Science.gov

Sample records for instrument calibration reduction

  1. ALTEA: The instrument calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaconte, V.; Belli, F.; Bidoli, V.; Casolino, M.; di Fino, L.; Narici, L.; Picozza, P.; Rinaldi, A.; Sannita, W. G.; Finetti, N.; Nurzia, G.; Rantucci, E.; Scrimaglio, R.; Segreto, E.; Schardt, D.

    2008-05-01

    The ALTEA program is an international and multi-disciplinary project aimed at studying particle radiation in space environment and its effects on astronauts’ brain functions, as the anomalous perception of light flashes first reported during Apollo missions. The ALTEA space facility includes a 6-silicon telescopes particle detector, and is onboard the International Space Station (ISS) since July 2006. In this paper, the detector calibration at the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS18 at GSI Darmstadt will be presented and compared to the Geant 3 Monte Carlo simulation. Finally, the results of a neural network analysis that was used for ion discrimination on fragmentation data will also be presented.

  2. Rotary mode system initial instrument calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    The attached report contains the vendor calibration procedures used for the initial instrument calibration of the rotary core sampling equipment. The procedures are from approved vendor information files.

  3. Optimal calibration of instrumented treadmills using an instrumented pole.

    PubMed

    Sloot, L H; Houdijk, H; van der Krogt, M M; Harlaar, J

    2016-08-01

    Calibration of instrumented treadmills is imperative for accurate measurement of ground reaction forces and center of pressure (COP). A protocol using an instrumented pole has been shown to considerably increase force and COP accuracy. This study examined how this protocol can be further optimized to maximize accuracy, by varying the measurement time and number of spots, using nonlinear approaches to calculate the calibration matrix and by correcting for potential inhomogeneity in the distribution of COP errors across the treadmill's surface. The accuracy increased with addition of spots and correction for the inhomogeneous distribution across the belt surface, decreased with reduction of measurement time, and did not improve by including nonlinear terms. Most of these methods improved the overall accuracy only to a limited extent, suggesting that the maximal accuracy is approached given the treadmill's inherent mechanical limitations. However, both correction for position dependence of the accuracy as well as its optimization within the walking area are found to be valuable additions to the standard calibration process. PMID:27180211

  4. Microfabricated field calibration assembly for analytical instruments

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Alex L.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Moorman, Matthew W.; Rodacy, Philip J.; Simonson, Robert J.

    2011-03-29

    A microfabricated field calibration assembly for use in calibrating analytical instruments and sensor systems. The assembly comprises a circuit board comprising one or more resistively heatable microbridge elements, an interface device that enables addressable heating of the microbridge elements, and, in some embodiments, a means for positioning the circuit board within an inlet structure of an analytical instrument or sensor system.

  5. Strain Gauge Balance Calibration and Data Reduction at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, A. T. Judy

    1999-01-01

    This paper will cover the standard force balance calibration and data reduction techniques used at Langley Research Center. It will cover balance axes definition, balance type, calibration instrumentation, traceability of standards to NIST, calibration loading procedures, balance calibration mathematical model, calibration data reduction techniques, balance accuracy reporting, and calibration frequency.

  6. HESP: Instrument control, calibration and pipeline development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anantha, Ch.; Roy, Jayashree; Mahesh, P. K.; Parihar, P. S.; Sangal, A. K.; Sriram, S.; Anand, M. N.; Anupama, G. C.; Giridhar, S.; Prabhu, T. P.; Sivarani, T.; Sundararajan, M. S.

    Hanle Echelle SPectrograph (HESP) is a fibre-fed, high resolution (R = 30,000 and 60,000) spectrograph being developed for the 2m HCT telescope at IAO, Hanle. The major components of the instrument are a) Cassegrain unit b) Spectrometer instrument. An instrument control system interacting with a guiding unit at Cassegrain interface as well as handling spectrograph functions is being developed. An on-axis auto-guiding using the spill-over angular ring around the input pinhole is also being developed. The stellar light from the Cassegrain unit is taken to the spectrograph using an optical fiber which is being characterized for spectral transmission, focal ratio degradation and scrambling properties. The design of the thermal enclosure and thermal control for the spectrograph housing is presented. A data pipeline for the entire Echelle spectral reduction is being developed. We also plan to implement an instrument physical model based calibration into the main data pipeline and in the maintenance and quality control operations.

  7. Absolute calibration of remote sensing instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggar, S. F.; Bruegge, C. J.; Capron, B. A.; Castle, K. R.; Dinguirard, M. C.; Holm, R. G.; Lingg, L. J.; Mao, Y.; Palmer, J. M.; Phillips, A. L.

    1985-12-01

    Source-based and detector-based methods for the absolute radiometric calibration of a broadband field radiometer are described. Using such a radiometer, calibrated by both methods, the calibration of the integrating sphere used in the preflight calibration of the Thematic Mapper was redetermined. The results are presented. The in-flight calibration of space remote sensing instruments is discussed. A method which uses the results of ground-based reflectance and atmospheric measurements as input to a radiative transfer code to predict the radiance at the instrument is described. A calibrated, helicopter-mounted radiometer is used to determine the radiance levels at intermediate altitudes to check the code predictions. Results of such measurements for the calibration of the Thematic Mapper on Landsat 5 and an analysis that shows the value of such measurements are described.

  8. Spacecraft instrument calibration and stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gille, J. C.; Feldman, P.; Hudson, R.; Lean, J.; Madden, R.; Mcmaster, L.; Mount, G.; Rottman, G.; Simon, P. C.

    1989-01-01

    The following topics are covered: instrument degradation; the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) Experiment; the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS); the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 1 (SAGE-1) and SAGE-2 instruments; the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UV ozone and near infrared airglow instruments; and the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS).

  9. MODIS Instrument Operation and Calibration Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Angal, A.; Madhavan, S.; Link, D.; Geng, X.; Wenny, B.; Wu, A.; Chen, H.; Salomonson, V.

    2014-01-01

    Terra and Aqua MODIS have successfully operated for over 14 and 12 years since their respective launches in 1999 and 2002. The MODIS on-orbit calibration is performed using a set of on-board calibrators, which include a solar diffuser for calibrating the reflective solar bands (RSB) and a blackbody for the thermal emissive bands (TEB). On-orbit changes in the sensor responses as well as key performance parameters are monitored using the measurements of these on-board calibrators. This paper provides an overview of MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities, and instrument long-term performance. It presents a brief summary of the calibration enhancements made in the latest MODIS data collection 6 (C6). Future improvements in the MODIS calibration and their potential applications to the S-NPP VIIRS are also discussed.

  10. HPS instrument calibration laboratory accreditation program

    SciTech Connect

    Masse, F.X; Eisenhower, E.H.; Swinth, K.L.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an accurate overview of the development and structure of the program established by the Health Physics Society (HPS) for accrediting instrument calibration laboratories relative to their ability to accurately calibrate portable health physics instrumentation. The purpose of the program is to provide radiation protection professionals more meaningful direct and indirect access to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) national standards, thus introducing a means for improving the uniformity, accuracy, and quality of ionizing radiation field measurements. The process is designed to recognize and document the continuing capability of each accredited laboratory to accurately perform instrument calibration. There is no intent to monitor the laboratory to the extent that each calibration can be guaranteed by the program; this responsibility rests solely with the accredited laboratory.

  11. Uncertainty Analysis of Instrument Calibration and Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, John S.; Tcheng, Ping

    1999-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic researchers require estimated precision and bias uncertainties of measured physical quantities, typically at 95 percent confidence levels. Uncertainties of final computed aerodynamic parameters are obtained by propagation of individual measurement uncertainties through the defining functional expressions. In this paper, rigorous mathematical techniques are extended to determine precision and bias uncertainties of any instrument-sensor system. Through this analysis, instrument uncertainties determined through calibration are now expressed as functions of the corresponding measurement for linear and nonlinear univariate and multivariate processes. Treatment of correlated measurement precision error is developed. During laboratory calibration, calibration standard uncertainties are assumed to be an order of magnitude less than those of the instrument being calibrated. Often calibration standards do not satisfy this assumption. This paper applies rigorous statistical methods for inclusion of calibration standard uncertainty and covariance due to the order of their application. The effects of mathematical modeling error on calibration bias uncertainty are quantified. The effects of experimental design on uncertainty are analyzed. The importance of replication is emphasized, techniques for estimation of both bias and precision uncertainties using replication are developed. Statistical tests for stationarity of calibration parameters over time are obtained.

  12. Invited Article: Deep Impact instrument calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Klaasen, Kenneth P.; Mastrodemos, Nickolaos; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Farnham, Tony; Groussin, Olivier; Ipatov, Sergei; Li Jianyang; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Sunshine, Jessica; Wellnitz, Dennis; Baca, Michael; Delamere, Alan; Desnoyer, Mark; Thomas, Peter; Hampton, Donald; Lisse, Carey

    2008-09-15

    Calibration of NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft instruments allows reliable scientific interpretation of the images and spectra returned from comet Tempel 1. Calibrations of the four onboard remote sensing imaging instruments have been performed in the areas of geometric calibration, spatial resolution, spectral resolution, and radiometric response. Error sources such as noise (random, coherent, encoding, data compression), detector readout artifacts, scattered light, and radiation interactions have been quantified. The point spread functions (PSFs) of the medium resolution instrument and its twin impactor targeting sensor are near the theoretical minimum [{approx}1.7 pixels full width at half maximum (FWHM)]. However, the high resolution instrument camera was found to be out of focus with a PSF FWHM of {approx}9 pixels. The charge coupled device (CCD) read noise is {approx}1 DN. Electrical cross-talk between the CCD detector quadrants is correctable to <2 DN. The IR spectrometer response nonlinearity is correctable to {approx}1%. Spectrometer read noise is {approx}2 DN. The variation in zero-exposure signal level with time and spectrometer temperature is not fully characterized; currently corrections are good to {approx}10 DN at best. Wavelength mapping onto the detector is known within 1 pixel; spectral lines have a FWHM of {approx}2 pixels. About 1% of the IR detector pixels behave badly and remain uncalibrated. The spectrometer exhibits a faint ghost image from reflection off a beamsplitter. Instrument absolute radiometric calibration accuracies were determined generally to <10% using star imaging. Flat-field calibration reduces pixel-to-pixel response differences to {approx}0.5% for the cameras and <2% for the spectrometer. A standard calibration image processing pipeline is used to produce archival image files for analysis by researchers.

  13. Invited Article: Deep Impact instrument calibration.

    PubMed

    Klaasen, Kenneth P; A'Hearn, Michael F; Baca, Michael; Delamere, Alan; Desnoyer, Mark; Farnham, Tony; Groussin, Olivier; Hampton, Donald; Ipatov, Sergei; Li, Jianyang; Lisse, Carey; Mastrodemos, Nickolaos; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Sunshine, Jessica; Thomas, Peter; Wellnitz, Dennis

    2008-09-01

    Calibration of NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft instruments allows reliable scientific interpretation of the images and spectra returned from comet Tempel 1. Calibrations of the four onboard remote sensing imaging instruments have been performed in the areas of geometric calibration, spatial resolution, spectral resolution, and radiometric response. Error sources such as noise (random, coherent, encoding, data compression), detector readout artifacts, scattered light, and radiation interactions have been quantified. The point spread functions (PSFs) of the medium resolution instrument and its twin impactor targeting sensor are near the theoretical minimum [ approximately 1.7 pixels full width at half maximum (FWHM)]. However, the high resolution instrument camera was found to be out of focus with a PSF FWHM of approximately 9 pixels. The charge coupled device (CCD) read noise is approximately 1 DN. Electrical cross-talk between the CCD detector quadrants is correctable to <2 DN. The IR spectrometer response nonlinearity is correctable to approximately 1%. Spectrometer read noise is approximately 2 DN. The variation in zero-exposure signal level with time and spectrometer temperature is not fully characterized; currently corrections are good to approximately 10 DN at best. Wavelength mapping onto the detector is known within 1 pixel; spectral lines have a FWHM of approximately 2 pixels. About 1% of the IR detector pixels behave badly and remain uncalibrated. The spectrometer exhibits a faint ghost image from reflection off a beamsplitter. Instrument absolute radiometric calibration accuracies were determined generally to <10% using star imaging. Flat-field calibration reduces pixel-to-pixel response differences to approximately 0.5% for the cameras and <2% for the spectrometer. A standard calibration image processing pipeline is used to produce archival image files for analysis by researchers.

  14. Calibration facility for environment dosimetry instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Bercea, Sorin; Celarel, Aurelia; Cenusa, Constantin

    2013-12-16

    In the last ten years, the nuclear activities, as well as the major nuclear events (see Fukushima accident) had an increasing impact on the environment, merely by contamination with radioactive materials. The most conferment way to quickly identify the presence of some radioactive elements in the environment, is to measure the dose-equivalent rate H. In this situation, information concerning the values of H due only to the natural radiation background must exist. Usually, the values of H due to the natural radiation background, are very low (∼10{sup −9} - 10{sup −8} Sv/h). A correct measurement of H in this range involve a performing calibration of the measuring instruments in the measuring range corresponding to the natural radiation background lead to important problems due to the presence of the natural background itself the best way to overlap this difficulty is to set up the calibration stand in an area with very low natural radiation background. In Romania, we identified an area with such special conditions at 200 m dept, in a salt mine. This paper deals with the necessary requirements for such a calibration facility, as well as with the calibration stand itself. The paper includes also, a description of the calibration stand (and images) as well as the radiological and metrological parameters. This calibration facilities for environment dosimetry is one of the few laboratories in this field in Europe.

  15. Calibration facility for environment dosimetry instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercea, Sorin; Celarel, Aurelia; Cenusa, Constantin

    2013-12-01

    In the last ten years, the nuclear activities, as well as the major nuclear events (see Fukushima accident) had an increasing impact on the environment, merely by contamination with radioactive materials. The most conferment way to quickly identify the presence of some radioactive elements in the environment, is to measure the dose-equivalent rate H. In this situation, information concerning the values of H due only to the natural radiation background must exist. Usually, the values of H due to the natural radiation background, are very low (˜10-9 - 10-8 Sv/h). A correct measurement of H in this range involve a performing calibration of the measuring instruments in the measuring range corresponding to the natural radiation background lead to important problems due to the presence of the natural background itself the best way to overlap this difficulty is to set up the calibration stand in an area with very low natural radiation background. In Romania, we identified an area with such special conditions at 200 m dept, in a salt mine. This paper deals with the necessary requirements for such a calibration facility, as well as with the calibration stand itself. The paper includes also, a description of the calibration stand (and images) as well as the radiological and metrological parameters. This calibration facilities for environment dosimetry is one of the few laboratories in this field in Europe.

  16. 10 CFR 35.61 - Calibration of survey instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 35.61 Calibration of survey instruments. (a) A licensee shall calibrate the survey instruments used to show compliance with this part and 10 CFR Part 20 before first use, annually, and following a... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calibration of survey instruments. 35.61 Section...

  17. 10 CFR 35.61 - Calibration of survey instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 35.61 Calibration of survey instruments. (a) A licensee shall calibrate the survey instruments used to show compliance with this part and 10 CFR Part 20 before first use, annually, and following a... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calibration of survey instruments. 35.61 Section...

  18. 10 CFR 35.61 - Calibration of survey instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 35.61 Calibration of survey instruments. (a) A licensee shall calibrate the survey instruments used to show compliance with this part and 10 CFR part 20 before first use, annually, and following a... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calibration of survey instruments. 35.61 Section...

  19. 10 CFR 35.61 - Calibration of survey instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 35.61 Calibration of survey instruments. (a) A licensee shall calibrate the survey instruments used to show compliance with this part and 10 CFR Part 20 before first use, annually, and following a... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calibration of survey instruments. 35.61 Section...

  20. On-orbit instrument calibration of CALET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaid, Amir; Calet Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a high-energy cosmic ray experiment which will be placed on the International Space Station in 2015. Primary goals of CALET are measurement of cosmic ray electron spectra from 1 GeV to 20 TeV, gamma rays from 10 GeV to 10 TeV, and protons and nuclei from 10 GeV up to 1000 TeV. The detector consists of three main components: a Charge Detector (CHD), Imaging Calorimeter (IMC), and Total Absorption Calorimeter (TASC). As CALET is going to work in the ISS orbit space environment, it needs to be calibrated while it is in orbit. Penetrating non-showering protons and helium nuclei are prime candidates for instrument calibration, as they provide a known energy signal for calibrating the detector response. In the present paper, we discuss estimation of CALET's detector efficiency to protons and helium nuclei. Included is a discussion of different galactic cosmic ray and trapped proton models used for flux calculation and simulations performed for detector geometric area and trigger rate calculation. This paper also discusses the importance of the albedo proton flux for the CALET detector calibration. This research was supported by NASA at Louisiana State University under Grant Number NNX11AE01G.

  1. Portable calibration instrument of hemodialysis unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Liang-bing; Li, Dong-sheng; Chen, Ai-jun

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of meeting the rapid development of blood purification in China, improve the level of blood purification treatment, and get rid of the plight of the foreign technology monopolization to promise patients' medical safety, a parameter-calibrator for the hemodialysis unit, which can detect simultaneously multi-parameter, is designed. The instrument includes a loop, which connects to the hemodialysis unit. Sensors are in the loop in series, so that the dialysis can flow through this loop and the sensors can acquisitive data of various parameters. In order to facilitate detection and carrying, the integrated circuit part modularly based on the ultralow-power microcontrollers,TI MSP430 is designed. High-performance and small-packaged components are used to establish a modular, high-precision, multi-functional, portable system. The functions and the key technical indexes of the instrument have reached the level of products abroad.

  2. Calibration for the SAGE III/EOS instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, W. P.; Mccormick, M. P.; Zawodny, J. M.; Mcmaster, L. R.

    1991-01-01

    The calibration plan for the SAGE III instruments for maintaining instrument performance during the Earth Observing System (EOS) mission lifetime is described. The SAGE III calibration plan consists of detailed preflight and inflight calibration on the instrument performance together with the correlative measurement program to validate the data products from the inverted satellite measurements. Since the measurement technique is primarily solar/lunar occultation, the instrument will be self-calibrating by using the sun as the calibration source during the routine operation of the instrument in flight. The instrument is designed to perform radiometric calibration of throughput, spectral, and spatial response in flight during routine operation. Spectral calibration can be performed in-flight from observation of the solar Fraunhofer lines within the spectral region from 290 to 1030 nm wavelength.

  3. Comparison of Spectral Radiance Calibration Techniques Used for Backscatter Ultraviolet Satellite Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalewski, Matthew G.; Janz, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Methods for determining the absolute radiometric calibration sensitivities of backscatter ultraviolet (BUV) satellite instruments are compared as part of an effort to minimize pre-launch calibration errors. An internally illuminated integrating sphere source has been used for the Shuttle Solar BUV (SSBUV), Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) using standardized procedures traceable to national standards. These sphere-based sensitivities agree to within three percent [k equals 2] relative to calibrations performed using an external diffuser illuminated by standard irradiance sources, the customary radiance calibration method for BUV instruments. The uncertainty for these calibration techniques as implemented at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Centers Radiometric Calibration and Development Laboratory is shown to be 4 percent at 250nm [k equals 2] when using a single traceable calibration standard. Significant reduction in the uncertainty of nearly 1 percent is demonstrated when multiple calibration standards are used.

  4. Onboard calibration status of the ASTER instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, Fumihiro; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Inada, Hitomi; Akagi, Shigeki; Ono, Hidehiko

    2012-11-01

    The ASTER Instrument is one of the five sensors on the NASA's Terra satellite on orbit since December 1999. ASTER consists of three radiometers, VNIR, SWIR and TIR whose spatial resolutions are 15 m, 30 m and 90 m, respectively. Unfortunately SWIR stopped taking images since May 2008 due to the offset rise caused by the detector temperature rise, but VNIR and TIR are taking Earth images of good quality. VNIR and TIR experienced responsivity degradation while SWIR showed little change. Band 1 (0.56 μm) decreased most among three VNIR bands and 30 % in twelve years. Band 12 (9.1 μm) decreased 40 % and most among five TIR bands. There are some discussions of the causes of the responsivity degradation of VNIR and TIR. Possible causes are contamination accretion by silicone outgas, thruster plume and plasma interaction. We marked hydrazine which comes out unburned in the thruster plume during the inclination adjust maneuver (IAM). Hydrazine has the absorption spectra corresponding to the TIR responsivity degradation in the infrared region. We studied the IAM effect on the ASTER by allocating the additional onboard calibration activities just before and after the IAM while the normal onboard calibration activity is operated once in 49 days. This experiment was carried out three times in fiscal year 2011.

  5. Instrument calibration architecture of Radar Imaging Satellite (RISAT-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, T.; Bhan, R.; Putrevu, D.; Mehrotra, P.; Nandy, P. S.; Shukla, S. D.; Rao, C. V. N.; Dave, D. B.; Desai, N. M.

    2016-05-01

    Radar Imaging Satellite (RISAT-1) payload system is configured to perform self-calibration of transmit and receive paths before and after imaging sessions through a special instrument calibration technique. Instrument calibration architecture of RISAT-1 supported ground verification and validation of payload including active array antenna. During on-ground validation of 126 beams of active array antenna which needed precise calibration of boresight pointing, a unique method called "collimation coefficient error estimation" was utilized. This method of antenna calibration was supported by special hardware and software calibration architecture of RISAT-1. This paper concentrates on RISAT-1 hardware and software architecture which supports in-orbit and on-ground instrument calibration. Efforts are also put here to highlight use of special calibration scheme of RISAT-1 instrument to evaluate system response during ground verification and validation.

  6. Calibration and postlaunch performance of the Meteor 3/TOMS instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Jaross, G.; Krueger, A.; Cebula, R.P.; Seftor, C.; Hartmann, U.; Haring, R.; Burchfield, D. ||

    1995-02-01

    Prelaunch and postlaunch calibration results for the Meteor 3/total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) instrument are presented here. Ozone amounts are retrieved from measurements of Earth albedo in the 312- to 380-nm range. The accuracy of albedo measurements is primarily tied to knowledge of the reflective properties of diffusers used in the calibrations and to the instrument`s wavelength selection. These and other important prelaunch calibrations are presented. Their estimated accuracies are within the bounds necessary to determine column ozone to better than 1%. However, postlaunch validation results indicate some prelaunch calibration uncertainties may be larger than originally estimated. Instrument calibrations have been maintained postlaunch to within a corresponding 1% error in retrieved ozone. Onboard calibrations, including wavelength monitoring and a three-diffuser solar measurement system, are described and specific results are presented. Other issues, such as the effects of orbital precession on calibration and recent chopper wheel malfunctions, are also discussed.

  7. Pressure instrument calibration reaps SPC benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Kegel, T.M.

    1995-12-01

    Calibration laboratories are faced with the need to become accredited or registered to one or more quality standards. One requirement common to all of these standards is the need to have in place a measurement assurance program. What is a measurement assurance program? Brian Belanger, in Measurement Assurance Programs: Part 1, describes it as a {open_quotes}quality assurance program for a measurement process that quantifies the total uncertainty of the measurements (both random and systematic components of error) with respect to national or designated standards and demonstrates that the total uncertainty is sufficiently small to meet the user`s requirements.{close_quotes} Rolf Schumacher is more specific in Measurement Assurance in Your Own Laboratory. He states, {open_quotes}Measurement assurance is the application of broad quality control principles to measurements of calibrations.{close_quotes} Here, the focus is on one important part of any measurement assurance program: implementation of statistical process control (SPC). Paraphrasing Juran`s Quality Control Handbook, a process is in statistical control if the only observed variations are those that can be attributed to random causes. Conversely, a process that exhibits variations due to assignable causes is not in a state of statistical control. Finally, Carrol Croarkin states, {open_quotes}In the measurement assurance context the measurement algorithm including instrumentation, reference standards and operator interactions is the process that is to be controlled, and its direct product is the measurement per se. The measurements are assumed to be valid if the measurement algorithm is operating in a state of control.{close_quotes} Implicit in this statement is the important fact that an out-of-control process cannot produce valid measurements. 7 figs.

  8. Calibrating coastal GNSS-R instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfgren, Johan; Haas, Rüdiger; Hobiger, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Since 2011, a GNSS-R (Global Navigation Satellite System - Reflectometry) instrument for local sea level observations is operated at the Onsala Space Observatory (Löfgren et al., 2011). The Onsala Space Observatory is the Swedish geodetic fundamental station, located at the Swedish West Coast, and contributes to the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) by a variety of geodetic and geophysical observations. The Onsala GNSS-R instrumentation consists of two GNSS antennas that are mounted back-to-back on a bar at the coastline extending over the open sea in southward direction. One of the antennas is upward oriented and receives the direct satellite signals, while the other antenna is downward oriented and receives the satellite signals that reflect off the sea surface. The antennas are connected to a commercial GNSS receiver each and data are recorded with sampling rate of up to 20 Hz. Satellite signals of several GNSS are received and are analysed with various different analysis strategies to provide sea level results with different temporal resolution and precision (Larson et al., 2013; Löfgren and Haas, 2014). Since the instrumentation uses GNSS signals, it is possible to derive both local sea level, i.e. relative to the coast, and absolute sea level, i.e. relative to the geocentre as realised by the GNSS. The bar carrying the two antennas can be placed in 10 different vertical positions covering a height difference of 2.5 m between the highest and lowest position. We present results from a calibration campaign of the Onsala GNSS-R instrumentation performed in 2014. During this several weeks long campaign the antennas were placed at different vertical positions for several days at each position. The recorded data are analysed with the different analysis strategies, and the results are compared to the results derived from the co-located tide gauge equipment. References - Löfgren J, Haas R, Scherneck H-G (2011). Three months of local sea-level derived from

  9. Brookhaven National Laboratory meteorological services instrument calibration plan and procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser .

    2013-02-16

    This document describes the Meteorological Services (Met Services) Calibration and Maintenance Schedule and Procedures, The purpose is to establish the frequency and mechanism for the calibration and maintenance of the network of meteorological instrumentation operated by Met Services. The goal is to maintain the network in a manner that will result in accurate, precise and reliable readings from the instrumentation.

  10. Calibration and postlaunch performance of the Meteor 3/TOMS instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaross, G.; Krueger, A.; Cebula, R. P.; Seftor, C.; Hartmann, U.; Haring, R.; Burchfield, D.

    1995-01-01

    Prelaunch and postlaunch calibration results for the Meteor 3/total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) instrument are presented here. Ozone amounts are retrieved from measurements of Earth albedo in the 312- to 380-nm range. The accuracy of albedo measurements is primarily tied to knowledge of the reflective properties of diffusers used in the calibrations and to the instrument's wavelength selection. These and other important prelaunch calibrations are presented. Their estimated accuracies are within the bounds necessary to determine column ozone to better than 1%. However, postlaunch validation results indicate some prelaunch calibration uncertainties may be larger than originally estimated. Instrument calibrations have been maintained postlaunch to within a corresponding 1% error in retrieved ozone. Onboard calibrations, including wavelength monitoring and a three-diffuser solar measurement system, are described and specific results are presented. Other issues, such as the effects of orbital precession on calibration and recent chopper wheel malfunctions, are also discussed.

  11. Data reduction of digitized images processed from calibrated photographic and spectroscopic films obtained from terrestial, rocket and space shuttle telescopic instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The Microvax 2 computer, the basic software in VMS, and the Mitsubishi High Speed Disk were received and installed. The digital scanning tunneling microscope is fully installed and operational. A new technique was developed for pseudocolor analysis of the line plot images of a scanning tunneling microscope. Computer studies and mathematical modeling of the empirical data associated with many of the film calibration studies were presented. A gas can follow-up experiment which will be launched in September, on the Space Shuttle STS-50, was prepared and loaded. Papers were presented on the structure of the human hair strand using scanning electron microscopy and x ray analysis and updated research on the annual rings produced by the surf clam of the ocean estuaries of Maryland. Scanning electron microscopic work was conducted by the research team for the study of the Mossbauer and Magnetic Susceptibility Studies on NmNi(4.25)Fe(.85) and its Hydride.

  12. Calibration procedure for Slocum glider deployed optical instruments.

    PubMed

    Cetinić, Ivona; Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Ragan, Matthew; Oberg, Carl; Jones, Burton H

    2009-08-31

    Recent developments in the field of the autonomous underwater vehicles allow the wide usage of these platforms as part of scientific experiments, monitoring campaigns and more. The vehicles are often equipped with sensors measuring temperature, conductivity, chlorophyll a fluorescence (Chl a), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence, phycoerithrin (PE) fluorescence and spectral volume scattering function at 117 degrees, providing users with high resolution, real time data. However, calibration of these instruments can be problematic. Most in situ calibrations are performed by deploying complementary instrument packages or water samplers in the proximity of the glider. Laboratory calibrations of the mounted sensors are difficult due to the placement of the instruments within the body of the vehicle. For the laboratory calibrations of the Slocum glider instruments we developed a small calibration chamber where we can perform precise calibrations of the optical instruments aboard our glider, as well as sensors from other deployment platforms. These procedures enable us to obtain pre- and post-deployment calibrations for optical fluorescence instruments, which may differ due to the biofouling and other physical damage that can occur during long-term glider deployments. We found that biofouling caused significant changes in the calibration scaling factors of fluorescent sensors, suggesting the need for consistent and repetitive calibrations for gliders as proposed in this paper.

  13. IECM calibration and data reduction requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wills, F. D.; Davis, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    The induced environment contamination monitor (IECM) tape recorder format, as it relates to the ouput of meaningful data from the IECM instrument, is explained. Eight-bit words (or bytes) generate numbers that represent voltage levels of electronic detection probes for each experiment. This information is amalgamated by the IECM Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS). In some cases bits represent certain status situations concerning an experiment, such as whether a valve is opened or closed. Voltages are transformed into meaningful physical phenomena through equations of calibration. Data formats and plots are generated as requested for each IECM experimenter.

  14. 40 CFR 1066.130 - Measurement instrument calibrations and verifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CVS flow meters calibrated volumetrically as described in § 1066.140. 40 CFR 1065.345: Vacuum leak... an emissions test and after maintenance such as pre-filter changes. 40 CFR 1065.350(c), 1065.355(c... measurement instrument calibration and verification requirements in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D, apply...

  15. IOT Overview: Calibrations of the VLTI Instruments (MIDI and AMBER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, S.; Rantakyrö, F.; Rivinius, T.; Stefl, S.; Hummel, C.; Brillant, S.; Schöller, M.; Percheron, I.; Wittkowski, M.; Richichi, A.; Ballester, P.

    We present here a short review of the calibration processes that are currently applied to the instruments AMBER and MIDI of the VLTI (Very Large Telescope Interferometer) at Paranal. We first introduce the general principles to calibrate the raw data (the "visibilities") that have been measured by long-baseline optical interferometry. Then, we focus on the specific case of the scientific operation of the VLTI instruments. We explain the criteria that have been used to select calibrator stars for the observations with the VLTI instruments, as well as the routine internal calibration techniques. Among these techniques, the "P2VM" (Pixel-to-Visibility Matrix) in the case of AMBER is explained. Also, the daily monitoring of AMBER and MIDI, that has recently been implemented, is shortly introduced.

  16. GRACE KBR and Accelerometer Data Reduction and Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlands, D. D.; Luthcke, S. B.; Klosko, S. M.; Lemoine, F. G.; Williams, T. A.

    2004-12-01

    The Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE), launched on March 17, 2002, represents the state-of-the-art in geodetic observations of the static and time varying components of the Earth's geopotential field. The fundamental measurement used to observe gravity is the inter-satellite range and range rate between two coplanar, low altitude satellites obtained from a K-band ranging (KBR) system. In addition to the K-band ranging system, each satellite possess a SuperSTAR Accelerometer, a GPS receiver/antenna package, Star Cameras and a Laser Retro Reflector (LRR) to complete the compliment of science instruments. The GRACE project has now released two years of Level 1B data derived from the science instruments and sensors. An integral component of our time variable gravity research is the reduction, calibration and analyses of these Level 1B data. In particular we have analyzed several months of K-band ranging (KBR1B), accelerometry (ACC1B) and GPS navigation (GNAV1B) data. Accelerometer calibration and KBR data reduction methodology and results will be presented. We discuss the impact of these analyses on the recovery of time variable gravity.

  17. GRACE KBR and Accelerometer Data Reduction and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlands, David D.; Lutheke, Scott B.; Klosko, Steven M.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Williams, Terry A.

    2004-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), launched on March 17, 2002, represents the state-of-the-art in geodetic observations of the static and time varying components of the Earth's geopotential field. The fundamental measurement used to observe gravity is the inter-satellite range and range rate between two coplanar, low altitude satellites obtained from a K-band ranging (KBR) system. In addition to the K-band ranging system, each satellite possess a Super-STAR Accelerometer, a GPS receiver/antenna package, Star Cameras and a Laser Retro Reflector (LRR) to complete the compliment of science instruments. The GRACE project has now released two years of Level 1B data derived from the science instruments and sensors. An integral component of our time variable gravity research is the reduction, calibration and analyses of these Level 1B data. In particular we have analyzed several months of K-band ranging (KBR1B), accelerometry (ACC1B) and GPS navigation (GNAV1B) data. Accelerometer calibration and KBR data reduction methodology and results will be presented. We discuss the impact of these analyses on the recovery of time variable gravity.

  18. Calibration of optical 3D-measuring instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Uwe

    1998-09-01

    For the inspection and measurement of microstructures small accurate three-dimensional coordinate measuring machines are needed. Typical measurement volumes are 10 mm by 10 mm by 3 mm and the desired 3D-measurement uncertainty is 0.1 micrometer. Up to now only optical coordinate measuring machines (CMM) offer the necessary lateral measurement ranges. But optical CMMs are restricted to two-dimensional measurements and moreover the aimed uncertainty has not been achieved yet. Since a few years new optical techniques are available which are able to measure nearly three-dimensionally (scanning white light, fringe projection, confocal microscopy, photogrammetry). In order to use these instruments and to specify their measurement uncertainty, calibration of these instruments is necessary. The calibration of the three measurement axes is divided into calibration of the lateral axes and calibration of the vertical axis. The contribution focuses on the development of new depth setting standards (1 micrometer - 1 milimeter) and their traceability.

  19. Status of MODIS Instruments and Future Calibration Improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, X.; Angal, A.; Wu, A.; Salomonson, V. V.

    2015-12-01

    MODIS is one of the key instruments currently operated on two major missions for the NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) program: Terra and Aqua launched in 1999 and 2002, respectively. Nearly 40 data products have been routinely generated from both Terra and Aqua MODIS observations and widely distributed to the science community and users worldwide for their studies of the earth's system and changes in its geophysical properties. To date, each MODIS instrument operation remains nominal and its on-board calibrators (OBC) continue to function satisfactorily. On a regular basis, MODIS reflective solar bands (RSB) calibration is performed by a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). For the thermal emissive bands (TEB), an on-board blackbody (BB) provides a scan-by-scan calibration reference. Since launch, extensive calibration and characterization activities have been scheduled and implemented by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) to produce and update calibration look-up tables (LUT). This presentation provides an overview of both Terra and Aqua MODIS instrument status, their on-orbit operation and calibration activities, and radiometric, spectral, and spatial performance. It describes calibration changes (algorithms and look-up tables) made for the MODIS Level 1B (L1B) data collection 6 (C6) and discusses remaining challenging issues and ongoing effort for future improvements. As expected, lessons from both Terra and Aqua MODIS have benefitted and will continue to help the S-NPP and JPSS VIIRS instruments in terms of on-orbit operation strategies and calibration enhancements.

  20. Results from the calibration of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welsh, Barry Y.; Jelinsky, Pat; Vedder, Peter W.; Vallerga, John V.; Finley, David S.; Malina, Roger F.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the main features and selected results of the calibration of the scientific instruments to be flown on the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer in 1991. The instrument payload includes three grazing incidence scanning telescopes and an EUV spectrometer/deep survey instrument covering the spectral region 70-800 A. The measured imaging characteristics, the effective areas, and the details of spectral responses of the instruments are presented. Diagrams of the cross-sectional views of the scanning telescope and the deep-survey/spectrometer telescope are included.

  1. 40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... best fit calibration curve for the instrument (as a function of the calibration device flow measurement) from the calibration points to determine corrected flow. The points on the calibration curve...

  2. Instrument calibration plan of the Technical Support Section

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, K.L.; Davis, B.C.; Smith, H.E.; Hylton, J.O.; Robbins, W.L.

    1997-06-01

    This document describes the Calibration Program for the Instrumentation and Controls Division`s Technical Support Section (TSS). The implementation of the program is the responsibility of TSS; however, determining whether or not equipment is to be calibrated is the responsibility of the equipment`s custodian or user. The Calibration Program is a planned, systematic schedule of actions necessary to provide confidence that equipment used to make measurements or quality judgments meets established technical requirements and that its performance is traceable to nationally recognized standards. It is imperative that all parties maintain timely and effective dialogue to ensure that the process is adequate to meet the needs of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It is especially important to place this guidance in the proper context. ORNL instrumentation support at the shop and facility level is the primary application. Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMER) and site policy provide the umbrella guidance for overall measuring and test equipment support.

  3. Instrumentation and calibration issues for Space Station Freedom and future space projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushman, David M.; Burdine, Robert V.

    1991-01-01

    Space-based instrumentation calibration for long duration and remote space missions is discussed. The traditional approach, in which instrumentation was an afterthought in the space program design process and calibration was not even addressed until after design was completed, are discussed. Current issues and approaches to calibration are discussed, and guidelines are developed to instrumentation calibration for the Space Station Freedom and beyond.

  4. Calibration of the instrument of the MICROSCOPE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiu, E.; Pradels, G.; Rodrigues, M.; Touboul, P.

    The MICROSOPE mission is planned for launch in 2007. It aims to verify the Equivalence Principle with an accuracy of 10-15, which is not reachable on Earth because of disturbing phenomena, like seismic activity. In space the experiment can take advantage of the quiet environment provided by a drag free satellite. The instrument used for the test is a differential electrostatic accelerometer composed of two inertial sensors, with proof-masses made of different materials: one in Platinum-Rhodium alloy, the other in Titanium alloy. The space experiment will also benefit from a second differential accelerometer with both proof-masses of the same material as a reference instrument to characterise the disturbing signals and sensitivities. The in-orbit calibration of the instrument is mandatory to validate the space test and several procedures have been previously proposed taking advantage of the satellite propulsion system or the a priori knowledge of natural, in-orbit, applied accelerations. Due to the actual configuration of the MICROSCOPE propulsion system, the possibility of accurate satellite manoeuvres is limited but sufficient. This paper presents the necessary compromise between the satellite parameters, the instrument ones and the calibration procedures. The scenario of the MICROSCOPE in-orbit calibration phase is finely defined in agreement with the required performances for the EP test accuracy.

  5. Traceable Micro-Force Sensor for Instrumented Indentation Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D T; Shaw, G A; Seugling, R M; Xiang, D; Pratt, J R

    2007-04-02

    Instrumented indentation testing (IIT), commonly referred to as nanoindentation when small forces are used, is a popular technique for determining the mechanical properties of small volumes of material. Sample preparation is relatively easy, usually requiring only that a smooth surface of the material to be tested be accessible to a contact probe, and instruments that combine sophisticated automation with straightforward user interfaces are available commercially from several manufacturers. In addition, documentary standards are now becoming available from both the International Standards Organization (ISO 14577) and ASTM International (E28 WK382) that define test methods and standard practices for IIT, and will allow the technique to be used to produce material property data that can be used in product specifications. These standards also define the required level of accuracy of the force data produced by IIT instruments, as well as methods to verify that accuracy. For forces below 10 mN, these requirements can be difficult to meet, particularly for instrument owners who need to verify the performance of their instrument as it is installed at their site. In this paper, we describe the development, performance and application of an SI-traceable force sensor system for potential use in the field calibration of commercial IIT instruments. The force sensor itself, based on an elastically deforming capacitance gauge, is small enough to mount in a commercial instrument as if it were a test specimen, and is used in conjunction with an ultra-high accuracy capacitance bridge. The sensor system is calibrated with NIST-traceable masses over the range 5.0 {micro}N through 5.0 mN. We will present data on its accuracy and precision, as well its potential application to the verification of force in commercial instrumented indentation instruments.

  6. Vacuum facility for calibration of space instrumentation in cleanroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelizzo, M. G.; Zuppella, P.; Polito, V.; Corso, A. J.; Zuccon, S.; Nicolosi, P.

    2012-09-01

    Calibration of optical systems is a fundamental step in the development of a space instrumentation. We have built a new cleanroom environment, divided in different areas characterized by a different level of contamination control. A vacuum chamber (a tube of 80 cm diameter, and 2 m length), able to accommodate optical components as well as whole instruments, is interfaced with a ISO6 area, allowing the handling of the instrumentation in a clean environment. The vacuum system is dimensioned to reach 10-7 mbar pressure in the chamber. Inside, a two axis platform allows the rotation of the instrument with respect to the incident collimating beam, in order to test the response of the instrument to light coming from different points of the field of view. A monochromator coupled with different sources provides radiation in the 40-350 nm spectral range, while a parabolic mirror is used as a collimator. As source, different spectral lamps can be used to generate emission lines, while a Xe lamp can be used to have continuum spectrum. An high brilliant hollow cathode lamp has been fabricated by the group to generate extreme ultraviolet radiation. Different calibrated detectors and other completing optical components are available.

  7. Instrument Calibration plan of the Technical Support Department

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, K.L.; Duncan, D.M.; McIntyre, T.J.; Millet, A.J.; Swabe, T.E.; Vines, R.A.

    1993-11-01

    This document describes the management of the Calibration Program of the Instrumentation and Controls Division`s Technical Support Department (ISD). The implementation of the program is the responsibility of ISD; however, the decision as to whether or not equipment is calibrated is the responsibility of the end user. It is imperative that all parties maintain timely and effective dialogue to ensure that the process is adequate to meet the needs of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The program is a planned, systematic schedule of actions necessary to provide confidence that equipment used to make measurements or quality judgments conforms to established technical requirements and is traceable to nationally recognized standards. It is especially important to place this guidance in the context for which it is intended. ORNL instrumentation support at the shop and facility level is the primary application. Energy Systems and site policy provide the umbrella guidance needed for overall measuring and test equipment support.

  8. New instrument calibration facility for the DOE Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkie, W.H.; Polz, E.J.

    1993-12-31

    A new laboratory facility is being designed, constructed, and equipped at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a fiscal year 1992 line item project. This facility will provide space and equipment for test, evaluation, repair, maintenance, and calibration of radiation monitoring instrumentation. The project will replace an obsolete facility and will allow implementation of program upgrades necessary to meet ANSI N323 requirements and National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) criteria for accreditation of federally owned secondary calibration laboratories. An outline of the project is presented including description, scope, cost, management organization, chronology, and current status. Selected design criteria and their impacts on the project are discussed. The upgraded SRS calibration program is described, and important features of the new facility and equipment that will accommodate this program are listed. The floor plan for the facility is shown, and equipment summaries and functional descriptions for each area are provided.

  9. Xenon arc lamp spectral radiance modelling for satellite instrument calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolt, Stephen; Clark, Paul; Schmoll, Jürgen; Shaw, Benjamin J. R.

    2016-07-01

    Precise radiometric measurements play a central role in many areas of astronomical and terrestrial observation. We focus on the use of continuum light sources in the absolute radiometric calibration of detectors in an imaging spectrometer for space applications. The application, in this instance, revolves around the ground based calibration of the Sentinel-4/UVN instrument. This imaging spectrometer instrument is expected to be deployed in 2019 and will make spatially resolved spectroscopic measurements of atmospheric chemistry. The instrument, which operates across the UV/VIS and NIR spectrum from 305-775 nm, is designed to measure the absolute spectral radiance of the Earth and compare it with the absolute spectral irradiance of the Sun. Of key importance to the fidelity of these absolute measurements is the ground based calibration campaign. Continuum lamp sources that are temporally stable and are spatially well defined are central to this process. Xenon short arc lamps provide highly intense and efficient continuum illumination in a range extending from the ultra-violet to the infra-red and their spectrum is well matched to this specific application. Despite their widespread commercial use, certain aspects of their performance are not well documented in the literature. One of the important requirements in this calibration application is the delivery of highly uniform, collimated illumination at high radiance. In this process, it cannot be assumed that the xenon arc is a point source; the spatial distribution of the radiance must be characterised accurately. We present here careful measurements that thoroughly characterise the spatial distribution of the spectral radiance of a 1000W xenon lamp. A mathematical model is presented describing the spatial distribution. Temporal stability is another exceptionally important requirement in the calibration process. As such, the paper also describes strategies to re-inforce the temporal stability of the lamp output by

  10. Calibration of the Reflected Solar Instrument for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; Barnes, Robert; Baize, Rosemary; O'Connell, Joseph; Hair, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) plans to observe climate change trends over decadal time scales to determine the accuracy of climate projections. The project relies on spaceborne earth observations of SI-traceable variables sensitive to key decadal change parameters. The mission includes a reflected solar instrument retrieving at-sensor reflectance over the 320 to 2300 nm spectral range with 500-m spatial resolution and 100-km swath. Reflectance is obtained from the ratio of measurements of the earth s surface to those while viewing the sun relying on a calibration approach that retrieves reflectance with uncertainties less than 0.3%. The calibration is predicated on heritage hardware, reduction of sensor complexity, adherence to detector-based calibration standards, and an ability to simulate in the laboratory on-orbit sources in both size and brightness to provide the basis of a transfer to orbit of the laboratory calibration including a link to absolute solar irradiance measurements.

  11. Precision Spectrophotometric Calibration System for Dark Energy Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Schubnell, Michael S.

    2015-06-30

    For this research we build a precision calibration system and carried out measurements to demonstrate the precision that can be achieved with a high precision spectrometric calibration system. It was shown that the system is capable of providing a complete spectrophotometric calibration at the sub-pixel level. The calibration system uses a fast, high precision monochromator that can quickly and efficiently scan over an instrument’s entire spectral range with a spectral line width of less than 0.01 nm corresponding to a fraction of a pixel on the CCD. The system was extensively evaluated in the laboratory. Our research showed that a complete spectrophotometric calibration standard for spectroscopic survey instruments such as DESI is possible. The monochromator precision and repeatability to a small fraction of the DESI spectrograph LSF was demonstrated with re-initialization on every scan and thermal drift compensation by locking to multiple external line sources. A projector system that mimics telescope aperture for point source at infinity was demonstrated.

  12. 10 CFR 35.2061 - Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations. 35... § 35.2061 Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations. A licensee shall maintain a record of radiation survey instrument calibrations required by § 35.61 for 3 years. The record must include the...

  13. 10 CFR 35.2061 - Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations. 35... § 35.2061 Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations. A licensee shall maintain a record of radiation survey instrument calibrations required by § 35.61 for 3 years. The record must include the...

  14. 10 CFR 35.2061 - Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations. 35... § 35.2061 Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations. A licensee shall maintain a record of radiation survey instrument calibrations required by § 35.61 for 3 years. The record must include the...

  15. 10 CFR 35.2061 - Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations. 35... § 35.2061 Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations. A licensee shall maintain a record of radiation survey instrument calibrations required by § 35.61 for 3 years. The record must include the...

  16. 10 CFR 35.2061 - Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations. 35... § 35.2061 Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations. A licensee shall maintain a record of radiation survey instrument calibrations required by § 35.61 for 3 years. The record must include the...

  17. 14 CFR 21.39 - Flight test instrument calibration and correction report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight test instrument calibration and... instrument calibration and correction report. (a) Each applicant for a normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter... computations and tests required in connection with the calibration of instruments used for test purposes and...

  18. The Hailpad: Materials, Data Reduction and Calibration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Alexis B.; Matson, Richard J.; Crow, Edwin L.

    1980-11-01

    This paper reports on work carried out in the National Hail Research Experiment (NHRE) on hailpad materials, on procedures for reducing hailpad data, and on hailpad calibration. A recommendation is made for a pad constructed of 2.5 cm thick type-SI Styrofoam (manufactured by Dow Chemical USA) and sprayed with a 25-50 m coating of white latex paint for protection from the deteriorating effects of sun-light. Calibration of the hailpad provides a relation between the minor axis of a dent in the pad and the dimensions of the stone producing the dent. It is recommended that measurements of the minor axis be categorized in size intervals no wider than 4 mm.The NHRE laboratory technique for calibrating hailpads involves simulating a hailstone impact by dropping a steel sphere onto a pad from a height such that the impact kinetic energy achieved by the sphere equals that of a hailstone of equal diameter falling onto the pad in an environment with known horizontal wind. The pad is tilted to preserve the stone impact angle found in nature. A second-degree polynomial in sphere diameter D satisfactorily describes the calibration relation between D and the dent minor axis. Application of the calibration relation developed for the particular case of no wind to hailpads which have been hit by hail falling in a wind leads to an overestimate of hailstone diameter of approximately 0.5-1% per meter per second of wind speed. This effect of the wind is about twice as large as that found by others.A theoretical expression is developed that explicitly relates the minor axis of a dent produced by a sphere to the diameter of the sphere. Two controlling parameters in this expression are the impact kinetic energy of the sphere and a factor p, with dimensions of pressure, which quantitatively embodies the response of a pad to a sphere impact. The effect of variations in p on the sphere diameter derived from dent minor axis and information supplied by Dow Chemical USA on possible variability

  19. SMOS Instrument Performance and Calibration after 3 Years in Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Neira, Manuel; Corbella, Ignasi; Torres, Francesc; Kainulainen, Juha; Oliva, Roger; Closa, Josep; Cabot, François; Castro, Rita; Barbosa, Jose; Gutierrez, Antonio; Anterrieu, Eric; Tenerelli, Joe; Martin-Porqueras, Fernando; Buenadicha, Guillermo; Delwart, Steven; Crapolicchio, Raffaele; Suess, Martin

    2013-04-01

    ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission has been in orbit for already over 3 years which has allowed the calibration and data processing team consolidating both the calibration strategy and the Level-1 processor which transforms the raw visibility samples into polarimetric brightness temperature images. The payload on board SMOS, MIRAS, is quite unique in that it is the first microwave radiometer in space ever capable to generate wide field of view images at every snapshot measurement. This means that most of the calibration as well as image processing techniques are being developed for the first time with little heritage from any previous space mission. Issues intrinsically attached to its wide field of view such as spatial ripples across the snapshot images are particular to MIRAS and to no other earlier radiometer. Even the fundamental theory behind the instrument was put at test, first on ground inside an electromagnetic compatibility chamber, and now in orbit when imaging the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation of the cold sky. A groundbreaking effort is being carried out by the SMOS project team to understand and master all calibration and image reconstruction issues of this novel microwave interferometer payload. MIRAS in-orbit performance is driven by the amplitude of spatial ripples across the image and orbital and seasonal radiometer stability. Spatial ripples are unique to interferometric radiometers and are produced by (a) a limited knowledge of the antenna patterns and, in general, of the model of the instrument, (b) some fundamental limitations related to the inverse problem of image reconstruction in undetermined conditions and (c) subtle data processing inconsistencies which are discovered and corrected. To reduce the spatial ripples sea surface salinity retrievals are performed by first removing the brightness temperature spatial errors using a uniform region of the Pacific Ocean. However soil moisture retrievals cannot benefit of

  20. GMI Instrument Spin Balance Method, Optimization, Calibration, and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayari, Laoucet; Kubitschek, Michael; Ashton, Gunnar; Johnston, Steve; Debevec, Dave; Newell, David; Pellicciotti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The Global Microwave Imager (GMI) instrument must spin at a constant rate of 32 rpm continuously for the 3 year mission life. Therefore, GMI must be very precisely balanced about the spin axis and CG to maintain stable scan pointing and to minimize disturbances imparted to the spacecraft and attitude control on-orbit. The GMI instrument is part of the core Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) spacecraft and is used to make calibrated radiometric measurements at multiple microwave frequencies and polarizations. The GPM mission is an international effort managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to improve climate, weather, and hydro-meteorological predictions through more accurate and frequent precipitation measurements. Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation (BATC) was selected by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to design, build, and test the GMI instrument. The GMI design has to meet a challenging set of spin balance requirements and had to be brought into simultaneous static and dynamic spin balance after the entire instrument was already assembled and before environmental tests began. The focus of this contribution is on the analytical and test activities undertaken to meet the challenging spin balance requirements of the GMI instrument. The novel process of measuring the residual static and dynamic imbalances with a very high level of accuracy and precision is presented together with the prediction of the optimal balance masses and their locations.

  1. GMI Instrument Spin Balance Method, Optimization, Calibration and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayari, Laoucet; Kubitschek, Michael; Ashton, Gunnar; Johnston, Steve; Debevec, Dave; Newell, David; Pellicciotti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The Global Microwave Imager (GMI) instrument must spin at a constant rate of 32 rpm continuously for the 3-year mission life. Therefore, GMI must be very precisely balanced about the spin axis and center of gravity (CG) to maintain stable scan pointing and to minimize disturbances imparted to the spacecraft and attitude control on-orbit. The GMI instrument is part of the core Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) spacecraft and is used to make calibrated radiometric measurements at multiple microwave frequencies and polarizations. The GPM mission is an international effort managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to improve climate, weather, and hydro-meteorological predictions through more accurate and frequent precipitation measurements. Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation (BATC) was selected by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to design, build, and test the GMI instrument. The GMI design has to meet a challenging set of spin balance requirements and had to be brought into simultaneous static and dynamic spin balance after the entire instrument was already assembled and before environmental tests began. The focus of this contribution is on the analytical and test activities undertaken to meet the challenging spin balance requirements of the GMI instrument. The novel process of measuring the residual static and dynamic imbalances with a very high level of accuracy and precision is presented together with the prediction of the optimal balance masses and their locations.

  2. A New Automated Instrument Calibration Facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Polz, E.; Rushton, R.O.; Wilkie, W.H.; Hancock, R.C.

    1998-06-01

    The Health Physics Instrument Calibration Facility at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC was expressly designed and built to calibrate portable radiation survey instruments. The facility incorporates recent advances in automation technology, building layout and construction, and computer software to improve the calibration process. Nine new calibration systems automate instrument calibration and data collection. The building is laid out so that instruments are moved from one area to another in a logical, efficient manner. New software and hardware integrate all functions such as shipping/receiving, work flow, calibration, testing, and report generation. Benefits include a streamlined and integrated program, improved efficiency, reduced errors, and better accuracy.

  3. FIRBACK. II. Data reduction and calibration of the 170 μ m ISO deep cosmological survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagache, G.; Dole, H.

    2001-06-01

    We present the final reduction and calibration of the FIRBACK ISOPHOT data. FIRBACK is a deep cosmological survey performed at 170 mu m. This paper deals with the ISOPHOT C200 camera with the C160 filter. We review the whole data reduction process and compare our final calibration with DIRBE (for the extended emission) and IRAS (for point sources). The FIRBACK source extraction and galaxy counts is discussed in a companion paper (Dole et al. \\cite{Doleprep}). Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  4. In-flight calibration of the MICROSCOPE space mission instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Emilie; Metris, Gilles; Levy, Agnes; Santos Rodrigues, Manuel; Touboul, Pierre; Robert, Alain

    2012-07-01

    The Equivalence Principle (EP), at the basis of General Relativity, has been tested throughout the centuries with a growing accuracy. The on-ground experiments led to a record accuracy of a few 10^{-13}. However, theories aiming at the unification of the gravitation with the three other fundamental interactions foresee a violation of the EP at level never tested yet, below 10^{-13}. The objective of the MICROSCOPE space mission is to outperform this threshold by testing the EP with an accuracy of 10^{-15} through its simplest manifestation, the Universality of Free Fall. The test is based on the precise measurement performed by a differential electrostatic accelerometer onboard a drag-free microsatellite. The accelerometer includes two cylindrical test masses made of different materials and controlled to remain concentric on the same trajectory and are therefore subject to the same gravitational field. The accelerations applied to maintain the masses centred are measured and an eventual difference would indicate an EP violation. The accuracy of the measurement exploited for the EP test is limited by our knowledge of the physical parameters of the instrument. The on-ground evaluation of these parameters is not precise enough to reach the accuracy objectives. An in-orbit calibration is therefore needed to finely characterize them in order to correct the measurement. The calibration procedures have been determined and their performances have been analytically evaluated. In addition, a software simulator including models of the instrument and the satellite drag-free system has been developed. After a brief presentation of the MICROSCOPE mission and its payload, the acceleration measurement provided by the instrument is detailed showing the necessary requirements for the instrument environment and characteristics. In orbit calibration procedures have been defined to correct several perturbing terms, taking advantage of the active satellite attitude and drag compensation

  5. Integrated imaging instrument for self-calibrated fluorescence protein microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddington, A. P.; Monroe, M. R.; Ünlü, M. S.

    2013-10-01

    Protein microarrays, or multiplexed and high-throughput assays, monitor multiple protein binding events to facilitate the understanding of disease progression and cell physiology. Fluorescence imaging is a popular method to detect proteins captured by immobilized probes with high sensitivity and specificity. Reliability of fluorescence assays depends on achieving minimal inter- and intra-assay probe immobilization variation, an ongoing challenge for protein microarrays. Therefore, it is desirable to establish a label-free method to quantify the probe density prior to target incubation to calibrate the fluorescence readout. Previously, a silicon oxide on silicon chip design was introduced to enhance the fluorescence signal and enable interferometric imaging to self-calibrate the signal with the immobilized probe density. In this paper, an integrated interferometric reflectance imaging sensor and wide-field fluorescence instrument is introduced for sensitive and calibrated microarray measurements. This platform is able to analyze a 2.5 mm × 3.4 mm area, or 200 spots (100 μm diameter with 200 μm pitch), in a single field-of-view.

  6. Gemini Planet Imager observational calibrations I: Overview of the GPI data reduction pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Marshall D.; Maire, Jérôme; Ingraham, Patrick; Savransky, Dmitry; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Wolff, Schuyler G.; Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste; Wang, Jason J.; Draper, Zachary H.; Sadakuni, Naru; Marois, Christian; Rajan, Abhijith; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; Doyon, René; Larkin, James E.; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Palmer, David W.; Labrie, Kathleen; Beaulieu, Mathilde; De Rosa, Robert J.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Konopacky, Quinn; Lafreniere, David; Lavigne, Jean-Francois; Marchis, Franck; Patience, Jenny; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Soummer, Rémi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Thomas, Sandrine; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wiktorowicz, Sloane

    2014-07-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) has as its science instrument an infrared integral field spectrograph/polarimeter (IFS). Integral field spectrographs are scientificially powerful but require sophisticated data reduction systems. For GPI to achieve its scientific goals of exoplanet and disk characterization, IFS data must be reconstructed into high quality astrometrically and photometrically accurate datacubes in both spectral and polarization modes, via flexible software that is usable by the broad Gemini community. The data reduction pipeline developed by the GPI instrument team to meet these needs is now publicly available following GPI's commissioning. This paper, the first of a series, provides a broad overview of GPI data reduction, summarizes key steps, and presents the overall software framework and implementation. Subsequent papers describe in more detail the algorithms necessary for calibrating GPI data. The GPI data reduction pipeline is open source, available from planetimager.org, and will continue to be enhanced throughout the life of the instrument. It implements an extensive suite of task primitives that can be assembled into reduction recipes to produce calibrated datasets ready for scientific analysis. Angular, spectral, and polarimetric differential imaging are supported. Graphical tools automate the production and editing of recipes, an integrated calibration database manages reference files, and an interactive data viewer customized for high contrast imaging allows for exploration and manipulation of data.

  7. Time transfer by laser link (T2L2): characterization and calibration of the flight instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samain, E.; Vrancken, P.; Guillemot, P.; Fridelance, P.; Exertier, P.

    2014-10-01

    The T2L2 project (time transfer by laser link) allows for the synchronization of remote ultra-stable clocks over intercontinental distances (Fridelance et al 1997 Exp. Astron. 7, Samain and Fridelance 1998 Metrologia 35 151-9). The principle is derived from satellite laser ranging technology with dedicated space equipment designed to record arrival times of laser pulses at the satellite. The space segment has been launched in June 2008 as a passenger experiment on the ocean altimetry satellite Jason 2. T2L2 had been specified to yield a time stability of better than 1 ps over 1000 s integration time and an accuracy of better than 100 ps. This level of performance requires a rigorous data processing which can be performed only with a comprehensive calibration model of the whole instrumentation. For this purpose, several experimental measurements have been performed before and during the integration phase of the T2L2 space instrument. This instrument model is one of the cornerstones of the data reduction process which is carried out to translate the raw information to a usable picosecond time transfer. After providing a global synopsis of the T2L2 space instrument, the paper gives a description of the experimental setup for the instrument characterization. It then details the different contributions within the calibration model and concludes with an applied example of a space to ground time transfer.

  8. Monocrystalline test structures, and use for calibrating instruments

    DOEpatents

    Cresswell, Michael W.; Ghoshtagore, R. N.; Linholm, Loren W.; Allen, Richard A.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.

    1997-01-01

    An improved test structure for measurement of width of conductive lines formed on substrates as performed in semiconductor fabrication, and for calibrating instruments for such measurements, is formed from a monocrystalline starting material, having an insulative layer formed beneath its surface by ion implantation or the equivalent, leaving a monocrystalline layer on the surface. The monocrystalline surface layer is then processed by preferential etching to accurately define components of the test structure. The substrate can be removed from the rear side of the insulative layer to form a transparent window, such that the test structure can be inspected by transmissive-optical techniques. Measurements made using electrical and optical techniques can be correlated with other measurements, including measurements made using scanning probe microscopy.

  9. Comparison of Two Methodologies for Calibrating Satellite Instruments in the Visible and Near Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Robert A.; Brown, Steven W.; Lykke, Keith R.; Guenther, Bruce; Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Butler, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, satellite instruments that measure Earth-reflected solar radiation in the visible and near infrared wavelength regions have been calibrated for radiance response in a two-step method. In the first step, the spectral response of the instrument is determined using a nearly monochromatic light source, such a lamp-illuminated monochromator. Such sources only provide a relative spectral response (RSR) for the instrument, since they do not act as calibrated sources of light nor do they typically fill the field-of-view of the instrument. In the second step, the instrument views a calibrated source of broadband light, such as lamp-illuminated integrating sphere. In the traditional method, the RSR and the sphere spectral radiance are combined and, with the instrument's response, determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity of the instrument. More recently, an absolute calibration system using widely tunable monochromatic laser systems has been developed, Using these sources, the absolute spectral responsivity (ASR) of an instrument can be determined on a wavelength-hy-wavelength basis. From these monochromatic ASRs. the responses of the instrument bands to broadband radiance sources can be calculated directly, eliminating the need for calibrated broadband light sources such as integrating spheres. Here we describe the laser-based calibration and the traditional broad-band source-based calibration of the NPP VIIRS sensor, and compare the derived calibration coefficients for the instrument. Finally, we evaluate the impact of the new calibration approach on the on-orbit performance of the sensor.

  10. Calibration of LSST Instrumental and Atmospheric Photometric Passbands

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, David L.; Axelrod, T.; Barrau, Aurelien; Baumont, Sylvain; Blondin, Stephane; Claver, Chuck; Gorecki, Alexia; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jones, Lynne; Krabbendam, Victor; Liang, Ming; Saha, Abhijit; Smith, Allyn; Smith, R.Chris; Stubbs, Christopher W.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2011-07-06

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will continuously image the entire sky visible from Cerro Pachon in northern Chile every 3-4 nights throughout the year. The LSST will provide data for a broad range of science investigations that require better than 1% photometric precision across the sky (repeatability and uniformity) and a similar accuracy of measured broadband color. The fast and persistent cadence of the LSST survey will significantly improve the temporal sampling rate with which celestial events and motions are tracked. To achieve these goals, and to optimally utilize the observing calendar, it will be necessary to obtain excellent photometric calibration of data taken over a wide range of observing conditions - even those not normally considered 'photometric'. To achieve this it will be necessary to routinely and accurately measure the full optical passband that includes the atmosphere as well as the instrumental telescope and camera system. The LSST mountain facility will include a new monochromatic dome illumination projector system to measure the detailed wavelength dependence of the instrumental passband for each channel in the system. The facility will also include an auxiliary spectroscopic telescope dedicated to measurement of atmospheric transparency at all locations in the sky during LSST observing. In this paper, we describe these systems and present laboratory and observational data that illustrate their performance.

  11. The Challenge of Data Reduction for Multiple Instruments on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charcos-Llorens, M. V.; Krzaczek, R.; Shuping, R. Y.; Lin, L.

    2011-07-01

    SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy, presents a number of interesting challenges for the development of a data reduction environment which, at its initial phase, will have to incorporate pipelines from seven different instruments developed by organizations around the world. Therefore, the SOFIA data reduction software must run code which has been developed in a variety of dissimilar environments, e.g., IDL, Python, Java, C++. Moreover, we anticipate this diversity will only increase in future generations of instrumentation. We investigated three distinctly different situations for performing pipelined data reduction in SOFIA: (1) automated data reduction after data archival at the end of a mission, (2) re-pipelining of science data with updated calibrations or optimum parameters, and (3) the interactive user-driven local execution and analysis of data reduction by an investigator. These different modes would traditionally result in very different software implementations of algorithms used by each instrument team, in effect tripling the amount of data reduction software that would need to be maintained by SOFIA. We present here a unique approach for enfolding all the instrument-specific data reduction software in the observatory framework and verifies the needs for all three reduction scenarios as well as the standard visualization tools. The SOFIA data reduction structure would host the different algorithms and techniques that the instrument teams develop in their own programming language and operating system. Ideally, duplication of software is minimized across the system because instrument teams can draw on software solutions and techniques previously delivered to SOFIA by other instruments. With this approach, we minimize the effort for analyzing and developing new software reduction pipelines for future generation instruments. We also explore the potential benefits of this approach in the portability of the software to an ever

  12. Cross-Calibration of the GOES-R SUVI with On-Orbit Solar EUV Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darnel, Jonathan; Seaton, Daniel B.

    2016-05-01

    Maintaining the calibration of on-orbit instruments has always been a challenge, but one which is crucial for the accuracy of the data record. This challenge is magnified for solar Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) instruments. Absolute calibration is out of the question as stable and known sources of EUV irradiance are not practical in on-orbit environments. This leaves relative calibration against other solar EUV instruments whose calibration has been well tracked. The need for such cross-calibration efforts is especially acute for an instrument like the Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI), which will fly on the GOES-R spacecraft later this year and is expected to provide two decades of solar observation between four identical instruments. Not only must calibration between the four instruments in the SUVI line be maintained, but the relative calibration between SUVI and both present day imagers like SDO/AIA and PROBA2/SWAP and future instruments yet to be developed must be established as well. We present the methodology developed using current on-orbit solar EUV instruments in order to maintain the calibration of the SUVI instruments.

  13. Measurement reduction for mutual coupling calibration in DOA estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, Taylan; Tuncer, T. Engin

    2012-01-01

    Mutual coupling is an important source of error in antenna arrays that should be compensated for super resolution direction-of-arrival (DOA) algorithms, such as Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm. A crucial step in array calibration is the determination of the mutual coupling coefficients for the antenna array. In this paper, a system theoretic approach is presented for the mutual coupling characterization of antenna arrays. The comprehension and implementation of this approach is simple leading to further advantages in calibration measurement reduction. In this context, a measurement reduction method for antenna arrays with omni-directional and identical elements is proposed which is based on the symmetry planes in the array geometry. The proposed method significantly decreases the number of measurements during the calibration process. This method is evaluated using different array types whose responses and the mutual coupling characteristics are obtained through numerical electromagnetic simulations. It is shown that a single calibration measurement is sufficient for uniform circular arrays. Certain important and interesting characteristics observed during the experiments are outlined.

  14. Direct Reading Particle Counters: Calibration Verification and Multiple Instrument Agreement via Bump Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Jankovic, John; Zontek, Tracy L.; Ogle, Burton R.; Hollenbeck, Scott

    2015-01-27

    We examined the calibration records of two direct reading instruments designated as condensation particle counters in order to determine the number of times they were found to be out of tolerance at annual manufacturer's recalibration. For both instruments were found to be out of tolerance more times than within tolerance. And, it was concluded that annual calibration alone was insufficient to provide operational confidence in an instrument's response. Thus, a method based on subsequent agreement with data gathered from a newly calibrated instrument was developed to confirm operational readiness between annual calibrations, hereafter referred to as bump testing. The method consists of measuring source particles produced by a gas grille spark igniter in a gallon-size jar. Sampling from this chamber with a newly calibrated instrument to determine the calibrated response over the particle concentration range of interest serves as a reference. Agreement between this reference response and subsequent responses at later dates implies that the instrument is performing as it was at the time of calibration. Side-by-side sampling allows the level of agreement between two or more instruments to be determined. This is useful when simultaneously collected data are compared for differences, i.e., background with process aerosol concentrations. A reference set of data was obtained using the spark igniter. The generation system was found to be reproducible and suitable to form the basis of calibration verification. Finally, the bump test is simple enough to be performed periodically throughout the calibration year or prior to field monitoring.

  15. Direct Reading Particle Counters: Calibration Verification and Multiple Instrument Agreement via Bump Testing.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, John; Zontek, Tracy L; Ogle, Burton R; Hollenbeck, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The calibration records of two direct reading instruments designated as condensation particle counters were examined to determine the number of times they were found to be out of tolerance at annual manufacturer's recalibration. Both instruments were found to be out of tolerance more times than within tolerance. And, it was concluded that annual calibration alone was insufficient to provide operational confidence in an instrument's response. Therefore, a method based on subsequent agreement with data gathered from a newly calibrated instrument was developed to confirm operational readiness between annual calibrations, hereafter referred to as bump testing. The method consists of measuring source particles produced by a gas grille spark igniter in a gallon-size jar. Sampling from this chamber with a newly calibrated instrument to determine the calibrated response over the particle concentration range of interest serves as a reference. Agreement between this reference response and subsequent responses at later dates implies that the instrument is performing as it was at the time of calibration. Side-by-side sampling allows the level of agreement between two or more instruments to be determined. This is useful when simultaneously collected data are compared for differences, i.e., background with process aerosol concentrations. A reference set of data was obtained using the spark igniter. The generation system was found to be reproducible and suitable to form the basis of calibration verification. The bump test is simple enough to be performed periodically throughout the calibration year or prior to field monitoring.

  16. 10 CFR 35.61 - Calibration of survey instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to show compliance with this part and 10 CFR Part 20 before first use, annually, and following a repair that affects the calibration. A licensee shall— (1) Calibrate all scales with readings up to 10 mSv (1000 mrem) per hour with a radiation source; (2) Calibrate two separated readings on each...

  17. Calibration Interval Adjustment of a Measuring Instrument in Industries During Long-term Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natalinova, N.; Ilina, N.; Frantcuzskaia, E.

    2016-06-01

    Calibration interval adjustment of measuring instruments is one of the urgent tasks in industries. The article represents the calibration interval calculation of the potentiometer PCB-4P according to the verifications for the 4 year period of the Metrological Department in the aviation plant. The calibration interval is shown to be increased according to the calculation of its reliability and stability of metrological characteristics.

  18. Comparison of spectral radiance responsivity calibration techniques used for backscatter ultraviolet satellite instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalewski, M. G.; Janz, S. J.

    2015-02-01

    Methods of absolute radiometric calibration of backscatter ultraviolet (BUV) satellite instruments are compared as part of an effort to minimize pre-launch calibration uncertainties. An internally illuminated integrating sphere source has been used for the Shuttle Solar BUV, Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, Ozone Mapping Instrument, and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 using standardized procedures traceable to national standards. These sphere-based spectral responsivities agree to within the derived combined standard uncertainty of 1.87% relative to calibrations performed using an external diffuser illuminated by standard irradiance sources, the customary spectral radiance responsivity calibration method for BUV instruments. The combined standard uncertainty for these calibration techniques as implemented at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center’s Radiometric Calibration and Development Laboratory is shown to less than 2% at 250 nm when using a single traceable calibration standard.

  19. Generic System for Remote Testing and Calibration of Measuring Instruments: Security Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurčević, M.; Hegeduš, H.; Golub, M.

    2010-01-01

    Testing and calibration of laboratory instruments and reference standards is a routine activity and is a resource and time consuming process. Since many of the modern instruments include some communication interfaces, it is possible to create a remote calibration system. This approach addresses a wide range of possible applications and permits to drive a number of different devices. On the other hand, remote calibration process involves a number of security issues due to recommendations specified in standard ISO/IEC 17025, since it is not under total control of the calibration laboratory personnel who will sign the calibration certificate. This approach implies that the traceability and integrity of the calibration process directly depends on the collected measurement data. The reliable and secure remote control and monitoring of instruments is a crucial aspect of internet-enabled calibration procedure.

  20. Positioning system for single or multi-axis sensitive instrument calibration and calibration system for use therewith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Tom D. (Inventor); Parker, Peter A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A positioning and calibration system are provided for use in calibrating a single or multi axis sensitive instrument, such as an inclinometer. The positioning system includes a positioner that defines six planes of tangential contact. A mounting region within the six planes is adapted to have an inclinometer coupled thereto. The positioning system also includes means for defining first and second flat surfaces that are approximately perpendicular to one another with the first surface adapted to be oriented relative to a local or induced reference field of interest to the instrument being calibrated, such as a gravitational vector. The positioner is positioned such that one of its six planes tangentially rests on the first flat surface and another of its six planes tangentially contacts the second flat surface. A calibration system is formed when the positioning system is used with a data collector and processor.

  1. Radiometric calibration stability and inter-calibration of solar-band instruments in orbit using the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Thomas C.

    2008-08-01

    With the increased emphasis on monitoring the Earth's climate from space, more stringent calibration requirements are being placed on the data products from remote sensing satellite instruments. Among these are stability over decade-length time scales and consistency across sensors and platforms. For radiometer instruments in the solar reflectance wavelength range (visible to shortwave infrared), maintaining calibration on orbit is difficult due to the lack of absolute radiometric standards suitable for fight use. The Moon presents a luminous source that can be viewed by all instruments in Earth orbit. Considered as a solar diffuser, the lunar surface is exceedingly stable. The chief diffculty with using the Moon is the strong variations in the Moon's brightness with illumination and viewing geometry. This mandates the use of a photometric model to compare lunar observations, either over time by the same instrument or between instruments. The U.S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff, Arizona, under NASA sponsorship, has developed a model for the lunar spectral irradiance that explicitly accounts for the effects of phase, the lunar librations, and the lunar surface reflectance properties. The model predicts variations in the Moon's brightness with precision ~1% over a continuous phase range from eclipse to the quarter lunar phases. Given a time series of Moon observations taken by an instrument, the geometric prediction capability of the lunar irradiance model enables sensor calibration stability with sub-percent per year precision. Cross-calibration of instruments with similar passbands can be achieved with precision comparable to the model precision. Although the Moon observations used for intercomparison can be widely separated in phase angle and/or time, SeaWiFS and MODIS have acquired lunar views closely spaced in time. These data provide an example to assess inter-calibration biases between these two instruments.

  2. Radiometric calibration stability and inter-calibration of solar-band instruments in orbit using the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.

    2008-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on monitoring the Earth's climate from space, more stringent calibration requirements are being placed on the data products from remote sensing satellite instruments. Among these are stability over decade-length time scales and consistency across sensors and platforms. For radiometer instruments in the solar reflectance wavelength range (visible to shortwave infrared), maintaining calibration on orbit is difficult due to the lack of absolute radiometric standards suitable for flight use. The Moon presents a luminous source that can be viewed by all instruments in Earth orbit. Considered as a solar diffuser, the lunar surface is exceedingly stable. The chief difficulty with using the Moon is the strong variations in the Moon's brightness with illumination and viewing geometry. This mandates the use of a photometric model to compare lunar observations, either over time by the same instrument or between instruments. The U.S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff, Arizona, under NASA sponsorship, has developed a model for the lunar spectral irradiance that explicitly accounts for the effects of phase, the lunar librations, and the lunar surface reflectance properties. The model predicts variations in the Moon's brightness with precision ???1% over a continuous phase range from eclipse to the quarter lunar phases. Given a time series of Moon observations taken by an instrument, the geometric prediction capability of the lunar irradiance model enables sensor calibration stability with sub-percent per year precision. Cross-calibration of instruments with similar passbands can be achieved with precision comparable to the model precision. Although the Moon observations used for intercomparison can be widely separated in phase angle and/or time, SeaWiFS and MODIS have acquired lunar views closely spaced in time. These data provide an example to assess inter-calibration biases between these two instruments.

  3. A virtual instrument to standardise the calibration of atomic force microscope cantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sader, John E.; Borgani, Riccardo; Gibson, Christopher T.; Haviland, David B.; Higgins, Michael J.; Kilpatrick, Jason I.; Lu, Jianing; Mulvaney, Paul; Shearer, Cameron J.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Thorén, Per-Anders; Tran, Jim; Zhang, Heyou; Zhang, Hongrui; Zheng, Tian

    2016-09-01

    Atomic force microscope (AFM) users often calibrate the spring constants of cantilevers using functionality built into individual instruments. This calibration is performed without reference to a global standard, hindering the robust comparison of force measurements reported by different laboratories. Here, we describe a virtual instrument (an internet-based initiative) whereby users from all laboratories can instantly and quantitatively compare their calibration measurements to those of others—standardising AFM force measurements—and simultaneously enabling non-invasive calibration of AFM cantilevers of any geometry. This global calibration initiative requires no additional instrumentation or data processing on the part of the user. It utilises a single website where users upload currently available data. A proof-of-principle demonstration of this initiative is presented using measured data from five independent laboratories across three countries, which also allows for an assessment of current calibration.

  4. Thermal Earth Resource Monitoring Instrument (THERMI) size, weight and power reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newswander, T.; Bergen, Z.; Hancock, J.; Hansen, S.; Shumway, A.; Stauder, J.; Williams, D.

    2015-09-01

    The Thermal Earth Resource Monitoring Instrument (THERMI) has been designed to meet stringent Landsat heritage requirements with reduced size, weight and power (SWaP). The instrument design provides Earth resource monitoring through the use of two long-wave infrared bands that measure the land surface temperatures. These bands are especially valuable for monitoring water resources and water use. Instrument subsystems, including electronics, cryocooler, thermal management, optical telescope assembly, focal plane module, in-flight calibrator, and scene select mirror were studied and conceptually designed to reduce overall THERMI SWaP. Reductions in SWaP make it possible for THERMI to fit on a small satellite bus with room available for an additional optical instrument. Since mission cost historically correlates well with mass and power on-orbit, it is expected that significant cost savings will result from the predicted SWaP reductions.

  5. 40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation...

  6. 40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation...

  7. 40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Gas meter or flow instrumentation... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation...

  8. Transfer of Calibration for barley quality from dispersive intrument to fourier transform near-infrared instrument

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study deals with transferring the near-infrared (NIR) calibration models for quality assessment of barley between two instruments with different resolutions and number of data points, a Fourier transform instrument (master) and a dispersive instrument (slave). A file of spectra from 206 ground ...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) of this section, or (ii) Develop a continuous best fit calibration curve for the instrument (as a... flow. The points on the calibration curve relative to the calibration device measurements must...

  10. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) of this section; or (ii) Develop a continuous best fit calibration curve for the instrument (as a... flow. The points on the calibration curve relative to the calibration device measurements must...

  11. Onboard calibration of the ASTER instrument over twelve years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, Fumihiro; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Inada, Hitomi; Akagi, Shigeki; Ono, Hidehiko

    2012-09-01

    The ASTER is a high-resolution optical sensor for observing the Earth on the Terra satellite launched in December1999. The ASTER consists of three radiometers. The VNIR has three bands in the visible and near-infrared region, the SWIR has six bands in the shortwave infrared region, and the TIR has five bands in the thermal infrared region. The onboard calibration devices of the VNIR and SWIR were halogen lamps and photodiode monitors. In orbit three bands of the VNIR showed a rapid decrease in the output signal. The band 1, the shortest wavelength, decreased most to 70% in twelve years. The temperature of the onboard blackbody of the TIR is varied from 270 K to 340 K in the long term calibration for the offset and gain calibration. The long term calibration of the TIR showed a decrease in response after launch. The decrease was most remarkable at band 12 decreasing to 60% in eleven years. The degradation spectra of the TIR shows that the possible causes of the degradation might be silicone and hydrazine. ASTER onboard calibration is normally carried out once in 49 days but additional onboard calibrations were added just before and after the inclination adjustment maneuver (IAM) to check the effect on the RCC. This experiment was carried out three times for each IAM in the fiscal year 2011. The result showed that the change in the RCC was small for both VNIR and TIR.

  12. Use of rotating pinholes and reticles for calibration of cloud droplet instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovenac, Edward A.; Hirleman, E. Dan

    1991-01-01

    Calibration devices for the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP) and the Optical Array Probe (OAP) were developed. The device used with the FSSP is a rotating pinhole calibrator. It utilizes light diffracted by a pinhole of a known diameter to simulate scattered light from a water droplet. This device can be used to calibrate the FSSP, measure the FSSP's optical collection angles and for instrument alignment and troubleshooting. The device used with the OAP is a rotating reticle calibrator. Chrome disks of a known diameter on the reticle are used for calibration of the OAP and for determining the OAP's response to out-of-focus particles in the probe volume.

  13. On-ground calibration of the BEPICOLOMBO/SIMBIO-SYS at instrument level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Ferreira, J.; Poulet, F.; Eng, P.; Longval, Y.; Dassas, K.; Arondel, A.; Langevin, Y.; Capaccioni, F.; Filacchione, G.; Palumbo, P.; Cremonese, G.; Dami, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Mercury Planetary Orbiter/BepiColombo carries an integrated suite of instruments, the Spectrometer and Imagers for MPO BepiColombo-Integrated Observatory SYStem (SIMBIO-SYS). SIMBIO-SYS has 3 channels: a stereo imaging system (STC), a high-resolution imager (HRIC) and a visible-near-infrared imaging spectrometer (VIHI). SIMBIO-SYS will scan the surface of Mercury with these three channels and determine the physical, morphological and compositional properties of the entire planet. Before integration on the S/C, an on-ground calibration at the channels and at the instrument levels will be performed so as to describe the instrumental responses as a function of various parameters that might evolve while the instruments will be operating [1]. The Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS) is responsible for the on-ground instrument calibration at the instrument level. During the 4 weeks of calibration campaign planned for June 2012, the instrument will be maintained in a mechanical and thermal environment simulating the space conditions. Four Optical stimuli (QTH lamp, Integrating Sphere, BlackBody with variable temperature from 50 to 1200°C and Monochromator), are placed over an optical bench to illuminate the four channels so as to make the radiometric calibration, straylight monitoring, as well as spectral proofing based on laboratory mineral samples. The instrument will be mounted on a hexapod placed inside a thermal vacuum chamber during the calibration campaign. The hexapod will move the channels within the well-characterized incoming beam. We will present the key activities of the preparation of this calibration: the derivation of the instrument radiometric model, the implementation of the optical, mechanical and software interfaces of the calibration assembly, the characterization of the optical bench and the definition of the calibration procedures.

  14. Calibration of Instruments for Measuring Wind Velocity and Direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogler, Raymond D.; Pilny, Miroslav J.

    1950-01-01

    Signal Corps wind equipment AN/GMQ-1 consisting of a 3-cup anemometer and wind vane was calibrated for wind velocities from 1 to 200 miles per hour. Cup-shaft failure prevented calibration at higher wind velocities. The action of the wind vane was checked and found to have very poor directional accuracy below a velocity of 8 miles per hour. After shaft failure was reported to the Signal Corps, the cup rotors were redesigned by strengthening the shafts for better operation at high velocities. The anemometer with the redesigned cup rotors was recalibrated, but cup-shaft failure occurred again at a wind velocity of approximately 220 miles per hour. In the course of this calibration two standard generators were checked for signal output variation, and a wind-speed meter was calibrated for use with each of the redesigned cup rotors. The variation of pressure coefficient with air-flow direction at four orifices on a disk-shaped pitot head was obtained for wind velocities of 37.79 53.6, and 98.9 miles per hour. A pitot-static tube mounted in the nose of a vane was calibrated up to a dynamic pressure of 155 pounds per square foot, or approximately 256 miles per hour,

  15. Direct Reading Particle Counters: Calibration Verification and Multiple Instrument Agreement via Bump Testing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jankovic, John; Zontek, Tracy L.; Ogle, Burton R.; Hollenbeck, Scott

    2015-01-27

    We examined the calibration records of two direct reading instruments designated as condensation particle counters in order to determine the number of times they were found to be out of tolerance at annual manufacturer's recalibration. For both instruments were found to be out of tolerance more times than within tolerance. And, it was concluded that annual calibration alone was insufficient to provide operational confidence in an instrument's response. Thus, a method based on subsequent agreement with data gathered from a newly calibrated instrument was developed to confirm operational readiness between annual calibrations, hereafter referred to as bump testing. The methodmore » consists of measuring source particles produced by a gas grille spark igniter in a gallon-size jar. Sampling from this chamber with a newly calibrated instrument to determine the calibrated response over the particle concentration range of interest serves as a reference. Agreement between this reference response and subsequent responses at later dates implies that the instrument is performing as it was at the time of calibration. Side-by-side sampling allows the level of agreement between two or more instruments to be determined. This is useful when simultaneously collected data are compared for differences, i.e., background with process aerosol concentrations. A reference set of data was obtained using the spark igniter. The generation system was found to be reproducible and suitable to form the basis of calibration verification. Finally, the bump test is simple enough to be performed periodically throughout the calibration year or prior to field monitoring.« less

  16. Specifying and calibrating instrumentations for wideband electronic power measurements. [in switching circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesco, D. J.; Weikle, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    The wideband electric power measurement related topics of electronic wattmeter calibration and specification are discussed. Tested calibration techniques are described in detail. Analytical methods used to determine the bandwidth requirements of instrumentation for switching circuit waveforms are presented and illustrated with examples from electric vehicle type applications. Analog multiplier wattmeters, digital wattmeters and calculating digital oscilloscopes are compared. The instrumentation characteristics which are critical to accurate wideband power measurement are described.

  17. Comparison of two methodologies for calibrating satellite instruments in the visible and near-infrared.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Robert A; Brown, Steven W; Lykke, Keith R; Guenther, Bruce; Butler, James J; Schwarting, Thomas; Turpie, Kevin; Moyer, David; DeLuccia, Frank; Moeller, Christopher

    2015-12-10

    Traditionally, satellite instruments that measure Earth-reflected solar radiation in the visible and near infrared wavelength regions have been calibrated for radiance responsivity in a two-step method. In the first step, the relative spectral response (RSR) of the instrument is determined using a nearly monochromatic light source such as a lamp-illuminated monochromator. These sources do not typically fill the field of view of the instrument nor act as calibrated sources of light. Consequently, they only provide a relative (not absolute) spectral response for the instrument. In the second step, the instrument views a calibrated source of broadband light, such as a lamp-illuminated integrating sphere. The RSR and the sphere's absolute spectral radiance are combined to determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity (ASR) of the instrument. More recently, a full-aperture absolute calibration approach using widely tunable monochromatic lasers has been developed. Using these sources, the ASR of an instrument can be determined in a single step on a wavelength-by-wavelength basis. From these monochromatic ASRs, the responses of the instrument bands to broadband radiance sources can be calculated directly, eliminating the need for calibrated broadband light sources such as lamp-illuminated integrating spheres. In this work, the traditional broadband source-based calibration of the Suomi National Preparatory Project Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite sensor is compared with the laser-based calibration of the sensor. Finally, the impact of the new full-aperture laser-based calibration approach on the on-orbit performance of the sensor is considered. PMID:26836861

  18. NASA-6 atmospheric measuring station. [calibration, functional checks, and operation of measuring instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Information required to calibrate, functionally check, and operate the Instrumentation Branch equipment on the NASA-6 aircraft is provided. All procedures required for preflight checks and in-flight operation of the NASA-6 atmospheric measuring station are given. The calibration section is intended for only that portion of the system maintained and calibrated by IN-MSD-12 Systems Operation contractor personnel. Maintenance is not included.

  19. Calibration of optical probe instruments for the measurement of surface microtopography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainsah, E.; Dong, Weiping P.; King, Tim

    1995-01-01

    Although noncontacting instruments for the measurement of the 3D microtopography of surfaces are now widely available and are used on a routine basis in many branches of science and engineering, information on many aspects of their use, from measurement through characterization to interpretation, is still limited. One important area in which clear information is required is calibration. This paper sets out to breach some of the gap by proposing routines for the complete calibration of optical probe based instruments for the measurement of surface microtopography. It is suggested that contacting and noncontacting instruments can be calibrated in a very similar manner, but that a few subtle but relevant differences need to be borne in mind and the calibration routine modified accordingly. The calibration of stylus instruments using a calibrated sphere as practiced by some instrument manufacturers (and as is common practice with coordinate measurement machines - CMM) has been advocated with the observation that this technique might be of even greater relevance in optical probe based systems. A new technique based on optical sensors is also proposed for the calibration of the diameter of the optical probe.

  20. On-line calibration of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemian, H.M.; Farmer, J.P.

    1995-04-01

    An on-line instrumentation monitoring system was developed and validated for use in nuclear power plants. This system continuously monitors the calibration status of instrument channels and determines whether or not they require manual calibrations. This is accomplished by comparing the output of each instrument channel to an estimate of the process it is monitoring. If the deviation of the instrument channel from the process estimate is greater than an allowable limit, then the instrument is said to be {open_quotes}out of calibration{close_quotes} and manual adjustments are made to correct the calibration. The success of the on-line monitoring system depends on the accuracy of the process estimation. The system described in this paper incorporates both simple intercomparison techniques as well as analytical approaches in the form of data-driven empirical modeling to estimate the process. On-line testing of the calibration of process instrumentation channels will reduce the number of manual calibrations currently performed, thereby reducing both costs to utilities and radiation exposure to plant personnel.

  1. Absolute calibration of Landsat instruments using the moon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, H.H.; Wildey, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A lunar observation by Landsat could provide improved radiometric and geometric calibration of both the Thematic Mapper and the Multispectral Scanner in terms of absolute radiometry, determination of the modulation transfer function, and sensitivity to scattered light. A pitch of the spacecraft would be required. -Authors

  2. Ozone Monitoring Instrument flight-model on-ground calibration from a scientific point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobber, M.; Dirksen, R.; Levelt, P.; van den Oord, B.; Jaross, G.; Kowalewski, M.; Mount, G.; Heath, D.; Hilsenrath, E.; de Vries, J.

    2003-04-01

    In 2002 the on-ground calibration of the flight-model of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), scheduled for launch in January 2004 on the EOS-AURA satellite, was performed by the industrial contractor in close cooperation with the Principal Investigator team from the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) and the scientific Calibration Working Group with members from The Netherlands, Finland, and the United States. OMI will observe the Earth in nadir with a field of view of 114 degrees, providing a daily Earth coverage. The instrument observes the sun once per day via one of three on-board diffusers, and once per week and month via one of the other two diffusers, respectively, to monitor the diffuser degradation. The instrument is equipped with an internal white light source for detector calibration purposes. This presentation will focus on the measurements, analyses and preliminary results of the on-ground calibration from a scientific perspective, which are particularly important for meeting the scientific objectives of the OMI instrument. The OMI instrument is operated in flight at close to vacuum pressure and at temperatures of the CCD detectors and the instrument optical bench of 266 K and 265 K, respectively. Special attention is therefor given to the methods for obtaining a flight-representative on-ground calibration of the instrument. The OMI instrument has a large observational swath field of view of 114 degrees and a high spectral resolution. For this reason the on-ground calibration of the swath angle dependence of the radiometric calibration and the calibration description of spectral instrument features are discussed in the presentation. The spectral instrument features are important in view of the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) retrieval technique used for the OMI instrument. They originate from the innovative polarisation scrambling device in the Earth mode and from the three on-board diffusers in the sun mode

  3. SMOS Instrument Performance and Calibration After 6 Years in Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, R.

    2015-12-01

    ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission has been in orbit for over 6 years, and its Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) in two dimensions keeps working well. The data for this whole period has been recently reprocessed with the new fully polarimetric version (v620) of the Level-1 processor which also includes refined calibration schema for the antenna losses. This reprocessing has allowed the assessment of an improved performance benchmark. The long term drift exhibited by the previous processor version has been significantly mitigated thanks to a better calibration of the antenna losses and the use of only the most accurate Noise Injection Radiometer. These improvements have also reduced the orbital and seasonal variations, although residual drifts still remain, in particular during the satellite eclipse season. The spatial tilt existing in the images produced with the previous version of the Level-1 processor has been considerably decreased, removing the negative trend at low incidence angles and reducing the overall standard deviation of the spatial ripples. The expected improvement in the 3rd and 4th Stokes, after correcting the use of the cross-polar antenna patterns, has been confirmed, enabling accurate retrieval of the Faraday rotation angle. Finally, a better Sun and RFI flagging strategy has been implemented, allowing for the removal of the corrupted data. A problem which still persist in the new Level-1 data is the land-sea contamination. However, recent progress in the calibration investigations has shed new light on the origin of the land-sea contamination, linking it to visibility amplitude calibration errors. Thus, future versions of the Level-1 processor will have very much reduced land-sea contamination. An overview of the results and the progress achieved in both calibration and image reconstruction will be presented in this contribution.

  4. A Sr-90/Y-90 field calibrator for performance testing of beta-gamma survey instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Olsher, R.H.; Haynie, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    ANSI and regulatory agency guidelines prescribe periodic performance tests for radiation protection instrumentation. Reference readings should be obtained for one point on each scale or decade normally used. A small and lightweight calibrator has been developed that facilitates field testing of beta-gamma survey instruments. The calibrator uses a 45 microcurie Sr-90/Y-90 beta source with a filter wheel to generate variable dose rates in the range from 4 to 400 mrad/hr. Thus, several ranges may be checked by dialing in appropriate filters. The design, use, and typical applications of the calibrator are described.

  5. Preparation of a new autonomous instrumented radiometric calibration site: Gobabeb, Namib Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwell, Claire; Bialek, Agnieszka; Marks, Amelia; Woolliams, Emma; Berthelot, Béatrice; Meygret, Aimé; Marcq, Sébastien; Bouvet, Marc; Fox, Nigel

    2015-10-01

    A new permanently instrumented radiometric calibration site for high/medium resolution imaging satellite sensors is currently under development, focussing on the visible and near infra-red parts of the spectrum. The site will become a European contribution to the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) initiative RadCalNet (Radiometric Calibration Network). The exact location of the permanent monitoring instrumentation will be defined following the initial site characterisation. The new ESA/CNES RadCalNet site will have a robust uncertainty budget and its data fully SI traceable through detailed characterisation and calibration by NPL of the instruments and artefacts to be used on the site. This includes a CIMEL sun photometer (the permanent instrumentation) an ASD FieldSpec spectroradiometer, Gonio Radiometric Spectrometer System (GRASS), and reference reflectance standards.

  6. S-NPP VIIRS instrument telemetry and calibration data trend study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, ZiPing; De Luccia, Frank J.; Cardema, Jason C.; Moy, Gabriel

    2015-09-01

    The Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) employs a large number of temperature and voltage sensors (telemetry points) to monitor instrument health and performance. We have collected data and built tools to study telemetry and calibration parameters trends. The telemetry points are organized into groups based on locations and functionalities. Examples of the groups are: telescope motor, focal plane array (FPA), scan cavity bulkhead, radiators, solar diffuser and Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM). We have performed daily monitoring and long-term trending studies. Daily monitoring processes are automated with alarms built into the software to indicate if pre-defined limits are exceeded. Long-term trending studies focus on instrument performance and sensitivities of Sensor Data Record (SDR) products and calibration look-up tables (LUTs) to instrument temperature and voltage variations. VIIRS uses a DC Restore (DCR) process to periodically correct the analog offsets of each detector of each spectral band to ensure that the FPA output signals are always within the dynamic range of the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). The offset values are updated based on observations of the On-Board Calibrator Blackbody source. We have performed a long-term trend study of DCR offsets and calibration parameters to explore connections of the DCR offsets with onboard calibrators. The study also shows how the instrument and calibration parameters respond to the VIIRS Petulant Mode, spacecraft (SC) anomalies and flight software (FSW) updates. We have also shown that trending studies of telemetry and calibration parameters may help to improve the instrument calibration processes and SDR Quality Flags.

  7. Solar calibration results from two earth radiation budget experiment nonscanner instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luther, M. R.; Lee, R. B., III; Barkstrom, B. R.; Cooper, J. E.; Cess, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) makes use of three sets of two independent, but complementary, flight instruments. The two instruments in each set include a three-channel narrow field-of-view scanning instrument (scanner) and a five-channel wide field-of-view staring instrument (nonscanner). The ERBE nonscanner instruments are designed for the conduction of broad spectral and spatial measurements of the earth's reflected solar and emitted radiation and the determination of the incident solar flux. The nonscanner solar calibration process is considered along with the solar calibration results. A description of the data processing algorithms is also provided, taking into account the earth viewing channels and the solar monitor.

  8. [Development and Performance Evaluation of a Supermicron Particle Generation System for Aerosol Instrument Calibration].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-tong; Jiang, Jing-kun; Deng, Jian-guo; Duan, Lei; Hao, Ji-ming

    2016-03-15

    Accurate calibration of aerosol measurement instruments is critical for ensuring the data quality when sampling ambient particulate matter (PM) or those from emission sources. A system for calibrating these instruments was set up, which included an ultrasonic device to generate polydisperse supermicron particles, a chamber, and an aerodynamic particle spectrometer to measure particle size distribution. We verified its performance in stably generated testing aerosol with good spatial uniformity, controlled size distributions and concentrations. The testing aerosol generated had a lognormal distribution. A PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ two-stage virtual impactor was calibrated using this online method. Collection efficiencies of PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ stages calibrated by an off-line method using monodisperse particles were also used for comparison. The results from two different methods were consistent with each other. Though the off-line method has been widely used to calibrate PM samplers, it suffers from long experimental duration (2-3 days for calibrating one sampler). In contrast, the online method allows for a rapid calibration (less than half a day for calibrating one sampler). PMID:27337867

  9. Design Through Integration of On-Board Calibration Device with Imaging Spectroscopy Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stange, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy (AVIRIS) project is to "identify, measure, and monitor constituents of the Earth's surface and atmosphere based on molecular absorption and particle scattering signatures." The project designs, builds, and tests various imaging spectroscopy instruments that use On-Board Calibration devices (OBC) to check the accuracy of the data collected by the spectrometers. The imaging instrument records the spectral signatures of light collected during flight. To verify the data is correct, the OBC shines light which is collected by the imaging spectrometer and compared against previous calibration data to track spectral response changes in the instrument. The spectral data has the calibration applied to it based on the readings from the OBC data in order to ensure accuracy.

  10. Droplet sizing instrumentation used for icing research: Operation, calibration, and accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovenac, Edward A.

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy of the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP) is determined using laboratory tests, wind tunnel comparisons, and computer simulations. Operation in an icing environment is discussed and a new calibration device for the FSSP (the rotating pinhole) is demonstrated to be a valuable tool. Operation of the Optical Array Probe is also presented along with a calibration device (the rotating reticle) which is suitable for performing detailed analysis of that instrument.

  11. Suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicles as an Opportunity to Consolidate and Calibrate Ground Based and Satellite Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, K.

    2014-12-01

    XCOR Aerospace, a commercial space company, is planning to provide frequent, low cost access to near-Earth space on the Lynx suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicle (sRLV). Measurements in the external vacuum environment can be made and can launch from most runways on a limited lead time. Lynx can operate as a platform to perform suborbital in situ measurements and remote sensing to supplement models and simulations with new data points. These measurements can serve as a quantitative link to existing instruments and be used as a basis to calibrate detectors on spacecraft. Easier access to suborbital data can improve the longevity and cohesiveness of spacecraft and ground-based resources. A study of how these measurements can be made on Lynx sRLV will be presented. At the boundary between terrestrial and space weather, measurements from instruments on Lynx can help develop algorithms to optimize the consolidation of ground and satellite based data as well as assimilate global models with new data points. For example, current tides and the equatorial electrojet, essential to understanding the Thermosphere-Ionosphere system, can be measured in situ frequently and on short notice. Furthermore, a negative-ion spectrometer and a Faraday cup, can take measurements of the D-region ion composition. A differential GPS receiver can infer the spatial gradient of ionospheric electron density. Instruments and optics on spacecraft degrade over time, leading to calibration drift. Lynx can be a cost effective platform for deploying a reference instrument to calibrate satellites with a frequent and fast turnaround and a successful return of the instrument. A calibrated reference instrument on Lynx can make collocated observations as another instrument and corrections are made for the latter, thus ensuring data consistency and mission longevity. Aboard a sRLV, atmospheric conditions that distort remotely sensed data (ground and spacecraft based) can be measured in situ. Moreover, an

  12. Inter-calibration and validation of observations from SAPHIR and ATMS instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, I.; Ferraro, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of evaluating observations from microwave instruments aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP, ATMS instrument) and Megha-Tropiques (SAPHIR instrument) satellites. The study includes inter-comparison and inter-calibration of observations of similar channels from the two instruments, evaluation of the satellite data using high-quality radiosonde data from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program and GPS Radio Occultaion Observations from COSMIC mission, as well as geolocation error correction. The results of this study are valuable for generating climate data records from these instruments as well as for extending current climate data records from similar instruments such as AMSU-B and MHS to the ATMS and SAPHIR instruments. Reference: Moradi et al., Intercalibration and Validation of Observations From ATMS and SAPHIR Microwave Sounders. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 01/2015; DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2015.2427165

  13. Updated Global Data from the Guvi Instrument: New Products, Updated Calibration, and a New Web Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, R. K.; Paxton, L. J.; Romeo, G.; Wolven, B. C.; Zhang, Y.; Comberiate, J.

    2014-12-01

    With it's high inclination orbit, GUVI provides global coverage of the ionosphere/thermosphere system, revisiting each polar region 15 times a day. The GUVI instrument has long been a resource for the ITM community with a panoply of data products available from the GUVI website (http://guvi.jhuapl.edu). GUVI is in a high inclination orbit and so provides coverage of both hemispheres. With the release last year of the data products from the DMSO/SSUSI instrument, particularly more detailed auroral zone products (Q, E0, Hemispheric Power, discrete auroral arcs, proton precipitation regions), new equatorial ionospheric products (3D electron densities, bubbles), a whole new set of UV data products has become available. SSUSI are available from http://ssusi.jhuapl.edu. To leverage the experience and knowledge gained from running all of these instruments we have adapted the SSUSI products so they can be made from GUVI telemetry. There are now updated versions of GUVI legacy products as well as brand new products. In addition, better on-orbit calibration techniques developed for SSUSI have now been applied to the GUVI instrument calibration - there is now a common set of software for calibrating both instruments. With a common data format, calibration, and product definition, the data from all SSUSI and GUVI instruments can now be easily combined to get multiple instruments to cover the hemispheres to do a variety of global studies. In addition, the GUVI spectrographic mode data provides great detail about spectrographic features (e.g. O/N2 ratios, NO band emission) that are important for understanding dynamical processes in the thermosphere. A new version of the GUVI website (with the same interface as the SSUSI website) has been launched from guvi.jhuapl.edu to showcase the legacy products made with the new calibration and also highlight the newly developed products for the GUVI imaging and spectrographic modes.

  14. Neutron monitoring systems including gamma thermometers and methods of calibrating nuclear instruments using gamma thermometers

    DOEpatents

    Moen, Stephan Craig; Meyers, Craig Glenn; Petzen, John Alexander; Foard, Adam Muhling

    2012-08-07

    A method of calibrating a nuclear instrument using a gamma thermometer may include: measuring, in the instrument, local neutron flux; generating, from the instrument, a first signal proportional to the neutron flux; measuring, in the gamma thermometer, local gamma flux; generating, from the gamma thermometer, a second signal proportional to the gamma flux; compensating the second signal; and calibrating a gain of the instrument based on the compensated second signal. Compensating the second signal may include: calculating selected yield fractions for specific groups of delayed gamma sources; calculating time constants for the specific groups; calculating a third signal that corresponds to delayed local gamma flux based on the selected yield fractions and time constants; and calculating the compensated second signal by subtracting the third signal from the second signal. The specific groups may have decay time constants greater than 5.times.10.sup.-1 seconds and less than 5.times.10.sup.5 seconds.

  15. Analysis of the Cyclotron Facility calibration and aircraft dosimetry results from the LIULIN-3M instrument.

    PubMed

    Dachev, Ts P; Stassinopoulous, E G; Tomov, B T; Dimitrov, Pl G; Matviichuk, Yu N; Shurshakov, V A; Petrov, V M

    2003-01-01

    The LIULIN-3M instrument is a further development of the LIULIN dosimeter-radiometer, used on the MIR spacestation during the 1988-1994 time period. The LIULIN-3M is designed for continuous monitoring of the radiation environment during the BION-12 satellite flight in 1999. A semiconductor detector with 1 mm thickness and cm2 area is contained in the instrument. Pulse high analysis technique is used to determine the energy losses in the detector. The final data from the instrument are the flux and the dose rate for the exposure time and 256 channels of absorbed dose spectra based on the assumption that the particle flux is normal to the detector. The LIULIN-3M instrument was calibrated by proton fluxes with different energies at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility in June 1997 and had been used for radiation measurements during commercial aircraft flights. The calibration procedure and some flight results are presented in this paper.

  16. Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Instrument Calibration Summary. Version 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kimberly Ennico; Colaprete, Anthony; Shirley, Mark H.; Wooden, Diane H.

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the calibration of the LCROSS instruments. It will be released to the public via the Planetary Data System. We need a quick review, if possible, because the data has been delivered to the PDS, and this document is needed to interpret the LCROSS impact data fully. [My mistake [shirley) in not realizing this needed to be treated as a normal publication.] The LCROSS instruments are commercially available units except for one designed and built at Ames. The commercially available instruments don't seem to me to present ITAR issues (Sony video camera, thermal camera from England, and so on.) Also, the internal design details of the instruments are not included in this report, only the process of calibrating them against standard targets. Only very high-level descriptions of the spacecraft are included, comparable to the level of detail included in the public web pages on nasa.gov.

  17. A new automatic system for angular measurement and calibration in radiometric instruments.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Jose Manuel Andujar; Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel Martínez; Garcia, Jonathan Medina; Nieto, Francisco Jose Aguilar

    2010-01-01

    This paper puts forward the design, construction and testing of a new automatic system for angular-response measurement and calibration in radiometric instruments. Its main characteristics include precision, speed, resolution, noise immunity, easy programming and operation. The developed system calculates the cosine error of the radiometer under test by means of a virtual instrument, from the measures it takes and through a mathematical procedure, thus allowing correcting the radiometer with the aim of preventing cosine error in its measurements.

  18. Inertial Sensor Error Reduction through Calibration and Sensor Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, Stefan; Nogueira, Samuel L; Bortole, Magdo; Siqueira, Adriano A G; Terra, Marco H; Rocon, Eduardo; Pons, José L

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the comparison between cooperative and local Kalman Filters (KF) for estimating the absolute segment angle, under two calibration conditions. A simplified calibration, that can be replicated in most laboratories; and a complex calibration, similar to that applied by commercial vendors. The cooperative filters use information from either all inertial sensors attached to the body, Matricial KF; or use information from the inertial sensors and the potentiometers of an exoskeleton, Markovian KF. A one minute walking trial of a subject walking with a 6-DoF exoskeleton was used to assess the absolute segment angle of the trunk, thigh, shank, and foot. The results indicate that regardless of the segment and filter applied, the more complex calibration always results in a significantly better performance compared to the simplified calibration. The interaction between filter and calibration suggests that when the quality of the calibration is unknown the Markovian KF is recommended. Applying the complex calibration, the Matricial and Markovian KF perform similarly, with average RMSE below 1.22 degrees. Cooperative KFs perform better or at least equally good as Local KF, we therefore recommend to use cooperative KFs instead of local KFs for control or analysis of walking. PMID:26901198

  19. Inertial Sensor Error Reduction through Calibration and Sensor Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lambrecht, Stefan; Nogueira, Samuel L.; Bortole, Magdo; Siqueira, Adriano A. G.; Terra, Marco H.; Rocon, Eduardo; Pons, José L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the comparison between cooperative and local Kalman Filters (KF) for estimating the absolute segment angle, under two calibration conditions. A simplified calibration, that can be replicated in most laboratories; and a complex calibration, similar to that applied by commercial vendors. The cooperative filters use information from either all inertial sensors attached to the body, Matricial KF; or use information from the inertial sensors and the potentiometers of an exoskeleton, Markovian KF. A one minute walking trial of a subject walking with a 6-DoF exoskeleton was used to assess the absolute segment angle of the trunk, thigh, shank, and foot. The results indicate that regardless of the segment and filter applied, the more complex calibration always results in a significantly better performance compared to the simplified calibration. The interaction between filter and calibration suggests that when the quality of the calibration is unknown the Markovian KF is recommended. Applying the complex calibration, the Matricial and Markovian KF perform similarly, with average RMSE below 1.22 degrees. Cooperative KFs perform better or at least equally good as Local KF, we therefore recommend to use cooperative KFs instead of local KFs for control or analysis of walking. PMID:26901198

  20. On-board In-flight Energy Scale Cross-calibration Effects of Solar X-ray Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väänänen, Mikko

    2009-11-01

    We have surveyed previous spaceborne calibrations, and present results of new cross-calibrations of the X-ray solar instruments: SMART-1 XSM, GOES, RHESSI and Messenger XRS. We use XSM as the baseline instrument, and establish its ground, in-flight and cross-calibration status. Based on these calibrations, we show the relative importance of having an on-board in-flight calibration source for the energy scale with the technical twin instruments XRS and XSM. An observed energy scale drift of 168 eV (0.9%) influenced final fluxes by 25-35% in the 2-5 keV band. An ideal generic in-flight calibration source is discussed in view of the XSM-XRS simulation and the in-flight calibration of the microwave CMB instruments in particular.

  1. 40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement. 92.117 Section 92.117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas...

  2. Calibration standards and field instruments for the precision measurement of insolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M. S.; Berdahl, C. M.; Kendall, J. M., Sr.

    1978-01-01

    The design of a fieldworthy survey instrument based on a developed radiation calibration standard is discussed. The radiometer system, a fieldworthy modification of Pacrad, is an all-weather solar radiometer, and a field test is described which demonstrates the instrument's stability in severe environments over an extended period of time. It is suggested that the instrument may be considered a transfer standard as well as a radiometer. It is hoped that future modifications might reduce the 15-deg view angle and improve the tracking system to eliminate weekly manual declination adjustments.

  3. Inter-calibrating, Multi-instrument Microwave Ocean Data Records over Three Decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. K.; Wentz, F. J.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite microwave radiometers have been in continuous operation since 1987. When inter-calibrated and consistently processed, the data from a series of DMSP SSM/I and SSMIS sensors, TRMM TMI, Coriolis WindSat, Aqua AMSR-E, GCOM-W1 AMSR2, and GPM GMI collectively result in a long-term high-quality ocean data set of surface winds, atmospheric water vapor, cloud liquid water content, rain rate, and for some instruments, sea surface temperature and wind direction. Slight variations in frequencies, design and satellite orbits stress the need for carefully implementing an inter-calibration method, so as not to introduce trends or jumps when new instruments begin or when old instruments drift and/or die. The authors have developed a robust inter-calibration method using a published, well-developed and validated radiative transfer model (RTM) as the calibration standard. Most of the sensor data for this nearly 30-year period are available as the Version-7 RTM standard. The GMI sensor, recently launched in 2014, has strict calibration accuracy requirements and was built to have greater precision than any previous microwave sensor. We have utilized the dual calibration and non-linearity-measurement systems built into GMI to improve the RTM, which is now Version-8. In this talk we will present an overview of our calibration procedures and outline the steps required to produce climate quality earth data records. We also intend to present the latest validation results and provide information on recent changes in distribution, format, and availability for these already-popular data products.

  4. Accuracy of Sonic Anemometers: Laminar Wind-Tunnel Calibrations Compared to Atmospheric In Situ Calibrations Against a Reference Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Högström, Ulf; Smedman, Ann-Sofi

    Two Gill Solent Ultrasonic anemometers, models 1012R2 and 1210R3, weretested in field parallel measurements against a windvane based hot-film anemometerwith additional sensors for temperature and wet-bulb temperature, the MIUU (MIUU:Meteorology Institute, Uppsala University) instrument. This instrument was shown toretain its precision from laminar wind-tunnel tests when used in atmospheric turbulentflow. This contrasts strongly to the observed results for the two sonic anemometers,which were first calibrated in laminar wind-tunnel flow. Individual three-dimensionalcalibration matrices were constructed, and were shown to reduce the remaining calibration uncertainty for the wind speed to 0.4-0.8% for all azimuths and for angles of attack within ±40°. In the field intercomparison tests of the sonics against the MIUU instrument, it was found that the precision not only of the mean wind speed but of all second-order moments studied (variances and covariances, with and without temperature) deteriorated by a factor of typically three to four. Most of the scatter appears to be random, but in the case of the wind speed, a clear dependence on wind direction is found as well. It is concluded that the correction for the effect of the vertical supporting rods of the R2 and R3 instruments, which gives nearly perfect agreement for laminar flow, does not work entirely satisfactory in the natural turbulent flow. This, in turn, is likely to be so because of high sensitivity of the wake behind the cylindrical supporting rods to the character of the approach flow.

  5. Report of Optical Radiometric Instruments and Calibration Panel. [spaceborne instrumentation technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Measurement and accuracy needs for remote sensing are analyzed. Topics discussed include: (1) in orbit performance degradation due to contamination; (2) increased radiometric accuracy required for detecting small changes over long periods of time in environmental parameters; (3) references for verifying calibration in orbit; (4) high attenuation neutral density filters; (5) the sun as a radiation source for testing; (6) rejection of stray light; (7) development of spectrally flat detectors for flight sensors; and (8) long term stability of sensor components.

  6. Integrated development facility for the calibration of low-energy charged particle flight instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biddle, A. P.; Reynolds, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The design of a low-energy ion facility for development and calibration of thermal ion instrumentation is examined. A directly heated cathode provides the electrons used to produce ions by impact ionization and an applied magnetic field increases the path length followed by the electrons. The electrostatic and variable geometry magnetic mirror configuration in the ion source is studied. The procedures for the charge neutralization of the beam and the configuration and function of the 1.4-m drift tube are analyzed. A microcomputer is utilized to control and monitor the beam energy and composition, and the mass- and angle-dependent response of the instrument under testing. The facility produces a high-quality ion beam with an adjustable range of energies up to 150 eV; the angular divergence and uniformity of the beam is obtained from two independent retarding potential analyzers. The procedures for calibrating the instrument being developed are described.

  7. Millipol, a millimeter/submillimeter wavelength polarimeter - Instrument, operation, and calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Clemens, D.P.; Kane, B.D.; Leach, R.W.; Barvainis, R. San Diego State Univ., CA Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA )

    1990-09-01

    An instrument capable of measuring the polarization characteristics of weakly polarized, cold dust at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths is presented in detail. The operation and calibration of this polarimeter at a wavelength of 1300 microns, configured for the NRAO 12-meter telescope, are discussed. Deep observations of Jupiter using this instrument revealed a main-beam instrumental polarization at, or below, the 0.2 percent level. Lunar limb observations revealed a sidelobe polarization sensitivity, in the range 0.25 percent - 1.0 percent. Further, through these efforts the nonthermal polarized flux from Jupiter at a level of about 0.04 percent of the thermal flux has been detected. Astronomical polarization measurements to 0.03 percent are possible, limited by the uncertainties in the instrumental polarization. This instrument has been primarily employed to measure and map magnetic-field directions in the very optically opaque cores of massive molecular clouds. 15 refs.

  8. Detailed Calibration of SphinX instrument at the Palermo XACT facility of INAF-OAPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymon, Gburek; Collura, Alfonso; Barbera, Marco; Reale, Fabio; Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Bakala, Jaroslaw; Kordylewski, Zbigniew; Plocieniak, Stefan; Podgorski, Piotr; Trzebinski, Witold; Varisco, Salvatore

    The Solar photometer in X-rays (SphinX) experiment is scheduled for launch late summer 2008 on-board the Russian CORONAS-Photon satellite. SphinX will use three silicon PIN diode detectors with selected effective areas in order to record solar spectra in the X-ray energy range 0.3-15 keV with unprecedented temporal and medium energy resolution. High sensitivity and large dynamic range of the SphinX instrument will give for the first time possibility of observing solar soft X-ray variability from the weakest levels, ten times below present thresholds, to the largest X20+ flares. We present the results of the ground X-ray calibrations of the SphinX instrument performed at the X-ray Astronomy Calibration and Testing (XACT) facility of INAF-OAPA. The calibrations were essential for determination of SphinX detector energy resolution and efficiency. We describe the ground tests instrumental set-up, adopted measurement techniques and present results of the calibration data analysis.

  9. Calibration of high resolution remote sensing instruments in the visible and near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüller, L.; Fischer, J.; Armbruster, W.; Bartsch, B.

    1997-05-01

    Measurements of the reflected solar radiation with high spectral resolution airborne instruments are usually used to develop new remote sensing techniques. The observed spectral features in the signals provide the possibility to define useful band settings for future satellite instruments. A precise wavelength and radiometric calibration is a prerequisite for such tasks. In this paper, a calibration procedure for the airborne spectrometer OVID is presented. The Optical Visible and near Infrared Detector consists of two similar detector systems, (600 - 1100 nm = VIS and 900 - 1700 nm = NIR). The spectral resolution is ~1.7 nm for the VIS-system and ~6 nm for the IR-system. This instrument is applied for the retrieval of water vapour content, aerosol and cloud properties. Besides the spectral and intensity calibration, also corrections for the dark current signals and for defective pixels have been performed. An indirect verification of the calibration procedure by the comparison of OVID measurements in cloudy and cloud free atmospheres with radiative transfer simulations is discussed in this paper. The used radiation transfer model MOMO is based on the matrix operator method.

  10. The GOME-2 instrument on the Metop series of satellites: instrument design, calibration, and level 1 data processing - an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, Rosemary; Lang, Rüdiger; Klaes, Dieter; Poli, Gabriele; Retscher, Christian; Lindstrot, Rasmus; Huckle, Roger; Lacan, Antoine; Grzegorski, Michael; Holdak, Andriy; Kokhanovsky, Alexander; Livschitz, Jakob; Eisinger, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) flies on the Metop series of satellites, the space component of the EUMETSAT Polar System. In this paper we will provide an overview of the instrument design, the on-ground calibration and characterization activities, in-flight calibration, and level 0 to 1 data processing. The current status of the level 1 data is presented and points of specific relevance to users are highlighted. Long-term level 1 data consistency is also discussed and plans for future work are outlined. The information contained in this paper summarizes a large number of technical reports and related documents containing information that is not currently available in the published literature. These reports and documents are however made available on the EUMETSAT web pages and readers requiring more details than can be provided in this overview paper will find appropriate references at relevant points in the text.

  11. An instrument for gravimetric calibration of flow devices with corrosive gases

    SciTech Connect

    Remenyik, C.J.; Hylton, J.O.

    1995-04-01

    An instrument was developed for the calibration of mass flow controllers primarily used in the production of semiconductor wafers. Almost all other types of such calibrators require measurement of temperature, pressure and volume. This instrument measures the weight of gas collected in a container and makes measuring those thermodynamic variables unnecessary. The need to measure the weight of the gas container is eliminated by submerging it in a liquid (presently water) and balancing its weight with the force of buoyancy. The accuracy of this Gravimetric Calibrator is unaffected by the pressure and temperature of the gas. The Calibrator can also measure reactive, corrosive, and non-ideal gases. The container remains connected to the process by a torsion capillary, and a load cell measures the changing gas weight continuously throughout the measuring process. A prototype was designed for gas flows ranging from 1 sccm of hydrogen to 10,000 sccm of tungsten hexafluoride, constructed, tested, and used to calibrate flow devices. Experience with the prototype and results are presented, and plans for further developments are discussed. Design of a version for the flow range from 0.1 sccm to 100 sccm is in progress.

  12. Instrument calibration.

    PubMed

    Padden, Harvey

    2002-05-01

    The main thing to remember is that measurement uncertainty must encompass everything from NIST to the final laboratory result. Every source of error along the way must be accounted for. Our vendors do much of it for us, but we must make sure they are doing their job properly. We must make certain our vendors have performed rigorous uncertainty analyses and are performing in accordance with them. ISO 9001-2000 and 17,025 accreditations can eventually help offer us assurance in this area. PMID:12037906

  13. Viking lander camera geometry calibration report. Volume 1: Test methods and data reduction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, M. B.

    1981-01-01

    The determination and removal of instrument signature from Viking Lander camera geometric data are described. All tests conducted as well as a listing of the final database (calibration constants) used to remove instrument signature from Viking Lander flight images are included. The theory of the geometric aberrations inherent in the Viking Lander camera is explored.

  14. Satellite Instrument Calibration for Measuring Global Climate Change: Report of a Workshop.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohring, George; Wielicki, Bruce; Spencer, Roy; Emery, Bill; Datla, Raju

    2005-09-01

    Measuring the small changes associated with long-term global climate change from space is a daunting task. The satellite instruments must be capable of observing atmospheric and surface temperature trends as small as 0.1°C decade-1, ozone changes as little as 1% decade-1, and variations in the sun's output as tiny as 0.1% decade-1. To address these problems and recommend directions for improvements in satellite instrument calibration, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Integrated Program Office (NPOESS-IPO), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) organized a workshop at the University of Maryland Inn and Conference Center, College Park, Maryland, 12 14 November 2002. Some 75 scientists participated including researchers who develop and analyze long-term datasets from satellites, experts in the field of satellite instrument calibration, and physicists working on state-of-the-art calibration sources and standards.The workshop defined the absolute accuracies and long-term stabilities of global climate datasets that are needed to detect expected trends, translated these dataset accuracies and stabilities to required satellite instrument accuracies and stabilities, and evaluated the ability of current observing systems to meet these requirements. The workshop's recommendations include a set of basic axioms or overarching principles that must guide high quality climate observations in general, and a road map for improving satellite instrument characterization, calibration, intercalibration, and associated activities to meet the challenge of measuring global climate change. The workshop also recommended that a follow-up workshop be conducted to discuss implementation of the road map developed at this workshop.


  15. On-line testing of calibration of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemian, H.M.

    1995-11-01

    The nuclear industry is interested in automating the calibration of process instrumentation channels; this report provides key results of one of the sponsored projects to determine the validity of automated calibrations. Conclusion is that the normal outputs of instrument channels in nuclear plants can be monitored over a fuel cycle while the plant is operating to determine calibration drift in the field sensors and associated signal conversion and signal conditioning equipment. The procedure for on-line calibration tests involving calculating the deviation of each instrument channel from the best estimate of the process parameter that the instrument is measuring. Methods were evaluated for determining the best estimate. Deviation of each signal from the best estimate is updated frequently while the plant is operating and plotted vs time for entire fuel cycle, thereby providing time history plots that can reveal channel drift and other anomalies. Any instrument channel that exceeds allowable drift or channel accuracy band is then scheduled for calibration during a refueling outage or sooner. This provides calibration test results at the process operating point, one of the most critical points of the channel operation. This should suffice for most narrow-range instruments, although the calibration of some instruments can be verified at other points throughout their range. It should be pointed out that the calibration of some process signals such as the high pressure coolant injection flow in BWRs, which are normally off- scale during plant operation, can not be tested on-line.

  16. Instrumentation report 1: specification, design, calibration, and installation of instrumentation for an experimental, high-level, nuclear waste storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brough, W.G.; Patrick, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is being conducted 420 m underground at the Nevada Test Site under the auspices of the US Department of Energy. The test facility houses 11 spent fuel assemblies from an operating commercial nuclear reactor and numerous other thermal sources used to simulate the near-field effects of a large repository. We developed a large-scale instrumentation plan to ensure that a sufficient quality and quantity of data were acquired during the three- to five-year test. These data help satisfy scientific, operational, and radiation safety objectives. Over 800 data channels are being scanned to measure temperature, electrical power, radiation, air flow, dew point, stress, displacement, and equipment operation status (on/off). This document details the criteria, design, specifications, installation, calibration, and current performance of the entire instrumentation package.

  17. Inter-Calibration and Concatenation of Climate Quality Infrared Cloudy Radiances from Multiple Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrangi, Ali; Aumann, Hartmut H.

    2013-01-01

    A change in climate is not likely captured from any single instrument, since no single instrument can span decades of time. Therefore, to detect signals of global climate change, observations from many instruments on different platforms have to be concatenated. This requires careful and detailed consideration of instrumental differences such as footprint size, diurnal cycle of observations, and relative biases in the spectral brightness temperatures. Furthermore, a common basic assumption is that the data quality is independent of the observed scene and therefore can be determined using clear scene data. However, as will be demonstrated, this is not necessarily a valid assumption as the globe is mostly cloudy. In this study we highlight challenges in inter-calibration and concatenation of infrared radiances from multiple instruments by focusing on the analysis of deep convective or anvil clouds. TRMM/VIRS is potentially useful instrument to make correction for observational differences in the local time and foot print sizes, and thus could be applied retroactively to vintage instruments such as AIRS, IASI, IRIS, AVHRR, and HIRS. As the first step, in this study, we investigate and discuss to what extent AIRS and VIRS agree in capturing deep cloudy radiances at the same local time. The analysis also includes comparisons with one year observations from CrIS. It was found that the instruments show calibration differences of about 1K under deep cloudy scenes that can vary as a function of land type and local time of observation. The sensitivity of footprint size, view angle, and spectral band-pass differences cannot fully explain the observed differences. The observed discrepancies can be considered as a measure of the magnitude of issues which will arise in the comparison of legacy data with current data.

  18. The 1997 HST Calibration Workshop with a New Generation of Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casertano, S. (Editor); Jedrzejewski, R. (Editor); Keyes, T. (Editor); Stevens, M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The Second Servicing mission in early 1997 has brought major changes to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Two of the original instruments, Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) and Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS), were taken out, and replaced by completely new instruments, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and the Near Infrared Camera Multi-Object Spectrograph (NICMOS). Two new types of detectors were installed, and for the first time, HST gained infrared capabilities. A new Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) was installed, with an alignment mechanism that could improve substantially both guiding and astrometric capabilities. With all these changes come new challenges. The characterization of the new instruments has required a major effort, both by their respective Investigation Definition Teams and at the Space Telescope Science Institute. All necessary final calibrations for the retired spectrographs needed to be carried out, and their properties definitively characterized. At the same time, work has continued to improve our understanding of the instruments that have remained on board. The results of these activities were discussed in the 1997 HST (Hubble Space Telescope) Calibration Workshop. The main focus of the Workshop was to provide users with the tools and the understanding they need to use HST's instruments and archival data to the best of their possibilities. This book contains the written record of the Workshop. As such, it should provide a valuable tool to all interested in using existing HST data or in proposing for new observations.

  19. On-Orbit Cross-Calibration of AM Satellite Remote Sensing Instruments using the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, James J.; Kieffer, Hugh H.; Barnes, Robert A.; Stone, Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    On April 14,2003, three Earth remote sensing spacecraft were maneuvered enabling six satellite instruments operating in the visible through shortwave infrared wavelength region to view the Moon for purposes of on-orbit cross-calibration. These instruments included the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) radiometer on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft, the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Hyperion instrument on Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft, and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on the SeaStar spacecraft. Observations of the Moon were compared using a spectral photometric mode for lunar irradiance developed by the Robotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) project located at the United States Geological Survey in Flagstaff, Arizona. The ROLO model effectively accounts for variations in lunar irradiance corresponding to lunar phase and libration angles, allowing intercomparison of observations made by instruments on different spacecraft under different time and location conditions. The spacecraft maneuvers necessary to view the Moon are briefly described and results of using the lunar irradiance model in comparing the radiometric calibration scales of the six satellite instruments are presented here.

  20. The MICROSCOPE space mission and the inflight calibration approach for its instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, A.; Touboul, P.; Rodrigues, M.; Métris, G.; Robert, A.

    2010-12-01

    MICROSCOPE is a fundamental physics space mission which aims at testing the Equivalence Principle (EP) with an accuracy of 10-15. The gravitational signal is measured precisely by a differential electrostatic accelerometer which includes two cylindrical test masses made of different materials. The accelerometer is on-board a drag-free micro-satellite which is controlled either Earth pointing or rotating about the normal to the orbital plane with a very stable angular velocity.The expected accuracy of the EP test could be limited by the inaccurate a priori knowledge of the instrument physical parameters associated to the instrument environment on-board the satellite. These parameters are partially measured or estimated by means of ground tests or during the integration of the instrument on the satellite. However, these evaluations are not sufficient and an in-orbit calibration is therefore needed to finely characterize the instrument and to correct the measurements.After the overall presentation of the MICROSCOPE mission and its scientific goal, this paper will focus on the accelerometer and will describe the specific procedures proposed for the in-flight instrument calibration.

  1. Uncertainty Analysis for Broadband Solar Radiometric Instrumentation Calibrations and Measurements: An Update; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D. R.; Reda, I. M.; Wilcox, S. M.; Stoffel, T. L.

    2004-04-01

    The measurement of broadband solar radiation has grown in importance since the advent of solar renewable energy technologies in the 1970's, and the concern about the Earth's radiation balance related to climate change in the 1990's. In parallel, standardized methods of uncertainty analysis and reporting have been developed. Historical and updated uncertainties are based on the current international standardized uncertainty analysis method. Despite the fact that new and sometimes overlooked sources of uncertainty have been identified over the period 1988 to 2004, uncertainty in broadband solar radiometric instrumentation remains at 3% to 5% for pyranometers, and 2% to 3% for pyrheliometers. Improvements in characterizing correction functions for radiometer data may reduce total uncertainty. We analyze the theoretical standardized uncertainty sensitivity coefficients for the instrumentation calibration measurement equation and highlight the single parameter (thermal offset voltages), which contributes the most to the observed calibration responsivities.

  2. A method for automating calibration and records management for instrumentation and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, J.M. Jr.; Rushton, R.O.; Burns, R.E. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    Current industry requirements are becoming more stringent on quality assurance records and documentation for calibration of instruments and dosimetry. A novel method is presented here that will allow a progressive automation scheme to be used in pursuit of that goal. This concept is based on computer-controlled irradiators that can act as stand-alone devices or be interfaced to other components via a computer local area network. In this way, complete systems can be built with modules to create a records management system to meet the needs of small laboratories or large multi-building calibration groups. Different database engines or formats can be used simply by replacing a module. Modules for temperature and pressure monitoring or shipping and receiving can be added, as well as equipment modules for direct IEEE-488 interface to electrometers and other instrumentation.

  3. Calibrating system errors of large scale three-dimensional profile measurement instruments by subaperture stitching method.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhichao; Cheng, Haobo; Feng, Yunpeng; Su, Jingshi; Wu, Hengyu; Tam, Hon-Yuen

    2015-07-01

    This study presents a subaperture stitching method to calibrate system errors of several ∼2  m large scale 3D profile measurement instruments (PMIs). The calibration process was carried out by measuring a Φ460  mm standard flat sample multiple times at different sites of the PMI with a length gauge; then the subaperture data were stitched together using a sequential or simultaneous stitching algorithm that minimizes the inconsistency (i.e., difference) of the discrete data in the overlapped areas. The system error can be used to compensate the measurement results of not only large flats, but also spheres and aspheres. The feasibility of the calibration was validated by measuring a Φ1070  mm aspheric mirror, which can raise the measurement accuracy of PMIs and provide more reliable 3D surface profiles for guiding grinding, lapping, and even initial polishing processes. PMID:26193139

  4. Prelaunch Photogrammetric Calibration of Russian Satellite Elektro-L Imagery Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gektin, U. M.; Egoshkin, N. A.; Eremeev, V. V.; Kuznetcov, A. E.; Kochergin, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    Technology of prelaunch geometric calibration of multispectral imagery instruments of Russian geostationary satellites "Elektro-L" No.1 and No.2 is considered. Circular control points are used as a test field. Its geometrical model is developed to take distortions in the collimator optical system into account. Multiple observations of a test field at different angles is used to cover the full visual field of a geostationary sensor. New algorithm of circular control point detection is developed and adapted to complex geometry of geostationary imagery. It is capable of processing images formed as a set of separate scans. Under calibration, sensor design parameters and also the law of scanning mirror motion are specified. The paper contains results of the technology approval under prelaunch calibration of MSU-GS sensors for geostationary operational meteorological satellites (GOMS) "Elektro-L" No.1 and No.2.

  5. Precise uniform light source based on optically connected integrating spheres for optical instrument calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheenko, Leonid; Borovytsky, Volodymyr

    2011-09-01

    The paper proposes the uniform light sources which have a form of several or multiple optically connected integrating spheres. The principal advantages of these light sources are high photometric and metrological characteristics. As a result they have good perspectives in optical radiometry and calibration of imaging systems and optical instruments. The principal field of their application is calibration of remote sensing instruments and sensitive megapixel cameras. The light source contains several (3 ... 11) primary integrating spheres of small diameters which are installed on a secondary integrating sphere of bigger diameter. The initial light sources - halogen lamps or light emitted diodes are installed inside the primary integrating spheres. These spheres are mounted on the secondary integrating sphere. The radiation comes from the primary integrating spheres to the secondary one through diaphragms which diameters can be varied. The secondary integrating sphere has an output aperture where uniform radiance emits. It is investigated the light source design with an output aperture diameter 0.2 m and 3 or 5 primary integrating spheres. It guarantees the output radiance in range from 0.01 to 1000 W/(st•m2), radiance uniformity bigger 99.5% in an output aperture, non-linearity of an output radiance control - smaller 0.1 %. The paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental research of these light sources including the techniques for radiance calculation and the recommendations for light source design. The proposed light sources can be considered as one of the best candidates for calibration of remote sensing instruments working in optical range 0.4 - 2.2 mkm. Key words: integrating sphere, light source, calibration, uniformity, radiance, remote sensing, optical instrument.

  6. Optical Comb from a Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator for Spectroscopy and Astronomy Instruments Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Yu, Nam; Thompson, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The most accurate astronomical data is available from space-based observations that are not impeded by the Earth's atmosphere. Such measurements may require spectral samples taken as long as decades apart, with the 1 cm/s velocity precision integrated over a broad wavelength range. This raises the requirements specifically for instruments used in astrophysics research missions -- their stringent wavelength resolution and accuracy must be maintained over years and possibly decades. Therefore, a stable and broadband optical calibration technique compatible with spaceflights becomes essential. The space-based spectroscopic instruments need to be calibrated in situ, which puts forth specific requirements to the calibration sources, mainly concerned with their mass, power consumption, and reliability. A high-precision, high-resolution reference wavelength comb source for astronomical and astrophysics spectroscopic observations has been developed that is deployable in space. The optical comb will be used for wavelength calibrations of spectrographs and will enable Doppler measurements to better than 10 cm/s precision, one hundred times better than the current state-of-the- art.

  7. An Instrument for Gravimetric Calibration of Flow Devices with Corrosive Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Hylton, J.O.; Remenyik, C.J.

    1999-06-27

    An instrument was developed for the direct mass flow calibration of gas flowmeters that does not require measurement of temperature, pressure, or specific volume. This instrument measures the weight of gas collected in a container and makes measuring those thermodynamic variables unnecessary. The need to measure the weight of the gas container is eliminated by submerging it in a liquid (presently water) and balancing its weight with the force of buoyancy. The accuracy of this Gravimetric Calibrator is unaffected by the pressure and temperature of the gas. The Calibrator can also measure reactive, corrosive, and non-ideal gases. The container remains connected to the process by a torsion capillary, and a load cell measures the changing gas weight continuously throughout the measuring process. A prototype was designed for gas flows ranging from 1 sccm of hydrogen to 10,000 sccm of tungsten hexafluoride, constructed, tested, and used to calibrate flow devices. Experience with the prototype and results are presented, and plans for further developments are discussed.

  8. Calibration of passive remote observing optical and microwave instrumentation; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 3-5, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guenther, Bruce W. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on the calibration of passive remote observing optical and microwave instrumentation are presented. Individual topics addressed include: on-board calibration device for a wide field-of-view instrument, calibration for the medium-resolution imaging spectrometer, cryogenic radiometers and intensity-stabilized lasers for EOS radiometric calibrations, radiometric stability of the Shuttle-borne solar backscatter ultraviolet spectrometer, ratioing radiometer for use with a solar diffuser, requirements of a solar diffuser and measurements of some candidate materials, reflectance stability analysis of Spectralon diffuse calibration panels, stray light effects on calibrations using a solar diffuser, radiometric calibration of SPOT 23 HRVs, surface and aerosol models for use in radiative transfer codes. Also addressed are: calibrated intercepts for solar radiometers used in remote sensor calibration, radiometric calibration of an airborne multispectral scanner, in-flight calibration of a helicopter-mounted Daedalus multispectral scanner, technique for improving the calibration of large-area sphere sources, remote colorimetry and its applications, spatial sampling errors for a satellite-borne scanning radiometer, calibration of EOS multispectral imaging sensors and solar irradiance variability.

  9. Calibration of passive remote observing optical and microwave instrumentation; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 3-5, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, Bruce W.

    Various papers on the calibration of passive remote observing optical and microwave instrumentation are presented. Individual topics addressed include: on-board calibration device for a wide field-of-view instrument, calibration for the medium-resolution imaging spectrometer, cryogenic radiometers and intensity-stabilized lasers for EOS radiometric calibrations, radiometric stability of the Shuttle-borne solar backscatter ultraviolet spectrometer, ratioing radiometer for use with a solar diffuser, requirements of a solar diffuser and measurements of some candidate materials, reflectance stability analysis of Spectralon diffuse calibration panels, stray light effects on calibrations using a solar diffuser, radiometric calibration of SPOT 23 HRVs, surface and aerosol models for use in radiative transfer codes. Also addressed are: calibrated intercepts for solar radiometers used in remote sensor calibration, radiometric calibration of an airborne multispectral scanner, in-flight calibration of a helicopter-mounted Daedalus multispectral scanner, technique for improving the calibration of large-area sphere sources, remote colorimetry and its applications, spatial sampling errors for a satellite-borne scanning radiometer, calibration of EOS multispectral imaging sensors and solar irradiance variability. (For individual items see A93-23576 to A93-23603)

  10. In-flight calibration of the MICROSCOPE space mission instrument: development of the simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, E.; Levy, A.; Métris, G.; Robert, A.; Rodrigues, M.; Touboul, P.

    2011-12-01

    The space mission MICROSCOPE aims at testing the Equivalence Principle (EP) with an accuracy of 10^{-15}. The test is based on the precise measurement delivered by a differential electrostatic accelerometer onboard a drag-free microsatellite which includes two cylindrical test masses submitted to the same gravitational field and made of different materials. The accuracy of the measurement exploited for the EP test is limited by our knowledge of the physical parameters of the instrument. The on-ground evaluation of these parameters is not precise enough. An in-orbit calibration is therefore needed to finely characterize these instrumental parameters in order to correct the measurements. The calibration procedures have been proposed and their analytical performances have been evaluated. In addition, a software simulator including models of the instrument and the satellite drag-free system has been developed. After an overall presentation of the MICROSCOPE mission, this paper will focus on the description of the simulator used to confirm and validate the specific procedures which are planned to determine in-orbit the exact values of the driving parameters of the instrument.

  11. Compendium of Practical Astronomy. Volume 1: Instrumentation and Reduction Techniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augensen, H. J.; Heintz, W. D.; Roth, Günter D.

    The Compendium of Practical Astronomy is a revised and enlarged English version of the fourth edition of G. Roth's famous handbook for stargazers. In three volumes 28 carefully edited articles, aimed especially at amateur astronomers and students and teachers of astronomy in high schools and colleges, cover the length and breadth of practical astronomy. Volume 1 contains information on modern instrumentation and reduction techniques, including spherical astronomy, error estimations, telescope mountings, astrophotography, and more. Volume 2 covers the planetary system, with contributions on artificial satellites, comets, the polar aurorae, and the effects of the atmosphere on observational data. Volume 3 is devoted to stellar objects, variable stars and binary stars in particular. An introduction to the astronomical literature and a comprehensive chapter on astronomy education and instructional aids make the Compendium a useful complement to any college library, in addition to its being essential reading for all practical astronomers.

  12. Environmental Assessment for the Health Protection Instrument Calibration Facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to review the possible environmental consequences associated with the construction and operation of a Health Protection Instrument Calibration Facility on the Savannah River Site (SRS). The proposed replacement calibration facility would be located in B Area of SRS and would replace an inadequate existing facility currently located within A Area of SRS (Building 736-A). The new facility would provide laboratories, offices, test equipment and the support space necessary for the SRS Radiation Monitoring Instrument Calibration Program to comply with DOE Orders 5480.4 (Environmental Protection, Safety and Health Protection Standards) and 5480.11 (Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers). The proposed facility would serve as the central site source for the evaluation, selection, inspection, testing, calibration, and maintenance of all SRS radiation monitoring instrumentation. The proposed facility would be constructed on a currently undeveloped portion in B Area of SRS. The exact plot associated with the proposed action is a 1.2 hectare (3 acre) tract of land located on the west side of SRS Road No. 2. The proposed facility would lie approximately 4.4 km (2.75 mi) from the nearest SRS site boundary. The proposed facility would also lie within the confines of the existing B Area, and SRS safeguards and security systems. Archaeological, ecological, and land use reviews have been conducted in connection with the use of this proposed plot of land, and a detailed discussion of these reviews is contained herein. Socioeconomic, operational, and accident analyses were also examined in relation to the proposed project and the findings from these reviews are also contained in this EA.

  13. TES-based microcalorimeter for future X-ray astronomy missions. Software development for instrument calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga-Encinas, R.; Cobo, B.; Ceballos, M.; Schuurmans, J.; van der Kuur, J.; Carrera, F.; Barcons, X.

    2013-05-01

    The XMS (X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer) is an instrument prototype with imaging capability in X-rays and high-spectral resolution. This instrument is a microcalorimeter based on transition edge sensors. As part of the Spanish contribution to the advancement of the XMS, we present the work carried out by the X-ray astronomy group at the Instituto de Física de Cantabria in collaboration with The Netherlands Institute for Space Research. The main work hereby presented includes the development and testing of software for this prototype with the purpose of instrument calibration and characterization, X-ray pulse detection and energy resolution calculations (Bergmann 2004, Tekst. Proefschrift Universiteit Utrecht; Boyce et al. 1999, Proc SPIE 3765; Den Herder et al. 2011, SRON-XMS-RP-2011-033; ATHENA Assessment Study Report, ESA/SRE(2011)17)

  14. Planck 2015 results. VIII. High Frequency Instrument data processing: Calibration and maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bertincourt, B.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leahy, J. P.; Lellouch, E.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moreno, R.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Mottet, S.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Sauvé, A.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the processing applied to the cleaned, time-ordered information obtained from the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) with the aim of producing photometrically calibrated maps in temperature and (for the first time) in polarization. The data from the entire 2.5-year HFI mission include almost five full-sky surveys. HFI observes the sky over a broad range of frequencies, from 100 to 857 GHz. To obtain the best accuracy on the calibration over such a large range, two different photometric calibration schemes have been used. The 545 and 857 GHz data are calibrated using models of planetary atmospheric emission. The lower frequencies (from 100 to 353 GHz) are calibrated using the time-variable cosmological microwave background dipole, which we call the orbital dipole. This source of calibration only depends on the satellite velocity with respect to the solar system. Using a CMB temperature of TCMB = 2.7255 ± 0.0006 K, it permits an independent measurement of the amplitude of the CMB solar dipole (3364.3 ± 1.5 μK), which is approximatively 1σ higher than the WMAP measurement with a direction that is consistent between the two experiments. We describe the pipeline used to produce the maps ofintensity and linear polarization from the HFI timelines, and the scheme used to set the zero level of the maps a posteriori. We also summarize the noise characteristics of the HFI maps in the 2015 Planck data release and present some null tests to assess their quality. Finally, we discuss the major systematic effects and in particular the leakage induced by flux mismatch between the detectors that leads to spurious polarization signal.

  15. Solar Probe Plus: Motor Controllers Design for Manipulator for Calibration Purposes of SPAN-A and SPAN-B Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juache Aguilar, K.

    2015-12-01

    In preparation for the 2018 launch of Solar Probe Plus, and for the pre-flight tests of the SWEAP package, the instrument manipulator has been updated and modernized. Calibration of the Electrostatic Analyzers (ESA) is the critical last stop before launching instruments into space. The current method of controlling the instrument manipulator requires a dedicated computer, operating system, and power supplies. A novel solution integrates the power supplies, data acquisition, motor controller, and commanding microcontroller into one small enclosure. The system will also include software integration that communicates via Ethernet with electrical ground support equipment (EGSE) for full scripting automation during instrument calibration.

  16. Interferometric 30 m bench for calibrations of 1D scales and optical distance measuring instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkuri, J.; Rantanen, A.; Manninen, J.; Esala, V.-P.; Lassila, A.

    2012-09-01

    During construction of a new metrology building for MIKES, a 30 m interferometric bench was designed. The objective was to implement a straight, stable, adjustable and multifunctional 30 m measuring bench for calibrations. Special attention was paid to eliminating the effects of thermal expansion and inevitable concrete shrinkage. The linear guide, situated on top of a monolithic concrete beam, comprises two parallel round shafts with adjustable fixtures every 1 m. A carriage is moved along the rail and its position is followed by a reference interferometer. Depending on the measurement task, one or two retro-reflectors are fixed on the carriage. A microscope with a CCD camera and a monitor can be used to detect line mark positions on different line standards. When calibrating optical distance measuring instruments, various targets can be fixed to the carriage. For the most accurate measurements an online Abbe-error correction based on simultaneous carriage pitch measurement by a separate laser interferometer is applied. The bench is used for calibrations of machinist scales, tapes, circometers, electronic distance meters, total stations and laser trackers. The estimated expanded uncertainty for 30 m displacement for highest accuracy calibrations is 2.6 µm.

  17. Laboratory calibrations of the PP-SESAME instrument on Philae for measuring the cometary surface permittivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelin, M.; Le Gall, A.; Caujolle-Bert, S.; Schmidt, W.; Grard, R.; Laasko, H.; Ciarletti, V.; Seidensticker, K.

    2013-09-01

    The complex permittivity of terrestrial and planetary grounds can be derived from Mutual Impedance (MI) measurements using a four-electrode array [1]; the system is working at a fixed frequency with the electrodes not necessarily in contact with the ground and with a dedicated electronic system. This concept was used to build the Permittivity Probe (PP) as part of the SESAME experiment of the Philae Rosetta cometary lander. However severe constraints due to the payload facilities and to the particular environment lead to the actual design of the instrument. Unfortunately it was not possible to perform calibrations of the full system before lauch and the ground model consists of several parts used by various instruments. Here we report the results of basic calibration tests performed with a model of the Philae Landing Gear built in DLR. These tests involve only the three feet electrodes and a mockup of the the Philae body with very simple and well defined targets for characterizing the instrument. Further measurements on natural targets would be the next step.

  18. The ALISEO instrument: further improvements of calibration methods and assessment of interferometer response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barducci, Alessandro; Castagnoli, Francesco; Marcoionni, Paolo; Pippi, Ivan

    2005-10-01

    In recent years the Italian Space Agency funded a feasibility study for an aerospace imaging interferometer for Earth Observation. The instrument, named ALISEO (Aerospace Leap-frog Imaging Stationary Interferometer for Earth Observation), belongs to the class of the so called "stationary interferometers," and it operates in the common path Sagnac configuration not employing any moving parts to generate phase delay. ALISEO acquires the target image as modulated by a pattern of autocorrelation functions of the energy coming from each target's location. The complete interferogram is retrieved introducing relative source-observer motion. In order to calibrate the optical-path-difference (OPD) axis of the raw interferograms, a set of measurements have been carried out illuminating a double planar diffuser system by He-Ne lasers operating at different wavelengths. Standard reflectance tiles together with diffusers doped with Holmium and Rare Earths have been used to verify the wavelength calibration of the instrument. Finally, a procedure for raw data pre-processing aimed at retrieving at-sensor radiance spectra is developed taking into account the issues of dark signal subtraction, spectral instrument response compensation, effects of vignetting, and Fourier back-transform algorithm.

  19. The Microscope Space Mission and the In-Orbit Calibration Plan for its Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Agnès Touboul, Pierre; Rodrigues, Manuel; Onera, Émilie Hardy; Métris, Gilles; Robert, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The MICROSCOPE space mission aims at testing the Equivalence Principle (EP) with an accuracy of 10-15. This principle is one of the basis of the General Relativity theory; it states the equivalence between gravitational and inertial mass. The test is based on the precise measurement of a gravitational signal by a differential electrostatic accelerometer which includes two cylindrical test masses made of different materials. The accelerometers constitute the payload accommodated on board a drag-free micro-satellite which is controlled inertial or rotating about the normal to the orbital plane. The acceleration estimates used for the EP test are disturbed by the instruments physical parameters and by the instrument environment conditions on-board the satellite. These parameters are partially measured with ground tests or during the integration of the instrument in the satellite (alignment). Nevertheless, the ground evaluations are not sufficient with respect to the EP test accuracy objectives. An in-orbit calibration is therefore needed to characterize them finely. The calibration process for each parameter has been defined.

  20. Improvements in Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Products Based on Instrument Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, N. M.; Priestley, K.; Loeb, N. G.; Thomas, S.; Shankar, M.; Walikainen, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) mission is instrumental in providing highly accurate radiance measurements that are critical for monitoring the Earth's radiation budget. Two identical CERES instruments are deployed aboard NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites Terra and Aqua. Each CERES instrument consists of scanning thermistor bolometer sensors that measure broadband radiances in the shortwave (0.3 to 5 micron), total (0.3 to < 100 micron) and water vapor window (8 to 12 micron) regions. CERES instruments have the capability of scanning in either the cross-track or rotating azimuth plane (RAP) scan mode. Cross-track scanning, the primary mode of CERES operation, allows for the geographical mapping of the radiation fields while RAP scanning enables the acquisition of data over a more extensive combination of viewing configurations, needed for developing vastly improved angular distribution models used in radiance to flux conversion. To evaluate, achieve and maintain radiometric stability, a rigorous and comprehensive radiometric calibration and validation protocol is implemented. Calibrations and validation studies have indicated spectral changes in the reflected solar spectral regions of the shortwave and total sensors. Spectral darkening is detected in the shortwave channel optics, which is more prominent while the instrument operates in RAP mode. In the absence of a climatological explanation for this darkening, this likely occurs during part of the RAP scan cycle when the scan plane is aligned with the direction of motion, making the optics more susceptible to increased UV exposure and molecular contamination. Additionally, systematic daytime-nighttime longwave top-of-atmosphere (TOA) flux inconsistency was also detected during validation, which highlights the changes in the shortwave region of the total sensor. This paper briefly describes the strategy to correct for the sensor response changes and presents the improvements in

  1. The Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS): Instrument description, calibration and data quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, G. J.; Menzel, W. P.; Atkinson, R.; Wilson, G. S.; Arvesen, J.

    1986-01-01

    A new instrument has been developed to produce high resolution imagery in eight visible and three infared spectral bands from an aircraft platform. An analysis of the data and calibration procedures has shown that useful data can be obtained at up to 50 m resolution with a 2.5 milliradian aperture. Single sample standard errors for the measurements are 0.5, 0.2, and 0.9 K for the 6.5, 11.1, and 12.3 micron spectral bands, respectively. These errors are halved when a 5.0 milliradian aperture is used to obtain 100 m resolution data. Intercomparisons with VAS and AVHRR measurements show good relative calibration. MAMS development is part of a larger program to develop multispectral Earth imaging capabilities from space platforms during the 1990s.

  2. Post-launch calibration and testing of space weather instruments on GOES-R satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadikonda, Sivakumara S. K.; Merrow, Cynthia S.; Kronenwetter, Jeffrey A.; Comeyne, Gustave J.; Flanagan, Daniel G.; Todirita, Monica

    2016-05-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite - R (GOES-R) is the first of a series of satellites to be launched, with the first launch scheduled for October 2016. The three instruments -- Solar UltraViolet Imager (SUVI), Extreme ultraviolet and X-ray Irradiance Sensor (EXIS), and Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS) provide the data needed as inputs for the product updates National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides to the public. SUVI is a full-disk extreme ultraviolet imager enabling Active Region characterization, filament eruption, and flare detection. EXIS provides inputs to solar backgrounds/events impacting climate models. SEISS provides particle measurements over a wide energy-and-flux range that varies by several orders of magnitude and these data enable updates to spacecraft charge models for electrostatic discharge. EXIS and SEISS have been tested and calibrated end-to-end in ground test facilities around the United States. Due to the complexity of the SUVI design, data from component tests were used in a model to predict on-orbit performance. The ground tests and model updates provided inputs for designing the on-orbit calibration tests. A series of such tests have been planned for the Post-Launch Testing (PLT) of each of these instruments, and specific parameters have been identified that will be updated in the Ground Processing Algorithms, on-orbit parameter tables, or both. Some of SUVI and EXIS calibrations require slewing them off the Sun, while no such maneuvers are needed for SEISS. After a six-month PLT period the GOES-R is expected to be operational. The calibration details are presented in this paper.

  3. Post-Launch Calibration and Testing of Space Weather Instruments on GOES-R Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadikonda, S. K.; Merrow, Cynthia S.; Kronenwetter, Jeffrey A.; Comeyne, Gustave J.; Flanagan, Daniel G.; Todrita, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite - R (GOES-R) is the first of a series of satellites to be launched, with the first launch scheduled for October 2016. The three instruments Solar UltraViolet Imager (SUVI), Extreme ultraviolet and X-ray Irradiance Sensor (EXIS), and Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS) provide the data needed as inputs for the product updates National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides to the public. SUVI is a full-disk extreme ultraviolet imager enabling Active Region characterization, filament eruption, and flare detection. EXIS provides inputs to solar back-ground-sevents impacting climate models. SEISS provides particle measurements over a wide energy-and-flux range that varies by several orders of magnitude and these data enable updates to spacecraft charge models for electrostatic discharge. EXIS and SEISS have been tested and calibrated end-to-end in ground test facilities around the United States. Due to the complexity of the SUVI design, data from component tests were used in a model to predict on-orbit performance. The ground tests and model updates provided inputs for designing the on-orbit calibration tests. A series of such tests have been planned for the Post-Launch Testing (PLT) of each of these instruments, and specific parameters have been identified that will be updated in the Ground Processing Algorithms, on-orbit parameter tables, or both. Some of SUVI and EXIS calibrations require slewing them off the Sun, while no such maneuvers are needed for SEISS. After a six-month PLT period the GOES-R is expected to be operational. The calibration details are presented in this paper.

  4. Post-Launch Calibration and Testing of Space Weather Instruments on GOES-R Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadikonda, Sivakumara S. K.; Merrow, Cynthia S.; Kronenwetter, Jeffrey A.; Comeyne, Gustave J.; Flanagan, Daniel G.; Todirita, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite - R (GOES-R) is the first of a series of satellites to be launched, with the first launch scheduled for October 2016. The three instruments - Solar Ultra Violet Imager (SUVI), Extreme ultraviolet and X-ray Irradiance Sensor (EXIS), and Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS) provide the data needed as inputs for the product updates National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides to the public. SUVI is a full-disk extreme ultraviolet imager enabling Active Region characterization, filament eruption, and flare detection. EXIS provides inputs to solar backgrounds/events impacting climate models. SEISS provides particle measurements over a wide energy-and-flux range that varies by several orders of magnitude and these data enable updates to spacecraft charge models for electrostatic discharge. EXIS and SEISS have been tested and calibrated end-to-end in ground test facilities around the United States. Due to the complexity of the SUVI design, data from component tests were used in a model to predict on-orbit performance. The ground tests and model updates provided inputs for designing the on-orbit calibration tests. A series of such tests have been planned for the Post-Launch Testing (PLT) of each of these instruments, and specific parameters have been identified that will be updated in the Ground Processing Algorithms, on-orbit parameter tables, or both. Some of SUVI and EXIS calibrations require slewing them off the Sun, while no such maneuvers are needed for SEISS. After a six-month PLT period the GOES-R is expected to be operational. The calibration details are presented in this paper.

  5. The Harvard experiment on OSO-6 - Instrumentation, calibration, operation, and description of observations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, M. C. E.; Dupree, A. K.; Goldberg, L.; Parkinson, W. H.; Reeves, E. M.; Withbroe, G. L.; Noyes, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The Harvard experiment carried by OSO-6 was an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer-spectroheliometer with a wavelength range of 285 to 1385 A, a spatial and spectral bandwidth of 35 x 35(arc sec) squared and 3 A, respectively. The instrument acquired data that have been deposited with the National Space Science Data Center and World Data Center A at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and are now available in their entirety to the scientific community. Aspects of the experiment that are relevant to potential users of the data are described - namely, instrument configuration and parameters, laboratory and inflight calibrations, as well as operational capabilities and procedures. The observations obtained are reported, and the nature, number, and dates of observation, where relevant, are listed.

  6. The Calibration of a Large Number of Scientific Instruments for the Auroral Spatial Structures Probe Sub-Orbital Mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, A.; Miller, J.; Neilsen, T. L.; Fish, C. S.; Swenson, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Auroral Spatial Structures Probe (ASSP) is a NASA sounding rocket mission to be launched in the early January 2015 time frame from the Poker Flat Research Range. The primary scientific objective of this mission is to determine the contribution of small spatial and temporal scale fluctuations of the electric fields to the larger-scale processes during active aurora. This will be accomplished through the use of a constellation of six small payloads ejected at high velocity from a sounding rocket. The multiple baseline observations of the electric and magnetic fields will be used to observe variability of both the E-field and the Poynting flux. These observations will be placed in the context of available data, including winds, large scale E-fields, and proxy conductivity (airglow images) observations.Each sub-payload will carry a crossed pair of electric field double-probe sensors, a three-axis magnetometer, and a Langmuir probe. In total there are eight of each instrument type requireing calibration. Since the instruments need to be calibrated over temperature a full calibration of a single instrument is very time-consuming. The decision was made to automate the calibration process. Measurements were taken using a relay switch-box connecting the instruments to test sources. Calibration data were saved into a database. Using post-processing scripts on these databases a calibration for each instrument at each temperature point was made. This approach is a prototype process that might be used for calibrating a large constellation of CubeSats with similar instruments. In this poster we review the ASSP science and mission, and the results of the pre-flight calibration of the science instruments.

  7. Lessons Learned from GOSAT; Instrument Design, Calibration, Operation, Data Processing, and International Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuze, A.; Suto, H.; Shiomi, K.; Nakajima, M.

    2012-12-01

    Advantage of satellite observation is its ability to monitor long term and global distribution with a single instrument. Ozone observation from space has been successful for long term monitoring purposes. Monitoring gradual increase and distribution of greenhouse gases in the troposphere with sub-percent accuracy has become a challenging subject. Interference of cloud and aerosol in radiative transfer has to be corrected for troposphere measurement. Accurate O2-A band measurement can retrieve surface pressure and aerosol distribution property. We have selected a Fourier Transform spectrometer (FTS) to achieve high throughput and wide spectral coverage with uniform spectral resolution. On the other hand, it is difficult to modulate short wave such as 0.76μm and avoid micro vibration interference. Prelaunch, we took special care to select optical components of excellent surface quality and isolate vibration. Design parameters such as IFOV, spectral resolution, observation interval within limited satellite resources must be carefully optimized. Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) has been providing global high spectral resolution data for almost 4 years. Instrument performance, radiometric calibration, radiative transfer calculation and laboratory spectroscopy are all important. The first step was to reduce bias of column-averaged dry air mole fractions (the Level 2 product) of CO2 and CH4 (XCO2 and XCH4) and validate using well calibrated data such as TCCON. After 2 years of operation, latitudinal distribution of zonal mean and seasonal variation at these sites can be measured with better than 2ppm accuracy. However, validations are limited to ideal conditions. Next step is to evaluate consistency of measured values from long periods since launch, different surface types, and various input radiance with different instrument gain. For long term radiometric calibration, we have uses vicarious, onboard solar diffuser, and lunar calibration data. Over the ocean

  8. Characterization and Calibration of the CheMin Mineralogical Instrument on Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, David; Vaniman, David; Achilles, Cherie; Anderson, Robert; Bish, David; Bristow, Tom; Chen, Curtis; Chipera, Steve; Crisp, Joy; Des Marais, David; Downs, Robert T.; Farmer, Jack; Feldman, Sabrina; Fonda, Mark; Gailhanou, Marc; Ma, Hongwei; Ming, Doug W.; Morris, Richard V.; Sarrazin, Philippe; Stolper, Ed; Treiman, Allan; Yen, Albert

    2012-09-01

    A principal goal of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity is to identify and characterize past habitable environments on Mars. Determination of the mineralogical and chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils constrains their formation and alteration pathways, providing information on climate and habitability through time. The CheMin X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument on MSL will return accurate mineralogical identifications and quantitative phase abundances for scooped soil samples and drilled rock powders collected at Gale Crater during Curiosity's 1-Mars-year nominal mission. The instrument has a Co X-ray source and a cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) detector arranged in transmission geometry with the sample. CheMin's angular range of 5∘ to 50∘ 2 θ with <0.35∘ 2 θ resolution is sufficient to identify and quantify virtually all minerals. CheMin's XRF requirement was descoped for technical and budgetary reasons. However, X-ray energy discrimination is still required to separate Co K α from Co K β and Fe K α photons. The X-ray energy-dispersive histograms (EDH) returned along with XRD for instrument evaluation should be useful in identifying elements Z>13 that are contained in the sample. The CheMin XRD is equipped with internal chemical and mineralogical standards and 27 reusable sample cells with either Mylar® or Kapton® windows to accommodate acidic-to-basic environmental conditions. The CheMin flight model (FM) instrument will be calibrated utilizing analyses of common samples against a demonstration-model (DM) instrument and CheMin-like laboratory instruments. The samples include phyllosilicate and sulfate minerals that are expected at Gale crater on the basis of remote sensing observations.

  9. Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) for Advanced Life Detection Instrumentation Development and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel; Brinkerhoff, Will; Dworkin, Jason; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Franz, Heather; Mahaffy, Paul; Stern, Jen; Blake, Daid; Sandford, Scott; Fries, marc; Steele, Andrew; Amashukeli, Xenia; Fisher, Anita; Grunthaner, Frank; Aubrey, Andrew; Bada, Jeff; Chiesl, Tom; Stockton, Amanda; Mathies, Rich

    2008-01-01

    Scientific ground-truth measurements for near-term Mars missions, such as the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, are essential for validating current in situ flight instrumentation and for the development of advanced instrumentation technologies for life-detection missions over the next decade. The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) has recently funded a consortium of researchers called the Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) to analyze an identical set of homogenized martian analog materials in a "round-robin" style using both state-of-the-art laboratory techniques as well as in-situ flight instrumentation including the SAM gas chromatograph mass spectrometer and CHEMIN X-ray diffraction/fluorescence instruments on MSL and the Urey and MOMA organic analyzer instruments under development for the 2013 ExoMars missions. The analog samples studied included an Atacama Desert soil from Chile, the Murchison meteorite, a gypsum sample from the 2007 AMASE Mars analog site, jarosite from Panoche Valley, CA, a hydrothermal sample from Rio Tinto, Spain, and a "blind" sample collected during the 2007 MSL slow-motion field test in New Mexico. Each sample was distributed to the team for analysis to: (1) determine the nature and inventory of organic compounds, (2) measure the bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition, (3) investigate elemental abundances, mineralogy and matrix, and (4) search for biological activity. The experimental results obtained from the ASAP Mars analog research consortium will be used to build a framework for understanding the biogeochemistry of martian analogs, help calibrate current spaceflight instrumentation, and enhance the scientific return from upcoming missions.

  10. Soot Reference Materials for instrument calibration and intercomparisons: a workshop summary with recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgardner, D.; Popovicheva, O.; Allan, J.; Bernardoni, V.; Cao, J.; Cavalli, F.; Cozic, J.; Diapouli, E.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Genberg, P. J.; Gonzalez, C.; Gysel, M.; John, A.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Kuhlbusch, T. A. J.; Laborde, M.; Lack, D.; Müller, T.; Niessner, R.; Petzold, A.; Piazzalunga, A.; Putaud, J. P.; Schwarz, J.; Sheridan, P.; Subramanian, R.; Swietlicki, E.; Valli, G.; Vecchi, R.; Viana, M.

    2012-03-01

    Soot, which is produced from biomass burning and the incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass fuels, has been linked to regional and global climate change and to negative health problems. Scientists measure soot using a variety of methods in order to quantify source emissions and understand its atmospheric chemistry, reactivity under emission conditions, interaction with solar radiation, influence on clouds, and health impacts. A major obstacle currently limiting progress is the absence of established standards or reference materials for calibrating the many instruments used to measure the various properties of soot. The current state of availability and practicability of soot standard reference materials (SRMs) was reviewed by a group of 50 international experts during a workshop in June of 2011. The workshop was convened to summarize the current knowledge on soot measurement techniques, identify the measurement uncertainties and limitations related to the lack of SRMs, and identify attributes of SRMs that, if developed, would reduce measurement uncertainties. The workshop established that suitable SRMs are available for calibrating some, but not all, measurement methods. The community of single-particle sootphotometer (SP2) users identified a suitable SRM, fullerene soot, but users of instruments that measure light absorption by soot collected on filters did not. Similarly, those who use thermal optical analysis (TOA) to analyze the organic and elemental carbon components of soot were not satisfied with current SRMs. The workshop produced recommendations for the development of new SRMs that would be suitable for the different soot measurement methods.

  11. TOPEX/Poseidon Microwave Radiometer (TMR): 1. Instrument Description and Antenna Temperature Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, C. S.; Keihm, S. J.; Janssen, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    The TOPEX/Poseidon Microwave Radiometer (TMR) is a 3-frequency radiometer flown on the TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) satellite in low Earth orbit. It operates at 18, 21 and 37 GHz in a nadir only viewing direction which is co-aligned with the T/P radar altimeters. TMR monitors and corrects for the electrical path delay of the altimeter radar signal due to water vapor and non-precipitating liquid water in the atmosphere. This paper describes the TMR instrument and the radiometric instrument calibration required to derive antenna temperature (T_A) from the raw digital data. T_A precision of 0.4 K is predicted on orbit in all expected thermal environments. T_A accuracy of 0.5-0.6 K is expected following a post-launch field calibration campaign. When uncertainties related to antenna sidelobe corrections are included, this T_A accuracy yields a brightness temperature accuracy of 0.7- 0.8 K...

  12. Power spectrum and Allan variance methods for calibrating single-molecule video-tracking instruments

    PubMed Central

    Lansdorp, Bob M.; Saleh, Omar A.

    2012-01-01

    Single-molecule manipulation instruments, such as optical traps and magnetic tweezers, frequently use video tracking to measure the position of a force-generating probe. The instruments are calibrated by comparing the measured probe motion to a model of Brownian motion in a harmonic potential well; the results of calibration are estimates of the probe drag, α, and spring constant, κ. Here, we present both time- and frequency-domain methods to accurately and precisely extract α and κ from the probe trajectory. In the frequency domain, we discuss methods to estimate the power spectral density (PSD) from data (including windowing and blocking), and we derive an analytical formula for the PSD which accounts both for aliasing and the filtering intrinsic to video tracking. In the time domain, we focus on the Allan variance (AV): we present a theoretical equation for the AV relevant to typical single-molecule setups and discuss the optimal manner for computing the AV from experimental data using octave-sampled overlapping bins. We show that, when using maximum-likelihood methods to fit to the data, both the PSD and AV approaches can extract α and κ in an unbiased and low-error manner, though the AV approach is simpler and more robust. PMID:22380133

  13. Flux-gate magnetometer spin axis offset calibration using the electron drift instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaschke, Ferdinand; Nakamura, Rumi; Leinweber, Hannes K.; Chutter, Mark; Vaith, Hans; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Steller, Manfred; Magnes, Werner

    2014-10-01

    Spin-stabilization of spacecraft immensely supports the in-flight calibration of on-board flux-gate magnetometers (FGMs). From 12 calibration parameters in total, 8 can be easily obtained by spectral analysis. From the remaining 4, the spin axis offset is known to be particularly variable. It is usually determined by analysis of Alfvénic fluctuations that are embedded in the solar wind. In the absence of solar wind observations, the spin axis offset may be obtained by comparison of FGM and electron drift instrument (EDI) measurements. The aim of our study is to develop methods that are readily usable for routine FGM spin axis offset calibration with EDI. This paper represents a major step forward in this direction. We improve an existing method to determine FGM spin axis offsets from EDI time-of-flight measurements by providing it with a comprehensive error analysis. In addition, we introduce a new, complementary method that uses EDI beam direction data instead of time-of-flight data. Using Cluster data, we show that both methods yield similarly accurate results, which are comparable yet more stable than those from a commonly used solar wind-based method.

  14. A fully Bayesian method for jointly fitting instrumental calibration and X-ray spectral models

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jin; Yu, Yaming; Van Dyk, David A.; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Drake, Jeremy; Ratzlaff, Pete; Connors, Alanna; Meng, Xiao-Li E-mail: yamingy@ics.uci.edu E-mail: vkashyap@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: jdrake@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: meng@stat.harvard.edu

    2014-10-20

    Owing to a lack of robust principled methods, systematic instrumental uncertainties have generally been ignored in astrophysical data analysis despite wide recognition of the importance of including them. Ignoring calibration uncertainty can cause bias in the estimation of source model parameters and can lead to underestimation of the variance of these estimates. We previously introduced a pragmatic Bayesian method to address this problem. The method is 'pragmatic' in that it introduced an ad hoc technique that simplified computation by neglecting the potential information in the data for narrowing the uncertainty for the calibration product. Following that work, we use a principal component analysis to efficiently represent the uncertainty of the effective area of an X-ray (or γ-ray) telescope. Here, however, we leverage this representation to enable a principled, fully Bayesian method that coherently accounts for the calibration uncertainty in high-energy spectral analysis. In this setting, the method is compared with standard analysis techniques and the pragmatic Bayesian method. The advantage of the fully Bayesian method is that it allows the data to provide information not only for estimation of the source parameters but also for the calibration product—here the effective area, conditional on the adopted spectral model. In this way, it can yield more accurate and efficient estimates of the source parameters along with valid estimates of their uncertainty. Provided that the source spectrum can be accurately described by a parameterized model, this method allows rigorous inference about the effective area by quantifying which possible curves are most consistent with the data.

  15. A Fully Bayesian Method for Jointly Fitting Instrumental Calibration and X-Ray Spectral Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jin; van Dyk, David A.; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Connors, Alanna; Drake, Jeremy; Meng, Xiao-Li; Ratzlaff, Pete; Yu, Yaming

    2014-10-01

    Owing to a lack of robust principled methods, systematic instrumental uncertainties have generally been ignored in astrophysical data analysis despite wide recognition of the importance of including them. Ignoring calibration uncertainty can cause bias in the estimation of source model parameters and can lead to underestimation of the variance of these estimates. We previously introduced a pragmatic Bayesian method to address this problem. The method is "pragmatic" in that it introduced an ad hoc technique that simplified computation by neglecting the potential information in the data for narrowing the uncertainty for the calibration product. Following that work, we use a principal component analysis to efficiently represent the uncertainty of the effective area of an X-ray (or γ-ray) telescope. Here, however, we leverage this representation to enable a principled, fully Bayesian method that coherently accounts for the calibration uncertainty in high-energy spectral analysis. In this setting, the method is compared with standard analysis techniques and the pragmatic Bayesian method. The advantage of the fully Bayesian method is that it allows the data to provide information not only for estimation of the source parameters but also for the calibration product—here the effective area, conditional on the adopted spectral model. In this way, it can yield more accurate and efficient estimates of the source parameters along with valid estimates of their uncertainty. Provided that the source spectrum can be accurately described by a parameterized model, this method allows rigorous inference about the effective area by quantifying which possible curves are most consistent with the data.

  16. Soot reference materials for instrument calibration and intercomparisons: a workshop summary with recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgardner, D.; Popovicheva, O.; Allan, J.; Bernardoni, V.; Cao, J.; Cavalli, F.; Cozic, J.; Diapouli, E.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Genberg, P. J.; Gonzalez, C.; Gysel, M.; John, A.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Kuhlbusch, T. A. J.; Laborde, M.; Lack, D.; Müller, T.; Niessner, R.; Petzold, A.; Piazzalunga, A.; Putaud, J. P.; Schwarz, J.; Sheridan, P.; Subramanian, R.; Swietlicki, E.; Valli, G.; Vecchi, R.; Viana, M.

    2012-08-01

    Soot, which is produced from biomass burning and the incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass fuels, has been linked to regional and global climate change and to negative health problems. Scientists measure the properties of soot using a variety of methods in order to quantify source emissions and understand its atmospheric chemistry, reactivity under emission conditions, interaction with solar radiation, influence on clouds, and health impacts. A major obstacle currently limiting progress is the absence of established standards or reference materials for calibrating the many instruments used to measure the various properties of soot. The current state of availability and practicability of soot standard reference materials (SRMs) was reviewed by a group of 50 international experts during a workshop in June of 2011. The workshop was convened to summarize the current knowledge on soot measurement techniques, identify the measurement uncertainties and limitations related to the lack of soot SRMs, and identify attributes of SRMs that, if developed, would reduce measurement uncertainties. The workshop established that suitable SRMs are available for calibrating some, but not all, measurement methods. The community of users of the single-particle soot-photometer (SP2), an instrument using laser-induced incandescence, identified a suitable SRM, fullerene soot, but users of instruments that measure light absorption by soot collected on filters did not. Similarly, those who use thermal optical analysis (TOA) to analyze the organic and elemental carbon components of soot were not satisfied with current SRMs. The workshop, and subsequent, interactive discussions, produced a number of recommendations for the development of new SRMs, and their implementation, that would be suitable for the different soot measurement methods.

  17. Application of Allan Deviation to Assessing Uncertainties of Continuous-measurement Instruments, and Optimizing Calibration Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Gloria; Rella, Chris; Farinas, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    Technological advancement of instrumentation in atmospheric and other geoscience disciplines over the past decade has lead to a shift from discrete sample analysis to continuous, in-situ monitoring. Standard error analysis used for discrete measurements is not sufficient to assess and compare the error contribution of noise and drift from continuous-measurement instruments, and a different statistical analysis approach should be applied. The Allan standard deviation analysis technique developed for atomic clock stability assessment by David W. Allan [1] can be effectively and gainfully applied to continuous measurement instruments. As an example, P. Werle et al has applied these techniques to look at signal averaging for atmospheric monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) [2]. This presentation will build on, and translate prior foundational publications to provide contextual definitions and guidelines for the practical application of this analysis technique to continuous scientific measurements. The specific example of a Picarro G2401 Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (CRDS) analyzer used for continuous, atmospheric monitoring of CO2, CH4 and CO will be used to define the basics features the Allan deviation, assess factors affecting the analysis, and explore the time-series to Allan deviation plot translation for different types of instrument noise (white noise, linear drift, and interpolated data). In addition, the useful application of using an Allan deviation to optimize and predict the performance of different calibration schemes will be presented. Even though this presentation will use the specific example of the Picarro G2401 CRDS Analyzer for atmospheric monitoring, the objective is to present the information such that it can be successfully applied to other instrument sets and disciplines. [1] D.W. Allan, "Statistics of Atomic Frequency Standards," Proc, IEEE, vol. 54, pp 221-230, Feb 1966 [2] P. Werle, R. Miicke, F. Slemr, "The Limits

  18. Calibration results using highly aberrated images for aligning the JWST instruments to the telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Koby Z.; Acton, D. Scott; Gallagher, Ben B.; Knight, J. Scott; Dean, Bruce H.; Jurling, Alden S.; Zielinski, Thomas P.

    2016-07-01

    mostly of 3rd-order astigmatism and coma. This is because the elliptical tertiary mirror of the AOS is used off of its ideal foci locations without the compensating wavefront effects of the JWST primary and secondary mirrors. Therefore, the PSFs created are highly asymmetric with relatively complex structure and the centroid and encircled energy analyses traditionally used to locate images are not sufficient for ensuring the AOS to ISIM alignment. A novel approach combining phase retrieval and spatial metrology was developed to both locate the images with respect to the AOS and provide calibration information for eventual AOS to ISIM alignment verification. During final JWST OTE and ISIM (OTIS) testing, only a single thru-focus image will be collected by the instruments. Therefore, tools and processes were developed to perform single-image phase retrieval on these highly aberrated images such that any single image of the ASPA source can provide calibrated knowledge of the instruments' position relative to the AOS. This paper discusses the results of the methodology, hardware, and calibration performed to ensure that the AOS and ISIM are aligned within their respective tolerances at JWST OTIS testing.

  19. VIRTIS-H: an infrared spectrometer for the ROSETTA mission - instrumental simulator and calibration process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederique Jacquinod, Sophie; Reess, Jean-Michel; Erard, Stéphane; Leyrat, Cédric; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Drossart, Pierre; Henry, Florence; Semery, Alain

    2015-08-01

    Virtis-H is the high spectral resolution channel of the VIRTIS Imaging Spectrometer on board the Rosetta spacecraft, devoted to the in-orbit remote sensing study of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The Virtis-H channel is a cross-dispersion spectrometer in the spectral range 2-5µm with a resolution between 1200 and 3000. Its design consists in an afocal telescope-collimator off-axis parabola mirrors, a prism-grating system performing the cross-dispersion, and a three-lens objective imaging the entrance slit on a 438 x 270 HgCdTe array from Raytheon / IRCOE. Temperature control of the instrument is ensured by a radiator, to keep the spectrometer temperature at around 130 K, and by cryocoolers to lower the infrared detectors focal planes down to 80 K. At each recorded image, a full spectrum of the observed scene is reconstructed allowing the study of the fine spectral details of the coma and the cometary nucleus. The instrument technical specifications have been verified in the laboratory at channel level. A simulator of the Virtis-H channel has been developed to verify the compliance of the instrument performances. Furthermore, this simulator is used to prepare the comet observations and to estimate upper-limit detection of minor gaseous species and signal to noise ratio.The VIRTIS-H data are processed through the so-called pipeline CALIBROS, which uses a dual approach based on on-ground calibration data and Cruise flight observations of the asteroid 21 Lutetia. The calibrated spectra are produced in radiance (W/m2/sr/µm). Another part of the pipeline is devoted to geometric computations and projection of the field of view on the target, based on the SPICE library (NAIF) and ESA trajectory kernels. The pipeline products are directly stored in PDS format to be ingested in ESA / PSA public archive for long-term preservation and distribution.The comparison between the calibrated spectra and the simulated spectra shows a good compliance and allows being confident in

  20. Using Lunar Observations to Validate In-Flight Calibrations of Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Janet L.; Smith, G. Louis; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The validation of in-orbit instrument performance requires stability in both instrument and calibration source. This paper describes a method of validation using lunar observations scanning near full moon by the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments. Unlike internal calibrations, the Moon offers an external source whose signal variance is predictable and non-degrading. From 2006 to present, in-orbit observations have become standardized and compiled for the Flight Models-1 and -2 aboard the Terra satellite, for Flight Models-3 and -4 aboard the Aqua satellite, and beginning 2012, for Flight Model-5 aboard Suomi-NPP. Instrument performance parameters which can be gleaned are detector gain, pointing accuracy and static detector point response function validation. Lunar observations are used to examine the stability of all three detectors on each of these instruments from 2006 to present. This validation method has yielded results showing trends per CERES data channel of 1.2% per decade or less.

  1. Application of the Langley plot method to the calibration of the solar backscattered ultraviolet instrument on the Nimbus 7 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, P. K.; Taylor, S.; Mcpeters, R. D.; Wellemeyer, C.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of the well-known Langley plot technique, used for the calibration of ground-based instruments, has been generalized for application to satellite instruments. In polar regions, near summer solstice, the solar backscattered ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument on the Nimbus 7 satellite samples the same ozone field at widely different solar zenith angles. These measurements are compared to assess the long-term drift in the instrument calibration. Although the technique provides only a relative wavelength-to-wavelength calibration, it can be combined with existing techniques to determine the drift of the instrument at any wavelength. Using this technique, we have generated a 12-year data set of ozone vertical profiles from SBUV with an estimated accuracy of +/- 5% at 1 mbar and +/- 2% at 10 mbar (95% confidence) over 12 years. Since the method is insensitive to true changes in the atmospheric ozone profile, it can also be used to compare the calibrations of similar SBUV instruments launched without temporal overlap.

  2. Jefferson Lab Hall A Beamline Instrumentation and Calibration for GMP experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Thir Narayan

    2015-10-01

    The nucleon electromagnetic form factors characterize the distributions of electric charge and magnetization current inside the nucleon and thus reflect the internal structure determined by Quantum Chromodynamics. The GMp experiment is a first experiment run in Hall A at Jefferson Lab after the upgrade to double the beam energy with the goal to precisely measure electron-proton elastic cross section in the Q2 range of 7 to 17 GeV2 with an accuracy of better than 2%; several time better than existing data at the highest Q2. In order to achieve this accuracy, a determination of the accumulated beam charge of better than 0.5% is required. The new 12 GeV beamline was commissioned during the spring of 2015, with the main instrumentation consisting of beam charge and position monitors. In this talk, the procedures and the results of the calibrations of these beamline components will be presented.

  3. An automated calibration laboratory for flight research instrumentation: Requirements and a proposed design approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill-Rood, Nora; Glover, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Facility (Ames-Dryden), operates a diverse fleet of research aircraft which are heavily instrumented to provide both real time data for in-flight monitoring and recorded data for postflight analysis. Ames-Dryden's existing automated calibration (AUTOCAL) laboratory is a computerized facility which tests aircraft sensors to certify accuracy for anticipated harsh flight environments. Recently, a major AUTOCAL lab upgrade was initiated; the goal of this modernization is to enhance productivity and improve configuration management for both software and test data. The new system will have multiple testing stations employing distributed processing linked by a local area network to a centralized database. The baseline requirements for the new AUTOCAL lab and the design approach being taken for its mechanization are described.

  4. NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) instrument characterization and calibration, and products validation: an integrated strategy in preparation for NPOESS new generation of environmental satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mango, Stephen A.; Murphy, Robert E.; Ouaidrari, Hassan; Menzel, W. Paul

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents the strategy designed by the government team, IPO and NASA, for the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) instrument characterization and calibration, and product validation, in preparation for the NPOESS operational system. NPP is a risk reduction mission for NPOESS, managed by the IPO and NASA. NPP will carry three (3) instruments, VIIRS, CrIS and ATMS, and an Instrument of Opportunity to be announced soon. Responsibilities will be shared between government and industry participants to ensure high performance at all system levels. This will include provision of the sensor pre-launch characterization and post-launch calibration procedures, definition of validation approaches for all NPP products, and identification of the resources and assets required to achieve these activities. This calibration and validation plan will benefit greatly from the validation efforts and infrastructure of several existing programs at the national and international scale. The synergy between the SSPR system integrator and the government team, IPO and NASA, will build the foundation for interactions that will lead to better sensors, better algorithms, and better ground data systems.

  5. Calibration of quartz load cells: An in-situ procedure for instrumented falling weight impact machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Money, M. W.; Sims, G. D.

    1988-03-01

    A procedure that may be used as a routine check in-situ on the complete system of quartz cell, amplifier, recording device, and data processing unit is suggested. It involves loading and unloading a quartz cell with a known mass, recording the output on a suitable storage device, and manipulating the data with a computer program to provide a permanent record. A quartz cell and amplifier system considered was calibrated to better than 0.1 percent accuracy. Results suggest that providing there is correct alignment of load cell and calibrating force then there is no difference between loading in tension or compression and either method can be used. This is not unexpected as the tension/compression boundary is arbitrary, depending on the degree of preload employed. For instrumented falling weight impact tests a tensile force is much easier to apply to the cell while it remains in the machine. Direct compression loading produces large negative errors. The procedure can be used in the manner required for British standard 1610 but does not meet the standard in full as load removal rather than load application is specified.

  6. Design, calibration and error analysis of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, C. R.; Tree, D. R.; Dewitt, D. P.; Wahiduzzaman, S. A. H.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reports the methodology and uncertainty analyses of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines. Results are presented for determining the local wall heat flux in an internal combustion engine (using a surface thermocouple-type heat flux gage) and the apparent flame-temperature and soot volume fraction path length product in a diesel engine (using two-color pyrometry). It is shown that a surface thermocouple heat transfer gage suitably constructed and calibrated will have an accuracy of 5 to 10 percent. It is also shown that, when applying two-color pyrometry to measure the apparent flame temperature and soot volume fraction-path length, it is important to choose at least one of the two wavelengths to lie in the range of 1.3 to 2.3 micrometers. Carefully calibrated two-color pyrometer can ensure that random errors in the apparent flame temperature and in the soot volume fraction path length will remain small (within about 1 percent and 10-percent, respectively).

  7. Post calibration of the two-dimensional electron cyclotron emission imaging instrument with electron temperature characteristics of the magnetohydrodynamic instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M. J.; Park, H. K.; Yun, G. S.; Nam, Y. B.; Choe, G. H.; Lee, W.; Jardin, S.

    2016-01-01

    The electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) instrument is widely used to study the local electron temperature (Te) fluctuations by measuring the ECE intensity IECE ∝ Te in tokamak plasmas. The ECEI measurement is often processed in a normalized fluctuation quantity against the time averaged value due to complication in absolute calibration. In this paper, the ECEI channels are relatively calibrated using the flat Te assumption of the sawtooth crash or the tearing mode island and a proper extrapolation. The 2-D relatively calibrated electron temperature (Te,rel) images are reconstructed and the displacement amplitude of the magnetohydrodynamic modes can be measured for the accurate quantitative growth analysis.

  8. Post calibration of the two-dimensional electron cyclotron emission imaging instrument with electron temperature characteristics of the magnetohydrodynamic instabilities.

    PubMed

    Choi, M J; Park, H K; Yun, G S; Nam, Y B; Choe, G H; Lee, W; Jardin, S

    2016-01-01

    The electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) instrument is widely used to study the local electron temperature (Te) fluctuations by measuring the ECE intensity IECE ∝ Te in tokamak plasmas. The ECEI measurement is often processed in a normalized fluctuation quantity against the time averaged value due to complication in absolute calibration. In this paper, the ECEI channels are relatively calibrated using the flat Te assumption of the sawtooth crash or the tearing mode island and a proper extrapolation. The 2-D relatively calibrated electron temperature (Te,rel) images are reconstructed and the displacement amplitude of the magnetohydrodynamic modes can be measured for the accurate quantitative growth analysis.

  9. SI traceable calibration of an instrumented indentation sensor spring constant using electrostatic force

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Koo-Hyun; Scholz, Stefan; Shaw, Gordon A.; Kramar, John A.; Pratt, Jon R.

    2008-09-15

    We present a measurement scheme for creating reference electrostatic forces that are traceable to the International System of Units. This scheme yields reference forces suitable for calibrating the force sensitivity of instrumented indentation machines and atomic force microscopes. Forces between 10 and 200 {mu}N were created and expressed in terms of the voltage, length, and capacitance between a pair of interacting electrodes. The electrodes comprised an electrically conductive sphere mounted as a tip on an instrumented indentation sensor, and a planar counterelectrode fixed to a sample stage in close proximity to the sphere. For comparison, we applied mechanical forces of similar magnitudes, first using deadweights and then using a reference force sensor. The deflection of the sensor due to the various applied forces was measured using an interferometer. A spring constant for the sensor was computed from the observed records of force versus displacement. Each procedure yielded a relative standard uncertainty of approximately 1%; however, the electrostatic technique is scalable and could provide traceable reference forces as small as a few hundred piconewtons, a range far below anything yet achieved using deadweights.

  10. Overview of Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (NPP) Satellite Instrument Calibration and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite carries five instruments on board including ATMS, CrIS, VIIRS, OMPS and CERES. During the SNPP intensive calval, ATMS was pitched over to observe the cold space radiation. This unique data set was used for diagnostics of the ATMS scan-angle dependent bias and a scan-to-scan variation. A new algorithm is proposed to correct the ATMS scan angle dependent bias related to the reflector emission. ATMS radiometric calibration is also revised in IDPS with the full radiance processing (FRP). CrIS is the first Fourier transform Michelson interferometer and measures three infrared spectral bands from 650 to 1095, 1210 to 1750 and 2155 to 2550 cm-1 with spectral resolutions of 0.625 cm-1, respectively. Its spectral calibration is with an accuracy of better than 2 ppm and its noise is also well characterized with the Allan variance. Since CrIS was switched to the transmission of full spectral resolution (FSR) of RDR data to the ground in January 2015. The CrIS FSR SDR data are also produced offline at NOAA STAR. VIIRS has 22 spectral bands covering the spectrum between 0.412 μm and 12.01 μm, including 16 moderate resolution bands (M-bands) with a spatial resolution of 750 m at nadir, five imaging resolution bands (I-bands) with a spatial resolution of 375 m at nadir, and one day-night band (DNB) with a nearly-constant 750 m spatial resolution throughout the scan. The calibration of VIIRS reflective solar bands (RSB) requires a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). Using the SNPP yaw maneuver data, SDSM screen transmission function can be updated to better capture the fine structures of the vignetting function. For OMPS nadir mapper (NM) and nadir profiler (NP), the detector signal-to-noise ratio, and sensor signal-to-noise ratio meet the system requirement. Detector gain and bias performance trends are generally stable. System linearity performance is stable and highly consistent with

  11. Nanobeacon: A low cost time calibration instrument for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo, David [IFIC. Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, C Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of a matrix of pressure resistant glass spheres holding each one a set (31) of small area photomultipliers. The main goal of the telescope is to observe cosmic neutrinos through the Cherenkov light induced in sea water by charged particles produced in neutrino interactions with the surrounding medium. A relative time calibration between photomultipliers of the order of 1 ns is required to achieve an optimal performance. Due to the high volume to be covered by KM3NeT, a cost reduction of the different systems is a priority. To this end a very low price calibration device, the so called Nanobeacon, has been designed and developed. At present one of such devices has already been integrated successfully at the KM3NeT telescope and eight of them in the Nemo Tower Phase II. In this article the main properties and operation of this device are described.

  12. A new algorithm for five-hole probe calibration, data reduction, and uncertainty analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichert, Bruce A.; Wendt, Bruce J.

    1994-01-01

    A new algorithm for five-hole probe calibration and data reduction using a non-nulling method is developed. The significant features of the algorithm are: (1) two components of the unit vector in the flow direction replace pitch and yaw angles as flow direction variables; and (2) symmetry rules are developed that greatly simplify Taylor's series representations of the calibration data. In data reduction, four pressure coefficients allow total pressure, static pressure, and flow direction to be calculated directly. The new algorithm's simplicity permits an analytical treatment of the propagation of uncertainty in five-hole probe measurement. The objectives of the uncertainty analysis are to quantify uncertainty of five-hole results (e.g., total pressure, static pressure, and flow direction) and determine the dependence of the result uncertainty on the uncertainty of all underlying experimental and calibration measurands. This study outlines a general procedure that other researchers may use to determine five-hole probe result uncertainty and provides guidance to improve measurement technique. The new algorithm is applied to calibrate and reduce data from a rake of five-hole probes. Here, ten individual probes are mounted on a single probe shaft and used simultaneously. Use of this probe is made practical by the simplicity afforded by this algorithm.

  13. The Calibration of the DSCOVR EPIC Multiple Visible Channel Instrument Using MODIS and VIIRS as a Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haney, Conor; Doeling, David; Minnis, Patrick; Bhatt, Rajendra; Scarino, Benjamin; Gopalan, Arun

    2016-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), launched on 11 February 2015, is a satellite positioned near the Lagrange-1 (L1) point, carrying several instruments that monitor space weather, and Earth-view sensors designed for climate studies. The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard DSCOVR continuously views the sun-illuminated portion of the Earth with spectral coverage in the UV, VIS, and NIR bands. Although the EPIC instrument does not have any onboard calibration abilities, its constant view of the sunlit Earth disk provides a unique opportunity for simultaneous viewing with several other satellite instruments. This arrangement allows the EPIC sensor to be inter-calibrated using other well-characterized satellite instrument reference standards. Two such instruments with onboard calibration are MODIS, flown on Aqua and Terra, and VIIRS, onboard Suomi-NPP. The MODIS and VIIRS reference calibrations will be transferred to the EPIC instrument using both all-sky ocean and deep convective clouds (DCC) ray-matched EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS radiance pairs. An automated navigation correction routine was developed to more accurately align the EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS granules. The automated navigation correction routine dramatically reduced the uncertainty of the resulting calibration gain based on the EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS radiance pairs. The SCIAMACHY-based spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) applied to the MODIS/ VIIRS radiances were found to successfully adjust the reference radiances to the spectral response of the specific EPIC channel for over-lapping spectral channels. The SBAF was also found to be effective for the non-overlapping EPIC channel 10. Lastly, both ray-matching techniques found no discernable trends for EPIC channel 7 over the year of publically released EPIC data.

  14. Facilities for the calibration, construction, and environmental testing of instruments and detectors in the EUV and FUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalmanson, Phillip C.; Sarner, Charles; Thonnard, Stefan E.

    2002-01-01

    Within the Space Sciences Division at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), new facilities have been built and old facilities have been upgraded to provide greater accuracy and precision during the calibration of instruments used for observation of Extreme and Far ultraviolet airglow emission in the upper atmosphere. In addition to the calibration of whole instruments, the facilities necessary for the construction and characterization of the detectors used in the aforementioned spectral region now either exist or are in their final stages of construction. Also in existence at the Naval Research Laboratory are the facilities for the environmental testing of instruments and components for the space environment. The heart of the NRL ultraviolet calibration facilities is an oil-free vacuum chamber, 2-meters in length, with a diameter of 1.67 meters containing an optical test bench 1.2 m wide by 1.5 m long. Some of the various instruments that have already been calibrated in the chamber are the High Resolution Atmosphere and Auroral Spectrographs flown aboard the Air Force Advance Research and Global Observing Satellite and the five Special Sensor Ultraviolet Limb Imagers for the Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. The chamber's hardware and control software have been upgraded. The software upgrades to the vacuum calibration chamber will allow for autonomous operation with failure and emergency handling procedures to protect the instruments under test from a loss of vacuum environment. The hardware upgrades allow for chamber pressures in the low 10-6 torr range during the operation of windowless gas discharge lamps. In addition, the upgrades provide the capability to stimulate an instrument using two sources of light simultaneously, one through a monochromater the other by direct illumination.

  15. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... flow through the particulate filters, methanol impingers and formaldehyde impingers. These instruments... calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. 86.1320-90 Section 86.1320-90 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... flow through the particulate filters, methanol impingers and formaldehyde impingers. These instruments... calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. 86.1320-90 Section 86.1320-90 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... flow through the particulate filters, methanol impingers and formaldehyde impingers. These instruments... calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. 86.1320-90 Section 86.1320-90 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and...

  18. Best Practice Guidelines for Pre-Launch Characterization and Calibration of Instruments for Passive Optical Remote Sensing.

    PubMed

    Datla, R U; Rice, J P; Lykke, K R; Johnson, B C; Butler, J J; Xiong, X

    2011-01-01

    The pre-launch characterization and calibration of remote sensing instruments should be planned and carried out in conjunction with their design and development to meet the mission requirements. The onboard calibrators such as blackbodies and the sensors such as spectral radiometers should be characterized and calibrated using SI traceable standards. In the case of earth remote sensing, this allows inter-comparison and intercalibration of different sensors in space to create global time series of climate records of high accuracy where some inevitable data gaps can be easily bridged. The recommended best practice guidelines for this pre-launch effort is presented based on experience gained at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) programs over the past two decades. The currently available radiometric standards and calibration facilities at NIST serving the remote sensing community are described. Examples of best practice calibrations and intercomparisons to build SI (international System of Units) traceable uncertainty budget in the instrumentation used for preflight satellite sensor calibration and validation are presented. PMID:26989588

  19. Best Practice Guidelines for Pre-Launch Characterization and Calibration of Instruments for Passive Optical Remote Sensing1

    PubMed Central

    Datla, R. U.; Rice, J. P.; Lykke, K. R.; Johnson, B. C.; Butler, J. J.; Xiong, X.

    2011-01-01

    The pre-launch characterization and calibration of remote sensing instruments should be planned and carried out in conjunction with their design and development to meet the mission requirements. The onboard calibrators such as blackbodies and the sensors such as spectral radiometers should be characterized and calibrated using SI traceable standards. In the case of earth remote sensing, this allows inter-comparison and intercalibration of different sensors in space to create global time series of climate records of high accuracy where some inevitable data gaps can be easily bridged. The recommended best practice guidelines for this pre-launch effort is presented based on experience gained at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) programs over the past two decades. The currently available radiometric standards and calibration facilities at NIST serving the remote sensing community are described. Examples of best practice calibrations and intercomparisons to build SI (international System of Units) traceable uncertainty budget in the instrumentation used for preflight satellite sensor calibration and validation are presented. PMID:26989588

  20. Best Practice Guidelines for Pre-Launch Characterization and Calibration of Instruments for Passive Optical Remote Sensing.

    PubMed

    Datla, R U; Rice, J P; Lykke, K R; Johnson, B C; Butler, J J; Xiong, X

    2011-01-01

    The pre-launch characterization and calibration of remote sensing instruments should be planned and carried out in conjunction with their design and development to meet the mission requirements. The onboard calibrators such as blackbodies and the sensors such as spectral radiometers should be characterized and calibrated using SI traceable standards. In the case of earth remote sensing, this allows inter-comparison and intercalibration of different sensors in space to create global time series of climate records of high accuracy where some inevitable data gaps can be easily bridged. The recommended best practice guidelines for this pre-launch effort is presented based on experience gained at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) programs over the past two decades. The currently available radiometric standards and calibration facilities at NIST serving the remote sensing community are described. Examples of best practice calibrations and intercomparisons to build SI (international System of Units) traceable uncertainty budget in the instrumentation used for preflight satellite sensor calibration and validation are presented.

  1. Calibration of the MSL/ChemCam/LIBS Remote Sensing Composition Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Maurice S.; Bender, S.; Barraclough, B. L.; Cousin, A.; Forni, O.; Ollila, A.; Newsom, H.; Vaniman, D.; Clegg, S.; Lasue, J. A.; Blaney, D.; DeFlores, L.; Morris, R. V.

    2011-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite on board the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, Curiosity, will provide remote-sensing composition information for rock and soil samples within seven meters of the rover using a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system, and will provide context imaging with a resolution of 0.10 mradians using the remote micro-imager (RMI) camera. The high resolution is needed to image the small analysis footprint of the LIBS system, at 0.2-0.6 mm diameter. This fine scale analytical capability will enable remote probing of stratigraphic layers or other small features the size of "blueberries" or smaller. ChemCam is intended for rapid survey analyses within 7 m of the rover, with each measurement taking less than 6 minutes. Repeated laser pulses remove dust coatings and provide depth profiles through weathering layers, allowing detailed investigation of rock varnish features as well as analysis of the underlying pristine rock composition. The LIBS technique uses brief laser pulses greater than 10 MW/square mm to ablate and electrically excite material from the sample of interest. The plasma emits photons with wavelengths characteristic of the elements present in the material, permitting detection and quantification of nearly all elements, including the light elements H, Li, Be, B, C, N, O. ChemCam LIBS projects 14 mJ of 1067 nm photons on target and covers a spectral range of 240-850 nm with resolutions between 0.15 and 0.60 nm FWHM. The Nd:KGW laser is passively cooled and is tuned to provide maximum power output from -10 to 0 C, though it can operate at 20% degraded energy output at room temperature. Preliminary calibrations were carried out on the flight model (FM) in 2008. However, the detectors were replaced in 2009, and final calibrations occurred in April-June, 2010. This presentation describes the LIBS calibration and characterization procedures and results, and details plans for final analyses during rover system thermal testing

  2. Addressing the Photometric Calibration Challenge: Explicit Determination of the Instrumental Response and Atmospheric Response Functions, and Tying it All Together.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, C. W.; Tonry, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Photometric calibration is currently the dominant source of systematic uncertainty in exploiting type Ia supernovae to determine the nature of the dark energy. We review our ongoing program to address this calibration challenge by performing measurements of both the instrumental response function and the optical transmission function of the atmosphere. A key aspect of this approach is to complement standard star observations by using NIST-calibrated photodiodes as a metrology foundation for optical flux measurements. We present our first attempt to assess photometric consistency between synthetic photometry and observations, by comparing predictions based on a NIST-diode-based determination of the PanSTARRS-1 instrumental response and empirical atmospheric transmission measurements, with fluxes we obtained from observing spectrophotometric standards.

  3. The Calibration Target for the Mars 2020 SHERLOC Instrument: Multiple Science Roles for Future Manned and Unmanned Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fries, M.; Bhartia, R.; Beegle, L.; Burton, A.; Ross, A.; Shahar, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman & Luminescence for Organics & Chemicals (SHERLOC) instrument is a deep ultraviolet (UV) Raman/fluorescence instrument selected as part of the Mars 2020 rover instrument suite. SHERLOC will be mounted on the rover arm and its primary role is to identify carbonaceous species in martian samples, which may be selected for inclusion into a returnable sample cache. The SHERLOC instrument will require the use of a calibration target, and by design, multiple science roles will be addressed in the design of the target. Samples of materials used in NASA Extravehicular Mobility unit (EMU, or "space suit") manufacture have been included in the target to serve as both solid polymer calibration targets for SHERLOC instrument function, as well as for testing the resiliency of those materials under martian ambient conditions. A martian meteorite will also be included in the target to serve as a well-characterized example of a martian rock that contains trace carbonaceous material. This rock will be the first rock that we know of that has completed a round trip between planets and will therefore serve an EPO role to attract public attention to science and planetary exploration. The SHERLOC calibration target will address a wide range of NASA goals to include basic science of interest to both the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD).

  4. RadBall Technology Testing in the Savannah River Site's Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Farfán, Eduardo B; Foley, Trevor Q; Jannik, G Timothy; Harpring, Larry J; Gordon, John R; Blessing, Ronald; Coleman, J Rusty; Holmes, Christopher J; Oldham, Mark; Adamovics, John; Stanley, Steven J

    2010-01-01

    The United Kingdom's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) has developed a radiation-mapping device that can locate and quantify radioactive hazards within contaminated areas of the nuclear industry. The device, known as RadBall(™), consists of a colander-like outer collimator that houses a radiation-sensitive polymer sphere. The collimator has over two hundred small holes; thus, specific areas of the polymer sphere are exposed to radiation becoming increasingly more opaque in proportion to the absorbed dose. The polymer sphere is imaged in an optical-CT scanner that produces a high resolution 3D map of optical attenuation coefficients. Subsequent analysis of the optical attenuation data provides information on the spatial distribution of sources in a given area forming a 3D characterization of the area of interest. The RadBall(™) technology has been deployed in a number of technology trials in nuclear waste reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the United Kingdom and facilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This paper summarizes the tests completed at SRNL Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory (HPICL).

  5. A New Radiometric Calibration Paradigm for the OMPS Nadir Total Column and Profile Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, Donald; Georgiew, Georgi

    2011-01-01

    A fused silica Mie Scattering Diffuser (MSD) has been developed at Ball Aerospace & Technology Corp. that has measured characteristics which could be used to increase the accuracy of the spectral albedo calibration of the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) Nadir ozone total column and profile instrument by almost an order of magnitude. Measurements have been made of the optical characteristics on both natural and synthetic forms of fused silica MSDs. Preliminary measurements suggest that MSDs are useable in the solar reflective wavelength region from 250 nm to 3.7 m. To date synthetic and natural MSDs have been irradiated for 60 hours of UV radiation from a solar simulator, and synthetic MSDs have been irradiated with increasing doses of Co-60 gamma rays at 30, 500 krads up to 1.5 Mrads, and 30 krads of 200 MeV protons. The principal effects have been small loses in transmittance at wavelengths < 350 nm. The high energy particle irradiation measurements were provided by Neal Nickles and Dean Spieth.

  6. RADBALL TECHNOLOGY TESTING IN THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HEALTH PHYSICS INSTRUMENT CALIBRATION LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.

    2010-07-08

    The United Kingdom's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) has developed a radiation-mapping device that can locate and quantify radioactive hazards within contaminated areas of the nuclear industry. The device, known as RadBall{trademark}, consists of a colander-like outer collimator that houses a radiation-sensitive polymer sphere. The collimator has over two hundred small holes; thus, specific areas of the polymer sphere are exposed to radiation becoming increasingly more opaque in proportion to the absorbed dose. The polymer sphere is imaged in an optical-CT scanner that produces a high resolution 3D map of optical attenuation coefficients. Subsequent analysis of the optical attenuation data provides information on the spatial distribution of sources in a given area forming a 3D characterization of the area of interest. The RadBallTM technology has been deployed in a number of technology trials in nuclear waste reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the United Kingdom and facilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This paper summarizes the tests completed at SRNL Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory (HPICL).

  7. Integrated instrumentation and control digital upgrades for cost reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Naser, J.

    1995-03-01

    Most nuclear power plants continue to operate with analog instrumentation and control technology designed 20 to 40 years ago. This equipment is approaching or exceeding its life expectancy, resulting in increasing maintenance efforts to sustain system performance. Decreasing availability of replacement parts and the accelerating deterioration of the infrastructure of manufacturers that support analog technology exacerbate obsolescence problems and resultant operation and maintenance cost increases. Modern digital technology holds a significant potential to improve the safety, cost-effectiveness, productivity, and; therefore, competitiveness of nuclear power plants. Reliable, integrated information is a critical element for protecting the utility`s capital investment and increasing availability, reliability, and productivity. Integrated systems with integrated information can perform more effectively to increase productivity, to enhance safety, and to reduce operation and maintenance costs. The plant communications and computing architecture is the infrastructure needed to allow the implementation of instrumentation and control systems in an integrated manner. Modern technology for distributed digital systems, plant process computers, and plant networks support the integration of systems and information.

  8. James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module Calibration and Verification of High-Accuracy Instrumentation to Measure Heat Flow in Cryogenic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comber, Brian; Glazer, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is an upcoming flagship observatory mission scheduled to be launched in 2018. Three of the four science instruments are passively cooled to their operational temperature range of 36K to 40K, and the fourth instrument is actively cooled to its operational temperature of approximately 6K. The requirement for multiple thermal zoned results in the instruments being thermally connected to five external radiators via individual high purity aluminum heat straps. Thermal-vacuum and thermal balance testing of the flight instruments at the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element level will take place within a newly constructed shroud cooled by gaseous helium inside Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Space environment Simulator (SES). The flight external radiators are not available during ISIM-level thermal vacuum/thermal testing, so they will be replaced in test with stable and adjustable thermal boundaries with identical physical interfaces to the flight radiators. Those boundaries are provided by specially designed test hardware which also measures the heat flow within each of the five heat straps to an accuracy of less than 2 mW, which is less than 5% of the minimum predicted heat flow values. Measurement of the heat loads to this accuracy is essential to ISIM thermal model correlation, since thermal models are more accurately correlated when temperature data is supplemented by accurate knowledge of heat flows. It also provides direct verification by test of several high-level thermal requirements. Devices that measure heat flow in this manner have historically been referred to a "Q-meters". Perhaps the most important feature of the design of the JWST Q-meters is that it does not depend on the absolute accuracy of its temperature sensors, but rather on knowledge of precise heater power required to maintain a constant temperature difference between sensors on two stages, for which a table is empirically developed during a

  9. Pressure Dependent OH and HO2 Calibration of the Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion (FAGE) Instrument Using the Highly Instrumented Reactor for Atmospheric Chemistry (HIRAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winiberg, F.; Smith, S. C.; Seakins, P.

    2012-12-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxy (HO2) radical are very important tropospheric radical species. The balance between OH and HO2 (the HOx cycle) can give understanding of localised atmospheric composition. OH and HO2 is measured in both ground and aircraft based campaigns using FAGE. Calibration of this non-absolute fluorescence technique is traditionally achieved by H2O photolysis. Operation of FAGE at varying pressure can affect the instrument sensitivity to HOx due to internal fluorescence cell pressure changes. These are traditionally accounted by varying the inlet pinhole size of the instrument, however this may alter the gas expansion and hence the instrument sensitivity to OH and HO2 (COH and CHO2 respectively). Presented here are the initial results from independent OH and HO2 pressure dependent calibration methods using the stainless steel HIRAC chamber, which can operate at various pressures (0.1 - 1 bar). The OH calibration method uses the loss rate of a well characterised hydrocarbon upon reaction with OH to infer the OH concentration measured by FAGE in the HIRAC chamber. A photolytic OH source ((CH3)3COOH) was used and all reactants were measured using calibrated GC-FID and FTIR. For HO2 calibrations, formaldehyde, HCHO, is photolysed (λ < 300 nm) in the presence of O2 to form 2HO2 to steady state, and the post-photolysis HO2 decay is monitored using FAGE. The decay is a function of the second order HO2 self-reaction, for which the rate is well known. As [HO2] = SHO2 x CHO2 (where SHO2 is the FAGE HO2 signal), the second order rate equation can be rearranged and a plot of 1/SHO2 vs. time yields CHO2. Preliminary experiments for the OH calibration method show discrepancies between traditional and hydrocarbon decay techniques. This is thought to be due to as yet unknown OH loss processes and conditioning of the HIRAC chamber. For the HO2 pressure dependent calibrations were in good agreement with traditional methods validating the widely used

  10. Calibration of an instrumented treadmill using a precision-controlled device with artificial neural network-based error corrections.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hong-Jung; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Lu, Hsuan-Lun; Chen, Ting-Yi; Lu, Tung-Wu

    2016-03-01

    Instrumented treadmills (ITs) are used to measure reaction forces (RF) and center of pressure (COP) movements for gait and balance assessment. Regular in situ calibration is essential to ensure their accuracy and to identify conditions when a factory re-calibration is needed. The current study aimed to develop and calibrate in situ an IT using a portable, precision-controlled calibration device with an artificial neural network (ANN)-based correction method. The calibration device was used to apply static and dynamic calibrating loads to the surface of the IT at 189 and 25 grid-points, respectively, at four belt speeds (0, 4, 6 and 8 km/h) without the need of a preset template. Part of the applied and measured RF and COP were used to train a threelayered, back-propagation ANN model while the rest of the data were used to evaluate the performance of the ANN. The percent errors of Fz and errors of the Px and Py were significantly decreased from a maximum of -1.15%, -1.64 mm and -0.73 mm to 0.02%, 0.02 mm and 0.03 mm during static calibration, respectively. During dynamic calibration, the corresponding values were decreasing from -3.65%, 2.58 mm and -4.92 mm to 0.30%, -0.14 mm and -0.47 mm, respectively. The results suggest that the calibration device and associated ANN will be useful for correcting measurement errors in vertical loads and COP for ITs. PMID:26979909

  11. Reduction of Helicity-Dependent Instrumental Laser Intensity Asymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtwistle, Samantha; Dreiling, Joan; Gay, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    We present a new optical system that greatly reduces helicity-dependent instrumental intensity asymmetries. The optical setup is similar to that described in Fabrikant et al., where two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations are sent through a chopper, allowing only one beam to pass through the optical system at a time. The two temporally-separated beams are then spatially recombined. We now use a system, with a second active polarization changing element, that is analogous to that described in Gay and Dunning, which compensates for false asymmetries in Mott polarimetry. In our setup, the orthogonal linear polarizations are now circularly polarized by a Pockels cell switching between a retardance of + λ /4 and - λ/4 at the same frequency as the chopper, but with a 90-degree phase shift. Using this method, we have been able to control the standard deviation of the mean of our asymmetries, as measured by a photodiode with lock-in signal processing, to 3*10-8.

  12. Investigations into Cost Reductions of X-band Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Van Winkle, D.; Dolgashev, V.A.; Fox, J.D.; Tantawi, S.G.; /SLAC

    2009-05-15

    The prohibitive costs of commercial test equipment for making fast and accurate pulsed phase and amplitude measurements at X-Band result in decreased productivity due to shortages of shared equipment across the test laboratory. In addition, most current set-ups rely on the use of pulsed power heads which do not allow for the measurement of phase thereby limiting the flexibility of available measurements. In this paper, we investigate less expensive in-house designed instrumentation based upon commercial satellite down converters and widely available logarithmic detector amplifiers and phase detectors. The techniques are used to measure X-Band pulses with widths of 50 ns to 10's of usec. We expect a dynamic range of 30-40 dB with accuracies of better than +/- 0.1 dB and +/- 1 degree of phase. We show preliminary results of the built and tested modules. Block diagrams of the down conversion scheme, and the architecture of a multi-signal X-band RF monitor and measurement system is illustrated. Measured results, and possible modifications and upgrades are presented.

  13. Stress Reduction in Adjacent Level Discs via Dynamic Instrumentation: A Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Castellvi, Antonio E.; Huang, Hao; Vestgaarden, Tov; Saigal, Sunil; Pienkowski, David

    2007-01-01

    Background Conventional (rigid) fusion instrumentation is believed to accelerate the degeneration of adjacent discs by increasing stresses caused by motion discontinuity. Fusion instrumentation that employs reduced rod stiffness and increased axial motion, or dynamic instrumentation, may partially alleviate this problem, but the effects of this instrumentation on the stresses in the adjacent disc are unknown. We used a finiteelement model to calculate and compare the stresses in the adjacent-level disc that are induced by rigid and dynamic posterior lumbar fusion instrumentation. Methods A 3-dimensional finite-element model of the lumbar spine was obtained that simulated flexion and extension. The L5–S1 segment of this model was fused, and the L4–L5 segment was fixed with rigid or dynamic instrumentation. The mechanical properties of the dynamic instrumentation were determined by laboratory testing and then used in the finite-element model. Peak stresses in the lumbar discs were calculated and compared. Results The reduced-stiffness component of the dynamic instrumentation was associated with a 1% to 2% reduction in peak compressive stresses in the adjacent-level disc (at 45° flexion), and the increased axial motion component of this instrumentation reduced peak disc stress by 8% to 9%. Areas of disc tissue exposed to 80% of peak stresses of 6.17 MPa were 47% less for discs adjacent to dynamic instrumentation than for those adjacent to rigid instrumentation. Conclusions Reduced stiffness and increased axial motion of dynamic posterior lumbar fusion instrumentation designs result in an approximately 10% cumulative stress reduction for each flexion cycle. The effect of this stress reduction over many cycles may be substantial. Clinical Relevance The cumulative effect of this reduced amplitude and distribution of peak stresses in the adjacent disc may partially alleviate the problem of adjacent-level disc degeneration. PMID:25802582

  14. Calibration and instrumental line shape characterization of a set of portable FTIR spectrometers for detecting greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, M.; Hase, F.; Blumenstock, T.; Groß, J.; Kiel, M.; Mengistu Tsidu, G.; Schäfer, K.; Sha, M. K.; Orphal, J.

    2015-07-01

    A comprehensive calibration procedure for mobile, low-resolution, solar-absorption FTIR spectrometers, used for greenhouse gases observations, is developed. These instruments commend themselves for campaign use and deployment at remote sites. The instrumental line shape (ILS) of each spectrometer has been thoroughly characterized by analyzing the shape of H2O signatures in open path spectra. A setup for the external source is suggested and the invariance of derived ILS parameters with regard to chosen path length is demonstrated. The instrumental line shape characteristics of all spectrometers were found to be close to nominal. Side-by-side solar observations before and after a campaign, which involved shipping of all spectrometers to a selected target site and back, are applied for verifying the temporal invariability of instrumental characteristics and for deriving intercalibration factors for XCO2 and XCH4, which take into account residual differences of instrumental characteristics. An excellent level of agreement and stability was found between the different spectrometers: the uncorrected biases in XCO2 and XCH4 are smaller than 0.01 and 0.15 %, respectively, and the drifts are smaller than 0.005 and 0.035 %. As an additional sensitive demonstration of the instrumental performance we show the excellent agreement of ground pressure values obtained from the total column measurements of O2 and barometric records. We find a calibration factor of 0.9700 for the spectroscopic measurements in comparison to the barometric records and a very small scatter between the individual spectrometers (0.02 %). As a final calibration step, using a co-located TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observation Network) spectrometer as a reference, a common scaling factor has been derived for the XCO2 and XCH4 products, which ensures that the records are traceable to the WMO in situ scale.

  15. Apparatus for in-situ calibration of instruments that measure fluid depth

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, M.D.

    1994-01-11

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for in-situ calibration of distance measuring equipment. The method comprises obtaining a first distance measurement in a first location, then obtaining at least one other distance measurement in at least one other location of a precisely known distance from the first location, and calculating a calibration constant. The method is applied specifically to calculating a calibration constant for obtaining fluid level and embodied in an apparatus using a pressure transducer and a spacer of precisely known length. The calibration constant is used to calculate the depth of a fluid from subsequent single pressure measurements at any submerged position. 8 figures.

  16. Apparatus for in-situ calibration of instruments that measure fluid depth

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Melvin D.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for in-situ calibration of distance measuring equipment. The method comprises obtaining a first distance measurement in a first location, then obtaining at least one other distance measurement in at least one other location of a precisely known distance from the first location, and calculating a calibration constant. The method is applied specifically to calculating a calibration constant for obtaining fluid level and embodied in an apparatus using a pressure transducer and a spacer of precisely known length. The calibration constant is used to calculate the depth of a fluid from subsequent single pressure measurements at any submerged position.

  17. Mathematical calibration of Ge detectors, and the instruments that use them

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, F.L.; Young, B.

    1997-11-01

    Efficiency calibrations for Ge detectors are typically done with the use of multiple energy calibrations sources which are added to a bulk matrix intended to simulate the measurement sample, and then deposited in the sample container. This is rather easy for common laboratory samples. Bu, even there, for many environmental samples, waste assay samples, and operational health physics samples, accurate calibrations are difficult. For these situations, various mathematical corrections or direct calibration techniques are used at Canberra. EML has pioneered the use of mathematical calibrations following source-based detector characterization measurements for in situ measurements of environmental fallout. Canberra has expanded this by the use of MCNP for the source measurements required in EML. For other calibration situations, MCNP was used directly, as the primary calibration method. This is demonstrated to be at least as accurate as source based measurements, and probably better. Recently, a new method [ISOCS] has been developed and is nearing completion. This promises to be an easy to use calibration software that can be used by the customer for in situ gamma spectroscopy to accurately measure many large sized samples, such as boxes, drums, pipes, or to calibrate small laboratory-type samples. 8 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Test Plan for a Calibration Demonstration System for the Reflected Solar Instrument for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; Hair, Jason; McAndrew, Brendan; Daw, Adrian; Jennings, Donald; Rabin, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission addresses the need to observe high-accuracy, long-term climate change trends and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change. One of the major objectives of CLARREO is to advance the accuracy of SI traceable absolute calibration at infrared and reflected solar wavelengths. This advance is required to reach the on-orbit absolute accuracy required to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps while remaining sufficiently accurate to observe climate change to within the uncertainty of the limit of natural variability. While these capabilities exist at NIST in the laboratory, there is a need to demonstrate that it can move successfully from NIST to NASA and/or instrument vendor capabilities for future spaceborne instruments. The current work describes the test plan for the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. The goal of the CDS is to allow the testing and evaluation of calibration approaches , alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft instrument design modifications. The end result of efforts with the SOLARIS CDS will be an SI-traceable error budget for reflectance retrieval using solar irradiance as a reference and methods for laboratory-based, absolute calibration suitable for climate-quality data collections. The CLARREO mission addresses the need to observe high-accuracy, long-term climate change trends and advance the accuracy of SI traceable absolute calibration. The current work describes the test plan for the SOLARIS which is the calibration demonstration

  19. Error Budget for a Calibration Demonstration System for the Reflected Solar Instrument for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; McAndrew, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    A goal of the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission is to observe highaccuracy, long-term climate change trends over decadal time scales. The key to such a goal is to improving the accuracy of SI traceable absolute calibration across infrared and reflected solar wavelengths allowing climate change to be separated from the limit of natural variability. The advances required to reach on-orbit absolute accuracy to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps exist at NIST in the laboratory, but still need demonstration that the advances can move successfully from to NASA and/or instrument vendor capabilities for spaceborne instruments. The current work describes the radiometric calibration error budget for the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. The goal of the CDS is to allow the testing and evaluation of calibration approaches, alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft instrument design modifications. The resulting SI-traceable error budget for reflectance retrieval using solar irradiance as a reference and methods for laboratory-based, absolute calibration suitable for climatequality data collections is given. Key components in the error budget are geometry differences between the solar and earth views, knowledge of attenuator behavior when viewing the sun, and sensor behavior such as detector linearity and noise behavior. Methods for demonstrating this error budget are also presented.

  20. Prime candidate earth targets for the post-launch radiometric calibration of space-based optical imaging instruments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teillet, P.M.; Barsi, J.A.; Chander, G.; Thome, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive list of prime candidate terrestrial targets for consideration as benchmark sites for the post-launch radiometric calibration of space-based instruments. The key characteristics of suitable sites are outlined primarily with respect to selection criteria, spatial uniformity, and temporal stability. The establishment and utilization of such benchmark sites is considered an important element of the radiometric traceability of satellite image data products for use in the accurate monitoring of environmental change.

  1. The extended wedge method: Atomic force microscope friction calibration for improved tolerance to instrument misalignments, tip offset, and blunt probes

    SciTech Connect

    Khare, H. S.; Burris, D. L.

    2013-05-15

    One of the major challenges in understanding and controlling friction is the difficulty in bridging the length and time scales of macroscale contacts and those of the single asperity interactions they comprise. While the atomic force microscope (AFM) offers a unique ability to probe tribological surfaces in a wear-free single-asperity contact, instrument calibration challenges have limited the usefulness of this technique for quantitative nanotribological studies. A number of lateral force calibration techniques have been proposed and used, but none has gained universal acceptance due to practical considerations, configuration limitations, or sensitivities to unknowable error sources. This paper describes a simple extension of the classic wedge method of AFM lateral force calibration which: (1) allows simultaneous calibration and measurement on any substrate, thus eliminating prior tip damage and confounding effects of instrument setup adjustments; (2) is insensitive to adhesion, PSD cross-talk, transducer/piezo-tube axis misalignment, and shear-center offset; (3) is applicable to integrated tips and colloidal probes; and (4) is generally applicable to any reciprocating friction coefficient measurement. The method was applied to AFM measurements of polished carbon (99.999% graphite) and single crystal MoS{sub 2} to demonstrate the technique. Carbon and single crystal MoS{sub 2} had friction coefficients of {mu}= 0.20 {+-} 0.04 and {mu}= 0.006 {+-} 0.001, respectively, against an integrated Si probe. Against a glass colloidal sphere, MoS{sub 2} had a friction coefficient of {mu}= 0.005 {+-} 0.001. Generally, the measurement uncertainties ranged from 10%-20% and were driven by the effect of actual frictional variation on the calibration rather than calibration error itself (i.e., due to misalignment, tip-offset, or probe radius).

  2. The extended wedge method: atomic force microscope friction calibration for improved tolerance to instrument misalignments, tip offset, and blunt probes.

    PubMed

    Khare, H S; Burris, D L

    2013-05-01

    One of the major challenges in understanding and controlling friction is the difficulty in bridging the length and time scales of macroscale contacts and those of the single asperity interactions they comprise. While the atomic force microscope (AFM) offers a unique ability to probe tribological surfaces in a wear-free single-asperity contact, instrument calibration challenges have limited the usefulness of this technique for quantitative nanotribological studies. A number of lateral force calibration techniques have been proposed and used, but none has gained universal acceptance due to practical considerations, configuration limitations, or sensitivities to unknowable error sources. This paper describes a simple extension of the classic wedge method of AFM lateral force calibration which: (1) allows simultaneous calibration and measurement on any substrate, thus eliminating prior tip damage and confounding effects of instrument setup adjustments; (2) is insensitive to adhesion, PSD cross-talk, transducer/piezo-tube axis misalignment, and shear-center offset; (3) is applicable to integrated tips and colloidal probes; and (4) is generally applicable to any reciprocating friction coefficient measurement. The method was applied to AFM measurements of polished carbon (99.999% graphite) and single crystal MoS2 to demonstrate the technique. Carbon and single crystal MoS2 had friction coefficients of μ = 0.20 ± 0.04 and μ = 0.006 ± 0.001, respectively, against an integrated Si probe. Against a glass colloidal sphere, MoS2 had a friction coefficient of μ = 0.005 ± 0.001. Generally, the measurement uncertainties ranged from 10%-20% and were driven by the effect of actual frictional variation on the calibration rather than calibration error itself (i.e., due to misalignment, tip-offset, or probe radius).

  3. Calibration between color camera and 3D LIDAR instruments with a polygonal planar board.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoonsu; Yun, Seokmin; Won, Chee Sun; Cho, Kyungeun; Um, Kyhyun; Sim, Sungdae

    2014-03-17

    Calibration between color camera and 3D Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) equipment is an essential process for data fusion. The goal of this paper is to improve the calibration accuracy between a camera and a 3D LIDAR. In particular, we are interested in calibrating a low resolution 3D LIDAR with a relatively small number of vertical sensors. Our goal is achieved by employing a new methodology for the calibration board, which exploits 2D-3D correspondences. The 3D corresponding points are estimated from the scanned laser points on the polygonal planar board with adjacent sides. Since the lengths of adjacent sides are known, we can estimate the vertices of the board as a meeting point of two projected sides of the polygonal board. The estimated vertices from the range data and those detected from the color image serve as the corresponding points for the calibration. Experiments using a low-resolution LIDAR with 32 sensors show robust results.

  4. Calibration of speleothem δ18O records against hydroclimate instrumental records in Central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moquet, J. S.; Cruz, F. W.; Novello, V. F.; Stríkis, N. M.; Deininger, M.; Karmann, I.; Santos, R. Ventura; Millo, C.; Apaestegui, J.; Guyot, J.-L.; Siffedine, A.; Vuille, M.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Santini, W.

    2016-04-01

    δ18O in speleothems is a powerful proxy for reconstruction of precipitation patterns in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The aim of this study is to calibrate the δ18O record of speleothems against historical precipitation and river discharge data in central Brazil, a region directly influenced by the Southern Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ), a major feature of the South American Monsoon System (SAMS). The present work is based on a sub-annual resolution speleothem record covering the last 141 years (the period between the years 1870 and 2011) from a cave in central Brazil. The comparison of this record with instrumental hydroclimate records since 1921 allows defining a strong relationship between precipitation variability and stable oxygen isotope ratios from speleothems. The results from a monitoring program of climatic parameters and isotopic composition of rainfall and cave seepage waters performed in the same cave, show that the rain δ18O variability is dominated by the amount effect in this region, while δ18O drip water remains almost constant over the monitored period (1.5 years). The δ18O of modern calcite, on the other hand, shows clear seasonal variations, with more negative values observed during the rainy season, which implies that other factors also influence the isotopic composition of carbonate. However, the relationship between δ18O of carbonate deposits and rainwater is supported by the results from the comparison between speleothem δ18O records and historical hydroclimate records. A significant correlation between speleothem δ18O and monsoon rainfall variability is observed on sub-decadal time scales, especially for the monsoon period (DJFM and NDJFM), once the rainfall record have been smoothed with a 7-9 years running mean. This study confirms that speleothem δ18O is directly associated with monsoon rainfall variability in central Brazil. The relationship between speleothem δ18O records and hydroclimatic historical records allows

  5. Design and Ground Calibration of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) Instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schou, J.; Scherrer, P. H.; Bush, R. I.; Wachter, R.; Couvidat, S.; Rabello-Soares, M. C.; Bogart, R. S.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Liu, Y.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Akin, D. J.; Allard, B. A.; Miles, J. W.; Rairden, R.; Shine, R. A.; Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. M.; Wolfson, C. J.; Elmore, D. F.; Norton, A. A..; Tomczyk, S.

    2012-01-01

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) investigation will study the solar interior using helioseismic techniques as well as the magnetic field near the solar surface. The HMI instrument is part of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) that was launched on 11 February 2010. The instrument is designed to measure the Doppler shift, intensity, and vector magnetic field at the solar photosphere using the 6173 Fe I absorption line. The instrument consists of a front-window filter, a telescope, a set of wave plates for polarimetry, an image-stabilization system, a blocking filter, a five-stage Lyot filter with one tunable element, two wide-field tunable Michelson interferometers, a pair of 4096(exo 2) pixel cameras with independent shutters, and associated electronics. Each camera takes a full-disk image roughly every 3.75 seconds giving an overall cadence of 45 seconds for the Doppler, intensity, and line-of-sight magnetic-field measurements and a slower cadence for the full vector magnetic field. This article describes the design of the HMI instrument and provides an overview of the pre-launch calibration efforts. Overviews of the investigation, details of the calibrations, data handling, and the science analysis are provided in accompanying articles.

  6. An Instrument for In Situ Measuring the Volume Scattering Function of Water: Design, Calibration and Primary Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cai; Cao, Wenxi; Yu, Jing; Ke, Tiancun; Lu, Guixin; Yang, Yuezhong; Guo, Chaoying

    2012-01-01

    The optical volume scattering function (VSF) of seawater is a fundamental property used in the calculation of radiative transfer for applications in the study of the upper-ocean heat balance, the photosynthetic productivity of the ocean, and the chemical transformation of photoreactive compounds. A new instrument to simultaneously measure the VSF in seven directions between 20° to 160°, the attenuation coefficient, and the depth of water is presented. The instrument is self-contained and can be automatically controlled by the depth under water. The self-contained data can be easily downloaded by an ultra-short-wave communication system. A calibration test was performed in the laboratory based on precise estimation of the scattering volume and optical radiometric calibration of the detectors. The measurement error of the VSF measurement instrument has been estimated in the laboratory based on the Mie theory, and the average error is less than 12%. The instrument was used to measure and analyze the variation characteristics of the VSF with angle, depth and water quality in Daya Bay for the first time. From these in situ data, we have found that the phase functions proposed by Fournier-Forand, measured by Petzold in San Diego Harbor and Sokolov in Black Sea do not fit with our measurements in Daya. These discrepancies could manly due to high proportion of suspended calcium carbonate mineral-like particles with high refractive index in Daya Bay. PMID:22666043

  7. An instrument for in situ measuring the volume scattering function of water: design, calibration and primary experiments.

    PubMed

    Li, Cai; Cao, Wenxi; Yu, Jing; Ke, Tiancun; Lu, Guixin; Yang, Yuezhong; Guo, Chaoying

    2012-01-01

    The optical volume scattering function (VSF) of seawater is a fundamental property used in the calculation of radiative transfer for applications in the study of the upper-ocean heat balance, the photosynthetic productivity of the ocean, and the chemical transformation of photoreactive compounds. A new instrument to simultaneously measure the VSF in seven directions between 20° to 160°, the attenuation coefficient, and the depth of water is presented. The instrument is self-contained and can be automatically controlled by the depth under water. The self-contained data can be easily downloaded by an ultra-short-wave communication system. A calibration test was performed in the laboratory based on precise estimation of the scattering volume and optical radiometric calibration of the detectors. The measurement error of the VSF measurement instrument has been estimated in the laboratory based on the Mie theory, and the average error is less than 12%. The instrument was used to measure and analyze the variation characteristics of the VSF with angle, depth and water quality in Daya Bay for the first time. From these in situ data, we have found that the phase functions proposed by Fournier-Forand, measured by Petzold in San Diego Harbor and Sokolov in Black Sea do not fit with our measurements in Daya. These discrepancies could manly due to high proportion of suspended calcium carbonate mineral-like particles with high refractive index in Daya Bay.

  8. Calibration of erythemally weighted broadband instruments: A comparison between PMOD/WRC and MSL

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, Neil; Nield, Kathryn; Hamlin, John; Huelsen, Gregor; Groebner, Julian

    2013-05-10

    A Yankee Environmental Systems (YES) UVB-1 ultraviolet pyranometer, designed to measure erythemally weighted total solar irradiance, was calibrated by the Measurement Standards Laboratory (MSL) in Lower Hutt, New Zealand during August 2010. The calibration was then repeated during July and August 2011 by the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Obervatorium Davos, World Radiation Center (PMOD/WRC) located in Davos, Switzerland. Calibration results show that measurements of the relative spectral and angular response functions at the two institutes are in excellent agreement, thus providing a good degree of confidence in these measurement facilities. However, measurements to convert the relative spectral response into an absolute calibration disagree significantly depending on whether an FEL lamp or solar spectra are used to perform this scaling. This is the first serious comparison of these scaling methods to formally explore the potential systematic errors which could explain the discrepancy.

  9. Calibration of Nu-Instruments Noblesse multicollector mass spectrometers for argon isotopic measurements using a newly developed reference gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coble, M.A.; Grove, M.; Calvert, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    The greatest challenge limiting 40Ar/39Ar multicollection measurements is the availability of appropriate standard gasses to intercalibrate detectors. In particular, use of zoom lens ion-optics to steer and focus ion beams into a fixed detector array (i.e., Nu Instruments Noblesse) makes intercalibration of multiple detectors challenging because different ion-optic tuning conditions are required for optimal peak shape and sensitivity at different mass stations. We have found that detector efficiency and mass discrimination are affected by changes in ion-optic tuning parameters. Reliance upon an atmospheric Ar standard to calibrate the Noblesse is problematic because there is no straightforward way to relate atmospheric 40Ar and 36Ar to measurements of 40Ar and 39Ar if they are measured on separate detectors. After exploring alternative calibration approaches, we have concluded that calibration of the Noblesse is best performed using exactly the same source, detector, and ion-optic tuning settings as those used in routine 40Ar/39Ar analysis. To accomplish this, we have developed synthetic reference gasses containing 40Ar, 39Ar and 38Ar produced by mixing gasses derived from neutron-irradiated sanidine with an enriched 38Ar spike. We present a new method for calibrating the Noblesse based on use of both atmospheric Ar and the synthetic reference gasses. By combining atmospheric Ar and synthetic reference gas in different ways, we can directly measure 40Ar/39Ar, 38Ar/39Ar, and 36Ar/39Ar correction factors over ratios that vary from 0.5 to 460. These correction factors are reproducible to better than ??0.5??? (2?? standard error) over intervals spanning ~24h but can vary systematically by ~4% over 2weeks of continuous use when electron multiplier settings are held constant. Monitoring this variation requires daily calibration of the instrument. Application of the calibration method to 40Ar/39Ar multicollection measurements of widely used sanidine reference materials

  10. Design concept of the electrical ground support equipment for the AIV and calibration of the Euclid NISP instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifoglio, Massimo; Bonoli, Carlotta; Bortoletto, Favio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Butler, Chris. R.; Colodro-Conde, Carlos; Conforti, Vito; Corcione, Leonardo; Franceschi, Enrico; Gianotti, Fulvio; Ligori, Sebastiano; Maciaszek, Thierry; Morgante, Gianluca; Muñoz, Jacinto; Nicastro, Luciano; Prieto, Eric; Rebolo-López, Rafael; Riva, Mario; Spano, Paolo; Toledo-Moreo, Rafael; Valenziano, Luca; Villó, Isidro; Zerbi, Filippo Maria

    2012-09-01

    The Near Infrared Spectro-Photometer (NISP) on board the Euclid ESA mission will be developed and tested at various levels of integration using various test equipment which shall be designed and procured through a collaborative and coordinated effort. In this paper we describe the Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) which shall be required to support the assembly, integration, verification and testing (AIV/AIT) and calibration activities at instrument level before delivery to ESA, and at satellite level, when the NISP instrument is mounted on the spacecraft. We present the EGSE conceptual design as defined in order to be compliant with the AIV/AIT and calibration requirements. The proposed concept is aimed at maximizing the re-use in the EGSE configuration of the Test Equipment developed for subsystem level activities, as well as, at allowing a smooth transition from instrument level to satellite level, and, possibly, at Ground Segment level. This paper mainly reports the technical status at the end of the Definition phase and it is presented on behalf of the Euclid Consortium.

  11. Borehole strainmeter measurements spanning the 2014, Mw6.0 South Napa Earthquake, California: The effect from instrument calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langbein, John O.

    2015-01-01

    The 24 August 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa, California earthquake produced significant offsets on 12 borehole strainmeters in the San Francisco Bay area. These strainmeters are located between 24 and 80 km from the source and the observed offsets ranged up to 400 parts-per-billion (ppb), which exceeds their nominal precision by a factor of 100. However, the observed offsets of tidally calibrated strains differ by up to 130 ppb from predictions based on a moment tensor derived from seismic data. The large misfit can be attributed to a combination of poor instrument calibration and better modeling of the strain fit from the earthquake. Borehole strainmeters require in-situ calibration, which historically has been accomplished by comparing their measurements of Earth tides with the strain-tides predicted by a model. Although the borehole strainmeter accurately measure the deformation within the borehole, the long-wavelength strain signals from tides or other tectonic processes recorded in the borehole are modified by the presence of the borehole and the elastic properties of the grout and the instrument. Previous analyses of surface-mounted, strainmeter data and their relationship with the predicted tides suggest that tidal models could be in error by 30%. The poor fit of the borehole strainmeter data from this earthquake can be improved by simultaneously varying the components of the model tides up to 30% and making small adjustments to the point-source model of the earthquake, which reduces the RMS misfit from 130 ppb to 18 ppb. This suggests that relying on tidal models to calibrate borehole strainmeters significantly reduces their accuracy.

  12. Borehole strainmeter measurements spanning the 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa Earthquake, California: The effect from instrument calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langbein, John

    2015-10-01

    The 24 August 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa, California earthquake produced significant offsets on 12 borehole strainmeters in the San Francisco Bay area. These strainmeters are located between 24 and 80 km from the source, and the observed offsets ranged up to 400 parts per billion (ppb), which exceeds their nominal precision by a factor of 100. However, the observed offsets of tidally calibrated strains differ by up to 130 ppb from predictions based on a moment tensor derived from seismic data. The large misfit can be attributed to a combination of poor instrument calibration and better modeling of the strain field from the earthquake. Borehole strainmeters require in situ calibration, which historically has been accomplished by comparing their measurements of Earth tides with the strain tides predicted by a model. Although the borehole strainmeter accurately measures the deformation within the borehole, the long-wavelength strain signals from tides or other tectonic processes recorded in the borehole are modified by the presence of the borehole and the elastic properties of the grout and the instrument. Previous analyses of surface-mounted, strainmeter data and their relationship with the predicted tides suggest that tidal models could be in error by 30%. The poor fit of the borehole strainmeter data from this earthquake can be improved by simultaneously varying the components of the model tides up to 30% and making small adjustments to the point source model of the earthquake, which reduces the RMS misfit from 130 ppb to 18 ppb. This suggests that relying on tidal models to calibrate borehole strainmeters significantly reduces their accuracy.

  13. The slant path atmospheric refraction calibrator - An instrument to measure the microwave propagation delays induced by atmospheric water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Steven J.; Bender, Peter L.

    1992-01-01

    The water vapor-induced propagation delay experienced by a radio signal traversing the atmosphere is characterized by the Slant Path Atmospheric Refraction Calibrator (SPARC), which measures the difference in the travel times between an optical and a microwave signal propagating along the same atmospheric path with an accuracy of 15 picosec or better. Attention is given to the theoretical and experimental issues involved in measuring the delay induced by water vapor; SPARC measurements conducted along a 13.35-km ground-based path are presented, illustrating the instrument's stability, precision, and accuracy.

  14. Instrument development and field application of the in situ pH Calibrator at the Ocean Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C.; Ding, K.; Seyfried, W. E.

    2012-12-01

    A novel, self-calibrating instrument for in-situ measurement of pH in deep sea environments up to 4000 m has recently been developed. The device utilizes a compact fluid delivery system to perform measurement and two-point calibration of the solid state pH sensor array (Ir|IrOx| Ag|AgCl), which is sealed in a flow cell to enhance response time. The fluid delivery system is composed of a metering pump and valves, which periodically deliver seawater samples into the flow cell to perform measurements. Similarly, pH buffer solutions can be delivered into the flow cell to calibrate the electrodes under operational conditions. Sensor signals are acquired and processed by a high resolution (0.25 mV) datalogger circuit with a size of 114 mm×31 mm×25 mm. Eight input channels are available: two high impedance sensor input channels, two low impedance sensor input channel, two thermocouple input channels and two thermistor input channels. These eight channels provide adequate measurement flexibility to enhance applications in deep sea environments. The two high impedance channels of the datalogger are especially designed with the input impedance of 1016 Ω for YSZ (yittria-stabilized zirconia) ceramic electrodes characterized by the extremely low input bias current and high resistance. Field tests have been performed in 2008 by ROV at the depth up to 3200 m. Using the continuous power supply and TCP/IP network capability of the Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) ocean observatory, the so-called "pH Calibrator" has the capability of long term operation up to six months. In the observatory mode, the electronics are configured with DC-DC power converter modules and Ethernet to serial module to gain access to the science port of seafloor junction box. The pH Calibrator will be deployed at the ocean observatory in October and the in situ data will be on line on the internet. The pH Calibrator presents real time pH data at high pressures and variable temperatures, while

  15. Calibrating the ChemCam laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument for carbonate minerals on Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Lanza, Nina L.; Wiens, Roger C.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Ollila, Ann M.; Humphries, Seth D.; Newsom, Horton E.; Barefield, James E.

    2010-05-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite onboard the NASA Mars Science Laboratory rover includes the first laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument for extraterrestrial applications. Here we examine carbonate minerals in a simulated martian environment to better understand the LIBS signature of these materials on Mars. Both chemical composition and rock type are determined using multivariate analysis techniques. Composition is confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. Our results show that ChemCam can recognize and differentiate between different types of carbonate materials on Mars.

  16. THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ON ORBIT: EVENT CLASSIFICATION, INSTRUMENT RESPONSE FUNCTIONS, AND CALIBRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bogart, J. R.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Bouvier, A.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E. E-mail: luca.baldini@pi.infn.it; and others

    2012-11-15

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy {gamma}-ray telescope, covering the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. During the first years of the mission, the LAT team has gained considerable insight into the in-flight performance of the instrument. Accordingly, we have updated the analysis used to reduce LAT data for public release as well as the instrument response functions (IRFs), the description of the instrument performance provided for data analysis. In this paper, we describe the effects that motivated these updates. Furthermore, we discuss how we originally derived IRFs from Monte Carlo simulations and later corrected those IRFs for discrepancies observed between flight and simulated data. We also give details of the validations performed using flight data and quantify the residual uncertainties in the IRFs. Finally, we describe techniques the LAT team has developed to propagate those uncertainties into estimates of the systematic errors on common measurements such as fluxes and spectra of astrophysical sources.

  17. The Fermi Large Area Telescope on Orbit: Event Classification, Instrument Response Functions, and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Celik, Q.; Cobet, R.; Davis, D. S.; Ferrara, E. C.; Gehrels, N.; Guiriec, S.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; Nemmen, R.; Perkins, J. S.; Thompson, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy -ray telescope, covering the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. During the first years of the mission the LAT team has gained considerable insight into the in-flight performance of the instrument. Accordingly, we have updated the analysis used to reduce LAT data for public release as well as the Instrument Response Functions (IRFs), the description of the instrument performance provided for data analysis. In this paper we describe the effects that motivated these updates. Furthermore, we discuss how we originally derived IRFs from Monte Carlo simulations and later corrected those IRFs for discrepancies observed between flight and simulated data. We also give details of the validations performed using flight data and quantify the residual uncertainties in the IRFs. Finally, we describe techniques the LAT team has developed to propagate those uncertainties into estimates of the systematic errors on common measurements such as fluxes and spectra of astrophysical sources.

  18. Instrumentation, techniques and data reduction associated with airfoil testing programs at Wichita State University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, E. J.; Wentz, W. H., Jr.; Seetharam, H. C.

    1978-01-01

    Two dimensional airfoil testing was conducted at the Wichita State University Beech Wind Tunnel for a number of years. The instrumentation developed and adapted during this period of testing for determination of flow fields along with traversing mechanisms for these probes are discussed. In addition, some of the techniques used to account for interference effects associated with the apparatus used for this two dimensional testing are presented. The application of a minicomputer to the data reduction and presentation is discussed.

  19. Flight Data Reduction of Wake Velocity Measurements Using an Instrumented OV-10 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.; Stuever, Robert A.; Stewart, Eric C.; Rivers, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    A series of flight tests to measure the wake of a Lockheed C- 130 airplane and the accompanying atmospheric state have been conducted. A specially instrumented North American Rockwell OV-10 airplane was used to measure the wake and atmospheric conditions. An integrated database has been compiled for wake characterization and validation of wake vortex computational models. This paper describes the wake- measurement flight-data reduction process.

  20. Design and Instrumentation of a Measurement and Calibration System for an Acoustic Telemetry System

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Eppard, M. B.

    2010-03-31

    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) is an active sensing technology developed by Portland District, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for detecting and tracking small fish. It is used at hydroelectric projects and in the laboratory for evaluating behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System to the Pacific Ocean. It provides critical data for salmon protection and development of more “fish-friendly” hydroelectric facilities. The objective of this study was to design and build a measurement and calibration system for evaluating the JSATS component, because the JSATS requires comprehensive acceptance and performance testing in a controlled environment before it is deployed in the field. The system consists of a reference transducer, a water test tank lined with anechoic material, a motion control unit, a reference receiver, a signal conditioner and amplifier unit, a data acquisition board, MATLAB control and analysis interface, and a computer. The fully integrated system has been evaluated successfully at various simulated distances and using different encoded signals at frequencies within the bandwidth of the JSATS transmitter. It provides accurate acoustic mapping capability in a controlled environment and automates the process that allows real-time measurements and evaluation of the piezoelectric transducers, sensors, or the acoustic fields. The measurement and calibration system has been in use since 2009 for acceptance and performance testing of, and further improvements to, the JSATS.

  1. Ocean color instrument intercomparisons and cross-calibrations by the SIMBIOS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, Giulietta S.; McClain, Charles R.; Fukushima, Hajime; Nicolas, Jean M.; Barnes, Robert A.

    1999-12-01

    The Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project has a worldwide, ongoing ocean color data collection program, plus an operational data processing and analysis capability, SIMBIOS data collection takes place via the SIMBIOS Science Team and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). In addition, SIMBIOS has a calibration and product validation component. The primary purpose of these calibration and product validation activities are to (1) reduce measurement error by identifying and characterizing true error sources such as real changes in the satellite sensor or problems in the atmospheric correction algorithm, in order to differentiate these errors from natural variability in the marine light field; and (2) evaluate the various bio-optical algorithms being used by different ocean color missions. For each sensor, the SIMBIOS Project reviews the sensor design and processing algorithms being used by the particular ocean color project, compares the algorithms with alternative methods when possible, and provides the results to the appropriate project office, e.g., Centre National D'Etudes Spatialle (CNES) and National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) for Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectance (POLDER) and Ocean Color and Temperature Sensor (OCTS), respectively. In the near future the Project is looking forward to collaborate with Global Imager (GLI), Ocean Color Imager (OCI) and international entities such as the International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group (IOCCG) and Space Application Institute (Joint Research Center).

  2. Development of a Pattern Recognition Methodology for Determining Operationally Optimal Heat Balance Instrumentation Calibration Schedules

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt Beran; John Christenson; Dragos Nica; Kenny Gross

    2002-12-15

    The goal of the project is to enable plant operators to detect with high sensitivity and reliability the onset of decalibration drifts in all of the instrumentation used as input to the reactor heat balance calculations. To achieve this objective, the collaborators developed and implemented at DBNPS an extension of the Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET) pattern recognition methodology pioneered by ANAL. The extension was implemented during the second phase of the project and fully achieved the project goal.

  3. Comparison and calibration of NCAR electra instruments: July 5 and 7, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, Philip H.; Boers, Reinout

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of temperature, water vapor, cloud liquid water, and lidar cloud height taken by the National Center for Aeronautical Research (NCAR) Electra are analyzed for two days of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) stratocumulus field program. Examination of instrument time series, correlations between sensors, soundings through the layer, and lidar measurements of cloud base height are used to correct sensor offset problems, check for probe wetting, and choose the most accurate measurements of temperature, humidity, and cloud liquid water.

  4. Overview of NASA Earth Observing Systems Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Instrument Calibration Algorithms and On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wenny, Brian N.; Barnes, William L.

    2009-01-01

    Since launch, the Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments have successfully operated on-orbit for more than 9 and 6.5 years, respectively. Iv1ODIS, a key instrument for the NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) missions, was designed to make continuous observations for studies of Earth's land, ocean, and atmospheric properties and to extend existing data records from heritage earth-observing sensors. In addition to frequent global coverage, MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands, covering both solar reflective and thermal emissive spectral regions. Nearly 40 data products are routinely generated from MODIS' observations and publicly distributed for a broad range of applications. Both instruments have produced an unprecedented amount of data in support of the science community. As a general reference for understanding sensor operation and calibration, and thus science data quality, we ;provide an overview of the MODIS instruments and their pre-launch calibration and characterization, and describe their on-orbit calibration algorithms and performance. On-orbit results from both Terra and Aqua MODIS radiometric, spectral, and "spatial calibration are discussed. Currently, both instruments, including their on-board calibration devices, are healthy and are expected to continue operation for several }rears to come.

  5. Shielding calculations and verifications for the new Radiation Instrument Calibration Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    George, G. L.; Olsher, R. H.; Seagraves, D. T.

    2002-01-01

    MCNP-4C1 was used to perform the shielding design for the new Central Health Physics Calibration Facility (CHPCF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The problem of shielding the facility was subdivided into three separate components: (1) Transmission; (2) Skyshine; and (3) Maze Streaming/ Transmission. When possible, actual measurements were taken to verify calculation results. The comparison of calculation versus measurement results shows excellent agreement for neutron calculations. For photon comparisons, calculations resulted in conservative estimates of the Effective Dose Equivalent (EDE) compared to measured results. This disagreement in the photon measurements versus calculations is most likely due to several conservative assumptions regarding shield density and composition. For example, reinforcing steel bars (Rebar) in the concrete shield walls were not included in the shield model.

  6. Regression calibration with instrumental variables for longitudinal models with interaction terms, and application to air pollution studies

    PubMed Central

    Strand, M; Sillau, S; Grunwald, G K; Rabinovitch, N

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we derive forms of estimators and associated variances for regression calibration with instrumental variables in longitudinal models that include interaction terms between two unobservable predictors and interactions between these predictors and covariates not measured with error; the inclusion of the latter interactions generalize results we previously reported. The methods are applied to air pollution and health data collected on children with asthma. The new methods allow for the examination of how the relationship between health outcome leukotriene E4 (LTE4, a biomarker of inflammation) and two unobservable pollutant exposures and their interaction are modified by the presence or absence of upper respiratory infections. The pollutant variables include secondhand smoke and ambient (outdoor) fine particulate matter. Simulations verify the accuracy of the proposed methods under various conditions. PMID:26640396

  7. The System of the Calibration for Visibility Measurement Instrument Under the Atmospheric Aerosol Simulation Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Zhifeng; Yang, ShaoChen; Xu, Wenjing

    2016-06-01

    Visibility is one of the most important parameters for meteorological observation and numerical weather prediction (NWP).It is also an important factor in everyday life, mainly for surface and air traffic especially in the Aeronautical Meteorology. The visibility decides the taking off and landing of aircraft. If the airport visibility is lower than requirement for aircraft taking off stipulated by International Civil Aviation Administration, then the aircraft must be parked at the airport. So the accurate measurement of visibility is very important. Nowadays, many devices can be measured the visibility or meteorological optical range (MOR) such as Scatterometers, Transmissometers and visibility lidar. But there is not effective way to verify the accuracy of these devices expect the artificial visual method. We have developed a visibility testing system that can be calibration and verification these devices. The system consists of laser transmitter, optical chopper, phase-locking amplifier, the moving optic receiving system, signal detection and data acquisition system, atmospheric aerosol simulation chamber. All of them were placed in the atmosphere aerosol simulation chamber with uniform aerosol concentration. The Continuous wave laser, wavelength 550nm, has been transmitted into the collimation system then the laser beam expanded into 40mm diameter for compressing the laser divergence angle before modulated by optical chopper. The expanding beam transmitting in the atmosphere aerosol cabin received by the optic receiving system moving in the 50m length precision guide with 100mm optical aperture. The data of laser signal has been acquired by phase-locking amplifier every 5 meter range. So the 10 data points can be detected in the 50 meters guide once. The slope of the fitting curve can be obtained by linear fitting these data using the least square method. The laser extinction coefficient was calculated from the slope using the Koschmieder formula, then it been

  8. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) imaging spectrometer for lunar science: Instrument description, calibration, on-orbit measurements, science data calibration and on-orbit validation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, R.O.; Pieters, C.; Mouroulis, P.; Eastwood, M.; Boardman, J.; Glavich, T.; Isaacson, P.; Annadurai, M.; Besse, S.; Barr, D.; Buratti, B.; Cate, D.; Chatterjee, A.; Clark, R.; Cheek, L.; Combe, J.; Dhingra, D.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Goswami, J.N.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Head, J.; Hovland, L.; Hyman, S.; Klima, R.; Koch, T.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, A.S.K.; Lee, Kenneth; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; McLaughlin, S.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Rodriquez, J.; Runyon, C.; Sellar, G.; Smith, C.; Sobel, H.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Thaisen, K.; Tompkins, S.; Tseng, H.; Vane, G.; Varanasi, P.; White, M.; Wilson, D.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Discovery Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was selected to pursue a wide range of science objectives requiring measurement of composition at fine spatial scales over the full lunar surface. To pursue these objectives, a broad spectral range imaging spectrometer with high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio capable of measuring compositionally diagnostic spectral absorption features from a wide variety of known and possible lunar materials was required. For this purpose the Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was designed and developed that measures the spectral range from 430 to 3000 nm with 10 nm spectral sampling through a 24 degree field of view with 0.7 milliradian spatial sampling. The instrument has a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 400 for the specified equatorial reference radiance and greater than 100 for the polar reference radiance. The spectral cross-track uniformity is >90% and spectral instantaneous field-of-view uniformity is >90%. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper was launched on Chandrayaan-1 on the 22nd of October. On the 18th of November 2008 the Moon Mineralogy Mapper was turned on and collected a first light data set within 24 h. During this early checkout period and throughout the mission the spacecraft thermal environment and orbital parameters varied more than expected and placed operational and data quality constraints on the measurements. On the 29th of August 2009, spacecraft communication was lost. Over the course of the flight mission 1542 downlinked data sets were acquired that provide coverage of more than 95% of the lunar surface. An end-to-end science data calibration system was developed and all measurements have been passed through this system and delivered to the Planetary Data System (PDS.NASA.GOV). An extensive effort has been undertaken by the science team to validate the Moon Mineralogy Mapper science measurements in the context of the mission objectives. A focused spectral, radiometric

  9. Design and instrumentation of a measurement and calibration system for an acoustic telemetry system.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark; Carlson, Thomas; Eppard, M Brad

    2010-01-01

    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) is an active sensing technology developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, for detecting and tracking small fish. It is used primarily for evaluating behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System to the Pacific Ocean. It provides critical data for salmon protection and development of more "fish-friendly" hydroelectric facilities. The objective of this study was to design and build a Measurement and Calibration System (MCS) for evaluating the JSATS components, because the JSATS requires comprehensive acceptance and performance testing in a controlled environment before it is deployed in the field. The MCS consists of a reference transducer, a water test tank lined with anechoic material, a motion control unit, a reference receiver, a signal conditioner and amplifier unit, a data acquisition board, MATLAB control and analysis interface, and a computer. The fully integrated MCS has been evaluated successfully at various simulated distances and using different encoded signals at frequencies within the bandwidth of the JSATS transmitter. The MCS provides accurate acoustic mapping capability in a controlled environment and automates the process that allows real-time measurements and evaluation of the piezoelectric transducers, sensors, or the acoustic fields. The MCS has been in use since 2009 for acceptance and performance testing of, and further improvements to, the JSATS.

  10. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2003-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress over the first six months of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on analyzing and testing factors that impact performance degradation of the initially designed sensor prototype, including sensing element movement within the sensing probe and optical signal quality degradation. Based these results, a new version of the sensing system was designed by combining the sapphire disk sensing element and the single crystal zirconia right angle light reflector into one novel single crystal sapphire right angle prism. The new sensor prototype was tested up to 1650 C.

  11. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Kristie Cooper; Anbo Wang

    2007-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress October 2006 - March 2007 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. During the second phase, an alternative high temperature sensing system based on Fabry-Perot interferometry was developed that offers a number of advantages over the BPDI solution. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. The sapphire wafer-based interferometric sensing system that was installed at TECO's Polk Power Station remained in operation for seven months. Our efforts have been focused on monitoring and analyzing the real-time data collected, and preparing for a second field test.

  12. Method of calibration to correct for cloud-induced wavelength shifts in the Aura satellite's Ozone Monitoring Instrument.

    PubMed

    Voors, Robert; Dobber, Marcel; Dirksen, Ruud; Levelt, Pieternel

    2006-05-20

    The in-flight wavelength calibration for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument is discussed. The observed variability in the wavelength scale is two orders of magnitude larger than caused by temperature changes in the instrument. These wavelength variations are the result of rapid changes in time in the radiance levels during an individual observation in the presence of clouds or snow and ice. We have developed a data processing method to account and correct for these changes. In February 2005 this correction was implemented in the official data processing stream. We explain in detail how and how accurately this method works. Before correction, the error in the wavelength scale can be as much as a few tenths of a pixel; after correction it is mostly less than 1/100th of a pixel, which is the required preflight accuracy. This means that higher-level products such as the total column amounts of ozone, NO2, and SO2 are not significantly affected. It is expected that these wavelength variations will be observed in other hyperspectral Earth observation spectrometers and that the correction mechanism should apply equally well.

  13. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang; Yizheng Zhu

    2005-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress October 2004-March 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report.

  14. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress over the second six month period of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on evaluating corrosion effects in single crystal sapphire at temperatures up to 1400 C, and designing the sensor mechanical packaging with input from Wabash River Power Plant. Upcoming meetings will establish details for the gasifier field test.

  15. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2005-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress April-September 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report. The sensing system will be installed and tested at TECO's Polk Power Station. Following a site visit in June 2005, our efforts have been focused on preparing for that field test, including he design of the sensor mechanical packaging, sensor electronics, the data transfer module, and the necessary software codes to accommodate this application.. We are currently ready to start sensor fabrication.

  16. Interinstrument calibration using magnetic field data from the flux-gate magnetometer (FGM) and electron drift instrument (EDI) onboard Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, R.; Plaschke, F.; Teubenbacher, R.; Giner, L.; Baumjohann, W.; Magnes, W.; Steller, M.; Torbert, R. B.; Vaith, H.; Chutter, M.; Fornaçon, K.-H.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Carr, C.

    2014-01-01

    We compare the magnetic field data obtained from the flux-gate magnetometer (FGM) and the magnetic field data deduced from the gyration time of electrons measured by the electron drift instrument (EDI) onboard Cluster to determine the spin-axis offset of the FGM measurements. Data are used from orbits with their apogees in the magnetotail, when the magnetic field magnitude was between about 20 and 500 nT. Offset determination with the EDI-FGM comparison method is of particular interest for these orbits, because no data from solar wind are available in such orbits to apply the usual calibration methods using the Alfvén waves. In this paper, we examine the effects of the different measurement conditions, such as direction of the magnetic field relative to the spin plane and field magnitude in determining the FGM spin-axis offset, and also take into account the time-of-flight offset of the EDI measurements. It is shown that the method works best when the magnetic field magnitude is less than about 128 nT and when the magnetic field is aligned near the spin-axis direction. A remaining spin-axis offset of about 0.4 ∼ 0.6 nT was observed for Cluster 1 between July and October 2003. Using multipoint multi-instrument measurements by Cluster we further demonstrate the importance of the accurate determination of the spin-axis offset when estimating the magnetic field gradient.

  17. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang

    2004-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress over the third six month period of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on sensor probe design and machining, sensor electronics design, software algorithm design, sensor field installation procedures, and sensor remote data access and control. Field testing will begin in the next several weeks.

  18. The Calibration and Characterization of Earth Remote Sensing and Environmental Monitoring Instruments. Chapter 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, James J.; Johnson, B. Carol; Barnes, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    The use of remote sensing instruments on orbiting satellite platforms in the study of Earth Science and environmental monitoring was officially inaugurated with the April 1, 1960 launch of the Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) [1]. The first TIROS accommodated two television cameras and operated for only 78 days. However, the TIROS program, in providing in excess of 22,000 pictures of the Earth, achieved its primary goal of providing Earth images from a satellite platform to aid in identifying and monitoring meteorological processes. This marked the beginning of what is now over four decades of Earth observations from satellite platforms. reflected and emitted radiation from the Earth using instruments on satellite platforms. These measurements are input to climate models, and the model results are analyzed in an effort to detect short and long-term changes and trends in the Earth's climate and environment, to identify the cause of those changes, and to predict or influence future changes. Examples of short-term climate change events include the periodic appearance of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the tropical Pacific Ocean [2] and the spectacular eruption of Mount Pinatubo on the Philippine island of Luzon in 1991. Examples of long term climate change events, which are more subtle to detect, include the destruction of coral reefs, the disappearance of glaciers, and global warming. Climatic variability can be both large and small scale and can be caused by natural or anthropogenic processes. The periodic El Nino event is an example of a natural process which induces significant climatic variability over a wide range of the Earth. A classic example of a large scale anthropogenic influence on climate is the well-documented rapid increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide occurring since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution [3]. An example of the study of a small-scale anthropogenic influence in climate variability is the Atlanta Land

  19. Development of monoenergetic electron beam sources for radiation-instrument calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, C. G.; Dick, C. E.; Pruitt, J. S.; Sparrow, J. H.

    1985-05-01

    Accelerator-produced electron beams are being studied for use in obtaining the response of beta-particle dosimetry instrumenta- tion as a function of electron energy. The NBS 4 MV Van de Graaff and 500 kV cascaded rectifier accelerators are being used to generate electron beams from 200 keV to 2.5 MeV. A device capable of scanning the electron beam in two dimensions over an area large enough to cover radiation-survey instruments uniformly is attached to the beam-handling system of each accelerator. The scanned beam exits from vacuum through a 16 cm 2 window consisting of either 25 μm Kapton (for energies below 500 keV) or 100 μm aluminum. The electron beams produced have been characterized in terms of (1) spatial distribution, (2) energy spectrum, and (3) absorbed dose to plastic. Spatial distributions were determined using film, while spectra were measured using a 5 mm-deep Si surface barrier detector. An extrapolation chamber is being used for beam standardization in terms of absorbed dose to plastic.

  20. Sectorized approach and measurement reduction for mutual coupling calibration of non-omnidirectional antenna arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, Taylan; Engin Tuncer, T.

    2013-03-01

    Mutual coupling calibration is an important problem for antenna arrays. There are different methods proposed for omnidirectional antennas in the literature. However, many practical antennas have non-omnidirectional (NOD) characteristics. Hence, the previous mutual coupling calibration methods cannot be applied directly since the mutual coupling matrix of an NOD antenna array has angular dependency. In this paper, a sectorized approach is proposed with a transformation matrix for mutual coupling calibration of NOD antenna arrays. In addition, the symmetry of the array radiation patterns for the symmetric array elements is used to reduce the number of calibration measurements. A novel antenna is used to show the accuracy and performance of the proposed approach in direction finding problem where numerical electromagnetic simulations are used to obtain the simulation data.

  1. First calibration results and antenna placement studies of the RPW ANT instrument on Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampl, M.; Oswald, T. H.; Rucker, H. O.; Plettemeier, D.; Maksimovic, M.; Macher, W.

    2010-12-01

    We report our analyses of the Radio and Plasma Wave Analyzer (RPW ANT) onboard the Solar Orbiter spacecraft with a focus on the high-frequency electric antennas. The aim of the Solar Orbiter mission is to determine in-situ properties and dynamics of solarwind plasma, electric and magnetic fields in the near-Sun heliosphere. The mission is planned to be launched in 2017 with a spacecraft trajectory of, for the first time, partial co-rotation with the Sun, providing a full suite of in-situ and remote sensing instruments from as close as 0.25 AU. The RPW ANT high-frequency electric sensors, consist of three cylindrical antennas mounted on appendant booms extruded from the central body of the spacecraft. Due to the parasitic effects of the conducting spacecraft body and solar panels the true antenna properties (effective axes and length; capacitances) do not coincide with their physical representations. In order to analyze the antenna system we applied a numerical method. The current distribution on the spacecraft body and the effective length vector was calculated, by solving the underlying field equations using electromagnetic codes. In the applied method the spacecraft is modelled as a patch-grid. The numerical analysis of the reception properties, including several placement options of these antennas, is presented. Since the Solar Orbiter spacecraft body and antennas are not yet finally specified, the results can be used to evaluate the performance of the proposed sensors. In particular, goniopolarimetry techniques like polarization analysis, direction finding and ray tracing depend crucially on the effective axes and the therefore the corresponding data analysis significantly improves. Software model (patch-grid) of the Solar Orbiter spacecraft

  2. The Use of Transfer Radiometers in Validating the Visible through Shortwave Infrared Calibrations of Radiance Sources Used by Instruments in NASA's Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, James J.; Barnes, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    The detection and study of climate change over a time frame of decades requires successive generations of satellite, airborne, and ground-based instrumentation carefully calibrated against a common radiance scale. In NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS) program, the pre-launch radiometric calibration of these instruments in the wavelength region from 400 nm to 2500 nm is accomplished using internally illuminated integrating spheres and diffuse reflectance panels illuminated by irradiance standard lamps. Since 1995, the EOS Calibration Program operating within the EOS Project Science Office (PSO) has enlisted the expertise of national standards laboratories and government and university metrology laboratories in an effort to validate the radiance scales assigned to sphere and panel radiance sources by EOS instrument calibration facilities. This state-of-the-art program has been accomplished using ultra-stable transfer radiometers independently calibrated by the above participating institutions. In ten comparisons since February 1995, the agreement between the radiance measurements of the transfer radiometers is plus or minus 1.80% at 411 nm, plus or minus 1.31% at 552.5 nm, plus or minus 1.32% at 868.0 nm, plus or minus 2.54% at 1622nm, and plus or minus 2.81% at 2200nm (sigma =1).

  3. Data Types, Reduction Techniques, and Analysis Tools for the Compton Observatory OSSE Instrument.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, D. C.; Cameron, R. A.; Johnson, W. N.; Kroeger, R. A.; Kurfess, J. D.; Strickman, M. S.; Starr, C. H.; Grabelsky, D. A.; Matz, S. M.; Purcell, W. R.; Ulmer, M. P.

    1992-12-01

    The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) is one of four instruments on board NASA's Arthur Holly Compton Observatory. The OSSE instrument, developed at the Naval Research Laboratory, consists of 4 large, actively-shielded NaI(Tl)--CsI(Na) phoswich detectors each capable of independent orientations. Each detector has a 3.8deg times 11.4deg (FWHM) field of view defined by a passive tungsten collimator. OSSE measures gamma-ray line and continuum spectra in the 0.05 -- 10 MeV energy range, with timing resolution of up to 125 mu sec for variable sources. A summary of the various OSSE data acquisition modes and data product types will be presented. Data analysis techniques will be described, together with examples of such techniques using data reduction and analysis tools in the IGORE (Interactive GRO/OSSE Reduction Environment) software package that have been developed for the processing and analysis of OSSE data. IGORE runs on a VAX/VMS system in an IDL environment. Viewing support and observation planning tools will also be described as well as related instrument and spacecraft observation constraints. OSSE data products and the IGORE analysis software package will be archived at the Compton Observatory Science Support Center (COSSC) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. The availability of data products and procedures for their access at the COSSC and NRL will be presented. The COSSC facilities can be utilized locally at GSFC or remotely over the Internet and SPAN/DECnet computer networks.

  4. Pressure and temperature dependence of OH and HO2 detection sensitivities for an LIF based FAGE instrument - a comparison of calibration methods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winiberg, F.; Bejan, I.; Brumby, C.; Farrugia, L. N.; Malkin, T. L.; Smith, S. C.; Orr, S. C.; Heard, D. E.; Seakins, P. W.

    2015-12-01

    Instruments based on the Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) of OH radicals have been widely applied to fieldwork measurements - on the ground and in aircraft - as well as in atmospheric simulation chambers. The calibration of instruments used to measure concentrations of HOx worldwide have traditionally relied on a single method of generating known concentrations of HOx from H2O vapour photolysis in a turbulent flow tube impinging just outside the sample inlet. The FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gaseous Expansion) apparatus designed for HOx measurements in the Highly Instrumented Reactor for Atmospheric Chemistry (HIRAC) has been calibrated using the conventional method over a range of internal cell pressures (1.8 - 3.8 mbar) and external cell temperatures (270 - 340 K). Two alternative calibration techniques for OH and HO2 were developed using the HIRAC chamber over the same pressure and temperature range to verify the observations. The alternative methods, agreement and disagreement with the conventional calibration methods will be discussed. The outcome of these studies will enable future operation of the FAGE instrument in the HIRAC chamber away from STP conditions.

  5. Design, Calibration, and Expected On-Orbit Performance of the GOES-R MPS-LO Suprathermal Plasma Analyzer Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golightly, M. J.; McGarity, J. O.; Dichter, B. K.; Galica, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    The next generation U.S. geosynchronous weather satellite—GOES series R-U—will include for the first time a suprathermal plasma analyzer. The Magnetospheric Particle Sensor-Low (MPS-LO), an electrostatic analyzer utilizing triquadrispheric geometry (270° turn)deflection electrodes, will measure the flux of electrons and ions with energies between 30 eV - 30 keV in fifteen logarithmically-spaced differential energy channels and arrival direction in twelve angular bins. MPS-LO consists of two sensor heads mounted in a common electronics box. Each sensor head contains a set of deflection electrodes, microchannel plates, and segmented detector anodes. The common electronics box provides the power and I/O interface with a data processing unit, voltage supplies for all of the instrument's electronics, high voltage for the deflection electrodes, in-flight calibration pulsers, and the digital electronics to process signals from sensor heads' detector anodes. Great care was taken in the manufacture and mounting of the triquadrisphere deflection electrodes; each electrode was machined from a single piece of aluminum and specific electrode combinations were mounted with precision machined spacers and matched drilling. The precise fabrication and assembly resulted in near perfect spherical electric fields between the electrodes. The triquadrispheric electrode shape also prevents photons from reaching the detection elements-as a result, MPS-LO is solar blind. The combined field-of-view for the two sensor heads is 180° x 5°, with the larger angle in a plane perpendicular to the spacecraft's orbit and its central axis oriented anti-Earthward. An incident particle's arrival direction is determined in one of twelve 15° x 5° angular zones. A set of shielded anodes is used to measure the background caused by penetrating charged particles that reach the MCPs; this background data is used to correct the MPS-LO data. The instrument's energy resolution ΔE/E is 5.8%.

  6. RadBall™ Technology Testing in the Savannah River Site’s Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Farfán, Eduardo B.; Foley, Trevor Q.; Jannik, G. Timothy; Harpring, Larry J.; Gordon, John R.; Blessing, Ronald; Coleman, J. Rusty; Holmes, Christopher J.; Oldham, Mark; Adamovics, John; Stanley, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) has developed a radiation-mapping device that can locate and quantify radioactive hazards within contaminated areas of the nuclear industry. The device, known as RadBall™, consists of a colander-like outer collimator that houses a radiation-sensitive polymer sphere. The collimator has over two hundred small holes; thus, specific areas of the polymer sphere are exposed to radiation becoming increasingly more opaque in proportion to the absorbed dose. The polymer sphere is imaged in an optical-CT scanner that produces a high resolution 3D map of optical attenuation coefficients. Subsequent analysis of the optical attenuation data provides information on the spatial distribution of sources in a given area forming a 3D characterization of the area of interest. The RadBall™ technology has been deployed in a number of technology trials in nuclear waste reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the United Kingdom and facilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This paper summarizes the tests completed at SRNL Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory (HPICL). PMID:21617738

  7. Viking lander camera radiometry calibration report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, M. R.; Atwood, D. L.; Morrill, M. E.

    1977-01-01

    The test methods and data reduction techniques used to determine and remove instrumental signatures from Viking Lander camera radiometry data are described. Gain, offset, and calibration constants are presented in tables.

  8. High precision tilt stage as a key element to a universal test mirror for characterization and calibration of slope measuring instruments.

    PubMed

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V; Artemiev, Nikolay A; Centers, Gary; Chaubard, Arthur; Geckeler, Ralf D; Lacey, Ian; Marth, Harry; McKinney, Wayne R; Noll, Tino; Siewert, Frank; Winter, Mathias; Zeschke, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The ultimate performance of surface slope metrology instrumentation, such as long trace profilers and auto-collimator based deflectometers, is limited by systematic errors that are increased when the entire angular range is used for metrology of significantly curved optics. At the ALS X-Ray Optics Laboratory, in collaboration with the HZB/BESSY-II and PTB (Germany) metrology teams, we are working on a calibration method for deflectometers, based on a concept of a universal test mirror (UTM) [V. V. Yashchuk et al., Proc. SPIE 6704, 67040A (2007)]. Potentially, the UTM method provides high performance calibration and accounts for peculiarities of the optics under test (e.g., slope distribution) and the experimental arrangement (e.g., the distance between the sensor and the optic under test). At the same time, the UTM calibration method is inherently universal, applicable to a variety of optics and experimental arrangements. In this work, we present the results of tests with a key component of the UTM system, a custom high precision tilt stage, which has been recently developed in collaboration with Physik Instrumente, GmbH. The tests have demonstrated high performance of the stage and its capability (after additional calibration) to provide angular calibration of surface slope measuring profilers over the entire instrumental dynamic range with absolute accuracy better than 30 nrad. The details of the stage design and tests are presented. We also discuss the foundation of the UTM method and calibration algorithm, as well as the possible design of a full scale UTM system.

  9. High precision tilt stage as a key element to a universal test mirror for characterization and calibration of slope measuring instruments.

    PubMed

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V; Artemiev, Nikolay A; Centers, Gary; Chaubard, Arthur; Geckeler, Ralf D; Lacey, Ian; Marth, Harry; McKinney, Wayne R; Noll, Tino; Siewert, Frank; Winter, Mathias; Zeschke, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The ultimate performance of surface slope metrology instrumentation, such as long trace profilers and auto-collimator based deflectometers, is limited by systematic errors that are increased when the entire angular range is used for metrology of significantly curved optics. At the ALS X-Ray Optics Laboratory, in collaboration with the HZB/BESSY-II and PTB (Germany) metrology teams, we are working on a calibration method for deflectometers, based on a concept of a universal test mirror (UTM) [V. V. Yashchuk et al., Proc. SPIE 6704, 67040A (2007)]. Potentially, the UTM method provides high performance calibration and accounts for peculiarities of the optics under test (e.g., slope distribution) and the experimental arrangement (e.g., the distance between the sensor and the optic under test). At the same time, the UTM calibration method is inherently universal, applicable to a variety of optics and experimental arrangements. In this work, we present the results of tests with a key component of the UTM system, a custom high precision tilt stage, which has been recently developed in collaboration with Physik Instrumente, GmbH. The tests have demonstrated high performance of the stage and its capability (after additional calibration) to provide angular calibration of surface slope measuring profilers over the entire instrumental dynamic range with absolute accuracy better than 30 nrad. The details of the stage design and tests are presented. We also discuss the foundation of the UTM method and calibration algorithm, as well as the possible design of a full scale UTM system. PMID:27250376

  10. Risk Reduction of Needle Stick Injuries Due to Continuous Shift from Unsafe to Safe Instruments at a German University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Frickmann, Hagen; Schmeja, Wibke; Reisinger, Emil; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Mitzner, Karen; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Warnke, Philipp; Podbielski, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed protective effects of a continuous introduction of safe instruments in terms of reduction of needle stick injuries. The retrospective study analyzed correlations between the increasing proportion of safe instruments and a reduction of the incidence of needle stick injuries linked to such instruments in a German university hospital over 5 years. Incidents declined about 17.6% from 80.3 incidents per 1000 employees to 66.2, associated with an increase in the proportions of injuries due to instruments without protective mechanisms such as scalpels or hypodermic needles by 12.2%. For injuries due to venipuncture cannulae in various surgical and internal medicine departments, there was a negative association between the proportion of safe instruments and the incidence of injuries. For injection needles, portacath needles, and lancets in selected internal medicine departments, the number of injuries also dropped during this study interval. However, there was no clear-cut association with the percentage of safe instruments. This observational study suggests a correlation between the implementation of use of safe instruments and the reduction of needle stick injuries in a case of a graduated implementation. However, the effects are much less pronounced than in previous interventional studies. PMID:27766172

  11. Anemometer calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bate, T.; Calkins, D. E.; Price, P.; Veikins, O.

    1971-01-01

    Calibrator generates accurate flow velocities over wide range of gas pressure, temperature, and composition. Both pressure and flow velocity can be maintained within 0.25 percent. Instrument is essentially closed loop hydraulic system containing positive displacement drive.

  12. On-Orbit Calibration of Redundant Spacecraft Gyros by Optimal Reduction to Three Axes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radomski, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    The Aqua spacecraft will carry four single-axis gyros configured with three orthogonal axes and one skew axis. This redundancy presents a challenge for batch methods of on-orbit gyro calibration that use a spacecraft rotation model deterministically related to gyro data, in that sensor data can respond to at most three angular velocity components. When the number of gyros, N, is greater than 3, the 3xN matrix, G, that reduces the N gyro measurements to three body-frame angular-velocity components cannot be fully determined by such methods; there are many such matrices that produce essentially the same angular velocity history. In such a case, spacecraft operators require information about the Nx3 gyro linear response matrix, R, that relates gyro outputs to the body-frame angular velocities causing them. This matrix provides sufficient information to determine multiple reduced-dimension G-matrices for use in case of failure or degradation of one or more gyros, as well as to determine an optimal 3xN G for the fully-functional configuration. A viable proposal is to apply a 3xN pre-filter matrix, F, to the N gyro outputs before carrying out a conventional gyro calibration procedure. The angular-velocity history emerging from conventional calibration may then be used as input data, together with the same gyro data that generated it, to fit the alignment, scale-factor, and bias parameters of each gyro axis in turn. A difficulty of such a proposal is the arbitrariness in the choice of F. Due to gyro noise, different pre-filter matrices produce different calibrations. This paper presents a method of choosing F that is based on optimizing gyro consistency in the limit of infinite weight on gyro data, as compared to sensor data. The choice of F is independent of a priori alignment and is based on the gyro data alone. The method is applicable to any N of three or more, but reduces to conventional batch-estimation methodologies when N = 3. Results of computational comparison

  13. Calibration of the Fluorine, Chlorine and Hydrogen Content of Apatites With the ChemCam LIBS Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meslin, P.-Y.; Cicutto, L.; Forni, O.; Drouet, C.; Rapin, W.; Nachon, M.; Cousin, A.; Blank, J. G.; McCubbin, F. M.; Gasnault, O.; Newsom, H.; Mangold, N.; Schroeder, S.; Sautter, V.; Maurice, S.; Wiens, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the composition of apatites is important to understand the behavior of volatiles during planetary differentiation. Apatite is an ubiquitous magmatic mineral in the SNC meteorites. It is a significant reservoir of halogens in these meteorites and has been used to estimate the halogen budget of Mars. Apatites have been identified in sandstones and pebbles at Gale crater by ChemCam, a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscometer (LIBS) instrument onboard the Curiosity rover. Their presence was inferred from correlations between calcium, fluorine (using the CaF molecular band centered near 603 nm, whose detection limit is much lower that atomic or ionic lines and, in some cases, phosphorus (whose detection limit is much larger). An initial quantification of fluorine, based on fluorite (CaF2)/basalt mixtures and obtained at the LANL laboratory, indicated that the excess of F/Ca (compared to the stoichiometry of pure fluorapatites) found on Mars in some cases could be explained by the presence of fluorite. Chlorine was not detected in these targets, at least above a detection limit of 0.6 wt% estimated from. Fluorapatite was later also detected by X-ray diffraction (with CheMin) at a level of approx.1wt% in the Windjana drill sample (Kimberley area), and several points analyzed by ChemCam in this area also revealed a correlation between Ca and F. The in situ detection of F-rich, Cl-poor apatites contrasts with the Cl-rich, F-poor compositions of apatites found in basaltic shergottites and in gabbroic clasts from the martian meteorite NWA 7034, which were also found to be more Cl-rich than apatites from basalts on Earth, the Moon, or Vesta. The in situ observations could call into question one of the few possible explanations brought forward to explain the SNC results, namely that Mars may be highly depleted in fluorine. The purpose of the present study is to refine the calibration of the F, Cl, OH and P signals measured by the ChemCam LIBS instrument, initiated

  14. GOES-R Space Environment In-Situ Suite: instruments overview, calibration results, and data processing algorithms, and expected on-orbit performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galica, G. E.; Dichter, B. K.; Tsui, S.; Golightly, M. J.; Lopate, C.; Connell, J. J.

    2016-05-01

    The space weather instruments (Space Environment In-Situ Suite - SEISS) on the soon to be launched, NOAA GOES-R series spacecraft offer significant space weather measurement performance advances over the previous GOES N-P series instruments. The specifications require that the instruments ensure proper operation under the most stressful high flux conditions corresponding to the largest solar particle event expected during the program, while maintaining high sensitivity at low flux levels. Since the performance of remote sensing instruments is sensitive to local space weather conditions, the SEISS data will be of be of use to a broad community of users. The SEISS suite comprises five individual sensors and a data processing unit: Magnetospheric Particle Sensor-Low (0.03-30 keV electrons and ions), Magnetospheric Particle Sensor-High (0.05-4 MeV electrons, 0.08-12 MeV protons), two Solar And Galactic Proton Sensors (1 to >500 MeV protons), and the Energetic Heavy ion Sensor (10-200 MeV for H, H to Fe with single element resolution). We present comparisons between the enhanced GOES-R instruments and the current GOES space weather measurement capabilities. We provide an overview of the sensor configurations and performance. Results of extensive sensor modeling with GEANT, FLUKA and SIMION are compared with calibration data measured over nearly the entire energy range of the instruments. Combination of the calibration results and model are used to calculate the geometric factors of the various energy channels. The calibrated geometric factors and typical and extreme space weather environments are used to calculate the expected on-orbit performance.

  15. Mobile sensor network noise reduction and re-calibration using Bayesian network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Y.; Tang, Y.; Zhu, W.

    2015-08-01

    People are becoming increasingly interested in mobile air quality sensor network applications. By eliminating the inaccuracies caused by spatial and temporal heterogeneity of pollutant distributions, this method shows great potentials in atmosphere researches. However, such system usually suffers from the problem of sensor noises and drift. For the sensing systems to operate stably and reliably in the real-world applications, those problems must be addressed. In this work, we exploit the correlation of different types of sensors caused by cross sensitivity to help identify and correct the outlier readings. By employing a Bayesian network based system, we are able to recover the erroneous readings and re-calibrate the drifted sensors simultaneously. Specifically, we have (1) designed a Bayesian belief network based system to detect and recover the abnormal readings; (2) developed methods to update the sensor calibration functions in-field without requirement of ground truth; and (3) deployed a real-world mobile sensor network using the custom-built M-Pods to verify our assumptions and technique. Compared with the existing Bayesian belief network technique, the experiment results on the real-world data demonstrate that our system can reduce error by 34.1 % and recover 4 times more data on average.

  16. Cross-calibration of the CCD Instruments onboard the Chandra, Suzaku, Swift, and XMM-Newton Observatories using 1E 0102.2-7219

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plucinsky, Paul P.; Beardmore, Andrew P.; Foster, Adam; Guainazzi, Matteo; Haberl, Frank; Miller, Eric; Pollock, Andrew; Sembay, Steve; Stuhlinger, Martin

    2016-04-01

    We report on our continuing efforts to compare the time-dependent calibrations of the current generation of CCD instruments onboard the Chandra, Suzaku, Swift, and XMM-Newton observatories using the brightest supernova remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud, 1E 0102.2-7219 (hereafter E0102). This calibration is a function of time due to the effects of radiation damage on the CCDs and the accumulation of a contamination layer on the filters or CCDs. We desire a simple comparison of the absolute effective areas in the 0.5-1.0 keV bandpass. The spectrum of E0102 has been well-characterized using the RGS grating instrument on XMM-Newton and the HETG grating instrument on Chandra. We have developed an empirical model for E0102 that includes Gaussians for the identified lines, two absorption components, and two continuum components with different temperatures. In our fits, the model is highly constrained in that only the normalizations of the four brightest line complexes (the O VII triplet, the O VIII Ly-alpha line, the Ne IX triplet, and the Ne X Ly-alpha line) and an overall normalization are allowed to vary. In our previous study, we found that based on observations early in the missions, most of the fitted line normalizations agreed to within +/- 10%. We have now expanded this study to include more recent data from these missions using the latest calibration updates and we will report on the current level of agreement amongst these instruments. This work is based on the activities of the International Astronomical Consortium for High Energy Calibration (IACHEC).

  17. Radio metric errors due to mismatch and offset between a DSN antenna beam and the beam of a troposphere calibration instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linfield, R. P.; Wilcox, J. Z.

    1993-01-01

    Two components of the error of a troposphere calibration measurement were quantified by theoretical calculations. The first component is a beam mismatch error, which occurs when the calibration instrument senses a conical volume different from the cylindrical volume sampled by a Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna. The second component is a beam offset error, which occurs if the calibration instrument is not mounted on the axis of the DSN antenna. These two error sources were calculated for both delay (e.g., VLBI) and delay rate (e.g., Doppler) measurements. The beam mismatch error for both delay and delay rate drops rapidly as the beamwidth of the troposphere calibration instrument (e.g., a water vapor radiometer or an infrared Fourier transform spectrometer) is reduced. At a 10-deg elevation angle, the instantaneous beam mismatch error is 1.0 mm for a 6-deg beamwidth and 0.09 mm for a 0.5-deg beam (these are the full angular widths of a circular beam with uniform gain out to a sharp cutoff). Time averaging for 60-100 sec will reduce these errors by factors of 1.2-2.2. At a 20-deg elevation angle, the lower limit for current Doppler observations, the beam-mismatch delay rate error is an Allan standard deviation over 100 sec of 1.1 x 10(exp -14) with a 4-deg beam and 1.3 x 10(exp -l5) for a 0.5-deg beam. A 50-m beam offset would result in a fairly modest (compared to other expected error sources) delay error (less than or equal to 0.3 mm for 60-sec integrations at any elevation angle is greater than or equal to 6 deg). However, the same offset would cause a large error in delay rate measurements (e.g., an Allan standard deviation of 1.2 x 10(exp -14) over 100 sec at a 20-deg elevation angle), which would dominate over other known error sources if the beamwidth is 2 deg or smaller. An on-axis location is essential for accurate troposphere calibration of delay rate measurements. A half-power beamwidth (for a beam with a tapered gain profile) of 1.2 deg or smaller is

  18. National Uranium Resource Evaluation. General procedure for calibration and reduction of aerial gamma-ray measurements: specification BFEC 1250-B

    SciTech Connect

    Purvance, D.; Novak, E.

    1983-12-01

    The information contained in this specification was acquired over the course of the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program during the period 1974 through 1982. NURE was a program of the DOE Grand Junction Area Office to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States. Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) has been the operating contractor for the DOE Grand Junction facility. The requirements stipulated herein had been incorporated as contractual specifications for the various subcontractors engaged in the aerial gamma-ray surveys, which were a major aspect of the NURE program. Although this phase of NURE activities has been completed, there exists valuable knowledge gained from these years of experience in the calibration of gamma-ray spectrometer systems and in the reduction of calibration data. Specification BFEC 1250-B is being open-filed by the US Department of Energy at this time to make this knowledge available to those desiring to apply gamma-ray spectrometry to other geophysical problems.

  19. Design, calibration and validation of a novel 3D printed instrumented spatial linkage that measures changes in the rotational axes of the tibiofemoral joint.

    PubMed

    Bonny, Daniel P; Hull, M L; Howell, S M

    2014-01-01

    An accurate axis-finding technique is required to measure any changes from normal caused by total knee arthroplasty in the flexion-extension (F-E) and longitudinal rotation (LR) axes of the tibiofemoral joint. In a previous paper, we computationally determined how best to design and use an instrumented spatial linkage (ISL) to locate the F-E and LR axes such that rotational and translational errors were minimized. However, the ISL was not built and consequently was not calibrated; thus the errors in locating these axes were not quantified on an actual ISL. Moreover, previous methods to calibrate an ISL used calibration devices with accuracies that were either undocumented or insufficient for the device to serve as a gold-standard. Accordingly, the objectives were to (1) construct an ISL using the previously established guidelines,(2) calibrate the ISL using an improved method, and (3) quantify the error in measuring changes in the F-E and LR axes. A 3D printed ISL was constructed and calibrated using a coordinate measuring machine, which served as a gold standard. Validation was performed using a fixture that represented the tibiofemoral joint with an adjustable F-E axis and the errors in measuring changes to the positions and orientations of the F-E and LR axes were quantified. The resulting root mean squared errors (RMSEs) of the calibration residuals using the new calibration method were 0.24, 0.33, and 0.15 mm for the anterior-posterior, medial-lateral, and proximal-distal positions, respectively, and 0.11, 0.10, and 0.09 deg for varus-valgus, flexion-extension, and internal-external orientations, respectively. All RMSEs were below 0.29% of the respective full-scale range. When measuring changes to the F-E or LR axes, each orientation error was below 0.5 deg; when measuring changes in the F-E axis, each position error was below 1.0 mm. The largest position RMSE was when measuring a medial-lateral change in the LR axis (1.2 mm). Despite the large size

  20. Design, calibration and validation of a novel 3D printed instrumented spatial linkage that measures changes in the rotational axes of the tibiofemoral joint.

    PubMed

    Bonny, Daniel P; Hull, M L; Howell, S M

    2014-01-01

    An accurate axis-finding technique is required to measure any changes from normal caused by total knee arthroplasty in the flexion-extension (F-E) and longitudinal rotation (LR) axes of the tibiofemoral joint. In a previous paper, we computationally determined how best to design and use an instrumented spatial linkage (ISL) to locate the F-E and LR axes such that rotational and translational errors were minimized. However, the ISL was not built and consequently was not calibrated; thus the errors in locating these axes were not quantified on an actual ISL. Moreover, previous methods to calibrate an ISL used calibration devices with accuracies that were either undocumented or insufficient for the device to serve as a gold-standard. Accordingly, the objectives were to (1) construct an ISL using the previously established guidelines,(2) calibrate the ISL using an improved method, and (3) quantify the error in measuring changes in the F-E and LR axes. A 3D printed ISL was constructed and calibrated using a coordinate measuring machine, which served as a gold standard. Validation was performed using a fixture that represented the tibiofemoral joint with an adjustable F-E axis and the errors in measuring changes to the positions and orientations of the F-E and LR axes were quantified. The resulting root mean squared errors (RMSEs) of the calibration residuals using the new calibration method were 0.24, 0.33, and 0.15 mm for the anterior-posterior, medial-lateral, and proximal-distal positions, respectively, and 0.11, 0.10, and 0.09 deg for varus-valgus, flexion-extension, and internal-external orientations, respectively. All RMSEs were below 0.29% of the respective full-scale range. When measuring changes to the F-E or LR axes, each orientation error was below 0.5 deg; when measuring changes in the F-E axis, each position error was below 1.0 mm. The largest position RMSE was when measuring a medial-lateral change in the LR axis (1.2 mm). Despite the large size

  1. Overview of the instrument control and data reduction software in the Sandia data acquisition system at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, W.B.

    1994-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a sophisticated custom digital data acquisition system to record data from a wide variety of experiments conducted on nuclear weapons effects tests at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Software is a critical part of this data acquisition system. In particular software has been developed to support an instrumentation/experiment setup database, interactive and automated instrument control, remote data readout and processing, plotting, interactive data analysis, and automated calibration. Some software is also used as firmware in custom subsystems incorporating embedded microprocessors. The software operations are distributed across the nearly 40 computer nodes that comprise the NTS Wide Area Computer Network. This report is an overview of the software developed to support this data acquisition system. The report also provides a brief description of the computer network and the various recording systems used.

  2. Characterization of thermal desorption instrumentation with a direct liquid deposition calibration method for trace 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene quantitation.

    PubMed

    Field, Christopher R; Giordano, Braden C; Rogers, Duane A; Lubrano, Adam L; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L

    2012-03-01

    The use of thermal desorption systems for the analysis of trace vapors typically requires establishing a calibration curve from vapors generated with a permeation tube. The slow equilibration time of permeation tubes causes such an approach to become laborious when covering a wide dynamic range. Furthermore, many analytes of interest, such as explosives, are not available as permeation tubes. A method for easily and effectively establishing calibration curves for explosive vapor samples via direct deposition of standard solutions on thermal desorption tubes was investigated. The various components of the thermal desorption system were compared to a standard split/splitless inlet. Calibration curves using the direct liquid deposition method with a thermal desorption unit coupled to a cryo-focusing inlet were compared to a standard split/splitless inlet, and a statistical difference was observed but does not eliminate or deter the use of the direct liquid deposition method for obtaining quantitative results for explosive vapors.

  3. In situ calibration of atmospheric-infrasound sensors including the effects of wind-noise-reduction pipe systems.

    PubMed

    Gabrielson, Thomas B

    2011-09-01

    A worldwide network of more than 40 infrasound monitoring stations has been established as part of the effort to ensure compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Each station has four to eight individual infrasound elements in a kilometer-scale array for detection and bearing determination of acoustic events. The frequency range of interest covers a three-decade range-roughly from 0.01 to 10 Hz. A typical infrasound array element consists of a receiving transducer connected to a multiple-inlet pipe network to average spatially over the short-wavelength turbulence-associated "wind noise." Although the frequency response of the transducer itself may be known, the wind-noise reduction system modifies that response. In order to understand the system's impact on detection and identification of acoustical events, the overall frequency response must be determined. This paper describes a technique for measuring the absolute magnitude and phase of the frequency response of an infrasound element including the wind-noise-reduction piping by comparison calibration using ambient noise and a reference-microphone system. Measured coherence between the reference and the infrasound element and the consistency between the magnitude and the phase provide quality checks on the process. PMID:21895058

  4. In situ calibration of atmospheric-infrasound sensors including the effects of wind-noise-reduction pipe systems.

    PubMed

    Gabrielson, Thomas B

    2011-09-01

    A worldwide network of more than 40 infrasound monitoring stations has been established as part of the effort to ensure compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Each station has four to eight individual infrasound elements in a kilometer-scale array for detection and bearing determination of acoustic events. The frequency range of interest covers a three-decade range-roughly from 0.01 to 10 Hz. A typical infrasound array element consists of a receiving transducer connected to a multiple-inlet pipe network to average spatially over the short-wavelength turbulence-associated "wind noise." Although the frequency response of the transducer itself may be known, the wind-noise reduction system modifies that response. In order to understand the system's impact on detection and identification of acoustical events, the overall frequency response must be determined. This paper describes a technique for measuring the absolute magnitude and phase of the frequency response of an infrasound element including the wind-noise-reduction piping by comparison calibration using ambient noise and a reference-microphone system. Measured coherence between the reference and the infrasound element and the consistency between the magnitude and the phase provide quality checks on the process.

  5. Design, Calibration and Specifications of the Space Environment in-Situ Suite (SEISSS) Space Weather Instruments for the GOES-R Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dichter, B.; Galica, G. E.; McGarity, J. O.; Mullen, E. G.; Hanser, F. A.; Tsui, S.; Lopate, C.; Connell, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The next generation GOES spacecraft will continue the long-term operational measurement of the charged particle environment in geosynchronous orbit with the SEISS space environment monitors. The suite comprises five instruments that measure electrons and ions in multiple energy ranges and a data processing unit. Two of the instruments, MPS-LO and EHIS provide new measurement capabilities compared with previous GOES environmental monitors. The MPS-LO (new to GOES) is an electrostatic instrument that measures electrons and ions from 30 eV to 30 keV in 15 logarithmically spaced energy bins. Its twelve 15ox5o angular channels provide a 180o FOV oriented north to south. The MPS-HI instrument, using solid state Si detector telescopes, covers the energy range of 50 keV to 4 MeV for electrons and 80 keV to 10 MeV for protons each along five 15o half angle look angles spaced 35o apart. High energy solar and galactic protons in the range of 1 to 500 MeV are measured by the SGPS, which also has an integral channel above 500 MeV. This broad energy range is divided into three sub-ranges, 1-25, 25-80 and 80-500 MeV, each measured by a separate Si detector telescope. The opening half-angles of the telescopes are 30o, 30o and 45o respectively. There are east and west oriented SGPS instruments. Energetic heavy ions are detected by EHIS, also consisting of solid state detectors, in thirty individual species from H to Ni and in five logarithmically spaced energy bands from 10 MeV/n to 200 MeV/n. The FOV is a 30oopening half-angle cone. Extensive calibrations at accelerator facilities have been performed to verify the 25% accuracy of each instrument's geometric factor. In addition, performances of the solid state detector instruments have been modeled using the GEANT and FLUKA Monte Carlo codes and the results compared to calibration measurements. Energy overlap regions of the instruments will be used to improve the quality and self-consistency of the data sets.

  6. The JWST Calibration Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Christine; Muzerolle, James; Dixon, William Van Dyke; Izela Diaz, Rosa; Bushouse, Howard A.

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will launch in 2018 and carry four science instruments that will observe the sky at 0.7 - 29 micron: the Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam), the Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS), the Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec), and the Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI). The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is currently building a data reduction pipeline that will provide not only basic calibrated data but also higher level science products. All of the JWST detectors will be operated in non-destructive readout mode. Therefore, the first step in the pipeline will be to calculate the slopes of indivudal non-destructive readout ramps or integrations. The next step will be to generate calibrated slope images that are represent the basic calibrated data. The final step will be to combine data taken across multiple integrations and exposure. For the direct imaging and integral field spectroscopy modes, the pipeline will produce calibrated mosaicks. For the coronagraphic modes, the pipeline will produce contrast curves and PSF subtracted images.

  7. Joint implementation as a financing instrument for global reductions in greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, B.

    1995-11-01

    Joint implementation is based on the idea of cost-effectiveness by providing parties with the opportunity to partially off-set their own emissions with cheaper reductions achieved elsewhere. Joint implementation can be defined as realization of reduction emissions by one investor on the territory of another. Joint implementation could contribute to the North-South cooperation that is embedded in the Climate Convention.

  8. Rigorous noise test and calibration check of strong-motion instrumentation at the Conrad Observatory in Austria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, R.; Costa, G.; Lenhardt, W.; Horn, N.; Suhadolc, P.

    2012-04-01

    In the framework of the European InterregIV Italy/Austria project: "HAREIA - Historical and Recent Earthquakes in Italy and Austria" the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) and Mathematic and Geosciences Department of University of Trieste (DMG) are upgrading the transfrontier seismic network of South-Eastern Alps with new 12 accelerometric stations to enhance the strong motion instrument density near the Austria/Italy border. Various public institutions of the provinces Alto Adige (Bolzano Province), Veneto (ARPAV) and Friuli Venezia Giulia (Regional Civil Defense) in Italy and in the Austrian province of Tyrol are involved in the project. The site selection was carried out to improve the present local network geometry thus meeting the needs of public Institutions in the involved regions. In Tyrol and Alto Adige some strategic buildings (hospitals and public buildings) have been selected, whereas in Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia the sites are in the free field, mainly located near villages. The instruments will be installed in an innovative box, designed by ZAMG, that provides electric and water isolation. The common choice regarding the instrument selection has been the new Kinemetrics Basalt ® accelerograph to guarantee homogeneity with the already installed instrumentation and compatibility with the software already in use at the different seismic institutions in the area. Prior to deployment the equipment was tested at the Conrad Observatory and a common set-up has been devised. The Conrad Observatory, seismically particularly quiet, permits to analyze both the sensor and the acquisition system noise. The instruments were connected to the network and the data sent in real-time to the ZAMG data center in Vienna and the DMG data center in Trieste. The data have been collected in the database and analyzed using signal processing modules PQLX and Matlab. The data analysis of the recordings at the ultra-quiet Conrad Observatory pointed out

  9. An 800-Year Record of Sediment-Derived, Instrumentally-Calibrated Foraminiferal Mg/Ca SST Estimates From the Tropical North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, D. E.; Abahazi, M. A.; Thunell, R. C.; Tappa, E. J.

    2005-12-01

    Most geochemical paleoclimate proxies are calibrated to different climate variables using laboratory culture, surface sediment, or sediment trap experiments. The varved, high-deposition rate sediments of the Cariaco Basin (Venezuela) provide the nearly unique opportunity to compare and calibrate paleoceanographic proxy data directly against true oceanic historical instrumental climate records. Here we present one of the first sediment-derived foraminiferal-Mg/Ca to SST calibrations spanning A. D. 1870-1990. The record of Mg/Ca-estimated tropical North Atlantic SSTs is then extended back to approximately A. D. 1200. Box core PL07-73 BC, recovered from the northeastern slope of Cariaco Basin, was sampled at consecutive 1 mm increments and processed for foraminiferal population, stable isotope, and Mg/Ca (by ICP-AES) analyses. The age model for this core was established by correlating faunal population records from PL07-73 to a nearby very well-dated Cariaco Basin box core, PL07-71 BC. The resulting age model yields consecutive sample intervals of one to two years. Mg/Ca ratios measured on Globigerina bulloides in samples deposited between A. D. 1870 and 1990 were calibrated to monthly SSTs from the Met Office Hadley Centre's SST data set for the Cariaco Basin grid square. Annual correlations between G. bulloides Mg/Ca and instrumental SST were highest (r=0.6, p<.0001, n=120) for the months of March, April, and May, the time when sediment trap studies indicate G. bulloides is most abundant in the basin. The full-length Mg/Ca-estimated SST record is characterized by decadal- and centennial-scale variability. The tropical western North Atlantic does not appear to have experienced a pronounced Medieval Warm Period relative to the complete record. However, strong Little Ice Age cooling of as much as 3 ° C occurred between A. D. 1525 and 1625. Spring SSTs gradually rose between A. D. 1650 and 1900 followed by a 2.5 ° C warming over the 20th century.

  10. Strategies for data collection and calibration with a pinhole-geometry SAXS instrument on a synchrotron beamline.

    PubMed

    Cookson, David; Kirby, Nigel; Knott, Robert; Lee, Myungae; Schultz, David

    2006-11-01

    Undulator X-ray sources on third-generation synchrotrons have pushed small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to the forefront of techniques in nanoscience and technology. With higher X-ray fluxes and improved focusing, it is usually the scattered intensity detector that places the most serious limitations on the overall capabilities of the instrument. Incorporating relatively simple components like point detectors, scattering standards, masking filters and in-line sample visualization into the flight tube of a pinhole-geometry SAXS camera can do much to mitigate these limitations. How these enhancements can be incorporated into routine data collection is demonstrated on the ChemMatCARS SAXS instrument, which utilizes pinhole geometry with an undulator insertion device at sector 15 of the Advanced Photon Source. In addition, with an X-ray energy range of 6-32 keV (2.0-0.4 A) and an energy resolution of 10(-4) DeltaE/E, this instrument can measure anomalous SAXS over a wide variety of atom species, with reliable normalization of scattered data.

  11. Continued reduction and analysis of data from the Dynamics Explorer Plasma Wave Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.; Weimer, Daniel R.

    1994-01-01

    The plasma wave instrument on the Dynamics Explorer 1 spacecraft provided measurements of the electric and magnetic components of plasma waves in the Earth's magnetosphere. Four receiver systems processed signals from five antennas. Sixty-seven theses, scientific papers and reports were prepared from the data generated. Data processing activities and techniques used to analyze the data are described and highlights of discoveries made and research undertaken are tabulated.

  12. Calibrating MMS Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) Ambient Electron Flux Measurements and Characterizing 3D Electric Field Signatures of Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuster, J. R.; Torbert, R. B.; Vaith, H.; Argall, M. R.; Li, G.; Chen, L. J.; Ergun, R. E.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Marklund, G. T.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Russell, C. T.; Magnes, W.; Le Contel, O.; Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    The electron drift instruments (EDIs) onboard each MMS spacecraft are designed with large geometric factors (~0.01cm2 str) to facilitate detection of weak (~100 nA) electron beams fired and received by the two gun-detector units (GDUs) when EDI is in its "electric field mode" to determine the local electric and magnetic fields. A consequence of the large geometric factor is that "ambient mode" electron flux measurements (500 eV electrons having 0°, 90°, or 180° pitch angle) can vary depending on the orientation of the EDI instrument with respect to the magnetic field, a nonphysical effect that requires a correction. Here, we present determinations of the θ- and ø-dependent correction factors for the eight EDI GDUs, where θ (ø) is the polar (azimuthal) angle between the GDU symmetry axis and the local magnetic field direction, and compare the corrected fluxes with those measured by the fast plasma instrument (FPI). Using these corrected, high time resolution (~1,000 samples per second) ambient electron fluxes, combined with the unprecedentedly high resolution 3D electric field measurements taken by the spin-plane and axial double probes (SDP and ADP), we are equipped to accurately detect electron-scale current layers and electric field waves associated with the non-Maxwellian (anisotropic and agyrotropic) particle distribution functions predicted to exist in the reconnection diffusion region. We compare initial observations of the diffusion region with distributions and wave analysis from PIC simulations of asymmetric reconnection applicable for modeling reconnection at the Earth's magnetopause, where MMS will begin Science Phase 1 as of September 1, 2015.

  13. Recent Large Reduction in Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Chinese Power Plants Observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Can; Zhang, Qiang; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Streets, David G.; He, Kebin; Tsay, Si-Chee; Gleason, James F.

    2010-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASA's Aura satellite observed substantial increases in total column SO2 and tropospheric column NO2 from 2005 to 2007, over several areas in northern China where large coal-fired power plants were built during this period. The OMI-observed SO2/NO2 ratio is consistent with the SO2/ NO2, emissions estimated from a bottom-up approach. In 2008 over the same areas, OMI detected little change in NO2, suggesting steady electricity output from the power plants. However, dramatic reductions of S0 2 emissions were observed by OMI at the same time. These reductions confirm the effectiveness of the flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in reducing S02 emissions, which likely became operational between 2007 and 2008. This study further demonstrates that the satellite sensors can monitor and characterize anthropogenic emissions from large point sources.

  14. Calibration of the scales of areal surface topography-measuring instruments: part 1. Measurement noise and residual flatness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusca, Claudiu L.; Leach, Richard K.; Helary, Franck; Gutauskas, Tadas; Nimishakavi, Lakshmi

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present methods for determining the measurement noise and residual flatness of areal surface topography-measuring instruments. The methods are compliant with draft international specification standards on areal surface texture. We first introduce the international standards framework and then present current methods based on averaging and subtraction to isolate the measurement noise and residual flatness from the sample surface topography. These methods are relatively difficult to apply and time consuming in practice. An alternative method is presented based on thresholding and filtering techniques. This method is simple to apply in practice. Traceability and measurement uncertainty are discussed.

  15. Pre-flight calibration and initial data processing for the ChemCam laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiens, R.C.; Maurice, S.; Lasue, J.; Forni, O.; Anderson, R.B.; Clegg, S.; Bender, S.; Blaney, D.; Barraclough, B.L.; Cousin, A.; DeFlores, L.; Delapp, D.; Dyar, M.D.; Fabre, C.; Gasnault, O.; Lanza, N.; Mazoyer, J.; Melikechi, N.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Newsom, H.; Ollila, A.; Perez, R.; Tokar, R.; Vaniman, D.

    2013-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument package on the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, is the first planetary science instrument to employ laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine the compositions of geological samples on another planet. Pre-processing of the spectra involves subtracting the ambient light background, removing noise, removing the electron continuum, calibrating for the wavelength, correcting for the variable distance to the target, and applying a wavelength-dependent correction for the instrument response. Further processing of the data uses multivariate and univariate comparisons with a LIBS spectral library developed prior to launch as well as comparisons with several on-board standards post-landing. The level-2 data products include semi-quantitative abundances derived from partial least squares regression. A LIBS spectral library was developed using 69 rock standards in the form of pressed powder disks, glasses, and ceramics to minimize heterogeneity on the scale of the observation (350–550 μm dia.). The standards covered typical compositional ranges of igneous materials and also included sulfates, carbonates, and phyllosilicates. The provenance and elemental and mineralogical compositions of these standards are described. Spectral characteristics of this data set are presented, including the size distribution and integrated irradiances of the plasmas, and a proxy for plasma temperature as a function of distance from the instrument. Two laboratory-based clones of ChemCam reside in Los Alamos and Toulouse for the purpose of adding new spectra to the database as the need arises. Sensitivity to differences in wavelength correlation to spectral channels and spectral resolution has been investigated, indicating that spectral registration needs to be within half a pixel and resolution needs to match within 1.5 to 2.6 pixels. Absolute errors are tabulated for derived compositions of each major element in each standard using PLS regression

  16. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  17. Inherent calibration of a blue LED-CE-DOAS instrument to measure iodine oxide, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide, water vapour and aerosol extinction in open cavity mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalman, R.; Volkamer, R.

    2010-12-01

    The combination of Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (CEAS) with broad-band light sources (e.g. Light-Emitting Diodes, LEDs) lends itself to the application of cavity enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE-DOAS) to perform sensitive and selective point measurements of multiple trace gases and aerosol extinction with a single instrument. In contrast to other broad-band CEAS techniques, CE-DOAS relies only on the measurement of relative intensity changes, i.e. does not require knowledge of the light intensity in the absence of trace gases and aerosols (I0). We have built a prototype LED-CE-DOAS instrument in the blue spectral range (420-490 nm) to measure nitrogen dioxide (NO2), glyoxal (CHOCHO), methyl glyoxal (CH3COCHO), iodine oxide (IO), water vapour (H2O) and oxygen dimers (O4). We demonstrate the first direct detection of methyl glyoxal, and the first CE-DOAS detection of CHOCHO and IO. The instrument is further inherently calibrated for light extinction from the cavity by observing O4 or H2O (at 477 nm and 443 nm) and measuring the pressure, relative humidity and temperature independently. This approach is demonstrated by experiments where laboratory aerosols of known size and refractive index were generated and their extinction measured. The measured extinctions were then compared to the theoretical extinctions calculated using Mie theory (3-7 × 10-7cm-1). Excellent agreement is found from both the O4 and H2O retrievals. This enables the first inherently calibrated CEAS measurement at blue wavelengths in open cavity mode, and eliminates the need for sampling lines to supply air to the cavity, i.e., keep the cavity enclosed and/or aerosol free. Measurements in open cavity mode are demonstrated for CHOCHO, CH3COCHO, NO2, H2O and aerosol extinction. Our prototype LED-CE-DOAS provides a low cost, yet research grade innovative instrument for applications in simulation chambers and in the open atmosphere.

  18. Cryogenic Infrared Radiance Instrumentation for Shuttle (CIRRIS 1A) Earth limb spectral measurements, calibration, and atmospheric O3, HNO3, CFC-12, and CFC-11 profile retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, G. E.; Zhou, D. K.; Bartschi, B. Y.; Anderson, G. P.; Smith, D. R.; Chetwynd, J. H.; Nadile, R. M.

    1997-02-01

    During the Space Transportation System 39 (STS 39) flight of April 28 to May 6, 1991, the Cryogenic Infrared Radiance Instrumentation for Shuttle (CIRRIS 1A) measured spectral and spatial ("Earth limb scan") distributions of the atmospheric infrared (IR) emissions using a Michelson interferometer. The IR spectral radiant emissions from the greenhouse gases were collected at a shuttle altitude of 260 km in the 9-13 μm atmosphere infrared window. Before and after the flight, the response of CIRRIS 1A to the IR spectral emission sources was calibrated using absolute and spectral source types. The Fast Atmospheric Signature Code 3, which used the HITRAN92 database and predetermined temperature-pressure profiles from the National Meteorological Center, was used in an onion-peeling routine to retrieve gas concentrations from absolutely calibrated spectral data (moderate resolution ˜1.0 cm-1). Vertical profiles of O3, HNO3, CFC-12, and CFC-11 are presented. An error analysis is presented to show the quality of the measured spectral data and the accuracy of these retrieval results. The concentrations of CFC-11 (3.0×10-4 ppmv) and CFC-12 (4.9×10-4 ppmv) in the tropopause region are consistent with a global flux increment rate of about 5% yr-1. The observed concentrations of HNO3 are consistent with previous reports for a relatively clean stratosphere.

  19. An instrument to assess quality of life in relation to nutrition: item generation, item reduction and initial validation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is arguable that modification of diet, given its potential for positive health outcomes, should be widely advocated and adopted. However, food intake, as a basic human need, and its modification may be accompanied by sensations of both pleasure and despondency and may consequently affect to quality of life (QoL). Thus, the feasibility and success of dietary changes will depend, at least partly, on whether potential negative influences on QoL can be avoided. This is of particular importance in the context of dietary intervention studies and in the development of new food products to improve health and well being. Instruments to measure the impact of nutrition on quality of life in the general population, however, are few and far between. Therefore, the aim of this project was to develop an instrument for measuring QoL related to nutrition in the general population. Methods and results We recruited participants from the general population and followed standard methodology for quality of life instrument development (identification of population, item selection, n = 24; item reduction, n = 81; item presentation, n = 12; pretesting of questionnaire and initial validation, n = 2576; construct validation n = 128; and test-retest reliability n = 20). Of 187 initial items, 29 were selected for final presentation. Factor analysis revealed an instrument with 5 domains. The instrument demonstrated good cross-sectional divergent and convergent construct validity when correlated with scores of the 8 domains of the SF-36 (ranging from -0.078 to 0.562, 19 out of 40 tested correlations were statistically significant and 24 correlations were predicted correctly) and good test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficients from 0.71 for symptoms to 0.90). Conclusions We developed and validated an instrument with 29 items across 5 domains to assess quality of life related to nutrition and other aspects of food intake. The instrument demonstrated good face and

  20. Investigation of the dynamic thermal infrared signatures of a calibration target instrumented with a network of 1-wire temperature sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Gareth D.; Merken, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we describe the temperature and thermal variations from a painted geometrical target (CUBI) fitted with a network of internally mounted 1-wire temperature sensors. The sensors, which were calibrated in a temperature-controlled oven, were recorded every 20 seconds over a period from May to December 2015. This amounts to an archive of approximately 180 days of near uninterrupted data. Two meteorological stations collocated with the CUBI on a roof test site, record relevant environmental parameters every few minutes. In this paper, we analyze the data for only one day, 2 October 2015, for which a wavelet analysis highlights the contribution of different temporal fluctuations to total signature. We selected this specific day since it represented simple environmental conditions, and additionally images from a 3-5 microns (MWIR) thermal imager were recorded. Finally, we demonstrate that a wavelet decomposition of the temperature signature to be a useful method to characterize dynamic temperature changes, and perhaps a method to verify prediction models for varying fluctuation scales.

  1. Satellite Instrument Calibration for Measuring Global Climate Change. Report of a Workshop at the University of Maryland Inn and Conference Center, College Park, MD. , November 12-14, 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohring, G.; Wielicki, B.; Spencer, R.; Emery, B.; Datla, R.

    2004-01-01

    Measuring the small changes associated with long-term global climate change from space is a daunting task. To address these problems and recommend directions for improvements in satellite instrument calibration some 75 scientists, including researchers who develop and analyze long-term data sets from satellites, experts in the field of satellite instrument calibration, and physicists working on state of the art calibration sources and standards met November 12 - 14, 2002 and discussed the issues. The workshop defined the absolute accuracies and long-term stabilities of global climate data sets that are needed to detect expected trends, translated these data set accuracies and stabilities to required satellite instrument accuracies and stabilities, and evaluated the ability of current observing systems to meet these requirements. The workshop's recommendations include a set of basic axioms or overarching principles that must guide high quality climate observations in general, and a roadmap for improving satellite instrument characterization, calibration, inter-calibration, and associated activities to meet the challenge of measuring global climate change. It is also recommended that a follow-up workshop be conducted to discuss implementation of the roadmap developed at this workshop.

  2. Instrumental background in balloon-borne gamma-ray spectrometers and techniques for its reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.

    1985-01-01

    Instrumental background in balloon-borne gamma-ray spectrometers is presented. The calculations are based on newly available interaction cross sections and new analytic techniques, and are the most detailed and accurate published to date. Results compare well with measurements made in the 20 keV to 10 MeV energy range by the Goddard Low Energy Gamma-ray Spectrometer (LEGS). The principal components of the continuum background in spectrometers with GE detectors and thick active shields are: (1) elastic neutron scattering of atmospheric neutrons on the Ge nuclei; (2) aperture flux of atmospheric and cosmic gamma rays; (3) beta decays of unstable nuclides produced by nuclear interactions of atmospheric protons and neutrons with Ge nuclei; and (4) shield leakage of atmospheric gamma rays. The improved understanding of these components leads to several recommended techniques for reducing the background.

  3. SUMS calibration test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, G.

    1982-01-01

    Calibration was performed on the shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer (SUMS). The results of the calibration and the as run test procedures are presented. The output data is described, and engineering data conversion factors, tables and curves, and calibration on instrument gauges are included. Static calibration results which include: instrument sensitive versus external pressure for N2 and O2, data from each scan of calibration, data plots from N2 and O2, and sensitivity of SUMS at inlet for N2 and O2, and ratios of 14/28 for nitrogen and 16/32 for oxygen are given.

  4. Definition of the limit of quantification in the presence of instrumental and non-instrumental errors. Comparison among various definitions applied to the calibration of zinc by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badocco, Denis; Lavagnini, Irma; Mondin, Andrea; Favaro, Gabriella; Pastore, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    The limit of quantification (LOQ) in the presence of instrumental and non-instrumental errors was proposed. It was theoretically defined combining the two-component variance regression and LOQ schemas already present in the literature and applied to the calibration of zinc by the ICP-MS technique. At low concentration levels, the two-component variance LOQ definition should be always used above all when a clean room is not available. Three LOQ definitions were accounted for. One of them in the concentration and two in the signal domain. The LOQ computed in the concentration domain, proposed by Currie, was completed by adding the third order terms in the Taylor expansion because they are of the same order of magnitude of the second ones so that they cannot be neglected. In this context, the error propagation was simplified by eliminating the correlation contributions by using independent random variables. Among the signal domain definitions, a particular attention was devoted to the recently proposed approach based on at least one significant digit in the measurement. The relative LOQ values resulted very large in preventing the quantitative analysis. It was found that the Currie schemas in the signal and concentration domains gave similar LOQ values but the former formulation is to be preferred as more easily computable.

  5. Comprehensive combinatory standard correction: a calibration method for handling instrumental drifts of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems.

    PubMed

    Deport, Coralie; Ratel, Jérémy; Berdagué, Jean-Louis; Engel, Erwan

    2006-05-26

    The current work describes a new method, the comprehensive combinatory standard correction (CCSC), for the correction of instrumental signal drifts in GC-MS systems. The method consists in analyzing together with the products of interest a mixture of n selected internal standards, and in normalizing the peak area of each analyte by the sum of standard areas and then, select among the summation operator sigma(p = 1)(n)C(n)p possible sums, the sum that enables the best product discrimination. The CCSC method was compared with classical techniques of data pre-processing like internal normalization (IN) or single standard correction (SSC) on their ability to correct raw data from the main drifts occurring in a dynamic headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system. Three edible oils with closely similar compositions in volatile compounds were analysed using a device which performance was modulated by using new or used dynamic headspace traps and GC-columns, and by modifying the tuning of the mass spectrometer. According to one-way ANOVA, the CCSC method increased the number of analytes discriminating the products (31 after CCSC versus 25 with raw data or after IN and 26 after SSC). Moreover, CCSC enabled a satisfactory discrimination of the products irrespective of the drifts. In a factorial discriminant analysis, 100% of the samples (n = 121) were well-classified after CCSC versus 45% for raw data, 90 and 93%, respectively after IN and SSC. PMID:16631179

  6. DIRBE External Calibrator (DEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Clair L.; Thurgood, V. Alan; Allred, Glenn D.

    1987-01-01

    Under NASA Contract No. NAS5-28185, the Center for Space Engineering at Utah State University has produced a calibration instrument for the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE). DIRBE is one of the instruments aboard the Cosmic Background Experiment Observatory (COBE). The calibration instrument is referred to as the DEC (Dirbe External Calibrator). DEC produces a steerable, infrared beam of controlled spectral content and intensity and with selectable point source or diffuse source characteristics, that can be directed into the DIRBE to map fields and determine response characteristics. This report discusses the design of the DEC instrument, its operation and characteristics, and provides an analysis of the systems capabilities and performance.

  7. Evaluation of Microbial Reduction in Root Canals Instrumented with Reciprocating and Rotary Systems

    PubMed Central

    DE OLIVEIRA, BRUNA PALOMA; AGUIAR, CARLOS MENEZES; CÂMARA, ANDRÉA CRUZ; DE ALBUQUERQUE, MIRACY MUNIZ; CORREIA, ANA CRISTINA REGIS DE BARROS; SOARES, MONICA FELTS DE LA ROCA

    2015-01-01

    Objective This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the disinfection of root canal systems carried out with ReciprocTM and ProTaper UniversalTM systems using 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Methods Forty human single-rooted mandibular premolars were infected with Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, and twenty were not infected. The specimens were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 10): Group 1: ProTaper UniversalTM + 1% NaOCl; Group 2 (positive control): ProTaper UniversalTM + saline; Group 3 (negative control without microorganisms): ProTaper UniversalTM + saline; Group 4: ReciprocTM + 1% NaOCl; Group 5 (positive control): ReciprocTM + saline; Group 6 (negative control without microorganisms): ReciprocTM + saline. Samples were collected before and after the completion of specific treatments, and plated in specific media cultures. The Fisher exact test was used for the statistical analysis of differences in terms of presence or absence of microbial growth among groups. For all tested pathogens, significant differences (p < 0.001) were verified between the instrumentation systems used. Results ProTaper UniversalTM associated with 1% NaOCl completely eliminated all microorganisms. Microbial growth, however, was observed when ReciprocTM was used associated with 1% NaOCl. Conclusion According to the protocol executed for this study, the ReciprocTM system associated with 1% NaOCl was not able to completely eliminate E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and C. albicans from the root canal systems.

  8. Evaluation of Microbial Reduction in Root Canals Instrumented with Reciprocating and Rotary Systems

    PubMed Central

    DE OLIVEIRA, BRUNA PALOMA; AGUIAR, CARLOS MENEZES; CÂMARA, ANDRÉA CRUZ; DE ALBUQUERQUE, MIRACY MUNIZ; CORREIA, ANA CRISTINA REGIS DE BARROS; SOARES, MONICA FELTS DE LA ROCA

    2015-01-01

    Objective This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the disinfection of root canal systems carried out with ReciprocTM and ProTaper UniversalTM systems using 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Methods Forty human single-rooted mandibular premolars were infected with Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, and twenty were not infected. The specimens were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 10): Group 1: ProTaper UniversalTM + 1% NaOCl; Group 2 (positive control): ProTaper UniversalTM + saline; Group 3 (negative control without microorganisms): ProTaper UniversalTM + saline; Group 4: ReciprocTM + 1% NaOCl; Group 5 (positive control): ReciprocTM + saline; Group 6 (negative control without microorganisms): ReciprocTM + saline. Samples were collected before and after the completion of specific treatments, and plated in specific media cultures. The Fisher exact test was used for the statistical analysis of differences in terms of presence or absence of microbial growth among groups. For all tested pathogens, significant differences (p < 0.001) were verified between the instrumentation systems used. Results ProTaper UniversalTM associated with 1% NaOCl completely eliminated all microorganisms. Microbial growth, however, was observed when ReciprocTM was used associated with 1% NaOCl. Conclusion According to the protocol executed for this study, the ReciprocTM system associated with 1% NaOCl was not able to completely eliminate E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and C. albicans from the root canal systems. PMID:27688413

  9. Charge-coupled device imaging spectroscopy of Mars. I - Instrumentation and data reduction/analysis procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James F., III; Lucey, Paul G.; Mccord, Thomas B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the collection, reduction, and analysis of 0.4-1.0-micron Mars imaging spectroscopy data obtained during the 1988 and 1990 oppositions from Mauna Kea Observatory and provides a general outline for the acquisition and analysis of similar imaging spectroscopy data sets. The U.H. 2.24-m Wide Field Grism CCD Spectrograph was used to collect 13 3D image cubes covering 90 percent of the planet south of 50 deg N in the 0.4-0.8 micron region and covering 55 percent of the planet south of 50 deg N in the 0.5-1.0 micron region. Spectra extracted from these image cubes reveal the detailed character of the Martian near-UV to visible spectrum. Images at red wavelengths reveal the 'classical' albedo markings at 100-500 km spatial resolution while images at blue wavelengths show little surface feature contrast and are dominated by condensate clouds/hazes and polar ice.

  10. Implicit Spacecraft Gyro Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, Richard; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an implicit algorithm for spacecraft onboard instrument calibration, particularly to onboard gyro calibration. This work is an extension of previous work that was done where an explicit gyro calibration algorithm was applied to the AQUA spacecraft gyros. The algorithm presented in this paper was tested using simulated data and real data that were downloaded from the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) spacecraft. The calibration tests gave very good results. A comparison between the use of the implicit calibration algorithm used here with the explicit algorithm used for AQUA spacecraft indicates that both provide an excellent estimation of the gyro calibration parameters with similar accuracies.

  11. Design and Calibration of a Raman Spectrometer for use in a Laser Spectroscopy Instrument Intended to Analyze Martian Surface and Atmospheric Characteristics for NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, John F.; Hornef, James

    2016-01-01

    This project's goal is the design of a Raman spectroscopy instrument to be utilized by NASA in an integrated spectroscopy strategy that will include Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser-Induced Florescence Spectroscopy (LIFS) for molecule and element identification on Mars Europa, and various asteroids. The instrument is to be down scaled from a dedicated rover mounted instrument into a compact unit with the same capabilities and accuracy as the larger instrument. The focus for this design is a spectrometer that utilizes Raman spectroscopy. The spectrometer has a calculated range of 218 nm wavelength spectrum with a resolution of 1.23 nm. To filter out the laser source wavelength of 532 nm the spectrometer design utilizes a 532 nm wavelength dichroic mirror and a 532 nm wavelength notch filter. The remaining scatter signal is concentrated by a 20 x microscopic objective through a 25-micron vertical slit into a 5mm diameter, 1cm focal length double concave focusing lens. The light is then diffracted by a 1600 Lines per Millimeter (L/mm) dual holographic transmission grating. This spectrum signal is captured by a 1-inch diameter double convex 3 cm focal length capture lens. An Intensified Charge Couple Device (ICCD) is placed within the initial focal cone of the capture lens and the Raman signal captured is to be analyzed through spectroscopy imaging software. This combination allows for accurate Raman spectroscopy to be achieved. The components for the spectrometer have been bench tested in a series of prototype developments based on theoretical calculations, alignment, and scaling strategies. The mounting platform is 2.5 cm wide by 8.8 cm long by 7 cm height. This platform has been tested and calibrated with various sources such as a neon light source and ruby crystal. This platform is intended to be enclosed in a ruggedized enclosure for mounting on a rover platform. The size and functionality of the Raman spectrometer allows for the rover to

  12. Inherent calibration of a novel LED-CE-DOAS instrument to measure iodine oxide, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide, water vapour and aerosol extinction in open cavity mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalman, R.; Volkamer, R.

    2010-06-01

    The combination of Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (CEAS) with broad-band light sources (e.g. Light-Emitting Diodes, LEDs) lends itself to the application of cavity enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE-DOAS) to perform sensitive and selective point measurements of multiple trace gases and aerosol extinction with a single instrument. In contrast to other broad-band CEAS techniques, CE-DOAS relies only on the measurement of relative intensity changes, i.e. does not require knowledge of the light intensity in the absence of trace gases and aerosols (I0). We have built a prototype LED-CE-DOAS instrument in the blue spectral range (420-490 nm) to measure nitrogen dioxide (NO2), glyoxal (CHOCHO), methyl glyoxal (CH3COCHO), iodine oxide (IO), water vapour (H2O) and oxygen dimers (O4). We demonstrate the first CEAS detection of methyl glyoxal, and the first CE-DOAS detection of CHOCHO and IO. A further innovation consists in the measurement of extinction losses from the cavity, e.g. due to aerosols, at two wavelengths by observing O4 (477 nm) and H2O (443 nm) and measuring the pressure, relative humidity and temperature independently. This approach is demonstrated by experiments where laboratory aerosols of known size and refractive index were generated and their extinction measured. The measured extinctions were then compared to the theoretical extinctions calculated using Mie theory (3-7×10-7 cm-1). Excellent agreement is found from both the O4 and H2O retrievals. This enables the first inherently calibrated CEAS measurement in open cavity mode (mirrors facing the open atmosphere), and eliminates the need for sampling lines to supply air to the cavity, and/or keep the cavity enclosed and aerosol free. Measurements in open cavity mode are demonstrated for CHOCHO, CH3COCHO, NO2, H2O and aerosol extinction at 477 nm and 443 nm. Our prototype LED-CE-DOAS provides a low cost, yet research grade innovative instrument for applications in simulation

  13. Derivation of the Data Reduction Equations for the Calibration of the Six-component Thrust Stand in the CE-22 Advanced Nozzle Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Kin C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper documents the derivation of the data reduction equations for the calibration of the six-component thrust stand located in the CE-22 Advanced Nozzle Test Facility. The purpose of the calibration is to determine the first-order interactions between the axial, lateral, and vertical load cells (second-order interactions are assumed to be negligible). In an ideal system, the measurements made by the thrust stand along the three coordinate axes should be independent. For example, when a test article applies an axial force on the thrust stand, the axial load cells should measure the full magnitude of the force, while the off-axis load cells (lateral and vertical) should read zero. Likewise, if a lateral force is applied, the lateral load cells should measure the entire force, while the axial and vertical load cells should read zero. However, in real-world systems, there may be interactions between the load cells. Through proper design of the thrust stand, these interactions can be minimized, but are hard to eliminate entirely. Therefore, the purpose of the thrust stand calibration is to account for these interactions, so that necessary corrections can be made during testing. These corrections can be expressed in the form of an interaction matrix, and this paper shows the derivation of the equations used to obtain the coefficients in this matrix.

  14. Calibration of PS09, PS10, and PS11 trans-Alaska pipeline system strong-motion instruments, with acceleration, velocity, and displacement records of the Denali fault earthquake, 03 November 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, John R.; Jensen, E. Gray; Sell, Russell; Stephens, Christopher D.; Nyman, Douglas J.; Hamilton, Robert C.; Hager, William C.

    2006-01-01

    In September, 2003, the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company (APSC) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) embarked on a joint effort to extract, test, and calibrate the accelerometers, amplifiers, and bandpass filters from the earthquake monitoring systems (EMS) at Pump Stations 09, 10, and 11 of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). These were the three closest strong-motion seismographs to the Denali fault when it ruptured in the MW 7.9 earthquake of 03 November 2002 (22:12:41 UTC). The surface rupture is only 3.0 km from PS10 and 55.5 km from PS09 but PS11 is 124.2 km away from a small rupture splay and 126.9 km from the main trace. Here we briefly describe precision calibration results for all three instruments. Included with this report is a link to the seismograms reprocessed using these new calibrations: http://nsmp.wr.usgs.gov/data_sets/20021103_2212_taps.html Calibration information in this paper applies at the time of the Denali fault earthquake (03 November 2002), but not necessarily at other times because equipment at these stations is changed by APSC personnel at irregular intervals. In particular, the equipment at PS09, PS10, and PS11 was changed by our joint crew in September, 2003, so that we could perform these calibrations. The equipment stayed the same from at least the time of the earthquake until that retrieval, and these calibrations apply for that interval.

  15. Data calibration and reduction allows to visualize behavioural profiles of psychosocial influences in mice towards clinical domains.

    PubMed

    Badowska, Dorota M; Brzózka, Magdalena M; Chowdhury, Ananya; Malzahn, Dörthe; Rossner, Moritz J

    2015-09-01

    Psychosocial stress-particularly in combination with genetic vulnerability-is a critical environmental risk factor for psychiatric diseases in humans. Isolation rearing (IR) and social defeat (SD) paradigms model psychosocial risk factors in rodents, while enriched environment (EE) protects them from behavioural deficits. Studying the influence of various environmental conditions, e.g., on genetic mouse models can help to dissect the complex gene-environment relationships underlying human psychiatric diseases. Such studies may require analysing multiple mouse cohorts; however, the comparability of behavioural experiments is challenging and often compromised by practical limitations such as group sizes and influences of handling. Therefore, protocol standardization as well as appropriate statistical normalization is necessary to compare different experiments. In this study, we analysed two independent cohorts to compare the behavioural profiles of wild-type male mice subjected to IR and SD. In both cases, EE conditions served as a reference. Multivariate statistics was applied to merge the data from individual measures into broader categories (such as curiosity, anxiety and fear memory) by estimating their calibrated joint effect within a category. Plotting and overlaying these calibrated effect sizes in a single graph allowed intuitive comparison of IR and SD behavioural profiles. This approach allows analysing multiple behavioural tests at once, which is more relevant to psychiatric syndromes than focusing on single behavioural measures. Our method revealed that motivation and fear memory are impaired by both conditions, whereas ambulation and pain sensitivity are affected only by IR and curiosity is mainly diminished upon SD. Thus, IR could be a paradigm of choice in studies focusing on positive symptoms, while SD might be more relevant for negative and cognitive symptoms. PMID:25236183

  16. Watershed model calibration framework developed using an influence coefficient algorithm and a genetic algorithm and analysis of pollutant discharge characteristics and load reduction in a TMDL planning area.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Heon; Lee, Jong Ho

    2015-11-01

    Manual calibration is common in rainfall-runoff model applications. However, rainfall-runoff models include several complicated parameters; thus, significant time and effort are required to manually calibrate the parameters individually and repeatedly. Automatic calibration has relative merit regarding time efficiency and objectivity but shortcomings regarding understanding indigenous processes in the basin. In this study, a watershed model calibration framework was developed using an influence coefficient algorithm and genetic algorithm (WMCIG) to automatically calibrate the distributed models. The optimization problem used to minimize the sum of squares of the normalized residuals of the observed and predicted values was solved using a genetic algorithm (GA). The final model parameters were determined from the iteration with the smallest sum of squares of the normalized residuals of all iterations. The WMCIG was applied to a Gomakwoncheon watershed located in an area that presents a total maximum daily load (TMDL) in Korea. The proportion of urbanized area in this watershed is low, and the diffuse pollution loads of nutrients such as phosphorus are greater than the point-source pollution loads because of the concentration of rainfall that occurs during the summer. The pollution discharges from the watershed were estimated for each land-use type, and the seasonal variations of the pollution loads were analyzed. Consecutive flow measurement gauges have not been installed in this area, and it is difficult to survey the flow and water quality in this area during the frequent heavy rainfall that occurs during the wet season. The Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model was used to calculate the runoff flow and water quality in this basin. Using the water quality results, a load duration curve was constructed for the basin, the exceedance frequency of the water quality standard was calculated for each hydrologic condition class, and the percent reduction

  17. Watershed model calibration framework developed using an influence coefficient algorithm and a genetic algorithm and analysis of pollutant discharge characteristics and load reduction in a TMDL planning area.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Heon; Lee, Jong Ho

    2015-11-01

    Manual calibration is common in rainfall-runoff model applications. However, rainfall-runoff models include several complicated parameters; thus, significant time and effort are required to manually calibrate the parameters individually and repeatedly. Automatic calibration has relative merit regarding time efficiency and objectivity but shortcomings regarding understanding indigenous processes in the basin. In this study, a watershed model calibration framework was developed using an influence coefficient algorithm and genetic algorithm (WMCIG) to automatically calibrate the distributed models. The optimization problem used to minimize the sum of squares of the normalized residuals of the observed and predicted values was solved using a genetic algorithm (GA). The final model parameters were determined from the iteration with the smallest sum of squares of the normalized residuals of all iterations. The WMCIG was applied to a Gomakwoncheon watershed located in an area that presents a total maximum daily load (TMDL) in Korea. The proportion of urbanized area in this watershed is low, and the diffuse pollution loads of nutrients such as phosphorus are greater than the point-source pollution loads because of the concentration of rainfall that occurs during the summer. The pollution discharges from the watershed were estimated for each land-use type, and the seasonal variations of the pollution loads were analyzed. Consecutive flow measurement gauges have not been installed in this area, and it is difficult to survey the flow and water quality in this area during the frequent heavy rainfall that occurs during the wet season. The Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model was used to calculate the runoff flow and water quality in this basin. Using the water quality results, a load duration curve was constructed for the basin, the exceedance frequency of the water quality standard was calculated for each hydrologic condition class, and the percent reduction

  18. Radiometer Calibration and Characterization

    1994-12-31

    The Radiometer Calibration and Characterization (RCC) software is a data acquisition and data archival system for performing Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibrations (BORCAL). RCC provides a unique method of calibrating solar radiometers using techniques that reduce measurement uncertainty and better characterize a radiometer’s response profile. The RCC software automatically monitors and controls many of the components that contribute to uncertainty in an instrument’s responsivity.

  19. Instrumentation for Aerosol and Gas Speciation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coggiola, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Using support from NASA Grant No. NAG 2-963, SRI International successfully completed the project, entitled, 'Instrumentation for Aerosol and Gas Speciation.' This effort (SRI Project 7383) covered the design, fabrication, testing, and deployment of a real-time aerosol speciation instrument in NASA's DC-8 aircraft during the Spring 1996 SUbsonic aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS) mission. This final technical report describes the pertinent details of the instrument design, its abilities, its deployment during SUCCESS and the data acquired from the mission, and the post-mission calibration, data reduction, and analysis.

  20. XRT -- ROSAT XRT Data Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenhall, A. C.; Platon, R. T.

    XRT is a package for reducing data acquired with the ROSAT XRT instruments. The XRT (X-Ray Telescope) was the principal scientific payload of the ROSAT X-ray astronomy satellite. The XRT had two instruments: the PSPC (Position Sensitive Proportional Counter) and the HRI (High Resolution Imager). The XRT package operates on data produced by these instruments and can be used to transform them into calibrated images, spectra, time-series etc. XRT was created by taking the ROSAT XRT-specific functions in the ASTERIX general X-ray astronomy data reduction system and re-packaging them as stand-alone applications.

  1. Improved Detection System Description and New Method for Accurate Calibration of Micro-Channel Plate Based Instruments and Its Use in the Fast Plasma Investigation on NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliese, U.; Avanov, L. A.; Barrie, A. C.; Kujawski, J. T.; Mariano, A. J.; Tucker, C. J.; Chornay, D. J.; Cao, N. T.; Gershman, D. J.; Dorelli, J. C.; Zeuch, M. A.; Pollock, C. J.; Jacques, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    The Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) on NASAs Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission employs 16 Dual Electron Spectrometers (DESs) and 16 Dual Ion Spectrometers (DISs) with 4 of each type on each of 4 spacecraft to enable fast (30 ms for electrons; 150 ms for ions) and spatially differentiated measurements of the full 3D particle velocity distributions. This approach presents a new and challenging aspect to the calibration and operation of these instruments on ground and in flight. The response uniformity, the reliability of their calibration and the approach to handling any temporal evolution of these calibrated characteristics all assume enhanced importance in this application, where we attempt to understand the meaning of particle distributions within the ion and electron diffusion regions of magnetically reconnecting plasmas. Traditionally, the micro-channel plate (MCP) based detection systems for electrostatic particle spectrometers have been calibrated using the plateau curve technique. In this, a fixed detection threshold is set. The detection system count rate is then measured as a function of MCP voltage to determine the MCP voltage that ensures the count rate has reached a constant value independent of further variation in the MCP voltage. This is achieved when most of the MCP pulse height distribution (PHD) is located at higher values (larger pulses) than the detection system discrimination threshold. This method is adequate in single-channel detection systems and in multi-channel detection systems with very low crosstalk between channels. However, in dense multi-channel systems, it can be inadequate. Furthermore, it fails to fully describe the behavior of the detection system and individually characterize each of its fundamental parameters. To improve this situation, we have developed a detailed phenomenological description of the detection system, its behavior and its signal, crosstalk and noise sources. Based on this, we have devised a new detection

  2. AMBER data reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatulli, E.; Duvert, G.

    2007-10-01

    This course describes the data reduction process of the AMBER instrument, the three beam-recombiner of the very large telescope interferometer (VLTI). In body of this paper, we develop its principles from a theoretical point of view and we illustrate the main points with examples taken from the practical AMBER data reduction session given during school. The detailed practical application making use of the ESO gasgano tool is then presented. In this lecture, we particularly emphasize what the AMBER data reduction process is (i) a fit of the interferogram in the detector plane, (ii) using an a priori calibration of the instrument, where (iii) the complex visibility of the source is estimated from a least-square determination of a linear inverse problem, and where (iv) the derived AMBER observables are the squared visibility, the closure phase, and the spectral differential phase.

  3. Gemini facility calibration unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsay-Howat, Suzanne K.; Harris, John W.; Gostick, David C.; Laidlaw, Ken; Kidd, Norrie; Strachan, Mel; Wilson, Ken

    2000-08-01

    High-quality, efficient calibration instruments is a pre- requisite for the modern observatory. Each of the Gemini telescopes will be equipped with identical facility calibration units (GCALs) designed to provide wavelength and flat-field calibrations for the suite of instruments. The broad range of instrumentation planned for the telescopes heavily constrains the design of GCAL. Short calibration exposures are required over wavelengths from 0.3micrometers to 5micrometers , field sizes up to 7 arcminutes and spectral resolution from R-5 to 50,000. The output from GCAL must mimic the f-16 beam of the telescope and provide a uniform illumination of the focal plane. The calibration units are mounted on the Gemini Instrument Support Structure, two meters from the focal pane, necessitating the use of large optical components. We will discuss the opto-mechanical design of the Gemini calibration unit, with reference to those feature which allow these stringent requirements to be met. A novel reflector/diffuser unit replaces the integration sphere more normally found in calibration systems. The efficiency of this system is an order of magnitude greater than for an integration sphere. A system of two off-axis mirrors reproduces the telescope pupil and provides the 7 foot focal plane. The results of laboratory test of the uniformity and throughput of the GCAL will be presented.

  4. Sandia WIPP calibration traceability

    SciTech Connect

    Schuhen, M.D.; Dean, T.A.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the work performed to establish calibration traceability for the instrumentation used by Sandia National Laboratories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during testing from 1980-1985. Identifying the calibration traceability is an important part of establishing a pedigree for the data and is part of the qualification of existing data. In general, the requirement states that the calibration of Measuring and Test equipment must have a valid relationship to nationally recognized standards or the basis for the calibration must be documented. Sandia recognized that just establishing calibration traceability would not necessarily mean that all QA requirements were met during the certification of test instrumentation. To address this concern, the assessment was expanded to include various activities.

  5. ALTEA calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaconte, V.; Altea Team

    The ALTEA project is aimed at studying the possible functional damages to the Central Nervous System (CNS) due to particle radiation in space environment. The project is an international and multi-disciplinary collaboration. The ALTEA facility is an helmet-shaped device that will study concurrently the passage of cosmic radiation through the brain, the functional status of the visual system and the electrophysiological dynamics of the cortical activity. The basic instrumentation is composed by six active particle telescopes, one ElectroEncephaloGraph (EEG), a visual stimulator and a pushbutton. The telescopes are able to detect the passage of each particle measuring its energy, trajectory and released energy into the brain and identifying nuclear species. The EEG and the Visual Stimulator are able to measure the functional status of the visual system, the cortical electrophysiological activity, and to look for a correlation between incident particles, brain activity and Light Flash perceptions. These basic instruments can be used separately or in any combination, permitting several different experiments. ALTEA is scheduled to fly in the International Space Station (ISS) in November, 15th 2004. In this paper the calibration of the Flight Model of the silicon telescopes (Silicon Detector Units - SDUs) will be shown. These measures have been taken at the GSI heavy ion accelerator in Darmstadt. First calibration has been taken out in November 2003 on the SDU-FM1 using C nuclei at different energies: 100, 150, 400 and 600 Mev/n. We performed a complete beam scan of the SDU-FM1 to check functionality and homogeneity of all strips of silicon detector planes, for each beam energy we collected data to achieve good statistics and finally we put two different thickness of Aluminium and Plexiglas in front of the detector in order to study fragmentations. This test has been carried out with a Test Equipment to simulate the Digital Acquisition Unit (DAU). We are scheduled to

  6. On combination of strict Bayesian principles with model reduction technique or how stochastic model calibration can become feasible for large-scale applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladyshkin, S.; Schroeder, P.; Class, H.; Nowak, W.

    2013-12-01

    Predicting underground carbon dioxide (CO2) storage represents a challenging problem in a complex dynamic system. Due to lacking information about reservoir parameters, quantification of uncertainties may become the dominant question in risk assessment. Calibration on past observed data from pilot-scale test injection can improve the predictive power of the involved geological, flow, and transport models. The current work performs history matching to pressure time series from a pilot storage site operated in Europe, maintained during an injection period. Simulation of compressible two-phase flow and transport (CO2/brine) in the considered site is computationally very demanding, requiring about 12 days of CPU time for an individual model run. For that reason, brute-force approaches for calibration are not feasible. In the current work, we explore an advanced framework for history matching based on the arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion (aPC) and strict Bayesian principles. The aPC [1] offers a drastic but accurate stochastic model reduction. Unlike many previous chaos expansions, it can handle arbitrary probability distribution shapes of uncertain parameters, and can therefore handle directly the statistical information appearing during the matching procedure. We capture the dependence of model output on these multipliers with the expansion-based reduced model. In our study we keep the spatial heterogeneity suggested by geophysical methods, but consider uncertainty in the magnitude of permeability trough zone-wise permeability multipliers. Next combined the aPC with Bootstrap filtering (a brute-force but fully accurate Bayesian updating mechanism) in order to perform the matching. In comparison to (Ensemble) Kalman Filters, our method accounts for higher-order statistical moments and for the non-linearity of both the forward model and the inversion, and thus allows a rigorous quantification of calibrated model uncertainty. The usually high computational costs of

  7. Fast calibration of gas flowmeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisle, R. V.; Wilson, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    Digital unit automates calibration sequence using calculator IC and programmable read-only memory to solve calibration equations. Infrared sensors start and stop calibration sequence. Instrument calibrates mass flowmeters or rotameters where flow measurement is based on mass or volume. This automatic control reduces operator time by 80 percent. Solid-state components are very reliable, and digital character allows system accuracy to be determined primarily by accuracy of transducers.

  8. Calibration of a real-time tsunami detection algorithm for sites with no instrumental tsunami records: application to stations in Eastern Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, L.; Zaniboni, F.; Tinti, S.

    2013-06-01

    Coastal tide-gauges play a very important role in a Tsunami Warning System, since sea-level data are needed for a correct evaluation of the tsunami threat and the tsunami arrival has to be recognised as early as possible. Real-time tsunami detection algorithms serve this purpose. For an efficient detection they have to be calibrated and adapted to the specific local characteristics of the site where they are installed, which is easily done when the station has recorded a sufficiently large number of tsunamis. In this case the recorded database can be used to select the best set of parameters enhancing the discrimination power of the algorithm and minimizing the detection time. This chance is however rare, since most of the coastal tide-gauge stations, either historical or of new installation, have recorded only a few tsunamis in their lifetime, if not any. In this case calibration must be carried out by using synthetic tsunami signals, which poses the problem of how to generate them and how to use them. This paper investigates this issue and proposes a calibration approach by using as an example a specific case, that is the calibration of a real-time detection algorithm called TEDA for two stations, namely Tremestieri and Catania, in eastern Sicily, Italy, that have been recently installed in the frame of the Italian project TSUNET, aiming at improving the tsunami monitoring capacity in a region that is one of the most hazardous tsunami areas of Italy and of the Mediterranean.

  9. Calibration of a real-time tsunami detection algorithm for sites with no instrumental tsunami records: application to coastal tide-gauge stations in eastern Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, L.; Zaniboni, F.; Tinti, S.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal tide gauges play a very important role in a tsunami warning system, since sea-level data are needed for a correct evaluation of the tsunami threat, and the tsunami arrival has to be recognized as early as possible. Real-time tsunami detection algorithms serve this purpose. For an efficient detection, they have to be calibrated and adapted to the specific local characteristics of the site where they are installed, which is easily done when the station has recorded a sufficiently large number of tsunamis. In this case the recorded database can be used to select the best set of parameters enhancing the discrimination power of the algorithm and minimizing the detection time. This chance is however rare, since most of the coastal tide-gauge stations, either historical or of new installation, have recorded only a few tsunamis in their lifetimes, if any. In this case calibration must be carried out by using synthetic tsunami signals, which poses the problem of how to generate them and how to use them. This paper investigates this issue and proposes a calibration approach by using as an example a specific case, which is the calibration of a real-time detection algorithm called TEDA (Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm) for two stations (namely Tremestieri and Catania) in eastern Sicily, Italy, which were recently installed in the frame of the Italian project TSUNET, aiming at improving the tsunami monitoring capacity in a region that is one of the most hazardous tsunami areas of Italy and of the Mediterranean.

  10. Use of AOTF-NIR spectrometers to analyze fuels. Phase 1. Instrument selection and preliminary calibrations. Interim report, October 1993-September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, S.R.; Hutzler, S.A.

    1996-04-01

    The U.S. Army has a need for analytical instrumentation that can assess the quality of fuels and lubricants both in the field and in near-the-battlefield conditions. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was identified as one analytical technique with the potential to meet the Army`s requirements. The Army initiated a program to rigorously evaluate the feasibility of using NIR in the analysis of diesel fuels. For this program, the Army specified the use of acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)-based NIR instruments. Fuel samples totaling 427 were collected and analyzed for several common fuel properties. Three AOTF-NIR spectrometers were evaluated, and an additional six instruments were purchased based on the initial evaluation. This report presents the results of the fuel analyses and the instrument evaluations.

  11. Report on the ESO/OPTICON ''Instrumentation School on Use and Data Reduction of X-shooter and KMOS''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, P.; Dennefeld, M.

    2016-09-01

    The NEON Archive Schools have since 1999 provided opportunities for young researchers to gain practical experience of the reduction and analysis of archive data. Twenty-four participants from 17 nationalities gathered to learn about the end-to-end cycle of observation proposal, data reduction and archive usage for X-shooter and KMOS. A brief description of the school is presented and the content of the main sessions is described.

  12. Calibration improvements to electronically scanned pressure systems and preliminary statistical assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, Joel L.

    1996-01-01

    Orifice-to-orifice inconsistencies in data acquired with an electronically-scanned pressure system at the beginning of a wind tunnel experiment forced modifications to the standard, instrument calibration procedures. These modifications included a large increase in the number of calibration points which would allow a critical examination of the calibration curve-fit process, and a subsequent post-test reduction of the pressure data. Evaluation of these data has resulted in an improved functional representation of the pressure-voltage signature for electronically-scanned pressures sensors, which can reduce the errors due to calibration curve fit to under 0.10 percent of reading compared to the manufacturer specified 0.10 percent of full scale. Application of the improved calibration function allows a more rational selection of the calibration set-point pressures. These pressures should be adjusted to achieve a voltage output which matches the physical shape of the pressure-voltage signature of the sensor. This process is conducted in lieu of the more traditional approach where a calibration pressure is specified and the resulting sensor voltage is recorded. The fifteen calibrations acquired over the two-week duration of the wind tunnel test were further used to perform a preliminary, statistical assessment of the variation in the calibration process. The results allowed the estimation of the bias uncertainty for a single instrument calibration; and, they form the precursor for more extensive and more controlled studies in the laboratory.

  13. Design and Lessons Learned on the Development of a Cryogenic Pupil Select Mechanism Used in the Testing and Calibration of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Alissa; Capon, Thomas; Guzek, Jeffrey; Hakun, Claef; Haney, Paul; Koca, Corina

    2014-01-01

    Calibration and testing of the instruments on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is being performed by the use of a cryogenic, full-field, optical simulator that was constructed for this purpose. The Pupil Select Mechanism (PSM) assembly is one of several mechanisms and optical elements that compose the Optical Telescope Element SIMulator, or OSIM. The PSM allows for several optical elements to be inserted into the optical plane of OSIM, introducing a variety of aberrations, distortions, obscurations, and other calibration states into the pupil plane. The following discussion focuses on the details of the design evolution, analysis, build, and test of this mechanism along with the challenges associated with creating a sub arc-minute positioning mechanism operating in an extreme cryogenic environment. In addition, difficult challenges in the control system design will be discussed including the incorporation of closed-loop feedback control into a system that was designed to operate in an open-loop fashion.

  14. Design and Lessons Learned on the Development of a Cryogenic Pupil Select Mechanism used in the Testing and Calibration of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Alissa; Capon, Thomas; Guzek, Jeffrey; Hakun, Claef; Haney, Paul; Koca, Corina

    2014-01-01

    Calibration and testing of the instruments on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is being performed by the use of a cryogenic, full-field, optical simulator that was constructed for this purpose. The Pupil Select Mechanism (PSM) assembly is one of several mechanisms and optical elements that compose the Optical Telescope Element SIMulator, or OSIM. The PSM allows for several optical elements to be inserted into the optical plane of OSIM, introducing a variety of aberrations, distortions, obscurations, and other calibration states into the pupil plane. The following discussion focuses on the details of the design evolution, analysis, build, and test of this mechanism along with the challenges associated with creating a sub arc-minute positioning mechanism operating in an extreme cryogenic environment. In addition, difficult challenges in the control system design will be discussed including the incorporation of closed-loop feedback control into a system that was designed to operate in an open-loop fashion.

  15. Lidar Calibration Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Freudenthaler, Volker; Nicolae, Doina; Mona, Lucia; Belegante, Livio; D'Amico, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the newly established Lidar Calibration Centre, a distributed infrastructure in Europe, whose goal is to offer services for complete characterization and calibration of lidars and ceilometers. Mobile reference lidars, laboratories for testing and characterization of optics and electronics, facilities for inspection and debugging of instruments, as well as for training in good practices are open to users from the scientific community, operational services and private sector. The Lidar Calibration Centre offers support for trans-national access through the EC HORIZON2020 project ACTRIS-2.

  16. Compact radiometric microwave calibrator

    SciTech Connect

    Fixsen, D. J.; Wollack, E. J.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Mirel, P.; Singal, J.; Fixsen, S. M.

    2006-06-15

    The calibration methods for the ARCADE II instrument are described and the accuracy estimated. The Steelcast coated aluminum cones which comprise the calibrator have a low reflection while maintaining 94% of the absorber volume within 5 mK of the base temperature (modeled). The calibrator demonstrates an absorber with the active part less than one wavelength thick and only marginally larger than the mouth of the largest horn and yet black (less than -40 dB or 0.01% reflection) over five octaves in frequency.

  17. Calibration of the Malvern particle sizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, L. G.

    1984-01-01

    A relatively simple technique has been developed to calibrate particle- and droplet-sizing instruments manufactured by Malvern and other similar Fraunhofer diffraction particle-sizing instruments. Measurements of standard reticles using an instrument calibrated in this manner demonstrate the effectiveness of the procedure. In addition, guidelines are presented to avoid errors due to vignetting of the scattered light signal.

  18. PIONIER: from a Expert mode to an ESO facility instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percheron, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    The PIONIER (Precision Integrated-Optics Near-infrared Imaging ExpeRiment) at the VLT Interferometer instrument was originally a visitor instrument from IPAG (Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble). It is now offered to the ESO community as a facility instrument. As a Visitor monde instrument, it was operated on selected nights by the instrument team/consortium, the goal is now for the Paranal staff to run and monitor the instrument as any other VLT/VLTI instrument. This is done by fully integrating PIONIER in the ESO scheme. I will present here how this was done for the data reduction and the quality assurance of the science data and their related calibrations.

  19. LANDSAT instruments characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Work performed for the LANDSAT instrument characterization task in the areas of absolute radiometry, coherent noise analysis, and between-date smoothing is reported. Absolute radiometric calibration for LANDSAT-5 TM under ambient conditions was performed. The TM Radiometric Algorithms and Performance Program (TRAPP) was modified to create optional midscan data files and to match the TM Image Processing System (TIPS) algorithm for pulse determination. Several data reduction programs were developed, including a linear regression and its plotted result. A fast Fourier transformation study was conducted on the resequenced TM data. Subscenes of homogeneous water within scenes over Pensacola, Florida were used for testing the FFT on the resequenced data. Finally, a gain and pulse height stability study of LANDSAT 5 TM spectral bands was performed.

  20. Calibration Monitor for Dark Energy Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, M. E.

    2009-11-23

    The goal of this program was to design, build, test, and characterize a flight qualified calibration source and monitor for a Dark Energy related experiment: ACCESS - 'Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars'. This calibration source, the On-board Calibration Monitor (OCM), is a key component of our ACCESS spectrophotometric calibration program. The OCM will be flown as part of the ACCESS sub-orbital rocket payload in addition to monitoring instrument sensitivity on the ground. The objective of the OCM is to minimize systematic errors associated with any potential changes in the ACCESS instrument sensitivity. Importantly, the OCM will be used to monitor instrument sensitivity immediately after astronomical observations while the instrument payload is parachuting to the ground. Through monitoring, we can detect, track, characterize, and thus correct for any changes in instrument senstivity over the proposed 5-year duration of the assembled and calibrated instrument.

  1. Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensors Instrument Handbook, version 4.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holfeltz, S. T. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This is a revised version of the Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor Instrument Handbook. The main goal of this edition is to help the potential General Observer (GO) learn how to most efficiently use the Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS's). First, the actual performance of the FGS's as scientific instruments is reviewed. Next, each of the available operating modes of the FGS's are reviewed in turn. The status and findings of pertinent calibrations, including Orbital Verification, Science Verification, and Instrument Scientist Calibrations are included as well as the relevant data reduction software.

  2. 13. VIEW FROM COLD CALIBRATION BLOCKHOUSE LOOKING DOWN CONNECTING TUNNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW FROM COLD CALIBRATION BLOCKHOUSE LOOKING DOWN CONNECTING TUNNEL TO COLD CALIBRATION TEST STAND BASEMENT, SHOWING HARD WIRE CONNECTION (INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL). - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Cold Calibration Test Stand, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  3. Principal Component Noise Filtering for NAST-I Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Airborne Sounder Testbed- Interferometer (NAST-I) instrument is a high-resolution scanning interferometer that measures emitted thermal radiation between 3.3 and 18 microns. The NAST-I radiometric calibration is achieved using internal blackbody calibration references at ambient and hot temperatures. In this paper, we introduce a refined calibration technique that utilizes a principal component (PC) noise filter to compensate for instrument distortions and artifacts, therefore, further improve the absolute radiometric calibration accuracy. To test the procedure and estimate the PC filter noise performance, we form dependent and independent test samples using odd and even sets of blackbody spectra. To determine the optimal number of eigenvectors, the PC filter algorithm is applied to both dependent and independent blackbody spectra with a varying number of eigenvectors. The optimal number of PCs is selected so that the total root-mean-square (RMS) error is minimized. To estimate the filter noise performance, we examine four different scenarios: apply PC filtering to both dependent and independent datasets, apply PC filtering to dependent calibration data only, apply PC filtering to independent data only, and no PC filters. The independent blackbody radiances are predicted for each case and comparisons are made. The results show significant reduction in noise in the final calibrated radiances with the implementation of the PC filtering algorithm.

  4. Anterior Reduction, Discectomy, and Three Cortical Iliac Bone Grafting With Instrumentation to Treat A Huge Tear Drop Fracture of the Axis: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Ma, Litai; Yang, Yi; Gong, Quan; Ding, Chen; Liu, Hao; Hong, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Fractures of the axis body have been little reported and treatment strategies remain controversial and individualized. Not more than 10 cases of huge tear drop fracture of the axis (HTDFA) have been reported in previous studies and the treatment method varies from conservative treatment to an anterior, or posterior, approach surgery. Considering the sparse knowledge of HTDFA, we present a special case report to share our experience and to explore the safety and effectiveness of anterior reduction and fusion to treat HTDFA. A 24-year-old man was referred to our department; he presented with neck pain lasting for 12 h since being involved in a roll-over motor vehicle accident. His neck movement was limited but there was no neurological compromise. Physical examination of the patient showed myodynamia of four limbs Grade 5, Hoffmann sign (-), and Babinski sign (-). Three-dimensional reconstruction computed tomography (CT) confirmed a huge tear drop fracture of the anterior-inferior corner of the axis and discontinuity of the cortex of the axis. After discussion with the spinal surgeon team in the department and an effective conversation with the patient, surgery involving anterior reduction, discectomy, and three cortical iliac bone grafts with instrumentation after transnasal induction of general anesthesia was performed. The patient was instructed to wear a cervical collar until he returned to our department for a follow-up examination some 3 months after surgery. The 3-month postoperative x-ray and CT scan showed a good position of the implant and bony fusion at the C2/3 segment. Anterior reduction, discectomy, and three cortical iliac bone grafts with instrumentation to treat HTDFA are effective, safe, and simple. Of course, longer follow-up duration and more cases are warranted to verify this procedure. Anterior reduction, discectomy, and bone grafting with instrumentation are warranted for most HTDFA cases. However, if HTDFA incorporates other complex

  5. Anterior Reduction, Discectomy, and Three Cortical Iliac Bone Grafting With Instrumentation to Treat A Huge Tear Drop Fracture of the Axis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Litai; Yang, Yi; Gong, Quan; Ding, Chen; Liu, Hao; Hong, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fractures of the axis body have been little reported and treatment strategies remain controversial and individualized. Not more than 10 cases of huge tear drop fracture of the axis (HTDFA) have been reported in previous studies and the treatment method varies from conservative treatment to an anterior, or posterior, approach surgery. Considering the sparse knowledge of HTDFA, we present a special case report to share our experience and to explore the safety and effectiveness of anterior reduction and fusion to treat HTDFA. A 24-year-old man was referred to our department; he presented with neck pain lasting for 12 h since being involved in a roll-over motor vehicle accident. His neck movement was limited but there was no neurological compromise. Physical examination of the patient showed myodynamia of four limbs Grade 5, Hoffmann sign (–), and Babinski sign (–). Three-dimensional reconstruction computed tomography (CT) confirmed a huge tear drop fracture of the anterior–inferior corner of the axis and discontinuity of the cortex of the axis. After discussion with the spinal surgeon team in the department and an effective conversation with the patient, surgery involving anterior reduction, discectomy, and three cortical iliac bone grafts with instrumentation after transnasal induction of general anesthesia was performed. The patient was instructed to wear a cervical collar until he returned to our department for a follow-up examination some 3 months after surgery. The 3-month postoperative x-ray and CT scan showed a good position of the implant and bony fusion at the C2/3 segment. Anterior reduction, discectomy, and three cortical iliac bone grafts with instrumentation to treat HTDFA are effective, safe, and simple. Of course, longer follow-up duration and more cases are warranted to verify this procedure. Anterior reduction, discectomy, and bone grafting with instrumentation are warranted for most HTDFA cases. However, if HTDFA incorporates other

  6. Pleiades Absolute Calibration : Inflight Calibration Sites and Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachérade, S.; Fourest, S.; Gamet, P.; Lebègue, L.

    2012-07-01

    In-flight calibration of space sensors once in orbit is a decisive step to be able to fulfil the mission objectives. This article presents the methods of the in-flight absolute calibration processed during the commissioning phase. Four In-flight calibration methods are used: absolute calibration, cross-calibration with reference sensors such as PARASOL or MERIS, multi-temporal monitoring and inter-bands calibration. These algorithms are based on acquisitions over natural targets such as African deserts, Antarctic sites, La Crau (Automatic calibration station) and Oceans (Calibration over molecular scattering) or also new extra-terrestrial sites such as the Moon and selected stars. After an overview of the instrument and a description of the calibration sites, it is pointed out how each method is able to address one or several aspects of the calibration. We focus on how these methods complete each other in their operational use, and how they help building a coherent set of information that addresses all aspects of in-orbit calibration. Finally, we present the perspectives that the high level of agility of PLEIADES offers for the improvement of its calibration and a better characterization of the calibration sites.

  7. Reduction and analysis of data from the plasma wave instruments on the IMP-6 and IMP-8 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Anderson, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    The primary data reduction effort during the reporting period was to process summary plots of the IMP 8 plasma wave data and to submit these data to the National Space Science Data Center. Features of the electrostatic noise are compared with simultaneous observations of the magnetic field, plasma and energetic electrons. Spectral characteristics of the noise and the results of this comparison both suggest that in its high frequency part at least the noise does not belong to normal modes of plasma waves but represents either quasi-thermal noise in the non-Maxwellian plasma or artificial noise generated by spacecraft interaction with the medium.

  8. Calibration Systems Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Tanya L.; Broocks, Bryan T.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2006-02-01

    The Calibration Systems project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is aimed towards developing and demonstrating compact Quantum Cascade (QC) laser-based calibration systems for infrared imaging systems. These on-board systems will improve the calibration technology for passive sensors, which enable stand-off detection for the proliferation or use of weapons of mass destruction, by replacing on-board blackbodies with QC laser-based systems. This alternative technology can minimize the impact on instrument size and weight while improving the quality of instruments for a variety of missions. The potential of replacing flight blackbodies is made feasible by the high output, stability, and repeatability of the QC laser spectral radiance.

  9. Calibration of quasi-static aberrations in exoplanet direct-imaging instruments with a Zernike phase-mask sensor. II. Concept validation with ZELDA on VLT/SPHERE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'Diaye, M.; Vigan, A.; Dohlen, K.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Caillat, A.; Costille, A.; Girard, J. H. V.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Fusco, T.; Blanchard, P.; Le Merrer, J.; Le Mignant, D.; Madec, F.; Moreaux, G.; Mouillet, D.; Puget, P.; Zins, G.

    2016-08-01

    Warm or massive gas giant planets, brown dwarfs, and debris disks around nearby stars are now routinely observed by dedicated high-contrast imaging instruments that are mounted on large, ground-based observatories. These facilities include extreme adaptive optics (ExAO) and state-of-the-art coronagraphy to achieve unprecedented sensitivities for exoplanet detection and their spectral characterization. However, low spatial frequency differential aberrations between the ExAO sensing path and the science path represent critical limitations for the detection of giant planets with a contrast lower than a few 10-6 at very small separations (<0.3'') from their host star. In our previous work, we proposed a wavefront sensor based on Zernike phase-contrast methods to circumvent this problem and measure these quasi-static aberrations at a nanometric level. We present the design, manufacturing, and testing of ZELDA, a prototype that was installed on VLT/SPHERE during its reintegration in Chile. Using the internal light source of the instrument, we first performed measurements in the presence of Zernike or Fourier modes introduced with the deformable mirror. Our experimental results are consistent with the results in simulations, confirming the ability of our sensor to measure small aberrations (<50 nm rms) with nanometric accuracy. Following these results, we corrected the long-lived non-common path aberrations in SPHERE based on ZELDA measurements and estimated a contrast gain of 10 in the coronagraphic image at 0.2'', reaching the raw contrast limit set by the coronagraph in the instrument. In addition to this encouraging result, the simplicity of the design and its phase reconstruction algorithm makes ZELDA an excellent candidate for the online measurements of quasi-static aberrations during the observations. The implementation of a ZELDA-based sensing path on the current and future facilities (ELTs, future space missions) could facilitate the observation of cold gaseous

  10. Velocity of dust impacting the IS (Impact Sensors) of GIADA, instrument on board Rosetta, evaluated by means of improved calibration curves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Corte, Vincenzo; Sordini, Roberto; Ivanovski, Stavro; Ferrari, Marco; Lucarelli, Francesca; Accolla, Mario; Rotundi, Alessandra; Fulle, Marco

    2015-04-01

    GIADA (Grain Impact Analyser and Dust Accumulator) on-board Rosetta measures the momentum of impacting cometary dust particle by means of the Impact Sensor (IS). The particle speed measurement is given by the time of flight between the GDS (Grain detection System), a laser curtain able to detect each dust grain entering GIADA, and the IS. These two measurements combined determine the mass of each detected grain. An extended calibration activity, performed on the GIADA Flight Spare Model (PFM), allowed us to obtain measurements, momenta and velocities, of a large number of single dust grains of different materials selected as cometary analogues for which a prior physical-chemical characterization was performed. Not all the grains entering GIADA are detected by the two detection systems, i.e. IS and GDS, thus not for all the detected grains it is possible to measure the speed. Nevertheless, we checked the possibility of deriving the speed of IS only detections. To this aim we characterized the response of the IS with respect to both the momentum and the kinetic energy of the cometary analogue grains shot into the GIADA PFM. We classified the responses considering: the density, the hardness and the fluffiness of the impacting cometary analogue particles. By means of these results we are able not only to determine the mass and speed of dust grains detected by the IS only, but also to evaluate their density, hardness and fluffiness.

  11. Observation and analysis of lunar occultations of stars with an emphasis on improvements to data acquisition instrumentation and reduction techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    A program of observation and analysis of lunar occultations was conceived, developed, and carried out using the facilities of the University of Florida's Rosemary Hill Observatory (RHO). The successful implementation of the program required investigation into several related areas. First, after an upgrade to the RHO 76-cm. reflecting telescope, a microprocessor controlled fast photoelectric data acquisition system was designed and built for the occultation data acquisition task. Second, the currently available model-fitting techniques used in the analysis of occultation observations were evaluated. A number of numerical experiments on synthesized and observational data were carried out to improve the performance of the numerical techniques. Among the numerical methods investigated were solution schemes employing partial parametric adjustment, parametric grouping into computational subsets (randomly and on the basis the correlation coefficients), and preprocessing of the observational data by a number of smoothing techniques for a variety of noise conditions. Third, a turn-key computational software system, incorporating data transfer, reduction, graphics, and display, was developed to carry out all the necessary and related computational tasks in an interactive environment. Twenty-four occultation observations were obtained during the period March 1983 to March 1984.

  12. [Laser-based radiometric calibration].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-gang; Zheng, Yu-quan

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly higher demands are put forward to spectral radiometric calibration accuracy and the development of new tunable laser based spectral radiometric calibration technology is promoted, along with the development of studies of terrestrial remote sensing, aeronautical and astronautical remote sensing, plasma physics, quantitative spectroscopy, etc. Internationally a number of national metrology scientific research institutes have built tunable laser based spectral radiometric calibration facilities in succession, which are traceable to cryogenic radiometers and have low uncertainties for spectral responsivity calibration and characterization of detectors and remote sensing instruments in the UK, the USA, Germany, etc. Among them, the facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations using uniform sources (SIRCCUS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the USA and the Tunable Lasers in Photometry (TULIP) facility at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany have more representatives. Compared with lamp-monochromator systems, laser based spectral radiometric calibrations have many advantages, such as narrow spectral bandwidth, high wavelength accuracy, low calibration uncertainty and so on for radiometric calibration applications. In this paper, the development of laser-based spectral radiometric calibration and structures and performances of laser-based radiometric calibration facilities represented by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the UK, NIST and PTB are presented, technical advantages of laser-based spectral radiometric calibration are analyzed, and applications of this technology are further discussed. Laser-based spectral radiometric calibration facilities can be widely used in important system-level radiometric calibration measurements with high accuracy, including radiance temperature, radiance and irradiance calibrations for space remote sensing instruments, and promote the

  13. [Laser-based radiometric calibration].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-gang; Zheng, Yu-quan

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly higher demands are put forward to spectral radiometric calibration accuracy and the development of new tunable laser based spectral radiometric calibration technology is promoted, along with the development of studies of terrestrial remote sensing, aeronautical and astronautical remote sensing, plasma physics, quantitative spectroscopy, etc. Internationally a number of national metrology scientific research institutes have built tunable laser based spectral radiometric calibration facilities in succession, which are traceable to cryogenic radiometers and have low uncertainties for spectral responsivity calibration and characterization of detectors and remote sensing instruments in the UK, the USA, Germany, etc. Among them, the facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations using uniform sources (SIRCCUS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the USA and the Tunable Lasers in Photometry (TULIP) facility at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany have more representatives. Compared with lamp-monochromator systems, laser based spectral radiometric calibrations have many advantages, such as narrow spectral bandwidth, high wavelength accuracy, low calibration uncertainty and so on for radiometric calibration applications. In this paper, the development of laser-based spectral radiometric calibration and structures and performances of laser-based radiometric calibration facilities represented by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the UK, NIST and PTB are presented, technical advantages of laser-based spectral radiometric calibration are analyzed, and applications of this technology are further discussed. Laser-based spectral radiometric calibration facilities can be widely used in important system-level radiometric calibration measurements with high accuracy, including radiance temperature, radiance and irradiance calibrations for space remote sensing instruments, and promote the

  14. Antenna Calibration and Measurement Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochblatt, David J.; Cortes, Manuel Vazquez

    2012-01-01

    A document describes the Antenna Calibration & Measurement Equipment (ACME) system that will provide the Deep Space Network (DSN) with instrumentation enabling a trained RF engineer at each complex to perform antenna calibration measurements and to generate antenna calibration data. This data includes continuous-scan auto-bore-based data acquisition with all-sky data gathering in support of 4th order pointing model generation requirements. Other data includes antenna subreflector focus, system noise temperature and tipping curves, antenna efficiency, reports system linearity, and instrument calibration. The ACME system design is based on the on-the-fly (OTF) mapping technique and architecture. ACME has contributed to the improved RF performance of the DSN by approximately a factor of two. It improved the pointing performances of the DSN antennas and productivity of its personnel and calibration engineers.

  15. Calibration of MICROSCOPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiu, E.; Rodrigues, M.; Touboul, P.; Pradels, G.

    The MICROSCOPE mission is planned for launch in early 2009. It aims to verify the Equivalence Principle to an accuracy of 10-15, which is currently difficult to obtain on Earth because of the intrinsic limitations of the torsion pendulum and disturbing phenomena, like seismic activity. In space the experiment can take advantage of the quiet environment provided by a drag-free satellite. The instrument used for the test is a differential electrostatic accelerometer composed of two inertial sensors with test-masses made of different materials: one in Platinum Rhodium alloy, the other in Titanium alloy. The space experiment will also benefit from a second differential accelerometer with both test-masses of the same material, which will be used as a reference instrument to characterise the disturbing signals and sensitivities. The in-orbit calibration of the instrument is mandatory to validate the space test and several procedures have been previously proposed, taking advantage of the satellite propulsion system or the a priori knowledge of natural in-orbit applied accelerations. Due to the actual configuration of the MICROSCOPE propulsion system, the possibility of accurate satellite manoeuvres is limited but sufficient. This paper presents the necessary compromise between the knowledge of satellite and instrument parameters and the calibration procedures. The scenario of the MICROSCOPE in-orbit calibration phase is finely defined in agreement with the required performances for the EP test accuracy.

  16. Landsat TM and ETM+ Thermal Band Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsi, Julia A.; Hook, Simon J.; Palluconi, Frank D.; Schott, John R.; Raqueno, Nina G.

    2006-01-01

    Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) has been imaging the Earth since March 1984 and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) was added to the series of Landsat instruments in April 1999. The stability and calibration of the ETM+ has been monitored extensively since launch. Though not monitored for many years, TM now has a similar system in place to monitor stability and calibration. University teams have been evaluating the on-board calibration of the instruments through ground-based measurements since 1999. This paper considers the calibration efforts for the thermal band, Band 6, of both the Landsat-5 and Landsat-7 instruments.

  17. Multi-Axis Accelerometer Calibration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Tom; Parker, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, portable, and simplified system has been developed that is suitable for in-situ calibration and/or evaluation of multi-axis inertial measurement instruments. This system overcomes facility restrictions and maintains or improves the calibration quality for users of accelerometer-based instruments with applications in avionics, experimental wind tunnel research, and force balance calibration applications. The apparatus quickly and easily positions a multi-axis accelerometer system into a precisely known orientation suitable for in-situ quality checks and calibration. In addition, the system incorporates powerful and sophisticated statistical methods, known as response surface methodology and statistical quality control. These methods improve calibration quality, reduce calibration time, and allow for increased calibration frequency, which enables the monitoring of instrument stability over time.

  18. JWST/MIRI Data Reduction Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, Stacey N.; JWST/MIRI Team

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will launch in 2018 and will carry four science instruments: NIRISS, NIRSpec, NIRCam and MIRI. MIRI (the Mid-Infrared Instrument) will observe the sky at 5 to 28.5 microns and provides four observing modes: imaging, low-resolution spectroscopy (LRS), medium-resolution spectroscopy (MRS) via an integral field unit, and coronagraphy.The MIRI data reduction pipeline is based on extensive testing of the instrument and will provide not only basic calibrated data, but also higher level science products. The pipeline is split into three stages: first, the raw data is processed into an uncalibrated slope image; second, each slope image is calibrated; and third, slope images from multiple exposures are combined and processed to produce the final data product. The final data products include: calibrated mosaics and catalogs of point sources for imaging observations; extracted spectra for LRS observations; PSF subtracted images for coronagraph observations; and spectral cubes for MRS observations. The overall goal of the MIRI pipeline is to provide well-calibrated, high level data products that maximize the scientific return from the instrument.

  19. A variable acceleration calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Thomas H.

    2011-12-01

    A variable acceleration calibration system that applies loads using gravitational and centripetal acceleration serves as an alternative, efficient and cost effective method for calibrating internal wind tunnel force balances. Two proof-of-concept variable acceleration calibration systems are designed, fabricated and tested. The NASA UT-36 force balance served as the test balance for the calibration experiments. The variable acceleration calibration systems are shown to be capable of performing three component calibration experiments with an approximate applied load error on the order of 1% of the full scale calibration loads. Sources of error are indentified using experimental design methods and a propagation of uncertainty analysis. Three types of uncertainty are indentified for the systems and are attributed to prediction error, calibration error and pure error. Angular velocity uncertainty is shown to be the largest indentified source of prediction error. The calibration uncertainties using a production variable acceleration based system are shown to be potentially equivalent to current methods. The production quality system can be realized using lighter materials and a more precise instrumentation. Further research is needed to account for balance deflection, forcing effects due to vibration, and large tare loads. A gyroscope measurement technique is shown to be capable of resolving the balance deflection angle calculation. Long term research objectives include a demonstration of a six degree of freedom calibration, and a large capacity balance calibration.

  20. Self-Calibrating Pressure Transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueck, Dale E. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A self-calibrating pressure transducer is disclosed. The device uses an embedded zirconia membrane which pumps a determined quantity of oxygen into the device. The associated pressure can be determined, and thus, the transducer pressure readings can be calibrated. The zirconia membrane obtains oxygen .from the surrounding environment when possible. Otherwise, an oxygen reservoir or other source is utilized. In another embodiment, a reversible fuel cell assembly is used to pump oxygen and hydrogen into the system. Since a known amount of gas is pumped across the cell, the pressure produced can be determined, and thus, the device can be calibrated. An isolation valve system is used to allow the device to be calibrated in situ. Calibration is optionally automated so that calibration can be continuously monitored. The device is preferably a fully integrated MEMS device. Since the device can be calibrated without removing it from the process, reductions in costs and down time are realized.

  1. Construction of a Chemical Sensor/Instrumentation Package Using Fiber Optic and Miniaturization Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research was to construct a chemical sensor/instrumentation package that was smaller in weight and volume than conventional instrumentation. This reduction in weight and volume is needed to assist in further reducing the cost of launching payloads into space. To accomplish this, fiber optic sensors, miniaturized spectrometers, and wireless modems were employed. The system was evaluated using iodine as a calibration analyte.

  2. Reduction procedures for accurate analysis of MSX surveillance experiment data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaposchkin, E. Mike; Lane, Mark T.; Abbot, Rick I.

    1994-01-01

    Technical challenges of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) science instruments require careful characterization and calibration of these sensors for analysis of surveillance experiment data. Procedures for reduction of Resident Space Object (RSO) detections will be presented which include refinement and calibration of the metric and radiometric (and photometric) data and calculation of a precise MSX ephemeris. Examples will be given which support the reduction, and these are taken from ground-test data similar in characteristics to the MSX sensors and from the IRAS satellite RSO detections. Examples to demonstrate the calculation of a precise ephemeris will be provided from satellites in similar orbits which are equipped with S-band transponders.

  3. NASA Metrology and Calibration, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The proceedings of the fourth annual NASA Metrology and Calibration Workshop are presented. This workshop covered (1) review and assessment of NASA metrology and calibration activities by NASA Headquarters, (2) results of audits by the Office of Inspector General, (3) review of a proposed NASA Equipment Management System, (4) current and planned field center activities, (5) National Bureau of Standards (NBS) calibration services for NASA, (6) review of NBS's Precision Measurement and Test Equipment Project activities, (7) NASA instrument loan pool operations at two centers, (8) mobile cart calibration systems at two centers, (9) calibration intervals and decals, (10) NASA Calibration Capabilities Catalog, and (11) development of plans and objectives for FY 1981. Several papers in this proceedings are slide presentations only.

  4. The NIRSPEC Data Reduction Pipeline for the Keck Observatory Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Hien D.; Cohen, R.; Mader, J. A.; Colson, A.; Berriman, G. Bruce; Gelino, Christopher R.; KOA Team

    2016-01-01

    The Keck Observatory Archive (KOA), a collaboration between the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute and the W. M. Keck Observatory, serves science and calibration data for all current and retired instruments from the twin Keck Telescopes. In addition to the raw data, we publicly serve quick-look, reduced data products for four instruments (HIRES, LWS, NIRC2 and OSIRIS), so that KOA users can easily assess the quality and scientific content of the data. In this paper we present the design and implementation of the data reduction pipeline (DRP) for the NIRSPEC instrument for use with KOA. We discuss the publicly available reduction packages for NIRSPEC, the challenges encountered when designing this fully automated DRP and the algorithm used to determine wavelength calibration from sky lines. The reduced data products from the NIRSPEC DRP are expected to be available in KOA by mid-2016.

  5. Hydraulic Calibrator for Strain-Gauge Balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelly, Kenneth; Ballard, John

    1987-01-01

    Instrument for calibrating strain-gauge balances uses hydraulic actuators and load cells. Eliminates effects of nonparallelism, nonperpendicularity, and changes of cable directions upon vector sums of applied forces. Errors due to cable stretching, pulley friction, and weight inaccuracy also eliminated. New instrument rugged and transportable. Set up quickly. Developed to apply known loads to wind-tunnel models with encapsulated strain-gauge balances, also adapted for use in calibrating dynamometers, load sensors on machinery and laboratory instruments.

  6. Radar measurement instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartl, P.

    1983-02-01

    The radar techniques used for Earth observation are reviewed. Range, direction and speed measuring techniques, and the principles of scatterometers, side-looking radar, altimeters and SAR are discussed. The ERS-1 radar package including the active microwave instrumentation and the radar altimeter are described. The analysis of the calibration problems leads to the conclusion that only the test of the system loop as a whole, besides the individual part tests, can provide a calibration in the absolute sense.

  7. Updates on the Performance and Calibration of HST/STIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockwood, Sean A.; Debes, John H.; Ely, Justin; Monroe, TalaWanda; Biretta, John A.; De Rosa, Gisella; Fix, Mees; Fox, Andrew; Jedrzejewski, Robert I.; Oliveira, Cristina M.; Peeples, Molly S.; Penton, Steven V.; Plesha, Rachel; Proffitt, Charles R.; Roman-Duval, Julia; Sahnow, David J.; Sonnentrucker, Paule; Taylor, Joanna M.; Walborn, Nolan R.; White, James

    2016-01-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has been on orbit for almost 19 years and continues to produce high quality scientific results using a diverse complement of operating modes. These include spatially resolved spectroscopy in the UV and optical, high spatial resolution echelle spectroscopy in the UV, and solar-blind imaging in the UV. In addition, STIS possesses unique visible-light coronagraphic modes that keep the instrument at the forefront of exoplanet and debris-disk research. As the instrument's characteristics evolve over the instrument's lifetime, the instrument team at Space Telescope Science Institute monitors its performance and works towards improving the quality of its products. Here we present updates on the status of the STIS CCD and FUV & NUV MAMA detectors, as well as changes to the CalSTIS reduction pipeline and available instrument modes. We present on-going work to calibrate the BAR5 occulter, as well as calibration improvements for the echelle gratings.

  8. Reduction of Systematic Errors in Diagnostic Receivers Through the Use of Balanced Dicke-Switching and Y-Factor Noise Calibrations

    SciTech Connect

    John Musson, Trent Allison, Roger Flood, Jianxun Yan

    2009-05-01

    Receivers designed for diagnostic applications range from those having moderate sensitivity to those possessing large dynamic range. Digital receivers have a dynamic range which are a function of the number of bits represented by the ADC and subsequent processing. If some of this range is sacrificed for extreme sensitivity, noise power can then be used to perform two-point load calibrations. Since load temperatures can be precisely determined, the receiver can be quickly and accurately characterized; minute changes in system gain can then be detected, and systematic errors corrected. In addition, using receiver pairs in a balanced approach to measuring X+, X-, Y+, Y-, reduces systematic offset errors from non-identical system gains, and changes in system performance. This paper describes and demonstrates a balanced BPM-style diagnostic receiver, employing Dicke-switching to establish and maintain real-time system calibration. Benefits of such a receiver include wide bandwidth, solid absolute accuracy, improved position accuracy, and phase-sensitive measurements. System description, static and dynamic modelling, and measurement data are presented.

  9. Calibration method for radiometric and wavelength calibration of a spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger, Edward M.

    1998-12-01

    A new calibration target or Certified Reference Material (CRM) has been designed that uses violet, orange, green and cyan dyes ont cotton paper. This paper type was chosen because it has a relatively flat spectral response from 400 nm to 700 nm and good keeping properties. These specific dyes were chosen because the difference signal between the orange, cyan, green and purple dyes have certain characteristics that then a low the calibration of an instrument. The ratio between the difference readings is a direct function of the center wavelength of a given spectral band. Therefore, the radiometric and spectral calibration can be determined simultaneously from the physical properties of the reference materials.

  10. Apollo 16/AS-511/LM-11 operational calibration curves. Volume 1: Calibration curves for command service module CSM 113

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demoss, J. F. (Compiler)

    1971-01-01

    Calibration curves for the Apollo 16 command service module pulse code modulation downlink and onboard display are presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) measurement calibration curve format, (2) measurement identification, (3) multi-mode calibration data summary, (4) pulse code modulation bilevel events listing, and (5) calibration curves for instrumentation downlink and meter link.

  11. Psychophysical contrast calibration

    PubMed Central

    To, Long; Woods, Russell L; Goldstein, Robert B; Peli, Eli

    2013-01-01

    Electronic displays and computer systems offer numerous advantages for clinical vision testing. Laboratory and clinical measurements of various functions and in particular of (letter) contrast sensitivity require accurately calibrated display contrast. In the laboratory this is achieved using expensive light meters. We developed and evaluated a novel method that uses only psychophysical responses of a person with normal vision to calibrate the luminance contrast of displays for experimental and clinical applications. Our method combines psychophysical techniques (1) for detection (and thus elimination or reduction) of display saturating nonlinearities; (2) for luminance (gamma function) estimation and linearization without use of a photometer; and (3) to measure without a photometer the luminance ratios of the display’s three color channels that are used in a bit-stealing procedure to expand the luminance resolution of the display. Using a photometer we verified that the calibration achieved with this procedure is accurate for both LCD and CRT displays enabling testing of letter contrast sensitivity to 0.5%. Our visual calibration procedure enables clinical, internet and home implementation and calibration verification of electronic contrast testing. PMID:23643843

  12. Image Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peay, Christopher S.; Palacios, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Calibrate_Image calibrates images obtained from focal plane arrays so that the output image more accurately represents the observed scene. The function takes as input a degraded image along with a flat field image and a dark frame image produced by the focal plane array and outputs a corrected image. The three most prominent sources of image degradation are corrected for: dark current accumulation, gain non-uniformity across the focal plane array, and hot and/or dead pixels in the array. In the corrected output image the dark current is subtracted, the gain variation is equalized, and values for hot and dead pixels are estimated, using bicubic interpolation techniques.

  13. Flow Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Flow Technology Inc. worked with Lewis Research Center to develop a system for monitoring two different propellants being supplied to a spacecraft rocket thruster. They then commercialized the technology in the Microtrack, an extremely precise low-flow calibration system. Moog Inc., one of the device's primary users, measures the flow rate or the speed at which hydraulic oil flows through pin sized holes in disc shaped sapphires with the Microtrack. Using this data, two orifices with exactly the same flow rate can be matched as a pair and used as masters in servovalve production. The microtrack can also be used to calibrate other equipment.

  14. The STScI NICMOS Calibration Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushouse, H.; Skinner, C.; MacKenty, J.; Axon, D.; Stobie, E.

    1997-12-01

    Reduction and calibration of data from the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) has presented new challenges, as well as opportunities, for the pipeline processing systems at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which have resulted in many features that are new and different from what has been employed for previous Hubble Space Telescope (HST) instruments. The biggest challenge is the need to handle, as a group, multiple exposures associated with a single target. Associated images are required for several reasons, including the need to measure the near-infrared thermal background signal, cosmic-ray rejection via anticoincidence detection, and mosaicing of large angular-sized targets. STScI has taken advantage of the opportunities presented by the creation of a new pipeline system to make other changes and advancements as well. First, all reduction and analysis software for NICMOS is written in the ANSI C language, and uses C-to-IRAF interface libraries to allow access to IRAF data I/O and analysis routines. Second, the run-time file format for all NICMOS data reduction and analysis is FITS format, with extensive use of FITS image and table extensions. Two levels of physical packaging of NICMOS data are employed. Images produced by multiple non-destructive detector readouts during the course of a single exposure are packaged together within one FITS file. Second, error estimate and data quality flag images associated with each science image are also contained within the same FITS file. A third, logical, grouping of images is used to relate multiple observations of a single target. The data reduction and calibration process is divided into two distinct phases. The first phase, accomplished by the program "calnica", is used to perform standard instrumental calibration (e.g. dark current subtraction, flat-fielding) for individual exposures. The second phase, "calnicb", performs background subtraction and image combination for associated

  15. Summary of OARE flight calibration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.

    1995-01-01

    To date, the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) has flown on the shuttle orbiter for five missions; namely, STS-40, STS-50, STS-58, STS-62, and STS-65. The OARE instrument system contains a three-axis accelerometer which can resolve accelerations to the nano-g (10(exp -9) g) level and a full calibration station to permit in situ bias and scale factor calibration measurements. This calibration capability eliminates the large uncertainty encountered with accelerometers flown in the past on the orbiter which use ground-based calibrations to provide absolute acceleration measurements. A detailed flight data report presentation is given for the OARE calibration measurements from all missions, along with an estimate of the calibration errors. The main aim is to collect, process, and present the calibration data in one archival report. These calibration data are the necessary key ingredient to produce the absolute acceleration levels from the OARE acceleration flight data.

  16. The MISR Calibration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruegge, Carol J.; Diner, David J.; Duval, Valerie G.

    1996-01-01

    The Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) is currently under development for NASA's Earth Observing System. The instrument consists of nine pushbroom cameras, each with four spectral bands in the visible and near-infrared. The cameras point in different view directions to provide measurements from nadir to highly oblique view angles in the along-track plane. Multiple view-angle observations provide a unique resource for studies of clouds, aerosols, and the surface. MISR is built to challenging radiometric and geometric performance specifications. Radiometric accuracy, for example, must be within +/- 3%/ 1 sigma, and polarization insensitivity must be better than +/- 1 %. An onboard calibrator (OBC) provides monthly updates to the instrument gain coefficients. Spectralon diffuse panels are used within the OBC to provide a uniform target for the cameras to view. The absolute radiometric scale is established both preflight and in orbit through the use of detector standards. During the mission, ground data processing to accomplish radiometric calibration, geometric rectification and registration of the nine view-angle imagery, and geophysical retrievals will proceed in an automated fashion. A global dataset is produced every 9 days. This paper details the preflight characterization of the MISR instrument, the design of the OBC, and the radiance product processing.

  17. A review of some radiometric calibration problems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1984-01-01

    The in-flight radiometric calibration instrumentation and procedures of the Landsat Thematic Mapper and the high-resolution visible-range instruments of SPOT are illustrated with drawings and diagrams, characterized, and compared. Problems encountered in the laboratory calibration process, minimizing the temporal instability of the systems, identifying anomalies in the electronics in flight, and rechecking the calibration are examined, and it is pointed out that the stability of the calibration systems is less than that of the instruments themselves. The use of carefully measured ground-site data and atmospheric parameters in combination with radiative-transfer models for periodic calibration is recommended.

  18. Environmental calibration chamber operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal vacuum capabilities are provided for the development, calibration, and functional operation checks of flight sensors, sources, and laboratory and field instruments. Two systems are available. The first is a 46 cm diameter diffusion pumped vacuum chambler of the bell jar variety. It has an internal thermal shroud, LN2 old trap, two viewing ports, and various electrical and fluid feedthroughs. The other, also an oil diffusion pumped system, consists of a 1.8 m diameter by 2.5 m long stainless steel vacuum tank, associated pumping and control equipment, a liquid nitrogen storage and transfer system and internal IR/visible calibration sources. This is a two story system with the chamber located on one floor and the pumping/cryogenic systems located on the floor below.

  19. Automatic volume calibration system

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, A.J.; Aaron, C.C.

    1985-05-06

    The Automatic Volume Calibration System presently consists of three independent volume-measurement subsystems and can possibly be expanded to five subsystems. When completed, the system will manually or automatically perform the sequence of valve-control and data-acquisition operations required to measure given volumes. An LSI-11 minicomputer controls the vacuum and pressure sources and controls solenoid control valves to open and close various volumes. The input data are obtained from numerous displacement, temperature, and pressure sensors read by the LSI-11. The LSI-11 calculates the unknown volume from the data acquired during the sequence of valve operations. The results, based on the Ideal Gas Law, also provide information for feedback and control. This paper describes the volume calibration system, its subsystems, and the integration of the various instrumentation used in the system's design and development. 11 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. 40 CFR 86.116-94 - Calibrations, frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... evaporative and exhaust instruments), methane analyzer, carbon dioxide analyzer, carbon monoxide analyzer, and... displacement pump or Critical Flow Venturi shall be calibrated following initial installation,...

  1. Calibration beads containing luminescent lanthanide ion complexes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reliability of lanthanide luminescence measurements, by both flow cytometry and digital microscopy, will be enhanced by the availability of narrow-band emitting lanthanide calibration beads. These beads can also be used to characterize spectrographic instruments, including mi...

  2. Continued Monitoring of Landsat Reflective Band Calibration Using Pseudo-Invariant Calibration Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsi, Julia A.; Markham, Brian L.; Helder, Dennis L.

    2012-01-01

    Though both of the current Landsat instruments, Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ (ETM+) and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM), include on-board calibration systems, since 2001, pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) have been added to the suite of metrics to assess the instruments calibration. These sites do not provide absolute calibration data since there are no ground measurements of the sites, but in monitoring these PICS over time, the relative calibration can be tracked. The sites used by the Landsat instruments are primarily in the Saharan Desert. To date, the trending from the PICS sites has confirmed that most of the degradation seen in the ETM+ on-board calibration systems is likely not degradation of the instrument, but rather degradation of the calibration systems themselves. However, the PICS data show statistically significant degradation (at 2-sigma) in all the reflective spectral bands of up to -0.22%/year since July 2003. For the TM, the PICS were instrumental in updating the calibration in 2007 and now suggest two bands may require another update. The data show a statistically significant degradation (at 2-sigma) in Bands 1 and 3 of -0.27 and -0.15%/year, respectively, since March 1999. The data filtering and processing methods are currently being reviewed but these PICS results may lead to an update in the reflective band calibration of both Landsat-7 and Landsat-5.

  3. Towards A Modern Calibration Of The 238U/235U Paleoredox Proxy: Apparent Uranium Isotope Fractionation Factor During U(VI)-U(IV) Reduction In The Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolison, J. M.; Stirling, C. H.; Middag, R.; Rijkenberg, M. J. A.; De Baar, H. J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The isotopic compositions of redox-sensitive metals, including uranium (U), in marine sediments have recently emerged as powerful diagnostic tracers of the redox state of the ancient ocean-atmosphere system. Interpretation of sedimentary isotopic information requires a thorough understating of the environmental controls on isotopic fractionation in modern anoxic environments before being applied to the paleo-record. In this study, the relationship between ocean anoxia and the isotopic fractionation of U was investigated in the water column and sediments of the Black Sea. The Black Sea is the world's largest anoxic basin and significant removal of U from the water column and high U accumulation rates in modern underlying sediments have been documented. Removal of U from the water column occurs during the redox transition of soluble U(VI) to relatively insoluble U(IV). The primary results of this study are two-fold. First, significant 238U/235U fractionation was observed in the water column of the Black Sea, suggesting the reduction of U induces 238U/235U fractionation with the preferential removal of 238U from the aqueous phase. Second, the 238U/235U of underlying sediments is related to the water column through the isotope fractionation factor of the reduction reaction but is influenced by mass transport processes. These results provide important constraints on the use of 238U/235U as a proxy of the redox state of ancient oceans.

  4. Simplified Vicarious Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Thomas; Ryan, Robert; Holekamp, Kara; Pagnutti, Mary

    2010-01-01

    A measurement-based radiance estimation approach for vicarious radiometric calibration of spaceborne multispectral remote sensing systems has been developed. This simplified process eliminates the use of radiative transfer codes and reduces the number of atmospheric assumptions required to perform sensor calibrations. Like prior approaches, the simplified method involves the collection of ground truth data coincident with the overpass of the remote sensing system being calibrated, but this approach differs from the prior techniques in both the nature of the data collected and the manner in which the data are processed. In traditional vicarious radiometric calibration, ground truth data are gathered using ground-viewing spectroradiometers and one or more sun photometer( s), among other instruments, located at a ground target area. The measured data from the ground-based instruments are used in radiative transfer models to estimate the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) target radiances at the time of satellite overpass. These TOA radiances are compared with the satellite sensor readings to radiometrically calibrate the sensor. Traditional vicarious radiometric calibration methods require that an atmospheric model be defined such that the ground-based observations of solar transmission and diffuse-to-global ratios are in close agreement with the radiative transfer code estimation of these parameters. This process is labor-intensive and complex, and can be prone to errors. The errors can be compounded because of approximations in the model and inaccurate assumptions about the radiative coupling between the atmosphere and the terrain. The errors can increase the uncertainty of the TOA radiance estimates used to perform the radiometric calibration. In comparison, the simplified approach does not use atmospheric radiative transfer models and involves fewer assumptions concerning the radiative transfer properties of the atmosphere. This new technique uses two neighboring uniform

  5. Reduced ambiguity calibration for LOFAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatawatta, Sarod

    2012-07-01

    Interferometric calibration always yields non unique solutions. It is therefore essential to remove these ambiguities before the solutions could be used in any further modeling of the sky, the instrument or propagation effects such as the ionosphere. We present a method for LOFAR calibration which does not yield a unitary ambiguity, especially under ionospheric distortions. We also present exact ambiguities we get in our solutions, in closed form. Casting this as an optimization problem, we also present conditions for this approach to work. The proposed method enables us to use the solutions obtained via calibration for further modeling of instrumental and propagation effects. We provide extensive simulation results on the performance of our method. Moreover, we also give cases where due to degeneracy, this method fails to perform as expected and in such cases, we suggest exploiting diversity in time, space and frequency.

  6. COBE Final Report: DIRBE Celestial Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdick, Shawn V.; Murdock, Thomas L.

    1997-03-01

    We report the results of a comparative study of the COsmic Background Explorer/Diffuse InfraRed Background Experiment (COBE/DIRBE) photometric calibration over about 100 selected stellar and non-stellar calibration objects across a wide range of the DIRBE instrument dynamic range, wavelength coverage, and source temperature. A statistical comparison of the DIRBE-reported flux to the accepted values from the literature (as summarized in the CIO) provides an independent verification of the DIRBE point source calibration.

  7. Uncertainty and calibration analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D.A.

    1991-03-01

    All measurements contain some deviation from the true value which is being measured. In the common vernacular this deviation between the true value and the measured value is called an inaccuracy, an error, or a mistake. Since all measurements contain errors, it is necessary to accept that there is a limit to how accurate a measurement can be. The undertainty interval combined with the confidence level, is one measure of the accuracy for a measurement or value. Without a statement of uncertainty (or a similar parameter) it is not possible to evaluate if the accuracy of the measurement, or data, is appropriate. The preparation of technical reports, calibration evaluations, and design calculations should consider the accuracy of measurements and data being used. There are many methods to accomplish this. This report provides a consistent method for the handling of measurement tolerances, calibration evaluations and uncertainty calculations. The SRS Quality Assurance (QA) Program requires that the uncertainty of technical data and instrument calibrations be acknowledged and estimated. The QA Program makes some specific technical requirements related to the subject but does not provide a philosophy or method on how uncertainty should be estimated. This report was prepared to provide a technical basis to support the calculation of uncertainties and the calibration of measurement and test equipment for any activity within the Experimental Thermal-Hydraulics (ETH) Group. The methods proposed in this report provide a graded approach for estimating the uncertainty of measurements, data, and calibrations. The method is based on the national consensus standard, ANSI/ASME PTC 19.1.

  8. Self Calibration of a 2-wavelength Pyrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Pyrometers require calibrations to determine their instrument constants before they can be used in remote temperature measurements. These constants reflect the combined effects of detector response, the transmissivities of intervening optical media (windows and gases) and the emissivity of the measured surface. We describe here the principal and the demonstration of self calibrating 2-wavelength pyrometer.

  9. [Spectral calibration for space-borne differential optical absorption spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hai-Jin; Liu, Wen-Qing; Si, Fu-Qi; Zhao, Min-Jie; Jiang, Yu; Xue, Hui

    2012-11-01

    Space-borne differential optical absorption spectrometer is used for remote sensing of atmospheric trace gas global distribution. This instrument acquires high accuracy UV/Vis radiation scattered or reflected by air or earth surface, and can monitor distribution and variation of trace gases based on differential optical absorption spectrum algorithm. Spectral calibration is the premise and base of quantification of remote sensing data of the instrument, and the precision of calibration directly decides the level of development and application of the instrument. Considering the characteristic of large field, wide wavelength range, high spatial and spectral resolution of the space-borne differential optical absorption spectrometer, a spectral calibration method is presented, a calibration device was built, the equation of spectral calibration was calculated through peak searching and regression analysis, and finally the full field spectral calibration of the instrument was realized. The precision of spectral calibration was verified with Fraunhofer lines of solar light.

  10. Applying neural networks to optimize instrumentation performance

    SciTech Connect

    Start, S.E.; Peters, G.G.

    1995-06-01

    Well calibrated instrumentation is essential in providing meaningful information about the status of a plant. Signals from plant instrumentation frequently have inherent non-linearities, may be affected by environmental conditions and can therefore cause calibration difficulties for the people who maintain them. Two neural network approaches are described in this paper for improving the accuracy of a non-linear, temperature sensitive level probe ised in Expermental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) that was difficult to calibrate.

  11. SPRT Calibration Uncertainties and Internal Quality Control at a Commercial SPRT Calibration Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiandt, T. J.

    2008-06-01

    The Hart Scientific Division of the Fluke Corporation operates two accredited standard platinum resistance thermometer (SPRT) calibration facilities, one at the Hart Scientific factory in Utah, USA, and the other at a service facility in Norwich, UK. The US facility is accredited through National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP), and the UK facility is accredited through UKAS. Both provide SPRT calibrations using similar equipment and procedures, and at similar levels of uncertainty. These uncertainties are among the lowest available commercially. To achieve and maintain low uncertainties, it is required that the calibration procedures be thorough and optimized. However, to minimize customer downtime, it is also important that the instruments be calibrated in a timely manner and returned to the customer. Consequently, subjecting the instrument to repeated calibrations or extensive repeated measurements is not a viable approach. Additionally, these laboratories provide SPRT calibration services involving a wide variety of SPRT designs. These designs behave differently, yet predictably, when subjected to calibration measurements. To this end, an evaluation strategy involving both statistical process control and internal consistency measures is utilized to provide confidence in both the instrument calibration and the calibration process. This article describes the calibration facilities, procedure, uncertainty analysis, and internal quality assurance measures employed in the calibration of SPRTs. Data will be reviewed and generalities will be presented. Finally, challenges and considerations for future improvements will be discussed.

  12. Overview of intercalibration of satellite instruments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Hewison, T.J.; Fox, N.; Wu, X.; Xiong, X.; Blackwell, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Inter-calibration of satellite instruments is critical for detection and quantification of changes in the Earth’s environment, weather forecasting, understanding climate processes, and monitoring climate and land cover change. These applications use data from many satellites; for the data to be inter-operable, the instruments must be cross-calibrated. To meet the stringent needs of such applications requires that instruments provide reliable, accurate, and consistent measurements over time. Robust techniques are required to ensure that observations from different instruments can be normalized to a common scale that the community agrees on. The long-term reliability of this process needs to be sustained in accordance with established reference standards and best practices. Furthermore, establishing physical meaning to the information through robust Système International d'unités (SI) traceable Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) is essential to fully understand the parameters under observation. The processes of calibration, correction, stability monitoring, and quality assurance need to be underpinned and evidenced by comparison with “peer instruments” and, ideally, highly calibrated in-orbit reference instruments. Inter-calibration between instruments is a central pillar of the Cal/Val strategies of many national and international satellite remote sensing organizations. Inter-calibration techniques as outlined in this paper not only provide a practical means of identifying and correcting relative biases in radiometric calibration between instruments but also enable potential data gaps between measurement records in a critical time series to be bridged. Use of a robust set of internationally agreed upon and coordinated inter-calibration techniques will lead to significant improvement in the consistency between satellite instruments and facilitate accurate monitoring of the Earth’s climate at uncertainty levels needed to detect and attribute the mechanisms

  13. Interferometric data reduction with AMBER/VLTI. Principle, estimators, and illustration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatulli, E.; Millour, F.; Chelli, A.; Duvert, G.; Acke, B.; Hernandez Utrera, O.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Kraus, S.; Malbet, F.; Mège, P.; Petrov, R. G.; Vannier, M.; Zins, G.; Antonelli, P.; Beckmann, U.; Bresson, Y.; Dugué, M.; Gennari, S.; Glück, L.; Kern, P.; Lagarde, S.; Le Coarer, E.; Lisi, F.; Perraut, K.; Puget, P.; Rantakyrö, F.; Robbe-Dubois, S.; Roussel, A.; Weigelt, G.; Accardo, M.; Agabi, K.; Altariba, E.; Arezki, B.; Aristidi, E.; Baffa, C.; Behrend, J.; Blöcker, T.; Bonhomme, S.; Busoni, S.; Cassaing, F.; Clausse, J.-M.; Colin, J.; Connot, C.; Delboulbé, A.; Domiciano de Souza, A.; Driebe, T.; Feautrier, P.; Ferruzzi, D.; Forveille, T.; Fossat, E.; Foy, R.; Fraix-Burnet, D.; Gallardo, A.; Giani, E.; Gil, C.; Glentzlin, A.; Heiden, M.; Heininger, M.; Kamm, D.; Kiekebusch, M.; Le Contel, D.; Le Contel, J.-M.; Lesourd, T.; Lopez, B.; Lopez, M.; Magnard, Y.; Marconi, A.; Mars, G.; Martinot-Lagarde, G.; Mathias, P.; Monin, J.-L.; Mouillet, D.; Mourard, D.; Nussbaum, E.; Ohnaka, K.; Pacheco, J.; Perrier, C.; Rabbia, Y.; Rebattu, S.; Reynaud, F.; Richichi, A.; Robini, A.; Sacchettini, M.; Schertl, D.; Schöller, M.; Solscheid, W.; Spang, A.; Stee, P.; Stefanini, P.; Tallon, M.; Tallon-Bosc, I.; Tasso, D.; Testi, L.; Vakili, F.; von der Lühe, O.; Valtier, J.-C.; Ventura, N.

    2007-03-01

    Aims:In this paper, we present an innovative data reduction method for single-mode interferometry. It has been specifically developed for the AMBER instrument, the three-beam combiner of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer, but it can be derived for any single-mode interferometer. Methods: The algorithm is based on a direct modelling of the fringes in the detector plane. As such, it requires a preliminary calibration of the instrument in order to obtain the calibration matrix that builds the linear relationship between the interferogram and the interferometric observable, which is the complex visibility. Once the calibration procedure has been performed, the signal processing appears to be a classical least-square determination of a linear inverse problem. From the estimated complex visibility, we derive the squared visibility, the closure phase, and the spectral differential phase. Results: The data reduction procedures have been gathered into the so-called amdlib software, now available for the community, and are presented in this paper. Furthermore, each step in this original algorithm is illustrated and discussed from various on-sky observations conducted with the VLTI, with a focus on the control of the data quality and the effective execution of the data reduction procedures. We point out the present limited performances of the instrument due to VLTI instrumental vibrations which are difficult to calibrate. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile.

  14. Practical Study of Psychrometer Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentved, Anders Bonde; Heinonen, Martti; Hudoklin, Domen

    2012-09-01

    Psychrometers remain the most widely used instruments for controlling the humidity in climatic test chambers, yet the calibration of these instruments is particularly challenging. Psychrometer calibrations require careful consideration of influence variables such as the fitting and cleanliness of the wick, the effect of the calibration chamber on the air flow past the sensors, on radiation incident on the sensors, and on the dissipation heat from the built-in fan (if included). In addition, uncertainty requirements for calibration of such psychrometers are typically around 1 %rh to 2 %rh, i.e., close to the best calibration and measurement uncertainties (CMCs) claimed by national metrology institutes (NMIs). As well as their role in supporting CMCs, inter-comparisons provide a good test-ground to ensure all influence variables are controlled or otherwise accounted for in the uncertainty budget. This paper presents the results of a comparison of psychrometer calibrations performed by the NMIs in Denmark, Slovenia, and Finland. The comparison was carried out under EURAMET Project No. 1033 with the aim to investigate the equivalence of psychrometer calibrations performed at the highest level and to gather practical experience to be used in similar comparisons in the future. An aspirated electro-psychrometer was used for the comparison, and calibrations were carried out in the range from 15 %rh to 93 %rh in a temperature range from 15 °C to 70 °C. While the results show good agreement at high relative humidity, significant differences at low relative humidity are reported. It is suggested that the differences are caused by a combination of psychrometer wick contamination and a difference in the wick-wetting methods used by the participant laboratories.

  15. Stepwise Regression Analysis of MDOE Balance Calibration Data Acquired at DNW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLoach, RIchard; Philipsen, Iwan

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports a comparison of two experiment design methods applied in the calibration of a strain-gage balance. One features a 734-point test matrix in which loads are varied systematically according to a method commonly applied in aerospace research and known in the literature of experiment design as One Factor At a Time (OFAT) testing. Two variations of an alternative experiment design were also executed on the same balance, each with different features of an MDOE experiment design. The Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE) is an integrated process of experiment design, execution, and analysis applied at NASA's Langley Research Center to achieve significant reductions in cycle time, direct operating cost, and experimental uncertainty in aerospace research generally and in balance calibration experiments specifically. Personnel in the Instrumentation and Controls Department of the German Dutch Wind Tunnels (DNW) have applied MDOE methods to evaluate them in the calibration of a balance using an automated calibration machine. The data have been sent to Langley Research Center for analysis and comparison. This paper reports key findings from this analysis. The chief result is that a 100-point calibration exploiting MDOE principles delivered quality comparable to a 700+ point OFAT calibration with significantly reduced cycle time and attendant savings in direct and indirect costs. While the DNW test matrices implemented key MDOE principles and produced excellent results, additional MDOE concepts implemented in balance calibrations at Langley Research Center are also identified and described.

  16. Instrument validation project

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, B.A.; Daymo, E.A.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Zhang, J.

    1996-06-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company Project W-211 is responsible for providing the system capabilities to remove radioactive waste from ten double-shell tanks used to store radioactive wastes on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The project is also responsible for measuring tank waste slurry properties prior to injection into pipeline systems, including the Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System. This report summarizes studies of the appropriateness of the instrumentation specified for use in Project W-211. The instruments were evaluated in a test loop with simulated slurries that covered the range of properties specified in the functional design criteria. The results of the study indicate that the compact nature of the baseline Project W-211 loop does not result in reduced instrumental accuracy resulting from poor flow profile development. Of the baseline instrumentation, the Micromotion densimeter, the Moore Industries thermocouple, the Fischer and Porter magnetic flow meter, and the Red Valve Pressure transducer meet the desired instrumental accuracy. An alternate magnetic flow meter (Yokagawa) gave nearly identical results as the baseline fischer and Porter. The Micromotion flow meter did not meet the desired instrument accuracy but could potentially be calibrated so that it would meet the criteria. The Nametre on-line viscometer did not meet the desired instrumental accuracy and is not recommended as a quantitative instrument although it does provide qualitative information. The recommended minimum set of instrumentation necessary to ensure the slurry meets the Project W-058 acceptance criteria is the Micromotion mass flow meter and delta pressure cells.

  17. Presentation of AMBER/VLTI Data Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatulli, E.; Malbet, F.; Duvert, G.

    This course describes the data reduction process of the AMBER instrument, the three-beam recombiner of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). We develop its principles from a theoretical point of view, and we illustrate the main points with examples taken from AMBER real observations. We particularly emphasize that the AMBER data reduction process is (i) a fit of the interferogram in the detector plane, (ii) using an a priori calibration of the instrument, where (iii) the complex visibility of the source is estimated from a least-square determination of a linear inverse problem, and where (iv) the derived AMBER observables are the squared visibility, the closure phase, and the spectral differential phase.

  18. MODIS On-orbit Calibration Uncertainty Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, Vincent; Sun, Junqiang; Wu, Aisheng

    2011-01-01

    MODIS has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) and 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB). Compared to its heritage sensors, MODIS was developed with very stringent calibration uncertainty requirements. As a result, MODIS was designed and built with a set of on-board calibrators (OBC), which allow key sensor performance parameters and on-orbit calibration coefficients to be monitored and updated. In terms of its calibration traceability, MODIS RSB calibration is reflectance based using an on-board solar diffuser (SD) and the TEB calibration is radiance based using an on-board blackbody (BB). In addition to on-orbit calibration coefficients derived from its OBC, calibration parameters determined from sensor pre-launch calibration and characterization are used in both the RSB and TEB calibration and retrieval algorithms. This paper provides a brief description of MODIS calibration methodologies and an in-depth analysis of its on-orbit calibration uncertainties. Also discussed in this paper are uncertainty contributions from individual components and differences due to Terra and Aqua MODIS instrument characteristics and on-orbit performance.

  19. Accommodating subject and instrument variations in spectroscopic determinations

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Michael J.; Rowe, Robert K.; Thomas, Edward V.

    2006-08-29

    A method and apparatus for measuring a biological attribute, such as the concentration of an analyte, particularly a blood analyte in tissue such as glucose. The method utilizes spectrographic techniques in conjunction with an improved instrument-tailored or subject-tailored calibration model. In a calibration phase, calibration model data is modified to reduce or eliminate instrument-specific attributes, resulting in a calibration data set modeling intra-instrument or intra-subject variation. In a prediction phase, the prediction process is tailored for each target instrument separately using a minimal number of spectral measurements from each instrument or subject.

  20. Calibration of optical cantilever deflection readers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhiyu; Seeley, Tim; Kossek, Sebastian; Thundat, Thomas

    2004-02-01

    Because of its ultrahigh sensitivity, the optical lever detection method similar to that used in the atomic force microscope (AFM) has been widely employed as a standard technique for measuring microcantilever deflection. Along with the increasing interest in using the microcantilever as a sensing platform, there is also a requirement for a reliable calibration technique. Many researchers have used the concept of optical lever detection to construct microcantilever deflection readout instruments for chemical, physical, and biological detection. However, without an AFM piezo z scanner, it is very difficult to precisely calibrate these instruments. Here, we present a step-by-step method to conveniently calibrate an instrument using commercially available piezoresistive cantilevers. The experimental results closely match the theoretical calculation. Following this procedure, one can easily calibrate any optical cantilever deflection detection system with high reproducibility, precision, and reliability. A detailed discussion of the optical lever readout system design has been addressed in this article.

  1. Fall 2010 Total Solar Irradiance Calibration Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, J. S.; Socker, D. G.; Willson, R. C.; Kopp, G.

    2010-12-01

    As part of a NASA-Sponsored program to understand the differences in Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) results reported by various space-based radiometers, the Naval Research Laboratory is hosting a Total Solar Irradiance Calibration Workshop. This workshop is a follow-on meeting to a similar workshop hosted by the National Institute for Standards and Technology in 2005. These workshops have been attended by many of the PI teams of the past and current TSI measuring instruments. The discussions at these workshops have addressed calibration methods and the numerous instrumental differences that need to be understood in order to bring the complete ensemble of results onto a common scale. In this talk we will present an overview of the NRL Calibration Workshop which will include results of recent calibration studies at various laboratories and have involved several TSI instruments.

  2. Assessment of uncertainty in ROLO lunar irradiance for on-orbit calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.; Barnes, W.L.; Butler, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    A system to provide radiometric calibration of remote sensing imaging instruments on-orbit using the Moon has been developed by the US Geological Survey RObotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) project. ROLO has developed a model for lunar irradiance which treats the primary geometric variables of phase and libration explicitly. The model fits hundreds of data points in each of 23 VNIR and 9 SWIR bands; input data are derived from lunar radiance images acquired by the project's on-site telescopes, calibrated to exoatmospheric radiance and converted to disk-equivalent reflectance. Experimental uncertainties are tracked through all stages of the data processing and modeling. Model fit residuals are ???1% in each band over the full range of observed phase and libration angles. Application of ROLO lunar calibration to SeaWiFS has demonstrated the capability for long-term instrument response trending with precision approaching 0.1% per year. Current work involves assessing the error in absolute responsivity and relative spectral response of the ROLO imaging systems, and propagation of error through the data reduction and modeling software systems with the goal of reducing the uncertainty in the absolute scale, now estimated at 5-10%. This level is similar to the scatter seen in ROLO lunar irradiance comparisons of multiple spacecraft instruments that have viewed the Moon. A field calibration campaign involving NASA and NIST has been initiated that ties the ROLO lunar measurements to the NIST (SI) radiometric scale.

  3. COBE differential microwave radiometers - Calibration techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Smoot, G. F.; Janssen, M.; Gulkis, S.; Kogut, A.; Hinshaw, G.; Backus, C.; Hauser, M. G.; Mather, J. C.; Rokke, L.

    1992-01-01

    The COBE spacecraft was launched November 18, 1989 UT carrying three scientific instruments into earth orbit for studies of cosmology. One of these instruments, the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR), is designed to measure the large-angular-scale temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation at three frequencies (31.5, 53, and 90 GHz). This paper presents three methods used to calibrate the DMR. First, the signal difference between beam-filling hot and cold targets observed on the ground provides a primary calibration that is transferred to space by noise sources internal to the instrument. Second, the moon is used in flight as an external calibration source. Third, the signal arising from the Doppler effect due to the earth's motion around the barycenter of the solar system is used as an external calibration source. Preliminary analysis of the external source calibration techniques confirms the accuracy of the currently more precise ground-based calibration. Assuming the noise source behavior did not change from the ground-based calibration to flight, a 0.1-0.4 percent relative and 0.7-2.5 percent absolute calibration uncertainty is derived, depending on radiometer channel.

  4. A derivative standard for polarimeter calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Mulhollan, G.; Clendenin, J.; Saez, P.

    1996-10-01

    A long-standing problem in polarized electron physics is the lack of a traceable standard for calibrating electron spin polarimeters. While several polarimeters are absolutely calibrated to better than 2%, the typical instrument has an inherent accuracy no better than 10%. This variability among polarimeters makes it difficult to compare advances in polarized electron sources between laboratories. The authors have undertaken an effort to establish 100 nm thick molecular beam epitaxy grown GaAs(110) as a material which may be used as a derivative standard for calibrating systems possessing a solid state polarized electron source. The near-bandgap spin polarization of photoelectrons emitted from this material has been characterized for a variety of conditions and several laboratories which possess well calibrated polarimeters have measured the photoelectron polarization of cathodes cut from a common wafer. Despite instrumentation differences, the spread in the measurements is sufficiently small that this material may be used as a derivative calibration standard.

  5. Method for calibrating mass spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Brands, Michael D [Richland, WA; Bruce, James E [Schwenksville, PA; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2002-12-24

    A method whereby a mass spectra generated by a mass spectrometer is calibrated by shifting the parameters used by the spectrometer to assign masses to the spectra in a manner which reconciles the signal of ions within the spectra having equal mass but differing charge states, or by reconciling ions having known differences in mass to relative values consistent with those known differences. In this manner, the mass spectrometer is calibrated without the need for standards while allowing the generation of a highly accurate mass spectra by the instrument.

  6. 49 CFR 325.25 - Calibration of measurement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calibration of measurement systems. 325.25 Section... CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS Instrumentation § 325.25 Calibration of measurement systems. (a)(1) The sound level measurement system must be calibrated and appropriately adjusted at one or more...

  7. 40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction... carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated on all normally used instrument ranges. New...

  8. 40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction... carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated on all normally used instrument ranges. New...

  9. 40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction... carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated on all normally used instrument ranges. New...

  10. 40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction... carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated on all normally used instrument ranges. New...

  11. Test surfaces useful for calibration of surface profilometers

    DOEpatents

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V; McKinney, Wayne R; Takacs, Peter Z

    2013-12-31

    The present invention provides for test surfaces and methods for calibration of surface profilometers, including interferometric and atomic force microscopes. Calibration is performed using a specially designed test surface, or the Binary Pseudo-random (BPR) grating (array). Utilizing the BPR grating (array) to measure the power spectral density (PSD) spectrum, the profilometer is calibrated by determining the instrumental modulation transfer.

  12. Instrumentation: Software-Driven Instrumentation: The New Wave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salit, M. L.; Parsons, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    Software-driven instrumentation makes measurements that demand a computer as an integral part of either control, data acquisition, or data reduction. The structure of such instrumentation, hardware requirements, and software requirements are discussed. Examples of software-driven instrumentation (such as wavelength-modulated continuum source…

  13. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic-reconnaissance survey portions of New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas. Volume I. Instrumentation and data reduction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, a rotary-wing high sensitivity radiometric and magnetic survey was flown covering portions of the State of New Mexico, Arizona and Texas. The survey encompassed six 1:250,000 scale quadrangles, Holbrook, El Paso, Las Cruces, Carlsbad, Fort Sumner and Roswell. The survey was flown with a Sikorsky S58T helicopter equipped with a high sensitivity gamma ray spectrometer which was calibrated at the DOE calibration facilities at Walker Field in Grand Junction, Colorado, and the Dynamic Test Range at Lake Mead, Arizona. The radiometric data were processed to compensate for Compton scattering effects and altitude variations. The data were normalized to 400 feet terrain clearance. The reduced data is presented in the form of stacked profiles, standard deviation anomaly plots, histogram plots and microfiche listings. The results of the geologic interpretation of the radiometric data together with the profiles, anomaly maps and histograms are presented in the individual quadrangle reports. The survey was awarded to LKB Resources, Inc. which completed the data acquisition. In April, 1980 Carson Helicopters, Inc. and Carson Geoscience Company agreed to manage the project and complete delivery of this final report.

  14. The new camera calibration system at the US Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Modern computerized photogrammetric instruments are capable of utilizing both radial and decentering camera calibration parameters which can increase plotting accuracy over that of older analog instrumentation technology from previous decades. Also, recent design improvements in aerial cameras have minimized distortions and increased the resolving power of camera systems, which should improve the performance of the overall photogrammetric process. In concert with these improvements, the Geological Survey has adopted the rigorous mathematical model for camera calibration developed by Duane Brown. An explanation of the Geological Survey's calibration facility and the additional calibration parameters now being provided in the USGS calibration certificate are reviewed. -Author

  15. Method for Ground-to-Space Laser Calibration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukashin, Constantine (Inventor); Wielicki, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention comprises an approach for calibrating the sensitivity to polarization, optics degradation, spectral and stray light response functions of instruments on orbit. The concept is based on using an accurate ground-based laser system, Ground-to-Space Laser Calibration (GSLC), transmitting laser light to instrument on orbit during nighttime substantially clear-sky conditions. To minimize atmospheric contribution to the calibration uncertainty the calibration cycles should be performed in short time intervals, and all required measurements are designed to be relative. The calibration cycles involve ground operations with laser beam polarization and wavelength changes.

  16. Method for Ground-to-Satellite Laser Calibration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukashin, Constantine (Inventor); Wielicki, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention comprises an approach for calibrating the sensitivity to polarization, optics degradation, spectral and stray light response functions of instruments on orbit. The concept is based on using an accurate ground-based laser system, Ground-to-Space Laser Calibration (GSLC), transmitting laser light to instrument on orbit during nighttime substantially clear-sky conditions. To minimize atmospheric contribution to the calibration uncertainty the calibration cycles should be performed in short time intervals, and all required measurements are designed to be relative. The calibration cycles involve ground operations with laser beam polarization and wavelength changes.

  17. A MAGNETIC CALIBRATION OF PHOTOSPHERIC DOPPLER VELOCITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Welsch, Brian T.; Fisher, George H.; Sun, Xudong

    2013-03-10

    The zero point of measured photospheric Doppler shifts is uncertain for at least two reasons: instrumental variations (from, e.g., thermal drifts); and the convective blueshift, a known correlation between intensity and upflows. Accurate knowledge of the zero point is, however, useful for (1) improving estimates of the Poynting flux of magnetic energy across the photosphere, and (2) constraining processes underlying flux cancellation, the mutual apparent loss of magnetic flux in closely spaced, opposite-polarity magnetogram features. We present a method to absolutely calibrate line-of-sight (LOS) velocities in solar active regions (ARs) near disk center using three successive vector magnetograms and one Dopplergram coincident with the central magnetogram. It exploits the fact that Doppler shifts measured along polarity inversion lines (PILs) of the LOS magnetic field determine one component of the velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field, and optimizes consistency between changes in LOS flux near PILs and the transport of transverse magnetic flux by LOS velocities, assuming that ideal electric fields govern the magnetic evolution. Previous calibrations fitted the center-to-limb variation of Doppler velocities, but this approach cannot, by itself, account for residual convective shifts at the limb. We apply our method to vector magnetograms of AR 11158, observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and find clear evidence of offsets in the Doppler zero point in the range of 50-550 m s{sup -1}. In addition, we note that a simpler calibration can be determined from an LOS magnetogram and Dopplergram pair from the median Doppler velocity among all near-disk-center PIL pixels. We briefly discuss shortcomings in our initial implementation, and suggest ways to address these. In addition, as a step in our data reduction, we discuss the use of temporal continuity in the transverse magnetic field direction to correct apparently

  18. Flight Calibration and Operations of the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT)

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, D.N.; Hill, J.E.; Nousek, J.A.; Wells, A.A.; Osborne, J.P.; Mukerjee, K.; Chincarini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Campana, S.

    2004-09-28

    We present the current on-orbit calibration and operational plans for the Swift XRT. The XRT is a largely autonomous instrument and requires very little manual commanding for normal operations. A detailed calibration plan is being developed to verify the instrumental performance on-orbit, including effective area, point spread function, vignetting, spectroscopic performance, and timing accuracy. Operational plans include regular calibration measurements using on-board calibration sources as well as periodic calibration observations using celestial targets.

  19. Aeronautic instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everling, E; Koppe, H

    1924-01-01

    The development of aeronautic instruments. Vibrations, rapid changes of the conditions of flight and of atmospheric conditions, influence of the air stream all call for particular design and construction of the individual instruments. This is shown by certain examples of individual instruments and of various classes of instruments for measuring pressure, change of altitude, temperature, velocity, inclination and turning or combinations of these.

  20. Medicina array demonstrator: calibration and radiation pattern characterization using a UAV-mounted radio-frequency source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pupillo, G.; Naldi, G.; Bianchi, G.; Mattana, A.; Monari, J.; Perini, F.; Poloni, M.; Schiaffino, M.; Bolli, P.; Lingua, A.; Aicardi, I.; Bendea, H.; Maschio, P.; Piras, M.; Virone, G.; Paonessa, F.; Farooqui, Z.; Tibaldi, A.; Addamo, G.; Peverini, O. A.; Tascone, R.; Wijnholds, S. J.

    2015-06-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of the new-generation Low-Frequency Aperture Array (LFAA) radio telescopes is instrument calibration. The operational LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) instrument and the future LFAA element of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) require advanced calibration techniques to reach the expected outstanding performance. In this framework, a small array, called Medicina Array Demonstrator (MAD), has been designed and installed in Italy to provide a test bench for antenna characterization and calibration techniques based on a flying artificial test source. A radio-frequency tone is transmitted through a dipole antenna mounted on a micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) (hexacopter) and received by each element of the array. A modern digital FPGA-based back-end is responsible for both data-acquisition and data-reduction. A simple amplitude and phase equalization algorithm is exploited for array calibration owing to the high stability and accuracy of the developed artificial test source. Both the measured embedded element patterns and calibrated array patterns are found to be in good agreement with the simulated data. The successful measurement campaign has demonstrated that a UAV-mounted test source provides a means to accurately validate and calibrate the full-polarized response of an antenna/array in operating conditions, including consequently effects like mutual coupling between the array elements and contribution of the environment to the antenna patterns. A similar system can therefore find a future application in the SKA-LFAA context.

  1. Test results for the Gemini Planet Imager data reduction pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maire, Jérôme; Perrin, Marshall D.; Doyon, René; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Larkin, James E.; Weiss, Jason L.; Marois, Christian; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell; Graham, James R.; Dunn, Jennifer; Galicher, Raphael; Marchis, Franck; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Labrie, Kathleen; Thomas, Sandrine J.; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Rantakyro, Fredrik T.; Palmer, David W.; Macintosh, Bruce A.

    2012-09-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a new facility instrument for the Gemini Observatory designed to detect and characterize planets and debris disks orbiting nearby stars; its science camera is a near infrared integral field spectrograph. We have developed a data pipeline for this instrument, which will be made publicly available to the community. The GPI data reduction pipeline (DRP) incorporates all necessary image reduction and calibration steps for high contrast imaging in both the spectral and polarimetric modes, including datacube generation, wavelength solution, astrometric and photometric calibrations, and speckle suppression via ADI and SSDI algorithms. It is implemented in IDL as a flexible modular system, and includes both command line and graphical interface tools including a customized viewer for GPI datacubes. This GPI data reduction pipeline is currently working very well, and is in use daily processing data during the instrument’s ongoing integration and test period at UC Santa Cruz. Here we summarize the results from recent pipeline tests, and present reductions of instrument test data taken with GPI. We will continue to refine and improve these tools throughout the rest of GPI’s testing and commissioning, and they will be released to the community, including both IDL source code and compiled versions that can be used without an IDL license.

  2. GIFTS SM EDU Radiometric and Spectral Calibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, J.; Reisse, R. a.; Johnson, D. G.; Gazarik, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    The Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Sensor Module (SM) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) is a high resolution spectral imager designed to measure infrared (IR) radiance using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The GIFTS instrument gathers measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The raw interferogram measurements are radiometrically and spectrally calibrated to produce radiance spectra, which are further processed to obtain atmospheric profiles via retrieval algorithms. This paper describes the processing algorithms involved in the calibration. The calibration procedures can be subdivided into three categories: the pre-calibration stage, the calibration stage, and finally, the post-calibration stage. Detailed derivations for each stage are presented in this paper.

  3. Twenty-Five Years of Landsat Thermal Band Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsi, Julia A.; Markham, Brian L.; Schoff, John R.; Hook, Simon J.; Raqueno, Nina G.

    2010-01-01

    Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ (ETM+), launched in April 1999, and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM), launched in 1984, both have a single thermal band. Both instruments thermal band calibrations have been updated previously: ETM+ in 2001 for a pre-launch calibration error and TM in 2007 for data acquired since the current era of vicarious calibration has been in place (1999). Vicarious calibration teams at Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) and NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have been working to validate the instrument calibration since 1999. Recent developments in their techniques and sites have expanded the temperature and temporal range of the validation. The new data indicate that the calibration of both instruments had errors: the ETM+ calibration contained a gain error of 5.8% since launch; the TM calibration contained a gain error of 5% and an additional offset error between 1997 and 1999. Both instruments required adjustments in their thermal calibration coefficients in order to correct for the errors. The new coefficients were calculated and added to the Landsat operational processing system in early 2010. With the corrections, both instruments are calibrated to within +/-0.7K.

  4. Mercury Calibration System

    SciTech Connect

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster

    2009-03-11

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 12 in the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) states that a mercury CEM must be calibrated with National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST)-traceable standards. In early 2009, a NIST traceable standard for elemental mercury CEM calibration still does not exist. Despite the vacature of CAMR by a Federal appeals court in early 2008, a NIST traceable standard is still needed for whatever regulation is implemented in the future. Thermo Fisher is a major vendor providing complete integrated mercury continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) systems to the industry. WRI is participating with EPA, EPRI, NIST, and Thermo Fisher towards the development of the criteria that will be used in the traceability protocols to be issued by EPA. An initial draft of an elemental mercury calibration traceability protocol was distributed for comment to the participating research groups and vendors on a limited basis in early May 2007. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. Various working drafts of the new interim traceability protocols were distributed in late 2008 and early 2009 to participants in the Mercury Standards Working Committee project. The protocols include sections on qualification and certification. The qualification section describes in general terms tests that must be conducted by the calibrator vendors to demonstrate that their calibration equipment meets the minimum requirements to be established by EPA for use in CAMR monitoring. Variables to be examined include linearity, ambient temperature, back pressure, ambient pressure, line voltage, and effects of shipping. None of the procedures were described in detail in the draft interim documents; however they describe what EPA would like to eventually develop. WRI is providing the data and results to EPA for use in developing revised experimental procedures and realistic acceptance criteria based on

  5. Gyroscopic Instruments for Instrument Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brombacher, W G; Trent, W C

    1938-01-01

    The gyroscopic instruments commonly used in instrument flying in the United States are the turn indicator, the directional gyro, the gyromagnetic compass, the gyroscopic horizon, and the automatic pilot. These instruments are described. Performance data and the method of testing in the laboratory are given for the turn indicator, the directional gyro, and the gyroscopic horizon. Apparatus for driving the instruments is discussed.

  6. Assessment of MODIS Reflected Solar Calibration Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Butler, James

    2011-01-01

    Determination of the calibration accuracy and traceability of a remote sensing instrument is a driving issue in the use of satellite data for calibration inter-comparisons and studying climate change. The Terra and Aqua MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments have successfully operated for more than 11 and 9 years, respectively. Twenty of the thirty six MODIS spectral bands are in the reflected solar region with center wavelengths ranging from 0.41 to 2.2 microns. MODIS reflective solar band (RSB) on-orbit calibration is reflectance based through the use of an on-board solar diffuser (SO). The calibration uncertainty requirements are +/-2.0% for the RSB reflectance factors at sensor specified typical scene reflectances or radiances. The SO bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) was characterized pre-launch and its on-orbit changes are tracked by an on-board solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). This paper provides an assessment of MODIS RSB on-orbit calibration traceability and uncertainty for its Level 1B (L1B) reflectance factors. It examines in details each of the uncertainty contributors, including those from pre-launch measurements as well as on-orbit observations. Common challenging issues and differences due to individual sensors' specific characteristics and on-orbit performance are also discussed in this paper. Guidance and recommendations are presented, based on lessons from MODIS RSB calibration uncertainty assessment, for the development of future instrument calibration and validation plans.

  7. Thickness Gauging of Single-Layer Conductive Materials with Two-Point Non Linear Calibration Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, James P. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor); Simpson, John W. (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Nath, Shridhar C. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A thickness gauging instrument uses a flux focusing eddy current probe and two-point nonlinear calibration algorithm. The instrument is small and portable due to the simple interpretation and operational characteristics of the probe. A nonlinear interpolation scheme incorporated into the instrument enables a user to make highly accurate thickness measurements over a fairly wide calibration range from a single side of nonferromagnetic conductive metals. The instrument is very easy to use and can be calibrated quickly.

  8. Landsat TM and ETM+ thermal band calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barsi, J.A.; Schott, J.R.; Palluconi, F. D.; Helder, D.L.; Hook, S.J.; Markham, B.L.; Chander, G.; O'Donnell, E. M.

    2003-01-01

    Landsat-5 has been imaging the Earth since March 1984, and Landsat-7 was added to the series of Landsat instruments in April 1999. The Landsat Project Science Office and the Landsat-7 Image Assessment System have been monitoring the on-board calibration of Landsat-7 since launch. Additionally, two separate university teams have been evaluating the on-board thermal calibration of Landsat-7 through ground-based measurements since launch. Although not monitored as closely over its lifetime, a new effort is currently being made to validate the calibration of Landsat-5. Two university teams are beginning to collect ground truth under Landsat-5, along with using other vicarious calibration methods to go back into the archive to validate the history of the calibration of Landsat-5. This paper considers the calibration efforts for the thermal band, band 6, of both the Landsat-5 and Landsat-7 instruments. Though stable since launch, Landsat-7 had an initial calibration error of about 3 K, and changes were made to correct for this beginning 1 October 2000 for data processed with the National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS) and beginning 20 December 2000 for data processed with the Landsat Product Generation System (LPGS). Recent results from Landsat-5 vicarious calibration efforts show an offset of –0.7 K over the lifetime of the instrument. This suggests that historical calibration efforts may have been detecting errors in processing systems rather than changes in the instrument. A correction to the Landsat-5 processing has not yet been implemented but will be in the near future.

  9. Performance of portable radiation survey instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenhower, E.; Welch, L.; Wiblin, C.

    1993-12-01

    This report examines alleged and documented deficiencies in the performance and the calibration of existing portable radiation survey instruments. This report also examines a limited number of reported overexposures and excessive exposures attributed to instrumentation or calibration problems. The high failure rates in performance testing of a limited number of instruments indicate further testing is needed to demonstrate which instruments are acceptable and for what application. Further, the adequacy of calibration is not demonstrated at this time as many calibrations are performed by nonaccredited calibration laboratories. A review of the regulatory requirements and practices of the NRC and Agreement States regarding the use of existing performance standards such as ANSI N42-17A-1988 and the use of accredited calibration laboratories demonstrates that (1) the regulatory programs do not require compliance with existing industry standards; and (2) instruments are generally not required to be calibrated by accredited laboratories. Options are recommended that might encourage the use of industry performance standards and calibration techniques.

  10. Revised Landsat-5 TM Radiometrie Calibration Procedures and Postcalibration Dynamic Ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.

    2003-01-01

    Effective May 5, 2003, Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Data Center (EDC) will be radiometrically calibrated using a new procedure and revised calibration parameters. This change will improve absolute calibration accuracy, consistency over time, and consistency with Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data. Users will need to use new parameters to convert the calibrated data products to radiance. The new procedure for the reflective bands (1-5,7) is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration curve for the instrument derived from the instrument's internal calibrator, cross-calibration with the ETM+, and vicarious measurements. The thermal band will continue to be calibrated using the internal calibrator. Further updates to improve the relative detector-to-detector calibration and thermal band calibration are being investigated, as is the calibration of the Landsat-4 (L4) TM.

  11. Absolute radiometric calibration of Als intensity data: effects on accuracy and target classification.

    PubMed

    Kaasalainen, Sanna; Pyysalo, Ulla; Krooks, Anssi; Vain, Ants; Kukko, Antero; Hyyppä, Juha; Kaasalainen, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of airborne laser scanning (ALS) intensity data aims at retrieving a value related to the target scattering properties, which is independent on the instrument or flight parameters. The aim of a calibration procedure is also to be able to compare results from different flights and instruments, but practical applications are sparsely available, and the performance of calibration methods for this purpose needs to be further assessed. We have studied the radiometric calibration with data from three separate flights and two different instruments using external calibration targets. We find that the intensity data from different flights and instruments can be compared to each other only after a radiometric calibration process using separate calibration targets carefully selected for each flight. The calibration is also necessary for target classification purposes, such as separating vegetation from sand using intensity data from different flights. The classification results are meaningful only for calibrated intensity data.

  12. Absolute radiometric calibration of Als intensity data: effects on accuracy and target classification.

    PubMed

    Kaasalainen, Sanna; Pyysalo, Ulla; Krooks, Anssi; Vain, Ants; Kukko, Antero; Hyyppä, Juha; Kaasalainen, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of airborne laser scanning (ALS) intensity data aims at retrieving a value related to the target scattering properties, which is independent on the instrument or flight parameters. The aim of a calibration procedure is also to be able to compare results from different flights and instruments, but practical applications are sparsely available, and the performance of calibration methods for this purpose needs to be further assessed. We have studied the radiometric calibration with data from three separate flights and two different instruments using external calibration targets. We find that the intensity data from different flights and instruments can be compared to each other only after a radiometric calibration process using separate calibration targets carefully selected for each flight. The calibration is also necessary for target classification purposes, such as separating vegetation from sand using intensity data from different flights. The classification results are meaningful only for calibrated intensity data. PMID:22346660

  13. Calibration strategies for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaug, Markus; Berge, David; Daniel, Michael; Doro, Michele; Förster, Andreas; Hofmann, Werner; Maccarone, Maria C.; Parsons, Dan; de los Reyes Lopez, Raquel; van Eldik, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    The Central Calibration Facilities workpackage of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory for very high energy gamma ray astronomy defines the overall calibration strategy of the array, develops dedicated hardware and software for the overall array calibration and coordinates the calibration efforts of the different telescopes. The latter include LED-based light pulsers, and various methods and instruments to achieve a calibration of the overall optical throughput. On the array level, methods for the inter-telescope calibration and the absolute calibration of the entire observatory are being developed. Additionally, the atmosphere above the telescopes, used as a calorimeter, will be monitored constantly with state-of-the-art instruments to obtain a full molecular and aerosol profile up to the stratosphere. The aim is to provide a maximal uncertainty of 10% on the reconstructed energy-scale, obtained through various independent methods. Different types of LIDAR in combination with all-sky-cameras will provide the observatory with an online, intelligent scheduling system, which, if the sky is partially covered by clouds, gives preference to sources observable under good atmospheric conditions. Wide-field optical telescopes and Raman Lidars will provide online information about the height-resolved atmospheric extinction, throughout the field-of-view of the cameras, allowing for the correction of the reconstructed energy of each gamma-ray event. The aim is to maximize the duty cycle of the observatory, in terms of usable data, while reducing the dead time introduced by calibration activities to an absolute minimum.

  14. FY2008 Calibration Systems Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, Bret D.; Myers, Tanya L.; Broocks, Bryan T.

    2009-01-01

    The Calibrations project has been exploring alternative technologies for calibration of passive sensors in the infrared (IR) spectral region. In particular, we have investigated using quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) because these devices offer several advantages over conventional blackbodies such as reductions in size and weight while providing a spectral source in the IR with high output power. These devices can provide a rapid, multi-level radiance scheme to fit any nonlinear behavior as well as a spectral calibration that includes the fore-optics, which is currently not available for on-board calibration systems.

  15. Calibration of sound calibrators: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milhomem, T. A. B.; Soares, Z. M. D.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of calibration of sound calibrators. Initially, traditional calibration methods are presented. Following, the international standard IEC 60942 is discussed emphasizing parameters, target measurement uncertainty and criteria for conformance to the requirements of the standard. Last, Regional Metrology Organizations comparisons are summarized.

  16. Spectralon diffuser calibration for MERIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olij, Carina; Schaarsberg, Jos G.; Werij, Henri G.; Zoutman, Erik; Baudin, Gilles; Chommeloux, Beatrice; Bezy, Jean-Loup; Gourmelon, Georges

    1997-12-01

    One of the key payload instruments of ESA's ENVISAT polar platform is the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS), aiming at improved knowledge of our planet in the fields of bio-optical oceanography, and atmospheric and land surface processes. MERIS, which is built under responsibility of Aerospatiale, will monitor the solar irradiation scattered by the Earth by employing five cameras which simultaneously record data in 15 visible and near-infrared programmable spectral bands with very low degree of polarization sensitivity. The combined field-of-view of the five cameras spans a range of 68.5 degrees. Crucial for obtaining the desired high accuracy during a four-years lifetime, is the on- board calibration unit. This calibration unit contains a set of Spectralon diffusers, which were manufactured having in mind excellent in-flight stability as well as spectral and spatial uniformity. Preflight calibration of the Spectralon diffusers was carried out at TNO-TPD. This calibration includes the measurement of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) for applicable angles and wavelengths, i.e., while varying angle of incidence, angle of observation, observation area on the elongated diffusers, wavelength and polarization. The diffuser calibration was performed in a class 100 cleanroom. For these measurements the TPD calibration facility, which is described in detail, has been adapted, so that it now has five geometrical degrees of freedom. Detectors have been optimized to minimize stray light. Due to extensive commissioning of the calibration setup the absolute error (1 sigma) of these measurements amounts to less than 0.5%; relative errors are in the 0.3 - 0.4% range.

  17. Mariner Jupiter/Saturn infrared instrument study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Mariner Jupiter/Saturn infrared instrumentation conceptual design study was conducted to determine the physical and operational characteristics of the instruments needed to satisfy the experiment science requirements. The design of the instruments is based on using as many proven concepts as possible. Many design features are taken from current developments such as the Mariner, Pioneer 10, Viking Orbiter radiometers, and Nimbus D spectrometer. Calibration techniques and error analysis for the instrument system are discussed.

  18. Nimbus-7 TOMS Version 7 Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellemeyer, C. G.; Taylor, S. L.; Jaross, G.; DeLand, M. T.; Seftor, C. J.; Labow, G.; Swissler, T. J.; Cebula, R. P.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes an improved instrument characterization used for the Version 7 processing of the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data record. An improved internal calibration technique referred to as spectral discrimination is used to provide long-term calibration precision of +/- 1%/decade in total column ozone amount. A revised wavelength scale results in a day one calibration that agrees with other satellite and ground-based measurements of total ozone, while a wavelength independent adjustment of the initial radiometric calibration constants provides good agreement with surface reflectivity measured by other satellite-borne ultraviolet measurements. The impact of other aspects of the Nimbus-7 TOMS instrument performance are also discussed. The Version 7 data should be used in all future studies involving the Nimbus-7 TOMS measurements of ozone. The data are available through the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Distributive Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  19. Landsat-5 TM reflective-band absolute radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Helder, D.L.; Markham, B.L.; Dewald, J.D.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Micijevic, E.; Ruggles, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provides the longest running continuous dataset of moderate spatial resolution remote sensing imagery, dating back to its launch in March 1984. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for this imagery used the instrument's response to the Internal Calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset of each detector. Due to observed degradations in the IC, a new procedure was implemented for U.S.-processed data in May 2003. This new calibration procedure is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration model for the instrument's reflective bands (1-5 and 7) and is derived, in part, from the IC response without the related degradation effects and is tied to the cross calibration with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus. Reflective-band absolute radiometric accuracy of the instrument tends to be on the order of 7% to 10%, based on a variety of calibration methods.

  20. Aeronautic Instruments. Section V : Power Plant Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, G E; Sylvander, R C; Mueller, E F; Wilhelm, R M; Eaton, H N; Warner, John A C

    1923-01-01

    Part 1 gives a general discussion of the uses, principles, construction, and operation of airplane tachometers. Detailed description of all available instruments, both foreign and domestic, are given. Part 2 describes methods of tests and effect of various conditions encountered in airplane flight such as change of temperature, vibration, tilting, and reduced air pressure. Part 3 describes the principal types of distance reading thermometers for aircraft engines, including an explanation of the physical principles involved in the functioning of the instruments and proper filling of the bulbs. Performance requirements and testing methods are given and a discussion of the source of error and results of tests. Part 4 gives methods of tests and calibration, also requirements of gauges of this type for the pressure measurement of the air pressure in gasoline tanks and the engine oil pressure on airplanes. Part 5 describes two types of gasoline gauges, the float type and the pressure type. Methods of testing and calibrating gasoline depth gauges are given. The Schroeder, R. A. E., and the Mark II flowmeters are described.

  1. Flight Test Results of an Angle of Attack and Angle of Sideslip Calibration Method Using Output-Error Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siu, Marie-Michele; Martos, Borja; Foster, John V.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a joint partnership between the NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) and the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI), research on advanced air data calibration methods has been in progress. This research was initiated to expand a novel pitot-static calibration method that was developed to allow rapid in-flight calibration for the NASA Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) facility. This approach uses Global Positioning System (GPS) technology coupled with modern system identification methods that rapidly computes optimal pressure error models over a range of airspeed with defined confidence bounds. Subscale flight tests demonstrated small 2-s error bounds with significant reduction in test time compared to other methods. Recent UTSI full scale flight tests have shown airspeed calibrations with the same accuracy or better as the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) accepted GPS 'four-leg' method in a smaller test area and in less time. The current research was motivated by the desire to extend this method for inflight calibration of angle of attack (AOA) and angle of sideslip (AOS) flow vanes. An instrumented Piper Saratoga research aircraft from the UTSI was used to collect the flight test data and evaluate flight test maneuvers. Results showed that the output-error approach produces good results for flow vane calibration. In addition, maneuvers for pitot-static and flow vane calibration can be integrated to enable simultaneous and efficient testing of each system.

  2. MODIS Solar Reflective Calibration Traceability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Long-term climate data records often consist of observations made by multiple sensors. It is, therefore, extremely important to have instrument overlap, to be able to track instrument stability, to quantify, measurement uncertainties, and to establish absolute scale traceable to the International System of Units (SI). The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a key instrument for both the Terra and Aqua missions, which were launched in December 1999 and May 2002, respectively. It has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) with wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.2 micrometers and observes the Earth at three nadir spatial resolutions: 0.25km, 0.5km, and 1km. MODIS RSB on-orbit calibration is reflectance based with reference to the bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) of its on-board solar diffuser (SD). The SD BRF characterization was made pre-launch by the instrument vendor using reference samples traceable directly to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). On-orbit SD reflectance degradation is tracked by an on-board solar diffuser monitor (SDSM). This paper provides details of this calibration chain, from prelaunch to on-orbit operation, and associated uncertainty assessments. Using MODIS as an example, this paper also discusses challenges and key design requirements for future missions developed for accurate climate studies.

  3. Common Calibration Source for Monitoring Long-term Ozone Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalewski, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Accurate long-term satellite measurements are crucial for monitoring the recovery of the ozone layer. The slow pace of the recovery and limited lifetimes of satellite monitoring instruments demands that datasets from multiple observation systems be combined to provide the long-term accuracy needed. A fundamental component of accurately monitoring long-term trends is the calibration of these various instruments. NASA s Radiometric Calibration and Development Facility at the Goddard Space Flight Center has provided resources to minimize calibration biases between multiple instruments through the use of a common calibration source and standardized procedures traceable to national standards. The Facility s 50 cm barium sulfate integrating sphere has been used as a common calibration source for both US and international satellite instruments, including the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet 2 (SBUV/2) instruments, Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV), Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) (ESA), Scanning Imaging SpectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY) (ESA), and others. We will discuss the advantages of using a common calibration source and its effects on long-term ozone data sets. In addition, sphere calibration results from various instruments will be presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the long-term characterization of the source itself.

  4. Calibration of Viking imaging system pointing, image extraction, and optical navigation measure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckenridge, W. G.; Fowler, J. W.; Morgan, E. M.

    1977-01-01

    Pointing control and knowledge accuracy of Viking Orbiter science instruments is controlled by the scan platform. Calibration of the scan platform and the imaging system was accomplished through mathematical models. The calibration procedure and results obtained for the two Viking spacecraft are described. Included are both ground and in-flight scan platform calibrations, and the additional calibrations unique to optical navigation.

  5. Lyman alpha SMM/UVSP absolute calibration and geocoronal correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Reichmann, Edwin J.

    1987-01-01

    Lyman alpha observations from the Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter (UVSP) instrument of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft were analyzed and provide instrumental calibration details. Specific values of the instrument quantum efficiency, Lyman alpha absolute intensity, and correction for geocoronal absorption are presented.

  6. The observation and analysis of lunar occultations of stars with an emphasis on improvements to data acquisition instrumentation and reduction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, G. H.

    1985-12-01

    A program of observation and analysis of lunar occultations was conceived, developed, and carried out using the facilities of the University of Florida's Rosemary Hill Observatory (RHO). The successful implementation of the program required investigation into several related areas. First, after an upgrade to the RHO 76-cm. reflecting telescope, a microprocessor controlled fast photoelectric data acquisition system was designed and built for the occultation data acquisition task. Second, the currently available model-fitting techniques used in the analysis of occultation observations were evaluated. A number of numerical experiments on synthesized and observational data were carried out to improve the performance of the numerical techniques. Among the numerical methods investigated were solution schemes employing partial parametric adjustment, parametric grouping into computational subsets, and preprocessing of the observational data by a number of smoothing techniques for a variety of noise conditions. Third, a turn-Key computational software system, incorporating data transfer, reduction, graphics and display, was developed to carry out all the necessary and related computational tasks in an interactive environment. Twenty-four occultation observations were obtained during the period March 1983 to March 1984. The observational data and the solutions resulting from the subsequent reductions are presented graphically and tabularly for each of the occultation events. Several angular diameter determinations were made. Among those of particular interest were 32 Librae, 1 Geminorum-B1, and X07598. The visual/spectroscopic binary 1 Geminorum was discovered to have a fourth, previously undetected, component. Two other stars, X13534 and X13607, were found to be binary with companions closer than 15 milliseconds of arc. Previously unknown faint companions were discovered for ZC1221 and ZC0126.

  7. Calibration of transonic and supersonic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, T. D.; Pope, T. C.; Cooksey, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    State-of-the art instrumentation and procedures for calibrating transonic (0.6 less than M less than 1.4) and supersonic (M less than or equal to 3.5) wind tunnels were reviewed and evaluated. Major emphasis was given to transonic tunnels. Continuous, blowdown and intermittent tunnels were considered. The required measurements of pressure, temperature, flow angularity, noise and humidity were discussed, and the effects of measurement uncertainties were summarized. A comprehensive review of instrumentation currently used to calibrate empty tunnel flow conditions was included. The recent results of relevant research are noted and recommendations for achieving improved data accuracy are made where appropriate. It is concluded, for general testing purposes, that satisfactory calibration measurements can be achieved in both transonic and supersonic tunnels. The goal of calibrating transonic tunnels to within 0.001 in centerline Mach number appears to be feasible with existing instrumentation, provided correct calibration procedures are carefully followed. A comparable accuracy can be achieved off-centerline with carefully designed, conventional probes, except near Mach 1. In the range 0.95 less than M less than 1.05, the laser Doppler velocimeter appears to offer the most promise for improved calibration accuracy off-centerline.

  8. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Calibration Facilities - 12103

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, Deborah; Traub, David; Widdop, Michael

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes radiometric calibration facilities located in Grand Junction, Colorado, and at three secondary calibration sites. These facilities are available to the public for the calibration of radiometric field instrumentation for in-situ measurements of radium (uranium), thorium, and potassium. Both borehole and hand-held instruments may be calibrated at the facilities. Aircraft or vehicle mounted systems for large area surveys may be calibrated at the Grand Junction Regional Airport facility. These calibration models are recognized internationally as stable, well-characterized radiation sources for calibration. Calibration models built in other countries are referenced to the DOE models, which are also widely used as a standard for calibration within the U.S. Calibration models are used to calibrate radiation detectors used in uranium exploration, remediation, and homeland security. (authors)

  9. MERIS 1st Year: early calibration results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delwart, Steven; Bourg, Ludovic; Huot, Jean-Paul

    2004-02-01

    Envisat is ESA's environmental research satellite launched on 1 March 2002. It carries a suit of sensors offering opportunities for a broad range of scientific research and applications. The calibration results from the first year of operation of the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) will be presented, including in-flight verification and radiometric, spectral and geometric characterization of the instrument. Radiometric calibration using the on-board diffuser will be discussed and comparison with vicarious calibration results over desert sites or well-characterized marine sites will be presented. The image quality will be assessed, and improvements resulting from the in-flight characterization will be presented.

  10. Automated calibration of a flight particle spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torbert, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    A system for calibrating both electron and ion imaging particle spectrometers was devised to calibrate flight instruments in a large vacuum facility in the Space Science Laboratory at the Marshall Space Flight Center. An IBM-compatible computer was used to control, via an IEEE 488 buss protocol, a two-axis gimbled table, constructed to fit inside the tank. Test settings of various diagnostic voltages were also acquired via the buss. These spectrometers constructed by the author at UCSD were calibrated in an automatic procedure programmed on the small computer. Data was up-loaded to the SSL VAX where a program was developed to plot the results.

  11. The Clementine instrument complement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.

    1993-01-01

    The recent successes of the Galileo solid-state imaging (SSI) experiment at the Moon and Gaspra show the utility of multispectral imaging of planetary objects. 'Clementine' is the planetary community's 'code name' for the SDIO (Space Defense Initiative Organization), mission to the Moon and the asteroid Geographos. This mission is designed as a long term stressing test on sensors and space systems developed for SDIO. In the course of this test Clementine will obtain science data using a varied and powerful array of remote sensing instruments which were developed by or for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California. Clementine carries five cameras, one for navigation and four for science experiments. In addition, a laser ranger is included which will serve as a laser altimeter. The Clementine cameras cover a wider range of spatial resolutions and wavelength range than did Galileo and are almost ideally suited to mapping of mafic rock types as are present on the Moon and expected at Geographos. Calibration of the cameras will occur at the sensor calibration laboratory at LLNL. In flight calibrations, using standard stars and other standards should improve the stated accuracies. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) include the following noise sources: shot noise, calibration error, digitization noise, readout noise, and frame transfer noise (where applicable). The achieved SNRs are a balance between detector saturation and acceptable image smear. The 'worst' case uses the longest possible integration times.

  12. Calibration and Lag of a Friez Type Cup Anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkerton, Robert M

    1930-01-01

    Tests on a Friez type cup anemometer have been made in the variable density wind tunnel of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory to calibrate the instrument and to determine its suitability for velocity measurements of wind gusts. The instrument was calibrated against a Pitot-static tube placed directly above the anemometer at air densities corresponding to sea level, and to an altitude of approximately 6000 feet. Air-speed acceleration tests were made to determine the lag in the instrument reading. The calibration results indicate that there should be an altitude correction. It is concluded that the cup anemometer is too sluggish for velocity measurements of wind gusts.

  13. Reduction of Carbon Footprint and Energy Efficiency Improvement in Aluminum Production by Use of Novel Wireless Instrumentation Integrated with Mathematical Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    James W. Evans

    2012-04-11

    The work addressed the greenhouse gas emission and electrical energy consumption of the aluminum industry. The objective was to provide a means for reducing both through the application of wireless instrumentation, coupled to mathematical modeling. Worldwide the aluminum industry consumes more electrical energy than all activities in many major countries (e.g. the UK) and emits more greenhouse gasses (e.g. than France). Most of these excesses are in the 'primary production' of aluminum; that is the conversion of aluminum oxide to metal in large electrolytic cells operating at hundreds of thousands of amps. An industry-specific GHG emission has been the focus of the work. The electrolytic cells periodically, but at irregular intervals, experience an upset condition known as an 'anode effect'. During such anode effects the cells emit fluorinated hydrocarbons (PFCs, which have a high global warming potential) at a rate far greater than in normal operation. Therefore curbing anode effects will reduce GHG emissions. Prior work had indicated that the distribution of electrical current within the cell experiences significant shifts in the minutes before an anode effect. The thrust of the present work was to develop technology that could detect and report this early warning of an anode effect so that the control computer could minimize GHG emissions. A system was developed to achieve this goal and, in collaboration with Alcoa, was tested on two cells at an Alcoa plant in Malaga, Washington. The project has also pointed to the possibility of additional improvements that could result from the work. Notable among these is an improvement in efficiency that could result in an increase in cell output at little extra operating cost. Prospects for commercialization have emerged in the form of purchase orders for further installations. The work has demonstrated that a system for monitoring the current of individual anodes in an aluminum cell is practical. Furthermore the system has

  14. The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer - Overview and calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welsh, Barry Y.; Vallerga, John V.; Jelinsky, Pat; Vedder, Peter W.; Bowyer, Stuart

    1990-01-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) is a NASA-funded astronomy mission that will operate in the 70 to 760 A band. The science payload, which has been designed and built by the Space Sciences Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley, consists of three grazing incidence scanning telescopes and an EUV spectrometer/deep survey instrument. This paper gives details of the planned mission profile and an overview of the instrumentation that the science payload comprises. Topics such as the thermal design, contamination control, and details of the electronics system are discussed. Finally, the results of the calibration of the various subsystems that make up the EUVE instrumentation are reviewed, and the calibration plan for the integrated EUVE instruments is discussed.

  15. Cordless Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Black & Decker's new cordless lightweight battery powered precision instruments, adapted from NASA's Apollo Lunar Landing program, have been designed to give surgeons optimum freedom and versatility in the operating room. Orthopedic instrument line includes a drill, a driver/reamer and a sagittal saw. All provide up to 20 minutes on a single charge. Power pack is the instrument's handle which is removable for recharging. Microprocessor controlled recharging unit can recharge two power packs together in 30 minutes. Instruments can be gas sterilized, steam-sterilized in an autoclave or immersed for easy cleaning.

  16. MODIS In-flight Calibration Methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Barnes, W.

    2004-01-01

    MODIS is a key instrument for the NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) currently operating on the Terra spacecraft launched in December 1999 and Aqua spacecraft launched in May 2002. It is a cross-track scanning radiometer, making measurements over a wide field of view in 36 spectral bands with wavelengths from 0.41 to 14.5 micrometers and providing calibrated data products for science and research communities in their studies of the Earth s system of land, oceans, and atmosphere. A complete suite of on-board calibrators (OBC) have been designed for the instruments in-flight calibration and characterization, including a solar diffuser (SD) and solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) system for the radiometric calibration of the 20 reflective solar bands (RSB), a blackbody (BB) for the radiometric calibration of the 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB), and a spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA) for the spatial (all bands) and spectral (RSB only) characterization. This paper discusses MODIS in-flight Cali bration methodologies of using its on-board calibrators. Challenging issues and examples of tracking and correcting instrument on-orbit response changes are presented, including SD degradation (20% at 412nm, 12% at 466nm, and 7% at 530nm over four and a half years) and response versus scan angle changes (10%, 4%, and 1% differences between beginning of the scan and end of the scan at 412nm, 466nm, and 530nm) in the VIS spectral region. Current instrument performance and lessons learned are also provided.

  17. Development and calibration of a pedal with force and moment sensors.

    PubMed

    Gurgel, Jonas; Porto, Flávia; Russomano, Thais; Cambraia, Rodrigo; de Azevedo, Dario F G; Glock, Flávio S; Beck, João Carlos Pinheiro; Helegda, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    An instrumented bicycle pedal was built and calibrated. The pedal has good linearity and sensibility, comparable to other instruments in the literature. This study aimed to perform accurate calibration of a tri-axial pedal, including forces applied, deformations, nonlinearities, hysteresis and standard error for each axis. Calibration was based on Hull and Davis method, which is based on the application of known loads on the pedal in order to create a calibration matrix. PMID:17946605

  18. Improvement of the TOPEX and Jason Orbit Time Series: Precision Orbit Determination, Calibration, Validation and Improvement Through the Combined Reduction and Analysis of GPS, SLR, DORIS and Altimeter Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, Scott B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Zelensky, N. P.; Beckley, B. D.

    2004-01-01

    Orbit error is a major component in the overall error budget of all altimeter satellite missions. Jason-I is no exception and a 1 cm radial orbit accuracy goal has been set, which represents a factor of two improvement over what is currently being achieved for TOPEX/Poseidon (TP). Our current analysis suggests this goal has been met and even improved upon, but the challenge is to be able to continually achieve this high accuracy, verify the performance and characterize and quantify the remaining errors over the lifetime of the mission. The computation, verification and error characterization of such high accuracy orbits requires the reduction and analysis of all available tracking data (GPS, SLR, DORIS and altimeter). Current analysis also indicates the history of TP orbits can be further improved employing new solution strategies developed and tested on Jason-I. Our research focuses on the calibration, validation and improvement of orbit accuracies using all available tracking data including altimetry. We will compute and distribute well centered Jason orbits with an accuracy of better than 1-cm in the radial component. In addition to the orbits themselves, a characterization of the orbit error will be distributed and accumulated as a time series of orbit performance metrics to track anomalies and trends. The long time series of orbit error characterization will enable a better understanding of the remaining orbit errors and its impact on the altimeter data analysis. As part of this research effort we are also significantly improving the current level of TP orbit accuracy, re-computing new high-accuracy TP orbits from the beginning of the TP mission and continuing into the future (as long as TP is healthy). Our funded research effort will result in a complete and consistent time series of improved orbits for both TP and Jason, significantly benefiting the long time series of altimeter data analysis and the TP/Jason dual mission. The resultant high accuracy orbits

  19. Solar-Reflectance-Based Calibration of Spectral Radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cattrall, Christopher; Carder, Kendall L.; Thome, Kurtis J.; Gordon, Howard R.

    2001-01-01

    A method by which to calibrate a spectral radiometer using the sun as the illumination source is discussed. Solar-based calibrations eliminate several uncertainties associated with applying a lamp-based calibration to field measurements. The procedure requires only a calibrated reflectance panel, relatively low aerosol optical depth, and measurements of atmospheric transmittance. Further, a solar-reflectance-based calibration (SRBC), by eliminating the need for extraterrestrial irradiance spectra, reduces calibration uncertainty to approximately 2.2% across the solar-reflective spectrum, significantly reducing uncertainty in measurements used to deduce the optical properties of a system illuminated by the sun (e.g., sky radiance). The procedure is very suitable for on-site calibration of long-term field instruments, thereby reducing the logistics and costs associated with transporting a radiometer to a calibration facility.

  20. [Study on calibration method of spatial heterodyne spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Shi, Hai-Liang; Xiong, Wei; Zuo, Ming-Min; Luo, Hai-Yan; Wu, Jun; Fang, Yong-Hua; Qiao, Yan-Li

    2010-06-01

    Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (SHS) is a novel method for hyperspectral analysis, but the calibration methods have not been thoroughly studied. The present paper gives some basic theories of SHS, and investigates the laboratory calibration methods, including spectral calibration and radiometric calibration. According to emission lines and the relation between detector size and system bandwidth, we designed the spectral calibration plan for SHS, which uses tunable laser and halogen lamp. Experiments show that the actual spectral range and resolution of our instrument is the same as it was designed, and the spectral shift is less by stability testing. For radiometric calibration, we measured the system's stability by using integrating sphere, and its responses were also calibrated by using standard lamp and diffuser. The experimental results, after validation, proved that our method can be used for SHS calibration. This is a fundamental work for quantified retrieval.

  1. Improving self-calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enßlin, Torsten A.; Junklewitz, Henrik; Winderling, Lars; Greiner, Maksim; Selig, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Response calibration is the process of inferring how much the measured data depend on the signal one is interested in. It is essential for any quantitative signal estimation on the basis of the data. Here, we investigate self-calibration methods for linear signal measurements and linear dependence of the response on the calibration parameters. The common practice is to augment an external calibration solution using a known reference signal with an internal calibration on the unknown measurement signal itself. Contemporary self-calibration schemes try to find a self-consistent solution for signal and calibration by exploiting redundancies in the measurements. This can be understood in terms of maximizing the joint probability of signal and calibration. However, the full uncertainty structure of this joint probability around its maximum is thereby not taken into account by these schemes. Therefore, better schemes, in sense of minimal square error, can be designed by accounting for asymmetries in the uncertainty of signal and calibration. We argue that at least a systematic correction of the common self-calibration scheme should be applied in many measurement situations in order to properly treat uncertainties of the signal on which one calibrates. Otherwise, the calibration solutions suffer from a systematic bias, which consequently distorts the signal reconstruction. Furthermore, we argue that nonparametric, signal-to-noise filtered calibration should provide more accurate reconstructions than the common bin averages and provide a new, improved self-calibration scheme. We illustrate our findings with a simplistic numerical example.

  2. SURVEY INSTRUMENT

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, C J

    1954-01-19

    This pulse-type survey instrument is suitable for readily detecting {alpha} particles in the presence of high {beta} and {gamma} backgrounds. The instruments may also be used to survey for neutrons, {beta} particles and {gamma} rays by employing suitably designed interchangeable probes and selecting an operating potential to correspond to the particular probe.

  3. Design and operation of a self-calibrated thermistor plasma calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J. D.

    1982-12-01

    This report describes the design and operation of a new diagnostic instrument for measuring the conversion of laser energy into plasma ions and soft x rays during ICF laser-target interaction experiments. The instrument is operated as a differential calorimeter, and uses low mass thermistor flakes as both energy transducers and calibration sources. The calorimeter provides its own running energy calibration, in situ, by inducing electrical self-heating of the thermistor elements. The instrument can be calibrated over a range of energies, either automatically or by manual selection. Calibration and operating principles are discussed, as well as physical and electronic design considerations, measurement and calibration data, and error sources.

  4. Astrophysical calibration of gravitational-wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitkin, M.; Messenger, C.; Wright, L.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate a method to assess the validity of gravitational-wave detector calibration through the use of gamma-ray bursts as standard sirens. Such signals, as measured via gravitational-wave observations, provide an estimated luminosity distance that is subject to uncertainties in the calibration of the data. If a host galaxy is identified for a given source then its redshift can be combined with current knowledge of the cosmological parameters yielding the true luminosity distance. This will then allow a direct comparison with the estimated value and can validate the accuracy of the original calibration. We use simulations of individual detectable gravitational-wave signals from binary neutron star (BNS) or neutron star-black hole systems, which we assume to be found in coincidence with short gamma-ray bursts, to estimate any discrepancy in the overall scaling of the calibration for detectors in the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo network. We find that the amplitude scaling of the calibration for the LIGO instruments could on average be confirmed to within ˜10 % for a BNS source within 100 Mpc. This result is largely independent of the current detector calibration method and gives an uncertainty that is competitive with that expected in the current calibration procedure. Confirmation of the calibration accuracy to within ˜20 % can be found with BNS sources out to ˜500 Mpc .

  5. Measuring the instrument function of radiometers

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, R.; Littlejohn, R.G.

    1997-12-31

    The instrument function is a function of position and angle, the knowledge of which allows one to compute the response of a radiometer to an incident wave field in any state of coherence. The instrument function of a given radiometer need not be calculated; instead, it may be measured by calibration with incident plane waves.

  6. Void Fraction Instrument operation and maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Borgonovi, G.; Stokes, T.I.; Pearce, K.L.; Martin, J.D.; Gimera, M.; Graves, D.B.

    1994-09-01

    This Operations and Maintenance Manual (O&MM) addresses riser installation, equipment and personnel hazards, operating instructions, calibration, maintenance, removal, and other pertinent information necessary to safely operate and store the Void Fraction Instrument. Final decontamination and decommissioning of the Void Fraction Instrument are not covered in this document.

  7. THE ARCADE 2 INSTRUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Singal, J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Kogut, A.; Mirel, P.; Wollack, E.; Levin, S.; Seiffert, M.; Limon, M.; Lubin, P.; Villela, T.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2011-04-01

    The second generation Absolute Radiometer for Cosmology, Astrophysics, and Diffuse Emission (ARCADE 2) instrument is a balloon-borne experiment to measure the radiometric temperature of the cosmic microwave background and Galactic and extragalactic emission at six frequencies from 3 to 90 GHz. ARCADE 2 utilizes a double-nulled design where emission from the sky is compared to that from an external cryogenic full-aperture blackbody calibrator by cryogenic switching radiometers containing internal blackbody reference loads. In order to further minimize sources of systematic error, ARCADE 2 features a cold fully open aperture with all radiometrically active components maintained at near 2.7 K without windows or other warm objects, achieved through a novel thermal design. We discuss the design and performance of the ARCADE 2 instrument in its 2005 and 2006 flights.

  8. Adjustment of ocean color sensor calibration through multi-band statistics.

    PubMed

    Stumpf, Richard P; Werdell, P Jeremy

    2010-01-18

    The band-by-band vicarious calibration of on-orbit satellite ocean color instruments, such as SeaWiFS and MODIS, using ground-based measurements has significant residual uncertainties. This paper applies spectral shape and population statistics to tune the calibration of the blue bands against each other to allow examination of the interband calibration and potentially provide an analysis of calibration trends. This adjustment does not require simultaneous matches of ground and satellite observations. The method demonstrates the spectral stability of the SeaWiFS calibration and identifies a drift in the MODIS instrument onboard Aqua that falls within its current calibration uncertainties.

  9. Polarization Calibration of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmore, D. F.

    2014-10-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the World's largest solar polarimeter with a number of polarimetric instruments simultaneously sharing the ATST light beam. Polarization calibration requires determination of the polarization properties of the telescope optics that are shared by all instruments and the polarization response of each instrument. Hundreds of parameters are required to fully specify the telescope optics but by grouping successive optical elements separated at the Gregorian focus, the elevation rotation, and the Coudé - azimuth rotation and performing calibrations over the course of a day, it is possible to infer the polarization properties of each of the groups, and the instruments themselves with many fewer parameters.

  10. Method and apparatus for calibrating a particle emissions monitor

    DOEpatents

    Flower, William L.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    1998-07-07

    The instant invention discloses method and apparatus for calibrating particulate emissions monitors, in particular, and sampling probes, in general, without removing the instrument from the system being monitored. A source of one or more specific metals in aerosol (either solid or liquid) or vapor form is housed in the instrument. The calibration operation is initiated by moving a focusing lens, used to focus a light beam onto an analysis location and collect the output light response, from an operating position to a calibration position such that the focal point of the focusing lens is now within a calibration stream issuing from a calibration source. The output light response from the calibration stream can be compared to that derived from an analysis location in the operating position to more accurately monitor emissions within the emissions flow stream.

  11. Calibration support for the Earth Observing System Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guenther, B. W.

    1988-01-01

    The Earth Observing System Project (EOS) program guidelines establishes significantly more stringent requirements on calibrations of instruments. This requirement is driven by the need for long-term continuity of acquired data sets and the use of measurements in interdisciplinary investigations. Personnel from the Standards and Calibration Office have been supporting the Program and Project in interpreting these goals into specific requirements. Contributions to EOS have included participation in the Panel of Experts which produced a list of consensus items necessary for accomplishing an accurate calibration and suggested EOS Project Calibration Policy, and drafting the announcement of opportunity and bidders information package positions on instrument calibration and data product validation. Technical staffing was provided to the NASA delegates to the Committee on Earth Orbiting Satellites (club of space-faring nations) for the standing working group on Calibration and Data Validation.

  12. Method and apparatus for calibrating a particle emissions monitor

    DOEpatents

    Flower, W.L.; Renzi, R.F.

    1998-07-07

    The invention discloses a method and apparatus for calibrating particulate emissions monitors, in particular, sampling probes, and in general, without removing the instrument from the system being monitored. A source of one or more specific metals in aerosol (either solid or liquid) or vapor form is housed in the instrument. The calibration operation is initiated by moving a focusing lens, used to focus a light beam onto an analysis location and collect the output light response, from an operating position to a calibration position such that the focal point of the focusing lens is now within a calibration stream issuing from a calibration source. The output light response from the calibration stream can be compared to that derived from an analysis location in the operating position to more accurately monitor emissions within the emissions flow stream. 6 figs.

  13. Lunar International Science Coordination/Calibration Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W.; Issacson, P.; Petro, N.; Runyon, C.; Ohtake, M.; Foing, B.; Grande, M.

    2007-01-01

    A new era of international lunar exploration has begun and will expand over the next four years with data acquired from at least four sophisticated remote sensing missions: KAGUYA (SELENE) [Japan], Chang'E [China], Chandrayaan-l [India], and LRO [United States]. It is recognized that this combined activity at the Moon with modern sophisticated sensors wi II provide unprecedented new information about the Moon and will dramatically improve our understanding of Earth's nearest neighbor. It is anticipated that the blooming of scientific exploration of the Moon by nations involved in space activities will seed and foster peaceful international coordination and cooperation that will benefit all. Summarized here are eight Lunar International Science Coordination/Calibration Targets (L-ISCT) that are intended to a) allow cross-calibration of diverse multi-national instruments and b) provide a focus for training young scientists about a range of lunar science issues. The targets, discussed at several scientific forums, were selected for coordinated science and instrument calibration of orbital data. All instrument teams are encouraged to participate in a coordinated activity of early-release data that will improve calibration and validation of data across independent and diverse instruments.

  14. Revised landsat-5 thematic mapper radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Barsi, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Effective April 2, 2007, the radiometric calibration of Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data that are processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) will be updated. The lifetime gain model that was implemented on May 5, 2003, for the reflective bands (1-5, 7) will be replaced by a new lifetime radiometric-calibration curve that is derived from the instrument's response to pseudoinvariant desert sites and from cross calibration with the Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced TM Plus (ETM+). Although this calibration update applies to all archived and future L5 TM data, the principal improvements in the calibration are for the data acquired during the first eight years of the mission (1984-1991), where the changes in the instrument-gain values are as much as 15%. The radiometric scaling coefficients for bands 1 and 2 for approximately the first eight years of the mission have also been changed. Users will need to apply these new coefficients to convert the calibrated data product digital numbers to radiance. The scaling coefficients for the other bands have not changed. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  15. Evaluating calibrations of normal incident pyrheliometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignola, Frank; Lin, Fuding

    2010-08-01

    When an Eppley Normal Incident Pyrheliometer is calibrated against an Eppley Hickey Frieden Absolute Cavity Radiometer, the instrument systematically deviates from the absolute cavity readings. The reason for this deviation is not understood. Comparisons are made between one pyrheliometer and an absolute cavity radiometer on selected clear days over a period of 8 months in Eugene, Oregon. The ratios of the readings from the two instruments are correlated against wind speed, pressure, temperature, relative humidity, beam intensity, and zenith angle to determine if any of these parameters statistically influence the calibration process. Wind speed, pressure, beam intensity, and air mass are shown to be statistically significant factors in determining the responsivity of the normal incident pyrheliometer. The results of these tests are evaluated and discussed. Use of air mass instead of zenith angle is proposed for calibration reports.

  16. Automated Camera Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Siqi; Cheng, Yang; Willson, Reg

    2006-01-01

    Automated Camera Calibration (ACAL) is a computer program that automates the generation of calibration data for camera models used in machine vision systems. Machine vision camera models describe the mapping between points in three-dimensional (3D) space in front of the camera and the corresponding points in two-dimensional (2D) space in the camera s image. Calibrating a camera model requires a set of calibration data containing known 3D-to-2D point correspondences for the given camera system. Generating calibration data typically involves taking images of a calibration target where the 3D locations of the target s fiducial marks are known, and then measuring the 2D locations of the fiducial marks in the images. ACAL automates the analysis of calibration target images and greatly speeds the overall calibration process.

  17. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative High-Speed Shaft Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.; McNiff, B.

    2014-09-01

    Instrumentation has been added to the high-speed shaft, pinion, and tapered roller bearing pair of the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative gearbox to measure loads and temperatures. The new shaft bending moment and torque instrumentation was calibrated and the purpose of this document is to describe this calibration process and results, such that the raw shaft bending and torque signals can be converted to the proper engineering units and coordinate system reference for comparison to design loads and simulation model predictions.

  18. Visible Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer: Design and Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Wishnow, E H; Wurtz, R; Blais-Ouellette, S; Cook, K H; Carr, D; Lewis, I; Grandmont, F; Stubbs, C W

    2002-09-19

    We present details of the design, operation and calibration of an astronomical visible-band imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (IFTS). This type of instrument produces a spectrum for every pixel in the field of view where the spectral resolution is flexible. The instrument is a dual-input/dual-output Michelson interferometer coupled to the 3.5 meter telescope at the Apache Point Observatory. Imaging performance and interferograms and spectra from calibration sources and standard stars are discussed.

  19. Ground-Based Calibration Of A Microwave Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiriazes, John J.; Scott, Marshall M., Jr.; Willis, Alfred D.; Erdogan, Temel; Reyes, Rolando

    1996-01-01

    System of microwave instrumentation and data-processing equipment developed to enable ground-based calibration of microwave scanning-beam landing system (MSBLS) at distances of about 500 to 1,000 ft from MSBLS transmitting antenna. Ensures accuracy of MSBLS near touchdown point, without having to resort to expense and complex logistics of aircraft-based testing. Modified versions prove useful in calibrating aircraft instrument landing systems.

  20. Mammography calibration qualities establishment in a Mo- Mo clinical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, E. L.; dos Santos, L. R.; Vivolo, V.; Potiens, M. P. A.

    2016-07-01

    In this study the mammography calibration qualities were established in a clinical mammography system. The objective is to provide the IPEN instruments calibration laboratory with both mammography calibration methods (using a clinical and an industrial system). The results showed a good behavior of mammography equipment, in terms of kVp, PPV and exposure time. The additional filtration of molybdenum is adequate, air-kerma rates were determined and spectra were obtained.

  1. Analytical multicollimator camera calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tayman, W.P.

    1978-01-01

    Calibration with the U.S. Geological survey multicollimator determines the calibrated focal length, the point of symmetry, the radial distortion referred to the point of symmetry, and the asymmetric characteristiecs of the camera lens. For this project, two cameras were calibrated, a Zeiss RMK A 15/23 and a Wild RC 8. Four test exposures were made with each camera. Results are tabulated for each exposure and averaged for each set. Copies of the standard USGS calibration reports are included. ?? 1978.

  2. 21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calibrator for platelet counting. 864.8175 Section... platelet counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for platelet counting is a device that resembles platelets in plasma or whole blood and that is used to set a platelet counting instrument. It is...

  3. 21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calibrator for platelet counting. 864.8175 Section... platelet counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for platelet counting is a device that resembles platelets in plasma or whole blood and that is used to set a platelet counting instrument. It is...

  4. 21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calibrator for platelet counting. 864.8175 Section... platelet counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for platelet counting is a device that resembles platelets in plasma or whole blood and that is used to set a platelet counting instrument. It is...

  5. 21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calibrator for platelet counting. 864.8175 Section... platelet counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for platelet counting is a device that resembles platelets in plasma or whole blood and that is used to set a platelet counting instrument. It is...

  6. 21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calibrator for platelet counting. 864.8175 Section... platelet counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for platelet counting is a device that resembles platelets in plasma or whole blood and that is used to set a platelet counting instrument. It is...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.315 - Pressure, temperature, and dewpoint calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pressure, temperature, and dewpoint... Parameters and Ambient Conditions § 1065.315 Pressure, temperature, and dewpoint calibration. (a) Calibrate instruments for measuring pressure, temperature, and dewpoint upon initial installation. Follow the...

  8. 40 CFR 1065.315 - Pressure, temperature, and dewpoint calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pressure, temperature, and dewpoint... Parameters and Ambient Conditions § 1065.315 Pressure, temperature, and dewpoint calibration. (a) Calibrate instruments for measuring pressure, temperature, and dewpoint upon initial installation. Follow the...

  9. Nuclear Technology. Course 27: Metrology. Module 27-6, Calibration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espy, John; Selleck, Ben

    This sixth in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology describes the principles on which calibration programs are developed, no matter which instruments are included in the calibration program. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4)…

  10. Calibration of single particle sizing velocimeters using photomask reticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirleman, E. D.; Holve, D. J.; Hovenac, E. A.

    1988-01-01

    The development of photomask reticle calibration standards for single particle instruments is discussed. The calibration method studied involves the use of photomask reticles where the particle artifacts are actually disks of chrome thin film in the clear field reticles produced by photolithography and etching processes. Consideration is given to various aspects of theory, design, and performance.

  11. 40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 89... Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction into... instrument start-up and operation. Adjust the analyzer to optimize performance. (2) Zero the carbon...

  12. 40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its initial... carbon dioxide analyzer as follows: (1) Follow good engineering practices for instrument start-up...

  13. 40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its initial... carbon dioxide analyzer as follows: (1) Follow good engineering practices for instrument start-up...

  14. 40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its initial... carbon dioxide analyzer as follows: (1) Follow good engineering practices for instrument start-up...

  15. 40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its initial... carbon dioxide analyzer as follows: (1) Follow good engineering practices for instrument start-up...

  16. Calibration Of Airborne Visible/IR Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, G. A.; Chrien, T. G.; Miller, E. A.; Reimer, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    Paper describes laboratory spectral and radiometric calibration of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) applied to all AVIRIS science data collected in 1987. Describes instrumentation and procedures used and demonstrates that calibration accuracy achieved exceeds design requirements. Developed for use in remote-sensing studies in such disciplines as botany, geology, hydrology, and oceanography.

  17. 40 CFR 89.323 - NDIR analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NDIR analyzer calibration. 89.323... Equipment Provisions § 89.323 NDIR analyzer calibration. (a) Detector optimization. If necessary, follow the instrument manufacturer's instructions for initial start-up and basic operating adjustments. (b)...

  18. 40 CFR 89.323 - NDIR analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NDIR analyzer calibration. 89.323... Equipment Provisions § 89.323 NDIR analyzer calibration. (a) Detector optimization. If necessary, follow the instrument manufacturer's instructions for initial start-up and basic operating adjustments. (b)...

  19. 40 CFR 90.321 - NDIR analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NDIR analyzer calibration. 90.321... Equipment Provisions § 90.321 NDIR analyzer calibration. (a) Detector optimization. If necessary, follow the instrument manufacturer's instructions for initial start-up and basic operating adjustments. (b)...

  20. 40 CFR 90.321 - NDIR analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NDIR analyzer calibration. 90.321... Equipment Provisions § 90.321 NDIR analyzer calibration. (a) Detector optimization. If necessary, follow the instrument manufacturer's instructions for initial start-up and basic operating adjustments. (b)...