span> (Hammersley et al. 1998, A&AS, 128, 207; Cohen et al. 1999, AJ, 117, 1864). We are planning to produce a catalogue with <span class="hlt">calibration</span> stars which are suitable for a 10-m telescope. These sources will be not variable, non binary and do not have infrared excesses if they are to be used in the infrared. The GTC science <span class="hlt">instruments</span> require photometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> between 0.35 and 2.5 microns. The <span class="hlt">instruments</span> are: OSIRIS (Optical System for Imaging low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy), ELMER and EMIR (Espectrógrafo Multiobjeto Infrarrojo) and the Acquisition and Guiding boxes (Di Césare, Hammersley, & Rodriguez Espinosa 2005, RevMexAA Ser. Conf., 24, 231). The catalogue will consist of 30 star fields distributed in all of North Hemisphere. We will use fields containing sources over the range 12 to 22 magnitude, and spanning a wide range of spectral types (A to M) for the visible and near infrared. In the poster we will show the method used for selecting these fields and we will present the analysis of the data on the first <span class="hlt">calibration</span> fields observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008P%26SS...56..406S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008P%26SS...56..406S"><span><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of <span class="hlt">instrument</span>-dependent noise in hyperspectral image data using the principal component analysis: Applications to Galileo NIMS data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stephan, K.; Hibbitts, C. A.; Hoffmann, H.; Jaumann, R.</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>During the Galileo mission, the near-infrared mapping spectrometer (NIMS) collected data of the icy satellite Ganymede between 0.7 and 5.2 μm. Spectra are mainly characterized by signatures of water ice as well as some signatures of non-ice components and trace constituents like CO 2. The detailed analysis of the spectral parameters of specific absorptions in NIMS spectra, i.e. their wavelength position and band depth, depends strongly on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over the specific wavelength range. A high SNR is essential for mapping the spectral properties of a planetary surface as well as for detecting new compounds in the NIMS spectra. We used a novel technique based on the principal component analysis (PCA) in order to improve the SNR and to retain the full spatial information of the NIMS cubes. This application made it possible to correct <span class="hlt">instrument</span> artifacts and remove more random noise probably caused by the operation in the radiation-intense environment of the Jovian system without significantly affecting the relevant spectral information contained in each NIMS spectrum. This application results in higher quality spectral data, especially beyond of 3 μm where the signal (and thus the SNR) is often very low. The detection and characterization of several important spectral features at the long wavelengths can be improved, including the Fresnel reflection peak at 3.1 μm that can be used to characterize the crystallinity of water ice as well as weak absorptions due to CO 2 and other trace compounds. This is essential to map their distribution across a planetary surface and to study the relationships of the chemical composition and the physical properties (e.g. origin of the rocky non-ice material, crystallization and amorphization of water ice, origin of CO 2) on Ganymede to geological and morphological surface features and processes (e.g. impact cratering, tectonics).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5429291','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5429291"><span>Observation and analysis of lunar occultations of stars with an emphasis on improvements to data acquisition <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> and <span class="hlt">reduction</span> techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schneider, G.H.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A program of observation and analysis of lunar occultations was conceived, developed, and carried out using the facilities of the University of Florida's Rosemary Hill Observatory (RHO). The successful implementation of the program required investigation into several related areas. First, after an upgrade to the RHO 76-cm. reflecting telescope, a microprocessor controlled fast photoelectric data acquisition system was designed and built for the occultation data acquisition task. Second, the currently available model-fitting techniques used in the analysis of occultation observations were evaluated. A number of numerical experiments on synthesized and observational data were carried out to improve the performance of the numerical techniques. Among the numerical methods investigated were solution schemes employing partial parametric adjustment, parametric grouping into computational subsets (randomly and on the basis the correlation coefficients), and preprocessing of the observational data by a number of smoothing techniques for a variety of noise conditions. Third, a turn-key computational software system, incorporating data transfer, <span class="hlt">reduction</span>, graphics, and display, was developed to carry out all the necessary and related computational tasks in an interactive environment. Twenty-four occultation observations were obtained during the period March 1983 to March 1984.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ASPC..314..764J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ASPC..314..764J"><span>VLT <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> Pipeline System Overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jung, Y.; Ballester, P.; Banse, K.; Hummel, W.; Izzo, C.; McKay, D. J.; Kiesgen, M.; Lundin, L. K.; Modigliani, A.; Palsa, R. M.; Sabet, C.</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>Since the beginning of the VLT operations in 1998, substantial effort has been put in the development of automatic data <span class="hlt">reduction</span> tools for the VLT <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. A VLT <span class="hlt">instrument</span> pipeline is a complex system that has to be able to identify and classify each produced FITS file, optionally retrieve <span class="hlt">calibration</span> files from a database, use an image processing software to reduce the data, compute and log quality control parameters, produce FITS images or tables with the correct headers, optionally display them in the control room and send them to the archive. Each <span class="hlt">instrument</span> has its own dedicated pipeline, based on a common infrastructure and installed with the VLT Data Flow System (DFS). With the increase in the number and the complexity of supported <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and in the rate of produced data, these pipelines are becoming vital for both the VLT operations and the users, and request more and more resources for development and maintenance. This paper describes the different pipeline tasks with some real examples. It also explains how the development process has been improved to both decrease its cost and increase the pipelines quality using the lessons learned from the first <span class="hlt">instruments</span> pipelines development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900053135&hterms=QED&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DQED','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900053135&hterms=QED&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DQED"><span>Radiance <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of spherical integrators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mclean, James T.; Guenther, Bruce W.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Techniques for improving the knowledge of the radiance of large area spherical and hemispherical integrating energy sources have been investigated. Such sources are used to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> numerous aircraft and spacecraft remote sensing <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Comparisons are made between using a standard source based <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method and a quantum efficient detector (QED) based <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method. The uncertainty involved in transferring the <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> values of the point source standard lamp to the extended source is estimated to be 5 to 10 percent. The use of the QED allows an improvement in the uncertainty to 1 to 2 percent for the measurement of absolute radiance from a spherical integrator source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120014113','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120014113"><span>Antenna <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Measurement Equipment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rochblatt, David J.; Cortes, Manuel Vazquez</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A document describes the Antenna <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> & Measurement Equipment (ACME) system that will provide the Deep Space Network (DSN) with <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> enabling a trained RF engineer at each complex to perform antenna <span class="hlt">calibration</span> measurements and to generate antenna <span class="hlt">calibration</span> data. This data includes continuous-scan auto-bore-based data acquisition with all-sky data gathering in support of 4th order pointing model generation requirements. Other data includes antenna subreflector focus, system noise temperature and tipping curves, antenna efficiency, reports system linearity, and <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. The ACME system design is based on the on-the-fly (OTF) mapping technique and architecture. ACME has contributed to the improved RF performance of the DSN by approximately a factor of two. It improved the pointing performances of the DSN antennas and productivity of its personnel and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> engineers.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/46554','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/46554"><span>Backscatter nephelometer to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> scanning lidar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Cyle E. Wold; Vladmir A. Kovalev; Wei Min Hao</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The general concept of an open-path backscatter nephelometer, its design, principles of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and the operational use are discussed. The research-grade <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, which operates at the wavelength 355 nm, will be co-located with a scanning-lidar at measurement sites near wildfires, and used for the lidar <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. Such a near-end <span class="hlt">calibration</span> has significant...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060032285&hterms=Geometric&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DGeometric','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060032285&hterms=Geometric&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DGeometric"><span>In-flight Geometric <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Plan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jovanovic, V.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>This MISR in-flight Geometric <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> (IGC) Plan describes the concept, development strategy and operational design to be used for geometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and for producing the Geometric <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Dataset (GCD) which is required as an input to the L1B2 standard processing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24321130','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24321130"><span>Clinical and radiological results 6 years after treatment of traumatic thoracolumbar burst fractures with pedicle screw <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> and balloon assisted endplate <span class="hlt">reduction</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Verlaan, Jorrit-Jan; Somers, Inne; Dhert, Wouter J A; Oner, F Cumhur</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>When used to fixate traumatic thoracolumbar burst fractures, pedicle screw constructs may fail in the presence of severe vertebral body comminution as the intervertebral disc can creep through the fractured endplates leading to insufficient anterior column support. Balloon-assisted endplate <span class="hlt">reduction</span> (BAER) and subsequent calcium phosphate cement augmentation may prevent this event by restoring the disc space boundaries. The results of the first studies using BAER after pedicle screw fixation are encouraging, showing good fracture <span class="hlt">reduction</span>, few complications, and minimal loss of correction at 2 years of follow-up. To present the clinical and radiological outcome of 20 patients treated for traumatic thoracolumbar burst fractures with pedicle screws and BAER after a minimum of 6 years follow-up. Prospective trial. Twenty consecutive neurologically intact adult patients with traumatic thoracolumbar burst fractures were included. Radiological parameters (wedge/Cobb angle on plain radiographs and mid-sagittal anterior/central vertebral body height on magnetic resonance imaging scans) and patient reported parameters (EQ-5D and Oswestry Disability Index) were used. All patients had previously undergone pedicle screw fixation and BAER with calcium phosphate cement augmentation. The posterior <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> was removed approximately 1.5 years after index surgery. Radiographs were obtained preoperatively, postoperatively, after removal of the pedicle screws, and at final follow-up (minimum 6 years post-trauma). Magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained preoperatively, 1 month after index surgery, and 1 month after pedicle screw removal. Health questionnaires were filled out during the last outpatient visit. The pedicle screw <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> was removed uneventfully in all patients and posterolateral fusion was observed in every case. The mean wedge and Cobb angle converged to almost identical values (5.3° and 5.8°, respectively) and the mid-sagittal anterior and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090007645&hterms=etm&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Detm','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090007645&hterms=etm&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Detm"><span>Landsat TM and ETM+ Thermal Band <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barsi, Julia A.; Hook, Simon J.; Palluconi, Frank D.; Schott, John R.; Raqueno, Nina G.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) has been imaging the Earth since March 1984 and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) was added to the series of Landsat <span class="hlt">instruments</span> in April 1999. The stability and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the ETM+ has been monitored extensively since launch. Though not monitored for many years, TM now has a similar system in place to monitor stability and <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. University teams have been evaluating the on-board <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> through ground-based measurements since 1999. This paper considers the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> efforts for the thermal band, Band 6, of both the Landsat-5 and Landsat-7 <span class="hlt">instruments</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........68J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........68J"><span>A variable acceleration <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, Thomas H.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>A variable acceleration <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system that applies loads using gravitational and centripetal acceleration serves as an alternative, efficient and cost effective method for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> internal wind tunnel force balances. Two proof-of-concept variable acceleration <span class="hlt">calibration</span> systems are designed, fabricated and tested. The NASA UT-36 force balance served as the test balance for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> experiments. The variable acceleration <span class="hlt">calibration</span> systems are shown to be capable of performing three component <span class="hlt">calibration</span> experiments with an approximate applied load error on the order of 1% of the full scale <span class="hlt">calibration</span> loads. Sources of error are indentified using experimental design methods and a propagation of uncertainty analysis. Three types of uncertainty are indentified for the systems and are attributed to prediction error, <span class="hlt">calibration</span> error and pure error. Angular velocity uncertainty is shown to be the largest indentified source of prediction error. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> uncertainties using a production variable acceleration based system are shown to be potentially equivalent to current methods. The production quality system can be realized using lighter materials and a more precise <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>. Further research is needed to account for balance deflection, forcing effects due to vibration, and large tare loads. A gyroscope measurement technique is shown to be capable of resolving the balance deflection angle calculation. Long term research objectives include a demonstration of a six degree of freedom <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and a large capacity balance <span class="hlt">calibration</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100033606','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100033606"><span>Multi-Axis Accelerometer <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Finley, Tom; Parker, Peter</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A low-cost, portable, and simplified system has been developed that is suitable for in-situ <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and/or evaluation of multi-axis inertial measurement <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. This system overcomes facility restrictions and maintains or improves the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> quality for users of accelerometer-based <span class="hlt">instruments</span> with applications in avionics, experimental wind tunnel research, and force balance <span class="hlt">calibration</span> applications. The apparatus quickly and easily positions a multi-axis accelerometer system into a precisely known orientation suitable for in-situ quality checks and <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. In addition, the system incorporates powerful and sophisticated statistical methods, known as response surface methodology and statistical quality control. These methods improve <span class="hlt">calibration</span> quality, reduce <span class="hlt">calibration</span> time, and allow for increased <span class="hlt">calibration</span> frequency, which enables the monitoring of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> stability over time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060048567','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060048567"><span>Self-<span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> Pressure Transducer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lueck, Dale E. (Inventor)</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A self-<span class="hlt">calibrating</span> pressure transducer is disclosed. The device uses an embedded zirconia membrane which pumps a determined quantity of oxygen into the device. The associated pressure can be determined, and thus, the transducer pressure readings can be <span class="hlt">calibrated</span>. The zirconia membrane obtains oxygen .from the surrounding environment when possible. Otherwise, an oxygen reservoir or other source is utilized. In another embodiment, a reversible fuel cell assembly is used to pump oxygen and hydrogen into the system. Since a known amount of gas is pumped across the cell, the pressure produced can be determined, and thus, the device can be <span class="hlt">calibrated</span>. An isolation valve system is used to allow the device to be <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> in situ. <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> is optionally automated so that <span class="hlt">calibration</span> can be continuously monitored. The device is preferably a fully integrated MEMS device. Since the device can be <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> without removing it from the process, <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in costs and down time are realized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810014899','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810014899"><span>NASA Metrology and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span>, 1980</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The proceedings of the fourth annual NASA Metrology and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Workshop are presented. This workshop covered (1) review and assessment of NASA metrology and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> activities by NASA Headquarters, (2) results of audits by the Office of Inspector General, (3) review of a proposed NASA Equipment Management System, (4) current and planned field center activities, (5) National Bureau of Standards (NBS) <span class="hlt">calibration</span> services for NASA, (6) review of NBS's Precision Measurement and Test Equipment Project activities, (7) NASA <span class="hlt">instrument</span> loan pool operations at two centers, (8) mobile cart <span class="hlt">calibration</span> systems at two centers, (9) <span class="hlt">calibration</span> intervals and decals, (10) NASA <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Capabilities Catalog, and (11) development of plans and objectives for FY 1981. Several papers in this proceedings are slide presentations only.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015A%26A...581A.117B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015A%26A...581A.117B"><span><span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> echelle spectrographs with Fabry-Pérot etalons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bauer, F. F.; Zechmeister, M.; Reiners, A.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Context. Over the past decades hollow-cathode lamps have been <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standards for spectroscopic measurements. Advancing to cm/s radial velocity precisions with the next generation of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> requires more suitable <span class="hlt">calibration</span> sources with more lines and fewer dynamic range problems. Fabry-Pérot interferometers provide a regular and dense grid of lines and homogeneous amplitudes, which makes them good candidates for next-generation <span class="hlt">calibrators</span>. Aims: We investigate the usefulness of Fabry-Pérot etalons in wavelength <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, present an algorithm to incorporate the etalon spectrum in the wavelength solution, and examine potential problems. Methods: The quasi-periodic pattern of Fabry-Pérot lines was used along with a hollow-cathode lamp to anchor the numerous spectral features on an absolute scale. We tested our method with the HARPS spectrograph and compared our wavelength solution to the one derived from a laser frequency comb. Results: The combined hollow-cathode lamp/etalon <span class="hlt">calibration</span> overcomes large distortion (50 m/s) in the wavelength solution