Science.gov

Sample records for instruments for measuring fluid properties or phenomena

  1. Measurement Properties of Instruments for Measuring of Lymphedema: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Hidding, Janine T; Viehoff, Peter B; Beurskens, Carien H G; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; van der Wees, Philip J

    2016-12-01

    Lymphedema is a common complication of cancer treatment, resulting in swelling and subjective symptoms. Reliable and valid measurement of this side effect of medical treatment is important. The purpose of this study was to provide best evidence regarding which measurement instruments are most appropriate in measuring lymphedema in its different stages. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were used, and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Clinical studies on measurement instruments assessing lymphedema were reviewed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) scoring instrument for quality assessment. Data on reliability, concurrent validity, convergent validity, sensitivity, specificity, applicability, and costs were extracted. Pooled data showed good intrarater intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) (.89) for bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) in the lower extremities and high intrarater and interrater ICCs for water volumetry, tape measurement, and perometry (.98-.99) in the upper extremities. In the upper extremities, the standard error of measurement was 3.6% (σ=0.7%) for water volumetry, 5.6% (σ=2.1%) for perometry, and 6.6% (σ=2.6%) for tape measurement. Sensitivity of tape measurement in the upper extremities, using different cutoff points, varied from 0.73 to 0.90, and specificity values varied from 0.72 to 0.78. No uniform definition of lymphedema was available, and a gold standard as a reference test was lacking. Items concerning risk of bias were study design, patient selection, description of lymphedema, blinding of test outcomes, and number of included participants. Measurement instruments with evidence for good reliability and validity were BIS, water volumetry, tape measurement, and perometry, where BIS can detect alterations in extracellular fluid in stage 1 lymphedema and the other measurement instruments can detect alterations in volume

  2. Instrument continuously measures density of flowing fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, R. B.; Macinko, J.; Miller, C. E.

    1967-01-01

    Electromechanical densitometer continuously measures the densities of either single-phase or two-phase flowing cryogenic fluids. Measurement is made on actual flow. The instrument operates on the principle that the mass of any vibrating system is a primary factor in determining the dynamic characteristics of the system.

  3. System for Measuring Conditional Amplitude, Phase, or Time Distributions of Pulsating Phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Van Brunt, Richard J.; Cernyar, Eric W.

    1992-01-01

    A detailed description is given of an electronic stochastic analyzer for use with direct “real-time” measurements of the conditional distributions needed for a complete stochastic characterization of pulsating phenomena that can be represented as random point processes. The measurement system described here is designed to reveal and quantify effects of pulse-to-pulse or phase-to-phase memory propagation. The unraveling of memory effects is required so that the physical basis for observed statistical properties of pulsating phenomena can be understood. The individual unique circuit components that comprise the system and the combinations of these components for various measurements, are thoroughly documented. The system has been applied to the measurement of pulsating partial discharges generated by applying alternating or constant voltage to a discharge gap. Examples are shown of data obtained for conditional and unconditional amplitude, time interval, and phase-of-occurrence distributions of partial-discharge pulses. The results unequivocally show the existence of significant memory effects as indicated, for example, by the observations that the most probable amplitudes and phases-of-occurrence of discharge pulses depend on the amplitudes and/or phases of the preceding pulses. Sources of error and fundamental limitations of the present measurement approach are analyzed. Possible extensions of the method are also discussed. PMID:28053450

  4. Fluid property measurements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devaney, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Fluid properties of refrigerant-21 were investigated at temperatures from the freezing point to 423 Kelvin and at pressures to 1.38 x 10 to the 8th power N/sq m (20,000 psia). The fluid properties included were: density, vapor pressure, viscosity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, freezing point and bulk modulus. Tables of smooth values are reported.

  5. Measurement properties of adult quality-of-life measurement instruments for eczema: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Heinl, D; Prinsen, C A C; Deckert, S; Chalmers, J R; Drucker, A M; Ofenloch, R; Humphreys, R; Sach, T; Chamlin, S L; Schmitt, J; Apfelbacher, C

    2016-03-01

    The Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative has identified quality of life (QoL) as a core outcome domain to be evaluated in every eczema trial. It is unclear which of the existing QoL instruments is most appropriate for this domain. Thus, the aim of this review was to systematically assess the measurement properties of existing measurement instruments developed and/or validated for the measurement of QoL in adult eczema. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed and Embase identifying studies on measurement properties of adult eczema QoL instruments. For all eligible studies, we assessed the adequacy of the measurement properties and the methodological quality with the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. A best evidence synthesis summarizing findings from different studies was the basis to assign four degrees of recommendation (A-D). A total of 15 articles reporting on 17 instruments were included. No instrument fulfilled the criteria for category A. Six instruments were placed in category B, meaning that they have the potential to be recommended depending on the results of further validation studies. Three instruments had poor adequacy in at least one required adequacy criterion and were therefore put in category C. The remaining eight instruments were minimally validated and were thus placed in category D. Currently, no QoL instrument can be recommended for use in adult eczema. The Quality of Life Index for Atopic Dermatitis (QoLIAD) and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) are recommended for further validation research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Optical resonant ultrasound spectroscopy for fluid properties measurement.

    PubMed

    Hale, T; Asaki, T

    2001-07-01

    The properties of fluids are studied using unusually small containment spherical resonators. Proper identification of resonant fluid signatures allows determination of pressure and density of the internal gas with great accuracy using an appropriate equation of state (EOS). Low noise and high sensitivity detection of vibration are critical parameters to characterizing the contained gas when its pressure approaches 1 atm or less. The benefits of using spherical resonators to determine fluid properties are discussed, and some example calculations of sound speed are presented. In addition to measuring fluids, a comparative experimental approach is taken to explore and, eventually, to optimize vibration detection. In the experiments, two detection methods, a contact piezoelectric transducer (PZT) device and a non-contact optical device, are compared simultaneously and quantitatively. This is done in a unique manner without change in vibration coupling to the sample between tests. A commercially available resonant ultrasound spectroscopy system is used as the contact system, while another commercial device (used as the non-contact vibration detector) combined with the same excitation source (used in the contact system) comprises the other system. The non-contact detector is an optical interferometric receiver that provides adaptation to optically rough surfaces and high sensitivity to acoustic displacements through optical interference in photorefractive GaAs. Both vibration detection systems are compared with particular emphasis on displacement sensitivity, frequency response, and noise level. Furthermore, the results from comparing detection modalities are presented, and their effects on fluid properties measurement are discussed.

  7. A Robust Magnetic Resonance Imager For Ground and Flight Based Measurements of Fluid Physics Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a powerful and versatile, noninvasive method for studying fluid transport problems, However, its applications to these types of investigations have been limited. A primary factor that limits the application of NMR has been the lack of a user-friendly, versatile, and inexpensive NMR imaging apparatus that can be used by scientists who are not familiar with sophisticated NMR. To rectify this situation, we developed a user-friendly, NMR imager for projects of relevance to the MRD science community. To that end, we performed preliminary collaborative experiments between NASA, NCMR, and New Mexico Resonance in the high field NMR set up at New Mexico Resonance to track wetting front dynamics in foams under gravity. The experiments were done in a 30 cm, 1.9T Oxford magnet with a TECMAG Libra spectrometer (Tecmag, Inc., Houston, TX). We used two different imaging strategies depending on whether the water in the foam sample was static or moving. Stationary water distributions were imaged with the standard Fourier imaging method, as used in medical MRI, in which data are acquired from all parts of the region of interest at all times and Fourier transformed into a static spatial image.

  8. A Robust Magnetic Resonance Imager For Ground and Flight Based Measurements of Fluid Physics Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a powerful and versatile, noninvasive method for studying fluid transport problems, However, its applications to these types of investigations have been limited. A primary factor that limits the application of NMR has been the lack of a user-friendly, versatile, and inexpensive NMR imaging apparatus that can be used by scientists who are not familiar with sophisticated NMR. To rectify this situation, we developed a user-friendly, NMR imager for projects of relevance to the MRD science community. To that end, we performed preliminary collaborative experiments between NASA, NCMR, and New Mexico Resonance in the high field NMR set up at New Mexico Resonance to track wetting front dynamics in foams under gravity. The experiments were done in a 30 cm, 1.9T Oxford magnet with a TECMAG Libra spectrometer (Tecmag, Inc., Houston, TX). We used two different imaging strategies depending on whether the water in the foam sample was static or moving. Stationary water distributions were imaged with the standard Fourier imaging method, as used in medical MRI, in which data are acquired from all parts of the region of interest at all times and Fourier transformed into a static spatial image.

  9. Ebulliometers for measuring the thermodynamic properties of fluids and fluid mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, L.A.; Silva, A.M.

    1994-09-01

    The design and operation of two ebulliometers is described. One is constructed of glass and is used for measuring vapor pressures of fluids at low reduced temperatures and pressures. The other is constructed of metal. It can be used for vapor pressure measurements, and also for the study of fluid mixture thermodynamics through the determination of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution. The advantages and potential problems associated with ebulliometers are described, and typical results are given for the properties of alternative refrigerants.

  10. Concepts and methods for describing critical phenomena in fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengers, J. V.; Sengers, J. M. H. L.

    1977-01-01

    The predictions of theoretical models for a critical-point phase transistion in fluids, namely the classical equation with third-degree critical isotherm, that with fifth-degree critical isotherm, and the lattice gas, are reviewed. The renormalization group theory of critical phenomena and the hypothesis of universality of critical behavior supported by this theory are discussed as well as the nature of gravity effects and how they affect cricital-region experimentation in fluids. The behavior of the thermodynamic properties and the correlation function is formulated in terms of scaling laws. The predictions of these scaling laws and of the hypothesis of universality of critical behavior are compared with experimental data for one-component fluids and it is indicated how the methods can be extended to describe critical phenomena in fluid mixtures.

  11. Advanced optical measuring systems for measuring the properties of fluids and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Four advanced optical models are reviewed for the measurement of visualization of flow and structural properties. Double-exposure, diffuse-illumination, holographic interferometry can be used for three-dimensional flow visualization. When this method is combined with optical heterodyning, precise measurements of structural displacements or fluid density are possible. Time-average holography is well known as a method for displaying vibrational mode shapes, but it also can be used for flow visualization and flow measurements. Deflectometry is used to measure or visualize the deflection of light rays from collimation. Said deflection occurs because of refraction in a fluid or because of reflection from a tilted surface. The moire technique for deflectometry, when combined with optical heterodyning, permits very precise measurements of these quantities. The rainbow schlieren method of deflectometry allows varying deflection angles to be encoded with colors for visualization.

  12. Measurement properties of adult quality-of-life measurement instruments for eczema: protocol for a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Apfelbacher, Christian J; Heinl, Daniel; Prinsen, Cecilia A C; Deckert, Stefanie; Chalmers, Joanne; Ofenloch, Robert; Humphreys, Rosemary; Sach, Tracey; Chamlin, Sarah; Schmitt, Jochen

    2015-04-16

    Eczema is a common chronic or chronically relapsing skin disease that has a substantial impact on quality of life (QoL). By means of a consensus-based process, the Harmonising Outcome Measures in Eczema (HOME) initiative has identified QoL as one of the four core outcome domains to be assessed in all eczema trials (Allergy 67(9):1111-7, 2012). Various measurement instruments exist to measure QoL in adults with eczema, but there is a great variability in both content and quality (for example, reliability and validity) of the instruments used, and it is not always clear if the best instrument is being used. Therefore, the aim of the proposed research is a comprehensive systematic assessment of the measurement properties of the existing measurement instruments that were developed and/or validated for the measurement of patient-reported QoL in adults with eczema. This study is a systematic review of the measurement properties of patient-reported measures of QoL developed and/or validated for adults with eczema. Medline via PubMed and EMBASE will be searched using a selection of relevant search terms. Eligible studies will be primary empirical studies evaluating, describing, or comparing measurement properties of QoL instruments for adult patients with eczema. Eligibility assessment and data abstraction will be performed independently by two reviewers. Evidence tables will be generated for study characteristics, instrument characteristics, measurement properties, and interpretability. The quality of the measurement properties will be assessed using predefined criteria. Methodological quality of studies will be assessed using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. A best evidence synthesis will be undertaken if more than one study has investigated a particular measurement property. The proposed systematic review will produce a comprehensive assessment of measurement properties of existing QoL instruments in

  13. Diver-Operated Instruments for In-Situ Measurement of Optical Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-30

    IMPACT/APPLICATION The new instruments are intended to advance the state of the art in diver-operated tools for underwater spectral measurements. They...Diver-Operated Instruments for In-Situ Measurement of Optical Properties Charles Mazel Physical Sciences Inc. 20 New England Business Center Andover...improved diver-operated instrumentation for making reflectance and fluorescence spectral measurements from benthic features in situ. The new instrument

  14. Quantum Simulator for Transport Phenomena in Fluid Flows.

    PubMed

    Mezzacapo, A; Sanz, M; Lamata, L; Egusquiza, I L; Succi, S; Solano, E

    2015-08-17

    Transport phenomena still stand as one of the most challenging problems in computational physics. By exploiting the analogies between Dirac and lattice Boltzmann equations, we develop a quantum simulator based on pseudospin-boson quantum systems, which is suitable for encoding fluid dynamics transport phenomena within a lattice kinetic formalism. It is shown that both the streaming and collision processes of lattice Boltzmann dynamics can be implemented with controlled quantum operations, using a heralded quantum protocol to encode non-unitary scattering processes. The proposed simulator is amenable to realization in controlled quantum platforms, such as ion-trap quantum computers or circuit quantum electrodynamics processors.

  15. Quantum Simulator for Transport Phenomena in Fluid Flows

    PubMed Central

    Mezzacapo, A.; Sanz, M.; Lamata, L.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Succi, S.; Solano, E.

    2015-01-01

    Transport phenomena still stand as one of the most challenging problems in computational physics. By exploiting the analogies between Dirac and lattice Boltzmann equations, we develop a quantum simulator based on pseudospin-boson quantum systems, which is suitable for encoding fluid dynamics transport phenomena within a lattice kinetic formalism. It is shown that both the streaming and collision processes of lattice Boltzmann dynamics can be implemented with controlled quantum operations, using a heralded quantum protocol to encode non-unitary scattering processes. The proposed simulator is amenable to realization in controlled quantum platforms, such as ion-trap quantum computers or circuit quantum electrodynamics processors. PMID:26278968

  16. Measurement properties of quality of life measurement instruments for infants, children and adolescents with eczema: protocol for a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Heinl, Daniel; Prinsen, Cecilia A C; Drucker, Aaron M; Ofenloch, Robert; Humphreys, Rosemary; Sach, Tracey; Flohr, Carsten; Apfelbacher, Christian

    2016-02-09

    Eczema is a common chronic or chronically relapsing, inflammatory skin disease that exerts a substantial negative impact on quality of life (QoL). The Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative has used a consensus-based process which identified QoL as one of the four core outcome domains to be assessed in all eczema clinical trials. A number of measurement instruments exist to measure QoL in infants, children, and adolescents with eczema, and there is a great variability in both content and quality of the instruments used. Therefore, the objective of the proposed research is to comprehensively and systematically assess the measurement properties of the existing measurement instruments that were developed and/or validated for the measurement of patient-reported QoL in infants, children, and adolescents with eczema. This study is a systematic review of the measurement properties of patient-reported measures of QoL developed and/or validated for infants, children, and adolescents with eczema. A systematic literature search will be carried out in MEDLINE via PubMed and EMBASE using a selection of relevant search terms. Eligible studies will be primary empirical studies evaluating, describing, or comparing measurement properties of QoL instruments for infants, children, and adolescents with eczema. Two reviewers will independently perform eligibility assessment and data abstraction. Evidence tables will be used to record study characteristics, instrument characteristics, measurement properties, and interpretability. The adequacy of the measurement properties will be assessed using predefined criteria. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist will be used to evaluate the methodological quality of included studies. A best evidence synthesis will be undertaken if more than one study has examined a particular measurement property. The proposed systematic review will yield a comprehensive assessment

  17. Instruments Measuring Integrated Care: A Systematic Review of Measurement Properties.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Mary Ann C; Nurjono, Milawaty; Lim, Yee Wei; Dessers, Ezra; Vrijhoef, Hubertus Jm

    2016-12-01

    -centered care (49%); fewer studies measured care continuity/comprehensive care (15%) and care coordination/case management (3%). We mapped 84% of the measured constructs to the clinical integration domain of the RMIC, with fewer constructs related to the domains of professional (3.7%), organizational (3.4%), and functional (0.5%) integration. Only 8% of the instruments were mapped to a combination of domains; none were mapped exclusively to the system or normative integration domains. The majority of instruments were administered to either patients (60%) or health care providers (20%). Of the measurement properties, responsiveness (4%), measurement error (7%), and criterion (12%) and cross-cultural validity (14%) were less commonly reported. We found <50% of the validation studies to be of good or excellent quality for any of the measurement properties. Only a minority of index instruments showed strong evidence of positive findings for internal consistency (15%), content validity (19%), and structural validity (7%); with moderate evidence of positive findings for internal consistency (14%) and construct validity (14%). Our results suggest that the quality of measurement properties of instruments measuring integrated care is in need of improvement with the less-studied constructs and domains to become part of newly developed instruments. © 2016 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  18. Apparatus for in-situ calibration of instruments that measure fluid depth

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, M.D.

    1994-01-11

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for in-situ calibration of distance measuring equipment. The method comprises obtaining a first distance measurement in a first location, then obtaining at least one other distance measurement in at least one other location of a precisely known distance from the first location, and calculating a calibration constant. The method is applied specifically to calculating a calibration constant for obtaining fluid level and embodied in an apparatus using a pressure transducer and a spacer of precisely known length. The calibration constant is used to calculate the depth of a fluid from subsequent single pressure measurements at any submerged position. 8 figures.

  19. Apparatus for in-situ calibration of instruments that measure fluid depth

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Melvin D.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for in-situ calibration of distance measuring equipment. The method comprises obtaining a first distance measurement in a first location, then obtaining at least one other distance measurement in at least one other location of a precisely known distance from the first location, and calculating a calibration constant. The method is applied specifically to calculating a calibration constant for obtaining fluid level and embodied in an apparatus using a pressure transducer and a spacer of precisely known length. The calibration constant is used to calculate the depth of a fluid from subsequent single pressure measurements at any submerged position.

  20. Noncontact temperature measurements in the microgravity fluids and transport phenomena discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salzman, Jack

    1988-01-01

    The program of activities within the Microgravity Fluids and Transport Phenomena Discipline has been structured to enable the systematic pursuit of an increased understanding of low gravity fluid behavior/phenomena in a way which ensures that the results are appropriate to the widest range of applications. This structure is discussed and an overview of some of the activities which are underway is given. Of significance is the fact that in the majority of the current and planned activities, the measurement and, or control of the fluid temperature is a key experiment requirement. In addition, many of the experiments require that the temperature measurement be nonintrusive. A description of these requirements together with the current techniques which are being employed or under study to make these measurements is also discussed.

  1. Self-administered health literacy instruments for people with diabetes: systematic review of measurement properties.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Hyun; Kim, Chun-Ja; Lee, Jiyeon; Moon, Seung Hei

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study were to identify all available self-administered instruments measuring health literacy in people with diabetes and to determine the current instrument that is the most appropriate for applying to this population in both practice and research. A systematic review of measurement properties. MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL electronic databases from their inception up to 28 March 2016. The methodological quality of each included study was assessed using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments checklist. The reported results for measurement properties in the studies were assessed according to Terwee's quality criteria. Thirteen self-administered instruments measuring health literacy in people with diabetes were identified, of which six (44%) were diabetes-specific instruments. The instruments that covered the broadest contents of health literacy were the Health Literacy Scale and Health Literacy Questionnaire. The (test-retest) reliability, measurement error and responsiveness were not evaluated for any instrument, while internal consistency and hypothesis testing validity were the most frequently assessed measurement properties. With the current evidence, the Health Literacy Scale may be the most appropriate instrument for patients with diabetes in practice and research. However, the structural validity of this scale needs to be further established, particularly in other language versions. It is also recommended to use the Diabetes Numeracy Test-15 along with the Health Literacy Scale to complement the lack of numeracy measures in the Health Literacy Scale. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Means and Method for Measurement of Drilling Fluid Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysyannikov, A.; Kondrashov, P.; Pavlova, P.

    2016-06-01

    The paper addresses the problem on creation of a new design of the device for determining rheological parameters of drilling fluids and the basic requirements which it must meet. The key quantitative parameters that define the developed device are provided. The algorithm of determining the coefficient of the yield point from the rheological Shvedov- Bingam model at a relative speed of rotation of glasses from the investigated drilling fluid of 300 and 600 rpm is presented.

  3. Critical phenomena experiments in space. [for fluid phase-equilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengers, J. V.; Moldover, M. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper analyzes several types of critical phenomena in fluids, shows how they are affected by the presence of gravity, and describes how experiments conducted in an orbiting laboratory under low gravity conditions could extend the range of measurements needed to study critical phenomena. Future experiments are proposed. One would be a careful measurement of the dielectric constant in a low gravity environment. Two basic problems that can benefit especially from space experiments are the specific heat near the critical point and the shear viscosity at the gas-liquid critical point.

  4. Instruments for Water Quality Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sidney L.; Mack, Dick A.

    1975-01-01

    This discussion gives a general picture of the instrumentation available or being developed for measuring the four major categories of water pollutants: metals, nutrients, pesticides and oxygen demand. The instruments are classified as follows: manually operated laboratory analyzers, automated laboratory instrumentation, manual field monitors, and…

  5. Instruments for Water Quality Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sidney L.; Mack, Dick A.

    1975-01-01

    This discussion gives a general picture of the instrumentation available or being developed for measuring the four major categories of water pollutants: metals, nutrients, pesticides and oxygen demand. The instruments are classified as follows: manually operated laboratory analyzers, automated laboratory instrumentation, manual field monitors, and…

  6. Pupil Alignment Measuring Technique and Alignment Reference for Instruments or Optical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, John G.

    2010-01-01

    A technique was created to measure the pupil alignment of instruments in situ by measuring calibrated pupil alignment references (PARs) in instruments. The PAR can also be measured using an alignment telescope or an imaging system. PAR allows the verification of the science instrument (SI) pupil alignment at the integrated science instrument module (ISIM) level of assembly at ambient and cryogenic operating temperature. This will allow verification of the ISIM+SI alignment, and provide feedback to realign the SI if necessary.

  7. Space Commercial Opportunities for Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavert, R.

    2000-01-01

    Microgravity research at NASA has been an undertaking that has included both science and commercial approaches since the late 80s and early 90s. The Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena community has been developed, through NASA's science grants, into a valuable base of expertise in microgravity science. This was achieved through both ground and flight scientific research. Commercial microgravity research has been primarily promoted thorough NASA sponsored Centers for Space Commercialization which develop cost sharing partnerships with industry. As an example, the Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP)at Northeastern University has been working with cost sharing industry partners in developing Zeolites and zeo-type materials as an efficient storage medium for hydrogen fuel. Greater commercial interest is emerging. The U.S. Congress has passed the Commercial Space Act of 1998 to encourage the development of a commercial space industry in the United States. The Act has provisions for the commercialization of the International Space Station (ISS). Increased efforts have been made by NASA to enable industrial ventures on-board the ISS. A Web site has been established at http://commercial/nasa/gov which includes two important special announcements. One is an open request for entrepreneurial offers related to the commercial development and use of the ISS. The second is a price structure and schedule for U.S. resources and accommodations. The purpose of the presentation is to make the Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena community, which understands the importance of microgravity experimentation, aware of important aspects of ISS commercial development. It is a desire that this awareness will be translated into a recognition of Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena application opportunities coordinated through the broad contacts of this community with industry.

  8. Space Commercial Opportunities for Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavert, R.

    2000-01-01

    Microgravity research at NASA has been an undertaking that has included both science and commercial approaches since the late 80s and early 90s. The Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena community has been developed, through NASA's science grants, into a valuable base of expertise in microgravity science. This was achieved through both ground and flight scientific research. Commercial microgravity research has been primarily promoted thorough NASA sponsored Centers for Space Commercialization which develop cost sharing partnerships with industry. As an example, the Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP)at Northeastern University has been working with cost sharing industry partners in developing Zeolites and zeo-type materials as an efficient storage medium for hydrogen fuel. Greater commercial interest is emerging. The U.S. Congress has passed the Commercial Space Act of 1998 to encourage the development of a commercial space industry in the United States. The Act has provisions for the commercialization of the International Space Station (ISS). Increased efforts have been made by NASA to enable industrial ventures on-board the ISS. A Web site has been established at http://commercial/nasa/gov which includes two important special announcements. One is an open request for entrepreneurial offers related to the commercial development and use of the ISS. The second is a price structure and schedule for U.S. resources and accommodations. The purpose of the presentation is to make the Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena community, which understands the importance of microgravity experimentation, aware of important aspects of ISS commercial development. It is a desire that this awareness will be translated into a recognition of Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena application opportunities coordinated through the broad contacts of this community with industry.

  9. ASRDI oxygen technology survey. Volume 5: Density and liquid level measurement instrumentation for the cryogenic fluids oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roder, H. M.

    1974-01-01

    Information is presented on instrumentation for density measurement, liquid level measurement, quantity gauging, and phase measurement. Coverage of existing information directly concerned with oxygen was given primary emphasis. A description of the physical principle of measurement for each instrumentation type is included. The basic materials of construction are listed if available from the source document for each instrument discussed. Cleaning requirements, procedures, and verification techniques are included.

  10. A non-contacting vertical alignment system for mass properties measuring instruments

    SciTech Connect

    James, G.H. III; Suazo, J.E.; Varga, R.C.

    1993-11-01

    A non-contact system for alignment of objects on mass properties measuring instruments is described. Test parts can be aligned to within the capabilities of the user and the fixture to make the adjustments. The current implementation can align objects to less than .001 inches at two points with final requested adjustments of a few ten-thousands of an inch. The non-contact capability allows the alignment of objects which are too compliant or fragile for traditional contacting measurement methods. Also, this system allows the definition of a reference axis on objects which are not perfectly symmetric. The reference axis is defined at the top of the object by an appropriate marker and defined at the bottom by a best fit circle through the surface at a specified height. A general description of the hardware, procedures, and results are presented for the non-user. Appendices which contain a complete description of the software, usage, and mathematical implementation are provided for the reader who is interested in using or further developing the system.

  11. Seismoelectric Phenomena in Fluid-Saturated Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Block, G I; Harris, J G

    2005-04-22

    Seismoelectric phenomena in sediments arise from acoustic wave-induced fluid motion in the pore space, which perturbs the electrostatic equilibrium of the electric double layer on the grain surfaces. Experimental techniques and the apparatus built to study this electrokinetic (EK) effect are described and outcomes for studies of seismoelectric phenomena in loose glass microspheres and medium-grain sand are presented. By varying the NaCl concentration in the pore fluid, we measured the conductivity dependence of two kinds of EK behavior: (1) the electric fields generated within the samples by the passage of transmitted acoustic waves, and (2) the electromagnetic wave produced at the fluid-sediment interface by the incident acoustic wave. Both phenomena are caused by relative fluid motion in the sediment pores--this feature is characteristic of poroelastic (Biot) media, but not predicted by either viscoelastic fluid or solid models. A model of plane-wave reflection from a fluid-sediment interface using EK-Biot theory leads to theoretical predictions that compare well to the experimental data for both sand and glass microspheres.

  12. Study of Microfluidic System for Mechanical Property Measurement of Fluid-cell Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Ji Young; Lee, Jung Shin; Choi, Se Bin; Yoon, Hong Min; Tanner, Roger I.; Lee, Joon Sang

    2016-11-01

    The system for measuring the mechanical properties of active cell is studied through an integrated microfluidic system for cell separation, alignment and measurement of mechanical properties. A highly efficient lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) was employed to optimize the micro-fluidic system to investigate the interrelations between mechanical properties and various surrounding fluid ingredients which are difficult to observe using current experimental techniques. A combination model of the three dimensional LBM and the immersed boundary method (IBM) were used to simulate these systems. The LBM was used to determine incompressible fluid flow with a regular Eulerian grid. The IBM was used to solve the deformation of cells and matrix fluid interaction with a Lagrangian grid. Highly non-linear results such as cell-cell interactions, fluid-cell interactions, and optical force-cell interactions is studied. National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) (Grant Number: NRF-2015R1A2A1A15056182, NRF-2015R1A5A1037668).

  13. From Particles to Fluid Dynamics for Flocking Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toscani, G.

    2010-04-01

    We study the dynamics of groups of undistinguished agents, which, while interacting according to their relative positions, dissipate energy. These models are developed to mimic the collective motion of groups of living individuals such as bird flocks, fish schools or bacteria colonies. According to the Cucker and Smale model,7 binary interactions between agents are modelled by dissipative collisions in which the coefficient of restitution depends on their relative distance. Under the assumption of weak dissipation, it is shown that the consequent dynamics can be described at a fluid dynamic level by the Euler equation for compressible fluids, in which the equations for momentum and energy present a dissipative correction.

  14. Instrumented thick-walled tube method for measuring thermal pressure in fluids and isotropic stresses in thermosetting resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merzlyakov, Mikhail; Simon, Sindee L.; McKenna, Gregory B.

    2005-06-01

    We have developed a method for measuring the thermal pressure coefficient and cure-induced and thermally induced stresses based on an instrumented thick-walled tube vessel. The device has been demonstrated at pressures up to 330 MPa and temperatures to 300 °C. The method uses a sealed stainless steel thick-walled tube to impose three-dimensional isotropic constraints. The tube is instrumented with strain gauges in hoop and in axial directions and can be used in open or closed configurations. By making measurements of the isotropic stresses as a function of temperature, the method allows determination of the thermal pressure coefficient in both the glassy and rubbery (or liquid) states. The method also can be used to measure isotropic stress development in thermosetting resins during cure and subsequent thermal cycling. Experimental results are presented for sucrose benzoate, di-2-ethylhexylsebacate, and an epoxy resin. The current report shows that the method provides reliable estimates for the thermal pressure coefficient. The thermal pressure coefficient is determined with resolution on the order of 10kPa/K. Among advantages of the method is that the tubes are reusable, even when measurements are made for cure response of thermosetting resins.

  15. A Laboratory Laser-Ultrasonic Instrument for Measuring the Mechanical Properties of Paper Webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafond, Emmanuel; Ridgway, Paul; Jackson, Ted; Habeger, Chuck; Russo, Rick

    2003-03-01

    For the paper industry, stiffness properties are an important parameter for producing more efficiently a fibrous material like paper. Some stiffness properties of paper webs can be obtained in a non-contact fashion using two lasers. The authors have developed an automated laboratory laser-ultrasonics instrument for paper, described here. The results of non-contact laser generation and detection of ultrasound are also presented. The paper grades investigated were heavy grades like linerboard, as well as copy paper.

  16. The Game Transfer Phenomena Scale: An Instrument for Investigating the Nonvolitional Effects of Video Game Playing.

    PubMed

    Ortiz de Gortari, Angelica B; Pontes, Halley M; Griffiths, Mark D

    2015-10-01

    A variety of instruments have been developed to assess different dimensions of playing video games and its effects on cognitions, affect, and behaviors. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Game Transfer Phenomena Scale (GTPS) that assesses nonvolitional phenomena experienced after playing video games (i.e., altered perceptions, automatic mental processes, and involuntary behaviors). A total of 1,736 gamers participated in an online survey used as the basis for the analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to confirm the factorial structure of the GTPS. The five-factor structure using the 20 indicators based on the analysis of gamers' self-reports fitted the data well. Population cross-validity was also achieved, and the positive associations between the session length and overall scores indicate the GTPS warranted criterion-related validity. Although the understanding of Game Transfer Phenomena is still in its infancy, the GTPS appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing nonvolitional gaming-related phenomena. The GTPS can be used for understanding the phenomenology of post-effects of playing video games.

  17. Ultrasonic techniques for measuring physical properties of fluids in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantea, Cristian

    Ultrasonic-based measurement techniques, either in the time domain or in the frequency domain, include a wide range of experimental methods for investigating physical properties of materials. This discussion is specifically focused on ultrasonic methods and instrumentation development for the determination of liquid properties at conditions typically found in subsurface environments (in the U.S., more than 80% of total energy needs are provided by subsurface energy sources). Such sensors require materials that can withstand harsh conditions of high pressure, high temperature and corrosiveness. These include the piezoelectric material, electrically conductive adhesives, sensor housings/enclosures, and the signal carrying cables, to name a few. A complete sensor package was developed for operation at high temperatures and pressures characteristic to geothermal/oil-industry reservoirs. This package is designed to provide real-time, simultaneous measurements of multiple physical parameters, such as temperature, pressure, salinity and sound speed. The basic principle for this sensor's operation is an ultrasonic frequency domain technique, combined with transducer resonance tracking. This multipurpose acoustic sensor can be used at depths of several thousand meters, temperatures up to 250 °C, and in a very corrosive environment. In the context of high precision measurement of sound speed, the determination of acoustic nonlinearity of liquids will also be discussed, using two different approaches: (i) the thermodynamic method, in which precise and accurate frequency domain sound speed measurements are performed at high pressure and high temperature, and (ii) a modified finite amplitude method, requiring time domain measurements of the second harmonic at room temperature. Efforts toward the development of an acoustic source of collimated low-frequency (10-150 kHz) beam, with applications in imaging, will also be presented.

  18. Acoustic properties of a crack containing magmatic or hydrothermal fluids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kumagai, H.; Chouet, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    We estimate the acoustic properties of a crack containing maginatic or hydrothermal fluids to quantify the source properties of long-period (LP) events observed in volcanic areas assuming that a crack-like structure is the source of LP events. The tails of synthetic waveforms obtained from a model of a fluid-driven crack are analyzed by the Sompi method to determine the complex frequencies of one of the modes of crack resonance over a wide range of the model parameters ??/a and ??f/??s, where ?? is the P wave velocity of the rock matrix, a is the sound speed of the fluid, and ??f and ??s are the densities of the fluid and rock matrix, respectively. The quality factor due to radiation loss (Qr) for the selected mode almost monotonically increases with increasing ??/a, while the dimensionless frequency (??) of the mode decreases with increasing ??/a and ??f/??s. These results are used to estimate Q and ?? for a crack containing various types of fluids (gas-gas mixtures, liquid-gas mixtures, and dusty and misty gases) for values of a, ??f, and quality factor due to intrinsic losses (Qi) appropriate for these types of fluids, in which Q is given by Q-1 = Qr-1 + Qi-1. For a crack containing such fluids, we obtain Q ranging from almost unity to several hundred, which consistently explains the wide variety of quality factors measured in LP events observed at various volcanoes. We underscore the importance of dusty and misty gases containing small-size particles with radii around 1 ??m to explain long-lasting oscillations with Q significantly larger than 100. Our results may provide a basis for the interpretation of spatial and temporal variations in the observed complex frequencies of LP events in terms of fluid compositions beneath volcanoes. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Instrumentation for Sensitive Gas Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OKeefe, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    An improved instrument for optical absorption spectroscopy utilizes off-axis paths in an optical cavity in order to increase detection sensitivity while suppressing resonance effects. The instrument is well suited for use in either cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) [in which one pulses an incident light beam and measures the rate of decay of light in the cavity] or integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) [in which one uses a continuous-wave incident light beam and measures the power of light in the cavity as a function of wavelength]. Typically, in optical absorption spectroscopy, one seeks to measure absorption of a beam of light in a substance (usually a gas or liquid) in a sample cell. In CRDS or ICOS, the sample cell is placed in (or consists of) an optical cavity, so that one can utilize multiple reflections of the beam to increase the effective optical path length through the absorbing substance and thereby increase the sensitivity for measuring absorption. If an absorbing substance is not present in the optical cavity, one can utilize the multiple passes of the light beam to increase the sensitivity for measuring absorption and scattering by components of the optical cavity itself. It is desirable to suppress the effects of resonances in the cavity in order to make the spectral response of the cavity itself as nearly constant as possible over the entire wavelength range of interest. In the present instrument, the desired flattening of the spectral response is accomplished by utilizing an off-axis beam geometry to effectively decrease the frequency interval between longitudinal electromagnetic modes of the cavity, such that the resulting transmission spectrum of the cavity is nearly continuous: in other words, the cavity becomes a broad-band optical device.

  20. Mobile CARS - IRS Instrument for Simultaneous Spectroscopic Measurement of Multiple Properties in Gaseous Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bivolaru, Daniel; Lee, Joseph W.; Jones, Stephen B.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Weikl, M. C.; Magnotti, G.; Cutler, Andrew D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a measurement system based on the dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and interferometric Rayleigh scattering (IRS) methods. The IRS measurement is performed simultaneously with the CARS measurement using a common green laser beam as a narrow-band light source. The mobile CARS-IRS instrument is designed for the use both in laboratories as well as in ground-based combustion test facilities. Furthermore, it is designed to be easily transported between laboratory and test facility. It performs single-point spatially and temporally resolved simultaneous measurements of temperature, species mole fraction of N2, O2, and H2, and two-components of velocity. A mobile laser system can be placed inside or outside the test facility, while a beam receiving and monitoring system is placed near the measurement location. Measurements in a laboratory small-scale Mach 1.6 H2-air combustion-heated supersonic jet were performed to test the capability of the system. Final setup and pretests of a larger scale reacting jet are ongoing at NASA Langley Research Center s Direct Connect Supersonic Combustor Test Facility (DCSCTF).

  1. A systematic review of measurement properties of instruments assessing presenteeism.

    PubMed

    Ospina, Maria B; Dennett, Liz; Waye, Arianna; Jacobs, Phillip; Thompson, Angus H

    2015-02-01

    Presenteeism (decreased productivity while at work) is reported to be a major occupational problem in many countries. Challenges exist for identifying the optimal approach to measure presenteeism. Evidence of the relative value of presenteeism instruments to support their use in primary studies is needed. To assess and compare the measurement properties (ie, validity, reliability, responsiveness) and the quality of the evidence of presenteeism instruments. Systematic review. Comprehensive searches of electronic databases were conducted up to October 2012. Twenty-three presenteeism instruments were examined. Methodological quality was appraised with the COSMIN (COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments) checklist. A best-evidence synthesis approach was used in the analysis. The titles and abstracts of 1767 articles were screened, with 289 full-text articles reviewed for eligibility. Of these, 40 studies assessing the measurement properties of presenteeism instruments were identified. The 3 presenteeism instruments with the strongest level of evidence on more than 1 measurement property were the Stanford Presenteeism Scale, 6-item version (content validity, internal consistency, construct validity, convergent validity, and responsiveness); the Endicott Work Productivity Scale (internal consistency, convergent validity, and responsiveness); and the Health and Work Questionnaire (HWQ; internal consistency and structural validity). Only the HWQ was assessed for criterion validity, with unknown quality of the evidence. Most presenteeism instruments have been examined for some form of validity; evidence for criterion validity is virtually absent. The selection of instruments for use in primary studies depends on weak forms of validity. Further research should focus on the goal of a comprehensive evaluation of the psychometric properties of existing tests of presenteeism, with emphasis on criterion validity.

  2. The COSMIN checklist for assessing the methodological quality of studies on measurement properties of health status measurement instruments: an international Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Terwee, Caroline B.; Patrick, Donald L.; Alonso, Jordi; Stratford, Paul W.; Knol, Dirk L.; Bouter, Lex M.; de Vet, Henrica C. W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Aim of the COSMIN study (COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments) was to develop a consensus-based checklist to evaluate the methodological quality of studies on measurement properties. We present the COSMIN checklist and the agreement of the panel on the items of the checklist. Methods A four-round Delphi study was performed with international experts (psychologists, epidemiologists, statisticians and clinicians). Of the 91 invited experts, 57 agreed to participate (63%). Panel members were asked to rate their (dis)agreement with each proposal on a five-point scale. Consensus was considered to be reached when at least 67% of the panel members indicated ‘agree’ or ‘strongly agree’. Results Consensus was reached on the inclusion of the following measurement properties: internal consistency, reliability, measurement error, content validity (including face validity), construct validity (including structural validity, hypotheses testing and cross-cultural validity), criterion validity, responsiveness, and interpretability. The latter was not considered a measurement property. The panel also reached consensus on how these properties should be assessed. Conclusions The resulting COSMIN checklist could be useful when selecting a measurement instrument, peer-reviewing a manuscript, designing or reporting a study on measurement properties, or for educational purposes. PMID:20169472

  3. Fluid Flow Phenomena during Welding

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    MOLTEN WELD POOLS are dynamic. Liquid in the weld pool in acted on by several strong forces, which can result in high-velocity fluid motion. Fluid flow velocities exceeding 1 m/s (3.3 ft/s) have been observed in gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds under ordinary welding conditions, and higher velocities have been measured in submerged arc welds. Fluid flow is important because it affects weld shape and is related to the formation of a variety of weld defects. Moving liquid transports heat and often dominates heat transport in the weld pool. Because heat transport by mass flow depends on the direction and speed of fluid motion, weld pool shape can differ dramatically from that predicted by conductive heat flow. Temperature gradients are also altered by fluid flow, which can affect weld microstructure. A number of defects in GTA welds have been attributed to fluid flow or changes in fluid flow, including lack of penetration, top bead roughness, humped beads, finger penetration, and undercutting. Instabilities in the liquid film around the keyhole in electron beam and laser welds are responsible for the uneven penetration (spiking) characteristic of these types of welds.

  4. Instrumentation for analytical scale supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Berger, Terry A

    2015-11-20

    Analytical scale supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is largely a sub-discipline of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), in that most of the hardware and software can be used for either technique. The aspects that separate the 2 techniques stem from the use of carbon dioxide (CO2) as the main component of the mobile phase in SFC. The high compressibility and low viscosity of CO2 mean that pumps, and autosamplers designed for HPLC either need to be modified or an alternate means of dealing with compressibility needs to be found. The inclusion of a back pressure regulator and a high pressure flow cell for any UV-Vis detector are also necessary. Details of the various approaches, problems and solutions are described. Characteristics, such as adiabatic vs. isothermal compressibility, thermal gradients, and refractive index issues are dealt with in detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Method and apparatus for continuous fluid leak monitoring and detection in analytical instruments and instrument systems

    DOEpatents

    Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Ronald J.

    2010-07-13

    A method and device are disclosed that provide for detection of fluid leaks in analytical instruments and instrument systems. The leak detection device includes a collection tube, a fluid absorbing material, and a circuit that electrically couples to an indicator device. When assembled, the leak detection device detects and monitors for fluid leaks, providing a preselected response in conjunction with the indicator device when contacted by a fluid.

  6. Blood-Mimicking Fluid for Testing Ultrasonic Diagnostic Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kouhei; Yoshida, Tomoji; Sato, Kazuishi; Kondo, Toshio; Yasukawa, Kazuhiro; Miyamoto, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Masahiko

    2012-07-01

    We present a blood-mimicking fluid (BMF) for the Doppler test object of medical diagnostic instruments. Accurate measurement in a flow Doppler test requires a BMF that has the acoustic velocity and density defined in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard, and furthermore, they must be stable over time. To formulate a fluid with the desired density and acoustic velocity, we have developed a new fluid made of glycerine and water-soluble silicone oil. The new BMF includes dispersed polystyrene particles as scatterers. The density of the liquid can be adjusted to maintain it at the same value as that of the polystyrene particles, thus ensuring neutral buoyancy of the particles. The MBF was stable over a period of 2 weeks, during which the density and acoustic velocity did not change.

  7. A Differential Pressure Instrument with Wireless Telemetry for In-Situ Measurement of Fluid Flow across Sediment-Water Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Alan T.; Karam, Hanan N.; Mulligan, Ann E.; Harvey, Charles F.; Hammar, Terence R.; Hemond, Harold F.

    2009-01-01

    An instrument has been built to carry out continuous in-situ measurement of small differences in water pressure, conductivity and temperature, in natural surface water and groundwater systems. A low-cost data telemetry system provides data on shore in real time if desired. The immediate purpose of measurements by this device is to continuously infer fluxes of water across the sediment-water interface in a complex estuarine system; however, direct application to assessment of sediment-water fluxes in rivers, lakes, and other systems is also possible. Key objectives of the design include both low cost, and accuracy of the order of ±0.5 mm H2O in measured head difference between the instrument's two pressure ports. These objectives have been met, although a revision to the design of one component was found to be necessary. Deployments of up to nine months, and wireless range in excess of 300 m have been demonstrated. PMID:22389608

  8. On the modeling of a piezoellectrically actuated micro-sensor for measurement of microscale fluid physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, Mina; Hossainpour, Siamak; Rezazadeh, Ghader

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of a novel micro-electromechanical sensor for measurement of microscale fluid physical properties. The proposed sensor is made up of a micro-beam with one end fixed and a micro-plate as a sensing element at its free end, which is immersed in a microscale fluid media. As fluids show different behavior in microscale than in macroscale, the microscale fluid media have been modeled based on micro-polar theory. So non-classical properties of fluid that are absent in macroscale flows need to be measured. In order to actuate the sensor longitudinally, an AC voltage is applied to the piezoelectric layers on the upper and lower surfaces of the micro-beam. Coupled governing partial differential equations of motion of the fluid field and longitudinal vibration of the micro-beam have been derived based on micro-polar theory. The obtained governing differential equations with time-varying boundary conditions have been simplified and transformed to an enhanced form with homogenous boundary conditions. Then, they have been discretized over the beam and fluid domain using Galerkin-based reduced-order model. The dynamic response of the sensing element for different piezoelectric actuation voltages and different exciting frequencies has been studied. It has been shown that by investigating damping and inertial effect fluid loading on response of the micro-beam, properties of a microscale fluid can be measured. At the end, effects of geometrical parameters of the sensor on the response of sensing element have been studied.

  9. Digital holographic interferometry as an experimental instrumentation for measurements of macroscopic properties of polydomain ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokry, Pavel; Steiger, Kateřina; Psota, Pavel; Dolecek, Roman; Vojtisek, Petr; Ledl, Vit

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the theoretical study of macroscopic dielectric and optical properties of ferroelectric polydomain samples is presented. The role of average spontaneous polarization of the polydomain sample on the macroscopic dielectric response is analyzed. The measurement method of average spontaneous polarization using optical methods is suggested and analyzed. The presented analysis is focused on the computation of optical properties near ferroelectric domain walls. The computation of refractive index in the regions near neutral domain walls is presented. Since it is known that the refractive index depends on the configuration of the crystal lattice within a particular domain and on the internal and external electric fields, the obtained results will be used for a suggested method of 3D imaging of ferroelectric domain walls and internal electric fields using digital holographic interferometry.

  10. Instrumentation for the determination of material properties from spectroscopic measurements of total integrated scatter

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, G.L.; Barber, T.E.; Neu, J.T.

    1995-06-19

    A variety of important optical properties can be determined from spectroscopic analysis of diffuse reflectance of surfaces. The design of a small user friendly, light-weight, field hardened, computer controlled device for performing infrared spectroscopic analysis of trace contaminants on surfaces is described. The device employs a miniature Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer with very efficient diffuse reflectance optics and a portable computer to provide reflectance spectra of surfaces measured relative to some idealized surface. These spectra yield qualitative and quantitative chemical information from a host of surfaces that has imminently practical applications in the determination of surface identification, contamination, and degradation.

  11. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Fluid Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Nguyen, Thanh X. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Method and apparatus for making measurements on fluids related to their complex permeability are disclosed. A microwave probe is provided for exposure to the fluids. The probe can be non-intrusive or can also be positioned at the location where measurements are to be made. The impedance of the probe is determined. in part. by the complex dielectric constant of the fluids at the probe. A radio frequency signal is transmitted to the probe and the reflected signal is phase and amplitude detected at a rapid rate for the purpose of identifying the fluids. Multiple probes may be selectively positioned to monitor the behavior of the fluids including their flow rate. Fluids may be identified as between two or more different fluids as well as multiple phases of the same fluid based on differences between their complex permittivities.

  12. Characterization of Side Load Phenomena Using Measurement of Fluid/Structure Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Andrew M.; Ruf, Joseph; Reed, Darren; DAgostino, Mark; Keanini, Russell; McConnaughey, Paul K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During ground-tests of most production rocket engines over the last 30 years, large asymmetric transient side loads coming from the nozzle and related steady-state vibrational loads within the nozzle have been measured. The widely varying magnitude of these loads has been large enough to fail interfacing components as well as nozzles in these engines. This paper will discuss a comprehensive test and analysis program that has been undertaken to develop a methodology to accurately predict the character and magnitude of this loading. The project to-date has incorporated analytical modeling of both the fluid flow and the nozzle structure and testing of both full-scale and sub-scale rocket nodes. Examination of the test data indicates that one of the two-nodal diameter structural modes may be interacting with flow separation from the nozzle inside-wall in a self-excited or aeroelastic vibration phenomenon. If verified, this observation will be used to develop a methodology for design and analysis. A fuller understanding of the characteristics of this vibration will provide an increase in the accuracy and confidence of side load predictions, which will be critical for the successful construction of the next generation of low-cost, reliable rocket engines.

  13. Instrumentation for air quality measurements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenstein, M.

    1973-01-01

    Comparison of the new generation of air quality monitoring instruments with some more traditional methods. The first generation of air quality measurement instruments, based on the use of oxidant coulometric cells, nitrogen oxide colorimetry, carbon monoxide infrared analyzers, and other types of detectors, is compared with new techniques now coming into wide use in the air monitoring field and involving the use of chemiluminescent reactions, optical absorption detectors, a refinement of the carbon monoxide infrared analyzer, electrochemical cells based on solid electrolytes, and laser detectors.

  14. Systems, Methods and Apparatus for Determining Physical Properties of Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butas, John P. (Inventor); VanBuskirk, Paul D. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    In some embodiments, systems and methods and apparatus are provided through which the equation of state is used to control a process through analyses of one or more properties of a fluid through an interactive modeler that models the equation of state for the fluid in the process based on measured signals and for selectively enabling the modeling of control changes to the process. In some embodiments, a device generates an indication of machine health based on variations on the equation of state for a fluid in a machine. In some embodiments, one or more properties for the fluid from at least one unmeasured machine parameter in the interactive modeler are determined for the machine at various operating states. In some embodiments, a difference between an expected one or more properties of the fluid beyond a set point indicates the health of the machine

  15. Assessment of the measurement properties of the post stroke motor function instruments available in Brazil: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Elaine; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F.; Simões, Luan; Guerra, Ana C. C.; Lemos, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background While there are several instruments in Brazil that measure motor function in patients after stroke, it is unknown whether the measurement properties of these instruments are appropriate. Objective To identify the motor function instruments available in Brazil for patients after stroke. To assess the methodological quality of the studies and the results related to the measurement properties of these instruments. Method Two independent reviewers conducted searches on PubMed, LILACS, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Scopus. Studies that aimed to cross-culturally adapt an existing instrument or create a Brazilian instrument and test at least one measurement property related to motor function in patients after stroke were included. The methodological quality of these studies was checked by the COSMIN checklist with 4-point rating scale and the results of the measurement properties were analyzed by the criteria developed by Terwee et al. Results A total of 11 instruments were considered eligible, none of which were created in Brazil. The process of cross-cultural adaptation was inadequate in 10 out of 11 instruments due to the lack of back-translation or due to inappropriate target population. All of the instruments presented flaws in the measurement properties, especially reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity. Conclusion The flaws observed in both cross-cultural adaptation process and testing measurement properties make the results inconclusive on the validity of the available instruments. Adequate procedures of cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties of these instruments are strongly needed. PMID:26982452

  16. The measurement of collaboration within healthcare settings: a systematic review of measurement properties of instruments.

    PubMed

    Walters, Stephen John; Stern, Cindy; Robertson-Malt, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing call by consumers and governments for healthcare to adopt systems and approaches to care to improve patient safety. Collaboration within healthcare settings is an important factor for improving systems of care. By using validated measurement instruments a standardized approach to assessing collaboration is possible, otherwise it is only an assumption that collaboration is occurring in any healthcare setting. The objective of this review was to evaluate and compare measurement properties of instruments that measure collaboration within healthcare settings, specifically those which have been psychometrically tested and validated. Participants could be healthcare professionals, the patient or any non-professional who contributes to a patient's care, for example, family members, chaplains or orderlies. The term participant type means the designation of any one participant; for example 'nurse', 'social worker' or 'administrator'. More than two participant types was mandatory. The focus of this review was the validity of tools used to measure collaboration within healthcare settings. The types of studies considered for inclusion were validation studies, but quantitative study designs such as randomized controlled trials, controlled trials and case studies were also eligible for inclusion. Studies that focused on Interprofessional Education, were published as an abstract only, contained patient self-reporting only or were not about care delivery were excluded. The outcome of interest was validation and interpretability of the instrument being assessed and included content validity, construct validity and reliability. Interpretability is characterized by statistics such as mean and standard deviation which can be translated to a qualitative meaning. The search strategy aimed to find both published and unpublished studies. A three-step search strategy was utilized in this review. The databases searched included PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane Central

  17. Instrumentation for detailed bridge-scour measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landers, Mark N.; Mueller, David S.; Trent, Roy E.; ,

    1993-01-01

    A portable instrumentation system is being developed to obtain channel bathymetry during floods for detailed bridge-scour measurements. Portable scour measuring systems have four components: sounding instrument, horizontal positioning instrument, deployment mechanisms, and data storage device. The sounding instrument will be a digital fathometer. Horizontal position will be measured using a range-azimuth based hydrographic survey system. The deployment mechanism designed for this system is a remote-controlled boat using a small waterplane area, twin-hull design. An on-board computer and radio will monitor the vessel instrumentation, record measured data, and telemeter data to shore.

  18. An instrument to measure mechanical up-conversion phenomena in metals in the elastic regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajente, G.; Quintero, E. A.; Ni, X.; Arai, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Robertson, N. A.; Sanchez, E. J.; Greer, J. R.; Adhikari, R. X.

    2016-06-01

    Crystalline materials, such as metals, are known to exhibit deviation from a simple linear relation between strain and stress when the latter exceeds the yield stress. In addition, it has been shown that metals respond to varying external stress in a discontinuous way in this regime, exhibiting discrete releases of energy. This crackling noise has been extensively studied both experimentally and theoretically when the metals are operating in the plastic regime. In our study, we focus on the behavior of metals in the elastic regime, where the stresses are well below the yield stress. We describe an instrument that aims to characterize non-linear mechanical noise in metals when stressed in the elastic regime. In macroscopic systems, this phenomenon is expected to manifest as a non-stationary noise modulated by external disturbances applied to the material, a form of mechanical up-conversion of noise. The main motivation for this work is for the case of maraging steel components (cantilevers and wires) in the suspension systems of terrestrial gravitational wave detectors. Such instruments are planned to reach very ambitious displacement sensitivities, and therefore mechanical noise in the cantilevers could prove to be a limiting factor for the detectors' final sensitivities, mainly due to non-linear up-conversion of low frequency residual seismic motion to the frequencies of interest for the gravitational wave observations. We describe here the experimental setup, with a target sensitivity of 10-15 m/ √{ Hz } in the frequency range of 10-1000 Hz, a simple phenomenological model of the non-linear mechanical noise, and the analysis method that is inspired by this model.

  19. An instrument to measure mechanical up-conversion phenomena in metals in the elastic regime.

    PubMed

    Vajente, G; Quintero, E A; Ni, X; Arai, K; Gustafson, E K; Robertson, N A; Sanchez, E J; Greer, J R; Adhikari, R X

    2016-06-01

    Crystalline materials, such as metals, are known to exhibit deviation from a simple linear relation between strain and stress when the latter exceeds the yield stress. In addition, it has been shown that metals respond to varying external stress in a discontinuous way in this regime, exhibiting discrete releases of energy. This crackling noise has been extensively studied both experimentally and theoretically when the metals are operating in the plastic regime. In our study, we focus on the behavior of metals in the elastic regime, where the stresses are well below the yield stress. We describe an instrument that aims to characterize non-linear mechanical noise in metals when stressed in the elastic regime. In macroscopic systems, this phenomenon is expected to manifest as a non-stationary noise modulated by external disturbances applied to the material, a form of mechanical up-conversion of noise. The main motivation for this work is for the case of maraging steel components (cantilevers and wires) in the suspension systems of terrestrial gravitational wave detectors. Such instruments are planned to reach very ambitious displacement sensitivities, and therefore mechanical noise in the cantilevers could prove to be a limiting factor for the detectors' final sensitivities, mainly due to non-linear up-conversion of low frequency residual seismic motion to the frequencies of interest for the gravitational wave observations. We describe here the experimental setup, with a target sensitivity of 10(-15) m/Hz in the frequency range of 10-1000 Hz, a simple phenomenological model of the non-linear mechanical noise, and the analysis method that is inspired by this model.

  20. Instruments Measuring Pain, Physical Function, or Patient's Global Assessment in Hand Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Literature Search.

    PubMed

    Visser, A Willemien; Bøyesen, Pernille; Haugen, Ida K; Schoones, Jan W; van der Heijde, Désirée M; Rosendaal, Frits R; Kloppenburg, Margreet

    2015-11-01

    Description of use and metric properties of instruments measuring pain, physical function, or patient's global assessment (PtGA) in hand osteoarthritis (OA). Medical literature databases up to January 2014 were systematically reviewed for studies reporting on instruments measuring pain, physical function, or PtGA in hand OA. The frequency of the use of these instruments were described, as well as their metric properties, including discrimination (reliability, sensitivity to change), feasibility, and validity. In 66 included studies, various questionnaires and performance- or assessor-based instruments were applied for evaluation of pain, physical function, or PtGA. No major differences regarding metric properties were observed between the instruments, although the amount of supporting evidence varied. The most frequently evaluated questionnaires were the Australian/Canadian Hand OA Index (AUSCAN) pain subscale and visual analog scale (VAS) pain for pain assessment, and the AUSCAN function subscale and Functional Index for Hand OA (FIHOA) for physical function assessment. Excellent reliability was shown for the AUSCAN and FIHOA, and good sensitivity to change for all mentioned instruments; additionally, the FIHOA had good feasibility. Good construct validity was suggested for all mentioned questionnaires. The most commonly applied performance- or assessor-based instruments were the grip and pinch strength for the assessment of physical function, and the assessment of pain by palpation. For these measures, good sensitivity to change and construct validity were established. The AUSCAN, FIHOA, VAS pain, grip and pinch strength, and pain on palpation were most frequently used and provided most supporting evidence for good metric properties. More research has to be performed to compare the different instruments with each other.

  1. Electrokinetic phenomena in a kerosene-based magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakinyan, A. R.; Vegera, Zh. G.; Borisenko, O. V.

    2012-03-01

    We propose the methods for studying electrokinetic phenomena in magnetic colloidal systems (magnetic fluids), which make it possible to use the magnetic properties of particles of the disperse phase. Electrophoresis and the sedimentation potential in a kerosene-based magnetic fluid are studied. It is shown that only a small part (approximately one-thousandth) of all disperse particles in the magnetic fluid under investigation are charged, the sign of the particle charge being negative.

  2. Measurement Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-01-01

    International Technology Corporation (INTEC) manufactures a line of instruments used for determining the optical properties of materials used in solar energy applications. Some of INTEC's instruments are based on NASA technology, including the Willey Alpha Meter and McDonald Emissometer. The emissometer is a commercial version of a system developed by Lewis Research Center to test efficiency- increasing coatings on solar panels. These instruments are used by manufacturers of solar equipment, government, university and private laboratories.

  3. Assessing medical professionalism: A systematic review of instruments and their measurement properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Honghe; Ding, Ning; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yang; Wen, Deliang

    2017-01-01

    Over the last three decades, various instruments were developed and employed to assess medical professionalism, but their measurement properties have yet to be fully evaluated. This study aimed to systematically evaluate these instruments' measurement properties and the methodological quality of their related studies within a universally acceptable standardized framework and then provide corresponding recommendations. A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO was conducted to collect studies published from 1990-2015. After screening titles, abstracts, and full texts for eligibility, the articles included in this study were classified according to their respective instrument's usage. A two-phase assessment was conducted: 1) methodological quality was assessed by following the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist; and 2) the quality of measurement properties was assessed according to Terwee's criteria. Results were integrated using best-evidence synthesis to look for recommendable instruments. After screening 2,959 records, 74 instruments from 80 existing studies were included. The overall methodological quality of these studies was unsatisfactory, with reasons including but not limited to unknown missing data, inadequate sample sizes, and vague hypotheses. Content validity, cross-cultural validity, and criterion validity were either unreported or negative ratings in most studies. Based on best-evidence synthesis, three instruments were recommended: Hisar's instrument for nursing students, Nurse Practitioners' Roles and Competencies Scale, and Perceived Faculty Competency Inventory. Although instruments measuring medical professionalism are diverse, only a limited number of studies were methodologically sound. Future studies should give priority to systematically improving the performance of existing instruments and to longitudinal studies.

  4. An instrument for environmental control of vapor pressure and temperature for tensile creep and other mechanical property measurements.

    PubMed

    Majsztrik, P W; Bocarsly, A B; Benziger, J B

    2007-10-01

    An instrument for measuring the creep response of a material maintained under a controlled environment of temperature and vapor pressure is described. The temperature range of the instrument is 20-250 degrees C while the range of vapor pressure is 0-1 atm. Data are presented for tests conducted on this instrument with Nafion, a perfluorinated ionomer developed by DuPont and used as a membrane in polymer exchange membrane fuel cells, over a range of temperature and water vapor pressure. The data are useful for predicting long-term creep behavior of the material in the fuel cell environment as well as providing insight to molecular level interactions in the material as a function of temperature and hydration. Measurements including dynamic and equilibrium strain due to water uptake as well as elastic modulus are described. The main features of the instrument are presented along with experimental methodology and analysis of results. The adaptation of the instrument to other mechanical tests is briefly described.

  5. An instrument for environmental control of vapor pressure and temperature for tensile creep and other mechanical property measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majsztrik, P. W.; Bocarsly, A. B.; Benziger, J. B.

    2007-10-01

    An instrument for measuring the creep response of a material maintained under a controlled environment of temperature and vapor pressure is described. The temperature range of the instrument is 20-250°C while the range of vapor pressure is 0-1atm. Data are presented for tests conducted on this instrument with Nafion®, a perfluorinated ionomer developed by DuPont and used as a membrane in polymer exchange membrane fuel cells, over a range of temperature and water vapor pressure. The data are useful for predicting long-term creep behavior of the material in the fuel cell environment as well as providing insight to molecular level interactions in the material as a function of temperature and hydration. Measurements including dynamic and equilibrium strain due to water uptake as well as elastic modulus are described. The main features of the instrument are presented along with experimental methodology and analysis of results. The adaptation of the instrument to other mechanical tests is briefly described.

  6. Development of measurement capabilities for the thermophysical properties of energy-related fluids. Annual report, December 1, 1993--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-17

    Objectives are to develop state-of-the-art experimental apparatus for measuring the thermophysical properties of a wide range of fluids and fluid mixtures important to the energy, chemical, and energy-related industries, and carry out benchmark measurements on key systems. Measurement capabilities to be developed cover transport properties, thermodynamic properties, phase equilibria properties, and dielectric properties. The new apparatus will make it possible to study a wide range of complex fluid systems under conditions that have been previously inaccessible. Specific measurement capabilities to be developed are: Thermal Conductivity Apparatus, Vibrating Wire Viscometer, Dual-Sinker Densimeter, High-Temperature Vibrating Tube Densimeter, Dynamic Phase Equilibria Apparatus, Apparatus for Dilute Solutions, Total-Enthalpy Flow Calorimeter, Dielectric Constant Apparatus. The research also includes benchmark experimental measurements on pure and mixed alternative refrigerants, aqueous solutions, and carefully selected systems consisting of species of diverse size (methane + neopentane) and polarity (methane + ammonia) important for development of predictive models for energy-related fluids.

  7. Method for simultaneous measurement of mass loading and fluid property changes using a quartz crystal microbalance

    DOEpatents

    Granstaff, Victoria E.; Martin, Stephen J.

    1993-01-01

    A method, using a quartz crystal microbalance, to obtain simultaneous measurement of solid mass accumulation and changes in liquid density-viscosity product. The simultaneous real-time measurements of electrical parameters yields that changes in surface mass can be differentiated from changes in solution properties. Two methods to obtain the admittance/frequency data are employed.

  8. Method for simultaneous measurement of mass loading and fluid property changes using a quartz crystal microbalance

    DOEpatents

    Granstaff, V.E.; Martin, S.J.

    1993-04-13

    A method is described, using a quartz crystal microbalance, to obtain simultaneous measurement of solid mass accumulation and changes in liquid density-viscosity product. The simultaneous real-time measurements of electrical parameters yields that changes in surface mass can be differentiated from changes in solution properties. Two methods to obtain the admittance/frequency data are employed.

  9. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    of constant cross sectional area, and to facilitate fluid filling and draining operations in microgravity. The fluid cells may be used singly for bulk solutions, or in a Stokes diaphragm configuration to investigate membrane mediated phenomena. Thermal and electrical driving potentials are applied to the experiment fluids through boundary plates located at the ends of the fluid cells. In the ground based instrument, two constant temperature baths circulate through reservoirs adjacent to the boundary plates, and establish the thermal environment within the fluid cells. The boundary plates also serve as electrodes for measurement and application of electrical potentials. The Fluid Manipulation System associated with the MTA is a computer controlled system that enables storage and transfer of experiment fluids during on orbit operations. The system is used to automatically initiate experiments and manipulate fluids by orchestrating pump and valve operations through scripted sequences. Unique technologies are incorporated in the MTA for measurement of fluid properties. Volumetric Flow Sensors have been developed for precision measurement of total fluid volume contained within the fluid cells over time. This data is most useful for measuring the kinetics of osmosis, where fluid is transported from one fluid cell to another through a semipermeable membrane. The MicroSensor Array has been designed to perform in situ measurement of several important fluid parameters, providing simultaneous measurement of solution composition at multiple locations within the experiment fluids. Micromachined sensors and interface electronics have been developed to measure temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, cation activity, and anion activity. The Profile Refractometer uses a laser optical system to directly image the fluid Index of Refraction profile that exists along the MTA fluid cell axis. A video system acquires images of the RI profile over time, and records the transport kinetics

  10. Measuring Aerosol Optical Properties with the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veefkind, J. P.; Torres, O.; Syniuk, A.; Decae, R.; deLeeuw, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is the Dutch-Finnish contribution to the NASA EOS-Aura mission scheduled for launch in January 2004. OM1 is an imaging spectrometer that will measure the back-scattered Solar radiance between 270 an 500 nm. With its relatively high spatial resolution (13x24 sq km at nadir) and daily global coverage. OM1 will make a major contribution to our understanding of atmospheric chemistry and to climate research. OM1 will provide data continuity with the TOMS instruments. One of the pleasant surprises of the TOMS data record was its information on aerosol properties. First, only the absorbing aerosol index, which is sensitive to elevated lay- ers of aerosols such as desert dust and smoke aerosols, was derived. Recently these methods were further improved to yield aerosol optical thickness and single scattering albedo over land and ocean for 19 years of TOMS data (1979-1992,1997-2002), making it one of the longest and most valuable time series for aerosols presently available. Such long time series are essential to quantify the effect of aerosols on the Earth& climate. The OM1 instrument is better suited to measure aerosols than the TOMS instruments because of the smaller footprint, and better spectral coverage. The better capabilities of OMI will enable us to provide an improved aerosol product, but the knowledge will also be used for further analysis of the aerosol record from TOMS. The OM1 aerosol product that is currently being developed for OM1 combines the TOMS experience and the multi-spectral techniques that are used in the visible and near infrared. The challenge for this new product is to provide aerosol optical thickness and single scattering albedo from the near ultraviolet to the visible (330-500 nm) over land and ocean. In this presentation the methods for deriving the OM1 aerosol product will be presented. Part of these methods developed for OM1 can already be applied to TOMS data and results of such analysis will be shown.

  11. Instrumentation for Surface Flux Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-10

    National Park , she used the sonic and a Li-Cor C02-H20 analyzer at a height of 3 m to measure the vertical turbulent flux of C02 downwind of...SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U. S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park , NC 27709-2211 3. REPORT TYPE...and subgrid-scale array measurements In summer 2000 we lent 7 of the CSAT3 sonics to the National Center for Atmo- spheric Research (NCAR) for use in

  12. Instrument for Measuring Cryo CTE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vikram, Chandra S.; Hadaway, James B.

    2003-01-01

    Coefficient of thermal expansion is an integral part of the performance of optical systems, especially for those, which operate at cryogenic temperatures. The measurement of the coefficient of relevant materials has been of continuous interest. Besides commercial measurement sources, development of one-of-a-kind tools have always been of interest due to local needs. This paper describes one such development at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). The approach involves two vertical rods (one sample and one reference) on a flat platform. A probe bar is held horizontally atop the two samples. A temperature change will generally cause rotation of the probe bar. A mirrored surface on one end of the probe bar is used to measure the rotation using the reflection of an incident laser beam upon it. A position-sensing detector measures the change of the reflected beam spot position. Using other known quantities, the change determines the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sample material as a function of temperature. A parallel measurement of the rotation of the sample support platform is also performed to account for any unwanted background effects. This system has been demonstrated in a cryogenic chamber at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center X-ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). We present the system details, achievable sensitivity, and up-to-date experimental performance.

  13. A Magnetic-Fluid Seal for Measurement of Aerodynamic Surface Pressure.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-04-01

    A magnetic - fluid sliding seal was designed, fabricated, and tested for application in a special instrumentation arrangement to measure the...spin rates. The effects of certain seal parameters were investigated including: gap distance between stationary and moving components, magnetic ... fluid properties (i.e., magnetization strength and viscosity), and ferrous versus nonferrous moving component material. These tests demonstrated that the

  14. Instrument for measuring human biting force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopola, Harri K.; Mantyla, Olavi; Makiniemi, Matti; Mahonen, Kalevi; Virtanen, Kauko

    1995-02-01

    Alongside EMG activity, biting force is the primary parameter used for assessing the biting problems of dentulous patients and patients with dentures. In a highly conductive oral cavity, dielectric measurement methods are preferred, for safety reasons. The maximum biting force for patients with removable dentures is not more than 100 ... 300 N. We report here on an instrument developed for measuring human biting force which consists of three units: a mouthpiece, a signal processing and interface unit (SPI), and a PC. The mouthpiece comprises a sensor head of thickness 3.4 mm, width 20 mm and length 30 mm constructed of two stainless steel plates and with a fiber optic microbending sensor between them. This is connected to the SPI unit by a three-meter fiber optic cable, and the SPI unit to the PC by an RS connection. A computer program has been developed that includes measurement, display, zeroing, and calibration operations. The instrument measures biting force as a function of time and displays the time-dependent force profile and maximum force on a screen or plots it in hard copy. The dynamic measurement range of the mouthpiece is from 0 to 1000 N, and the resolution of the instrument is 10 N. The results of preliminary clinical measurements and repeatability tests are reported.

  15. A Novel Instrumentation Circuit for Electrochemical Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Li-Te; Wang, Hung-Yu; Lin, Yang-Chiuan; Huang, Wen-Chung

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel signal processing circuit which can be used for the measurement of H+ ion and urea concentration is presented. A potentiometric method is used to detect the concentrations of H+ ions and urea by using H+ ion-selective electrodes and urea electrodes, respectively. The experimental data shows that this measuring structure has a linear pH response for the concentration range within pH 2 and 12, and the dynamic range for urea concentration measurement is in the range of 0.25 to 64 mg/dL. The designed instrumentation circuit possesses a calibration function and it can be applied to different sensing electrodes for electrochemical analysis. It possesses the advantageous properties of being multi-purpose, easy calibration and low cost. PMID:23012565

  16. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Fluid Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Nguyen, Than X. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus for monitoring the presence, concentration, and the movement of fluids. It is based on utilizing electromagnetic measurements of the complex permittivity of the fluids for detecting and monitoring the fluid. More particularly the apparatus uses one or more microwave probes which are placed at the locations where the measurements are to be made. A radio frequency signal is transmitted to the probe and the reflected signal is phase and amplitude detected at a rapid rate for the purpose of identifying the fluids, based on their dielectric constant at the probe. The apparatus can be used for multiple purposes including measures of flow rates, turbulence, dispersion, fluid identification, and changes in flow conditions of multiple fluids or multiple states of a single fluid in a flowline or a holding container. The apparatus includes a probe consisting of two electrical conductors separated by an insulator. A radio frequency signal is communicated to the probe and is reflected back from the portion of the probe exposed to the fluid. The radio frequency signal also provides a reference signal. An oscillator generates a second signal which combined with each of the reference signal and the reflected signal to produce signals of lower frequencies to facilitate filtering and amplifying those signals. The two signals are then mixed in a detector to produce an output signal that is representative of the phase and amplitude change caused by the reflection of the signal at the probe exposed to the fluid. The detector may be a dual phase detector that provides two such output signals that are in phase quadrature. A phase shifter may be provided for selectively changing the phase of the reference signal to improve the sensitivity of at least one of the output signals for more accurate readings and/or for calibration purposes. The two outputs that are in quadrature with respect to each other may be simultaneously monitored to account for

  17. Resonance phenomena in fluid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukyanov, A. T.; Inyushin, V. M.; Gorokhov, A. P.

    1987-03-01

    Studies were made to detect the presence of a memory in fluid media. The experiments revealed that the effect of electromagnetic radiation on fluid media can be explained by the phenomenon of resonant response of the system receiving the radiation. Studies were made on plant seeds and yeasts, accompanied by catalytic chemical reactions and several physical and chemical tests. Sorption of trypaflavine by seeds was studied with exposure of distilled water to laser radiation. It was found that the duration of preservation of acquired properties depends on wavelength. The shorter the wavelength, the greater the degree of attentuation of changes in the properties of the water, as reflected by trypaflavine sorption by seed cells. Similar results were obtained in a study of the dynamics of hemolysis of erythrocytes in a saline solution. Changes in biological and physicochemical activity in fluid media correlate with wavelength.

  18. Assessing medical professionalism: A systematic review of instruments and their measurement properties

    PubMed Central

    Li, Honghe; Liu, Yang; Wen, Deliang

    2017-01-01

    Background Over the last three decades, various instruments were developed and employed to assess medical professionalism, but their measurement properties have yet to be fully evaluated. This study aimed to systematically evaluate these instruments’ measurement properties and the methodological quality of their related studies within a universally acceptable standardized framework and then provide corresponding recommendations. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO was conducted to collect studies published from 1990–2015. After screening titles, abstracts, and full texts for eligibility, the articles included in this study were classified according to their respective instrument’s usage. A two-phase assessment was conducted: 1) methodological quality was assessed by following the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist; and 2) the quality of measurement properties was assessed according to Terwee’s criteria. Results were integrated using best-evidence synthesis to look for recommendable instruments. Results After screening 2,959 records, 74 instruments from 80 existing studies were included. The overall methodological quality of these studies was unsatisfactory, with reasons including but not limited to unknown missing data, inadequate sample sizes, and vague hypotheses. Content validity, cross-cultural validity, and criterion validity were either unreported or negative ratings in most studies. Based on best-evidence synthesis, three instruments were recommended: Hisar’s instrument for nursing students, Nurse Practitioners’ Roles and Competencies Scale, and Perceived Faculty Competency Inventory. Conclusion Although instruments measuring medical professionalism are diverse, only a limited number of studies were methodologically sound. Future studies should give priority to systematically improving the performance of existing

  19. An instrumented tissue tester for measuring soft tissue property under the metatarsal heads in relation to metatarsophalangeal joint angle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ming; Phyau-Wui Shim, Victor; Park, Seung-Bum; Lee, Taeyong

    2011-06-03

    Identification of the localized mechanical response of the plantar soft tissue pads underneath the metatarsal heads (i.e., sub-MTH pad) to external loading is key to understand and predict how it functions in a gait cycle. The mechanical response depends on various parameters, such as the external load (direction and rate), the sub-MTH tissue properties (anisotropy and viscoelasticity), and the configuration of the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint overlying the tissue. In this study, an instrument-driven tissue tester that incorporates a portable motorized indentor within a special foot positioning apparatus was developed for realistic in vivo mechanical characterization (i.e. tissue stiffness and force relaxation behavior) of the local sub-MTH pad with the MTP joint configured at various dorsiflexion angles associated with gait. The tester yields consistent results for tests on the 2nd sub-MTH pad. Measurement errors for the initial stiffness (for indentation depths ≤ 1 mm), end-point stiffness, and percentage force relaxation were less than 0.084 N/mm, 0.133 N/mm, and 0.127%, respectively, across all test configurations. The end-point tissue stiffness, which increased by 104.2% due to a 50° MTP joint dorsiflexion, also agreed with a previous investigation. In vivo tissue's force relaxation was shown to be pronounced (avg. = 8.1%), even for a short holding-time interval. The proposed technique to facilitate study of the dependence of the local sub-MTH pad and tissue response on the MTP joint angle might be preferable to methods that focus solely on measurement of tissue property because under physiologic conditions the sub-MTH pad elasticity may vary in gait, to adapt to drastically changing mechanical demands in the sub-MTH region of the terminal stance-phase, where MTP joint dorsiflexion occurs.

  20. Instruments Measuring Externalizing Mental Health Problems in Immigrant Ethnic Minority Youths: A Systematic Review of Measurement Properties

    PubMed Central

    Paalman, Carmen H.; Terwee, Caroline B.; Jansma, Elise P.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about reliability and validity of instruments measuring externalizing mental health problems in immigrant ethnic minority youths. Aims To provide an overview of studies on measurement properties of instruments measuring these problems in immigrant ethnic minority youths, their methodological quality and results. Methods A systematic review of the literature in MEDLINE, EMbase, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library was performed. Evaluation of methodological quality of studies found was done by using the ‘COSMIN-checklist’. Full text, original articles, published in English after 1990 were included. Articles had to concern the development or evaluation of the measurement properties of self-reported, parent-reported and/or teacher- or clinician-reported questionnaires assessing or screening externalizing mental health problems in immigrant ethnic minority youths. Specific results of analyses on (an) immigrant ethnic minority group had to be given. Results Twenty-nine studies evaluating 18 instruments met our criteria. Most studies concerned instruments with known validity in Western populations, tested mainly in African Americans. Considering methodological quality, inequivalences between ethnicities were found, self-reports seemed to perform better, and administration of an instrument influenced reliability and validity. Conclusion It seems that the majority of instruments for assessing externalizing problems in immigrant ethnic minority youths is currently not sufficiently validated. Further evaluating existing instruments is crucial to accurately assess and interpreted externalizing problems in immigrant ethnic minority youths. PMID:23704892

  1. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

  2. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

  3. Instrumentation for bone density measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meharg, L. S.

    1968-01-01

    Measurement system evaluates the integrated bone density over a specific cross section of bone. A digital computer converts stored bone scan data to equivalent aluminum calibration wedge thickness, and bone density is then integrated along the scan by using the trapezoidal approximation integration formula.

  4. Instruments for measuring mental health recovery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sklar, Marisa; Groessl, Erik J; O'Connell, Maria; Davidson, Larry; Aarons, Gregory A

    2013-12-01

    Persons in recovery, providers, and policymakers alike are advocating for recovery-oriented mental health care, with the promotion of recovery becoming a prominent feature of mental health policy in the United States and internationally. One step toward creating a recovery-oriented system of care is to use recovery-oriented outcome measures. Numerous instruments have been developed to assess progress towards mental health recovery. This review identifies instruments of mental health recovery and evaluates the appropriateness of their use including their psychometric properties, ease of administration, and service-user involvement in their development. A literature search using the Medline and Psych-INFO databases was conducted, identifying 21 instruments for potential inclusion in this review, of which thirteen met inclusion criteria. Results suggest only three instruments (25%) have had their psychometric properties assessed in three or more unique samples of participants. Ease of administration varied between instruments, and for the majority of instruments, development included service user involvement. This review updates and expands previous reviews of instruments to assess mental health recovery. As mental health care continues to transform to a recovery-oriented model of service delivery, this review may facilitate selection of appropriate assessments of mental health recovery for systems to use in evaluating and improving the care they provide.

  5. Electromagnetic probe technique for fluid flow measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. D.; Carl, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    The probes described herein, in various configurations, permit the measurement of the volume fraction of two or more fluids flowing through a pipe. Each probe measures the instantaneous relative dielectric constant of the fluid in immediate proximity. As long as separation of the relative dielectric constant of the fluid is possible, several or even many fluids can be measured in the same flow stream. By using multiple probes, the velocity of each fluid can generally be determined as well as the distribution of each constituent in the pipe. The values are determined by statistical computation. There are many potential applications for probes of this type in industry and government. Possible NASA applications include measurements of helium/hydrazine flow during rocket tests at White Sands, liquid/gas flow in hydrogen or oxygen lines in Orbiter engines, and liquid/gaseous Freon flow in zero gravity tests with the KS135 aircraft at JSC. Much interest has been shown recently by the oil industry. In this a good method is needed to measure the fractions of oil, water, and natural gas flowing in a pipeline and the velocity of each. This particular problem involves an extension of what has been developed to date and our plans to solve this problem will be discussed herein.

  6. Electromagnetic probe technique for fluid flow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, G. D.; Carl, J. R.

    1994-02-01

    The probes described herein, in various configurations, permit the measurement of the volume fraction of two or more fluids flowing through a pipe. Each probe measures the instantaneous relative dielectric constant of the fluid in immediate proximity. As long as separation of the relative dielectric constant of the fluid is possible, several or even many fluids can be measured in the same flow stream. By using multiple probes, the velocity of each fluid can generally be determined as well as the distribution of each constituent in the pipe. The values are determined by statistical computation. There are many potential applications for probes of this type in industry and government. Possible NASA applications include measurements of helium/hydrazine flow during rocket tests at White Sands, liquid/gas flow in hydrogen or oxygen lines in Orbiter engines, and liquid/gaseous Freon flow in zero gravity tests with the KS135 aircraft at JSC. Much interest has been shown recently by the oil industry. In this a good method is needed to measure the fractions of oil, water, and natural gas flowing in a pipeline and the velocity of each. This particular problem involves an extension of what has been developed to date and our plans to solve this problem will be discussed herein.

  7. 40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation...

  8. 40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Gas meter or flow instrumentation... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation...

  9. 40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation...

  10. 40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation...

  11. 40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation...

  12. Hysteresis phenomena in hydraulic measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, H. J.; Luo, X. W.; Chen, Y. L.; Xu, H. Y.; Farhat, M.

    2012-11-01

    Hysteresis phenomena demonstrate the lag between the generation and the removal of some physical phenomena. This paper studies the hysteresis phenomena of the head-drop in a scaled model pump turbine using experiment test and CFD methods. These lag is induced by complicated flow patterns, which influenced the reliability of rotating machine. Keeping the same measurement procedure is concluded for the hydraulic machine measurement.

  13. Measuring the youth bullying experience: a systematic review of the psychometric properties of available instruments.

    PubMed

    Vessey, Judith; Strout, Tania D; DiFazio, Rachel L; Walker, Allison

    2014-12-01

    Bullying is a significant problem in schools and measuring this concept remains problematic. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify the published self-report measures developed to assess youth bullying; (2) evaluate their psychometric properties and instrument characteristics; and (3) evaluate the quality of identified psychometric papers evaluating youth bullying measures. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using 4 electronic databases. Data extraction and appraisal of identified instruments were completed using a standardized method and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Thirty-one articles describing 27 self-report instruments were evaluated in our analysis. Quality assessments ranged from 18% to 91%, with 6 papers reaching or exceeding a quality score of 75%. Limited evidence supporting the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of existing youth bullying measures was identified. Evidence supporting the psychometric soundness of the instruments identified was limited. Many measures were in early development and additional evaluation is necessary to validate their psychometric properties. A pool of instruments possesses acceptable initial psychometric dependability for selected assessment purposes. These findings have significant implications for assessing youth bullying and designing and evaluating school-based interventions. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  14. Measuring the Optical Properties of Astrophysical Dust Analogues: Instrumentation and Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, S. A.; Benford, D. J.; Cataldo, G.; Dwek, E.; Henry, R.; Kinzer, R. E., Jr.; Nuth, J.; Silverberg, R.; Wheeler, C.; Wollack, E.

    2011-01-01

    Dust is found throughout the universe and plays an important role for a wide range of astrophysical phenomena. In recent years, new infrared facilities have provided powerful new data for understanding these phenomena. However, interpretation of these data is often complicated by a lack of complementary information about the optical properties of astronomically relevant materials. The Optical Properties of Astronomical Silicates with Infrared Techniques (OPASI-T) program at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is designed to provide new high-quality laboratory data from which we can derive the optical properties of astrophysical dust analogues. This program makes use of multiple instruments, including new equipment designed and built specifically for this purpose. The suite of instruments allows us to derive optical properties over a wide wavelength range, from the near-infrared through the millimeter, also providing the capability for exploring how these properties depend upon the temperature of the sample. In this paper, we discuss the overall structure of the research program, describe the new instruments that have been developed to meet the science goals, and demonstrate the efficacy of these tools.

  15. The quality of evidence of psychometric properties of three-dimensional spinal posture-measuring instruments

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Psychometric properties include validity, reliability and sensitivity to change. Establishing the psychometric properties of an instrument which measures three-dimensional human posture are essential prior to applying it in clinical practice or research. Methods This paper reports the findings of a systematic literature review which aimed to 1) identify non-invasive three-dimensional (3D) human posture-measuring instruments; and 2) assess the quality of reporting of the methodological procedures undertaken to establish their psychometric properties, using a purpose-build critical appraisal tool. Results Seventeen instruments were identified, of which nine were supported by research into psychometric properties. Eleven and six papers respectively, reported on validity and reliability testing. Rater qualification and reference standards were generally poorly addressed, and there was variable quality reporting of rater blinding and statistical analysis. Conclusions There is a lack of current research to establish the psychometric properties of non-invasive 3D human posture-measuring instruments. PMID:21569486

  16. Projectile Measurements and Instrumentation Laboratory Mass Property Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-01

    balance should be stored in a place where vibrations will not be transmitted to the bearings and knives, causing undue wear. The balance should be kept...Also for simplicity, any clockwise tendency will be considered positive, and counterclockwise potation of the beam will be considered negative...displacement of the wire with respect to its equilibrium or unstressed position. If the elastic limit is not exceeded, the same potential energy

  17. Measurement of Turbulent Flow Phenomena for the Lower Plenum of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hugh M. McIlroy Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink; Keith G. Condie; Glenn E. McCreery

    2007-09-01

    Mean velocity field and turbulence data are presented for flow phenomena in a lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR), such as in a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) concept. In preparation for design, safety analyses and licensing, research has begun on readying the computational tools that will be needed to predict the thermal-hydraulics behavior of the reactor design. Fluid dynamics experiments have been designed and built to develop benchmark databases for the assessment of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes and their turbulence models for a typical VHTR plenum geometry in the limiting case of negligible buoyancy and constant fluid properties. This experiment has been proposed as a “Standard Problem” for assessing advanced reactor (CFD) analysis tools. Present results concentrate on the region of the plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered as multiple jets into a confined cross flow - with obstructions. A model of the lower plenum has been fabricated and scaled to the geometric dimensions of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Point Design. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to induce flow features somewhat comparable to those expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. Posts, side walls and end walls are fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive-index of the working fluid so that optical techniques may be employed for the measurements. The experiments were conducted in the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits optical measurements to determine complex flow characteristics in passages and around objects to be obtained without locating a disturbing transducer in the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. The

  18. Development of measurement capabilities for the thermophysical properties of energy-related fluids. Annual report, December 1, 1992--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, R.F.

    1993-08-13

    The measurement capabilities to be developed include new apparatus for transport properties, thermodynamic properties, phase equilibria, and dielectric properties. Specific capabilities are: Thermal conductivity apparatus, vibrating wire viscometer, dual-sinker densimeter, high-temperature vibrating tube densimeter, dynamic phase equilibria apparatus, apparatus for dilute solutions, total-enthalpy flow calorimeter. Benchmark measurements were made (no data given) on pure and mixed alternative refrigerants and their mixtures with lubricants, and other fluids.

  19. Pump instability phenomena generated by fluid forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.

    1985-01-01

    Rotor dynamic behavior of high energy centrifugal pumps is significantly affected by two types of fluid forces; one due to the hydraulic interaction of the impeller with the surrounding volute or diffuser and the other due to the effect of the wear rings. The available data on these forces is first reviewed. A simple one degree-of-freedom system containing these forces is analytically solved to exhibit the rotor dynamic effects. To illustrate the relative magnitude of these phenomena, an example of a multistage boiler feed pump is worked out. It is shown that the wear ring effects tend to suppress critical speed and postpone instability onset. But the volute-impeller forces tend to lower the critical speed and the instability onset speed. However, for typical boiler feed pumps under normal running clearances, the wear ring effects are much more significant than the destabilizing hydraulic interaction effects.

  20. Crossover critical phenomena in fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrowicka Wyczalkowska, Anna Judyta

    In fluids the effects of critical density fluctuations remain significant over a large range of temperatures and densities. The nonanalytical behavior observed in real fluids in the vicinity of the critical point is well described by renormalization-group theory. This theory accounts properly for the influence of the critical fluctuations in density which are entirely neglected by the classical equations. Specifically, fluids asymptotically close to the critical point belong to the universality class of the 3-dimensional Ising model and their behavior near the critical point is governed by scaling laws with critical exponents appropriate for this universality class. The validity of the asymptotic power laws is, however, restricted to a very small region near the critical point. An approach to deal with the nonasymptotic behavior of fluids including the crossover from Ising behavior in the immediate vicinity of the critical point to classical behavior far away from the critical point has been developed by Chen and coworkers and is further improved in this thesis. This approach is based on earlier work of Nicoll and coworkers and it leads to a transformation of a classical Landau expansion to incorporate the effects of critical fluctuations. Here we show how this transformation applies to real fluids: water and sulfurhexafluoride. Nevertheless, even such a crossover Landau expansion still fails to make a connection with the behavior of the fluid very far away from the critical point like the ideal-gas limit at low densities. We demonstrate how a procedure, earlier developed to include the effects of critical fluctuations into a classical Landau expansion of the Helmholtz-energy density, can also be applied to a closed-form classical equation of state like the equation of van der Waals. One of the consequences of accounting for the presence of the critical fluctuations is a shift in the location of the critical point. The resulting equation incorporates the

  1. An instrument for measuring cancer patients' preferences for support groups.

    PubMed

    Smoczyk, C M; Zhu, W; Whatley, M H

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to assess cancer patients' preferences for all types of social support and organizational features of cancer support groups. The content of the instrument was the result of a detailed analysis of four resources: (1) literature relating to cancer support group interventions, (2) program materials from existing groups, (3) interviews with individuals who developed or directed groups, and (4) interviews with patients who have participated in cancer support groups. A jury of six experts was used to establish content validity of the instrument. The reliability of the instrument was examined by measuring a sample of 258 cancer patients. The reliability coefficients of the instrument were all above .80, except for two types of social support (instrumental and informational-educational), which were .72 and .78, respectively. It was concluded that the instrument produces valid and reliable measurements of cancer patients' preferences for cancer support groups.

  2. Review of outcome measurement instruments in Alzheimer's disease drug trials: psychometric properties of global scales.

    PubMed

    Oremus, M; Perrault, A; Demers, L; Wolfson, C

    2000-01-01

    The use of global outcome measures with strong psychometric properties in Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug trials is encouraged. This article focuses on Clinician Global Impression of Change scales, the Clinical Dementia Rating, and the Global Deterioration Scale to provide (1) a review of psychometric properties, (2) a critique of how these properties are assessed in the literature, and (3) a basis for evaluating, from the standpoint of psychometric properties, the appropriateness of using a given global scale in a drug trial. Reported reliability and validity estimates for the aforementioned scales range from fair to very good, but small sample sizes and/or inappropriate measures of correlation weaken the quality of the evidence. There is also a dearth of published information on responsiveness to change. Researchers planning AD drug trials should consider these issues, along with the interval between test administrations for test-retest reliability, to help select appropriate global outcome measurement instruments.

  3. Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Lambert, Kevin M.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Durham, Tim; Speed, Kerry; Lange, Robert; Olsen, Art; Smith, Brett; Taylor, Robert; Schmidt, Mark; hide

    2016-01-01

    This presentation discusses current efforts to develop a Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM). The objective of the effort are as follows: to advance the utility of a wideband active and passive instrument (8-40 gigahertz) to support the snow science community; improve snow measurements through advanced calibration and expanded frequency of active and passive sensors; demonstrate science utility through airborne retrievals of snow water equivalent (SWE); and advance the technology readiness of broadband current sheet array (CSA) antenna technology for spaceflight applications.

  4. Instrumentation for measuring speech privacy in rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horrall, Thomas; Pirn, Rein; Markham, Ben

    2003-10-01

    Federal legislation pertaining to oral privacy in healthcare and financial services industries has increased the need for a convenient and economical way to document speech privacy conditions in offices, medical examination rooms, and certain other workspaces. This legislation is embodied in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA). Both laws require that reasonable measures be put in place to safeguard the oral privacy of patients and clients. While techniques for privacy documentation are known within the acoustical consulting community, it is unlikely that community alone has the capacity to provide the surveys needed to evaluate acoustical conditions and demonstrate compliance with the legislation. A portable computer with integrated soundboard and a suitable amplified loudspeaker and test microphone are all that are needed to perform in situ measurements of articulation index or other accepted indices of speech privacy. Along with modest training, such instrumentation allows technicians to survey a large number of sites economically. Cost-effective components are shown that can meet the requirements for testing in most common environments where oral privacy is likely to be required. Example cases are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of such instrumentation.

  5. Identification of key outcome measures when using the instrumented timed up and go and/or posturography for fall screening.

    PubMed

    Sample, Renee Beach; Kinney, Allison L; Jackson, Kurt; Diestelkamp, Wiebke; Bigelow, Kimberly Edginton

    2017-09-01

    The Timed Up and Go (TUG) has been commonly used for fall risk assessment. The instrumented Timed Up and Go (iTUG) adds wearable sensors to capture sub-movements and may be more sensitive. Posturography assessments have also been used for determining fall risk. This study used stepwise logistic regression models to identify key outcome measures for the iTUG and posturography protocols. The effectiveness of the models containing these measures in differentiating fallers from non-fallers were then compared for each: iTUG total time duration only, iTUG, posturography, and combined iTUG and posturography assessments. One hundred and fifty older adults participated in this study. The iTUG measures were calculated utilizing APDM Inc.'s Mobility Lab software. Traditional and non-linear posturography measures were calculated from center of pressure during quiet-standing. The key outcome measures incorporated in the iTUG assessment model (sit-to-stand lean angle and height) resulted in a model sensitivity of 48.1% and max re-scaled R(2) value of 0.19. This was a higher sensitivity, indicating better differentiation, compared to the model only including total time duration (outcome of the traditional TUG), which had a sensitivity of 18.2%. When the key outcome measures of the iTUG and the posturography assessments were combined into a single model, the sensitivity was approximately the same as the iTUG model alone. Overall the findings of this study support that the iTUG demonstrates greater sensitivity than the total time duration, but that carrying out both iTUG and posturography does not greatly improve sensitivity when used as a fall risk screening tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Instrumentation For Detector Spectral / Spatial Uniformity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, Ronald W.; Bronson, Robert M.

    1989-09-01

    The information presented in this report describes an instrument which is used for precision measurements of detector spectral response and spatial response. Emphasis will be placed on detector spatial uniformity measurements. To allow spatial uniformity testing at selected wavelengths, an instrument was designed by applying existing spectral response instrumentation technology with the addition of special exit optics, a dual axis motorized positioning table, and supporting software. Supporting components consisted of a computer controlled radiometer and a monochromator with a high intensity light source attached. Spectral response is determined by measuring the wavelength response photosensitivity of a stationary specimen to the irradiance of a calibrated monochromatic light source over the wavelength range of interest at evenly spaced intervals. Data is presented in a pictorial format by graphing the RESPONSE versus the WAVELENGTH. Detector spatial response is determined by measuring the variation in photosensitivity over the surface of the test detector by moving the detector in an X,Y grid at evenly spaced intervals under a small monochromatic spot of light. Several versions of the instrument were built and test results are provided which represent data from the spatial uniformity testing of Ge, PbS, and PbSe detectors. Data acquired is presented as a 3-Dimensional surface map by plotting the RESPONSE versus the X POSITION versus the Y POSITION.

  7. Pump for molten metal or other fluid

    DOEpatents

    Horton, James A.; Brown, Donald L.

    1994-01-01

    A pump having no moving parts which can be used to pump high temperature molten metal or other fluids in a vacuum or low pressure environment, and a method for pumping such fluids. The pump combines elements of a bubble pump with a trap which isolates the vacuum or low pressure region from the gas used to create the bubbles. When used in a vacuum the trap prevents the pumping gas from escaping into the isolated region and thereby reducing the quality of the vacuum. The pump includes a channel in which a pumping gas is forced under pressure into a cavity where bubbles are formed. The cavity is in contact with a reservoir which contains the molten metal or other fluid which is to be pumped. The bubbles rise up into a column (or pump tube) carrying the fluid with them. At the top of the column is located a deflector which causes the bubbles to burst and the drops of pumped fluid to fall into a trap. The fluid accumulates in the trap, eventually forcing its way to an outlet. A roughing pump can be used to withdraw the pumping gas from the top of the column and assist with maintaining the vacuum or low pressure environment.

  8. FY2001 Annual Report for EMSP Project #70108: Effects of Fluid Distribution on Measured Geophysical Properties for Partially Saturated, Shallow Subsurface Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, P A; Bonner, B P; Roberts, J J; Wildenschild, D; Aracne-Ruddle, C M; Berryman, J G; Bertete-Aguirre, H; Boro, C O; Carlberg, E D

    2001-06-14

    Our goal is to improve geophysical imaging of the vadose zone. We will achieve this goal by providing new methods to improve interpretation of field data. The purpose of this EMSP project is to develop relationships between laboratory measured geophysical properties and porosity, saturation, and fluid distribution, for partially saturated soils. Algorithms for relationships between soil composition, saturation, and geophysical measurements will provide new methods to interpret geophysical field data collected in the vadose zone at sites such as Hanford, WA.

  9. Lightning instrumentation for warning and measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtasinski, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    A presentation of instrumentation techniques used at Kennedy Space Center for assessing the hazards of lightning, measure lightning currents, induced voltage effects and assess the probability of lightning strikes to launch structures. The electric field and sferics are measured to determine the lightning hazard from the clouds. Measurements are made on launch structures to determine the magnitude of lightning currents and the induced voltages. Photographs are taken to ascertain the location of lightning strikes. Data is analyzed and presented on operations personnel and the Weather Office for assessment of impact on launch critical electromechanical systems and industrial operations.

  10. Line spread instrumentation for propagation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, W. H., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A line spread device capable of yielding direct measure of a laser beam's line spread function (LSF) was developed and employed in propagation tests conducted in a wind tunnel to examine optimal acoustical suppression techniques for laser cavities exposed to simulated aircraft aerodynamic environments. Measurements were made on various aerodynamic fences and cavity air injection techniques that effect the LSF of a propagating laser. Using the quiescent tunnel as a control, the relative effect of each technique on laser beam quality was determined. The optical instrument employed enabled the comparison of relative beam intensity for each fence or mass injection. It was found that fence height had little effect on beam quality but fence porosity had a marked effect, i.e., 58% porosity alleviated cavity resonance and degraded the beam the least. Mass injection had little effect on the beam LSF. The use of a direct LSF measuring device proved to be a viable means of determining aerodynamic seeing qualities of flow fields.

  11. Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 4, Volume IV: Inherent Optical Properties: Instruments, Characterizations, Field Measurements and Data Analysis Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, J. L.; Fargion, G. S.; McClain, C. R. (Editor); Pegau, S.; Zanefeld, J. R. V.; Mitchell, B. G.; Kahru, M.; Wieland, J.; Stramska, M.

    2003-01-01

    This document stipulates protocols for measuring bio-optical and radiometric data for the Sensor Intercomparision and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project activities and algorithm development. The document is organized into 6 separate volumes as Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 4. Volume I: Introduction, Background, and Conventions; Volume II: Instrument Specifications, Characterization and Calibration; Volume III: Radiometric Measurements and Data Analysis Methods; Volume IV: Inherent Optical Properties: Instruments, Characterization, Field Measurements and Data Analysis Protocols; Volume V: Biogeochemical and Bio-Optical Measurements and Data Analysis Methods; Volume VI: Special Topics in Ocean Optics Protocols and Appendices. The earlier version of Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 3 is entirely superseded by the six volumes of Revision 4 listed above.

  12. Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation. Volume 4; Inherent Optical Properties: Instruments, Characterizations, Field Measurements and Data Analysis Protocols; Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, J. L. (Editor); Fargion, Giuletta S. (Editor); McClain, Charles R. (Editor); Pegau, Scott; Zaneveld, J. Ronald V.; Mitchell, B. Gregg; Kahru, Mati; Wieland, John; Stramska, Malgorzat

    2003-01-01

    This document stipulates protocols for measuring bio-optical and radiometric data for the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project activities and algorithm development. The document is organized into 6 separate volumes as Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 4. Volume I: Introduction, Background and Conventions; Volume II: Instrument Specifications, Characterization and Calibration; Volume III: Radiometric Measurements and Data Analysis Methods; Volume IV: Inherent Optical Properties: Instruments, Characterization, Field Measurements and Data Analysis Protocols; Volume V: Biogeochemical and Bio-Optical Measurements and Data Analysis Methods; Volume VI: Special Topics in Ocean Optics Protocols and Appendices. The earlier version of Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 3 (Mueller and Fargion 2002, Volumes 1 and 2) is entirely superseded by the six volumes of Revision 4 listed above.

  13. Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides a brief summary of the utility of a wideband active and passive (radar and radiometer, respectively) instrument (8-40 GHz) to support the snow science community. The effort seeks to improve snow measurements through advanced calibration and expanded frequency of active and passive sensors and to demonstrate their science utility through airborne retrievals of snow water equivalent (SWE). In addition the effort seeks to advance the technology readiness of broadband current sheet array (CSA) antenna technology for spaceflight applications.

  14. A biodynamic microsystem for fluids viscosity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marius Avram, Andrei; Avram, Marioara; Bragaru, Adina; Vasilco, Roxana; Iliescu, Ciprian

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to model, design and fabricate a biodynamic analysis microsystem required for determination of various molecular transport properties of the biological fluids. In order to achieve this, a lab-on-a-chip device was fabricated. The microfluidic system developed satisfies the objectives for the study of microcirculation and characterization of cell rheological properties, functions and behaviour. The measurement principle of the viscosity of biological fluids is based on the detection of the rotation of a polysilicon gear-wheels system. The gear-wheels have external diameters of 250 µm, 200 µm, 160 µm and 3 µm thickness. The micromachining process combines the undercut and refill technique with pin-joint bearing permitting the fabrication of bushings that were used to elevate the rotor away from the silicon surface. The testing of the microfluidic dynamic system was performed using electromagnetic micropumps and magnetic controllers. Each device was fabricated by silicon micromachining technology and tested to obtain the specific characteristics.

  15. The Complex Trauma Questionnaire (ComplexTQ): development and preliminary psychometric properties of an instrument for measuring early relational trauma

    PubMed Central

    Maggiora Vergano, Carola; Lauriola, Marco; Speranza, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the etiology of adult psychopathology and its relationship with childhood trauma has focused primarily on specific forms of maltreatment. This study developed an instrument for the assessment of childhood and adolescence trauma that would aid in identifying the role of co-occurring childhood stressors and chronic adverse conditions. The Complex Trauma Questionnaire (ComplexTQ), in both clinician and self-report versions, is a measure for the assessment of multi-type maltreatment: physical, psychological, and sexual abuse; physical and emotional neglect as well as other traumatic experiences, such rejection, role reversal, witnessing domestic violence, separations, and losses. The four-point Likert scale allows to specifically indicate with which caregiver the traumatic experience has occurred. A total of 229 participants, a sample of 79 nonclinical and that of 150 high-risk and clinical participants, were assessed with the ComplexTQ clinician version applied to Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) transcripts. Initial analyses indicate acceptable inter-rater reliability. A good fit to a 6-factor model regarding the experience with the mother and to a 5-factor model with the experience with the father was obtained; the internal consistency of factors derived was good. Convergent validity was provided with the AAI scales. ComplexTQ factors discriminated normative from high-risk and clinical samples. The findings suggest a promising, reliable, and valid measurement of early relational trauma that is reported; furthermore, it is easy to complete and is useful for both research and clinical practice. PMID:26388820

  16. An instrument for measuring turbulent pressure fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitrakis, Yiannis Alex; Hsu, En Yu; Street, Robert L.

    1986-04-01

    An instrument is described for laboratory measurements of the fluctuating static pressure in the turbulent boundary layer above progressive water waves. It consists of a disk-shaped sensing head properly designed to minimize the dynamic pressure variation to an acceptable level, a commercially available piezocrystal transducer housed inside a casing, and a forward-bent connecting tube. Pressure fluctuations sampled by the disk are converted into an electrical signal by the piezocrystal transducer. Through low-pass filtering, only the frequency range of interest is retained. The instrument was tested successfully for frequency response, dynamic and mechanical noise sensitivity, and response to spurious pressure fluctuations (produced when operating in a Eulerian wave-following mode) inside a cylindrical chamber and in a wind-wave facility, and some sample results along with the calibration procedures and data analysis are presented.

  17. A systematic review of measurement properties of the instruments measuring health-related quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiyeon; Lee, Eun-Hyun; Moon, Seung Hei

    2016-12-01

    The systematic review of patient-reported outcome instruments can allow the selection of the most appropriate instrument for use in research and clinical practice. There has been no systematic review of the measurement properties of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-specific health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) instruments. The purposes of this study were to identify all available instruments for measuring the IBS-specific HRQOL and to determine which is the most appropriate instrument to apply in clinical practice. A systematic review study was conducted. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases were searched. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the COSMIN (COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments) checklist. The measurement property results of each study were assessed using Terwee's quality criteria. Seven instruments were identified: The Irritable Bowel Syndrome-Quality of Life (IBS-QOL) instrument was the only one that had been analyzed in multiple studies, with each of the remaining six instruments only being analyzed in a single psychometric study. The IBS-QOL demonstrated moderate positive evidence for internal consistency and reliability and is the best instrument based on the currently available evidence. Even though the IBS-QOL is currently the best instrument, there is conflicting evidence for its underlying structural validity. The factor structure or dimensionality of the IBS-QOL needs to be elucidated further.

  18. A New Digital Holographic Instrument for Measuring Microphysical Properties of Contrails in the SASS (Subsonic Assessment) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, R. Paul

    2000-01-01

    SPEC incorporated designed, built and operated a new instrument, called a pi-Nephelometer, on the NASA DC-8 for the SUCCESS field project. The pi-Nephelometer casts an image of a particle on a 400,000 pixel solid-state camera by freezing the motion of the particle using a 25 ns pulsed, high-power (60 W) laser diode. Unique optical imaging and particle detection systems precisely detect particles and define the depth-of-field so that at least one particle in the image is almost always in focus. A powerful image processing engine processes frames from the solid-state camera, identifies and records regions of interest (i.e. particle images) in real time. Images of ice crystals are displayed and recorded with 5 micron pixel resolution. In addition, a scattered light system simultaneously measures the scattering phase function of the imaged particle. The system consists of twenty-eight 1-mm optical fibers connected to microlenses bonded on the surface of avalanche photo diodes (APDs). Data collected with the pi-Nephelometer during the SUCCESS field project was reported in a special issue of Geophysical Research Letters. The pi-Nephelometer provided the basis for development of a commercial imaging probe, called the cloud particle imager (CPI), which has been installed on several research aircraft and used in More than a dozen field programs.

  19. Apparatus for measuring fluid flow

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jack E.; Thomas, David G.

    1984-01-01

    Flow measuring apparatus includes a support loop having strain gages mounted thereon and a drag means which is attached to one end of the support loop and which bends the sides of the support loop and induces strains in the strain gages when a flow stream impacts thereon.

  20. Apparatus for measuring fluid flow

    DOEpatents

    Smith, J.E.; Thomas, D.G.

    Flow measuring apparatus includes a support loop having strain gages mounted thereon and a drag means which is attached to one end of the support loop and which bends the sides of the support loop and induces strains in the strain gages when a flow stream impacts thereon.

  1. Interfacial phenomena in hard-rod fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shundyak, K. Y.

    2004-05-01

    the isotropic-nematic (IN) coexistence and may induce (suppress) a demixing of the high-density nematic phase into two nematic phases of different composition (N1 and N2). Studies of their interfaces show an increase of the surface tension with fractionation at the IN interface, and complete wetting of the IN2 interface by the N1 phase upon approach of the triple point coexistence. In all explored cases bulk and interfacial properties of the nonadditive mixtures exhibit a surprising similarity with the properties of additive mixtures of larger diameter ratio. In Chapter VI we consider properties of a monodisperse hard-rod fluid in contact with the single wall (W). Studies of surface properties of a fluid of Onsager hard rods represent significant numerical difficulties, therefore we consider a simpler model fluid of hard rods with a restricted number of allowed orientations. Within this model, known as the Zwanzig model, we explore the thermodynamic properties of a fluid of monodisperse hard rods in contact with a model substrate represented by a hard wall with a short-ranged attractive or repulsive ``tail''. The attraction enhances the orientational ordering near the wall in both isotropic and nematic phases, and shifts the transition from uniaxial (U) to biaxial (B) symmetry in the isotropic surface layer to lower chemical potentials, whereas the wetting properties of the substrate remain similar to those of the pure hard wall. The soft repulsion reduces the density in the surface layer, which leads to the shift (or even suppression) of the UB transition, and strong modification of wetting properties. At the WI interface one always finds the wetting transition at sufficiently large repulsion, whereas a drying transition at the WN interface is observed only for sufficiently long-ranged potentials. In Chapter VII we explore some limitations of models of hard-rod fluids with a finite number of allowed orientations. Within Onsager's second virial theory we construct

  2. Virtual instrumentation for electro–analytical measurements

    PubMed Central

    Economou, A. S.; Volikakis, G. J.; Efstathiou, C. E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with some applications of Virtual Instrumentation to electroanalytical measurements. Virtual Instruments (VIs) are software programmes that simulate the external appearance and functions of a real instrument on the screen of a computer. In this work, programmes have been developed to control the potential of a working electrode (through a suitable potentiostat), acquire the current response, process the acquired current signal, and control a peristaltic pump and injection valve. The sequence of operations was controlled by the VI. The programmes developed have been applied to amperometric and voltammetric measurements in static and flowing solutions. The Vl package that has been used was Lab VIEW 4.0.1 from National Instruments. PMID:18924841

  3. Locating Tests and Measurement Instruments for Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastel, Kristen; Morris-Knower, Jim; Marsalis, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Extension educators, staff, and specialists need to use surveys and other measurement instruments to assess their programming and conduct other research. Challenges in locating tests and measurement tools, however, include lack of time and lack of familiarity with techniques that can be used to find them. This article discusses library resources…

  4. Locating Tests and Measurement Instruments for Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastel, Kristen; Morris-Knower, Jim; Marsalis, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Extension educators, staff, and specialists need to use surveys and other measurement instruments to assess their programming and conduct other research. Challenges in locating tests and measurement tools, however, include lack of time and lack of familiarity with techniques that can be used to find them. This article discusses library resources…

  5. A Simple Instrument for Measuring Surface Forces in Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannon, James; Tromp, Rudolf; Haight, Richard; Ellis, Arthur

    2015-03-01

    We have constructed a simple instrument to measure the interaction force between two surfaces in solution, or in vacuum. Specifically, we measure the interaction between a lens and a thin silicon cantilever. Either the lens, or the cantilever (or both) can be coated with the species of interest. When the lens is brought close to the cantilever surface, the force of interaction causes the cantilever to bend. By measuring the deflection as a function of the distance between the lens and cantilever, the long-range interactions between the two surfaces can be determined. Our approach includes three important innovations. First, a commercial lens with a radius of ~ 1 cm is used for one surface. The relatively large radius of curvature enhances force sensitivity of the method. Second, we use optical interference (Newton's Rings) to determine the distance between lens and cantilever with ~ 1 nm accuracy. Third, we make use of thin crystalline cantilevers (100 μm thick) whose elastic properties can be easily measured. We have achieved a force sensitivity F / R better than 0.001 mN/m. I will discuss the theory of operation of the new instrument and describe measurements made on SiO2 and metal oxide surfaces in water.

  6. SWIFT instrument testbed for stratospheric wind measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Reza; Gault, William A.; Brown, Stephen

    2000-11-01

    The Stratospheric Wind Interferometer for Transport Studies is a limb viewing satellite instrument which is intended to measure stratospheric wind velocities in the altitude range of 20 to 40 km. Tandem etalon filters made of Germanium and a field-widened Michelson interferometer operating in mid- infrared are major components of this instrument. A He-Ne laser and a CCD camera were used to observe Haidinger and Fizeau fringes in visible light and compare their characteristics with mid-infrared measurements. The Fizeau fringes in the visible can be used to observe the irregularities in the Michelson interferometer's path difference. In addition a CO2 laser operating at 9.26 micrometers has been used to test the Michelson interferometer and the filters together. The filters are thermally tuned to the CO2 laser line and the filter output was incident on a diffuse surface in front of the Michelson input aperture. The Michelson interferometer was then pressure scanned to observe its performance in combination with the filters.

  7. Instrument and methods for surface dilatational rheology measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russev, Stoyan C.; Alexandrov, Nikola; Marinova, Krastanka G.; Danov, Krassimir D.; Denkov, Nikolai D.; Lyutov, Lyudmil; Vulchev, Vassil; Bilke-Krause, Christine

    2008-10-01

    We describe an instrument combining the advantages of two methods, axisymmetric drop shape analysis for well-deformed drops and capillary pressure tensiometry for spherical drops, both used for measuring the interfacial tension and interfacial rheological parameters. The rheological parameters are the complex interfacial elasticity, and the surface elasticity and viscosity of Kelvin-Voigt and Maxwell rheological models. The instrument is applicable for investigation of the effect of different types of surfactants (nonionic, ionic, proteins, and polymers) on the interfacial rheological properties both of air/water and oil/water interfaces, and of interfaces between liquids with equal mass densities. A piezodriven system and a specially designed interface unit, implemented in the instrument, ensure precise control for standard periodic waveforms of surface deformation (sine, square, triangle, and sawtooth) at a fixed frequency, or produce surface deformation at constant rate. The interface unit ensures accurate synchronization between the pressure measurement and the surface control, which is used for real-time data processing and feedback control of drop area in some of the applications.

  8. Instrumentation for measuring energy inputs to implements

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, F.D.; Wilhelm, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    A microcomputer-based instrumentation system for monitoring tractor operating parameters and energy inputs to implements was developed and mounted on a 75-power-takeoff-KW tractor. The instrumentation system, including sensors and data handling equipment, is discussed. 10 refs.

  9. Evaluation of the SCA instrument for measuring patient satisfaction with cancer care administered via paper or via the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Kamo, N.; Dandapani, S. V.; Miksad, R. A.; Houlihan, M. J.; Kaplan, I.; Regan, M.; Greenfield, T. K.; Sanda, M. G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Patients’ perspectives provide valuable information on quality of care. This study evaluates the feasibility and validity of Internet administration of Service Satisfaction Scale for Cancer Care (SCA) to assess patient satisfaction with outcome, practitioner manner/skill, information, and waiting/access. Patients and methods: Primary data collected from November 2007 to April 2008. Patients receiving cancer care within 1 year were recruited from oncology, surgery, and radiation clinics at a tertiary care hospital. An Internet-based version of the 16-item SCA was developed. Participants were randomised to Internet SCA followed by paper SCA 2 weeks later or vice versa. Seven-point Likert scale responses were converted to a 0–100 scale (minimum–maximum satisfaction). Response distribution, Cronbach’s alpha, and test–retest correlations were calculated. Results: Among 122 consenting participants, 78 responded to initial SCA. Mean satisfaction scores for paper/Internet were 91/90 (outcome), 95/94 (practitioner manner/skill), 89/90 (information), and 86/86 (waiting/access). Response rate and item missingness were similar for Internet and paper. Except for practitioner manner/skill, test–retest correlations were robust r = 0.77 (outcome), 0.74 (information), and 0.75 (waiting/access) (all P < 0.001). Conclusions: Internet SCA administration is a feasible and a valid measurement of cancer care satisfaction for a wide range of cancer diagnoses, treatment modalities, and clinic settings. PMID:20716625

  10. Isotopic CO2 Instrumentation for UAV Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, A.; Silver, J.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon dioxide is the largest component of anthroprogenic green house gas emissions. Knowing atmospheric 13CO2/12CO2 ratios precisely is important for understanding biogenic and anthroprogenic sources and sinks for carbon. Instrumentation mounted on UAV aircraft would enable important spatial isotopic CO2 information. However, current isotopic CO2 instrumentation have unfavorable attributes for UAV use, such as high power requirements, high cost, high weight, and large size. Here we present the early development of a compact isotopic CO2 instrument that is designed to nullify effects of pressure, temperature and moisture, and will ultimately be suitable for UAV deployment.

  11. Instruments for measuring radiant thermal fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerashenko, O. A.; Sazhina, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    An absolute two-sided radiometer, designed on the principle of replacing absorbed radiant energy with electrical energy, is described. The sensitive element of the detector is a thermoelectric transducer of thermal flux. The fabrication technology, methods of measurement, technical characteristics, and general operation of the instrument are presented.

  12. Method and device for measuring fluid flow

    DOEpatents

    Atherton, Richard; Marinkovich, Phillip S.; Spadaro, Peter R.; Stout, J. Wilson

    1976-11-23

    This invention is a fluid flow measuring device for determining the coolant flow at the entrance to a specific nuclear reactor fuel region. The device comprises a plurality of venturis having the upstream inlet and throat pressure of each respectively manifolded together to provide one static pressure signal for each region monitored. The device provides accurate flow measurement with low pressure losses and uniform entrance and discharge flow distribution.

  13. A passive DOAS instrument for trace gas measurements on medium sized UAS: Instrumental design and first measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horbanski, Martin; Pöhler, Denis; Mahr, Tobias; Wagner, Thomas; Keleshis, Christos; Ioannou, Stelios; Lange, Manfred A.; Lelieveld, Jos; Platt, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are a new powerful tool for observations in the atmospheric boundary layer. Recent developments in measuring technology allow the construction of compact and sensitive active and passive DOAS instruments which can fit the space and weight constraints on UAS. This opens new possibilities for trace gas measurements in the lower troposphere, especially in areas which are not accessible to manned aviation e.g. volcanic plumes or which should be monitored regularly (e.g. industrial emissions of a stack). We present a new developed passive DOAS instrument for the APAESO Platform of the Cyprus Institute, a medium size UAS. It is equipped with two telescopes for observations in downward (nadir) and horizontal (limb) viewing direction, respectively. Thus it allows determining height profiles and the horizontal distribution of trace gases. This is accomplished by analyzing the radiation collected by the telescopes with compact spectrometers, which cover the UV-blue spectral range allowing to measure a broad variety of atmospheric trace gases (e.g. NO2, SO2, BrO, IO, H2O ...) as well as aerosol properties via O4 absorption. Additionally, the nadir direction is equipped with a VIS-NIR spectrometer. It is used to measure reflection spectra of different types of vegetation. These will serve as references for satellite measurements to create global maps. First measurements on the APAESO platform were performed in October 2012 on Cyprus in a rural area south of Nicosia. The instrument is shown to work reliably and was able to detect NO2, H2O and O4 at atmospheric column densities. The instrumental design and first measurements will be presented and discussed.

  14. An Undergraduate Experiment for the Measurement of the Speed of Sound in Air: Phenomena and Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hujiang; Zhao, Xiaohong; Wang, Xin; Xiao, Jinghua

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present and discuss some phenomena in an undergraduate experiment for the measurement of the speed of sound in air. A square wave distorts when connected to a piezoelectric transducer. Moreover, the amplitude of the receiving signal varies with the driving frequency. Comparing with the Gibbs phenomenon, these phenomena can be…

  15. An Undergraduate Experiment for the Measurement of the Speed of Sound in Air: Phenomena and Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hujiang; Zhao, Xiaohong; Wang, Xin; Xiao, Jinghua

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present and discuss some phenomena in an undergraduate experiment for the measurement of the speed of sound in air. A square wave distorts when connected to a piezoelectric transducer. Moreover, the amplitude of the receiving signal varies with the driving frequency. Comparing with the Gibbs phenomenon, these phenomena can be…

  16. Critique of fluid theory of magnetospheric phenomena. [kinetic theory vs two fluid models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heikkila, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of the limitations and shortcomings of the fluid theory of magnetospheric phenomena. Following a brief qualitative review of the various theoretical approaches and of their interrelation, some of the limitations of the fluid theory with respect to magnetospheric problems are outlined, and the subsequent fallacies are exposed. The idea of frozen field convection and the concept of field line annihilation or merging are criticized. In conclusion, a plea is made for a more balanced approach to magnetospheric problems.

  17. A systematic review finds limited data on measurement properties of instruments measuring outcomes in adult intensive care unit survivors.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Karen A; Davis, Wesley E; Dinglas, Victor D; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A; Rabiee, Anahita; Sukrithan, Vineeth; Yalamanchilli, Ramakrishna; Turnbull, Alison E; Needham, Dale M

    2017-02-01

    There is a growing number of studies evaluating the physical, cognitive, mental health, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes of adults surviving critical illness. However, there is little consensus on the most appropriate instruments to measure these outcomes. To inform the development of such consensus, we conducted a systematic review of the performance characteristics of instruments measuring physical, cognitive, mental health, and HRQOL outcomes in adult intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. We searched PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and The Cochrane Library in March 2015. We also conducted manual searches of reference lists of eligible studies and relevant review articles. Two people independently selected studies, completed data abstraction, and assessed the quality of eligible studies using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) initiative checklist. We identified 20 studies which explicitly evaluated measurement properties for 21 different instruments assessing outcomes in ICU survivors. Eleven of the instruments assessed quality of life, with few instruments assessing other domains. Of the nine measurement properties evaluated on the COSMIN checklist, six were assessed in <10% of the evaluations. Overall quality of eligible studies was generally poor to fair based on the COSMIN checklist. Although an increasing number of studies measure physical, cognitive, mental health, and HRQOL outcomes in adult ICU survivors, data on the measurement properties of such instruments are sparse and generally of poor to fair quality. Empirical analyses evaluating the performance of instruments in adult ICU survivors are needed to advance research in this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Small mass measurement instrument for measuring weight under weightless conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solberg, R. F., Jr.

    1984-05-01

    A small mass measurement instrument (SMMI), developed for NASA experiments conducted in the near zero environment is described. The SMMI is based on the principle of an oscillating spring-mass system, for which a period of oscillation is a function of the system's mass. It has the capacity of weighing specimens in the weight range of below 1 g to over 10,000 g, with an accuracy of 0.05 percent. The instrument has a keyboard, liquid crystal display, and microprocessor, which provide capabilities for entering and deleting data, display of messages, prompts, and specimen weight values, memory, and self-calibration features. The SMMI is scheduled for use beginning with Spacelab 4. Included in the description are the SMMI block diagram, detailed descriptions of the principles involved in the construction of the assemblies of the instrument, and photographs of its various parts.

  19. Microthermal Instrument for Measuring Surface Layer Seeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xue-Bao; Zheng, Yan-Fang; Deng, Lin Hua; Xu, Guang

    2012-02-01

    Microthermal fluctuations are introduced by atmospheric turbulence very near the ground. In order to detect microthermal fluctuations at Fuxian Solar Observatory (FSO), a microthermal instrument has been developed. The microthermal instrument consists of a microthermal sensor, which is based on a Wheatstone bridge circuit and uses fine tungsten filaments as resistance temperature detectors, an associated signal processing unit, and a data collection, & communication subsystem. In this paper, after a brief introduction to surface layer seeing, we discuss the instrumentation behind the microthermal detector we have developed and then present the results obtained. The results of the evaluation indicate that the effect of the turbulent surface boundary layer to astronomical seeing would become sufficiently small when installing a telescope at a height of 16m or higher from the ground at FSO.

  20. Instrument transfer as knowledge transfer in neurophysiology: François Magendie's (1783-1855) early attempts to measure cerebrospinal fluid pressure.

    PubMed

    Stahnisch, Frank W

    2008-01-01

    François Magendie's (1783-1855) experimental model for measuring blood pressure in animals, which he developed in 1838, had a major impact on French physiology in the nineteenth century, especially upon Etienne-Jules Marey (1830-1904) in Paris. In due course it was also adopted by other European investigators, such as the Leipzig physiologist Carl Ludwig (1816-1895), and by clinicians who developed it into a major measuring tool. Historians of science, however, have paid hardly any attention to Magendie's further laboratory investigations conducted with the assistance of Jean-Louis Marie Poiseuille's (1799-1869) sphygmomètre (blood pressure meter). After having used the apparatus to conduct his experiments on a variety of blood vessels, Magendie also applied the sphygmomètre in 1840 to the ventricular system of the brain in order to measure cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. But the scope of this new procedure had yet to be defined: the new measuring device invited many speculative interpretations about the meaning of CSF flow for the physiology of the ventricular system in healthy and diseased brain function. As such, Magendie's experiments produced phenomena in very heterogeneous knowledge areas, and CSF measurement was situated at the interface of quite disparate investigative spaces regarding the structure and function of the brain. In his textbook Leçons sur les Fonctions et les Maladies du Système Nerveux (Lectures on the Functions and Diseases of the Nervous System), Magendie described extending application of the measuring "apparatus of Poiseuille" from blood vessels to parts of the brain. The instrument thus became something of a liquidodynamomètre (liquor dynamometer), that paved the way for later applications, including (after 1896) diagnostic intracranial pressure (ICP) measurement by Theodor Kocher (1841-1917) and Harvey Cushing (1869-1939). The current paper focuses on the experimental contingencies that prompted the instrument transfer in

  1. Oscillatory motion based measurement method and sensor for measuring wall shear stress due to fluid flow

    DOEpatents

    Armstrong, William D [Laramie, WY; Naughton, Jonathan [Laramie, WY; Lindberg, William R [Laramie, WY

    2008-09-02

    A shear stress sensor for measuring fluid wall shear stress on a test surface is provided. The wall shear stress sensor is comprised of an active sensing surface and a sensor body. An elastic mechanism mounted between the active sensing surface and the sensor body allows movement between the active sensing surface and the sensor body. A driving mechanism forces the shear stress sensor to oscillate. A measuring mechanism measures displacement of the active sensing surface relative to the sensor body. The sensor may be operated under periodic excitation where changes in the nature of the fluid properties or the fluid flow over the sensor measurably changes the amplitude or phase of the motion of the active sensing surface, or changes the force and power required from a control system in order to maintain constant motion. The device may be operated under non-periodic excitation where changes in the nature of the fluid properties or the fluid flow over the sensor change the transient motion of the active sensor surface or change the force and power required from a control system to maintain a specified transient motion of the active sensor surface.

  2. 77 FR 37409 - Request for Domains, Instruments, and Measures for Development of a Standardized Instrument for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Request for Domains, Instruments, and Measures for Development of a Standardized... domains, instruments, and measures is occurring now because of the multi-phased survey development and... consistency, test-retest, etc) and validity (content, construct, criterion-related). Results of...

  3. Laboratory Measurements of Fluid Transport Properties on Tight Gas Sandstones and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Daniel; Reitenbach, Viktor

    2014-05-01

    Deep gas reservoirs are of great interest for the E&P industry. Large areas of such reservoirs have permeabilities below 1 mD. The reservoir rocks in these areas show a strong stress sensitivity of the fluid transport properties and a considerable productivity decline due to changing stress conditions during the production process. For correct modeling and simulation of Tight Gas reservoirs it is important to know the behavior of the fluid transport properties under the changing stress condition the reservoir experiences. In several measurement series the effects of changing overburden and pore pressure on Rotliegend sandstone samples from north German Tight Gas reservoirs have been quantified and used to set up correlation functions. With the correlation functions from the own measurements and additional data and correlations from literature a Rock Data Catalog has been developed as tool to help reservoir engineers with modeling and simulation of such reservoirs. The Rock Data Catalog consists of the Rock Database and the Correlation Module. The Rock Database contains general and petrophysical rock data. The Correlation Module uses this data to generate secondary data of e.g. in-situ capillary and hydraulic rock properties with appropriate correlation functions. Viability of the economic gas production from Tight Gas Reservoirs strongly depends on reservoir quality. Therefore identification of high quality reservoir parts or so called Sweet Spots for placing production wells and planning hydraulic fracturing stimulation, is one of key issues of the tight gas reservoir characterization and evaluation. The data and correlation functions collected in the Rock Data Catalog could also be used to identify Sweet Spots in Tight Gas reservoirs. Several rock parameters and properties, which affect the fluid flow in a reservoir (like lithology, clay content, water saturation, permeability, pore size distribution) can be identified and used to set up a Sweet Spot Index as a

  4. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    of constant cross sectional area, and to facilitate fluid filling and draining operations in microgravity. The fluid cells may be used singly for bulk solutions, or in a Stokes diaphragm configuration to investigate membrane mediated phenomena. Thermal and electrical driving potentials are applied to the experiment fluids through boundary plates located at the ends of the fluid cells. In the ground based instrument, two constant temperature baths circulate through reservoirs adjacent to the boundary plates, and establish the thermal environment within the fluid cells. The boundary plates also serve as electrodes for measurement and application of electrical potentials. The Fluid Manipulation System associated with the MTA is a computer controlled system that enables storage and transfer of experiment fluids during on orbit operations. The system is used to automatically initiate experiments and manipulate fluids by orchestrating pump and valve operations through scripted sequences. Unique technologies are incorporated in the MTA for measurement of fluid properties. Volumetric Flow Sensors have been developed for precision measurement of total fluid volume contained within the fluid cells over time. This data is most useful for measuring the kinetics of osmosis, where fluid is transported from one fluid cell to another through a semipermeable membrane. The MicroSensor Array has been designed to perform in situ measurement of several important fluid parameters, providing simultaneous measurement of solution composition at multiple locations within the experiment fluids. Micromachined sensors and interface electronics have been developed to measure temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, cation activity, and anion activity. The Profile Refractometer uses a laser optical system to directly image the fluid Index of Refraction profile that exists along the MTA fluid cell axis. A video system acquires images of the RI profile over time, and records the transport kinetics

  5. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    of constant cross sectional area, and to facilitate fluid filling and draining operations in microgravity. The fluid cells may be used singly for bulk solutions, or in a Stokes diaphragm configuration to investigate membrane mediated phenomena. Thermal and electrical driving potentials are applied to the experiment fluids through boundary plates located at the ends of the fluid cells. In the ground based instrument, two constant temperature baths circulate through reservoirs adjacent to the boundary plates, and establish the thermal environment within the fluid cells. The boundary plates also serve as electrodes for measurement and application of electrical potentials. The Fluid Manipulation System associated with the MTA is a computer controlled system that enables storage and transfer of experiment fluids during on orbit operations. The system is used to automatically initiate experiments and manipulate fluids by orchestrating pump and valve operations through scripted sequences. Unique technologies are incorporated in the MTA for measurement of fluid properties. Volumetric Flow Sensors have been developed for precision measurement of total fluid volume contained within the fluid cells over time. This data is most useful for measuring the kinetics of osmosis, where fluid is transported from one fluid cell to another through a semipermeable membrane. The MicroSensor Array has been designed to perform in situ measurement of several important fluid parameters, providing simultaneous measurement of solution composition at multiple locations within the experiment fluids. Micromachined sensors and interface electronics have been developed to measure temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, cation activity, and anion activity. The Profile Refractometer uses a laser optical system to directly image the fluid Index of Refraction profile that exists along the MTA fluid cell axis. A video system acquires images of the RI profile over time, and records the transport kinetics

  6. Properties of material in the submillimeter wave region (instrumentation and measurement of index of refraction)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lally, J.; Meister, R.

    1983-01-01

    The Properties of Materials in the Submillimeter Wave Region study was initiated to instrument a system and to make measurements of the complex index of refraction in the wavelength region between 0.1 to 1.0 millimeters. While refractive index data is available for a number of solids and liquids there still exists a need for an additional systematic study of dielectric properties to add to the existing data, to consider the accuracy of the existing data, and to extend measurements in this wavelength region for other selected mateials. The materials chosen for consideration would be those with useful thermal, mechanical, and electrical characteristics. The data is necessary for development of optical components which, for example, include beamsplitters, attenuators, lenses, grids, all useful for development of instrumentation in this relatively unexploited portion of the spectrum.

  7. Communication: Fundamental measure theory for hard disks: fluid and solid.

    PubMed

    Roth, Roland; Mecke, Klaus; Oettel, Martin

    2012-02-28

    Two-dimensional hard-particle systems are rather easy to simulate but surprisingly difficult to treat by theory. Despite their importance from both theoretical and experimental points of view, theoretical approaches are usually qualitative or at best semi-quantitative. Here, we present a density functional theory based on the ideas of fundamental measure theory for two-dimensional hard-disk mixtures, which allows for the first time an accurate description of the structure of the dense fluid and the equation of state for the solid phase within the framework of density functional theory. The properties of the solid phase are obtained by freely minimizing the functional.

  8. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation--An Introduction to Supercritical Fluid Chromatography: Part 1: Principles and Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmieri, Margo D.

    1988-01-01

    Identifies the properties and characteristics of supercritical fluids. Discusses the methodology for supercritical fluid chromatography including flow rate, plate height, column efficiency, viscosity, and other factors. Reviews instruments, column types, and elution conditions. Lists supercritical fluid data for 22 compounds, mostly organic. (MVL)

  9. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation--An Introduction to Supercritical Fluid Chromatography: Part 1: Principles and Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmieri, Margo D.

    1988-01-01

    Identifies the properties and characteristics of supercritical fluids. Discusses the methodology for supercritical fluid chromatography including flow rate, plate height, column efficiency, viscosity, and other factors. Reviews instruments, column types, and elution conditions. Lists supercritical fluid data for 22 compounds, mostly organic. (MVL)

  10. Comparison of two series of non-invasive instruments used for the skin physiological properties measurements: the DermaLab(®) from Cortex Technology vs. the series of detectors from Courage & Khazaka.

    PubMed

    Hua, W; Fan, L-M; Dai, R; Luan, M; Xie, H; Li, A-Q; Li, L

    2017-02-01

    The detectors from Courage & Khazaka and DermaLab(®) from Cortex Technology were two series of the most commonly used non-invasive instruments for the skin physiological properties measurements. The aim of this study is to reveal the differences and correlations in measuring skin color, hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), sebum and elasticity on the forearm or faces between two commercially available series of instruments. 30 subjects were enrolled to be measured by the two series of instruments. The measurements by each series were performed on the left/right side of the body randomly. The hydration, sebum, elasticity and TEWL measurements were performed on different sites. Positive correlations were found in the values of skin color, hydration, TEWL, sebum and visco-elasticity detected by the two series. The values related to skin firmness measured by the two instruments were statistically negative correlated. Contrary to the results in measuring the skin color, the detectors from Courage & Khazaka presented lower values of variation in measuring skin hydration and TEWL than those from DermaLab(®) . The two series have significant correlations.The differences of the two series can be due either to differences in the design of the probe or left/right part of the body. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Measurement of interstage fluid-annulus dynamical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, M. L.; Makay, E.; Diaz-Tous, I. A.

    1982-01-01

    The work described in this paper is part of an Electric Power Research Institute sponsored effort to improve rotor vibrational performance on power plant feed water pumps. A major objective of this effort is to reduce vibration levels by devising inter-stage sealing configurations with optimized damping capacity, realizing that the typical multi-stage centrifugal pump has several ore inter-stage fluid annuli than it has journal bearings. Also, the fluid annuli are distributed between the journal bearings where vibration levels are highest and can therefore be 'exercised' more as dampers than can the bearings. Described in this paper is a test apparatus which has been built to experimentally determine fluid-annulus dynamical coefficients for various configurations of inter-stage sealing geometry.

  12. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) and how to select an outcome measurement instrument.

    PubMed

    Mokkink, Lidwine B; Prinsen, Cecilia A C; Bouter, Lex M; Vet, Henrica C W de; Terwee, Caroline B

    2016-01-19

    COSMIN (COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments) is an initiative of an international multidisciplinary team of researchers who aim to improve the selection of outcome measurement instruments both in research and in clinical practice by developing tools for selecting the most appropriate available instrument. In this paper these tools are described, i.e. the COSMIN taxonomy and definition of measurement properties; the COSMIN checklist to evaluate the methodological quality of studies on measurement properties; a search filter for finding studies on measurement properties; a protocol for systematic reviews of outcome measurement instruments; a database of systematic reviews of outcome measurement instruments; and a guideline for selecting outcome measurement instruments for Core Outcome Sets in clinical trials. Currently, we are updating the COSMIN checklist, particularly the standards for content validity studies. Also new standards for studies using Item Response Theory methods will be developed. Additionally, in the future we want to develop standards for studies on the quality of non-patient reported outcome measures, such as clinician-reported outcomes and performance-based outcomes. In summary, we plea for more standardization in the use of outcome measurement instruments, for conducting high quality systematic reviews on measurement instruments in which the best available outcome measurement instrument is recommended, and for stopping the use of poor outcome measurement instruments.

  13. A review of instruments measuring two aspects of meaning: search for meaning and meaning in illness.

    PubMed

    Fjelland, Joyce E; Barron, Cecilia R; Foxall, Martha

    2008-05-01

    This paper is a report of narrative review of psychosocial instruments measuring two aspects of meaning: the search for meaning and meaning in illness. Studies have shown that meaning has significance for well-being, particularly for those experiencing illness/negative events. Understanding a person's ascription of meaning to a stressful event can facilitate planning of supportive nursing interventions. A literature search was conducted using Medline, PsycInfo, PsycArticles, CINAHL, ProQuest, Ebsco and MasterFile Premier for the period 1956-2006. The search terms were: meaning instruments, search for meaning, meaning in illness, significance of meaning and positive meaning. Only studies that employed measurement of one of these two aspects of meaning were included. Twelve instruments were retrieved from the search. Five were measures of search for meaning and seven were measures of meaning in illness. With a few exceptions these instruments were conceptually and operationally congruent and had acceptable psychometric properties. Limiting factors were the infrequent use of some of the instruments clinically or in research, and lack of evidence that cultural or age-specific factors had been considered in the development of the instruments. Progress with research into meaning and clinical use of meaning instruments may be augmented by refinement of instruments in the areas of conceptual clarity, operational congruence, psychometric properties and cultural and age-specific considerations. Good quantitative assessment will facilitate analysis of the relationship between ascriptions of meaning and psychosocial functioning, and lead to improved nursing interventions.

  14. Five instruments for measuring tree height: an evaluation

    Treesearch

    Michael S. Williams; William A. Bechtold; V.J. LaBau

    1994-01-01

    Five instruments were tested for reliability in measuring tree heights under realistic conditions. Four linear models were used to determine if tree height can be measured unbiasedly over all tree sizes and if any of the instruments were more efficient in estimating tree height. The laser height finder was the only instrument to produce unbiased estimates of the true...

  15. Numerical Simulation of Low Mach Number Fluid - Phenomena.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitsma, Scott H.

    wavelengths. Required steady solution accuracy, convergence acceleration techniques, boundary condition/flow field interactions and the challenges of scale resolution are addressed. The computed results are in agreement with linear stability theory and experimental measurements. The overall conclusion is that this methodology, once optimized, represents a potentially valuable tool for studying the physics of fluid-acoustic phenomena including edgetone feedback, cavity resonance, transition phenomena and eventually turbulent flow noise generation.

  16. Instrument for Measuring Temperature of Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Nixon, Thomas; Pagnutti, Mary; Zanoni, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    A pseudo-Brewster angle infrared radiometer has been proposed for use in noncontact measurement of the surface temperature of a large body of water (e.g., a lake or ocean). This radiometer could be situated on a waterborne, airborne, or spaceborne platform. The design of the pseudo-Brewster angle radiometer would exploit the spectral emissivity and polarization characteristics of water to minimize errors attributable to the emissivity of water and to the reflection of downwelling (e.g., Solar and cloud-reflected) infrared radiation.

  17. Optical properties of human amniotic fluid: implications for videofetoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Steigman, Shaun A; Kunisaki, Shaun M; Wilkins-Haug, Louise; Takoudes, Tamara C; Fauza, Dario O

    2010-01-01

    Videofetoscopy typically demands the substitution of oft-turbid amniotic fluid with clear crystalloid. This maneuver can be cumbersome and may lead to complications. We sought to determine the optical properties of the amniotic fluid, as a pre-requisite for optimizing video image processing during videofetoscopy and eventually avoid amniotic fluid replacement. Human amniotic fluid samples (n = 21) were procured at 19-36 weeks of gestation. Optical refraction and reflection indices were recorded as percentages of light transmission through the fluid using an integrated spectrometer covering wavelengths of 400-950 nm, with 1.0 nm resolution. Statistical analysis was by one-way ANOVA (p < 0.05). Peak optical refraction fell within a relatively limited window of the near-infrared spectrum, at 848.1 +/- 52.3 nm, regardless of gestational age or overall light absorbance. Within the visible spectrum, transmission was highest at the highest wavelengths. A statistically significant inverse relationship existed between gestational age and overall light transmission. Light reflection was negligible in all samples. Light transmission through amniotic fluid is optimal in the near-infrared spectrum and at the highest visible wavelengths, regardless of gestational age. Overall light transmission through amniotic fluid decreases throughout gestation. The light source and camera of videofetoscopy systems should be designed accordingly, possibly obviating the need for routine intraoperative amniotic fluid exchange. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Does "Instrumentation" Like Miami's Tequesta Site Generate Environmentally Significant Information About Weather or Different Phenomena, Including Regional and Other Warming Trends?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, Michael Ann; Mc Leod, Roger D.; Mc Leod, David M.

    2002-10-01

    We detect certain blue light and other phenomena near Miami's Tequesta site during inclement weather. When the Hopi or Mi'Kmaw seem to be involved in "rainmaking" or "weather-influencing" activities, far larger implications exist. Culturally available information equivalent to that from our technological gadgetry has to accumulate data for dependable modeling of natural phenomena. The result would be a set of specialized observations and their tabulations comparable to the Mayan codicils. Also, a sufficiently broad worldview is needed so that the Hopi, for example, could correctly articulate a legend equivalent to knowledge of north and south magnetic poles. Global views implied are sufficient to indicate awareness of large-scale implications of culturally held, and secret, data. An observant society detecting correlations with weather anomalies, as at Miami's Tequesta site, might predict regional drought. *This paper does not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. E.P.A.

  19. Wave Phenomena on the Interface Separating Fluids of Different Viscosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, John Michael

    Wave phenomena on the interface separating fluids of different viscosities have been examined via analytical techniques. The stability of a viscous stream flowing relative to an inviscid stream has also been studied and the stability boundary delineated. An important contribution of this work has been the obtaining of exact solutions of two important and separate classes of linearized interfacial motion. The first class involves the interface separating two viscous, non-flowing, incompressible fluids. In this case, the Navier-Stokes equations are linearized and the exact solutions for the velocities, pressures and interface displacement for a disturbance of a given wavelength are presented in detail. The equation for the wave propagation speed and damping rate is found and evaluated. It is emphasized that viscosity is fully accounted for in both fluids and that a single solution, valid for any viscosity on either side of the interface, is found. This solution contains the classical inviscid treatment (Laplaces equation for the velocity potentials) as a well behaved limit. For sufficiently high levels of viscosity, the solution predicts overdamped waves--initial disturbances which decay exponentially in time with no propagation. Such waves can be readily observed on the surface of highly viscous fluids such as syrup or honey. The second class of fluid motion studied in this dissertation involves the interface separating a flowing viscous fluid from a flowing inviscid fluid--a previously unaddressed area of theoretical fluid mechanics. The exact solution for the linear stability threshold of this interface is presented. The solution contains the classical Kelvin -Helmholtz inviscid treatment as a well behaved limit. Conditions are determined under which the solution is a valid zero order approximation for interfaces separating real fluids of widely different viscosities. The analysis is extended to the case of a viscous fluid flowing relative to an inviscid

  20. Instrumentation for the Future Lunar Missions: Multicomponent Electromagnetic Measurements at Long Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmasova, Ivana; Santolik, Ondrej; Belyayev, Serhiy; Uhlir, Ludek; Skalsky, Alexander; Pronenko, Vira; Lan, Radek

    The LEMRA-L instrument (Long-wavelength Electro-Magnetic Radiation Analyzer) will be implemented on the LUNA-GLOB spacecraft. It will analyze the data of the three-axial flux gate (DC - 10Hz) and searchcoil (1Hz - 10kHz) magnetometers LEMI. It will measure intensity, polarization, and coherence properties of waves in plasmas of the solar wind, in the lunar wake and its boundaries, and study the magnetic anomalies. We will use new modern robust onboard analysis methods to estimate the wave coherence, sense of polarization, ellipticity, and wave-vector direction, and thus substantially compress the transmitted data volumes, while conserving the important scientific information. In the burst mode data set intended for studying nonlinear phenomena, we will conserve the continuous flux-gate magnetometer data and discrete snapshots of three axial waveform measurements. In the survey-mode data set, continuous flux-gate magnetometer data will be transmitted together with onboard analyzed and averaged spectral matrices from the higher-frequency wave measurements or with onboard calculated propagation and polarization parameters.

  1. Rheological Properties and Transfer Phenomena of Nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kang-min; Kim, Sung Hyun

    2008-07-01

    This study focused on the synthesis of stable nanofluids and investigation of their rhelogical properties and transfer phenomena. Nanofluids of diamond/ethylene glycol, alumina/transformer oil and silica/water were made to use in this study. Rheological properties of diamond nanofluids were determined at constant temperature (25 °C) using a viscometer. For the convective heat transfer experiment, alumina nanofluid passed through the plate heat exchanger. CO2 absorption experiment was conducted in a bubble type absorber containing silica nanofluid. Diamond nanofluid showed non-Newtonian behaviors under a steady-shear flow except the case of very low concentration of solid nanoparticles. The heat transfer coefficient of alumina nanofluid was higher than that of base fluid. One possible reason is that concentration of nanoparticles at the wall side is higher than that of microparticles. Silica nanofluid showed that both average CO2 absorption rate and total absorption amount enhanced than those of base fluid. The stably suspended nanoparticles create a mesh-like structure. That structure arrangement cracks the gas bubble and increases the surface area.

  2. Bioelectric impedance measurement for fluid status assessment.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Adequacy of body fluid volume improves short- and long-term outcomes inpatients with heart and kidney disorders. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) has the potential to be used as a routine method at the bedside for assessment and management of body fluids. Impedance (Z vector) is a combination of resistance, R (function of intra- and extracellular fluid volume) and reactance, Xc (function of the dielectric material of tissue cells), with the best signal to noise ratio at 50 kHz. BIVA allows a direct assessment of body fluid volume through patterns of vector distribution on the R-Xc plane without the knowledge of the body weight. Reference tolerance ellipses (50, 75 and 95%) for the individual vector were previously calculated in the healthy population. We determined the optimal vector distribution in patients undergoing hemodialysis without hypotension or intradialytic symptoms. Most vectors lay within the reference 75% tolerance ellipse of the healthy population indicating full electrical restoration of tissues. We also determined the optimal vector distribution of patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis without edema and with a residual urine output. The vector distribution was close to the distribution of both healthy subjects and pre-session distribution of hemodialysis patients. We established the relationship between central venous pressure and BIVA in critically ill patients. Shorter vectors (overhydration) were associated with increasing venous pressure, whereas longer vectors were associated with decreasing venous pressure. The association between BIVA and NT-proBNP has been evaluated in patients with acute cardiac-related dyspnea. In the 'gray zone' of NT-proBNP values between 'ruling out' and 'ruling in' acute heart failure, BIVA detected latent peripheral congestion. Simple patterns of BIVA allow detection, monitoring, and control of hydration status using vector displacement for the feedback on treatment. Copyright (c

  3. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  4. Instrument for Measuring Temperature of Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Nixon, Thomas; Pagnutti, Mary; Zanoni, Vicki

    2003-01-01

    A pseudo-Brewster-angle infrared radiometer has been proposed for use in noncontact measurement of the surface temperature of a large body of water (e.g., a lake or ocean). This radiometer could be situated on a waterborne, airborne, or spaceborne platform. The design of the pseudo-Brewster-angle radiometer would exploit the spectral-emissivity and polarization characteristics of water to minimize errors attributable to the emissivity of water and to the reflection of downwelling (e.g., Solar and cloud-reflected) infrared radiation. The relevant emissivity and polarization characteristics are the following: . The Brewster angle is the angle at which light polarized parallel to the plane of incidence on a purely dielectric material is not reflected. The pseudo-Brewster angle, defined for a lossy dielectric (somewhat electrically conductive) material, is the angle for which the reflectivity for parallel-polarized light is minimized. For pure water, the reflectivity for parallel-polarized light is only 2.2 x 10(exp -4) at its pseudo- Brewster angle of 51deg. The reflectivity remains near zero, several degrees off from the 51deg optimum, allowing this angle of incidence requirement to be easily achieved. . The wavelength range of interest for measuring water temperatures is 8 to 12 microns. The emissivity of water for parallel- polarized light at the pseudo-Brewster angle is greater than 0.999 in this wavelength range. The radiometer would be sensitive in the wavelength range of 8 to 12 microns, would be equipped with a polarizer to discriminate against infrared light polarized perpendicular to the plane of incidence, and would be aimed toward a body of water at the pseudo- Brewster angle (see figure). Because the infrared radiation entering the radiometer would be polarized parallel to the plane of incidence and because very little downwelling parallel-polarized radiation would be reflected into the radiometer on account of the pseudo-Brewster arrangement, the

  5. Particle-fluid interactions for flow measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, N. S.

    1973-01-01

    Study has been made of the motion of single particle and of group of particles, emphasizing solid particles in gaseous fluid. Velocities of fluid and particle are compared for several conditions of physical interest. Mean velocity and velocity fluctuations are calculated for single particle, and some consideration is given to multiparticle systems.

  6. Measurement techniques for local and global fluid dynamic quantities in two and three phase systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.; Dudukovic, M.P.; Toseland, B.A.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a critical review of the methods available for assessing the fluid dynamic parameters in large industrial two and three phase bubble column and slurry bubble column reactors operated at high pressure and temperature. The physical principles behind various methods are explained, and the basic design of the instrumentation needed to implement each measurement principle is discussed. Fluid dynamic properties of interest are: gas, liquid and solids holdup and their axial and radial distribution as well as the velocity distribution of the two (bubble column) or three phases (slurry bubble column). This information on operating pilot plant and plant reactors is essential to verify the computational fluid dynamic codes as well as scale-up rules used in reactor design. Without such information extensive and costly scale-up to large reactors that exploit syngas chemistries, and other reactors in production of fuels and chemicals, cannot be avoided. In this report, available measurement techniques for evaluation of global and local phase holdups, instantaneous and average phase velocities and for the determination of bubble sizes in gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid systems are reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of various techniques are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on identifying methods that can be employed on large scale, thick wall, high pressure and high temperature reactors used in the manufacture of fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas and its derivatives.

  7. Broadband spectral measurements of diffuse optical properties by an integrating sphere instrument at the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaillet, Paul; Hwang, Jeeseong; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Grosenick, Dirk; Yang, Lin; Allen, David W.

    2017-03-01

    Diffuse materials that approximate the optical properties of human tissue are commonly used as phantoms. In order to use the phantoms in a manner that provides consistent results relative to independent measurements, the optical properties need to be tied to a physics based scale. Such a scale is needed for volume scattering of diffuse materials and this is currently being addressed by the development of a sphere based optical scattering reference instrument at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Previous work towards that goal was constrained to the use of several laser lines at discrete wavelengths. Current work has expanded the spectral range for contiguous coverage. Here we report measurement results of the optical properties of solid phantoms, using two different base materials, acquired using NISTs diffuse optical properties reference instrument with visible or near infrared broadband illumination. The measurements of diffuse hemispherical reflectance and transmittance are analyzed using a custom inversion algorithm of the adding-doubling routine, and the expanded uncertainties on the results are provided. The broadband diffuse optical properties measured with the improved system agree to within the estimated uncertainty of the discrete measurements from two other institutes using alternative methods. This work expands the capabilities of the facility and can provide services for a wider range of applications.

  8. Protocol of the COSMIN study: COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments

    PubMed Central

    Mokkink, LB; Terwee, CB; Knol, DL; Stratford, PW; Alonso, J; Patrick, DL; Bouter, LM; de Vet, HCW

    2006-01-01

    Background Choosing an adequate measurement instrument depends on the proposed use of the instrument, the concept to be measured, the measurement properties (e.g. internal consistency, reproducibility, content and construct validity, responsiveness, and interpretability), the requirements, the burden for subjects, and costs of the available instruments. As far as measurement properties are concerned, there are no sufficiently specific standards for the evaluation of measurement properties of instruments to measure health status, and also no explicit criteria for what constitutes good measurement properties. In this paper we describe the protocol for the COSMIN study, the objective of which is to develop a checklist that contains COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments, including explicit criteria for satisfying these standards. We will focus on evaluative health related patient-reported outcomes (HR-PROs), i.e. patient-reported health measurement instruments used in a longitudinal design as an outcome measure, excluding health care related PROs, such as satisfaction with care or adherence. The COSMIN standards will be made available in the form of an easily applicable checklist. Method An international Delphi study will be performed to reach consensus on which and how measurement properties should be assessed, and on criteria for good measurement properties. Two sources of input will be used for the Delphi study: (1) a systematic review of properties, standards and criteria of measurement properties found in systematic reviews of measurement instruments, and (2) an additional literature search of methodological articles presenting a comprehensive checklist of standards and criteria. The Delphi study will consist of four (written) Delphi rounds, with approximately 30 expert panel members with different backgrounds in clinical medicine, biostatistics, psychology, and epidemiology. The final checklist will subsequently be field

  9. Towards a measurement instrument for determinants of innovations

    PubMed Central

    Fleuren, Margot A.H.; Paulussen, Theo G.W.M.; Van Dommelen, Paula; Van Buuren, Stef

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop a short instrument to measure determinants of innovations that may affect its implementation. Design We pooled the original data from eight empirical studies of the implementation of evidence-based innovations. The studies used a list of 60 potentially relevant determinants based on a systematic review of empirical studies and a Delphi study among implementation experts. Each study used similar methods to measure both the implementation of the innovation and determinants. Missing values in the final data set were replaced by plausible values using multiple imputation. We assessed which determinants predicted completeness of use of the innovation (% of recommendations applied). In addition, 22 implementation experts were consulted about the results and about implications for designing a short instrument. Setting Eight innovations introduced in Preventive Child Health Care or schools in the Netherlands. Participants Doctors, nurses, doctor's assistants and teachers; 1977 respondents in total. Results The initial list of 60 determinants could be reduced to 29. Twenty-one determinants were based on the pooled analysis of the eight studies, seven on the theoretical expectations of the experts consulted and one new determinant was added on the basis of the experts' practical experience. Conclusions The instrument is promising and should be further validated. We invite researchers to use and explore the instrument in multiple settings. The instrument describes how each determinant should preferably be measured (questions and response scales). It can be used both before and after the introduction of an innovation to gain an understanding of the critical change objectives. PMID:24951511

  10. Searching for Electrical Properties, Phenomena and Mechanisms in the Construction and Function of Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Kanev, Ivan; Mei, Wai-Ning; Mizuno, Akira; DeHaai, Kristi; Sanmann, Jennifer; Hess, Michelle; Starr, Lois; Grove, Jennifer; Dave, Bhavana; Sanger, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Our studies reveal previously unidentified electrical properties of chromosomes: (1) chromosomes are amazingly similar in construction and function to electrical transformers; (2) chromosomes possess in their construction and function, components similar to those of electric generators, conductors, condensers, switches, and other components of electrical circuits; (3) chromosomes demonstrate in nano-scale level electromagnetic interactions, resonance, fusion and other phenomena similar to those described by equations in classical physics. These electrical properties and phenomena provide a possible explanation for unclear and poorly understood mechanisms in clinical genetics including: (a) electrically based mechanisms responsible for breaks, translocations, fusions, and other chromosomal abnormalities associated with cancer, intellectual disability, infertility, pregnancy loss, Down syndrome, and other genetic disorders; (b) electrically based mechanisms involved in crossing over, non-disjunction and other events during meiosis and mitosis; (c) mechanisms demonstrating heterochromatin to be electrically active and genetically important. PMID:24688715

  11. An Electronic Measurement Instrumentation of the Impedance of a Loaded Fuel Cell or Battery

    PubMed Central

    Aglzim, El-Hassane; Rouane, Amar; El-Moznine, Reddad

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an inexpensive electronic measurement instrumentation developed in our laboratory, to measure and plot the impedance of a loaded fuel cell or battery. Impedance measurements were taken by using the load modulation method. This instrumentation has been developed around a VXI system stand which controls electronic cards. Software under Hpvee® was developed for automatic measurements and the layout of the impedance of the fuel cell on load. The measurement environment, like the ambient temperature, the fuel cell temperature, the level of the hydrogen, etc…, were taken with several sensors that enable us to control the measurement. To filter the noise and the influence of the 50Hz, we have implemented a synchronous detection which filters in a very narrow way around the useful signal. The theoretical result obtained by a simulation under Pspice® of the method used consolidates the choice of this method and the possibility of obtaining correct and exploitable results. The experimental results are preliminary results on a 12V vehicle battery, having an inrush current of 330A and a capacity of 40Ah (impedance measurements on a fuel cell are in progress, and will be the subject of a forthcoming paper). The results were plotted at various nominal voltages of the battery (12.7V, 10V, 8V and 5V) and with two imposed currents (0.6A and 4A). The Nyquist diagram resulting from the experimental data enable us to show an influence of the load of the battery on its internal impedance. The similitude in the graph form and in order of magnitude of the values obtained (both theoretical and practical) enables us to validate our electronic measurement instrumentation. One of the future uses for this instrumentation is to integrate it with several control sensors, on a vehicle as an embedded system to monitor the degradation of fuel cell membranes.

  12. Smartphone measurement engineering - Innovative challenges for science & education, instrumentation & training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, D.; Dittrich, P.-G.; Duentsch, E.

    2010-07-01

    Smartphones have an enormous conceptual and structural influence on measurement science & education, instrumentation & training. Smartphones are matured. They became convenient, reliable and affordable. In 2009 worldwide 174 million Smartphones has been delivered. Measurement with Smartphones is ready for the future. In only 10 years the German vision industry tripled its global sales volume to one Billion Euro/Year. Machine vision is used for mobile object identification, contactless industrial quality control, personalized health care, remote facility and transport management, safety critical surveillance and all tasks which are too complex for the human eye or too monotonous for the human brain. Aim of the paper is to describe selected success stories for the application of Smartphones for measurement engineering in science and education, instrumentation and training.

  13. Measuring the Youth Bullying Experience: A Systematic Review of the Psychometric Properties of Available Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vessey, Judith; Strout, Tania D.; DiFazio, Rachel L.; Walker, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bullying is a significant problem in schools and measuring this concept remains problematic. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify the published self-report measures developed to assess youth bullying; (2) evaluate their psychometric properties and instrument characteristics; and (3) evaluate the quality of identified…

  14. Measuring the Youth Bullying Experience: A Systematic Review of the Psychometric Properties of Available Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vessey, Judith; Strout, Tania D.; DiFazio, Rachel L.; Walker, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bullying is a significant problem in schools and measuring this concept remains problematic. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify the published self-report measures developed to assess youth bullying; (2) evaluate their psychometric properties and instrument characteristics; and (3) evaluate the quality of identified…

  15. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205 Performance... or 0.2% of max K 0.2% of pt. K or 0.1% of max K 0.1% of max. Dewpoint sensor for intake air, PM.... Dilution air, inlet air, exhaust, and sample flow meters c n 1 s 1 Hz means of 5 Hz samples 2.5% of pt....

  16. Fluid physics phenomena of resistojet thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, Kenneth J. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This final report includes a list of publications and part of an M.S. thesis titled 'Analyses in Theoretical and Experimental Fluid Flow', by Tony G. Howell. The thesis discusses analyses of momentum and heat transfer occurring in a laminar boundary layer of a non-Newtonian power-law fluid, and experiments completed in a simulated space thruster's plume for prediction comparison.

  17. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  18. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  19. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  20. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  1. Measurement of Turbulent Flow Phenomena for the Lower Plenum of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hugh M. McIlroy, Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink

    2010-02-01

    Mean velocity field and turbulence data are presented that measure turbulent flow phenomena in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) similar to a General Atomics design (Gas-Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor). The datawere obtained in the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and are offered as a benchmark for assessing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. The primary objective of this paper is to document the experiment and present a sample of the data set that has been established for this standard problem. Present results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). The flowin the lower plenum consists of multiple jets injected into a confined crossflow—with obstructions. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to approximate flow scaled to that expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. Posts, side walls and end walls are fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive index of the mineral oil working fluid so that optical techniques may be employed for the measurements. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits optical measurements to determine flow characteristics in complex passages and around objects to be obtained without locating intrusive transducers that will disturb the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. An advantage of the INL system is its large size, leading to improved spatial and temporal resolution compared to similar facilities at smaller scales. A three-dimensional (3D) particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to collect the data. Inlet-jet Reynolds numbers (based on the hydraulic diameter of the jet

  2. Microcomputer based instrument for measuring a novel pulmonary function test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, Brian L.; Craine, Eric R.

    1996-08-01

    The design of a prototype instrument for measuring the end-tidal concentration of carbon monoxide during human respiration is presented. The instrument automatically samples the final sixty cubic centimeters of exhaled breath, from successive breathing cycles, by coordinating a pump and the breathing cycle with a set of vacuum and pressure sensors. The concentration of carbon monoxide is measured using a nondispersive infrared spectrophotometer. The amount of carbon monoxide present is measured relative to the source air concentration eliminating the need for calibrating the instrument. The testing protocol and measurements can be controlled by a microcomputer connected to the instrument through a standard RS-232 serial interface. When at equilibrium, the end-tidal concentration of CO can be measured in a simple and reproducible fashion. This simplified technology allows for the construction of a small, portable, easy to use instrument that will allow the application of this new pulmonary function test at the point of contact with patients.

  3. An instrumented fastener for shear force measurements in joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, James W.; Rothgeb, Timothy M.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of a preliminary investigation of instrumented fasteners for use as sensors to measure the shear loads transmitted by individual fasteners installed in double splice joints. Calibration and load verification tests were conducted for instrumented fasteners installed at three fastener torque levels. Calibration test results show that the shear strains obtained from the instrumented fasteners vary linearly with the applied load and that the instrumented fasteners can be effectively used to measure shear loads transmitted by individual fasteners installed in double splice joints. The load distribution between individual fasteners is found to be dependent on the location of the fastener in the joint and the fastener torque level.

  4. Standardization Procedure for Two Instruments for Color Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    contract and reported separately. In one of these contracts Billmeyer and Alessi addressed the general reliability of commercial color instruments...collection and the standardization test procedure. 1. F. W. Billmeyer , Jr. and P. J. Alessi (1979, "Assessment of Color- Measuring Instruments for Objective...U.S. Army Natick Research and De- velopment Command, Natick, HA 01760 (ADA094163) Billmeyer , F. W., Jr. and Alessi, P.J. (1979), "Assessment of

  5. Critical phenomena in a low gravity environment. [in fluids as materials science models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengers, J. V.; Moldover, M. R.

    1978-01-01

    Various types of critical point phenomena are discussed including the gas-liquid phase transition of a fluid, the spontaneous magnetization of a ferromagnet below the Curie temperature, and structural phase transitions of solid materials. The interrelation of thermodynamic properties by scaling laws is considered noting theories for the validity of scaling laws and the principle of universality. Gravity effects are reviewed noting that in earth-based experiments the phenomena are significantly influenced by the earth's gravitational field and that fluid samples that are spatially homogeneous cannot be realized near the gas-liquid critical point.

  6. Prototype instrument for noninvasive ultrasonic inspection and identification of fluids in sealed containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Brian J.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Eckenrode, Brian A.

    2006-05-01

    Government agencies and homeland security related organizations have identified the need to develop and establish a wide range of unprecedented capabilities for providing scientific and technical forensic services to investigations involving hazardous chemical, biological, and radiological materials, including extremely dangerous chemical and biological warfare agents. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a prototype portable, handheld, hazardous materials acoustic inspection prototype that provides noninvasive container interrogation and material identification capabilities using nondestructive ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements. Due to the wide variety of fluids as well as container sizes and materials encountered in various law enforcement inspection activities, the need for high measurement sensitivity and advanced ultrasonic measurement techniques were identified. The prototype was developed using a versatile electronics platform, advanced ultrasonic wave propagation methods, and advanced signal processing techniques. This paper primarily focuses on the ultrasonic measurement methods and signal processing techniques incorporated into the prototype. High bandwidth ultrasonic transducers combined with an advanced pulse compression technique allowed researchers to 1) obtain high signal-to-noise ratios and 2) obtain accurate and consistent time-of-flight (TOF) measurements through a variety of highly attenuative containers and fluid media. Results of work conducted in the laboratory have demonstrated that the prototype experimental measurement technique also provided information regarding container properties, which will be utilized in future container-independent measurements of hidden liquids.

  7. Prototype Instrument for Noninvasive Ultrasonic Inspection and Indentification of Fluids in Sealed Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Brian J.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Eckenrode, Brian A.

    2006-08-01

    Government agencies and homeland security related organizations have identified the need to develop and establish a wide range of unprecedented capabilities for providing scientific and technical forensic services to investigations involving hazardous chemical, biological, and radiological materials, including extremely dangerous chemical and biological warfare agents. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a prototype portable, hand-held, hazardous materials acoustic inspection prototype that provides noninvasive container interrogation and material identification capabilities using nondestructive ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements. Due to the wide variety of fluids as well as container sizes and materials encountered in various law enforcement inspection activities, the need for high measurement sensitivity and advanced ultrasonic measurement techniques were identified. The prototype was developed using a versatile electronics platform, advanced ultrasonic wave propagation methods, and advanced signal processing techniques. This paper primarily focuses on the ultrasonic measurement methods and signal processing techniques incorporated into the prototype. High bandwidth ultrasonic transducers combined with an advanced pulse compression technique allowed researchers to 1) obtain high signal-to-noise ratios and 2) obtain accurate and consistent time-of-flight (TOF) measurements through a variety of highly attenuative containers and fluid media. Results of work conducted in the laboratory have demonstrated that the prototype experimental measurement technique also provided information regarding container properties, which will be utilized in future container-independent measurements of hidden liquids.

  8. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... Procedures § 86.120-94 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas...

  9. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... Procedures § 86.120-94 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas...

  10. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... Procedures § 86.120-94 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas...

  11. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... Procedures § 86.120-94 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas...

  12. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... Procedures § 86.120-94 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas...

  13. Fluid transport phenomena in ocular epithelia.

    PubMed

    Candia, Oscar A; Alvarez, Lawrence J

    2008-03-01

    This article discusses three largely unrecognized aspects related to fluid movement in ocular tissues; namely, (a) the dynamic changes in water permeability observed in corneal and conjunctival epithelia under anisotonic conditions, (b) the indications that the fluid transport rate exhibited by the ciliary epithelium is insufficient to explain aqueous humor production, and (c) the evidence for fluid movement into and out of the lens during accommodation. We have studied each of these subjects in recent years and present an evaluation of our data within the context of the results of others who have also worked on electrolyte and fluid transport in ocular tissues. We propose that (1) the corneal and conjunctival epithelia, with apical aspects naturally exposed to variable tonicities, are capable of regulating their water permeabilities as part of the cell-volume regulatory process, (2) fluid may directly enter the anterior chamber of the eye across the anterior surface of the iris, thereby representing an additional entry pathway for aqueous humor production, and (3) changes in lens volume occur during accommodation, and such changes are best explained by a net influx and efflux of fluid.

  14. Integration of Instrumentation for Measuring Vital Signs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-31

    VSM system configurations emerged. The Vital Signs Monitor, and a unique new concept, the Life State Monitor. Both monitors are described below: 5 0...mature. While temperature may not be a particularly useful tool for vital signs it may play a role in the life monitor where a steady decrease iu...name, time, vital signs of interest or a probability estimate of life . With additional complexity, the addition of a small receiver and data processing

  15. Unified Instrumentation: Examining the Simultaneous Application of Advanced Measurement Techniques for Increased Wind Tunnel Testing Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A. (Editor); Bartram, Scott M.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Joseph W.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Meyers, James F.; South, Bruce W.; Cavone, Angelo A.; Ingram, JoAnne L.

    2002-01-01

    A Unified Instrumentation Test examining the combined application of Pressure Sensitive Paint, Projection Moire Interferometry, Digital Particle Image Velocimetry, Doppler Global Velocimetry, and Acoustic Microphone Array has been conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. The fundamental purposes of conducting the test were to: (a) identify and solve compatibility issues among the techniques that would inhibit their simultaneous application in a wind tunnel, and (b) demonstrate that simultaneous use of advanced instrumentation techniques is feasible for increasing tunnel efficiency and identifying control surface actuation / aerodynamic reaction phenomena. This paper provides summary descriptions of each measurement technique used during the Unified Instrumentation Test, their implementation for testing in a unified fashion, and example results identifying areas of instrument compatibility and incompatibility. Conclusions are drawn regarding the conditions under which the measurement techniques can be operated simultaneously on a non-interference basis. Finally, areas requiring improvement for successfully applying unified instrumentation in future wind tunnel tests are addressed.

  16. Instruments for measuring the amount of moisture in the air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    A summarization and discussion of the many systems available for measuring moisture in the atmosphere is presented. Conventional methods used in the field of meteorology and methods used in the laboratory are discussed. Performance accuracies, and response of the instruments were reviewed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each. Methods of measuring humidity aloft by instrumentation onboard aircraft and balloons are given, in addition to the methods used to measure moisture at the Earth's surface.

  17. Instruments for measuring meaningful learning in healthcare students: a systematic psychometric review.

    PubMed

    Cadorin, Lucia; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Tolotti, Angela; Pagnucci, Nicola; Sasso, Loredana

    2016-09-01

    To identify, evaluate and describe the psychometric properties of instruments that measure learning outcomes in healthcare students. Meaningful learning is an active process that enables a wider and deeper understanding of concepts. It is the result of an interaction between new and prior knowledge and produces a long-standing change in knowledge and skills. In the field of education, validated and reliable instruments for assessing meaningful learning are needed. A psychometric systematic review. MEDLINE CINAHL, SCOPUS, ERIC, Cochrane Library, Psychology & Behavioural Sciences Collection Database from 1990-December 2013. Using pre-determined inclusion criteria, three reviewers independently identified studies for full-text review. Then they extracted data for quality appraisal and graded instrument validity using the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of the health status Measurement INstruments checklist and the Psychometric Grading Framework. Of the 57 studies identified for full-text review, 16 met the inclusion criteria and 13 different instruments were assessed. Following quality assessment, only one instrument was considered of good quality but it measured meaningful learning only in part; the others were either fair or poor. The Psychometric Grading Framework indicated that one instrument was weak, while the others were very weak. No instrument displayed adequate validity. The systematic review produced a synthesis of the psychometric properties of tools that measure learning outcomes in students of healthcare disciplines. Measuring learning outcomes is very important when educating health professionals. The identified tools may constitute a starting point for the development of other assessment tools. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Bhim (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    The Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference provides the scientific community the opportunity to view the current scope of the Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Program, current research opportunities, and plans for the near future. The conference focuses not only on fundamental research but also on applications of this knowledge towards enabling future space exploration missions. A whole session dedicated to biological fluid physics shows increased emphasis that the program has placed on interdisciplinary research. The conference includes invited plenary talks, technical paper presentations, poster presentations, and exhibits. This TM is a compilation of abstracts of the papers and the posters presented at the conference. Web-based proceedings, including the charts used by the presenters, will be posted on the web shortly after the conference.

  19. FLUID: A numerical interpolation procedure for obtaining thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1977-01-01

    A computer program subroutine, FLUID, was developed to calculate thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluid substances. It provides for determining the thermodynamic state from assigned values for temperature-density, pressure-density, temperature-pressure, pressure-entropy, or pressure-enthalpy. Liquid or two-phase (liquid-gas) conditions are considered as well as the gas phase. A van der Waals model is used to obtain approximate state values; these values are then corrected for real gas effects by model-correction factors obtained from tables based on experimental data. Saturation conditions, specific heat, entropy, and enthalpy data are included in the tables for each gas. Since these tables are external to the FLUID subroutine itself, FLUID can implement any gas for which a set of tables has been generated. (A setup phase is used to establish pointers dynamically to the tables for a specific gas.) Data-table preparation is described. FLUID is available in both SFTRAN and FORTRAN

  20. Compressibility measurement of fluid-system ullage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzienis, D. A.; See, E. C.

    1977-01-01

    Portable self-contained instrument measures volume of free gas or air trapped in closed fluid systems, such as lubricating-oil lines or hydraulic brakes. In response to measurement readings, operator may use device to accurately add or withdraw fluid to or from system.

  1. Antenna Characterization for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental characterization of the antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurement (WISM) under development for the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), is discussed. A current sheet antenna, consisting of a small, 6x6 element, dual-linear polarized array with integrated beamformer, feeds an offset parabolic reflector, enabling WISM operation over an 8 to 40 GHz frequency band. An overview of the test program implemented for both the feed and the reflector antenna is given along with select results for specific frequencies utilized by the radar and radiometric sensors of the WISM.

  2. Antenna Characterization for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental characterization of the antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM) under development for the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), is discussed. A current sheet antenna, consisting of a small, 6x6 element, dual-linear polarized array with integrated beamformer, feeds an offset parabolic reflector, enabling WISM operation over an 8 to 40 GHz frequency band. An overview of the test program implemented for both the feed and the reflector antenna is given along with select results for specific frequencies utilized by the radar and radiometric sensors of the WISM.

  3. Investigations of Physicochemical Properties of Size-Resolved, Subsaturated, Atmospheric Aerosol Particles: Instrument Development, Field Measurements, and Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingler, Taylor

    Aerosol particle properties and their impact on air quality, clouds, and the hydrologic cycle remain a critically important factor for the understanding of our atmosphere. Particle hygroscopic growth leads to impacts on direct and indirect radiative forcing properties, the likelihood for particles to act as cloud condensation nuclei, and aerosol-cloud interactions. Current instruments measuring hygroscopic growth have a number of limitations, lacking either the ability to measure size-resolved particles or process samples at a fast enough resolution to be suitable for airborne deployment. Advanced in-situ airborne particle retrieval and measurements of aerosol hygroscopic growth and scattering properties are analyzed and discussed. To improve the analysis of cloud nuclei particles, an updated counterflow virtual impact inlet was characterized and deployed during the 2011 E-PEACE field campaign. Theoretical and laboratory based cut size diameters were determined and validated against data collected from an airborne platform. In pursuit of higher quality aerosol particle hygroscopicity measurements, a newer instrument, the differential aerosol sizing and hygroscopicity probe (DASH-SP) has been developed in the recent past and only flown on a handful of campaigns. It has been proven to provide quality, rapid, size-resolved hygroscopic growth factor data, but was further improved into a smaller form factor making it easier for deployment on airborne platforms. It was flown during the 2013 SEAC4RS field campaign and the data was analyzed to composite air mass based hygroscopicity and refractive index (real portion only) statistics. Additionally, a comparison of bulk and size-resolved hygroscopic growth measurements was conducted. Significant findings include a potential particle size bias on bulk scattering measurements as well as a narrow range of ambient real portion of refractive index values. An investigation into the first reported ambient hygroscopicity

  4. Noninvasive Measurement of Acoustic Properties of Fluids Using Ultrasonic Interferometry Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Han, W.; Sinha, D.N.; Springer, K.N.; Lizon, D.C.

    1997-06-15

    A swept-frequency ultrasonic interferometry technique is used for noninvasively determining acoustic properties of fluids inside containers. Measurements over a frequency range 1-15 MHz on six liquid chemicals are presented. Measurements were made with the liquid inside standard rectangular optical glass cells and stainless steel cylindrical shells. A theoretical model based on one-dimensional planar acoustic wave propagation through multi-layered media is employed for the interpretation of the observed resonance (interference) spectrum. Two analytical methods, derived from the transmission model are used for determination of sound speed, sound attenuation coefficient, and density of liquids from the relative amplitude and half-power peak width of the observed resonance peaks. Effects of the container material and geometrical properties, path-length, wall thickness are also studied. This study shows that the interferometry technique and the experimental method developed are capable of accurate determination of sound speed, sound attenuation, and density in fluids completely noninvasively. It is a capable and versatile fluid characterization technique and has many potential NDE applications.

  5. AC resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, P.J.

    1983-10-04

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

  6. AC Resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

  7. High bandwidth linear viscoelastic properties of complex fluids from the measurement of their free surface fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottier, Basile; Talini, Laurence; Frétigny, Christian

    2012-02-01

    We present a new optical method to measure the linear viscoelastic properties of materials, ranging from complex fluids to soft solids, within a large frequency range (about 0.1--10^4 Hz). The surface fluctuation specular reflection technique is based on the measurement of the thermal fluctuations of the free surfaces of materials at which a laser beam is specularly reflected. The propagation of the thermal surface waves depends on the surface tension, density, and complex viscoelastic modulus of the material. For known surface tension and density, we show that the frequency dependent elastic and loss moduli can be deduced from the fluctuation spectrum. Using a viscoelastic solid (a cross-linked PDMS), which linear viscoelastic properties are known in a large frequency range from rheometric measurements and the time--temperature superposition principle, we show that there is a good agreement between the rheological characterization provided by rheometric and fluctuation measurements. We also present measurements conducted with complex fluids that are supramolecular polymer solutions. The agreement with other low frequency and high frequency rheological measurements is again very good, and we discuss the sensitivity of the technique to surface viscoelasticity.

  8. Radiometric instrumentation and measurements guide for photovoltaic performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.

    1997-04-01

    The Photovoltaic Module and Systems Performance and Engineering Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory performs indoor and outdoor standardization, testing, and monitoring of the performance of a wide range of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion devices and systems. The PV Radiometric Measurements and Evaluation Team (PVSRME) within that project is responsible for measurement and characterization of natural and artificial optical radiation which stimulates the PV effect. The PV manufacturing and research and development community often approaches project members for technical information and guidance. A great area of interest is radiometric instrumentation, measurement techniques, and data analysis applied to understanding and improving PV cell, module, and system performance. At the Photovoltaic Radiometric Measurements Workshop conducted by the PVSRME team in July 1995, the need to communicate knowledge of solar and optical radiometric measurements and instrumentation, gained as a result of NREL`s long-term experiences, was identified as an activity that would promote improved measurement processes and measurement quality in the PV research and manufacturing community. The purpose of this document is to address the practical and engineering need to understand optical and solar radiometric instrument performance, selection, calibration, installation, and maintenance applicable to indoor and outdoor radiometric measurements for PV calibration, performance, and testing applications. An introductory section addresses radiometric concepts and definitions. Next, concepts essential to spectral radiometric measurements are discussed. Broadband radiometric instrumentation and measurement concepts are then discussed. Each type of measurement serves as an important component of the PV cell, module, and system performance measurement and characterization process.

  9. Measurement techniques and instruments suitable for life-prediction testing of photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noel, G. T.; Sliemers, F. A.; Deringer, G. C.; Wood, V. E.; Wilkes, K. E.; Gaines, G. B.; Carmichael, D. C.

    1978-01-01

    Array failure modes, relevant materials property changes, and primary degradation mechanisms are discussed as a prerequisite to identifying suitable measurement techniques and instruments. Candidate techniques and instruments are identified on the basis of extensive reviews of published and unpublished information. These methods are organized in six measurement categories - chemical, electrical, optical, thermal, mechanical, and other physicals. Using specified evaluation criteria, the most promising techniques and instruments for use in life prediction tests of arrays were selected.

  10. A compact DOAS instrument optimised for ammonia field-measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neftel, Albrecht; Sintermann, Joerg; Dietrich, Klaus; Häni, Christoph; Jocher, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Accurate, high time-resolution measurements of NH3 in ambient air are still a challenge due to the stickiness of this molecule and its interactions with inlet or instrument surfaces. Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) with open-path arrangement offers a contact-free in-situ approach to determine ambient NH3. We present a DOAS instrument, optimised for open-path field-measurements of ambient ammonia (NH3) alongside nitrogen oxide (NO) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). This device, operating in the UV range over paths of up to 100 m, is a further development of the miniDOAS presented by Volten et al. (2012). We use a temperature-controlled spectrometer, a deuterium light source and a modified optical arrangement. The system was set up in a robust, field-deployable, temperature-regulated housing. For the evaluation of light spectra a new high-pass filter routine based upon robust baseline extraction with local regression was used. In order to fit differential absorption cross-sections to the measurements, multiple linear regression is performed including terms of an autoregressive-moving-average model. In this presentation we discuss the influence of filter and fit procedure on the precision and accuracy of the system with examples of field measurements with artificial NH3 sources. Volten, H., Bergwerff, J. B., Haaima, M., Lolkema, D. E., Berkhout, A. J. C., van der Hoff, G. R., Potma, C. J. M., Wichink Kruit, R. J., van Pul, W. A. J. and Swart, D. P. J.: Two instruments based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) to measure accurate ammonia concentrations in the atmosphere, Atmospheric Meas. Tech., 5(2), 413-427, doi:10.5194/amt-5-413-2012, 2012.

  11. Compact Instrument for Measuring Profile of a Light Beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanyan, Valeri

    2004-01-01

    The beamviewer is an optical device designed to be attached to a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector for measuring the spatial distribution of intensity of a beam of light (the beam profile ) at a designated plane intersecting the beam. The beamviewer-and-CCD combination is particularly well suited for measuring the radiant- power profile (for a steady beam) or the radiant-energy profile (for a pulsed beam) impinging on the input face or emerging from the output face of a bundle of optical fibers. The beamviewer and-CCD combination could also be used as a general laboratory instrument for profiling light beams, including beams emerging through small holes and laser beams in free space.

  12. Critical Transport Phenomena in Fluid Helium Under Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, H.; Behringer, R. P.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of carrying out measurements of certain critical transport properties of pure fluid under conditions of low gravity was studied. These properties are the thermal conductivity, kappa, the shear viscosity zeta and the diffusive relaxation time tau, which are predicted to diverge (tend to infinity) as the liquid-vapor critical point is approached. However, in this critical region, the Earth's gravity effect becomes very important. As the critical point is approached, the gravity effects increasingly distort the results. The reason for this is that the compressibility of the fluid also diverges and under the influence of gravity causes a vertical density gradient in the fluid, which is significant even when very thin fluid layers (typically 1 mm high) are being used. The result is that the temperature dependence of kappa, zeta, and tau tends to flatten off as T sub c is approached instead of continuing to increase, and therefore the predictions from the renormalization group and mode coupling theories cannot be subjected to a satisfactory test.

  13. Critical Transport Phenomena in Fluid Helium Under Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, H.; Behringer, R. P.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of carrying out measurements of certain critical transport properties of pure fluid under conditions of low gravity was studied. These properties are the thermal conductivity, kappa, the shear viscosity zeta and the diffusive relaxation time tau, which are predicted to diverge (tend to infinity) as the liquid-vapor critical point is approached. However, in this critical region, the Earth's gravity effect becomes very important. As the critical point is approached, the gravity effects increasingly distort the results. The reason for this is that the compressibility of the fluid also diverges and under the influence of gravity causes a vertical density gradient in the fluid, which is significant even when very thin fluid layers (typically 1 mm high) are being used. The result is that the temperature dependence of kappa, zeta, and tau tends to flatten off as T sub c is approached instead of continuing to increase, and therefore the predictions from the renormalization group and mode coupling theories cannot be subjected to a satisfactory test.

  14. Theory of critical phenomena in fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reatto, L.; Meroni, A.; Parola, A.

    1990-12-01

    The authors discuss a differential approach to the theory of fluids, the hierarchical reference theory, which, above the critical temperature, has been shown to be (i) as accurate as the most widespread theories of liquid state in the high density region and (ii) able to reproduce the renormalization group results in the critical region. In this region it predicts both the universal and the non-universal quantities. The authors have studied the Lennard-Jones fluid in detail but the method can be directly applied to more realistic interactions between molecules. The treatment of temperatures below the critical one presents some additional difficulties due to the presence of the inhomogeneous two-phase region. Preliminary results indicate that the theory gives the coexistence curve with the correct scaling behaviour without any need for an ad hoc Maxwell construction. The extension of the formalism to binary mixtures is under way.

  15. Fluid flow intensifier for tide, current or wind generator

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.E.

    1980-09-23

    A method is described of intensifying a relatively slow speed natural substantially horizontal flow of a natural fluid, such as a tidal flow, as opposed to a tidal rise, or a river flow, the natural flow being used to turn about a substantially horizontal axis rotary means arranged to act directly on a working fluid, which may be the natural fluid, where the latter is a liquid, or a separate liquid, and force it through a pipe system to a flow intensifier in the form of a constriction. The working liquid is forced through the pipe system without the formation of an head, and can be used to drive means for generating electricity. Flow intensifying apparatus is also described using seawater as the natural fluid and either fresh water or the seawater as the working fluid. Several of the apparatus may be disposed to cause a vortex or maelstrom which then serves to drive the apparatus.

  16. Third-generation FAGE instrument for tropospheric hydroxyl radical measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, C. Y.; Hard, T. M.; Mehrabzadeh, A. A.; George, L. A.; O'Brien, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    A single-stage, frequency-doubled, copper vapor laser-pumped dye laser has been constructed to be used in the measurement of atmospheric hydroxyl radical concentrations. A new photon counting instrument is used for HO fluorescence detection. Theoretical and experimental studies of instrument performance show better sensitivities and reduced photolytic interferences than have been possible with previous systems based upon Nd:YAG pumping.

  17. The Psychometric Properties of the Simple Screening Instrument for Substance Abuse.

    PubMed

    Boothroyd, Roger A; Peters, Roger H; Armstrong, Mary I; Rynearson-Moody, Sarah; Caudy, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The Simple Screening Instrument for Substance Abuse (SSI-SA) is gaining widespread use as a self-report measure of substance abuse; yet, little information exists regarding the instrument's psychometric properties. This study examined the SSI's psychometric properties within a population of 6,664 adult Medicaid enrollees in Florida, who responded to a survey conducted as part of a statewide evaluation of Medicaid services. The SSI-SA had excellent internal consistency (.85). Evidence of the SSI's validity was strong; SSI-SA scores distinguished among individuals with and without substance abuse needs and were significantly correlated with a measure of functioning in daily living. Using the recommended SSI-SA cutoff score of 4 or higher to indicate the presence of a substance abuse problem, the SSI-SA had respectable sensitivity (.82) and specificity (.90). © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Modification in Cay Concrete Properties During Fluid Flow Permeability Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, F.; Ekolu, S. O.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, two methods consisting of triaxial water permeability and water penetration were used to evaluate the changes occurring in the pores of clay concretes during the tests. Triaxial permeability is generally used for concrete with higher permeability while concretes with very low permeability are suited for the penetration method. Clay concrete specimens of 0 to 40% clay content were used in the study. The concrete mixes had water-to-cement ratios (w/c) of 0.70, 0.75, 0.80, 0.85, and the cementitious content 380 and 450 kg/m3. Results show that concrete gains moisture during wetting at a much faster rate than loses it during subsequent drying. This could be explained by the contribution of suction pressure created upon drying. When water penetration pressure is applied, more water is driven into pore space that could be responsible for changing the network of the voids. Pore structure during drying may certainly be different in size and shape than its form during wetting, leading to a consequent effect on the permeability of the clay concretes. The modification could be one reason why the moisture gain percentage in clay concretes was higher than in normal concretes.

  19. An algorithm for stylus instruments to measure aspheric surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang-Ock; Park, Kilsu; Chon Park, Byong; Lee, Yoon Woo

    2005-05-01

    A reliable algorithm is developed for the analysis of machined aspheric surfaces with a stylus instrument. This research has been done prior to the evaluation of uncertainties in the aspheric surface analysis. The algorithm considers two factors: the pickup configuration (pivoted arm) and the stylus radius. It also compensates for the sample tilt and the axis offset (the setup error) in the best-fit least-squares process. The algorithm consists of two parts for instrument calibration and aspheric surface analysis, and has been coded by means of C++ and MATLAB. Further it was also applied to the instrument calibration and the aspheric surface measurement, and the results were compared with the instrument-produced ones. The developed algorithm shows better performance over the commercial instrument in both the instrument calibration and the analysis of aspheric surfaces. Besides the uncertainty analysis, the developed algorithm will be a basis for the applications that the commercial instrument cannot provide with its own built-in code.

  20. Design Considerations for Remote High-Speed Pressure Measurements of Dynamic Combustion Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Rohrssen, Robert; Perez, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    As gas turbine combustion systems evolve to achieve ultra-low emission targets, monitoring and controlling dynamic combustion processes becomes increasingly important. These dynamic processes may include flame extinction, combustion-driven instabilities, or other dynamic combustion phenomena. Pressure sensors can be incorporated into the combustor liner design, but this approach is complicated by the harsh operating environment. One practical solution involves locating the sensor in a more remote location, such as outside the pressure casing. The sensor can be connected to the measurement point by small diameter tubing. Although this is a practical approach, the dynamics of the tubing can introduce significant errors into the pressure measurement. This paper addresses measurement errors associated with semi-infinite coil remote sensing setups and proposes an approach to improve the accuracy of these types of measurements.

  1. Psychometric properties concerning four instruments measuring job satisfaction, strain, and stress of conscience in a residential care context.

    PubMed

    Orrung Wallin, Anneli; Edberg, Anna-Karin; Beck, Ingela; Jakobsson, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    There are many instruments assessing the wellbeing of staff, but far from all have been psychometrically investigated. When evaluating supportive interventions directed toward nurse assistants in residential care, valid and reliable instruments are needed in order to detect possible changes. The aim of the study was to investigate validity in terms of data quality, construct validity, convergent and divergent validity and reliability in terms of the internal consistency and stability of the Job Satisfaction Questionnaire, the Psychosocial Aspects of Job Satisfaction, the Strain in Dementia Care Scale (SDCS), and the Stress of Conscience Questionnaire (SCQ) in a residential care context. The psychometric properties of the instruments were investigated in terms of data quality, construct validity, convergent and divergent validity and reliability, including test-retest reliability, in a residential care context with a sample consisting of nurse assistants (n=114). The four instruments responded with different psychometric-related problems such as internal missing data, floor and ceiling effects, problems with construct validity and low test-retest reliability, especially when assessed on the item level. These problems were however reduced or disappeared completely when assessed for total and factor scores. From a psychometric perspective, the SDCS seemed to stand out as the best instrument. However, it should be modified in order to reduce floor effects on item level and thereby gain sensitivity. The Job Satisfaction Questionnaire seemed to have problems both with the construct validity and test-retest reliability. The final choice of instrument must, however, be made dependent on what one intends to measure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Measuring Asian nurses' organizational commitment: a critical analysis of the psychometric properties of two organizational commitment instruments.

    PubMed

    Liou, Shwu-Ru; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2013-01-01

    To analyze and compare the psychometric properties and cultural attributes of the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire and the Organizational Commitment Scale to determine their appropriateness for measuring commitment of Asian nurses, the biggest portion of international nurses. The Organizational Commitment Questionnaire was cross-culturally cross-validated when compared with the Organizational Commitment Scale. Both instruments were not tested on Asian nurses. More studies are needed to validate the cultural properties of the Organizational Commitment Scale. Healthcare administrators can use culturally validated instruments, which concern cultural context, including languages and cultural values, to understand Asian nurses' organizational commitment and further lower turnover behavior among them. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Assessment instruments for patients with fibromyalgia: properties, applications and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Salaffi, F; Sarzi-Puttini, P; Ciapetti, A; Atzeni, F

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the multiple symptom domains associated with fibromyalgia (FM) and the impact of FM on multidimensional aspects of function should form a routine part of the care of FM patients. Clinical trials and long-term clinical registries have used various outcome measures, but the key domains include pain, fatigue, disturbed sleep, physical functioning, emotional functioning, patient global ratings of satisfaction, and their health-related quality of life (HRQL). A number of measures have been ''borrowed'' from the fields of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and adapted to FM, and others are being developed specifically for FM. However, despite the burgeoning theoretical literature and the proliferation of instruments for measuring various health status domains, no unified approach has been developed and there is little agreement concerning the meaning of the results. There is, therefore, still a need for further consensus and the development of a core set of measures and response criteria, more refined measuring instruments, standardised assessor training, cross-cultural adaptations of health status questionnaires, electronic data capture, and the introduction of standardised quantitative measurements into routine clinical care. This article discusses the advantages and limitations of a selection of both newly developed and well-established and validated distress screening instruments that underlines the continuing challenge of assessing FM.

  4. Fluid models and simulations of biological cell phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenspan, H. P.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamics of coated droplets are examined within the context of biofluids. Of specific interest is the manner in which the shape of a droplet, the motion within it as well as that of aggregates of droplets can be controlled by the modulation of surface properties and the extent to which such fluid phenomena are an intrinsic part of cellular processes. From the standpoint of biology, an objective is to elucidate some of the general dynamical features that affect the disposition of an entire cell, cell colonies and tissues. Conventionally averaged field variables of continuum mechanics are used to describe the overall global effects which result from the myriad of small scale molecular interactions. An attempt is made to establish cause and effect relationships from correct dynamical laws of motion rather than by what may have been unnecessary invocation of metabolic or life processes. Several topics are discussed where there are strong analogies droplets and cells including: encapsulated droplets/cell membranes; droplet shape/cell shape; adhesion and spread of a droplet/cell motility and adhesion; and oams and multiphase flows/cell aggregates and tissues. Evidence is presented to show that certain concepts of continuum theory such as suface tension, surface free energy, contact angle, bending moments, etc. are relevant and applicable to the study of cell biology.

  5. New Platforms for Suborbital Astronomical Observations and In Situ Atmospheric Measurements: Spacecraft, Instruments, and Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodway, K.; DeForest, C. E.; Diller, J.; Vilas, F.; Sollitt, L. S.; Reyes, M. F.; Filo, A. S.; Anderson, E.

    2014-12-01

    Suborbital astronomical observations have over 50 years' history using NASA's sounding rockets and experimental space planes. The new commercial space industry is developing suborbital reusable launch vehicles (sRLV's) to provide low-cost, flexible, and frequent access to space at ~100 km altitude. In the case of XCOR Aerospace's Lynx spacecraft, the vehicle design and capabilities work well for hosting specially designed experiments that can be flown with a human-tended researcher or alone with the pilot on a customized mission. Some of the first-generation instruments and facilities that will conduct solar observations on dedicated Lynx science missions include the SwRI Solar Instrument Pointing Platform (SSIPP) and Atsa Suborbital Observatory, as well as KickSat sprites, which are picosatellites for in situ atmospheric and solar phenomena measurements. The SSIPP is a demonstration two-stage pointed solar observatory that operates inside the Lynx cockpit. The coarse pointing stage includes the pilot in the feedback loop, and the fine stage stabilizes the solar image to achieve arcsecond class pointing. SSIPP is a stepping-stone to future external instruments that can operate with larger apertures and shorter wavelengths in the solar atmosphere. The Planetary Science Institute's Atsa Suborbital Observatory combines the strengths of ground-based observatories and space-based observing to create a facility where a telescope is maintained and used interchangeably with either in-house facility instruments or user-provided instruments. The Atsa prototype is a proof of concept, hand-guided camera that mounts on the interior of the Lynx cockpit to test target acquisition and tracking for human-operated suborbital astronomy. KickSat sprites are mass-producible, one inch printed circuit boards (PCBs) populated by programmable off the shelf microprocessors and radios for real time data transmission. The sprite PCBs can integrate chip-based radiometers, magnetometers

  6. A systematic review of clinimetric properties of measurements of motivation for children aged 5-16 years with a physical disability or motor delay.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laura; Ziviani, Jenny; Boyd, Roslyn Nancy

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this systematical review was to appraise the clinimetric properties of measures of motivation in children aged 5-16 years with a physical disability or motor delay. Six electronic databases were searched. Studies were included if they reported measuring motivation in school-aged children across occupational performance areas. Two reviewers independently identified measures from included articles. Evaluation of measures was completed using the COSMIN (consensus-based standards for the selection of health measurement instruments) checklist. A total of 13,529 papers were retrieved, 15 reporting measurement of motivation in this population. Two measures met criteria: Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire (DMQ) and Pediatric Volitional Questionnaire (PVQ). There was evidence of adequate validity for DMQ, and preliminary evidence of test-retest reliability. Psychometric evidence for PVQ was poor. Both measures demonstrated good clinical utility. The large number of retrieved papers highlights the importance being attributed to motivation in clinical studies, although measurement is seldom performed. Both identified measures show promise but further psychometric research is required.

  7. Apparatus for characterizing the temporo-spatial properties of a dynamic fluid front and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Battiste, Richard L.

    2007-12-25

    Methods and apparatus are described for characterizing the temporal-spatial properties of a dynamic fluid front within a mold space while the mold space is being filled with fluid. A method includes providing a mold defining a mold space and having one or more openings into the mold space; heating a plurality of temperature sensors that extend into the mold space; injecting a fluid into the mold space through the openings, the fluid experiencing a dynamic fluid front while filling the mold space with the fluid; and characterizing temporal-spatial properties of the dynamic fluid front by monitoring a temperature of each of the plurality of heated temperature sensors while the mold space is being filled with the fluid. An apparatus includes a mold defining a mold space; one or more openings for introducing a fluid into the mold space and filling the mold space with the fluid, the fluid experiencing a dynamic fluid front while filling the mold space; a plurality of heated temperature sensors extending into the mold space; and a computer coupled to the plurality of heated temperature sensors for characterizing the temporal-spatial properties of the dynamic fluid front.

  8. Apparatus for characterizing the temporo-spatial properties of a dynamic fluid front and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Battiste, Richard L

    2013-12-31

    Methods and apparatus are described for characterizing the temporal-spatial properties of a dynamic fluid front within a mold space while the mold space is being filled with fluid. A method includes providing a mold defining a mold space and having one or more openings into the mold space; heating a plurality of temperature sensors that extend into the mold space; injecting a fluid into th emold space through the openings, the fluid experiencing a dynamic fluid front while filling the mold space with a fluid; and characterizing temporal-spatial properties of the dynamic fluid front by monitoring a termperature of each of the plurality of heated temperature sensors while the mold space is being filled with the fluid. An apparatus includes a mold defining a mold space; one or more openings for introducing a fluid into th emold space and filling the mold space with the fluid, the fluid experiencing a dynamic fluid front while filling the mold space; a plurality of heated temperature sensors extending into the mold space; and a computer coupled to the plurality of heated temperature sensors for characterizing the temporal-spatial properties of the dynamic fluid front.

  9. The Impact of Fluid Properties and Flow Conditions on the Measurement of Relative Permeability and Residual CO2 Trapping Saturation for CO2-Brine Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, B.; Al-Menhali, A.; Krevor, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Successful industrial scale carbon dioxide injection into deep saline aquifers will be dependent on the ability to model the flow of the fluid and to quantify the impact of various trapping mechanisms. The effectiveness of the models is in turn dependent on high quality laboratory measurements of basic multiphase flow properties such as relative permeability and residual trapping at reservoir conditions. Compared with typical oil-brine systems, however, a unique defining characteristic of the CO2-brine system is its combination of high viscosity ratio and low density ratio. This combination of properties results in unique complications for experiments with CO2 and brine and unique flow conditions must be used to achieve the combined goals of observations across a large saturation range and the avoidance of the effects of heterogeneity as well as capillary forces and gravity segregation. We have simulated the corefloods experiments at various conditions and calculated with different interpretation techniques: Steady state method, JBN-type method and history matching. As one of the essential mechanisms for CO2 storage underground, residual trapping refers to the trapping of CO2 through capillary forces within the pore space of a permeable aquifer. There are few studies that have observed the trapping characteristics for CO2-brine systems in permeable rocks, including the impact of reservoir conditions, and this remains a major uncertainty for geologic CO2 storage. This work presents results from a core-flooding laboratory that has been recently developed at Imperial College dedicated to observations of CO2-brine systems. The apparatus includes high precision pumps, accurate temperature control and a rotating X-ray CT scanner that allows experiments to be performed in both vertical and horizontal directions. The proper approach to measuring relative permeability for CO2-brine system is proposed and demonstrated. The changes in residual trapping correlated to pressure

  10. The MOPITT instrument as a Prototype for Long-Term Space-Based Atmospheric Measurements in the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, James

    2016-07-01

    One of the major characteristics of the Anthropocene will be changes in all the Earth systems on many timescales. Changes that occur within a generation will be very significant for policy decisions and these will require measurements on corresponding timescales from space-based instruments, but these times are long compared to traditional satellite lifetimes. Whether by luck or by good design there are now a number of satellite missions that are recording data over long time periods. With a single instrument, decadal and longer time series of relevant atmospheric parameters have been achieved and the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument is one such instrument. Launched on 18th December 1999 on the Terra spacecraft, MOPITT has now completed more than 16 years of operation measuring carbon monoxide (CO) over the planet and the mission continues. It is entirely possible that these measurements will span two decades before completion. MOPITT therefore offers a case study of a very long single-instrument time series, albeit one with challenges because this longevity was not part of the original design criteria: The original design specified about a five year life and this has already been considerably exceeded. MOPITT does enable us to look at long term trends and intermittent phenomena over the planet for an extended period of tie encompassing an entire solar cycle and many cycles of El Niño and other quasi-periodic phenomena. This presentation will consider, with examples, some of the advantages and some of the problems of these long-term space measurements with an eye to the future and the needs of future generations. MOPITT was provided to NASA's Terra spacecraft by the Canadian Space Agency and was built by COMDEV of Cambridge, Ontario. Data processing is performed by the MOPITT team at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO. Instrument control is by the team at the University of Toronto.

  11. Instrumentation for Measurement of Gas Permeability of Polymeric Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Billy T.; Wood, George M.; Brown, Kenneth G.; Burns, Karen S.

    1993-01-01

    A mass spectrometric 'Dynamic Delta' method for the measurement of gas permeability of polymeric membranes has been developed. The method is universally applicable for measurement of the permeability of any gas through polymeric membrane materials. The usual large sample size of more than 100 square centimeters required for other methods is not necessary for this new method which requires a size less than one square centimeter. The new method should fulfill requirements and find applicability for industrial materials such as food packaging, contact lenses and other commercial materials where gas permeability or permselectivity properties are important.

  12. Instrumentation for chemical species measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, C.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Instrument advances made during 1987-1990 for atmospheric trace species measurements are reviewed. Problems discussed include types of measurement strategies, oxidant species, reductant species, and flux measurement. Particular attention is given to odd oxygen species, hydrogen oxides, hydrocarbon oxy and peroxy radicals, halogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxides, hydrocarbons, oxygenated hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, reduced sulfur compounds, ammonia, cyanide compounds, water vapor, nitrous oxide, hydrogen halides, fully halogenated carbon compounds, fully halogenated carbonyl compounds, and sulfur hexafluoride. 195 refs.

  13. POLVSM (Polarized Volume Scattering Meter) instrument: an innovative device to measure the directional and polarized scattering properties of hydrosols.

    PubMed

    Chami, Malik; Thirouard, Alexandre; Harmel, Tristan

    2014-10-20

    An innovative instrument dedicated to the multispectral measurements of the directional and polarized scattering properties of the hydrosols, so-called POLVSM, is described. The instrument could be used onboard a ship, as a benchtop instrument, or at laboratory. The originality of the POLVSM concept relies on the use of a double periscopic optical system whose role is (i) to separate the plane containing the light source from the scattering plane containing the sample and the receiver and (ii) to prevent from any specularly reflected light within the sample chamber. As a result, a wide range of scattering angle, namely from 1° to 179°, is covered by the detector. Another originality of the instrument is to measure the Mueller scattering matrix elements, including the degree of polarization. A relevant calibration procedure, which could be of great interest as well for other instruments, is proposed to convert the raw data into physical units. The relative uncertainty in POLVSM data was determined at ± 4.3%. The analysis of measurements of the volume scattering function and degree of polarization performed under controlled conditions for samples dominated either by inorganic hydrosols or phytoplankton monospecific species showed a good consistency with literature, thus confirming the good performance of the POLVSM device. Comparisons of POLVSM data with theoretical calculations showed that Mie theory could reproduce efficiently the measurements of the VSF and degree of polarization for the case of inorganic hydrosols sample, despite the likely non sphericity of these particles as revealed by one of the element of the Mueller matrix. Our results suggested as well that a sophisticated modeling of the heterogeneous internal structure of living cells, or at least, the use of layered sphere models, is needed to correctly predict the directional and polarized effects of phytoplankton on the oceanic radiation. The relevance of performing angularly resolved measurements

  14. Interactive FORTRAN IV computer programs for the thermodynamic and transport properties of selected cryogens (fluids pack)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The thermodynamic and transport properties of selected cryogens had programmed into a series of computer routines. Input variables are any two of P, rho or T in the single phase regions and either P or T for the saturated liquid or vapor state. The output is pressure, density, temperature, entropy, enthalpy for all of the fluids and in most cases specific heat capacity and speed of sound. Viscosity and thermal conductivity are also given for most of the fluids. The programs are designed for access by remote terminal; however, they have been written in a modular form to allow the user to select either specific fluids or specific properties for particular needs. The program includes properties for hydrogen, helium, neon, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and methane. The programs include properties for gaseous and liquid states usually from the triple point to some upper limit of pressure and temperature which varies from fluid to fluid.

  15. Mercury-free PVT apparatus for thermophysical property analyses of hydrocarbon reservoir fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Lansangan, R.M.; Lievois, J.S.

    1992-08-31

    Typical reservoir fluid analyses of complex, multicomponent hydrocarbon mixtures include the volumetric properties, isothermal compressibility, thermal expansivity, equilibrium ratios, saturation pressure, viscosities, etc. These parameters are collectively referred to as PVT properties, an acronym for the primary state variables; pressure, volume, and temperature. The reservoir engineer incorporates this information together with the porous media description in performing material balance calculations. These calculations lead to the determination (estimation) of the initial hydrocarbon in-place, the future reservoir performance, the optimal production scheme, and the ultimate hydrocarbon recovery. About four years ago, Ruska Instrument Corporation embarked on a project to develop an apparatus designed to measure PVT properties that operates free of mercury. The result of this endeavor is the 2370 Hg-Free PVT system which has been in the market for the last three years. The 2370 has evolved from the prototype unit to its present configuration which is described briefly in this report. The 2370 system, although developed as a system-engineered apparatus based on existing technology, has not been exempt from this burden-of-proof Namely, the performance of the apparatus under routine test conditions with real reservoir fluids. This report summarizes the results of the performance and applications testing of the 2370 Hg-Free PVT system. Density measurements were conducted on a pure fluid. The results were compared against literature values and the prediction of an equation of state. Routine reservoir fluid analyses were conducted with a black oil and a retrograde condensate gas mixtures. Limited comparison of the results were performed based on the same tests performed on a conventional mercury-based PVT apparatus. The results of these tests are included in this report.

  16. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, Thomas G.; Thacker, Louis H.; Fine, H. Alan

    1993-01-01

    An instrument for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets 12, the packets 12 having a wall 14 sufficiently thin that it can be deformed by the application of an external vacuum to small area thereof. The instrument has a detector head 18 for placement against the deformable wall 14 of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall 14, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe 20. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector 26. An abrupt change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the vacuum applied through the head 18 to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum Within the packet 12. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum reference plate 44 is placed beneath the packet 12 to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface 16 of the packet. A packet production line model is also described.

  17. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, T.G.; Thacker, L.H.; Fine, H.A.

    1993-10-05

    An instrument is described for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets, the packets having a wall sufficiently thin that it can be deformed by the application of an external vacuum to small area thereof. The instrument has a detector head for placement against the deformable wall of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector. An abrupt change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the vacuum applied through the head to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum reference plate is placed beneath the packet to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface of the packet. A packet production line model is also described. 3 figures.

  18. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, Thomas G.; Thacker, Louis H.; Fine, H. Alan

    1995-01-01

    An instrument for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets 12, the packets 12 having a wall 14 that it can be deformed by the application of an external dynamic vacuum to an area thereof. The instrument has a detector head 18 for placement against the deformable wall 14 of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall 14, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe 20. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector 26. A change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the dynamic vacuum applied through the head be to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet 12. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum plate 44 is placed beneath the packet 12 to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface 16 of the packet. A vacuum can be applied to a recess in this vacuum plate, the value of which can be used to calibrate the vacuum transducer in the detector head.

  19. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, T.G.; Thacker, L.H.; Fine, H.A.

    1995-04-18

    An instrument is disclosed for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets, the packets having a wall that it can be deformed by the application of an external dynamic vacuum to an area thereof. The instrument has a detector head for placement against the deformable wall of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector. A change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the dynamic vacuum applied through the head be to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum plate is placed beneath the packet to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface of the packet. A vacuum can be applied to a recess in this vacuum plate, the value of which can be used to calibrate the vacuum transducer in the detector head. 4 figs.

  20. Comparison of two series of non-invasive instruments used for the skin physiological properties measurements: the 'Soft Plus' from Callegari S.p.A vs. the series of detectors from Courage & Khazaka.

    PubMed

    Hua, W; Xie, H; Chen, T; Li, L

    2014-02-01

    The invasive measuring techniques are of great help in the evaluation of skin physiological functions and topical formulation. The reproducibility and accuracy of the instrument are crucial. The aim of this study is to reveal the differences and correlations in measuring skin hydration, pH, sebum, elasticity and melanin on the forearm or faces between two commercially available series of instruments. 20 subjects were enrolled to be measured by the two series of instruments. The measurements by each series were performed on the left/right side of the body randomly. The pH, sebum, elasticity and melanin measurements were performed on the faces in different areas, while the hydration measurements were operated on the forearms before and after wet dressing, respectively. Positive correlations were found in the values of skin SC hydration, pH, sebum and melanin detected by the two series. The values related to skin elasticity measured by the two instruments were statistically negative correlated. The Soft Plus series has higher variation in detecting skin hydration, pH, and melanin than the instruments from Courage & Khazaka. The differences of the two series must be instrument related. The difference in level of measurement can be due either to differences in the design of the probe, to differences in time for measurement, to differences in left/right part of the body or a combination of these three. The two series have significant correlations. The instruments from CK are more reproducible. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Algorithm for stylus instruments to measure aspheric surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Byong C.; Lee, Y. W.; Lee, Chang-ock; Park, Kilsu

    2005-02-01

    A reliable algorithm was developed for the analysis of the machined aspheric surfaces with the stylus instrument. The research has been done as a prior step, with the intent to evaluate the uncertainties in the aspheric surfaces analysis as well as to make the applications that the commercial instruments cannot provide with its own code implemented inside. The algorithm considered two important factors in the instrument-calibration and the aspheric analysis: pickup configuration (pivoted arm) and the stylus radius. It also compensates for the sample tilt and axis offset due to the setup error in the analysis of aspheric surface. The algorithm has been coded by means of C++ and MATLAB. The algorithm was also applied to the real measurement, and compared with the instrument-produced results. Our algorithm found calibration constants better fitting the calibration ball in the instrument-calibration without noticeable cost of the speed. In conclusion, the developed algorithm can cover, and further, shows better performance over the commercial one in both of the instrument-calibration and analysis of aspheric surfaces.

  2. Aerosol Characterization and New Instrumentation for Better Understanding Snow Radiative Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beres, N. D.

    2015-12-01

    Snow albedo is determined by snowpack thickness and grain size, but also affected by contamination with light-absorbing, microscopic (e.g., mineral dust, combustion aerosols, bio-aerosols) and macroscopic (e.g., microalgae, plant debris, sand, organisms) compounds. Most currently available instruments for measuring snow albedo utilize the natural, downward flux of solar radiation and the reflected upward flux. This reliance on solar radiation (and, thus, large zenith angles and clear-sky conditions) leads to severe constraints, preventing characterization of detailed diurnal snow albedo cycles. Here, we describe instrumentation and methodologies to address these limitations with the development and deployment of new snow radiation sensors for measuring surface spectral and in-snow radiative properties. This novel instrumentation will be tested at the CRREL/UCSB Eastern Sierra (CUES) Snow Study Site at Mammoth Mountain, which is extensively instrumented for characterizing snow properties including snow albedo and surface morphology. However, it has been lacking instrumentation for the characterization of aerosols that can be deposited on the snow surface through dry and wet deposition. Currently, we are installing aerosol instrumentation at the CUES site, which are also described. This includes instruments for the multi-wavelength measurement of aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients and for the characterization of aerosol size distribution. Knowledge of aerosol concentration and physical and optical properties will allow for the study of aerosol deposition and modification of snow albedo and for establishing an aerosol climatology for the CUES site.

  3. A miniDOAS instrument optimised for ammonia field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintermann, Jörg; Dietrich, Klaus; Häni, Christoph; Bell, Michael; Jocher, Markus; Neftel, Albrecht

    2016-06-01

    We present a differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument, called "miniDOAS", optimised for optical open-path field-measurements of ambient ammonia (NH3) alongside nitrogen oxide (NO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The instrument is a further development of the miniDOAS presented by Volten et al. (2012). We use a temperature-controlled spectrometer, a deuterium light source and a modified optical arrangement. The system was set up in a robust, field-deployable, temperature-regulated housing. For the evaluation of light spectra we use a new high-pass filter routine based upon robust baseline extraction with local regression. Multiple linear regression including terms of an autoregressive-moving-average model is used to determine concentrations. For NH3 the random uncertainty is about 1.4 % of the concentration, and not better than 0.2 µg m-3. Potential biases for the slope of the calibration are given by the precision of the differential absorption cross sections (±3 %) and for the offset by the precision of the estimation of concentration offsets (cref) introduced by the reference spectrum Iref. Comparisons of miniDOAS measurements to those by NH3 acid trap devices showed good agreement. The miniDOAS can be flexibly used for a wide range of field trials, such as micrometeorological NH3 flux measurements with approaches based upon horizontal or vertical concentration differences. Results from such applications covering concentration dynamics of less than one up to several hundreds of µg m-3 are presented.

  4. Measurement of activity limitations and participation restrictions: examination of ICF-linked content and scale properties of the FIM and PC-PART instruments.

    PubMed

    Darzins, Susan W; Imms, Christine; Di Stefano, Marilyn

    2017-05-01

    To explore the operationalization of activity and participation-related measurement constructs through comparison of item phrasing, item response categories and scoring (scale properties) for two separate instruments targeting activities of daily living. Personal Care Participation Assessment and Resource Tool (PC-PART) item content was linked to ICF categories using established linking rules. Previously reported ICF-linked FIM content categories and ICF-linked PC-PART content categories were compared to identify common ICF categories between the instruments. Scale properties of both instruments were compared using a patient scenario to explore the instruments' separate measurement constructs. The PC-PART and FIM shared 15 of the 53 level two ICF-linked categories identified across both instruments. Examination of the instruments' scale properties for items with overlapping ICF content, and exploration through a patient scenario, provided supportive evidence that the instruments measure different constructs. While the PC-PART and FIM share common ICF-linked content, they measure separate constructs. Measurement construct was influenced by the instruments' scale properties. The FIM was observed to measure activity limitations and the PC-PART measured participation restrictions. Scrutiny of instruments' scale properties in addition to item content is critical in the operationalization of activity and participation-related measurement constructs. Implications for Rehabilitation When selecting outcome measures for use in rehabilitation it is necessary to examine both the content of the instruments' items and item phrasing, response categories and scoring, to clarify the construct being measured. Measurement of activity limitations as well as participation restrictions in activities of daily living required for community life provides a more comprehensive measurement of rehabilitation outcomes than measurement of either construct alone. To measure the effects of

  5. An instrument for measuring scintillators efficiently based on silicon photomultipliers.

    PubMed

    Yang, M J; Zhang, Z M; Wang, Y J; Li, D W; Zhou, W; Tang, H H; Liu, Y T; Chai, P; Shuai, L; Huang, X C; Liu, S Q; Zhu, M L; Jiang, X P; Zhang, Y W; Li, T; Ma, B; Sun, S F; Sun, L Y; Wang, Q; Lu, Z R; Zhang, T; Wei, L

    2016-11-01

    An instrument used for measuring multiple scintillators' light output and energy resolution was developed. The instrument consisted of a light sensor array which was composed of 64 discrete SiPMs (Silicon Photomultipliers), a corresponding individual channel readout electronics system, and a data processing algorithm. A Teflon grid and a large interval between adjacent SiPMs were employed to eliminate the optical cross talk among scintillators. The scintillators' light output was obtained by comparing with a reference sample with known light output. Given the SiPM temperature dependency and the difference among each SiPM, a temperature offset correction algorithm and a non-uniformity correction algorithm were added to the instrument. A positioning algorithm, based on nine points, was designed to evaluate the performance of a scintillator array. Tests were performed to evaluate the instrument's performance. The uniformity of 64 channels for light output measurement was better than 98%, the stability was better than 98% when temperature varied from 15 °C to 40 °C, and the nonlinearity under 511 keV was better than 2%. This instrument was capable of selecting scintillators and evaluating the packaging technology of scintillator arrays with high efficiency and accuracy.

  6. An instrument for measuring scintillators efficiently based on silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M. J.; Zhang, Z. M.; Wang, Y. J.; Li, D. W.; Zhou, W.; Tang, H. H.; Liu, Y. T.; Chai, P.; Shuai, L.; Huang, X. C.; Liu, S. Q.; Zhu, M. L.; Jiang, X. P.; Zhang, Y. W.; Li, T.; Ma, B.; Sun, S. F.; Sun, L. Y.; Wang, Q.; Lu, Z. R.; Zhang, T.; Wei, L.

    2016-11-01

    An instrument used for measuring multiple scintillators' light output and energy resolution was developed. The instrument consisted of a light sensor array which was composed of 64 discrete SiPMs (Silicon Photomultipliers), a corresponding individual channel readout electronics system, and a data processing algorithm. A Teflon grid and a large interval between adjacent SiPMs were employed to eliminate the optical cross talk among scintillators. The scintillators' light output was obtained by comparing with a reference sample with known light output. Given the SiPM temperature dependency and the difference among each SiPM, a temperature offset correction algorithm and a non-uniformity correction algorithm were added to the instrument. A positioning algorithm, based on nine points, was designed to evaluate the performance of a scintillator array. Tests were performed to evaluate the instrument's performance. The uniformity of 64 channels for light output measurement was better than 98%, the stability was better than 98% when temperature varied from 15 °C to 40 °C, and the nonlinearity under 511 keV was better than 2%. This instrument was capable of selecting scintillators and evaluating the packaging technology of scintillator arrays with high efficiency and accuracy.

  7. Instrument for Aircraft-Icing and Cloud-Physics Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilie, Lyle; Bouley, Dan; Sivo, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The figure shows a compact, rugged, simple sensor head that is part of an instrumentation system for making measurements to characterize the severity of aircraft-icing conditions and/or to perform research on cloud physics. The quantities that are calculated from measurement data acquired by this system and that are used to quantify the severity of icing conditions include sizes of cloud water drops, cloud liquid water content (LWC), cloud ice water content (IWC), and cloud total water content (TWC). The sensor head is mounted on the outside of an aircraft, positioned and oriented to intercept the ambient airflow. The sensor head consists of an open housing that is heated in a controlled manner to keep it free of ice and that contains four hot-wire elements. The hot-wire sensing elements have different shapes and sizes and, therefore, exhibit different measurement efficiencies with respect to droplet size and water phase (liquid, frozen, or mixed). Three of the hot-wire sensing elements are oriented across the airflow so as to intercept incoming cloud water. For each of these elements, the LWC or TWC affects the power required to maintain a constant temperature in the presence of cloud water.

  8. An inexpensive instrument for measuring wave exposure and water velocity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Figurski, J.D.; Malone, D.; Lacy, J.R.; Denny, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ocean waves drive a wide variety of nearshore physical processes, structuring entire ecosystems through their direct and indirect effects on the settlement, behavior, and survivorship of marine organisms. However, wave exposure remains difficult and expensive to measure. Here, we report on an inexpensive and easily constructed instrument for measuring wave-induced water velocities. The underwater relative swell kinetics instrument (URSKI) is a subsurface float tethered by a short (<1 m) line to the seafloor. Contained within the float is an accelerometer that records the tilt of the float in response to passing waves. During two field trials totaling 358 h, we confirmed the accuracy and precision of URSKI measurements through comparison to velocities measured by an in situ acoustic Doppler velocimeter and those predicted by a standard swell model, and we evaluated how the dimensions of the devices, its buoyancy, and sampling frequency can be modified for use in a variety of environments.

  9. Intercomparison of gamma ray scattering and transmission techniques for fluid-fluid and fluid-air interface levels detection and density measurements.

    PubMed

    Priyada, P; Margret, M; Ramar, R; Shivaramu

    2012-03-01

    This paper focuses on the fluid-fluid, fluid-air interface level detection and density determination by gamma scattering method and intercomparison with transmission (gammatography) technique. The Monte Carlo (MC) numerical simulation of the scattering phenomena is done using the MCNP code. The obtained accuracies and resolution of the level detections and density measurements are higher in case of gamma scattering method compared to transmission method. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optical phenomena and antifrosting property on biomimetics slippery fluid-infused antireflective films via layer-by-layer comparison with superhydrophobic and antireflective films.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Kengo; Nishizawa, Shingo; Kyung, Kyu-Hong; Shiratori, Seimei

    2014-08-27

    Sophisticated material interfaces generated by natural life forms such as lotus leaves and Nepenthes pitcher plants have exceptional abilities to resolve challenges in wide areas of industry and medicine. The nano- and microstructures inspired by these natural materials can repel various liquids and form self-cleaning coatings. In particular, slippery liquid-infused surfaces are receiving remarkable interest as transparent, nonfouling, and antifrosting synthetic surfaces for solar cells and optical devices. Here we focus on the transparency of lubricant-infused texture on antireflective films fabricated by layer-by-layer self-assembly that decrease light scattering, which is important to maintain device properties. A slippery fluid-infused antireflective film composed of chitin nanofibers less than 50 nm in diameter prevented light scattering at the long-wavelength side by Rayleigh scattering to achieve 97.2% transmittance. Moreover, films composed of the same materials demonstrated three different morphologies: superhydrophilicity with antireflection, superhydrophobicity, and omniphobicity, mimicking the biological structures of moth eyes, lotus leaves, and pitcher plants, respectively. The effect of thermal changes on the ability of each film to prevent frost formation was investigated. The slippery fluid-infused antireflective film showed effective antifrosting behavior.

  11. Mass measuring instrument for use under microgravity conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Yusaku; Yokota, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Seiji; Sugita, Yoichi; Ito, Hitomi; Shimada, Kazuhito

    2008-05-15

    A prototype instrument for measuring astronaut body mass under microgravity conditions has been developed and its performance was evaluated by parabolic flight tests. The instrument, which is the space scale, is applied as follows. Connect the subject astronaut to the space scale with a rubber cord. Use a force transducer to measure the force acting on the subject and an optical interferometer to measure the velocity of the subject. The subject's mass is calculated as the impulse divided by the velocity change, i.e., M={integral}Fdt/{delta}v. Parabolic flight by using a jet aircraft produces a zero-gravity condition lasting approximately 20 s. The performance of the prototype space scale was evaluated during such a flight by measuring the mass of a sample object.

  12. Optical fiber system for saline concentration measurement in drilling fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caetano, L. A. C.; Fontoura, S. A. B.; Torres, P. I.; Valente, L. C. G.

    2001-08-01

    Laboratory setups are used to simulate real conditions in which drilling fluid and shales interact during an oil well drilling process. The present work describes the development of fiber optic systems capable of measuring the ionic diffusion in water-based fluids under high pressure. Two alternatives have been tested and calibrations are presented for both. The most successful one was tested in a real experiment in which the concentration of CaCl2 has been continuously measured during five days. Starting from pure water, the final ionic concentration measured by this method was compared with the result from chemical analysis of the fluid with very good agreement.

  13. Portable digital lock-in instrument to determine chemical constituents with single-color absorption measurements for Global Health Initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacas-Jacques, Paulino; Linnes, Jacqueline; Young, Anna; Gerrard, Victoria; Gomez-Marquez, Jose

    2014-03-01

    Innovations in international health require the use of state-of-the-art technology to enable clinical chemistry for diagnostics of bodily fluids. We propose the implementation of a portable and affordable lock-in amplifier-based instrument that employs digital technology to perform biochemical diagnostics on blood, urine, and other fluids. The digital instrument is composed of light source and optoelectronic sensor, lock-in detection electronics, microcontroller unit, and user interface components working with either power supply or batteries. The instrument performs lock-in detection provided that three conditions are met. First, the optoelectronic signal of interest needs be encoded in the envelope of an amplitude-modulated waveform. Second, the reference signal required in the demodulation channel has to be frequency and phase locked with respect to the optoelectronic carrier signal. Third, the reference signal should be conditioned appropriately. We present three approaches to condition the signal appropriately: high-pass filtering the reference signal, precise offset tuning the reference level by low-pass filtering, and by using a voltage divider network. We assess the performance of the lock-in instrument by comparing it to a benchmark device and by determining protein concentration with single-color absorption measurements. We validate the concentration values obtained with the proposed instrument using chemical concentration measurements. Finally, we demonstrate that accurate retrieval of phase information can be achieved by using the same instrument.

  14. Portable digital lock-in instrument to determine chemical constituents with single-color absorption measurements for Global Health Initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Vacas-Jacques, Paulino; Linnes, Jacqueline; Young, Anna; Gomez-Marquez, Jose; Gerrard, Victoria

    2014-03-15

    Innovations in international health require the use of state-of-the-art technology to enable clinical chemistry for diagnostics of bodily fluids. We propose the implementation of a portable and affordable lock-in amplifier-based instrument that employs digital technology to perform biochemical diagnostics on blood, urine, and other fluids. The digital instrument is composed of light source and optoelectronic sensor, lock-in detection electronics, microcontroller unit, and user interface components working with either power supply or batteries. The instrument performs lock-in detection provided that three conditions are met. First, the optoelectronic signal of interest needs be encoded in the envelope of an amplitude-modulated waveform. Second, the reference signal required in the demodulation channel has to be frequency and phase locked with respect to the optoelectronic carrier signal. Third, the reference signal should be conditioned appropriately. We present three approaches to condition the signal appropriately: high-pass filtering the reference signal, precise offset tuning the reference level by low-pass filtering, and by using a voltage divider network. We assess the performance of the lock-in instrument by comparing it to a benchmark device and by determining protein concentration with single-color absorption measurements. We validate the concentration values obtained with the proposed instrument using chemical concentration measurements. Finally, we demonstrate that accurate retrieval of phase information can be achieved by using the same instrument.

  15. Nondestructive technique based on vibration measurements and piezoelectric patches for monitoring corrosion phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, Ernesto; Fontana, Mauro; De Rosa, Luca; Bellucci, Francesco; Lecce, Leonardo

    2002-07-01

    The paper presents a new application of a NDT based on vibrations measurements which has been developed by the authors and already tested for analyzing damages of many structural elements. The proposed method is based on the acquisition and comparison of Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) of the monitored structure before and after a damage occurred. Structural damages modify the dynamical behavior of the structure and consequently its FRFs making possible to calculate a representative Damage Index. Main target of this work was to test the developed NDT for identifying and analyzing typical corrosive phenomena. A thin aluminium plate, typical for aeronautical employ, was chosen as test-article; an array of piezoelectric patches has been employed for both exciting the test article and acquiring the structural response in many points of it. Both homogeneous and localized corrosion phenomena have been recreated on the plate surface in laboratory environment. Two expressions of Damage Indices were calculated and statistically analyzed. Very small percentages of thickness variations have been detected and localized using the proposed methodology and it has been possible to follow corrosion dynamics (in terms of mass and stiffness variations of the test-article) by monitoring the values of the experimental Damage Indices.

  16. A thermal stack structure for measurement of fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hao; Mitchell, S. J. N.; Campbell, D. H.; Gamble, Harold S.

    2003-03-01

    A stacked thermal structure for fluid flow sensing has been designed, fabricated, and tested. A double-layer polysilicon process was employed in the fabrication. Flow measurement is based on the transfer of heat from a temperature sensor element to the moving fluid. The undoped or lightly doped polysilicon temperature sensor is located on top of a heavily doped polysilicon heater element. A dielectric layer between the heater and the sensor elements provides both thermal coupling and electrical isolation. In comparison to a hot-wire flow sensor, the heating and sensing functions are separated, allowing the electrical characteristics of each to be optimized. Undoped polysilicon has a large temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) up to 7 %/K and is thus a preferred material for the sensor. However, heavily doped polysilicon is preferred for the heater due to its lower resistance. The stacked flow sensor structure offers a high thermal sensitivity making it especially suitable for medical applications where the working temperatures are restricted. Flow rates of various fluids can be measured over a wide range. The fabricated flow sensors were used to measure the flow rate of water in the range μl - ml/min and gas (Helium) in the range 10 - 100ml/min.

  17. Instrumentation of sampling aircraft for measurement of launch vehicle effluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wornom, D. E.; Woods, D. C.; Thomas, M. E.; Tyson, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    An aircraft was selected and instrumented to measure effluents emitted from large solid propellant rockets during launch activities. The considerations involved in aircraft selection, sampling probes, and instrumentation are discussed with respect to obtaining valid airborne measurements. Discussions of the data acquisition system used, the instrument power system, and operational sampling procedures are included. Representative measurements obtained from an actual rocket launch monitoring activity are also presented.

  18. Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Astronaut Mike Fincke places droplets of honey onto the strings for the Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM) investigation onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The FMVM experiment measures the time it takes for two individual highly viscous fluid droplets to coalesce or merge into one droplet. Different fluids and droplet size combinations were tested in the series of experiments. By using the microgravity environment, researchers can measure the viscosity or 'thickness' of fluids without the influence of containers and gravity using this new technique. Understanding viscosity could help scientists understand industrially important materials such as paints, emulsions, polymer melts and even foams used to produce pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic products.

  19. Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Astronaut Mike Fincke places droplets of honey onto the strings for the Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM) investigation onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The FMVM experiment measures the time it takes for two individual highly viscous fluid droplets to coalesce or merge into one droplet. Different fluids and droplet size combinations were tested in the series of experiments. By using the microgravity environment, researchers can measure the viscosity or 'thickness' of fluids without the influence of containers and gravity using this new technique. Understanding viscosity could help scientists understand industrially important materials such as paints, emulsions, polymer melts and even foams used to produce pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic products.

  20. Photogrammetric methods for measurements in fluid physics experiments in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, H.-G.; Virant, M.; Becker, J.; Bösemann, W.; Gatti, L.; Henrichs, A.

    2002-02-01

    Methods of digital close-range photogrammetry allow for manifold real 3-D measurements in dynamic processes. Based on the acquisition of multi-camera digital image sequences, image analysis with subpixel accuracy image measurement operators, photogrammetric multi-image matching and point determination techniques, strict geometric modeling of complex environments and thorough system calibration techniques, time-resolved accurate 3-D coordinates of a large number of objects in a scene can be determined fully automatically. The paper will first give a short review on basic principles of digital photogrammetry and discuss the application and accuracy potential. After that, practical examples will be given from several breadboard experiments conducted in the frame of the ESA Technological Research and Development Programme to show the applicability of the technique to typical experiments in the field of fluid physics. These experiments focus on the investigation of experiments on Marangoni convection; they include the determination of 3-D velocity fields near a hanging drop within a fluid matrix and the observation of the tangential tension on the boundary surface by measuring changes in shape and/or position of liquid bodies like drops, bubbles or liquid columns in a fluid matrix.

  1. [An instrument for estimating human body composition using impedance measurement].

    PubMed

    Yin, J; Peng, C

    1997-03-01

    According to the impedance feature of biological tissue, the instrument was designed at 1, 5, 10, 50, 100kHz to measure human impedance, and then to calculate human FAT, FFM, FAT%, TBW, ECW, ICW and so on. A 8031 singlechip microprocessor contacuting used as a control center in the instrument. The part of electric circuit contacuting human body in the instrument was unreally earthing. The instrument was safty, effective, repeatable, and easily manpulative. Prelimintary clinical experiment showed the results measured with the instrument could effectively reflect practical, status of human composition.

  2. Method for noninvasive determination of acoustic properties of fluids inside pipes

    DOEpatents

    None

    2016-08-02

    A method for determining the composition of fluids flowing through pipes from noninvasive measurements of acoustic properties of the fluid is described. The method includes exciting a first transducer located on the external surface of the pipe through which the fluid under investigation is flowing, to generate an ultrasound chirp signal, as opposed to conventional pulses. The chirp signal is received by a second transducer disposed on the external surface of the pipe opposing the location of the first transducer, from which the transit time through the fluid is determined and the sound speed of the ultrasound in the fluid is calculated. The composition of a fluid is calculated from the sound speed therein. The fluid density may also be derived from measurements of sound attenuation. Several signal processing approaches are described for extracting the transit time information from the data with the effects of the pipe wall having been subtracted.

  3. Mixed metal hydroxides for thickening water or hydrophylic fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Burba, J.L.; Strothers, G.W.

    1991-02-05

    This paper discusses a composition for use as a drilling fluid component. The composition comprises: a liquid having dispersed therein at least one monodispersed monolayer crystalline metal hydroxide conforming essentially to the empirical formula Li{sub m}D{sub d}T(OH)(m + 2d + 3 + na)A{sub a}{sup n}, where D represents divalent metal ions, T represents trivalent metal ions, A represents monovalent or polyvalent anions or negative-valence radicals other than OH{sup {minus}} ions, m is from about zero to about 1, representing the amount of Li ion, d is from about zero to about 4, (m + d) is greater than zero, and na is from about zero to about {minus} 3; and a is an amount of A ions of valence n, where (m + 2d + 3 + na) is equal to or greater than 3 wherein the drilling fluid also contains at least one fluid loss control agent. This patent also describes a drilling fluid component, wherein the drilling fluid also contains at least one fluid loss control agent selected from the group consisting of hydroxyethylcarboxymethyl-cellulose, cornstarch, sodium polyacrylate, starch, polyacrylates, and carboxymethyl-cellulose.

  4. Development of a new instrument for direct skin friction measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vakili, A. D.; Wu, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    A device developed for the direct measurement of wall shear stress generated by flows is described. Simple and symmetric in design with optional small moving mass and no internal friction, the features employed in the design eliminate most of the difficulties associated with the traditional floating element balances. The device is basically small and can be made in various sizes. Vibration problems associated with the floating element skin friction balances were found to be minimized due to the design symmetry and optional damping provided. The design eliminates or reduces the errors associated with conventional floating element devices: such as errors due to gaps, pressure gradient, acceleration, heat transfer, and temperature change. The instrument is equipped with various sensing systems and the output signal is a linear function of the wall shear stress. Dynamic measurements could be made in a limited range and measurements in liquids could be performed readily. Measurement made in the three different tunnels show excellent agreement with data obtained by the floating element devices and other techniques.

  5. Instrument for Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Materials at Low Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James; Sass, Jared; Johnson, Wesley

    2010-01-01

    With the advance of polymer and other non-metallic material sciences, whole new series of polymeric materials and composites are being created. These materials are being optimized for many different applications including cryogenic and low-temperature industrial processes. Engineers need these data to perform detailed system designs and enable new design possibilities for improved control, reliability, and efficiency in specific applications. One main area of interest is cryogenic structural elements and fluid handling components and other parts, films, and coatings for low-temperature application. An important thermal property of these new materials is the apparent thermal conductivity (k-value).

  6. A fluid-based measurement system for airborne radioxenon surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Rooney, B.; Gross, K.C.; Nietert, R.; Valentine, J.; Russ, W.

    1997-10-01

    A new and innovative technique for concentrating heavy noble gases from the atmosphere and subsequently measuring the radioactive xenon isotopes has recently been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The concentration technique is based on the discovery of a phenomenon where certain organic fluids absorb heavy noble gases with very high efficiency at room temperature and release the noble gases when slightly warmed (about 60{degrees}C). Research has been conducted to study the application of this technology to the design of an ultra sensitive radioxenon measurement system. Such a system could be used to monitor or sample the atmosphere for noble gas fission products ({sup 133}Xe, {sup 133m}Xe, and {sup 135}Xe) generated by nuclear testing. A system that utilizes this fluid-based technology provides a simpler, more portable, less-expensive means of concentrating xenon than current cryogenic techniques and avoids some of the complications associated with charcoal-based systems. Preliminary experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing this fluid-based technology in the design of an atmospheric radioxenon measurement have been very promising and research is continuing toward applying this technology to monitoring activities which support the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).

  7. Instrument for measuring the misalignments of ocular surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabernero, Juan; Benito, Antonio; Nourrit, Vincent; Artal, Pablo

    2006-10-01

    A compact and robust instrument for measuring the alignment of ocular surfaces has been designed and used in living eyes. It is based on recording Purkinje images (reflections of light at the ocular surfaces) at nine different angular fixations. A complete analysis on the causes of misalignments of Purkinje images and its relations with those physical variables to be measured (global eye tilt, lens decentration and lens tilt) is presented. A research prototype based on these ideas was built and tested in normal and pseudophakic eyes (after cataract surgery). The new analysis techniques, together with the semicircular extended source and multiple fixation tests that we used, are significant improvements towards a robust approach to measuring the misalignments of the ocular surfaces in vivo. This instrument will be of use in both basic studies of the eye’s optics and clinical ophthalmology.

  8. Determination of constant-volume balloon capabilities for aeronautical research. [specifically measurement of atmospheric phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatom, F. B.; King, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    The proper application of constant-volume balloons (CVB) for measurement of atmospheric phenomena was determined. And with the proper interpretation of the resulting data. A literature survey covering 176 references is included. the governing equations describing the three-dimensional motion of a CVB immersed in a flow field are developed. The flowfield model is periodic, three-dimensional, and nonhomogeneous, with mean translational motion. The balloon motion and flow field equations are cast into dimensionless form for greater generality, and certain significant dimensionless groups are identified. An alternate treatment of the balloon motion, based on first-order perturbation analysis, is also presented. A description of the digital computer program, BALLOON, used for numerically integrating the governing equations is provided.

  9. Virtual Instrument for Emissions Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Armando; Ramos, Rogelio; Montero, Gisela; Coronado, Marcos; García, Conrado; Pérez, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    The gases emissions measurement systems in internal combustion engines are strict and expensive nowadays. For this reason, a virtual instrument was developed to measure the combustion emissions from an internal combustion diesel engine, running with diesel-biodiesel mixtures. This software is called virtual instrument for emissions measurement (VIEM), and it was developed in the platform of LabVIEW 2010® virtual programming. VIEM works with sensors connected to a signal conditioning system, and a data acquisition system is used as interface for a computer in order to measure and monitor in real time the emissions of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2 gases. This paper shows the results of the VIEM programming, the integrated circuits diagrams used for the signal conditioning of sensors, and the sensors characterization of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2. VIEM is a low-cost instrument and is simple and easy to use. Besides, it is scalable, making it flexible and defined by the user.

  10. Virtual Instrument for Emissions Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Armando; Montero, Gisela; Coronado, Marcos; García, Conrado; Pérez, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    The gases emissions measurement systems in internal combustion engines are strict and expensive nowadays. For this reason, a virtual instrument was developed to measure the combustion emissions from an internal combustion diesel engine, running with diesel-biodiesel mixtures. This software is called virtual instrument for emissions measurement (VIEM), and it was developed in the platform of LabVIEW 2010® virtual programming. VIEM works with sensors connected to a signal conditioning system, and a data acquisition system is used as interface for a computer in order to measure and monitor in real time the emissions of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2 gases. This paper shows the results of the VIEM programming, the integrated circuits diagrams used for the signal conditioning of sensors, and the sensors characterization of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2. VIEM is a low-cost instrument and is simple and easy to use. Besides, it is scalable, making it flexible and defined by the user. PMID:27034893

  11. Instrumentation for measuring aircraft noise and sonic boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Improved instrumentation suitable for measuring aircraft noise and sonic booms is described. An electric current proportional to the sound pressure level at a condenser microphone is produced and transmitted over a cable and amplified by a zero drive amplifier. The converter consists of a local oscillator, a dual-gate field-effect transistor mixer, and a voltage regulator/impedance translator. The improvements include automatic tuning compensation against changes in static microphone capacitance and means for providing a remote electrical calibration capability.

  12. Fluid: A Numerical Interpolation Procedure for Obtaining Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Fluids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    program is ready to calculate properties for a par- ticular gas, it calls the gas-tables subprogram for that gas, which in turn calls FLUIDO , 10 setting...Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, Ohio, May 5, 1977, 505-01. 17 APP IDEX A ABSTRACT OF INTRY POINTS IN FLUID SUBROUTINE FLUIDO (G,NG,GGTT

  13. Critical phenomena in the aspherical gravitational collapse of radiation fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgarte, Thomas W.; Montero, Pedro J.

    2015-12-01

    We study critical phenomena in the gravitational collapse of a radiation fluid. We perform numerical simulations in both spherical symmetry and axisymmetry, and observe critical scaling in both supercritical evolutions, which lead to the formation of a black hole, and subcritical evolutions, in which case the fluid disperses to infinity and leaves behind flat space. We identify the critical solution in spherically symmetric collapse, find evidence for its universality, and study the approach to this critical solution in the absence of spherical symmetry. For the cases that we consider, aspherical deviations from the spherically symmetric critical solution decay in damped oscillations in a manner that is consistent with the behavior found by Gundlach in perturbative calculations. Our simulations are performed with an unconstrained evolution code, implemented in spherical polar coordinates, and adopting "moving-puncture" coordinates.

  14. Solar Spectral Lines with Special Polarization Properties for the Calibration of Instrument Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenxian; Casini, Roberto; Judge, Phil; del Pino Alemná, Tanausú

    2017-08-01

    We investigate atomic transitions that have previously been identified as having zero polarization from the Zeeman effect. Our goal is to identify spectral lines that can be used for the calibration of instrumental polarization of large astronomical and solar telescopes, such as the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope, which is currently under construction on Haleakala. We use a numerical model that takes into account the generation of scattering polarization and its modification by the presence of a magnetic field (Hanle effect, Zeeman effect, and incomplete Paschen-Back effect). We adopt values for the Landé factors from spectroscopic measurements or semi-empirical results, thus relaxing the common assumption of LS-coupling previously used in the literature. The mechanisms dominating the polarization of particular transitions are identified, and we summarize groups of various spectral lines useful for the polarization calibration of spectro-polarimetric instruments, classified according to their polarization properties.

  15. Method and apparatus for measuring the intensity and phase of one or more ultrashort light pulses and for measuring optical properties of materials

    DOEpatents

    Trebino, Rick P.; DeLong, Kenneth W.

    1996-01-01

    The intensity and phase of one or more ultrashort light pulses are obtained using a non-linear optical medium. Information derived from the light pulses is also used to measure optical properties of materials. Various retrieval techniques are employed. Both "instantaneously" and "non-instantaneously" responding optical mediums may be used.

  16. An intelligent radiological instrument for field samples and contamination measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drndarevic, Vujo R.; Djuric, Danko J.

    1993-09-01

    A new intelligent radiological instrument for fast and accurate measurements of mass α and β activities of samples of human and animal food and other materials and for the detection of surface contamination of different objects have been developed. The original concept of an iterative dialogue operator-instrument, based on the built-in intelligence into the instrument—has reduced to a minimum the chance of obtaining an erroneous result. The built-in intelligence specifies: the sequence of the measurements, the subsequence of selecting the necessary absorber for mass β activity measurement, the algorithms for all necessary calculations. Minimum detectable β activity of measured samples (40K) is 0.17 Bq/g with an error not exceeding ±30% and measurement time 1000 s. The sensitivity of α activity measurement is related to the method of sample preparation; it ranges from 0.04 up to 10 Bq/g, with a selectivity with respect to β activity exceeding 104.

  17. Application of DOAS Instruments for Trace Gas Measurements on Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horbanski, M.; Pöhler, D.; Mahr, T.; Wagner, T.; Platt, U.

    2012-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are a new powerful tool for observations in the atmospheric boundary layer. Recent developments in measuring technology allow the construction of compact and sensitive active and passive DOAS instruments which can fit the space and weight constraints on Unmanned Aircraft Systems. This opens new possibilities for trace gas measurements in the lower troposphere, especially in areas which are not accessible to manned aviation e.g. volcanic plumes or which should be monitored regularly (e.g. industrial emissions of a stack). Two DOAS instruments for the APAESO platform of the Energy, Environment and Water Research Centre (EEWRC) at the Cyprus Institute are presented. Our first system is a passive DOAS for remote sensing applications which measures scattered sunlight and light reflected by the surface. It is equipped with telescopes for observations in downward (nadir) and horizontal (limb) viewing direction. Thus it allows determining height profiles and the spatial distribution of trace gases. For this the light is analysed by a compact spectrometer which covers the UV-blue range allowing to measure a broad variety of atmospheric trace gases (e.g. NO2, SO2, BrO, IO, H2O ...) and aerosol properties via O4 absorption. Additionally, the nadir direction is equipped with a system for the observation of surface properties. It will be used to measure and analyse reflection of different types of vegetation. The spectra will serve as reference spectra for satellite measurements to create global maps. The instrumental setup and the results of first test flights are shown. The second instrument which is currently under development is a Cavity Enhanced (CE-) DOAS for in situ measurements of NO3. In contrast to the passive DOAS it is able to perform night time measurements as it uses an active LED light source. This is important for studies of NO3 since it plays an important role in night time chemistry while it is rapidly photolysed during daytime

  18. Electro-optic phase-modulated polarimetry: Instrumentation and signal analysis techniques for the characterization of material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, Jeffrey Richard

    Novel compact and robust phase-modulated electro-optic birefringence and material stress measurement instrumentation is needed for the study of anisotropic materials such as non-Newtonian polymers, crystalline structures, biological fluids and many other optically active materials. This instrumentation developed by the research presented in this dissertation utilizes many different modulation approaches in order to incorporate heterodyning signal recovery techniques that improve measurement sensitivity by several orders of magnitude over simple crossed-polarizer methods. Modulation methods include photoelastic techniques, liquid-crystal variable retarder methods, dual-crystal transverse electro-optic modulation and dual lasers sinusoidally intensity-modulated with a pi-phase lag between them. The theoretical framework governing the development of this instrumentation using the Mueller-Stokes polarization matrices and heterodyning signal recovery methods is discussed in detail. Many experiments are performed to compare the measurements obtained by the instrumentation with the results derived theoretically. Results from the experimental material characterization instrumentation agree well with the predicted signal theory. Signal analysis was further refined through the use of wavelet-based denoising techniques. These denoising techniques resulted in improved measurement accuracy and sensitivity. The measurement theory is also adapted to solve several other applications including electro-optic force, pressure and acceleration measurements which use a polymer linkage to infer stresses from the physical system to data that can be analyzed by the material characterization instrumentation. The best commercially available force transducers capable of measuring transient responses have a lower resolution of approximately 10-5 N. Research with the rheology of fluids, transient flows of pharmaceuticals in combinatorial research, biological tissue response, and biomimetic

  19. Device and method for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, Marcos German; Boucher, Timothy J

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow.

  20. An instrument for precision magnetic measurements of large magnetic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrán, D.; Bordas, J.; Campmany, J.; Molins, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Traveria, M.

    2001-02-01

    A high precision-system for measuring the three-dimensional distribution of magnetic fields over large volumes, such as those produced by accelerator magnets, has been designed and commissioned. This instrument can be calibrated to a precision of ±1 G for magnetic fields of up to 1.5 T by means of an NMR system. A moving arm containing a 3D Hall probe scans the volume (up to 500×250×3000 mm 3) with a precision of ±50 μm in any direction. After appropriate identification of the various sources of error, and the optimisation of the various parts of the instrument where they are generated, an overall precision of ±2 G has been achieved, i.e. a relative precision of ±2×10 -4 for a nominal field of 1 T.

  1. Momentum Flux Measuring Instrument for Neutral and Charged Particle Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavers, Greg; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Schafer, Charles F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An instrument to measure the momentum flux (total pressure) of plasma and neutral particle jets onto a surface has been developed. While this instrument was developed for magnetized plasmas, the concept works for non-magnetized plasmas as well. We have measured forces as small as 10(exp -4) Newtons on a surface immersed in the plasma where small forces are due to ionic and neutral particles with kinetic energies on the order of a few eV impacting the surface. This instrument, a force sensor, uses a target plate (surface) that is immersed in the plasma and connected to one end of an alumina rod while the opposite end of the alumina rod is mechanically connected to a titanium beam on which four strain gauges are mounted. The force on the target generates torque causing strain in the beam. The resulting strain measurements can be correlated to a force on the target plate. The alumina rod electrically and thermally isolates the target plate from the strain gauge beam and allows the strain gauges to be located out of the plasma flow while also serving as a moment arm of several inches to increase the strain in the beam at the strain gauge location. These force measurements correspond directly to momentum flux and may be used with known plasma conditions to place boundaries on the kinetic energies of the plasma and neutral particles. The force measurements may also be used to infer thrust produced by a plasma propulsive device. Stainless steel, titanium, molybdenum, and aluminum flat target plates have been used. Momentum flux measurements of H2, D2, He, and Ar plasmas produced in a magnetized plasma device have been performed.

  2. Fluid friction in incompressible laminar convection: Reynolds' analogy revisited for variable fluid properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahulikar, S. P.; Herwig, H.

    2008-03-01

    The Reynolds' analogy between the Stanton number (St) and the skin friction coefficient (cf) is popularly believed to hold when St increases with increasing cf, for simple situations. In this investigation, the validity of Reynolds' analogy between St and cf for micro-convection of liquids with variations in fluid properties is re-examined. It is found that the Sieder-Tate's property-ratio method for obtaining Nusselt number corrections is theoretically based on the validity of Reynolds' analogy. The inverse dependence of Reynolds number and skin friction coefficient is the basis for validity of the Reynolds' analogy, in convective flows with fluid property variations. This leads to the unexpected outcome that Reynolds' analogy now results in St increasing with decreasing cf. These results and their analyses indicate that the validity of Reynolds' analogy is based on deeper foundations, and the well-known validity criterion is a special case.

  3. Applanation optical coherence elastography: noncontact measurement of intraocular pressure, corneal biomechanical properties, and corneal geometry with a single instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manmohan; Han, Zhaolong; Nair, Achuth; Schill, Alexander; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2017-02-01

    Current clinical tools provide critical information about ocular health such as intraocular pressure (IOP). However, they lack the ability to quantify tissue material properties, which are potent markers for ocular tissue health and integrity. We describe a single instrument to measure the eye-globe IOP, quantify corneal biomechanical properties, and measure corneal geometry with a technique termed applanation optical coherence elastography (Appl-OCE). An ultrafast OCT system enabled visualization of corneal dynamics during noncontact applanation tonometry and direct measurement of micro air-pulse induced elastic wave propagation. Our preliminary results show that the proposed Appl-OCE system can be used to quantify IOP, corneal biomechanical properties, and corneal geometry, which builds a solid foundation for a unique device that can provide a more complete picture of ocular health.

  4. Self-contained instrument for measuring subterranean tunnel wall deflection

    DOEpatents

    Rasmussen, Donald Edgar; Hof, Jr., Peter John

    1978-01-01

    The deflection of a subterranean tunnel is measured with a rod-like, self-contained instrument that is adapted to be inserted into a radially extending bore of the tunnel adjacent an end of the tunnel where the tunnel is being dug. One end of the instrument is anchored at the end of the bore remote from the tunnel wall, while the other end of the intrument is anchored adjacent the end of the wall in proximity to the tunnel wall. The two ends of the instrument are linearly displaceable relative to each other; the displacement is measured by a transducer means mounted on the instrument. Included in the instrument is a data storage means including a paper tape recorder periodically responsive to a parallel binary signal indicative of the measured displacement.

  5. A novel rheometer design for yield stress fluids

    Treesearch

    Joseph R. Samaniuk; Timothy W. Shay; Thatcher W. Root; Daniel J. Klingenberg; C. Tim Scott

    2014-01-01

    An inexpensive, rapid method for measuring the rheological properties of yield stress fluids is described and tested. The method uses an auger that does not rotate during measurements, and avoids material and instrument-related difficulties, for example, wall slip and the presence of large particles, associated with yield stress fluids. The method can be used...

  6. Homodyne full-field interferometer for measuring dynamic surface phenomena in microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipiäinen, Lauri; Kokkonen, Kimmo; Kaivola, Matti

    2017-01-01

    We describe a stabilized homodyne full-field interferometer capable of measuring vertical surface deformations of microstructures in the time domain. The interferometer is stabilized to a chosen operation point by obtaining a feedback signal from a non-moving, freely selectable, reference region on the sample surface. The stabilized full-field interferometer enables detection of time-dependent changes in the surface profile with nanometer scale vertical resolution, while the temporal resolution of the measurement is ultimately limited by the refresh rate of the camera only. The lateral resolution of the surface deformation is determined by the combination of the imaging optics together with the pixel size of the camera. The setup is used to measure the deformation of an Aluminum nitride membrane as a function of time-dependent pressure change. The data analysis allows for unambiguous determination of surface deformations over multiple fringes of the interferogram, hence enabling the study of a wide range of physical phenomena with varying magnitude of vertical surface movement.

  7. Career Instruments and High School Students with Learning Disabilities: Support for the Utility of Three Vocational Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dipeolu, Abiola O.

    2007-01-01

    Conventional wisdom in the area of assessment strongly supports the notion that instruments used for vocational or career decision-making purposes should possess sound psychometric properties. This study is a preliminary attempt to examine the reliability and validity of three important career decision-making measures administered to high school…

  8. Optoelectronic instrumentation enhancement using data mining feedback for a 3D measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Fuentes, Wendy; Sergiyenko, Oleg; Gonzalez-Navarro, Félix F.; Rivas-López, Moisés; Hernandez-Balbuena, Daniel; Rodríguez-Quiñonez, Julio C.; Tyrsa, Vera; Lindner, Lars

    2016-12-01

    3D measurement by a cyber-physical system based on optoelectronic scanning instrumentation has been enhanced by outliers and regression data mining feedback. The prototype has applications in (1) industrial manufacturing systems that include: robotic machinery, embedded vision, and motion control, (2) health care systems for measurement scanning, and (3) infrastructure by providing structural health monitoring. This paper presents new research performed in data processing of a 3D measurement vision sensing database. Outliers from multivariate data have been detected and removal to improve artificial intelligence regression algorithm results. Physical measurement error regression data has been used for 3D measurements error correction. Concluding, that the joint of physical phenomena, measurement and computation is an effectiveness action for feedback loops in the control of industrial, medical and civil tasks.

  9. A new instrument for high statistics measurement of photomultiplier characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollo, C. M.; Bozza, C.; Chiarusi, T.; Costa, M.; Di Capua, F.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Mele, R.; Migliozzi, P.; Pellegrino, C.; Riccobene, G.; Vivolo, D.

    2016-08-01

    Since the early days of experimental particle physics photomultipliers (PMTs) have played an important role in the detector design. Thanks to their capability of fast photon counting, PMTs are extensively used in the new-generation of astroparticle physics experiments, such as air, ice and water Cherenkov detectors. Small size PMTs (<= 3 inches diameter) show little sensitivity to the Earth magnetic field, small transit time, stable transit time spread; the price per photocathode area is less comparing to the one for the large area PMTs, typically used so far in such applications. Together with developments and reduced price of multichannel electronics, the use of PMTs of 3-inches or smaller diameter is a promising option even for nowadays large volume detectors. In this paper we report on the design and performance of a new instrument for mass characterisation of PMTs (from 1 inch to 3 inches size), capable to calibrate hundreds of PMTs per day and provide measurements of dark counts, signal amplitude, late-, delayed-, pre- and after-pulses, transit time and transit time spread.

  10. Final report on the design and development of a Rolling Float Meter for drilling-fluid outflow measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Staller, G.E.; Westmoreland, J.J.; Whitlow, G.L.; Wright, E.K.; Glowka, D.A.

    1998-03-01

    Lost circulation, which is the loss of well drilling fluids to the formation while drilling, is a common problem encountered while drilling geothermal wells. The rapid detection of the loss of well drilling fluids is critical to the successful and cost-effective treatment of the wellbore to stop or minimize lost circulation. Sandia National Laboratories has developed an instrument to accurately measure the outflow rate of drilling fluids while drilling. This instrument, the Rolling Float Meter, has been under development at Sandia since 1991 and is now available for utilization by interested industry users. This report documents recent Rolling Float Meter design upgrades resulting from field testing and industry input, the effects of ongoing testing and evaluation both in the laboratory and in the field, and the final design package that is available to transfer this technology to industry users.

  11. Subcutaneous Infusion of Fluids for Hydration or Nutrition: A Review.

    PubMed

    Caccialanza, Riccardo; Constans, Thierry; Cotogni, Paolo; Zaloga, Gary P; Pontes-Arruda, Alessandro

    2016-11-02

    Subcutaneous infusion, or hypodermoclysis, is a technique whereby fluids are infused into the subcutaneous space via small-gauge needles that are typically inserted into the thighs, abdomen, back, or arms. In this review, we provide an overview of the technique, summarize findings from studies that have examined the use of subcutaneous infusion of fluids for hydration or nutrition, and describe the indications, advantages, and disadvantages of subcutaneous infusion. Taken together, the available evidence suggests that, when indicated, subcutaneous infusion can be effective for administering fluids for hydration or nutrition, with minimal complications, and has similar effectiveness and safety to the intravenous route. Of note, subcutaneous infusion offers several advantages over intravenous infusion, including ease of application, low cost, and the lack of potential serious complications, particularly infections. Subcutaneous infusion may be particularly suited for patients with mild to moderate dehydration or malnutrition when oral/enteral intake is insufficient; when placement of an intravenous catheter is not possible, tolerated, or desirable; at risk of dehydration when oral intake is not tolerated; as a bridging technique in case of difficult intravenous access or catheter-related bloodstream infection while infection control treatment is being attempted; and in multiple settings (eg, emergency department, hospital, outpatient clinic, nursing home, long-term care, hospice, and home). © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Micromechanical transient sensor for measuring viscosity and density of a fluid

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Oden, Patrick I.; Warmack, Robert J.; Finot, Eric Laurent

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring the viscosity and/or specific density of a fluid utilizes a microcantilever vibrated in the analyte fluid. The source of vibration is switched on and off and the transient behavior or decay in amplitude of the vibration is monitored. The method is particularly useful for the measurement of process conditions in remote locations in real time.

  13. Automated, Miniaturized Instrument for Measuring Gene Expression in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, A.; Peyvan, K.; Danley, D.; Ricco, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    To facilitate astrobiological studies on the survival and adaptation of microorganisms and mixed microbial cultures to space environment, we have been developing a fully automated, miniaturized system for measuring their gene expression on small spacecraft. This low-cost, multi-purpose instrument represents a major scientific and technological advancement in our ability to study the impact of the space environment on biological systems by providing data on cellular metabolism and regulation orders of magnitude richer than what is currently available. The system supports growth of the organism, lyse it to release the expressed RNA, label the RNA, read the expression levels of a large number of genes by microarray analysis of labeled RNA and transmit the measurements to Earth. To measure gene expression we use microarray technology developed by CombiMatrix, which is based on electrochemical reactions on arrays of electrodes on a semiconductor substrate. Since the electrical integrity of the microarray remains intact after probe synthesis, the circuitry can be employed to sense nucleic acid binding at each electrode. CombiMatrix arrays can be sectored to allow multiple samples per chip. In addition, a single array can be used for several assays. The array has been integrated into an automated microfluidic cartridge that uses flexible reagent blisters and pinch pumping to move liquid reagents between chambers. The proposed instrument will help to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, and test our ability to sustain and grow in space organisms that can be used for life support and in situ resource utilization during long-duration space exploration. The instrument is suitable for small satellite platforms, which provide frequent, low cost access to space. It can be also used on any other platform in space

  14. Gaussian beam measurement for HIFI instrument: Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantaleev, Miroslav G.; Ermisch, Karsten; Fredrixon, Mathias; Svensson, Magnus; Belitsky, Victor

    2004-09-01

    The Heterodyne Instrument (HIFI) is part of the ESA Herschel Space Observatory Project. The instrument is intended for high-resolution spectroscopy and has a frequency coverage from 480 to 1250 GHz band in five receiver bands and 1410 to 1910 GHz in two additional bands. HIFI is built based on a modular principle: the mixers together with their respective optics are integrated into Mixer Sub-Assemblies (MSA). Each frequency band has two MSAs allocated for horizontal and vertical polarization. In this paper, we present the work done on the design and construction of a Gaussian beam measurement range. One of the unique features of the developed method is a possibility to measure the beam parameters of the MSAs in the absolute coordinate system referred to the device under test. This along with other methods should allow integration of the entire HIFI with the best possible coupling of the antenna beam to the receivers and achieving ultimate performance in such a complicated optical system. The range houses the measured MSA, which is at 4 K ambient temperature, and a continuous wave source placed on a precise scanner entirely under vacuum. Developed triangulation system provides mechanical reference data on the MSA, in-situ, after the entire system is evacuated and the cooling is finished. We adopted a scalar measurement approach where the test source scans the receiver input beam and the mixer IF power is measured. The data collected from 3-4 planar scans are used to calculate the orientation and position of the optical axis. We present results from the first beam measurements for MSA HIFI bands 1 and 2 (480 and 640 GHz), the measurement system performance and accuracy analysis.

  15. Diver-operated instrument for in situ measurement of spectral fluorescence and reflectance of benthic marine organisms and substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazel, Charles H.

    1997-09-01

    A self-contained diver-operated underwater instrument is developed to make in situ measurements of spectral fluorescence and reflectance of benthic marine organisms and substrates. The instrument, designated the benthic spectrofluorometer (BSF), is built around a single-board spectrometer with a 1024-element CCD array. Light input to the spectrometer is via a fiber optic cable. In fluorescence mode, the unit provides manual user-selectable excitation wavelength and measures fluorescence emission over the full visible spectrum. The BSF can also measure the spectrum of downwelling ambient light or of light reflected from surfaces of interest, enabling calculation of spectral reflectance. The instrument has been used successfully at several field locations, primarily for investigation of optical properties of coral reef organisms and in collecting baseline data in support of remote sensing systems. The instrument is described and representative data are presented.

  16. Calculating Theromodynamic And Transport Properties Of Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret P.; Klem, Mark D.

    1987-01-01

    Computer program incorporates van der Waals equation and correction tables. FLUID program developed to calculate thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids in both liquid and gas phases. Properties calculated by use of simple gas model, empirical corrections, and efficient numerical interpolation scheme. Produces results that agree very well with measured values. Much faster than older, more complex programs developed for same purpose.

  17. Apparatus for measuring a sorbate dispersed in a fluid stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Updike, O. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A sensitive, miniature apparatus was designed for measuring low concentrations of a sorbate dispersed in a fluid stream. The device consists of an elongated body having a surface capable of sorbing an amount of the sorbate proportional to the concentration in the fluid stream and propagating acoustic energy along its length. The acoustic energy is converted to an electrical output signal corresponding to the concentration of sorbate in the fluid stream. The device can be designed to exhibit high sensitivity to extremely small amounts of sorbate dispersed in a fluid stream and to exhibit low sensitivity to large amounts of sorbate. Another advantage is that the apparatus may be formed in a microminiature size and at a low cost using bath microfabrication technology.

  18. Capacitive Sensors for Measuring Masses of Cryogenic Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurge, Mark; Youngquist, Robert

    2003-01-01

    An effort is under way to develop capacitive sensors for measuring the masses of cryogenic fluids in tanks. These sensors are intended to function in both microgravitational and normal gravitational settings, and should not be confused with level sensors, including capacitive ones. A sensor of this type is conceptually simple in the sense that (1) it includes only one capacitor and (2) if properly designed, its single capacitance reading should be readily convertible to a close approximation of the mass of the cryogenic fluid in the tank. Consider a pair of electrically insulated electrodes used as a simple capacitive sensor. In general, the capacitance is proportional to the permittivity of the dielectric medium (in this case, a cryogenic fluid) between the electrodes. The success of design and operation of a sensor of the present type depends on the accuracy of the assumption that to a close approximation, the permittivity of the cryogenic fluid varies linearly with the density of the fluid. Data on liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, and liquid hydrogen, reported by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, indicate that the permittivities and densities of these fluids are, indeed, linearly related to within a few tenths of a percent over the pressure and temperature regions of interest. Hence, ignoring geometric effects for the moment, the capacitance between two electrodes immersed in the fluid should vary linearly with the density, and, hence, with the mass of the fluid. Of course, it is necessary to take account of the tank geometry. Because most cryogenic tanks do not have uniform cross sections, the readings of level sensors, including capacitive ones, are not linearly correlated with the masses of fluids in the tanks. In a sensor of the present type, the capacitor electrodes are shaped so that at a given height, the capacitance per unit height is approximately proportional to the cross-sectional area of the tank in the horizontal plane at that

  19. On-line fast response device and method for measuring dissolved gas in a fluid

    DOEpatents

    Tutu, Narinder Kumar [Manorville, NY

    2011-01-11

    A method and device for the measurement of dissolved gas within a fluid. The fluid, substantially a liquid, is pumped into a pipe. The flow of the fluid is temporally restricted, creating one or more low pressure regions. A measurement indicative of trapped air is taken before and after the restriction. The amount of dissolved air is calculated from the difference between the first and second measurements. Preferably measurements indicative of trapped air is obtained from one or more pressure transducers, capacitance transducers, or combinations thereof. In the alternative, other methods such as those utilizing x-rays or gamma rays may also be used to detect trapped air. Preferably, the fluid is a hydraulic fluid, whereby dissolved air in the fluid is detected.

  20. Piezosurgery or conventional rotatory instruments for inferior third molar extractions?

    PubMed

    Piersanti, Luigi; Dilorenzo, Matteo; Monaco, Giuseppe; Marchetti, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the discomfort and surgical outcomes of a piezosurgery device with those of rotatory instruments in lower third molar extraction. A split-mouth, randomized, unblinded clinical study was designed; the 2 molars had to have the same extraction difficulty score. The test side was extracted using a piezosurgery technique and the control side was extracted using a conventional handpiece. The primary endpoint was patient discomfort evaluated with the Postoperative Symptom Severity (PoSSe) scale, which was administered to each patient; secondary endpoints were pain, trismus, swelling, and surgical time evaluation. Paired-samples t test and repeated-measures analysis of variance were used to compare outcomes within patients. Ten consecutive patients (6 female, 4 male; mean age, 22.4 ± 2.3 yr) were recruited. The total score on the PoSSe scale was significantly lower for piezosurgery compared with the conventional rotating handpiece (24.7 ± 10.3 vs 36.0 ± 7.6; t = -4.27; P = .002). Moreover, postoperative swelling 1 week after surgery was significantly lower for piezosurgery than for the conventional rotating handpiece (2.75 ± 0.23 vs 3.1 ± 0.39 cm; t = -2.63; P = .027). Piezosurgery was associated with less postoperative discomfort and yielded better results for swelling. Piezosurgery seems to be a good technique in daily surgical practice, especially if applied in the critical steps in which safety and respect for soft tissue, bone, and nerves are necessary. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Systems and methods for separating particles and/or substances from a sample fluid

    DOEpatents

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Dougherty, George M.; Dzenitis, John M.; Miles, Robin R.; Clague, David S.

    2016-11-01

    Systems and methods for separating particles and/or toxins from a sample fluid. A method according to one embodiment comprises simultaneously passing a sample fluid and a buffer fluid through a chamber such that a fluidic interface is formed between the sample fluid and the buffer fluid as the fluids pass through the chamber, the sample fluid having particles of interest therein; applying a force to the fluids for urging the particles of interest to pass through the interface into the buffer fluid; and substantially separating the buffer fluid from the sample fluid.

  2. Development Of An Experiment For Measuring Flow Phenomena Occurring In A Lower Plenum For VHTR CFD Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. McEligot; K.G. Condie; G. E. Mc Creery; H. M. Mc Ilroy

    2005-09-01

    The objective of the present report is to document the design of our first experiment to measure generic flow phenomena expected to occur in the lower plenum of a typical prismatic VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) concept. In the process, fabrication sketches are provided for the use of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) analysts wishing to employ the data for assessment of their proposed codes. The general approach of the project is to develop new benchmark experiments for assessment in parallel with CFD and coupled CFD/systems code calculations for the same geometry. One aspect of the complex flow in a prismatic VHTR is being addressed: flow and thermal mixing in the lower plenum ("hot streaking" issue). Current prismatic VHTR concepts were examined to identify their proposed flow conditions and geometries over the range from normal operation to decay heat removal in a pressurized cooldown. Approximate analyses were applied to determine key non-dimensional parameters and their magnitudes over this operating range. The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered to be a situation of multiple jets into a confined crossflow -- with obstructions. Flow is expected to be turbulent with momentum-dominated turbulent jets entering; buoyancy influences are estimated to be negligible in normal full power operation. Experiments are needed for the combined features of the lower plenum flows. Missing from the typical jet experiments available are interactions with nearby circular posts and with vertical posts in the vicinity of vertical walls - with near stagnant surroundings at one extreme and significant crossflow at the other.

  3. Modelling Phase Transition Phenomena in Fluids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    same way as for an ideal gas. Everything that matters is the linearity of p(T, v) with respect of T . The dependence cv = cv(T ) is called the caloric ...equation of state. The thermal and caloric equations of state define entropy s = s(e, v) up to a constant. Indeed, let us calculate the anti

  4. Real fluid properties of normal and parahydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, F. N.; Haferd, A. M.

    1968-01-01

    Computer program calculates the real fluid properties of normal or parahydrogen using a library of single function calls without initial estimates. Accurate transport and thermodynamic properties of molecular hydrogen are needed for advanced propulsion systems.

  5. Measuring the psychosocial characteristics of family caregivers of palliative care patients: psychometric properties of nine self-report instruments.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Peter L; Hayman-White, Karla

    2006-03-01

    Researchers and clinicians have experienced substantial difficulties locating measures that are suitable for use within palliative care settings. This article details the psychometric properties of nine instruments designed to assess the following psychosocial characteristics of family caregivers: competence, mastery, self-efficacy, burden, optimism, preparedness, social support, rewards, and mutuality. Results are based on the responses of 106 primary family caregivers caring for relatives dying of cancer. Principal components extraction with varimax rotation was used to explore the underlying structure of each measure. Following the exclusion of complex variables, suggested components for most measures comprised relatively homogenous items, which were good to excellent measures of each component. Some components comprised only two items; however, Cronbach's alphas typically indicated moderate to high levels of internal consistency. Overall, the results of this study suggest that most of the measures analyzed, excepting the mastery and mutuality scales, can be recommended to examine the family caregiver experience and test supportive interventions.

  6. [Psychometric properties of an instrument for assessing cyber-sex addiction].

    PubMed

    Ballester Arnal, Rafael; Gil Llario, Ma Dolores; Gómez Martínez, Sandra; Gil Juliá, Beatriz

    2010-11-01

    Psychometric properties of an instrument for assessing cyber-sex addiction. Cyber-sex addiction is a «new pathology» whose prevalence has grown rapidly in recent years. Therefore, it is important to have validated assessment instruments. The aim of this study was the adaptation and validation of the Internet Sex Screening Test (ISST) for its use in a Spanish population. The instrument was administered to 1239 Spanish college students. The results yielded five components that account for 47.5% of the variance. Internal consistency was .88 and temporal stability was .84. Moreover, the instrument had adequate convergent and discriminant validity and was related to other behaviors such as the use of pornography, internet addiction, number of hours online and sexual frequency. Therefore, this tool is proposed as an appropriate measure to assess cyber-sex addiction.

  7. High spatial resolution measurements of ram accelerator gas dynamic phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkey, J. B.; Burnham, E. A.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    High spatial resolution experimental tube wall pressure measurements of ram accelerator gas dynamic phenomena are presented. The projectile resembles the centerbody of a ramjet and travels supersonically through a tube filled with a combustible gaseous mixture, with the tube acting as the outer cowling. Pressure data are recorded as the projectile passes by sensors mounted in the tube wall at various locations along the tube. Data obtained by using a special highly instrumented section of tube has allowed the recording of gas dynamic phenomena with a spatial resolution on the order of one tenth the projectile length. High spatial resolution tube wall pressure data from the three regimes of propulsion studied to date (subdetonative, transdetonative, and superdetonative) are presented and reveal the 3D character of the flowfield induced by projectile fins and the canting of the projectile body relative to the tube wall. Also presented for comparison to the experimental data are calculations made with an inviscid, 3D CFD code.

  8. An instrumented spatial linkage for measuring knee joint kinematics.

    PubMed

    Rosvold, Joshua M; Atarod, Mohammad; Frank, Cyril B; Shrive, Nigel G

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the design and development of a highly accurate instrumented spatial linkage (ISL) for kinematic analysis of the ovine stifle joint is described. The ovine knee is a promising biomechanical model of the human knee joint. The ISL consists of six digital rotational encoders providing six degrees of freedom (6-DOF) to its motion. The ISL makes use of the complete and parametrically continuous (CPC) kinematic modeling method to describe the kinematic relationship between encoder readings and the relative positions and orientation of its two ends. The CPC method is useful when calibrating the ISL, because a small change in parameters corresponds to a small change in calculated positions and orientations and thus a smaller optimization error, compared to other kinematic models. The ISL is attached rigidly to the femur and the tibia for motion capture, and the CPC kinematic model is then employed to transform the angle sensor readings to relative motion of the two ends of the linkage, and thereby, the stifle joint motion. The positional accuracy for ISL after calibration and optimization was 0.3±0.2mm (mean +/- standard deviation). The ISL was also evaluated dynamically to ensure that accurate results were maintained, and achieved an accuracy of 0.1mm. Compared to the traditional motion capture methods, this system provides increased accuracy, reduced processing time, and ease of use. Future work will be on the application of the ISL to the ovine gait and determination of in vivo joint motions and tissue loads. Accurate measurement of knee joint kinematics is essential in understanding injury mechanisms and development of potential preventive or treatment strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Microprocessor instruments for measuring nonlinear distortions; algorithms for digital processing of the measurement signal and an estimate of the errors

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, M.Ya.; Chinkov, V.N.

    1995-09-01

    Rational algorithms for measuring the harmonic coefficient in microprocessor instruments for measuring nonlinear distortions based on digital processing of the codes of the instantaneous values of the signal being investigated are described and the errors of such instruments are obtained.

  10. Practical resolution requirements of measurement instruments for precise characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boher, Pierre; Leroux, Thierry; Collomb-Patton, Véronique; Bignon, Thibault

    2014-03-01

    Different ways to evaluate the optical performances of auto-stereoscopic 3D displays are reviewed. Special attention is paid to the crosstalk measurements that can be performed by measuring, either the precise angular emission at one or few locations on the display surface, or the full display surface emission from very specific locations in front of the display. Using measurements made in the two ways with different instruments on different auto-stereoscopic displays, we show that measurement instruments need to match the resolution of the human eye to obtain reliable results in both cases. Practical requirements in terms of angular resolution for viewing angle measurement instruments and in terms of spatial resolution for imaging instruments are derived and verified on practical examples.

  11. Instrumentation for the measurement of autofluorescence in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graaff, Reindert; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Lutgers, Helen L.; Baptist, Rene; de Jong, Ed D.; Zijp, Jaap R.; Links, Thera P.; Smit, Andries J.; Rakhorst, Gerhard

    2005-04-01

    A setup to measure skin autofluorescence was developed to assess accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) in patients noninvasively. The method applies direct blacklight tube illumination of the skin of the lower arm, and spectrometry. The setup displays skin autofluorescence (AF) as a ratio of mean intensities detected from the skin between 420-600 nm and 300-420 nm, respectively. In an early clinical application in 46 and control subjects matched for age and gender, AF was significantly increased in the patients (p = 0.015), and highly correlated with skin AGE's that were determined from skin biopsies in both groups. A large follow-up study on type 2 diabetes mellitus, ongoing since 2001 with more than 1000 subjects, aims to assess the value of the instrument in predicting chronic complications of diabetes. At baseline, a relation with age, glycemic status and with complications present was found. In a study in patients with end stage renal disease on dialysis AF was a strong and independent predictor of total and cardiovascular mortality. A commercial version of this AGE-reader is now under development and becomes available early 2005 (DiagnOptics B.V., Groningen, The Netherlands). One of the remaining questions, that will be answered by measuring so-called Exciation-Emission Matrices (EEM's) of the skin tissue in vivo, is whether a more selective choice of wavelengths is more strongly related to clinical characteristics. An experimental instrument to measure these EEM's was, therefore, developed as well. Clinical measurements are underway of EEM's in patient groups with diabetes mellitus and in healthy volunteers.

  12. ASRDI oxygen technology survey. Volume 6: Flow measurement instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, D. B.

    1974-01-01

    A summary is provided of information available on liquid and gaseous oxygen flowmetering including an evaluation of commercial meters. The instrument types, physical principles of measurement, and performance characteristics are described. Problems concerning flow measurements of less than plus or minus two percent uncertainty are reviewed. Recommendations concerning work on flow reference systems, the use of surrogate fluids, and standard tests for oxygen flow measurements are also presented.

  13. Development of a prototype fluid volume measurement system. [for urine volume measurement on space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppendiek, H. F.; Sabin, C. M.; Meckel, P. T.

    1974-01-01

    The research is reported in applying the axial fluid temperature differential flowmeter to a urine volume measurement system for space missions. The fluid volume measurement system is described along with the prototype equipment package. Flowmeter calibration, electronic signal processing, and typical void volume measurements are also described.

  14. Local-field effects and nanostructuring for controlling optical properties and enabling novel optical phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgaleva, Ksenia

    My Ph. D. thesis is devoted to the investigation of the methods of controlling and improving the linear and nonlinear optical properties of materials. Within my studies, two approaches are considered: nanostructuring and invoking local-field effects. These broad topics involve various projects that I have undertaken during my Ph. D. research. The first project is on composite laser gain media. It involves both nanostructuring and using local-field effects to control the basic laser parameters, such as the radiative lifetime, small-signal gain and absorption, and the saturation intensity. While being involved in this project, I have performed both theoretical and experimental studies of laser characteristics of composite materials. In particular, I have developed simple theoretical models for calculating the effective linear susceptibilities of layered and Maxwell Garnett composite materials with a gain resonance in one of their components. The analysis of the results given by the models suggests that local-field effects provide considerable freedom in controlling the optical properties of composite laser gain media. I have also experimentally measured the radiative lifetime of Nd:YAG nanopowder suspended in different liquids to extract information regarding local-field effects. The second project is devoted to the investigation of a not-well-known phenomenon that local-field effects can induce, which is microscopic cascading in nonlinear optics. This project involves the theoretical prediction of local-field-induced microscopic cascading effect in the fifth-order nonlinear response and its first experimental observation. This effect has been mostly overlooked or underestimated, but could prove useful in quantum optics. I have shown that, under certain conditions, the microscopic cascaded contribution can be a dominant effect in high-order nonlinearities. The third project is about characterization of laser performance of a new dye, oligofluorene, embedded into

  15. Instrumentation for Structure Measurements on Highly Non-equilibrium Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Richard; Benmore, Chris J; Neuefeind, Joerg C; Wilding, Martin C

    2011-01-01

    Containerless techniques (levitation) completely eliminate contact with the sample. This unique sample environment allows deep supercooling of many liquids and avoids contamination of high temperature melts. Recent experiments at the APS high energy beamline 11 ID-C used aerodynamic levitation with laser beam heating and acoustic levitation with cryogenic cooling. By using these two methods, liquids were studied over much of the temperature range from -40 to +2500 C. This paper briefly describes the instrumentation and its use with an -Si area detector that allows fast, in-situ measurements. Use of the instruments is illustrated with examples of measurements on molten oxides and aqueous materials.

  16. Tidal interaction: A possible explanation for geysers and other fluid phenomena in the Neptune-Triton system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, W. D.; Wood, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Discovery of geyser-like plumes on the surface of Triton was a highlight of Voyager 2's passage through the Neptune planetary system. Remarkable as these observations were, they were not entirely without precedent. Considering the confirmed predictions for the 1979 Voyager Jovian passage, it was logical to consider other solar system bodies beside Io where tidal effects could be a significant factor in surface processes. It was our intuition that the Neptune-Triton gravitational bond acting at high inclination to the Neptune equator and the fact that Neptune was a fluid body was significant oblateness would produce tidal and mechanical forces that could be transformed into thermal energy vented on Triton's surface. Prior to the Voyager flyby, others have noted that capture and evolution of Triton's orbit from extreme eccentricity to near circular state today would have resulted in significant tidal heating, but these analysts disregard current day forces. Our calculations indicate that the time varying forces between Neptune-Triton fall midway between those exerted in the Earth-Moon and Jupiter-Io systems, and considering the low level of other energy inputs, this source of internal energy should not be ignored when seeking an explanation for surface activity. In each planet-satellite case, residual or steady-state eccentricity causes time-varying stresses on internal satellite strata. In the case of Jupiter the residual eccentricity is due largely to Galilean satellite interactions, particularly Io-Europa, but in the case of Neptune-Triton, it is the effect of Triton's inclined orbit about an oblate primary.

  17. Measurement properties of instruments evaluating self-care and related concepts in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Clari, Marco; Matarese, Maria; Alvaro, Rosaria; Piredda, Michela; De Marinis, Maria Grazia

    2016-01-01

    The use of valid and reliable instruments for assessing self-care is crucial for the evaluation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management programs. The aim of this review is to evaluate the measurement properties and theoretical foundations of instruments for assessing self-care and related concepts in people with COPD. A systematic review was conducted of articles describing the development and validation of self-care instruments. The methodological quality of the measurement properties was assessed using the COSMIN checklist. Ten studies were included evaluating five instruments: three for assessing self-care and self-management and two for assessing self-efficacy. The COPD Self-Efficacy Scale was the most studied instrument, but due to poor study methodological quality, evidence about its measurement properties is inconclusive. Evidence from the COPD Self-Management Scale is more promising, but only one study tested its properties. Due to inconclusive evidence of their measurement properties, no instrument can be recommended for clinical use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Instrument for benzene and toluene emission measurements of glycol regenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanyecz, Veronika; Mohácsi, Árpád; Puskás, Sándor; Vágó, Árpád; Szabó, Gábor

    2013-11-01

    We introduce an in-field and in-explosive atmosphere useable instrument, which can measure the benzene and toluene concentration in two gas and two glycol samples produced by natural gas dehydration units. It is a two-phase, on-line gas chromatograph with a photoacoustic spectroscopy based detector. The time resolution is 10 min per cycle and the minimum detectable concentrations are 2 mg m-3 for benzene, 3 mg m-3 for toluene in natural gas, and 5 g m-3 for benzene and 6 g m-3 for toluene in glycol. Test measurements were carried out at a dehydration plant belonging to MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Company. Benzene and toluene emissions of gas dehydration unit are calculated from the measured values based on mass balance of a glycol regenerator. The relationship between the outdoor temperature and the measured concentration was observed which is caused by temperature-dependent operation of the whole dehydration unit. Emission decreases with increase of outdoor temperature.

  19. Automated, Miniaturized Instrument for Measuring Gene Expression in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Danley, David; Payvan, Kia; Ricco, Antonio

    To facilitate astrobiological studies on the survival and adaptation of microorganisms and mixed microbial cultures to space environment, we have been developing a fully automated, minia-turized system for measuring their gene expression on small spacecraft. This low-cost, multi-purpose instrument represents a major scientific and technological advancement in our ability to study the impact of the space environment on biological systems by providing data on cel-lular metabolism and regulation orders of magnitude richer than what is currently available. The system supports growth of the organism, lyse it to release the expressed RNA, label the RNA, read the expression levels of a large number of genes by microarray analysis of labeled RNA and transmit the measurements to Earth. To measure gene expression we use microarray technology developed by CombiMatrix, which is based on electrochemical reactions on arrays of electrodes on a semiconductor substrate. Since the electrical integrity of the microarray re-mains intact after probe synthesis, the circuitry can be employed to sense nucleic acid binding at each electrode. CombiMatrix arrays can be sectored to allow multiple samples per chip. In addition, a single array can be used for several assays. The array has been integrated into an automated microfluidic cartridge that uses flexible reagent blisters and pinch pumping to move liquid reagents between chambers. The proposed instrument will help to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions be-yond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, and test our ability to sustain and grow in space organ-isms that can be used for life support and in situ resource utilization during long-duration space exploration. The instrument is suitable for small satellite platforms, which provide frequent, low cost access to space. It can be also used on any other platform in space

  20. Metering gun for dispensing precisely measured charges of fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, T. A.; Scheibe, H. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A cyclically operable fluid dispenser for use in dispensing precisely measured charges of potable water aboard spacecraft is described. The dispenser is characterized by (1) a sealed housing adapted to be held within a crewman's palm and coupled with a pressurized source of potable water; (2) a dispensing jet projected from the housing and configured to be received within a crewman's lips; (3) an expansible measuring chamber for measuring charges of drinking water received from the source; (4) and a dispenser actuator including a lever extended from the housing to be digitated for initiating operational cycles, whereby precisely measured charges of potable water selectively are delivered for drinking purposes in a weightless environment.

  1. An instrument for measuring thermal inertia in the field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, S. E.; Schieldge, J. P.; Kahle, A. B.

    1982-01-01

    Features and test results of a thermal inertial meter (TIM) for cataloging the thermal inertial of surface material in situ as a basis for satellite remote sensing of geologic materials are described. The instrument is employed to determine the temperature rise of the materials in the field, with the assumptions that the sample and a standard are homogeneous in composition, the heat flux density is constant at the surface of each material, and the specimens are thick enough to be treated as semi-infinite bodies. A formula for calculating thermal inertia is presented, and the components of the TIM are detailed. A box with three compartments, two holding standards, is placed on the sample surface with the third compartment open to the specimen. Dolomite and quartz are used as references when all samples are measured after heating. Tests with rocks and sand in Nevada and California revealed that chert has a higher thermal inertia than barite.

  2. Postural control and fear of falling assessment in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review of instruments, international classification of functioning, disability and health linkage, and measurement properties.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cristino C; Lee, Annemarie; Granger, Catherine L; Miller, Kimberly J; Irving, Louis B; Denehy, Linda

    2013-09-01

    To systematically review the instruments used to assess postural control and fear of falling in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and to synthesize and evaluate their breadth of content and measurement properties. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, CINAHL, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, PEDro, and OTSeeker databases searched in September 2012. Two independent reviewers performed the selection of articles, the ICF linking process and quality assessment. Only quantitative studies were included, irrespective of language or publication date. This systematic review comprised two phases. Phase 1 aimed to identify the commonly used instruments to assess postural control and fear of falling in the COPD literature. The breadth of content of each instrument was examined based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). In phase 2, a measurement property search filter was adopted and used in four electronic databases to retrieve properties reported in the COPD population. The COSMIN checklist was used to assess the methodological quality of each measurement property reported. Seventeen out of 401 publications were eligible in phase 1. Seventeen instruments were identified including 15 for postural control and 2 for fear of falling assessment. The Berg Balance Scale, the Short Physical Performance Battery, and the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale were the most frequently used instruments to assess postural control and fear of falling respectively. The ICF categories covered varied considerably among instruments. The Balance Evaluation Systems test and ABC presented the greatest breadth of content. Measurement properties reported included criterion predictive validity (4 instruments), construct validity (11 instruments) and responsiveness (1 instrument), with inconsistent findings based on 'fair' and 'poor' quality studies. Different instruments with heterogeneous content have been used to assess postural

  3. Procedure for measuring simultaneously the solar and visible properties of glazing with complex internal or external structures.

    PubMed

    Gentle, A R; Smith, G B

    2014-10-20

    Accurate solar and visual transmittances of materials in which surfaces or internal structures are complex are often not easily amenable to standard procedures with laboratory-based spectrophotometers and integrating spheres. Localized "hot spots" of intensity are common in such materials, so data on small samples is unreliable. A novel device and simple protocols have been developed and undergone validation testing. Simultaneous solar and visible transmittance and reflectance data have been acquired for skylight components and multilayer polycarbonate roof panels. The pyranometer and lux sensor setups also directly yield "light coolness" in lumens/watt. Sample areas must be large, and, although mainly in sheet form, some testing has been done on curved panels. The instrument, its operation, and the simple calculations used are described. Results on a subset of diffuse and partially diffuse materials with no hot spots have been cross checked using 150 mm integrating spheres with a spectrophotometer and the Air Mass 1.5 spectrum. Indications are that results are as good or better than with such spheres for transmittance, but reflectance techniques need refinement for some sample types.

  4. Psychometric properties of instruments for assessing depression among African youth: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mutumba, Massy; Tomlinson, Mark; Tsai, Alexander C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the psychometric properties of instruments used to screen for major depressive disorder or assess depression symptom severity among African youth. Methods: Systematic search terms were applied to seven bibliographic databases: African Journals Online, the African Journal Archive, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and the WHO African Index Medicus. Studies examining the reliability and/or validity of depression assessment tools were selected for inclusion if they were based on data collected from youth (any author definition) in an African member state of the United Nations. We extracted data on study population characteristics, sampling strategy, sample size, the instrument assessed, and the type of reliability and/or validity evidence provided. Results: Of 1,027 records, we included 23 studies of 10,499 youth in 10 African countries. Most studies reported excellent scale reliability, but there was much less evidence of equivalence or criterion-related validity. No measures were validated in more than two countries. Conclusions: There is a paucity of evidence on the reliability or validity of depression assessment among African youth. The field is constrained by a lack of established criterion standards, but studies incorporating mixed methods offer promising strategies for guiding the process of cross-cultural development and validation. PMID:25391712

  5. Dielectric properties of EVA rubber composites at microwave frequencies theory, instrumentation and measurements.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Prasun; Biswas, Salil Kumar; Ghosh, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    This work describes and evaluates a technique for determining the dielectric properties of carbon-black filled Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) rubber and presents results on the studies of the effect of frequency on the permittivity and microwave conductivity using resonant cavity perturbation method. The measurements are performed with the aid of a Network Analyzer in X-band. The simplicity of this method lies in the fact that the dielectric properties can be obtained directly from the analytical formula without taking recourse to calibration.

  6. Compact Instruments Measure Heat Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Based in Huntsville, Alabama, AZ Technology Inc. is a woman- and veteran-owned business that offers expertise in electromechanical-optical design and advanced coatings. AZ Technology has received eight Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center for the development of spectral reflectometers and the measurement of surface thermal properties. The company uses a variety of measurement services and instruments, including the Spectrafire, a portable spectral emissometer it used to assist General Electric with the design of its award-winning Giraffe Warmer for neonatal intensive care units.

  7. An Automated Instrument for the Measurement of Bark Microrelief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Stan, J. T.; Jarvis, M.; Levia, D. F.

    2009-05-01

    Bark microrelief is of importance to the physiological ecology of forested ecosystems because it has been documented to influence the distribution of corticolous lichens, stemflow generation, and forest biogeochemical cycles. Hitherto no instrument existed to characterize the inherent variability of bark microrelief with high spatial resolution. Our newly-designed bark microrelief instrument, the LaserBarkTM, consists of a hinged ring, laser rangefinder, and motor linked to a standard laptop. The LaserBarkTM produces trunk cross- sections at a 0.33 degree horizontal resolution and detects bark ridge-to furrow heights at < 1 mm resolution. The LaserBarkTM was validated by comparing measurements of bark microrelief between the instrument and digital calipers. The mean absolute error of the instrument was 0.83 mm. Our bark microrelief instrument can supply critical requisite information of bark microstructure that be used by researchers to interpret the distribution of lichens and bryophytes on tree surfaces, relate stemflow yield and chemistry to bark microrelief, and provide detailed measurements of the changes of bark microrelief with stem dehydration. In short, the LaserBarkTM can be used to gain a more holistic understanding of the functional ecology of forest ecosystems.

  8. 40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Measurement instrumentation. 201.22... PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT; INTERSTATE RAIL CARRIERS Measurement Criteria § 201.22 Measurement instrumentation. (a) A sound level meter or alternate sound level measurement...

  9. 40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Measurement instrumentation. 201.22... PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT; INTERSTATE RAIL CARRIERS Measurement Criteria § 201.22 Measurement instrumentation. (a) A sound level meter or alternate sound level measurement...

  10. 40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Measurement instrumentation. 201.22... PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT; INTERSTATE RAIL CARRIERS Measurement Criteria § 201.22 Measurement instrumentation. (a) A sound level meter or alternate sound level measurement...

  11. FLUID- THERMODYNAMIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS (IBM VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    The accurate computation of the thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids is a necessity for many engineering calculations. The FLUID program was developed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids in both the liquid and gas phases. Fluid properties are calculated using a simple gas model, empirical corrections, and an efficient numerical interpolation scheme. FLUID produces results that are in very good agreement with measured values, while being much faster than older more complex programs developed for the same purpose. A Van der Waals equation of state model is used to obtain approximate state values. These values are corrected for real-gas effects by model correction factors obtained from tables based on experimental data. These tables also accurately compensate for the special circumstances which arise whenever phase conditions occur. Viscosity and thermal conductivity values are computed directly from tables. Interpolation within tables is based on Lagrange's three point formula. A set of tables must be generated for each fluid implemented. FLUID currently contains tables for nine fluids including dry air and steam. The user can add tables for any fluid for which adequate thermal property data is available. The FLUID routine is structured so that it may easily be incorporated into engineering programs. The IBM 360 version of FLUID was developed in 1977. It is written in FORTRAN IV and has been implemented on an IBM 360 with a central memory requirement of approximately 222K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID is written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77 and has been implemented on an IBM PC with a memory requirement of 128K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID was developed in 1986.

  12. FLUID- THERMODYNAMIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    The accurate computation of the thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids is a necessity for many engineering calculations. The FLUID program was developed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids in both the liquid and gas phases. Fluid properties are calculated using a simple gas model, empirical corrections, and an efficient numerical interpolation scheme. FLUID produces results that are in very good agreement with measured values, while being much faster than older more complex programs developed for the same purpose. A Van der Waals equation of state model is used to obtain approximate state values. These values are corrected for real-gas effects by model correction factors obtained from tables based on experimental data. These tables also accurately compensate for the special circumstances which arise whenever phase conditions occur. Viscosity and thermal conductivity values are computed directly from tables. Interpolation within tables is based on Lagrange's three point formula. A set of tables must be generated for each fluid implemented. FLUID currently contains tables for nine fluids including dry air and steam. The user can add tables for any fluid for which adequate thermal property data is available. The FLUID routine is structured so that it may easily be incorporated into engineering programs. The IBM 360 version of FLUID was developed in 1977. It is written in FORTRAN IV and has been implemented on an IBM 360 with a central memory requirement of approximately 222K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID is written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77 and has been implemented on an IBM PC with a memory requirement of 128K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID was developed in 1986.

  13. A systematic review of instruments for measuring outcomes in economic evaluation within aged care.

    PubMed

    Bulamu, Norma B; Kaambwa, Billingsley; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2015-11-09

    This paper describes the methods and results of a systematic review to identify instruments used to measure quality of life outcomes in older people. The primary focus of the review was to identify instruments suitable for application with older people within economic evaluations conducted in the aged care sector. Online databases searched were PubMed, Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Embase and Informit. Studies that met the following criteria were included: 1) study population exclusively above 65 years of age 2) measured health status, health related quality of life or quality of life outcomes more broadly through use of an instrument developed for this purpose, 3) used a generic preference based instrument or an older person specific preference based or non-preference based instrument or both, and 4) published in journals in the English language after 2000. The most commonly applied generic preference based instrument in both the community and residential aged care context was the EuroQol - 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), followed by the Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit (ASCOT) and the Health Utilities Index (HUI2/3). The most widely applied older person specific instrument was the ICEpop CAPability measure for Older people (ICECAP-O) in both community and residential aged care. In the absence of an ideal instrument for incorporating into economic evaluations in the aged care sector, this review recommends the use of a generic preference based measure of health related quality of life such as the EQ-5D to obtain quality adjusted life years, in combination with an instrument that has a broader quality of life focus like the ASCOT, which was designed specifically for evaluating interventions in social care or the ICECAP-O, a capability measure for older people.

  14. Semiconductor laser-based ranging instrument for earth gravity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Millar, Pamela S.; Sun, Xiaoli

    1995-01-01

    A laser ranging instrument is being developed to measure the spatial variations in the Earth's gravity field. It will range in space to a cube corner on a passive co-orbiting sub-satellite with a velocity accuracy of 20 to 50 microns/sec by using AlGaAs lasers intensity modulated at 2 GHz.

  15. Simulation of the Fluid Flow-Related Phenomena in the Electrolyte of an Aluminum Electrolysis Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Lifeng; Zuo, Xiangjun

    2011-10-01

    A full-scale water model and mathematical simulation were used to study the fluid flow-related phenomena in a water model of an aluminum electrolysis cell. The time-dependent, multiphase fluid flow model was developed to represent the complex transient flow in the electrolysis bath. The accuracy of the mathematical model was validated by the ink dispersion and laser doppler velocimetry measurements in the water model. The shape, motion, release frequency of large-size bubbles, the fluid flow pattern, and the electrolyte-metal interface were predicted by the mathematical simulation. The design and operation of the anode were discussed, including the effect of the anode edge corner shape, the presence of a tilted bottom angle, and the magnitude of applied current density. The results indicated that coupling using a curved corner, with slot and with tilted angle at the anode, is effective for the release of bubbles and for the stability of the electrolyte-metal interface.

  16. Pressure/temperature fluid cell apparatus for the neutron powder diffractometer instrument: probing atomic structure in situ.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiu-Wen; Fanelli, Victor R; Reiche, Helmut M; Larson, Eric; Taylor, Mark A; Xu, Hongwu; Zhu, Jinlong; Siewenie, Joan; Page, Katharine

    2014-12-01

    This contribution describes a new local structure compatible gas/liquid cell apparatus for probing disordered materials at high pressures and variable temperatures in the Neutron Powder Diffraction instrument at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory. The new sample environment offers choices for sample canister thickness and canister material type. Finite element modeling is utilized to establish maximum allowable working pressures of 414 MPa at 15 K and 121 MPa at 600 K. High quality atomic pair distribution function data extraction and modeling have been demonstrated for a calibration standard (Si powder) and for supercritical and subcritical CO2 measurements. The new sample environment was designed to specifically target experimental studies of the local atomic structures involved in geologic CO2 sequestration, but will be equally applicable to a wide variety of energy applications, including sorption of fluids on nano/meso-porous solids, clathrate hydrate formation, catalysis, carbon capture, and H2 and natural gas uptake/storage.

  17. The development of an instrument for measuring healing.

    PubMed

    Meza, James Peter; Fahoome, Gail F

    2008-01-01

    Our lack of ability to measure healing attributes impairs our ability to research the topic. The specific aim of this project is to describe the psychological and social construct of healing and to create a valid and reliable measurement scale for attributes of healing. A content expert conducted a domain analysis examining the existing literature of midrange theories of healing. Theme saturation of content sampling was ensured by brainstorming more than 220 potential items. Selection of items was sequential: pile sorting and data reduction, with factor analysis of a mailed 54-item questionnaire. Criterion validity (convergent and divergent) and temporal reliability were established using a second mailing of the development version of the instrument. Construct validity was judged with structural equation modeling for goodness of fit. Cronbach's alpha of the original questionnaire was .869 and the final scale was .862. The test-retest reliability was .849. Eigenvalues for the 2 factors were 8 and 4, respectively. Divergent and convergent validity using the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale and SF-36 mental health and emotional subscales were consistent with predictions. The root mean square error of approximation was 0.066 and Bentler's Comparative Fit Index was 0.871. Root mean square residual was 0.102. We developed a valid and reliable measurement scale for attributes of healing, which we named the Self-Integration Scale v 2.1. By creating a new variable, new areas of research in humanistic health care are possible.

  18. Doppler backscatter properties of a blood-mimicking fluid for Doppler performance assessment.

    PubMed

    Ramnarine, K V; Hoskins, P R; Routh, H F; Davidson, F

    1999-01-01

    The Doppler backscatter properties of a blood-mimickig fluid (BMF) were studied to evaluate its suitability for use in a Doppler flow test object. Measurements were performed using a flow rig with C-flex tubing and BMF flow produced by a roller pump or a gear pump. A SciMed Doppler system was used to measure the backscattered Doppler power with a root-mean-square power meter connected to the audio output. Studies investigated the dependence of the backscattered Doppler power of the BMF with: circulation time; batch and operator preparations; storage; sieve size; flow speed; and pump type. A comparison was made with human red blood cells resuspended in saline. The backscatter properties are stable and within International Electrotechnical Commission requirements. The BMF is suitable for use in a test object for Doppler performance assessment.

  19. ac-resistance-measuring instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Hof, P.J.

    1981-04-22

    An auto-ranging ac resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an ac excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance.

  20. Design and implementation of a slope measuring instrument for measurement of charged particle temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajput, S. S.; Garg, S. C.

    1998-01-01

    This article reports the design considerations, implementation, and performance of an instrument, used to measure the slope of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of ionospheric plasma, for onboard measurement of charged particle temperatures. The instrument measures the reflected ac signal in the probe current, when an ac voltage is superposed over the probe bias, and is designed for the slope measurement from 6.3×10-14 A/V2 to 6.3×10-9 A/V2 with full scale resolution of 0.2%.

  1. A framework and a measurement instrument for sustainability of work practices in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Slaghuis, Sarah S; Strating, Mathilde M H; Bal, Roland A; Nieboer, Anna P

    2011-11-16

    In health care, many organizations are working on quality improvement and/or innovation of their care practices. Although the effectiveness of improvement processes has been studied extensively, little attention has been given to sustainability of the changed work practices after implementation. The objective of this study is to develop a theoretical framework and measurement instrument for sustainability. To this end sustainability is conceptualized with two dimensions: routinization and institutionalization. The exploratory methodological design consisted of three phases: a) framework development; b) instrument development; and c) field testing in former improvement teams in a quality improvement program for health care (N teams = 63, N individual = 112). Data were collected not until at least one year had passed after implementation.Underlying constructs and their interrelations were explored using Structural Equation Modeling and Principal Component Analyses. Internal consistency was computed with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. A long and a short version of the instrument are proposed. The χ2- difference test of the -2 Log Likelihood estimates demonstrated that the hierarchical two factor model with routinization and institutionalization as separate constructs showed a better fit than the one factor model (p < .01). Secondly, construct validity of the instrument was strong as indicated by the high factor loadings of the items. Finally, the internal consistency of the subscales was good. The theoretical framework offers a valuable starting point for the analysis of sustainability on the level of actual changed work practices. Even though the two dimensions routinization and institutionalization are related, they are clearly distinguishable and each has distinct value in the discussion of sustainability. Finally, the subscales conformed to psychometric properties defined in literature. The instrument can be used in the evaluation of improvement projects.

  2. Deriving aerosol properties from measurements of the Atmosphere-Surface Radiation Automatic Instrument (ASRAI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hua; Li, Donghui; Li, Zhengqiang; Zheng, Xiaobing; Li, Xin; Xie, Yisong; Liu, Enchao

    2015-10-01

    The Atmosphere-surface Radiation Automatic Instrument (ASRAI) is a newly developed hyper-spectral apparatus by Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (AIOFM, CAS), measuring total spectral irradiance, diffuse spectral irradiance of atmosphere and reflected radiance of the land surface for the purpose of in-situ calibration. The instrument applies VIS-SWIR spectrum (0.4~1.0 μm) with an averaged spectral resolution of 0.004 μm. The goal of this paper is to describe a method of deriving both aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol modes from irradiance measurements under free cloudy conditions. The total columnar amounts of water vapor and oxygen are first inferred from solar transmitted irradiance at strong absorption wavelength. The AOD together with total columnar amounts of ozone and nitrogen dioxide are determined by a nonlinear least distance fitting method. Moreover, it is able to infer aerosol modes from the spectral dependency of AOD because different aerosol modes have their inherent spectral extinction characteristics. With assumption that the real aerosol is an idea of "external mixing" of four basic components, dust-like, water-soluble, oceanic and soot, the percentage of volume concentration of each component can be retrieved. A spectrum matching technology based on Euclidean-distance method is adopted to find the most approximate combination of components. The volume concentration ratios of four basic components are in accordance with our prior knowledge of regional aerosol climatology. Another advantage is that the retrievals would facilitate the TOA simulation when applying 6S model for satellite calibration.

  3. Capacitance Probe for Fluid Flow and Volume Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Nguyen, Thanh X. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Method and apparatus for making measurements on fluids are disclosed, including the use of a capacitive probe for measuring the flow volume of a material within a flow stream. The capacitance probe has at least two elongate electrodes and, in a specific embodiment of the invention, has three parallel elongate electrodes with the center electrode being an extension of the center conductor of a co-axial cable. A conductance probe is also provided to provide more accurate flow volume data in response to conductivity of the material within the flow stream. A preferred embodiment of the present invention provides for a gas flow stream through a micro-gravity environment that allows for monitoring a flow volume of a fluid sample, such as a urine sample, that is entrained within the gas flow stream.

  4. Capacitance probe for fluid flow and volume measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Nguyen, Thanh X. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Method and apparatus for making measurements on fluids are disclosed, including the use of a capacitive probe for measuring the flow volume of a material within a flow stream. The capacitance probe has at least two elongate electrodes and, in a specific embodiment of the invention, has three parallel elongate electrodes with the center electrode being an extension of the center conductor of a co-axial cable. A conductance probe is also provided to provide more accurate flow volume data in response to conductivity of the material within the flow stream. A preferred embodiment of the present invention provides for a gas flow stream through a microgravity environment that allows for monitoring a flow volume of a fluid sample, such as a urine sample, that is entrained within the gas flow stream.

  5. Commercial Instrument for Automated Specific Heat Measurements at Millikelvin Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neils, W. K.; Martien, Dinesh; Bauer, E. D.; Mixson, D.; Hur, N.; Thompson, J. D.; Sarrao, J. L.

    2006-09-01

    The specific heat of CeRhIn5-xSnx was measured down to 55 mK using a novel, fully automated measurement system. The system consists of a dilution refrigerator designed to operate in a Quantum Design Physical Property Measurement System, a calorimeter optimized for millikelvin temperatures and very low addenda heat capacity, electronics to perform the measurement, and software to automate the measurement. The compound CeRhIn5 exhibits antiferromagnetism at a Neel temperature of TN = 3.8 K which is suppressed at a critical pressure Pc ˜ 25 kbar, indicating a quantum critical point (QCP). At pressures above ˜ 15 kbar, CeRhIn5 exhibits antiferromagnetism and superconductivity simultaneously. Measurement of the specific heat of CeRhIn5-xSnx in magnetic field offers an additional tool to probe the antiferromagnetic QCP. Preliminary measurements up to H = 3 T for CeRhIn4.77Sn0.23 are reported.

  6. An instrument for measuring the complex permittivity of the Martian top soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grard, R.

    1988-01-01

    This permittivity measuring instrument measures the resistivity rho and the relative dielectric constant epsilon sub r of the Martian top soil along the path of a rover. This aim is achieved by measuring the real and imaginary parts of the complex permittivity epsilon = epsilon sub r - j epsilon sub i where epsilon sub i = omega epsilon sub o rho/1; epsilon sub 1 is the permittivity of vacuum and omega is a variable angular working frequency. The experimental technique consists in evaluating the mutual, or transfer, impedance of a quadrupolar probe, i.e., in quantifying the influence of the Martian ground on the electrical coupling of two Hertz dipoles. The horizontal and vertical spatial resolutions are of the order of the length and separation of the dipoles, typically 1 to 2 metres. The four-electrode method for measuring the ground resistivity on earth was first applied by Wenner and Schlumberger, but the proposed investigation bears closer resemblance to a similar instrument developed for ground surveying at shallow depth, in connection with archaelogical and pedological research. A quadrupolar probe will provide essential information about the electric properties of the Martian ground and will contribute usefully to the identification of the soil structure and composition in association with other experimental equipment (camera, infra-red detector, gamma and X-ray spectrometers, chemical analyzers, ground temperature probes).

  7. FluidCam 1&2 - UAV-Based Fluid Lensing Instruments for High-Resolution 3D Subaqueous Imaging and Automated Remote Biosphere Assessment of Reef Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirayath, V.

    2015-12-01

    We present NASA ESTO FluidCam 1 & 2, Visible and NIR Fluid-Lensing-enabled imaging payloads for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Developed as part of a focused 2014 earth science technology grant, FluidCam 1&2 are Fluid-Lensing-based computational optical imagers designed for automated 3D mapping and remote sensing of underwater coastal targets from airborne platforms. Fluid Lensing has been used to map underwater reefs in 3D in American Samoa and Hamelin Pool, Australia from UAV platforms at sub-cm scale, which has proven a valuable tool in modern marine research for marine biosphere assessment and conservation. We share FluidCam 1&2 instrument validation and testing results as well as preliminary processed data from field campaigns. Petabyte-scale aerial survey efforts using Fluid Lensing to image at-risk reefs demonstrate broad applicability to large-scale automated species identification, morphology studies and reef ecosystem characterization for shallow marine environments and terrestrial biospheres, of crucial importance to improving bathymetry data for physical oceanographic models and understanding climate change's impact on coastal zones, global oxygen production, carbon sequestration.

  8. Review of modern instrumentation for magnetic measurements at high pressure and low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Kamenev, K. V.

    2014-08-01

    High-pressure magnetic susceptibility experiments can provide insights into the changes in magnetic behavior and electric properties which can accompany extreme compressions of material. Instrumentation plays an important role in the experimental work in this field since 1990s. Here we present a comprehensive review of the high-pressure instrumentation development for magnetic measurement from the engineering perspective in the last 20 years. Suitable nonmagnetic materials for high pressure cell are introduced initially. Then we focus on the existing cells developed for magnetic property measurement system (MPMS®) SQUID magnetometer from Quantum Design (USA). Two categories of high pressure cells for this system are discussed in detail respectively. Some high pressure cells with built-in magnetic measurement system are also reviewed.

  9. A high sampling rate digital holographic imager instrument for the in situ measurements of hydrometeors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaikkonen, Ville A.; Mäkynen, Anssi J.

    2016-06-01

    A novel digital in-line holographic imaging instrument designed for acquiring properties of individual hydrometeors in situ is presented. The instrument has a large measurement volume of 670 cm3. This combined with fast frame rate imaging and software controlled multi-exposure capabilities results in a representative sampling of rain and snowfall events. Hydrometeors are measured and analyzed from the in-focus images with microscopic resolution, and their 3D locations inside the measurement volume are determined. The instrument is designed to operate in cold climates and to produce reliable measurements also during strong winds. The imaging rate of the instrument was designed to be adequately high to observe the dynamic nature of rain and snow falls. By recording multi-exposure holograms, the effective frame rate can be increased. This allows the measurements of the velocities of the fast-falling hydrometeors. The instrument and the hologram processing are described; as well as results from laboratory tests and the first field measurements are shown. As a result, the resolving power of the instrument was measured to vary between 11 and 18 microns inside the measurement volume near the center of the field-of-view. Velocity vectors were measured both from multi-exposure and high frame rate holograms. The measured velocities ranged from 0.1 to 4 m/s. In addition, the projections of a flat-shaped and rotating snowflake imaged at different locations inside the measurement volume demonstrated the possibility to estimate the shape of the hydrometeor from multiple viewing angles.

  10. Brief communication "Snow profile associated measurements (SPAM) - a new instrument for quick snow profile measurements"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahtinen, P.

    2011-06-01

    A new instrument concept (SPAM) for snow profile associated measurements is presented. The potential of the concept is demonstrated by presenting preliminary results obtained with the prototype instrument. With this concept it is possible to retrieve rapid snow profiles of e.g. light extinction, reflectance, temperature and snow layer structure with high vertical resolution. As a side-product, also snow depth is retrieved.

  11. Measuring Approaches to Learning in Preschoolers: Validating the Structure of an Instrument for Teachers and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbu, Otilia C.; Marx, Ronald W.; Yaden, David B., Jr.; Levine-Donnerstein, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    This study examined a 13-item instrument measuring approaches to learning (AtL) as a component of school readiness in the context of early childhood socio-emotional development. Few instruments, limited to preschool teacher ratings, measure AtL among kindergarteners with short easy-to-use questionnaires. We investigated psychometric properties of…

  12. Measuring Approaches to Learning in Preschoolers: Validating the Structure of an Instrument for Teachers and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbu, Otilia C.; Marx, Ronald W.; Yaden, David B., Jr.; Levine-Donnerstein, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    This study examined a 13-item instrument measuring approaches to learning (AtL) as a component of school readiness in the context of early childhood socio-emotional development. Few instruments, limited to preschool teacher ratings, measure AtL among kindergarteners with short easy-to-use questionnaires. We investigated psychometric properties of…

  13. Cleanliness of common air sampling sorbents for application to phenolic compounds measurement using supercritical fluid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, J.R.; Pleil, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    The trace-level measurement of phenolic compounds in the ambient air is complicated by the acidic and polar nature of the compounds especially during recovery from the sampling medium. Recently, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been proposed as an alternative extraction method to Soxhlet extraction or thermal desorption to achieve more efficient recoveries. For such methodology to become practical, the candidate sorbents must first be tested for stability and cleanliness under SFE conditions. This paper describes exploratory research results of background contamination tests and cleanup properties of some common air sampling sorbent media with respect to future application to phenolic compounds monitoring.

  14. Cleanliness of common air sampling sorbents for application to phenolic compounds measurement using supercritical fluid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, J.R.; Pleil, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    The trace-level measurement of phenolic compounds in the ambient air is complicated by the acidic and polar nature of the compounds especially during recovery from the sampling medium. Recently, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been proposed as an alternative extraction method to Soxhlet extraction or thermal desorption to achieve more efficient recoveries. For such methodology to become practical, the candidate sorbents must first be tested for stability and cleanliness under SFE conditions. The paper describes exploratory research results of background contamination tests and cleanup properties of some common air sampling sorbent media with respect to future application to phenolic compounds monitoring.

  15. 46 CFR 67.265 - Requirements for instruments evidencing satisfaction or release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for instruments evidencing satisfaction or... for instruments evidencing satisfaction or release. An instrument satisfying or releasing a mortgage... claim of lien is recorded. If the recording information cannot be provided because the satisfaction...

  16. 46 CFR 67.265 - Requirements for instruments evidencing satisfaction or release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for instruments evidencing satisfaction or... for instruments evidencing satisfaction or release. An instrument satisfying or releasing a mortgage... claim of lien is recorded. If the recording information cannot be provided because the satisfaction...

  17. 46 CFR 67.265 - Requirements for instruments evidencing satisfaction or release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for instruments evidencing satisfaction or... for instruments evidencing satisfaction or release. An instrument satisfying or releasing a mortgage... claim of lien is recorded. If the recording information cannot be provided because the satisfaction...

  18. 46 CFR 67.265 - Requirements for instruments evidencing satisfaction or release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for instruments evidencing satisfaction or... for instruments evidencing satisfaction or release. An instrument satisfying or releasing a mortgage... claim of lien is recorded. If the recording information cannot be provided because the satisfaction...

  19. 46 CFR 67.265 - Requirements for instruments evidencing satisfaction or release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for instruments evidencing satisfaction or... for instruments evidencing satisfaction or release. An instrument satisfying or releasing a mortgage... claim of lien is recorded. If the recording information cannot be provided because the satisfaction...

  20. Integrated, Multi-Scale Characterization of Imbibition and Wettability Phenomena Using Magnetic Resonance and Wide-Band Dielectric Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mukul M. Sharma; Steven L. Bryant; Carlos Torres-Verdin; George Hirasaki

    2007-09-30

    The petrophysical properties of rocks, particularly their relative permeability and wettability, strongly influence the efficiency and the time-scale of all hydrocarbon recovery processes. However, the quantitative relationships needed to account for the influence of wettability and pore structure on multi-phase flow are not yet available, largely due to the complexity of the phenomena controlling wettability and the difficulty of characterizing rock properties at the relevant length scales. This project brings together several advanced technologies to characterize pore structure and wettability. Grain-scale models are developed that help to better interpret the electric and dielectric response of rocks. These studies allow the computation of realistic configurations of two immiscible fluids as a function of wettability and geologic characteristics. These fluid configurations form a basis for predicting and explaining macroscopic behavior, including the relationship between relative permeability, wettability and laboratory and wireline log measurements of NMR and dielectric response. Dielectric and NMR measurements have been made show that the response of the rocks depends on the wetting and flow properties of the rock. The theoretical models can be used for a better interpretation and inversion of standard well logs to obtain accurate and reliable estimates of fluid saturation and of their producibility. The ultimate benefit of this combined theoretical/empirical approach for reservoir characterization is that rather than reproducing the behavior of any particular sample or set of samples, it can explain and predict trends in behavior that can be applied at a range of length scales, including correlation with wireline logs, seismic, and geologic units and strata. This approach can substantially enhance wireline log interpretation for reservoir characterization and provide better descriptions, at several scales, of crucial reservoir flow properties that govern oil

  1. The Development of an Instrument for Measuring Healing

    PubMed Central

    Meza, James Peter; Fahoome, Gail F.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE Our lack of ability to measure healing attributes impairs our ability to research the topic. The specific aim of this project is to describe the psychological and social construct of healing and to create a valid and reliable measurement scale for attributes of healing. METHODS A content expert conducted a domain analysis examining the existing literature of midrange theories of healing. Theme saturation of content sampling was ensured by brainstorming more than 220 potential items. Selection of items was sequential: pile sorting and data reduction, with factor analysis of a mailed 54-item questionnaire. Criterion validity (convergent and divergent) and temporal reliability were established using a second mailing of the development version of the instrument. Construct validity was judged with structural equation modeling for goodness of fit. RESULTS Cronbach’s α of the original questionnaire was .869 and the final scale was .862. The test-retest reliability was .849. Eigenvalues for the 2 factors were 8 and 4, respectively. Divergent and convergent validity using the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale and SF-36 mental health and emotional subscales were consistent with predictions. The root mean square error of approximation was 0.066 and Bentler’s Comparative Fit Index was 0.871. Root mean square residual was 0.102. CONCLUSIONS We developed a valid and reliable measurement scale for attributes of healing, which we named the Self-Integration Scale v 2.1. By creating a new variable, new areas of research in humanistic health care are possible. PMID:18626036

  2. Building a Low-Cost, Six-Electrode Instrument to Measure Electrical Properties of Self-Assembled Monolayers of Gold Nanoparticles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Ralph W.; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new low-cost, six-electrode instrument for measuring the electrical properties of the self-assembled monolayers of gold particles is being described. The system can also be used to measure conductive liquids, except for those that contain aqua region.

  3. Building a Low-Cost, Six-Electrode Instrument to Measure Electrical Properties of Self-Assembled Monolayers of Gold Nanoparticles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Ralph W.; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new low-cost, six-electrode instrument for measuring the electrical properties of the self-assembled monolayers of gold particles is being described. The system can also be used to measure conductive liquids, except for those that contain aqua region.

  4. 40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Measurement instrumentation. 201.22... PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT; INTERSTATE RAIL CARRIERS Measurement Criteria § 201.22 Measurement instrumentation. (a) A sound level meter or alternate sound level...

  5. Precision Tiltmeter as a Reference for Slope MeasuringInstruments

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Domning, Edward E.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Smith, Brian V.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2007-08-01

    The next generation of synchrotrons and free electron lasers require extremely high-performance x-ray optical systems for proper focusing. The necessary optics cannot be fabricated without the use of precise optical metrology instrumentation. In particular, the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) based on the pencil-beam interferometer is a valuable tool for low-spatial-frequency slope measurement with x-ray optics. The limitations of such a device are set by the amount of systematic errors and noise. A significant improvement of LTP performance was the addition of an optical reference channel, which allowed to partially account for systematic errors associated with wiggling and wobbling of the LTP carriage. However, the optical reference is affected by changing optical path length, non-homogeneous optics, and air turbulence. In the present work, we experimentally investigate the questions related to the use of a precision tiltmeter as a reference channel. Dependence of the tiltmeter performance on horizontal acceleration, temperature drift, motion regime, and kinematical scheme of the translation stage has been investigated. It is shown that at an appropriate experimental arrangement, the tiltmeter provides a slope reference for the LTP system with accuracy on the level of 0.1 {micro}rad (rms).

  6. Quantitative phase-field modeling for wetting phenomena.

    PubMed

    Badillo, Arnoldo

    2015-03-01

    A new phase-field model is developed for studying partial wetting. The introduction of a third phase representing a solid wall allows for the derivation of a new surface tension force that accounts for energy changes at the contact line. In contrast to other multi-phase-field formulations, the present model does not need the introduction of surface energies for the fluid-wall interactions. Instead, all wetting properties are included in a unique parameter known as the equilibrium contact angle θeq. The model requires the solution of a single elliptic phase-field equation, which, coupled to conservation laws for mass and linear momentum, admits the existence of steady and unsteady compact solutions (compactons). The representation of the wall by an additional phase field allows for the study of wetting phenomena on flat, rough, or patterned surfaces in a straightforward manner. The model contains only two free parameters, a measure of interface thickness W and β, which is used in the definition of the mixture viscosity μ=μlϕl+μvϕv+βμlϕw. The former controls the convergence towards the sharp interface limit and the latter the energy dissipation at the contact line. Simulations on rough surfaces show that by taking values for β higher than 1, the model can reproduce, on average, the effects of pinning events of the contact line during its dynamic motion. The model is able to capture, in good agreement with experimental observations, many physical phenomena fundamental to wetting science, such as the wetting transition on micro-structured surfaces and droplet dynamics on solid substrates.

  7. Digital correlator for the portable channel prober measurement instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peo, George E., Jr.

    1987-12-01

    This document describes a Digital Correlator for the Portable Channel Prober Measurement Instrument being developed by the Naval Research Laboratory for use in experiments designed to characterize high frequency (HF) radio channels. This Digital Correlator is a digital signal processor designed and constructed by Stow Computer, 111 old Bolton Road, Stow, MA 01775, (617/508) 897-6838. Two Digital Correlators are integrated into the existing Digital Pre-processor to make a Portable Wideband HF Channel Analyzer. The Portable Wideband HF Channel Analyzer will be located at the receiving site of the channel probing experiment and is situated between the coherent radio receiver and the microcomputer used for data recording and analysis. The Portable Wideband HF Channel Analyzer computes the delay power spectrum of the received waveform. The in-phase and quadrature outputs of the receiver are sampled and converted to digital values by the Analog to Digital Converter, integrated by the Integrator, and correlated with a stored replica of the transmitted waveform by two Digital Correlators. The resulting tap gains are then read by the system microcomputer using the microcomputer interface.

  8. Measurement of nonlinear viscoelastic properties of fluids using Dynamic Acoustoelastic Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trarieux, C.; Callé, S.; Poulin, A.; Tranchant, J.-F.; Moreschi, H.; Defontaine, M.

    2012-12-01

    A nonlinear ultrasound-based method called Dynamic Acoustoelastic Testing (DAET) is used to assess nonlinear viscoelastic properties of fluids. This method is based on the interaction between two elastic waves: a low-frequency (LF) sinusoidal wave (4 kHz) to successively compress and expand the liquid as a bulk stress, and ultrasound (US) pulses (1 MHz) to simultaneously probe the sample at different states of the quasi-hydrostatic pressure. The DAET method provides estimations of the elastic nonlinearities issued from the Time Of Flight Modulations (TOFM) of the US pulses. The TOFM is plotted as a function of the LF acoustic pressure, allowing an estimation of the nonlinear elastic parameter B/A. In this study, we first present the results obtained in Newtonian fluids such as water and silicone oils. Simple viscoelastic gels (Carbomers and Xanthan gums) have also been tested exhibiting the same behavior: TOFM linearly related to LF pressure amplitude corresponding to classical quadratic nonlinearity. Finally, preliminary DAET measurements have been performed in biphasic systems composed of hard glass beads in a gel-based matrix and in gelatin during a gelation process.

  9. Gene Expression Measurement Module (GEMM) - a fully automated, miniaturized instrument for measuring gene expression in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karouia, Fathi; Ricco, Antonio; Pohorille, Andrew; Peyvan, Kianoosh

    2012-07-01

    The capability to measure gene expression on board spacecrafts opens the doors to a large number of experiments on the influence of space environment on biological systems that will profoundly impact our ability to conduct safe and effective space travel, and might also shed light on terrestrial physiology or biological function and human disease and aging processes. Measurements of gene expression will help us to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment on a wide range of organisms from microbes to humans, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, determine metabolic basis of microbial pathogenicity and drug resistance, test our ability to sustain and grow in space organisms that can be used for life support and in situ resource utilization during long-duration space exploration, and monitor both the spacecraft environment and crew health. These and other applications hold significant potential for discoveries in space biology, biotechnology and medicine. Accordingly, supported by funding from the NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development Program, we are developing a fully automated, miniaturized, integrated fluidic system for small spacecraft capable of in-situ measuring microbial expression of thousands of genes from multiple samples. The instrument will be capable of (1) lysing bacterial cell walls, (2) extracting and purifying RNA released from cells, (3) hybridizing it on a microarray and (4) providing electrochemical readout, all in a microfluidics cartridge. The prototype under development is suitable for deployment on nanosatellite platforms developed by the NASA Small Spacecraft Office. The first target application is to cultivate and measure gene expression of the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus, i.e. a cyanobacterium known to exhibit remarkable metabolic diversity and resilience to adverse conditions

  10. Modular instrumentation system for real-time measurements and control on reciprocating engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, W. J.; Birchenough, A. G.

    1980-01-01

    An instrumentation system was developed for reciprocating engines. Among the parameters measured are the indicated mean effective pressure, or theoretical work per cycle, and the mass fraction burn rate, a measure of the combustion rate in the cylinder. These computations are performed from measured cylinder pressure and crankshaft angle and are available in real time for the experimenter. A 100 or 200 consecutive-cycle sample is analyzed to reduce the effect of cyclic variations in the engine. Data are displayed in bargraph form, and the mean and standard deviation are computed. Other instruments are also described.

  11. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow and density of fluid in a conduit having a gradual bend

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, Marcos German; Boucher, Timothy J.

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow.

  12. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow and density of fluid in a conduit having a gradual bend

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, M.G.; Boucher, T.J.

    1998-10-27

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.

  13. Satellite observations and instrumentation for measuring energetic neutral atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, H.D.; Mobilia, J.; Collin, H.L.; Imhof, W.L. . Space Sciences Lab.)

    1993-12-01

    Direct measurements of energetic neutral atoms (ENA) and ions have been obtained with the cooled solid state detectors on the low-altitude (220 km) three-axis stabilized S81-1/ stimulated emissions of energetic particles (SEEP) satellite and on the spinning 400 km [times] 5.5 R[sub e] (where R[sub e] is Earth radii) Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). During magnetic storms ENA and ion precipitation (E > 10 keV) are evident over the low-altitude equatorial region based on data from the SEEP (ONR 804) spectrometers and CRRES ion mass spectrometer (IMS-HI) (ONR 307-8-3) ion composition and ENA instrument. The IMS-HI neutral atom spectrometer covers the energy range from 20 to 1,500 keV with a geometrical factor of 10[sub [minus]3] cm[sup 2] sr and uses a 7-kG magnetic field to screen out protons less than about 50 MeV. During the strong magnetic storm of 24 March 1991 the first ENA and ion mass composition measurements were obtained of ring current particles below the inner belt and these fluxes are compared to the IMS-HI flux measurements in the ring current. Recently, an advanced spectrometer, the Source/Loss-cone Energetic Particle Spectrometer (SEPS), has been developed to image electrons, ions, and neutrals on the despun platform of the POLAR satellite ([approximately]1.8 [times] 9 R[sub e]) for launch in the mid 1990s as part of NASA's International Solar Terrestrial Physics/Global Geospace Science (ISTP/GGS) program.

  14. Computer program for calculating thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Braon, A. K.; Peller, I. C.

    1975-01-01

    Computer code has been developed to provide thermodynamic and transport properties of liquid argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, fluorine, helium, methane, neon, nitrogen, oxygen, and parahydrogen. Equation of state and transport coefficients are updated and other fluids added as new material becomes available.

  15. New instrumentation for temperature measurement. Phase 1: Program solicitation, small business innovation research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergason, J. L.

    1980-08-01

    Temperature sensitive liquid crystals designed to meet the need for a measuring device to accurately measure temperature and temperature distribution in the presence of electric, magnetic, and sonic fields, especially with high space and thermal resolution are discussed. A technique was developed to make highly reproducible, stable configurations of liquid crystal encapsulates. Temperature stable sensors have been produced which can be calibrated to the National Bureau of Standards. The thermal properties of the liquid crystal can be matched to the properties of the surrounding medium. Since a two dimensional representation of the temperature distribution is possible, the use of this instrumentation has significant implications for bioengineering.

  16. Radiometric and Spectral Measurement Instruments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-18

    NSWCCR/RDTN-92/0003 AD-A250 771LI~ llliii11l li l l iillt111 RADIOMETRIC AND SPECTRAL MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS CRANE DIVISION NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE... INSTRUMENTS 6. AUTHOR(S) B. E. DOUDA H. A. WEBSTER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) a. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NIJMBER...Maxiry-um 200 w ords) THIS IS A DESCRIPTION OF AN ASSORTMENT OF RADIOMETRIC AND SPECTRAL INSTRUMENTATION USED FOR MEASUREMENT OF THE RADIATIVE OUTPUT OF

  17. Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference: Exposition Topical Areas 1-6. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Bhim (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    The Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference provides the scientific community the opportunity to view the current scope of the Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Program, current research opportunities, and plans for the near future. The conference focuses not only on fundamental research but also on applications of this knowledge towards enabling future space exploration missions. A whole session dedicated to biological fluid physics shows increased emphasis that the program has placed on interdisciplinary research. The conference includes invited plenary talks, technical paper presentations, poster presentations, and exhibits. This CP (conference proceeding) is a compilation of the abstracts, presentations, and posters presented at the conference.

  18. Deaf Pupils' Reasoning about Scientific Phenomena: School Science as a Framework for Understanding or as Fragments of Factual Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molander, B. O.; Pedersen, Svend; Norell, Kia

    2001-01-01

    A Swedish interview study of how deaf pupils reason about phenomena in a science context revealed significant variation in the extent to which pupils used scientific principles for reasoning about science phenomena, which suggests that for some pupils, school science offers little as a framework for reasoning. (Contains references.) (DB)

  19. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  20. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2004-05-03

    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  1. Development of instrumentation for differential spectroscopic measurements at millimeter wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, G.; de Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.; Schillaci, A.

    2016-07-01

    The study of the spectral-spatial anisotropy of the high-latitude mm-wave sky is a powerful tool of cosmology. It can be used to provide deep insight in the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect, the Cosmic Infrared Background, the anisotropy of the CMB, using the spectral dimension to provide substantially increased information with respect to what is achievable by means of standard multiband photometry. Here we focus on spectral measurements of the SZ effect. Large mm-wave telescopes are now routinely mapping photometrically the SZ effect in a number of clusters, estimating the comptonisation parameter and using them as cosmological probes. Low-resolution spectroscopic measurements of the SZ effect would be very effective in removing the degeneracy between parameters inevitable in photometric measurements. We describe a real-world implementation of this measurement strategy, based on an imaging, efficient, differential Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The instrument is based on a Martin-Puplett interferometer (MPI) configuration. We combined two MPIs working synchronously to use the entire input power. In our implementation the observed sky field is divided into two halves along the meridian. Each half-field corresponds to one of the two input ports of the MPI. Each detector in the FTS focal planes measures the difference in brightness between two sky pixels, symmetrically located with respect to the meridian. Exploiting the high common mode rejection of the MPI, tiny sky brightness gradients embedded in an overwhelming isotropic background might be measured. We investigate experimentally the common-mode rejection achievable in the MPI at mm wavelengths, and discuss the use of such an instrument to measure the spectrum of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy and the SZ effect.

  2. Rheological properties of synovial fluids.

    PubMed

    Fam, H; Bryant, J T; Kontopoulou, M

    2007-01-01

    Synovial fluid is the joint lubricant and shock absorber [Semin. Arthritis Rheum. 32 (2002), 10-37] as well as the source of nutrition for articular cartilage. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the rheological properties of synovial fluid as they relate to its chemical composition. Given its importance in the rheology of synovial fluid, an overview of the structure and rheology of HA (hyaluronic acid) is presented first. The rheology of synovial fluids is discussed in detail, with a focus on the possible diagnosis of joint pathology based on the observed differences in rheological parameters and trends. The deterioration of viscoelastic properties of synovial fluid in pathological states due to effects of HA concentration and molecular weight is further described. Recent findings pertaining to the composition and rheology of periprosthetic fluid, the fluid that bathes prosthetic joints in vivo are reported.

  3. Soil Shear Properties Assessment, Resistance, Thermal, and Triboelectric Analysis (SPARTTA) Tool: A New Multitool Instrument for Identifying the Physical Properties of In-situ Soils on Planetary Surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Peters, G. H.; Beegle, L. W.; Zhou, Y. M.; Van Stryk, N.; Carey, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    SPARTTA is a low cost, low mass (< 1 kg), and low power (< 5 watt) deployable rover-arm mounted contact instrument that will provide a new capability for measurements of the physical properties of in-situ soils on a planetary surface. SPARTTA is TRL-4 and is able to characterize the mechanical (shear and compressive strength), thermal (conductivity), and electrical (dielectric spectroscopy and triboelectric charging) properties of soils through the integration of five specialized tools into a small, portable instrument, analogous to the Swiss army knife. All of the SPARTTA components are based on classical terrestrial soil analytical tools. Each component will be used to measure a specific physical property of a planetary regolith. SPARTTA will be easily adaptable to a wide range of surface environments for any future planetary robotic surface mission. A key innovation of SPARTTA is its state-of-the-art miniature packaging approach which enables in-situ comprehensive analyses of the physical properties of soils on any planetary body (e.g. asteroids, comets, etc.) with a single compact instrument. SPARTTA will specifically address several high-priority science goals identified in the Decadal Study regarding the physical properties of planetary soils, liquid water/water-ice detection, and electrostatics for bodies as diverse as comets, Trojan asteroids, Mars and the Moon [Planetary Science Decadal Study, 2013]. Additionally, it will provide valuable data to assist engineers in designing landing, drilling, coring, and sample acquisition systems for future Discovery, New Frontiers missions, or flagship landed missions.

  4. Density-functional theory for complex fluids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianzhong; Li, Zhidong

    2007-01-01

    Density-functional theory (DFT) and its variations provide a fruitful approach to the computational modeling of the microscopic structures and phase behavior of soft-condensed matter. The methodology takes deep root in quantum mechanics but shares a mathematical similarity with a number of classical approaches in statistical mechanics. This review discusses different strategies commonly used to formulate the free-energy functional of complex fluids for either phenomena-oriented applications or as a generic description of the thermodynamic nonideality owing to various components of intermolecular forces. We emphasize the connections among different schemes of DFT approximations, their underlying assumptions, and inherent limitations. We also address extensions of equilibrium DFT to phenomenological theories for the dynamic properties of complex fluids and for the kinetics of phase transitions. In addition, we highlight the recent literature concerning applications of DFT to diverse static and time-dependent phenomena in complex fluids.

  5. Time-resolved characterization of diesel particulate emissions. 2. Instruments for elemental and organic carbon measurements.

    PubMed

    Moosmüller, H; Arnott, W P; Rogers, C F; Bowen, J L; Gillies, J A; Pierson, W R; Collins, J F; Durbin, T D; Norbeck, J M

    2001-05-15

    The measurement of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) mass for particles emitted by diesel vehicles is currently accomplished using particle collection on filters, followed by analysis using the thermal/optical reflectance carbon analysis method (TOR) or one of its variations. Such filter methods limit time resolution to a minimum of several minutes, making it impossible to study emissions during transient operating conditions. Testing of five different measurement methods has demonstrated that fast response measurement of diesel exhaust particulate EC and OC concentrations, consistent with TOR filter measurements, is feasible using existing technology. EC mass concentrations are best measured through determination of particulate light absorption with a photoacoustic instrument or determination of light extinction with a smoke meter. The photoacoustic instrument has the better dynamic range and sensitivity, whereas the smoke meter is a simpler instrument. Fast response OC measurements cannot be made with any single instrument tested. However, a combination of real time weighing as implemented in the tapered element oscillating microbalance with the photoacoustic instrument has been shown to be capable of determining OC concentrations with good time response. The addition of a nephelometer to the OC measurement could potentially improve time resolution, freedom from interferences, and sensitivity.

  6. Thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1980-01-01

    Computer program subroutine FLUID calculates thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids in liquid, gas, or two-phase (liquid/gas) conditions. Program determines thermodynamic state from assigned values for temperature and density, pressure and density, temperature and pressure, pressure and entropy, or pressure and enthalpy.

  7. A fundamental measure theory for the sticky hard sphere fluid.

    PubMed

    Hansen-Goos, Hendrik; Wettlaufer, J S

    2011-01-07

    We construct a density functional theory (DFT) for the sticky hard sphere (SHS) fluid which, like Rosenfeld's fundamental measure theory (FMT) for the hard sphere fluid [Y. Rosenfeld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 980 (1989)], is based on a set of weighted densities and an exact result from scaled particle theory (SPT). It is demonstrated that the excess free energy density of the inhomogeneous SHS fluid Φ(SHS) is uniquely defined when (a) it is solely a function of the weighted densities from Kierlik and Rosinberg's version of FMT [E. Kierlik and M. L. Rosinberg, Phys. Rev. A 42, 3382 (1990)], (b) it satisfies the SPT differential equation, and (c) it yields any given direct correlation function (DCF) from the class of generalized Percus-Yevick closures introduced by Gazzillo and Giacometti [J. Chem. Phys. 120, 4742 (2004)]. The resulting DFT is shown to be in very good agreement with simulation data. In particular, this FMT yields the correct contact value of the density profiles with no adjustable parameters. Rather than requiring higher order DCFs, such as perturbative DFTs, our SHS FMT produces them. Interestingly, although equivalent to Kierlik and Rosinberg's FMT in the case of hard spheres, the set of weighted densities used for Rosenfeld's original FMT is insufficient for constructing a DFT which yields the SHS DCF.

  8. Apparatus for measuring particle properties

    DOEpatents

    Rader, Daniel J.; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Grasser, Thomas W.; Brockmann, John E.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for determining particle properties from detected light scattered by the particles. The apparatus uses a light beam with novel intensity characteristics to discriminate between particles that pass through the beam and those that pass through an edge of the beam. The apparatus can also discriminate between light scattered by one particle and light scattered by multiple particles. The particle's size can be determined from the intensity of the light scattered. The particle's velocity can be determined from the elapsed time between various intensities of the light scattered.

  9. Apparatus for measuring particle properties

    DOEpatents

    Rader, D.J.; Castaneda, J.N.; Grasser, T.W.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1998-08-11

    An apparatus is described for determining particle properties from detected light scattered by the particles. The apparatus uses a light beam with novel intensity characteristics to discriminate between particles that pass through the beam and those that pass through an edge of the beam. The apparatus can also discriminate between light scattered by one particle and light scattered by multiple particles. The particle`s size can be determined from the intensity of the light scattered. The particle`s velocity can be determined from the elapsed time between various intensities of the light scattered. 11 figs.

  10. Flow-induced birefringence measurement system using dual-crystal transverse electro-optic modulator for microgravity fluid physics applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Jeffrey R.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a new instrument that can measure fast transient birefringence and polymer chain orientation angle in complex fluids. The instrument uses a dual-crystal transverse electro-optic modulator with the second crystal's modulation voltage applied 180 deg out of phase from that of the first crystal. In this manner, the second crystal compensates for the intrinsic static birefringence of the first crystal, and it doubles the modulation depth. By incorporating a transverse electro-optic modulator with two lithium-niobate (LiNbO3) crystals oriented orthogonal to each other with a custom-designed optical system, we have produced a very small robust instrument capable of fast transient retardation measurements. By measuring the sample thickness or optical path length through the sample, we can calculate the transient birefringence. This system can also measure dichroism. We have compared the calibration results and retardation and orientation angle measurements of this instrument with those of a photoelastic modulator (PEM) based system using a quarter wave plate and a high-precision 1/16-wave plate to simulate a birefringent sample. Transient birefringence measurements on the order of 10(exp -9) can be measured using either modulator.

  11. Functional capacity, physical activity and muscle strength assessment of individuals with non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review of instruments and their measurement properties

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The measurement properties of instruments used to assess functional capacity, physical activity and muscle strength in participants with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have not been systematically reviewed. Method Objectives: To identify outcome measures used to assess these outcomes in participants with NSCLC; and to evaluate, synthesise and compare the measurement properties of the outcome measures identified. Data Sources: A systematic review of articles using electronic databases MEDLINE (1950–2012), CINAHL (1982–2012), EMBASE (1980–2012), Cochrane Library (2012), Expanded Academic ASAP (1994–2012), Health Collection Informit (1995–2012) and PEDRO (1999–2012). Additional studies were identified by searching personal files and cross referencing. Eligibility Criteria for Study Selection: Search one: studies which assessed functional capacity, physical activity or muscle strength in participants with NSCLC using non-laboratory objective tests were included. Search two: studies which evaluated a measurement property (inter- or intra-rater reliability; measurement error; criterion or construct validity; or responsiveness) in NSCLC for one of the outcome measures identified in search one. Studies published in English from 1980 were eligible. Data Extraction and Methodological Quality Assessment: data collection form was developed and data extracted. Methodological quality of studies was assessed by two independent reviewers using the 4-point COSMIN checklist. Results Thirteen outcome measures were identified. Thirty-one studies evaluating measurement properties of the outcome measures in participants with NSCLC were included. Functional capacity was assessed using the six- and twelve-minute walk tests; incremental- and endurance-shuttle walk tests; and the stair-climbing test. Criterion validity for three of these measures was established in NSCLC but not the reliability or responsiveness. Physical activity was measured using accelerometers

  12. A Procedure for Measuring Microplastics using Pressurized Fluid Extraction.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Stephen; Gautam, Anil

    2016-06-07

    A method based on pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) was developed for measuring microplastics in environmental samples. This method can address some limitations of the current microplastic methods and provide laboratories with a simple analytical method for quantifying common microplastics in a range of environmental samples. The method was initially developed by recovering 101% to 111% of spiked plastics on glass beads and was then applied to a composted municipal waste sample with spike recoveries ranging from 85% to 94%. The results from municipal waste samples and soil samples collected from an industrial area demonstrated that the method is a promising alternative for determining the concentration and identity of microplastics in environmental samples.

  13. Spinal motion and intradiscal pressure measurements before and after lumbar spine instrumentation with titanium or PEEK rods.

    PubMed

    Abode-Iyamah, Kingsley; Kim, Sam Byeong; Grosland, Nicole; Kumar, Rajinder; Belirgen, Muhittin; Lim, Tae Hong; Torner, James; Hitchon, Patrick W

    2014-04-01

    Spinal instrumentation and fusion have been incriminated as contributing to adjacent segment degeneration (ASD). It has been suggested that ASD results from increased range of motion and intradiscal pressure (IDP) adjacent to instrumentation. Posterior dynamic stabilization with polyetheretherketone (PEEK) rods has been proposed as potentially advantageous compared to rigid instrumentation with titanium (Ti) rods in reducing the incidence of ASD. We evaluated segmental motions in the cadaveric spine instrumented with PEEK or Ti rods from L3 to S1, as well as the adjacent segment motions and IDP at L1-2 and L2-3. Human cadaveric spines were potted at T12-L1 and S1-2. Spinal instrumentation from L3-S1 was accomplished using pedicle screws with either PEEK or Ti rods. Specimens were subjected to displacement controlled testing: 15° flexion, 15° extension, 10° lateral bending, and 5° right axial rotation using the MTS machine (MTS, Minneapolis, MN, USA). Intradiscal pressure was measured by placing pressure transducers into the intervertebral disc at L1-2 and L2-3. Spinal motion of L2 relative to L3, and L3 relative to S1 was tracked using a three dimensional motion analysis system. Instrumentation with PEEK and Ti rods was associated with a decrease in L3-S1 motion compared to the intact state that was significant in flexion (p=0.002), and extension (p=0.0075). Instrumentation with PEEK and Ti rods was associated with an increase in IDP at L1-2 that was significant in flexion (p=0.0028). Instrumentation with either PEEK or Ti rods resulted in decreased motion at the instrumented levels while increasing IDP at the adjacent level. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Instrument Measures Ocular Counterrolling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitan, Barry M.; Reschke, Millard F.; Spector, Lawrence N.

    1991-01-01

    Compact, battery-powered, noninvasive unit replaces several pieces of equipment and operator. Instrument that looks like pair of goggles with small extension box measures ocular counterrotation. Called "otolith tilt-translation reinterpretation" (OTTR) goggles, used in studies of space motion sickness. Also adapted to use on Earth and determine extent of impairment in patients who have impaired otolith functions.

  15. An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Davis, Douglas D.; Beltz, Nobert; Bandy, Alan R.; Ferek, Ronald J.; Thornton, Donald C.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the NASA Tropospheric Chemistry Program, a series of field intercomparisons have been conducted to evaluate the state-of-the art for measuring key tropospheric species. One of the objectives of the third intercomparison campaign in this series, Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 (CITE 3), was to evaluate instrumentation for making reliable tropospheric aircraft measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide. This paper reports the results of the intercomparisons of five sulfur dioxide measurement methods ranging from filter techniques, in which samples collected in flight are returned to the laboratory for analyses (chemiluminescent or ion chromatographic), to near real-time, in-flight measurements via gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric, and chemiluminescent techniques. All techniques showed some tendency to track sizeable changes in ambient SO2 such as those associated with altitude changes. For SO2 mixing ratios in the range of 200 pptv to a few ppbv, agreement among the techniques varies from about 30% to several orders of magnitude, depending upon the pair of measurements intercompared. For SO2 mixing ratios less than 200 pptv, measurements from the techniques are uncorrelated. In general, observed differences in the measurement of standards do not account for the flight results. The CITE 3 results do not unambiguously identify one or more of the measurement techniques as providing valid or invalid SO2 measurements, but identify the range of 'potential' uncertainty in SO2 measurements reported by currently available instrumentation and as measured under realistic aircraft environments.

  16. Thermophysical properties of fluids for the gas industry. Annual report, January-December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, T.J.; Haynes, W.M.

    1993-05-01

    The US gas industry standard for computing thermophysical properties is the A.G.A. Transmission Measurement Committee Report No. 8 equation of state (AGA 8). The report summarized the results from several experimental, theoretical, and modeling programs directed at the extensive evaluation of the accuracy with which various types of natural gas physical properties can be calculated using AGA 8 and related methods. The most important results were the assembly of benchmark data sets for speed of sound, viscosity, fugacity, heat capacity, critical region PVT, mixture compressibilities, and vapor pressure measurements for natural gas fluids. When tested against these benchmark properties data, the AGA 8 equation of state model was found to be generally accurate within + or - 0.1% for sound speeds (and densities) and within + or - 0.03% for compressibilities over the ranges of pressure, temperature, and composition that encompass the major region of custody transfer for natural gas. Work was also completed on the fabrication and testing of a prototype catalytic cracking detector for the selective detection of hydrocarbons; a US patent was awarded for this invention with the assignment to GRI.

  17. Critical Phenomena in Velocity-Induced Perfect Fluid Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Scott C.; Choptuik, Matthew W.

    2003-04-01

    We consider critical collapse of spherically-symmetric, general relativistic neutron star models. In order to induce collapse in nominally static star solutions, we give the stars initially "in-going" velocity profiles, where an overall amplitude factor of the profile is tuned to produce a critical solution that sits at the threshold of black hole formation. By examining how the global maximum of the Ricci scalar varies with the control parameter, we are able to measure the critical scaling exponents associated with the critical solutions. For a stiff fluid model, we calculate a scaling exponent consistent with previous investigations of ultra-relativistic fluid collapse. However, our exponent is in disagreement with a recent study by J. Novak (2001) which used the same initial data prescription but failed to resolve the dynamics at the threshold of black hole formation.

  18. Fluid-Structure Analysis of Opening Phenomena in a Collapsible Airway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadiali, Samir N.; Banks, Julie; Swarts, J. Douglas

    2003-11-01

    Several physiological functions require the opening of collapsed respiratory airways. For example, the Eustachian tube (ET), which connects the nasopharynx with the middle ear (ME), must be periodically opened to maintain ambient ME pressures. These openings normally occur during swallowing when muscle contraction deforms the surrounding soft tissue. The inability to open the ET results in the most common and costly ear disease in children, Otitis Media. Although tissue-based treatments have been purposed, the influence of the various tissue mechanical properties on flow phenomena has not been investigated. A computational model of ET opening was developed using in-vivo structural data to investigate these fluid-structure interactions. This model accounts for both tissue deformation and the resulting airflow in a non-circular conduit. Results indicate that ET opening is more sensitive to the applied muscle forces than elastic tissue properties. These models have therefore identified how different tissue elements alter ET opening phenomena, which elements should be targeted for treatment and the optimal mechanical properties of these tissue constructs. Research supported by NIH grant DC005345.

  19. Reliability and validity of a new instrument to measure tolerance of everyday risk for children.

    PubMed

    Hill, A; Bundy, A C

    2014-01-01

    A modicum of everyday risk provides opportunities for children to extend the limits of their competence. However, increasingly negative perceptions of risk have led to risk-averse behaviours in adults, including severely restricting children's play. The degree to which risk in play is tolerated by adults impacts on the lives and experiences of children. However, no measure of adult tolerance to everyday risk exists. The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument examining adults' tolerances of risk during children's play. A 31-item survey of risk tolerance was developed based on a Norwegian model of risky play; 100 parents and teachers of children aged 3 to 13 years completed the instrument. Data were subjected to Rasch analysis. Psychometric properties of the data were examined. Iterative analyses produced an instrument with goodness of fit statistics in the acceptable range, a logical item hierarchy, person separation index >2 and reliability index of 0.87. There was a strong positive relationship between participants' self-perceived risk tolerance and scores on the instrument, and between the age of the child and scores on the instrument. The Tolerance of Risk in Play Scale (TRiPS) yields valid and reliable data for measuring the success of interventions to change adults' everyday risk beliefs, and for exploring the impact of adults' risk tolerance on children's play and development. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Measuring Software Test Verification for Complex Workpieces based on Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Peili; Wang, Jianhua; Lu, Chunxia

    2017-08-01

    Validity and correctness test verification of the measuring software has been a thorny issue hindering the development of Gear Measuring Instrument (GMI). The main reason is that the software itself is difficult to separate from the rest of the measurement system for independent evaluation. This paper presents a Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument (VGMI) to independently validate the measuring software. The triangular patch model with accurately controlled precision was taken as the virtual workpiece and a universal collision detection model was established. The whole process simulation of workpiece measurement is implemented by VGMI replacing GMI and the measuring software is tested in the proposed virtual environment. Taking involute profile measurement procedure as an example, the validity of the software is evaluated based on the simulation results; meanwhile, experiments using the same measuring software are carried out on the involute master in a GMI. The experiment results indicate a consistency of tooth profile deviation and calibration results, thus verifying the accuracy of gear measuring system which includes the measurement procedures. It is shown that the VGMI presented can be applied in the validation of measuring software, providing a new ideal platform for testing of complex workpiece-measuring software without calibrated artifacts.

  1. Blow-up phenomena and persistence property for the modified b-family of equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Zhu, Min

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we study the blow-up mechanism and persistence property of solutions to the modified b-family of equations. The dynamics of the blow-up quantity along the characteristics is established by the Riccati-type differential inequality with various parameters. The key feature of the method is to refine the analysis on the growth rate of the relative ratio between solution and its gradient by performing a vertical shift. Furthermore, the persistence results for the solution are established in weighted spaces.

  2. Fluid Physical and Transport Phenomena Studies aboard the International Space Station: Planned Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Bhim S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments planned for the International Spare Station. NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications has established a world-class research program in fluid physics and transport phenomena. This program combines the vast expertise of the world research community with NASA's unique microgravity facilities with the objectives of gaining new insight into fluid phenomena by removing the confounding effect of gravity. Due to its criticality to many terrestrial and space-based processes and phenomena, fluid physics and transport phenomena play a central role in the NASA's Microgravity Program. Through widely publicized research announcement and well established peer-reviews, the program has been able to attract a number of world-class researchers and acquired a critical mass of investigations that is now adding rapidly to this field. Currently there arc a total of 106 ground-based and 20 candidate flight principal investigators conducting research in four major thrust areas in the program: complex flows, multiphase flow and phase change, interfacial phenomena, and dynamics and instabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) to be launched in 1998, provides the microgravity research community with a unprecedented opportunity to conduct long-duration microgravity experiments which can be controlled and operated from the Principal Investigators' own laboratory. Frequent planned shuttle flights to the Station will provide opportunities to conduct many more experiments than were previously possible. NASA Lewis Research Center is in the process of designing a Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) to be located in the Laboratory Module of the ISS that will not only accommodate multiple users but, allow a broad range of fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments to be conducted in a cost effective manner.

  3. Unattended instruments for ground-based hyperspectral measurements: development and application for plant photosynthesis monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogliati, S.; Rossini, M.; Meroni, M.; Barducci, A.; Julitta, T.; Colombo, R.

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present work is the development of ground-based hyperspectral systems capable of collecting continuous and long-term hyperspectral measurements of the Earth-surface. The development of such instruments includes the optical design, the development of the data acquisition (Auto3S) and processing software as well as the definition of the calibration procedures. In particular an in-field calibration methodologie based on the comparison between field spectra and data modeled using Radiative Transfer (RT) approach has been proposed to regularly upgrade instrument calibration coefficients. Two different automatic spectrometric systems have been developed: the HyperSpectral Irradiometer (HSI) [Meroni et al., 2011] and the Multiplexer Radiometer Irradiometer (MRI) [Cogliati, 2011]. Both instruments are able to continuously measure: sun incoming irradiance (ETOT) and irradiance (ES, HSI)/radiance (LS, MRI) upwelling from the investigated surface. Both instruments employ two Ocean Optics HR4000 spectrometers sharing the same optical signal that allow to simultaneously collect "fine" (1 nm Full Width at Half Maximum, FWHM) spectra in the 400-1000 nm rangeand "ultra-fine" (0.1 nm FWHM) spectra within the 700-800 nm. The collected optical data allow to estimate biochemical/structural properties of vegetation (e.g. NDVI) as well as its photosynthetic efficiency through the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) and the analysis of sun-induced chlorophyll Fluorescence in the O2-A Fraunhofer line (F@760). The automatic instruments were operated in coordination with eddy covariance flux tower measurements of carbon exchange in the framework of several field campaigns: HSI was employed in a subalpine pasture (2009-ongoing) (www.phenoalp.eu) while MRI was employed in 2009 in the Sen3Exp field survey promoted by the European Space Agency as consolidation study to the future mission Sentinel-3. Results show that the proposed instruments succeeded in collecting continuous

  4. Optical distance measuring instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An optical instrument, such as a stability monitor or a target range finder, uses an unstabilized laser to project a composite optical signal of coherent light having two naturally occurring longitudinal mode components. A beamsplitter divides the signal into a reference beam which is directed toward one photodetector and a transmitted beam which illuminates and is reflected from a distant target onto a second photodetector optically isolated from the first photodetector. Both photodetectors are operated on the square law principle to provide electrical signals modulated at a frequency equal to the separation between the frequencies of the two longitudinal mode components of the optical signal projected by the laser. Slight movement of the target may be detected and measured by electrically monitoring the phase difference between the two signals provided by the photodetectors and the range of the target measured with the aid of a microprocessor by changing the separation between the longitudinal modes by shifting the length of the resonator cavity in an iterative series of increments.

  5. Instruments That Measure Self Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL.

    Materials are presented that resulted from a search for a measure of self-concept to be used in the evaluation of Project R.E.A.D., a program to improve the quality of education in urban schools. Most of the instruments listed are appropriate for the elementary level. In addition to a list of the instruments, this document also contains a listing…

  6. Do Two or More Multicomponent Instruments Measure the Same Construct? Testing Construct Congruence Using Latent Variable Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Tong, Bing

    2016-01-01

    A latent variable modeling procedure is discussed that can be used to test if two or more homogeneous multicomponent instruments with distinct components are measuring the same underlying construct. The method is widely applicable in scale construction and development research and can also be of special interest in construct validation studies.…

  7. Do Two or More Multicomponent Instruments Measure the Same Construct? Testing Construct Congruence Using Latent Variable Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Tong, Bing

    2016-01-01

    A latent variable modeling procedure is discussed that can be used to test if two or more homogeneous multicomponent instruments with distinct components are measuring the same underlying construct. The method is widely applicable in scale construction and development research and can also be of special interest in construct validation studies.…

  8. Molecular model for chirality phenomena.

    PubMed

    Latinwo, Folarin; Stillinger, Frank H; Debenedetti, Pablo G

    2016-10-21

    Chirality is a hallmark feature for molecular recognition in biology and chemical physics. We present a three-dimensional continuum model for studying chirality phenomena in condensed phases using molecular simulations. Our model system is based upon a simple four-site molecule and incorporates non-trivial kinetic behavior, including the ability to switch chirality or racemize, as well as thermodynamics arising from an energetic preference for specific chiral interactions. In particular, we introduce a chiral renormalization parameter that can locally favor either homochiral or heterochiral configurations. Using this model, we explore a range of chirality-specific phenomena, including the kinetics of chiral inversion, the mechanism of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the liquid, chirally driven liquid-liquid phase separation, and chiral crystal structures.

  9. A review of instruments to measure interprofessional collaboration for chronic disease management for community-living older adults.

    PubMed

    Bookey-Bassett, Sue; Markle-Reid, Maureen; McKey, Colleen; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori

    2016-01-01

    It is acknowledged internationally that chronic disease management (CDM) for community-living older adults (CLOA) is an increasingly complex process. CDM for older adults, who are often living with multiple chronic conditions, requires coordination of various health and social services. Coordination is enabled through interprofessional collaboration (IPC) among individual providers, community organizations, and health sectors. Measuring IPC is complicated given there are multiple conceptualisations and measures of IPC. A literature review of several healthcare, psychological, and social science electronic databases was conducted to locate instruments that measure IPC at the team level and have published evidence of their reliability and validity. Five instruments met the criteria and were critically reviewed to determine their strengths and limitations as they relate to CDM for CLOA. A comparison of the characteristics, psychometric properties, and overall concordance of each instrument with salient attributes of IPC found the Collaborative Practice Assessment Tool to be the most appropriate instrument for measuring IPC for CDM in CLOA.

  10. Thermophysical properties of fluids for the gas industry. Final report, February 1, 1988-August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, T.J.; Haynes, W.M.

    1993-11-01

    The U.S. gas industry standard for computing thermophysical properties is the A.G.A. Transmission Measurement Committee Report No. 8 equation of state (AGA 8). The report summarized the results from several experimental, theoretical, and modeling programs directed at the extensive evaluation of the accuracy with which various types of natural gas physical properties can be calculated using AGA 8 and related methods. The most important results were the assembly of benchmark data sets for speed of sound, viscosity, fugacity, heat capacity, critical region PVT, mixture compressibilities, and vapor pressure measurements for natural gas fluids.

  11. High-resolution compact shear stress sensor for direct measurement of skin friction in fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Muchen; Kim, Chang-Jin ``Cj''

    2015-11-01

    The high-resolution measurement of skin friction in complex flows has long been of great interest but also a challenge in fluid mechanics. Compared with indirect measurement methods (e.g., laser Doppler velocimetry), direct measurement methods (e.g., floating element) do not involve any analogy and assumption but tend to suffer from instrumentation challenges, such as low sensing resolution or misalignments. Recently, silicon micromachined floating plates showed good resolution and perfect alignment but were too small for general purposes and too fragile to attach other surface samples repeatedly. In this work, we report a skin friction sensor consisting of a monolithic floating plate and a high-resolution optical encoder to measure its displacement. The key for the high resolution is in the suspension beams, which are very narrow (e.g., 0.25 mm) to sense small frictions along the flow direction but thick (e.g., 5 mm) to be robust along all other directions. This compact, low profile, and complete sensor is easy to use and allows repeated attachment and detachment of surface samples. The sheer-stress sensor has been tested in water tunnel and towing tank at different flow conditions, showing high sensing resolution for skin friction measurement. Supported by National Science Foundation (NSF) (No. 1336966) and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) (No. HR0011-15-2-0021).

  12. Instrumentation for measuring the dynamic pressure on rotating compressor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, H. P.; Lanati, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    To establish the capability for measurement of oscillatory pressure on rotating blades, miniature fast response semiconductor strain gage pressure transducers (2mm x 0.33mm) were mounted in several configurations on thin titanium and steel compressor blades and subjected to pressure cycles from 1 to 310 kPa during static tests and spin tests. Static test conditions included 20 C to 150 C, 0 to 3000 tensile microstrain, -1000 to +1000 bending microstrain and + or - 650G vibration. The spin test conditions included 20 C to 82 C at 0 to 90,000G. Durability was excellent. Pressure transducer sensitivity changed by only a few percent over this range of environmental conditions. Noise signal due to oscillatory acceleration normal to the diaphragm was acceptable (0.33Pa/G). Noise signal due to oscillatory strain was acceptable (0.5 Pa/microstrain) when the transducer was mounted on a 0.05mm rubber pad, with a total buildup of 0.38mm on the measure surface. Back mounting or partial recessing to eliminate buildup, increased the strain effect to 1.2 Pa/microstrain. Flush mounting within the blade to eliminate buildup reduced the strain effect, but required development of a special transducer shape. This transducer was not available in time for spin tests. Unpredictable zero drift + or - 14 kPa ruled out the use of these mounting arrangements for accurate steady-state (D.C.) measurements on rotating blades. The two best configurations fully developed and spin tested were then successfully applied in the NAS3-20606 rotating fan flutter program for quantitative measurement of oscillatory pressure amplitudes.

  13. Biomagnetic instrumentation and measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iufer, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The instruments and techniques of biomagnetic measurement have progressed greatly in the past 15 years and are now of a quality appropriate to clinical applications. The paper reports on recent developments in the design and application of SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) magnetometers to biomagnetic measurement. The discussion covers biomagnetic field levels, magnetocardiography, magnetic susceptibility plethysmography, ambient noise and sensor types, principles of operation of a SQUID magnetometer, and laboratory techniques. Of the many promising applications of noninvasive biomagnetic measurement, magnetocardiography is the most advanced and the most likely to find clinical application in the near future.

  14. An instrument for measuring pharmacist and physician attitudes towards collaboration: preliminary psychometric data.

    PubMed

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Gonnella, Joseph S

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to develop an instrument for measuring attitudes toward pharmacist-physician collaborative relationships for administration to practicing pharmacists and physicians, as well as to students in pharmacy and medical schools. Based on a review of literature, a preliminary version of an instrument was developed (30 items), and through a pilot study of face validity and content validity with 12 pharmacists and 10 physicians, 18 items were chosen for quantitative analyses. We asked 88 respondents (61 pharmacists, 27 physicians) to judge the relevance, clarity, and representativeness of each item to the concept of pharmacist-physician collaborative relationships. Sixteen items with a relevancy endorsement greater than 85% and significant item-total score correlations were retained. The following underlying constructs emerged from factor analysis: "collaboration and team work," "accountability," "overlapping responsibility," and "authority". These factors supported the multidimensionality and construct validity of the instrument. No gender difference was observed; however, pharmacists scored higher than physicians on the total score of the instrument. The Cronbach's coefficient alpha was .81 for pharmacists, .92 for physicians, and .87 for the combined sample. Encouraged by these preliminary findings, we plan to undertake further research to examine the instrument's psychometric properties including criterion-related and predictive validities with larger and more representative samples of pharmacists, physicians, and students in pharmacy and medical schools.

  15. Crystalloid or colloid for goal-directed fluid therapy in colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Yates, D R A; Davies, S J; Milner, H E; Wilson, R J T

    2014-02-01

    Goal-directed fluid therapy has been shown to improve outcomes after colorectal surgery, but the optimal type of i.v. fluid to use is yet to be established. Theoretical advantages of using hydroxyethyl starch (HES) for goal-directed therapy include a reduction in the total volume of fluid required, resulting in less tissue oedema. Recent work has demonstrated that new generations of HES have a good safety profile, but their routine use in the perioperative setting has not been demonstrated to confer outcome benefit. We randomly assigned 202 medium to high-risk patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery to receive either balanced 6% HES (130/0.4, Volulyte) or balanced crystalloid (Hartmann's solution) as haemodynamic optimization fluid. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) morbidity on postoperative day 5. Secondary outcome measures included the incidence of postoperative complications, hospital length of stay, and the effect of trial fluids on coagulation and inflammation. No difference was seen in the number of patients who suffered GI morbidity on postoperative day 5 [30% in the HES group vs 32% in the crystalloid group; adjusted odds ratio=0.96 (0.52-1.77)]. Subjects in the crystalloid group received more fluid [median (inter-quartile ranges) 3175 (2000-3700) vs 1875 (1500-3000) ml, P<0.001] and had a higher 24 h fluid balance [+4226 (3251-5779) vs +3610 (2443-4519) ml, P<0.001]. No difference in the incidence of postoperative complications was seen between the groups. Goal-directed fluid therapy is possible with either crystalloid or HES. There is no evidence of a benefit in using HES over crystalloid, despite its use resulting in a lower 24 h fluid balance.

  16. A New Instrument for the Measurement of the Waveform in X-Ray Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Jiménez, Francisco J.; Martínez-Hernández, Marco A.

    2004-09-01

    The experience gained in the quality control in X-ray units used in Radiology has demonstrated that the measurement of the waveform of the X-ray beam, measured as the response of a radiation detector is very helpful to decide if the unit fulfills the quality control requirements and also has been useful to define some kind of faults in the unit. Several instruments are available on the market to make this measurement but they need in general a storage or digital oscilloscope to see the waveform. In this work a stand alone new instrument is proposed in which the waveform is seen in a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). The instrument is based in the X-ray response of a photo diode. The analog response depending on time is converted to digital numbers that are stored sequentially in a memory. The stored information is recovered with a microcontroller and reconstructed in the screen of the LCD. The instrument is able to measure in the mammographic range from 22 kV to 35 kV and in the conventional range from 40 kV to 120 kV in the different settings of current encountered on practical applications, the time range for the measurement of the X-ray shot is from 100 ms to 3 s. The instrument can be useful in quality control practices and in the verification and maintenance of X-ray units.

  17. PREFACE: Fourh Workshop on Non-Equilibrium Phenomena in Supercooled Fluids, Glasses and Amorphous Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreozzi, Laura; Giordano, Marco; Leporini, Dino; Tosi, Mario

    2007-04-01

    round-table discussion sessions were organized to discuss issues that have special impact on our current understanding (or lack of it) of the dynamics of glass transition: 'Low-energy excitations and relaxations in glasses' and 'An assessment of current theories: interconnections and relevance to experiments'. We are very grateful to M A Ramos and R Bömer, and to P G Debenedetti and H Z Cummins for organizing and leading these two activities. Two very active and profitable poster sessions collected contributions on the themes of relaxation processes, cooperativity in polymers and mixtures, polyamorphism and water, biomaterials, relaxation, aging phenomena in thin films, confined and complex systems, and theoretical aspect, energy landscape and molecular dynamics, low temperature, glass and PT procedures, tracer dynamics, heterogeneity and relaxation in glass formers We acknowledge the generous support given to the workshop by our institutions, and in particular by Scuola Normale Superiore. The organization of the events in its beautiful rooms and corridors, as well as the lunches and coffee breaks held in its courtyard, especially favoured meetings and discussions between the participants. Several public and private Institutions have also supported our efforts and we would like to thank them warmly: they are the 'Soft Matter' Center of Rome, the INFN Section in Pisa, the CNR/INFM Polylab, and Ital Scientifica, TA Instruments, Novocontrol Technologies, Up Group, Isole e Olena. Finally, we express our gratitude to all those individuals—we mention here in particular Dr Ciro Autiero, Dr Massimo Faetti, Dr Fabio Zulli, Ms Patrizia Pucci, and Ms Caterina D'Elia—who have given their work and time to the making and running of the Workshop.

  18. Membrane-Introduction Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Desflurane, Propofol and Fentanyl in Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid for Estimation BBB Properties

    PubMed Central

    Cherebillo, Vyacheslav Yu.; Polegaev, Andrei V.

    2015-01-01

    A possibility to use the Membrane-Introduction Mass Spectrometry (MIMS) with membrane separator interface has evolved into a powerful method for measurement of anaesthetic agents absolute concentration in blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid for the study of blood-brain barrier (BBB) properties. Recent advanced a new membrane material was used for drug concentration measurement in biologic fluids. A hydrophobic membrane was used in the interface to separate anaesthetic agents from biological fluids: inhalational anaesthetic desflurane,hypnotic propofol, analgesic fentanyl. The selective detection of volatile anesthetic agents in blood does not require long-term sample processing before injecting the sample into mass-spectrometer interface, in contrast to chromatographic methods. Mass-spectrometric interface for the measurement of anaesthetic agent concentration in biological fluids (blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid) is described. Sampling of biological fluids was performed during balanced inhalational (desflurane, fentanyl) anaesthesia and total intravenous (propofol, fentanyl) anaesthesia. PMID:26412969

  19. Development of a solar-cell dust opacity measurement instrument for Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey; Jenkins, Phillip P.

    1996-01-01

    The atmosphere of Mars has a considerable load of suspended dust. Over time, this dust is deposited out of the atmosphere. The mechanism and the temporal and geographical variation of this deposition are not well characterized. Measurements of settling rates and dust properties are of considerable scientific interest. Atmospheric dust affects the atmospheric solar absorption and thus the heat balance of Mars, as well as serving as nucleation sites for water and CO2 frost. Knowledge of dust properties is of critical interest to design and prediction of the lifetime and power output of solar arrays, and also to design of mechanical mechanisms and radiators. An instrument has been designed and fabricated to measure the dust accumulation during the course of the Mars Pathfinder rover mission. The solar-cell coverglass transmission experiment will measure the change in optical opacity of a transparent coverglass as dust settles on the surface, and a quartz crystal monitor will measure the mass deposited.

  20. Development of a solar-cell dust opacity measurement instrument for Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey; Jenkins, Phillip P.

    1996-01-01

    The atmosphere of Mars has a considerable load of suspended dust. Over time, this dust is deposited out of the atmosphere. The mechanism and the temporal and geographical variation of this deposition are not well characterized. Measurements of settling rates and dust properties are of considerable scientific interest. Atmospheric dust affects the atmospheric solar absorption and thus the heat balance of Mars, as well as serving as nucleation sites for water and CO2 frost. Knowledge of dust properties is of critical interest to design and prediction of the lifetime and power output of solar arrays, and also to design of mechanical mechanisms and radiators. An instrument has been designed and fabricated to measure the dust accumulation during the course of the Mars Pathfinder rover mission. The solar-cell coverglass transmission experiment will measure the change in optical opacity of a transparent coverglass as dust settles on the surface, and a quartz crystal monitor will measure the mass deposited.

  1. P- V- T properties of fluids in the system H 2O ± CO 2 ± NaCl: New graphical presentations and implications for fluid inclusion studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Philip E.; Lamb, William M.

    1989-06-01

    Understanding the role of fluids in geologic processes requires a knowledge of the P- V- T properties of fluids over a wide range of conditions. Comparisons of several published equations of state with available experimental data for fluids composed of H 2O and CO 2 lead to the conclusion that the hard-sphere modified Redlich-Kwong equation of state of Kerrick and Jacobs (1981) most accurately predicts the P- V- T properties in this binary system. To model the volumetric properties in the H 2OCO 2NaCl system a formulation is presented involving a linear (ideal) interpolation between a pure-CO 2 isochore predicted by the equation of state of Kerrick. and Jacobs (1981) and an H 2O-NaCl isochore predicted by an empirical equation derived from the regression of available P- V- T data for the H 2O-NaCl system. This formulation is applicable over a wide range of temperatures (>350°C) and pressures (2-10 kbars) and is especially suitable for high pressures and low-to-moderate temperatures (fluid densities ≥ 1.0 cm 3). Determination of the appropriate isochore for an H 2OCO 2NaCl fluid inclusion requires (1) the relative salinity (NaCl/H 2O + NaCl), (2) bulk density of the combined gas and liquid CO 2 phases, and (3) volume percent estimate of the aqueous p the total homogenization temperature. The commonly encountered problem of estimating the volume percents of phases in inclusions may be avoided in some applications, and several new P- X(CO 2) diagrams have been constructed and contoured with (a) the solvi in the mixed volatile system and (b) the measured density of the CO 2 phase. The effects of H 2OCO 2 clathrates during microthermometric observations in the laboratory are evaluated and in most instances can be minimized or avoided. Application of these results to fluid inclusion studies have led to improved determinations of (1) pressures and temperatures of fluid entrapment in a variety of geologic settings and (2) pressures and temperatures of

  2. Method and apparatus for monitoring and measuring the surface tension of a fluid using fiber optics

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, B.M.; Ketterson, J.B.; Bohanon, T.M.; Mikrut, J.M.

    1994-04-12

    A non-contact method and apparatus are described for measuring and monitoring the surface of a fluid using fiber optics and interferometric detection to permit measurement of mechanical characteristics of fluid surfaces. The apparatus employs an alternating electric field gradient for generating a capillary wave on the surface of the fluid. A fiber optic coupler and optical fiber directs a portion of a laser beam onto the surface of the fluid, another portion of the laser beam onto the photo sensor, and directs light reflected from the surface of the fluid onto the photo sensor. The output of the photo sensor is processed and coupled to a phase sensitive detector to permit measurement of phase shift between the drive signal creating the capillary wave and the detected signal. This phase shift information is then used to determine mechanical properties of the fluid surface such as surface tension, surface elasticity, and surface inhomogeneity. The resulting test structure is easily made compact, portable, and easy to align and use. 4 figures.

  3. Method and apparatus for monitoring and measuring the surface tension of a fluid using fiber optics

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Bernard M.; Ketterson, John B.; Bohanon, Thomas M.; Mikrut, John M.

    1994-01-01

    A non-contact method and apparatus for measuring and monitoring the surface of a fluid using fiber optics and interferometric detection to permit measurement mechanical characteristics' fluid surfaces. The apparatus employs an alternating electric field gradient for generating a capillary wave on the surface of the fluid. A fiber optic coupler and optical fiber directs a portion of a laser beam onto the surface of the fluid, another portion of the laser beam onto the photo sensor, and directs light reflected from the surface of the fluid onto the photo sensor. The output of the photo sensor is processed and coupled to a phase sensitive detector to permit measurement of phase shift between the drive signal creating the capillary wave and the detected signal. This phase shift information is then used to determine mechanical properties of the fluid surface such as surface tension, surface elasticity, and surface inhomogeneity. The resulting test structure is easily made compact, portable, and easy to align and use.

  4. A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    West, Michael D.; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W.

    2009-05-15

    A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5 mN with a resolution of 15 {mu}N. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments.

  5. A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas.

    PubMed

    West, Michael D; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W

    2009-05-01

    A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5 mN with a resolution of 15 microN. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments.

  6. 76 FR 81945 - Request for Measures and Domains To Use in Development of a Standardized Instrument for Use in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Act of 2009 (CHIPRA), Public Law 111-3, amended the Social Security Act (the Act) to enact section... soliciting the submission of instruments or domains (for example, key concepts) measuring aspects of families... Principles and will develop implementation instructions based on those for CAHPS instruments (...

  7. Instrumentation and Measurements for Electron Emission from Charged Insulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, Alec M.

    2005-01-01

    The electron was first discovered in 1898 by Sir John Joseph Thomson and has since been the subject of detailed study by nearly every scientific discipline. At nearly the same time Heinrich Rudolf Hertz conducted a series of experiments using cathode tubes, high potentials and ultraviolet light. When applying a large potential to a cathode he found that an arching event across the metal plates would occur. In addition, when shining an ultraviolet light on the metal he found that less potential was required to induce the spark. This result, taken together with other electrical phenomena brought about by the shining of light upon metal and was eventually termed the photoelectric effect. The work of Thomson and Hertz represent the beginning of electron emission studies and a body of ideas that pervade nearly all aspects of physics. In particular these ideas tell us a great deal about the nature of physical interactions within solids. In this thesis we will focus on the emission of electrons induced by an incident electron source over a range of energies, in which one can observe changes in emitted electron flux and energy distribution. In particular, when energetic particles impinge on a solid they can impart their energy, exciting electrons within the material. If this energy is sufficient to overcome surface energy barriers such as the work function, electron affinity or surface charge potential, electrons can escape from the material. The extent of electron emission from the material can be quantified as the ratio of incident particle flux to emitted particle flux, and is termed the electron yield.

  8. Pressure/temperature fluid cell apparatus for the neutron powder diffractometer instrument: Probing atomic structure in situ

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Hsiu -Wen; Fanelli, Victor R.; Reiche, Helmut M.; ...

    2014-12-24

    This contribution describes a new local structure compatible gas/liquid cell apparatus for probing disordered materials at high pressures and variable temperatures in the Neutron Powder Diffraction instrument at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory. The new sample environment offers choices for sample canister thickness and canister material type. Finite element modeling is utilized to establish maximum allowable working pressures of 414 MPa at 15 K and 121 MPa at 600 K. High quality atomic pair distribution function data extraction and modeling have been demonstrated for a calibration standard (Si powder) and for supercritical and subcritical CO2measurements. Asmore » a result, the new sample environment was designed to specifically target experimental studies of the local atomic structures involved in geologic CO2 sequestration, but will be equally applicable to a wide variety of energy applications, including sorption of fluids on nano/meso-porous solids, clathrate hydrate formation, catalysis, carbon capture, and H2 and natural gas uptake/storage.« less

  9. Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena in a Simulated Reduced Gravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipa, J.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a ground-based apparatus that allows the cancellation of gravity on a fluid using magnetic forces. The present system was designed for liquid oxygen studies over the range 0.001 - 5 g s. This fluid is an essential component of any flight mission using substantial amounts of liquid propellant, especially manned missions. The apparatus has been used to reduce the hydrostatic compression near the oxygen critical point and to demonstrate inverted phase separation. It could also be used to study pool boiling and two-phase heat transfer in Martian, Lunar or near-zero gravity, as well as phenomena such as Marangoni flow and convective instabilities. These studies would contribute directly to the reliability and optimization of the Moon and Mars flight programs.

  10. Design and characterization of a versatile reference instrument for rapid, reproducible specular gloss measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jian; Noel, Mario; Zwinkels, Joanne

    2005-08-01

    A reference goniospectrophotometer has been developed at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) for providing high-accuracy traceable measurements of specular gloss at several standard geometries, including 75 deg. for paper samples, haze and absence-of-bloom gloss, and color appearance of gonioapparent materials. This is to the authors/ knowledge the first reported reference instrument that has this level of versatility for rapidly characterizing the total visual appearance properties of a wide variety of materials and applications. This instrument also replaces the NRC glossmeter that has been providing primary level specular gloss measurements in accordance with International Organization for Standardization and American Society for Testing and Materials standards for measurements of paint and ceramic materials at geometries of 20 deg. , 60 deg. , and 85 deg. . The new instrument has been fully characterized for sources of error and compared with the NRC glossmeter. Its measurement reproducibility of 0.02 gloss unit is a factor-of-5 improvement, and its overall estimated expanded (k=2) uncertainty is 0.3 gloss unit at all three standard geometries.

  11. MIPROPS - INTERACTIVE FORTRAN PROGRAMS FOR MICROCOMPUTERS TO CALCULATE THE THERMAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TWELVE FLUIDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleghorn, T. F.

    1994-01-01

    MIPROPS is a set of programs which gives the thermophysical and transport properties of selected fluids. Although these programs are written in FORTRAN 77 for implementation on microcomputers, they are direct translations of interactive FORTRAN IV programs which were originally developed for large mainframes. MIPROPS calculates the properties of fluids in both the liquid and vapor states over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. The fluids included are: helium, parahydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, nitrogen trifluoride, methane, ethylene, ethane, propane, and iso- and normal butane. All of the programs except for the helium program utilize the same mathematical model of the equation of state. A separate program was necessary for helium, as the model for the helium thermodynamic surface is of a different form. The input variables are any two of pressure, density, or temperature for the single phase regions, and either pressure or temperature for the saturated liquid or vapor states. The output is pressure, density, temperature, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, specific heat capacities, and speed of sound. In addition, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and dielectric constants are calculated for most of the fluids. The user can select either a single point or a table of output values for a specified temperature range, and can display the data either in engineering or metric units. This machine independent FORTRAN 77 program was implemented on an IBM PC XT with an MS-DOS 3.21 operating system. It has a memory requirement of approximately 100K. The program was developed in 1986.

  12. MIPROPS - INTERACTIVE FORTRAN PROGRAMS FOR MICROCOMPUTERS TO CALCULATE THE THERMAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TWELVE FLUIDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleghorn, T. F.

    1994-01-01

    MIPROPS is a set of programs which gives the thermophysical and transport properties of selected fluids. Although these programs are written in FORTRAN 77 for implementation on microcomputers, they are direct translations of interactive FORTRAN IV programs which were originally developed for large mainframes. MIPROPS calculates the properties of fluids in both the liquid and vapor states over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. The fluids included are: helium, parahydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, nitrogen trifluoride, methane, ethylene, ethane, propane, and iso- and normal butane. All of the programs except for the helium program utilize the same mathematical model of the equation of state. A separate program was necessary for helium, as the model for the helium thermodynamic surface is of a different form. The input variables are any two of pressure, density, or temperature for the single phase regions, and either pressure or temperature for the saturated liquid or vapor states. The output is pressure, density, temperature, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, specific heat capacities, and speed of sound. In addition, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and dielectric constants are calculated for most of the fluids. The user can select either a single point or a table of output values for a specified temperature range, and can display the data either in engineering or metric units. This machine independent FORTRAN 77 program was implemented on an IBM PC XT with an MS-DOS 3.21 operating system. It has a memory requirement of approximately 100K. The program was developed in 1986.

  13. Calibration standards and field instruments for the precision measurement of insolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M. S.; Berdahl, C. M.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the development of an absolute calibration standard for irradiance measurements. This field instrument, designated the Kendall Radiometer System Mark 3, is identical to the PACRAD (Primary Absolute Cavity Radiometer) except for a modification to ensure all weather operation. Two Mark 3 radiometers have been in operation at the JPL's Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex for over two years and are continuing to provide data which are within plus or minus 1% of the absolute value. A calibration stability analysis is presented for the two instruments.

  14. Correlation between gas compositions and physical phenomena affecting the reservoir fluid in Palinpinon geothermal field (Philippines)

    SciTech Connect

    D'More F.; Nuti, S.; Ruaya, J.R.; Ramos-Candelaria, M.N.; Seastres, J.S.

    1993-01-28

    Using thermodynamic gas equilibria to calculate temperature and steam fraction in the reservoir, three main physical phenomena due to exploitation of Palinpinon field are identified. 1) Pressure drawdown producing a local increase in the computed steam fraction, with the fluid maintaining high temperature values (close to 300°C). Strong decline in flow rate is observed. 2) Irreversible steam losses from the original high temperature liquid phase during its ascent through fractures in upper zones of the reservoir. Steam is generally lost at temperatures (e.g. 240°C) lower then those of the original aquifer. 3) Dilution and cooling effects due to reinjection fluid returns. These are function of the local geostructural conditions linking through fractures the injectors and production wells. The computed fraction of the recovered reinjected brine can in some case exceed 80% of the total produced fluid. At the same time the computed gas equilibration temperatures can decline from 280-300°C to as low as 215-220°C. Comparing these values with the well bottom measured temperatures, the proposed methodology based on gas chemistry gives more reliable temperature estimate than water chemistry based geothermometers for fluids with high fractions of injected brine.

  15. 3ω slope comparative method for fluid and powder thermal conductivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, X. H.; Qiu, L.; Yue, P.; Wang, G.; Tang, D. W.

    2016-09-01

    By analyzing the relationship among the heat penetration depth, measurement frequency and detector characteristic parameters, a simple and practical 3ω slope comparative method has been proposed. The corresponding measurement system for measuring the thermal properties of fluids and powder materials was established and verified using several specimens with known thermophysical parameters, such as alcohol, distilled water, and air. Compared to the two-dimensional model, the data processing of the method is relatively simple and quick. Due to the elimination of errors introduced by the detector parameter measurement, the measurement accuracy of the method is higher than the conventional one-dimensional model. By using an appropriate frequency range, the new method is time saving and convenient for measuring the thermal conductivity of fluids and powders with low thermal conductivity. Based on the analysis, the effective thermal conductivity of nano-SiO2 powder is accurately determined.

  16. Designing Chemistry Practice Exams for Enhanced Benefits: An Instrument for Comparing Performance and Mental Effort Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, Karen J.; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    The design and use of a chemistry practice exam instrument that includes a measure for student mental effort is described in this paper. Use of such an instrument can beneficial to chemistry students and chemistry educators as well as chemical education researchers from both a content and cognitive science perspective. The method for calculating…

  17. Designing Chemistry Practice Exams for Enhanced Benefits: An Instrument for Comparing Performance and Mental Effort Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, Karen J.; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    The design and use of a chemistry practice exam instrument that includes a measure for student mental effort is described in this paper. Use of such an instrument can beneficial to chemistry students and chemistry educators as well as chemical education researchers from both a content and cognitive science perspective. The method for calculating…

  18. Measuring Communicative Participation: A Review of Self-Report Instruments in Speech-Language Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Eadie, Tanya L.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Klasner, Estelle R.; Dudgeon, Brian J.; Deitz, Jean C.; Baylor, Carolyn R.; Miller, Robert M.; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To assess the adequacy of self-report instruments in speech-language pathology for measuring a construct called communicative participation. Method Six instruments were evaluated relative to (a) the construct measured, (b) the relevance of individual items to communicative participation, and (c) their psychometric properties. Results No instrument exclusively measured communicative participation. Twenty-six percent (n = 34) of all items (N = 132) across the reviewed instruments were consistent with communicative participation. The majority (76%) of the 34 items were associated with general communication, while the remaining 24% of the items were associated with communication at work, during leisure, or for establishing relationships. Instruments varied relative to psychometric properties. Conclusions No existing self-report instruments in speech-language pathology were found to be solely dedicated to measuring communicative participation. Developing an instrument for measuring communicative participation is essential for meeting the requirements of our scope of practice. PMID:17102143

  19. Thermal plumes in yield stress fluids : laboratory experiments and implications for diapirs and dike propagation in a soft crust or lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massmeyer, A.; Davaille, A. B.; Gueslin, B.; Di Giuseppe, E.

    2011-12-01

    Hot magma migrate through dikes in a solid/brittle crust or lithosphere, while hot instabilities rise as mushroom-shaped plumes in a viscous mantle. However, upwards migration of hot material in areas where the geological materials are "soft" (presenting solid as well as viscous properties) is still far from understood. These phenomena may play a crucial role in the dynamics of mid-ocean ridges, of volcanic systems or of the asthenosphere/lithosphere boundary. We present new laboratory experiments on the development of thermal plumes out of a localized source of heat in mixtures of water, glycerine and Carbopol. The resulting fluids are shear thinning and present a yield-stress, whereby flow occurs only if the local stress exceeds a critical value. Below this value, the fluid acts as an elastic solid. This is due to the existence of a continuous network of interacting micron-sized hydrogel particles. The fluid's rheological properties can be controlled by changing the proportion of Glycerol and water as well as the Carbopol concentration. We then systematically studied the influence of height and supplied heat. Depending on the Yield parameter Y0, which compares the thermally-induced stress to the yield stress, three different regimes are observed. For low Y0, no convection develops ; while for intermediate values, a small-scale convection cell appears and remains confined around the heater. For high Y0, thermal plumes develop. Their morphology differs from the mushroom-shape typically encountered in newtonian or in purely shear-thinning fluids. Combined temperature and velocity field measurements show that a plug flow develops within the plume thermal anomaly, therefore producing a rising finger- shape. Light scattering highlights the development of a damaged zone ahead of the diapir as it rises. Moreover, although the heat supply is continuous through time, the uplift of such plumes is not : the thermal anomaly marks some "pauses" as it rises through the gel

  20. Reactive oxygen species measure for rapid detection of infection in fluids.

    PubMed

    Bardon, Jean; Lukaszewicz, Anne-Claire; Faivre, Valérie; Huot, Benjamin; Payen, Didier

    2016-12-01

    Early detection of infection is critical to rapidly starting effective treatment. Diagnosis can be difficult, particularly in the intensive care unit (ICU) population. Because the presence of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in tissues is the hallmark of inflammatory processes, the objective of this proof of concept study was to determine whether the measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) could be an efficient diagnostic tool to rapidly diagnose infections in peritoneal, pleural and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids in ICU patients. We prospectively included all patients hospitalized in the 21-bed surgical ICU of a teaching hospital from June 2010 to February 2014 who presented with systemic inflammatory response syndrome with suspicion of a peritoneal or pleural fluid or pulmonary infection needing a BAL. Instantaneous basal ROS production was measured in fluids and after phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulation. We compared patients with infected fluids to those with non-infected fluids. The overall ICU mortality rate was 34 %. A majority of patients were sampled following a delay of 5 days (2-12) after ICU admission, with most receiving antibiotics at the time of fluid sampling (71 %). Fluids were infected in 21/65 samples: 6/17 peritoneal fluids, 8/28 pleural fluids and 7/20 BALs. ROS production was significantly higher in the infected than in the non-infected group at baseline and after PMA stimulation in the peritoneal and pleural fluids but not in BAL. Assessing instantaneous ROS production appears as a fast and reliable diagnostic method for detecting peritoneal and pleural fluid infection.

  1. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit using an elbow flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, M.G.; Boucher, T.J.

    1997-06-24

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit. The system utilizes pressure transducers disposed generally in line upstream and downstream of the flow of fluid in a bend in the conduit. Data from the pressure transducers is transmitted to a microprocessor or computer. The pressure differential measured by the pressure transducers is then used to calculate the fluid flow rate in the conduit. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to control flow, total fluid dispersed, (in, for example, an irrigation system), area of dispersal or other desired effect based on the fluid flow in the conduit. 2 figs.

  2. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit using an elbow flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, Marcos G.; Boucher, Timothy J.

    1997-01-01

    A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit. The system utilizes pressure transducers disposed generally in line upstream and downstream of the flow of fluid in a bend in the conduit. Data from the pressure transducers is transmitted to a microprocessor or computer. The pressure differential measured by the pressure transducers is then used to calculate the fluid flow rate in the conduit. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to control flow, total fluid dispersed, (in, for example, an irrigation system), area of dispersal or other desired effect based on the fluid flow in the conduit.

  3. The Plasma Instrument for Magnetic Sounding (PIMS): Enabling Required Plasma Measurements for the Exploration of Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westlake, J. H.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Kasper, J. C.; Case, A. W.; Rymer, A. M.; Khurana, K. K.; Stevens, M. L.; Jia, X.; Slavin, J. A.; Paty, C. S.; Smith, H. T.; Kivelson, M.; Saur, J.; Krupp, N.; Roussos, E.; Korth, H.

    2015-12-01

    Europa exists in a complicated plasma environment where the tilt of Jupiter's magnetic field and rapid rotation rate leads to a dynamic interaction with Europa's ionospheric plasma. While understanding this plasma interaction is interesting in its own right, it is crucial for successfully magnetically sounding Europa's subsurface ocean. . In magnetic sounding, currents induced in Europa by the changing Jovian plasma produce a detectable secondary magnetic field that reflects properties of Europa's subsurface ocean such as depth and conductivity. This technique was successfully employed with Galileo observations of Europa to demonstrate that Europa indeed has a subsurface ocean containing more liquid water than Earth's oceans. While these Galileo observations contributed to the renewed interest in Europa, the results raised major questions that remain unanswered, in part due to the large uncertainties in the ice shell thickness, ocean depth, and ocean salinity due to limitations in the observations. Here we present the scientific goals of the Plasma Instrument for Magnetic Sounding (PIMS), one of the 9 instruments selected for the Europa Multiple Flyby Mission. We specifically address how PIMS plasma measurements will transform the accuracy of magnetic sounding of Europa's subsurface oceans. We also present synergistic science with other Europa instrumentation such as the ultraviolet spectrometer, mass spectrometer, and the radar.

  4. The Cabauw Intercomparison Campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide Measuring Instruments (CINDI): Design, Execution, and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piters, Ankie; Boersma, K.F.; Kroon, M.; Hains, J. C.; Roozendael, M. Van; Wittrock, F.; Abuhassan, N.; Adams, C.; Akrami, M.; Allaart, M. A. F.; Apituley, A.; Beirle, S.; Bergwerff, J. B.; Berkhout, A. J. C.; Brunner, D.; Cede, A.; Chong, J.; Clemer, K.; Fayt, C.; FrieB, U.; Gast, L. F. L.; Gil-Ojeda, M.; Goutail, F.; Graves, R.; Griesfeller, A.

    2012-01-01

    From June to July 2009 more than thirty different in-situ and remote sensing instruments from all over the world participated in the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI). The campaign took place at KNMI's Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) in the Netherlands. Its main objectives were to determine the accuracy of state-ofthe- art ground-based measurement techniques for the detection of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (both in-situ and remote sensing), and to investigate their usability in satellite data validation. The expected outcomes are recommendations regarding the operation and calibration of such instruments, retrieval settings, and observation strategies for the use in ground-based networks for air quality monitoring and satellite data validation. Twenty-four optical spectrometers participated in the campaign, of which twenty-one had the capability to scan different elevation angles consecutively, the so-called Multi-axis DOAS systems, thereby collecting vertical profile information, in particular for nitrogen dioxide and aerosol. Various in-situ samplers and lidar instruments simultaneously characterized the variability of atmospheric trace gases and the physical properties of aerosol particles. A large data set of continuous measurements of these atmospheric constituents has been collected under various meteorological conditions and air pollution levels. Together with the permanent measurement capability at the CESAR site characterizing the meteorological state of the atmosphere, the CINDI campaign provided a comprehensive observational data set of atmospheric constituents in a highly polluted region of the world during summertime. First detailed comparisons performed with the CINDI data show that slant column measurements of NO2, O4 and HCHO with MAX-DOAS agree within 5 to 15%, vertical profiles of NO2 derived from several independent instruments agree within 25% of one another, and MAX

  5. The Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI): design, execution, and early results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piters, A. J. M.; Boersma, K. F.; Kroon, M.; Hains, J. C.; van Roozendael, M.; Wittrock, F.; Abuhassan, N.; Adams, C.; Akrami, M.; Allaart, M. A. F.; Apituley, A.; Beirle, S.; Bergwerff, J. B.; Berkhout, A. J. C.; Brunner, D.; Cede, A.; Chong, J.; Clémer, K.; Fayt, C.; Frieß, U.; Gast, L. F. L.; Gil-Ojeda, M.; Goutail, F.; Graves, R.; Griesfeller, A.; Großmann, K.; Hemerijckx, G.; Hendrick, F.; Henzing, B.; Herman, J.; Hermans, C.; Hoexum, M.; van der Hoff, G. R.; Irie, H.; Johnston, P. V.; Kanaya, Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Klein Baltink, H.; Kreher, K.; de Leeuw, G.; Leigh, R.; Merlaud, A.; Moerman, M. M.; Monks, P. S.; Mount, G. H.; Navarro-Comas, M.; Oetjen, H.; Pazmino, A.; Perez-Camacho, M.; Peters, E.; Du Piesanie, A.; Pinardi, G.; Puentedura, O.; Richter, A.; Roscoe, H. K.; Schönhardt, A.; Schwarzenbach, B.; Shaiganfar, R.; Sluis, W.; Spinei, E.; Stolk, A. P.; Strong, K.; Swart, D. P. J.; Takashima, H.; Vlemmix, T.; Vrekoussis, M.; Wagner, T.; Whyte, C.; Wilson, K. M.; Yela, M.; Yilmaz, S.; Zieger, P.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-02-01

    From June to July 2009 more than thirty different in-situ and remote sensing instruments from all over the world participated in the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI). The campaign took place at KNMI's Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) in the Netherlands. Its main objectives were to determine the accuracy of state-of-the-art ground-based measurement techniques for the detection of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (both in-situ and remote sensing), and to investigate their usability in satellite data validation. The expected outcomes are recommendations regarding the operation and calibration of such instruments, retrieval settings, and observation strategies for the use in ground-based networks for air quality monitoring and satellite data validation. Twenty-four optical spectrometers participated in the campaign, of which twenty-one had the capability to scan different elevation angles consecutively, the so-called Multi-axis DOAS systems, thereby collecting vertical profile information, in particular for nitrogen dioxide and aerosol. Various in-situ samplers and lidar instruments simultaneously characterized the variability of atmospheric trace gases and the physical properties of aerosol particles. A large data set of continuous measurements of these atmospheric constituents has been collected under various meteorological conditions and air pollution levels. Together with the permanent measurement capability at the CESAR site characterizing the meteorological state of the atmosphere, the CINDI campaign provided a comprehensive observational data set of atmospheric constituents in a highly polluted region of the world during summertime. First detailed comparisons performed with the CINDI data show that slant column measurements of NO2, O4 and HCHO with MAX-DOAS agree within 5 to 15%, vertical profiles of NO2 derived from several independent instruments agree within 25% of one another, and MAX

  6. Obscura telescope with a MEMS micromirror array for space observation of transient luminous phenomena or fast-moving objects.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Garipov, G K; Jeon, J A; Khrenov, B A; Kim, J E; Kim, M; Kim, Y K; Lee, C-H; Lee, J; Na, G W; Nam, S; Park, I H; Park, Y-S

    2008-12-08

    We introduce a novel telescope consisting of a pinhole-like camera with rotatable MEMS micromirrors substituting for pinholes. The design is ideal for observations of transient luminous phenomena or fast-moving objects, such as upper atmospheric lightning and bright gamma ray bursts. The advantage of the MEMS "obscura telescope" over conventional cameras is that it is capable both of searching for events over a wide field of view, and fast zooming to allow detailed investigation of the structure of events. It is also able to track the triggering object to investigate its space-time development, and to center the interesting portion of the image on the photodetector array. We present the proposed system and the test results for the MEMS obscura telescope which has a field of view of 11.3 degrees, sixteen times zoom-in and tracking within 1 ms.

  7. Physical Properties of a Keathley Canyon Pressure Core Maintained at In Situ Pressure and Measured in a New Instrumented Pressure Testing Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, T.; Narsilio, G.; Lee, J.; Santamarina, J.; Ruppel, C.

    2005-12-01

    For the 2005 JIP gas hydrates drilling expedition, we designed and constructed the Georgia Tech Instrumented Pressure Testing Chamber (IPTC) to measure the mechanical and electrical properties of pressure cores continuously maintained at in situ hydrostatic pressure. While the device was specifically designed for the study of hydrate- and gas-bearing cores, it is readily applicable to sediments lacking hydrate or gas as well. The Georgia Tech IPTC is the first device ever capable of making such a suite of physical measurements on a natural core held under in situ pressure. The next generation of the IPTC will include the capacity to restore effective stress and will be easily adaptable to accommodate the needs of IODP and other drilling endeavors. During the JIP cruise, we successfully used the IPTC to measure P-wave and S-wave velocities, electrical conductivity, and strength of cores obtained at 277 mbsf at Keathley Canyon site (1300 m water depth) and held at 14 MPa pressure. The results reveal that the S-wave velocity and undrained shear strength of sediments maintained at in situ pressure are significantly higher than the same properties measured in sediments recovered at similar depths via conventional coring methods. P-wave velocity was slightly higher in the IPTC sample than in the conventional core. These first results confirm the importance of measuring physical properties under in situ pressure, particularly in gas hydrate provinces. In addition to the IPTC measurements, we also report on the results of laboratory measurements being conducted on whole round sections of Atwater Valley and Keathley Canyon sediment cores. A particular focus is the measurement of the physical properties in undisturbed and remolded cores in which gas hydrate has been synthesized in specimens that are reloaded to the in situ effective stress.

  8. VolcLab: A balloon-borne instrument package to measure ash, gas, electrical, and turbulence properties of volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airey, Martin; Harrison, Giles; Nicoll, Keri; Williams, Paul; Marlton, Graeme

    2017-04-01

    Release of volcanic ash into the atmosphere poses a significant hazard to air traffic. Exposure to appreciable concentrations (≥4 mg m-3) of ash can result in engine shutdown, air data system loss, and airframe damage, with sustained lower concentrations potentially causing other long-term detrimental effects [1]. Disruption to flights also has a societal impact. For example, the closure of European airspace following the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull resulted in global airline industry losses of order £1100 million daily and disruption to 10 million passengers. Accurate and effective measurement of the mass of ash in a volcanic plume along with in situ characterisation of other plume properties such as charge, turbulence, and SO2 concentration can be used in combination with plume dispersion modelling, remote sensing, and more sophisticated flight ban thresholds to mitigate the impact of future events. VolcLab is a disposable instrument package that may be attached to a standard commercial radiosonde, for rapid emergency deployment on a weather balloon platform. The payload includes a newly developed gravimetric sensor using the oscillating microbalance principle to measure mass directly without assumptions about particles' optical properties. The package also includes an SO2 gas detector, an optical sensor to detect ash and cloud backscatter from an LED source [2], a charge sensor to characterise electrical properties of the plume [3], and an accelerometer to measure in-plume turbulence [4]. VolcLab uses the established PANDORA interface [5], to provide data exchange and power from the radiosonde. In addition to the VolcLab measurements, the radiosonde provides standard meteorological data of temperature, pressure, and relative humidity, and GPS location. There are several benefits of using this instrument suite in this design and of using this method of deployment. Firstly, this is an all-in-one device requiring minimal expertise on the part of the end

  9. The Berkeley Puppet Interview: A Screening Instrument for Measuring Psychopathology in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Lisanne L.; van Daal, Carlijn; van der Maten, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Otten, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Background: While child self-reports of psychopathology are increasingly accepted, little standardized instruments are utilized for these practices. The Berkeley Puppet Interview (BPI) is an age-appropriate instrument for self-reports of problem behavior by young children. Objective: Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the BPI will be…

  10. The Berkeley Puppet Interview: A Screening Instrument for Measuring Psychopathology in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Lisanne L.; van Daal, Carlijn; van der Maten, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Otten, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Background: While child self-reports of psychopathology are increasingly accepted, little standardized instruments are utilized for these practices. The Berkeley Puppet Interview (BPI) is an age-appropriate instrument for self-reports of problem behavior by young children. Objective: Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the BPI will be…

  11. Spacelab experiment definition study on phase transition and critical phenomena in fluids: Interim report on experimental justification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moldover, M. R.; Hocken, M. R.; Gammon, R. W.; Sengers, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    Pure fluids and fluid mixtures near critical points are identified and are related to the progress of several disciplines. Consideration is given to thermodynamic properties, transport properties, and the complex nonlinear phenomena which occur when fluids undergo phase transitions in the critical region. The distinction is made between practical limits which may be extended by advances in technology and intrinsic ones which arise from the modification of fluid properties by the earth's gravitational field. The kinds of experiments near critical points which could best exploit the low gravity environment of an orbiting laboratory are identified. These include studies of the index of refraction, constant volume specific heat, and phase separation.

  12. The coupled dynamics of fluids and spacecraft in low gravity and low gravity fluid measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John; Peterson, Lee D.; Crawley, Edward F.

    1987-01-01

    The very large mass fraction of liquids stored on broad current and future generation spacecraft has made critical the technologies of describing the fluid-spacecraft dynamics and measuring or gauging the fluid. Combined efforts in these areas are described, and preliminary results are presented. The coupled dynamics of fluids and spacecraft in low gravity study is characterizing the parametric behavior of fluid-spacecraft systems in which interaction between the fluid and spacecraft dynamics is encountered. Particular emphasis is given to the importance of nonlinear fluid free surface phenomena to the coupled dynamics. An experimental apparatus has been developed for demonstrating a coupled fluid-spacecraft system. In these experiments, slosh force signals are fed back to a model tank actuator through a tunable analog second order integration circuit. In this manner, the tank motion is coupled to the resulting slosh force. Results are being obtained in 1-g and in low-g (on the NASA KC-135) using dynamic systems nondimensionally identical except for the Bond numbers.

  13. Electromagnetic, heat and fluid flow phenomena in levitated metal droplets both under earthbound and microgravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szekely, Julian

    1988-01-01

    The purpose is to develop an improved understanding of the electromagnetic, heat, and fluid flow phenomena in electromagnetically levitated metal droplets, both under earthbound and microgravity conditions. The main motivation for doing this work, together with the past accomplishments, and the plans for future research are discussed.

  14. Information Content Analysis for the Multi-Viewing, Multi-Channel, Multi-Polarization Imaging (3MI) Instrument : Toward Retrieval of Vertically Resolved Cloud Properties from Passive Only Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedi, J.; Merlin, G.; Labonnote, L.; Cornet, C.; Ferlay, N.; Desmons, M.; Dubuisson, P.; Parol, F.; Davis, A. B.; Marbach, T.

    2014-12-01

    The EUMETSAT Polar System- Second Generation (EPS-SG) is currently under development to take over the current EUMETSAT Polar System at the 2020 horizon. As part of it, the Multi-Viewing Multi-Channel Multi-Polarization Imaging mission (3MI) will be dedicated to the operational monitoring of aerosols but will also provide unique observations for characterization of cloud properties building on the legacy of POLDER and particularly of its 3rd mission (PARASOL) within the A-Train. Through the synergy of POLDER3/PARASOL and MODIS/AQUA several studies have demonstrated the great interest of combining multispectral, multiangle and polarization measurements in the visible, near and shortwave infrared to better constrain retrieval of clouds microphysical and macrophysical properties. Remote-sensing of cloud thermodynamic phase (Riedi et al, 2010), liquid (Bréon and Doutriaux-Boucher, 2005) or ice clouds microphysics (Zhang et al, 2009; Cole et al, 2012), cloud radiative (Zeng et al, 2012) or macrophysical properties (Ferlay et al, 2010; Desmons et al, 2013) can unarguably benefit from the additional information content brought by polarization and multiangle measurements. At the same time, retrieval algorithms are gaining further complexity and skills. Thanks to availability of computational resources, practical implementation of optimal estimation or related optimization techniques (Delanoe & Hogan, 2008; Dubovik et al, 2013) have appeared that allow simultaneous and consistent retrieval of larger sets of parameters from constantly growing observations vectors. Therefore 3MI observations will not only allow to improve accuracy of future cloud products but also opens perspectives for the development of new retrieval algorithms. A major challenge for cloud remote-sensing from passive measurements is to obtain information on clouds properties vertical distribution and structure. Through results of a comprehensive information content analysis we will illustrate our current

  15. Free-Surface Fluid-Object Interaction for the Large-Scale Computation of Ship Hydrodynamics Phenomena

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-21

    Methods for Offshore Wind Turbines , MARINE 2011, IV International Conference on Computational Methods in Marine Engineering: Selected papers...Computational Technology for Offshore Wind Turbines . Plenary Lecture at the IVth International Conference on Computational Methods in Marine Engineering... Wind Turbines . Plenary Lecture at IXth Deep Sea Offshore Wind R&D Seminar (DeepWind2012), Trondheim, Norway, January 19-20, 2012 5. K. Benner, I

  16. Psychometric Evaluation of an Instrument for Measuring Organizational Climate for Quality: Evidence From a National Sample of Infection Preventionists.

    PubMed

    Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Nembhard, Ingrid M; Schnall, Rebecca; Nelson, Shanelle; Stone, Patricia W

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in measuring the climate for infection prevention; however, reliable and valid instruments are lacking. This study tested the psychometric properties of the Leading a Culture of Quality for Infection Prevention (LCQ-IP) instrument measuring the infection prevention climate in a sample of 972 infection preventionists from acute care hospitals. An exploratory principal component analysis showed that the instrument had structural validity and captured 4 factors related to the climate for infection prevention: Psychological Safety, Prioritization of Quality, Supportive Work Environment, and Improvement Orientation. LCQ-IP exhibited excellent internal consistency, with a Cronbach α of .926. Criterion validity was supported with overall LCQ-IP scores, increasing with the number of evidence-based prevention policies in place (P = .047). This psychometrically sound instrument may be helpful to researchers and providers in assessing climate for quality related to infection prevention.

  17. Psychometric Evaluation of an Instrument for Measuring Organizational Climate for Quality: Evidence from a National Sample of Infection Preventionists

    PubMed Central

    Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Nembhard, Ingrid M.; Schnall, Rebecca; Nelson, Shanelle; Stone, Patricia W.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in measuring the climate for infection prevention; however, reliable and valid instruments are lacking. This study tested the psychometric properties of the Leading a Culture of Quality for Infection Prevention (LCQ-IP) instrument measuring the infection prevention climate in a sample of 972 Infection Preventionists from acute care hospitals. An exploratory principal component analysis showed that the instrument had structural validity and captured four factors related to the climate for infection prevention: psychological safety, prioritization of quality, supportive work environment and improvement orientation. LCQ-IP exhibited excellent internal consistency with Cronbach’s α of 0.926. Criterion validity was supported with overall LCQ-IP scores increasing with the number of evidence-based prevention policies in place (p = 0.047). This psychometrically sound instrument may be helpful to researchers and providers in assessing climate for quality related to infection prevention. PMID:25999523

  18. International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health in women with breast cancer: a proposal for measurement instruments.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Flávia Nascimento de; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Bergmann, Anke

    2013-06-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) aims at standardization, but its applicability requires consistent instruments. In Brazil, invasive therapeutic approaches are frequent, leading to functional alterations. The current study thus aimed to identify and discuss instruments capable of measuring ICF core set codes for breast cancer. The review included ICF studies in women with breast cancer diagnosis and studies with the objective of translating and validating instruments for the Brazilian population, and consistent with the codes. Review studies, systematic or not, were excluded. Eight instruments were selected, and the WHOQOL-Bref was the most comprehensive. The use of various instruments showed 19 coinciding codes, and the instruments as a whole covered 58 of the total of 81 codes. The use of multiple instruments is time-consuming, so new studies are needed to propose parsimonious tools capable of measuring functioning in women treated for breast cancer.

  19. The rhesus measurement system: A new instrument for space research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonfeld, Julie E.; Hines, John W.

    1993-01-01

    The Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) is a research environment designed to study the effects of microgravity using rhesus primates as human surrogates. This experimental model allows investigators to study numerous aspects of microgravity exposure without compromising crew member activities. Currently, the RRF is slated for two missions to collect its data, the first mission is SLS-3, due to fly in late 1995. The RRF is a joint effort between the United States and France. The science and hardware portions of the project are being shared between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and France's Centre National D'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The RRF is composed of many different subsystems in order to acquire data, provide life support, environmental enrichment, computer facilities and measurement capabilities for two rhesus primates aboard a nominal sixteen day mission. One of these subsystems is the Rhesus Measurement System (RMS). The RMS is designed to obtain in-flight physiological measurements from sensors interfaced with the subject. The RMS will acquire, preprocess, and transfer the physiologic data to the Flight Data System (FDS) for relay to the ground during flight. The measurements which will be taken by the RMS during the first flight will be respiration, measured at two different sites; electromyogram (EMG) at three different sites; electroencephalogram (EEG); electrocardiogram (ECG); and body temperature. These measurements taken by the RMS will assist the research team in meeting the science objectives of the RRF project.

  20. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt gradual bend

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, Marcos German

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt bend. The system includes pressure transducers, one disposed in the conduit at the inside of the bend and one or more disposed in the conduit at the outside of the bend but spaced a distance therefrom. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow.

  1. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt gradual bend

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, M.G.

    1998-02-10

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt bend. The system includes pressure transducers, one disposed in the conduit at the inside of the bend and one or more disposed in the conduit at the outside of the bend but spaced a distance therefrom. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.

  2. Computer program for computing the properties of seventeen fluids. [cryogenic liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, J. A.; Friend, D. G.; Arp, V. D.; Mccarty, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    The present study describes modifications and additions to the MIPROPS computer program for calculating the thermophysical properties of 17 fluids. These changes include adding new fluids, new properties, and a new interface to the program. The new program allows the user to select the input and output parameters and the units to be displayed for each parameter. Fluids added to the MIPROPS program are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, deuterium, helium, normal hydrogen, and xenon. The most recent modifications to the MIPROPS program are the addition of viscosity and thermal conductivity correlations for parahydrogen and the addition of the fluids normal hydrogen and xenon. The recently added interface considerably increases the program's utility.

  3. Computer program for computing the properties of seventeen fluids. [cryogenic liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, J. A.; Friend, D. G.; Arp, V. D.; Mccarty, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    The present study describes modifications and additions to the MIPROPS computer program for calculating the thermophysical properties of 17 fluids. These changes include adding new fluids, new properties, and a new interface to the program. The new program allows the user to select the input and output parameters and the units to be displayed for each parameter. Fluids added to the MIPROPS program are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, deuterium, helium, normal hydrogen, and xenon. The most recent modifications to the MIPROPS program are the addition of viscosity and thermal conductivity correlations for parahydrogen and the addition of the fluids normal hydrogen and xenon. The recently added interface considerably increases the program's utility.

  4. The theoretical analysis of an instrument for linear and angular displacements of the steered wheel measuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wach, K.

    2016-09-01

    In the paper the theoretical analysis of the measuring instrument for determination of translation and rotation of the stub axle with the steered wheel against car body was presented. The instrument is made of nine links with elongation sensors embedded in it. One of several possible structures of instrument of this kind was presented. Basing on solution of the geometrical constraints system of equations of the device, the numerical analysis of the measurement accuracy was conducted.

  5. The Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI): design, execution, and early results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piters, A. J. M.; Boersma, K. F.; Kroon, M.; Hains, J. C.; van Roozendael, M.; Wittrock, F.; Abuhassan, N.; Adams, C.; Akrami, M.; Allaart, M. A. F.; Apituley, A.; Bergwerff, J. B.; Berkhout, A. J. C.; Brunner, D.; Cede, A.; Chong, J.; Clémer, K.; Fayt, C.; Frieß, U.; Gast, L. F. L.; Gil-Ojeda, M.; Goutail, F.; Graves, R.; Griesfeller, A.; Großmann, K.; Hemerijckx, G.; Hendrick, F.; Henzing, B.; Herman, J.; Hermans, C.; Hoexum, M.; van der Hoff, G. R.; Irie, H.; Johnston, P. V.; Kanaya, Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Klein Baltink, H.; Kreher, K.; de Leeuw, G.; Leigh, R.; Merlaud, A.; Moerman, M. M.; Monks, P. S.; Mount, G. H.; Navarro-Comas, M.; Oetjen, H.; Pazmino, A.; Perez-Camacho, M.; Peters, E.; Du Piesanie, A.; Pinardi, G.; Puentadura, O.; Richter, A.; Roscoe, H. K.; Schönhardt, A.; Schwarzenbach, B.; Shaiganfar, R.; Sluis, W.; Spinei, E.; Stolk, A. P.; Strong, K.; Swart, D. P. J.; Takashima, H.; Vlemmix, T.; Vrekoussis, M.; Wagner, T.; Whyte, C.; Wilson, K. M.; Yela, M.; Yilmaz, S.; Zieger, P.; Zhou, Y.

    2011-09-01

    From June to July 2009 more than thirty different in-situ and remote sensing instruments from all over the world participated in the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI). The campaign took place at KNMI's Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research in the Netherlands. Its main objectives were to determine the accuracy of state-of-the-art ground-based measurement techniques for the detection of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (both in-situ and remote sensing), and to investigate their usability in satellite data validation. The expected outcomes are recommendations regarding the operation and calibration of such instruments, retrieval settings, and observation strategies for the use in ground-based networks for air quality monitoring and satellite data validation. Twenty-four optical spectrometers participated in the campaign, of which twenty-one had the capability to scan different elevation angles consecutively, the so-called Multi-axis DOAS systems, thereby collecting vertical profile information, in particular for nitrogen dioxide and aerosol. Various in-situ samplers simultaneously characterized the variability of atmospheric trace gases and the physical properties of aerosol particles. A large data set of continuous measurements of these atmospheric constituents has been collected under various meteorological conditions and air pollution levels. Together with the permanent measurement capability at the Cabauw site characterizing the meteorological state of the atmosphere, the CINDI campaign provided a comprehensive observational data set of atmospheric constituents in a highly polluted region of the world during summertime. First detailed comparisons performed with the CINDI data show that slant column measurements of NO2, O4 and HCHO with MAX-DOAS agree within 5 to 15%, vertical profiles of NO2 derived from several independent instruments agree within 25%, and MAX-DOAS aerosol optical thickness agrees within 20

  6. Plan for the testing of radiation measurement instrumentation intended for use at an excavation site

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, R.J.

    1994-11-01

    This plan describes performance tests to be made with ionizing radiation measurement instrumentation designed and built for in-field assay at an excavation site. One instrument measures gross gamma-ray and neutron fields and the other identifies gamma-ray emitting radionuclides and also is capable of assaying for selected hazardous materials. These instruments will be operationally tested to verify that original specifications have been met and performance tested to establish and verify that they have the potential to function as intended at an excavation site.

  7. Meteorological Instrumentation and Measurements Open Resource Training Modules for Undergraduate and Graduate Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockwell, A.; Clark, R. D.; Stevermer, A.

    2016-12-01

    The study of observational science crosses all other subject areas and requires a new innovative paradigm: a collaboration of experts to create high quality, content-rich learning modules that will elevate the scientific literacy and technical competency of undergraduate and graduate students. This collaborative project will design, develop, and openly distribute a series of interactive, multimedia, online modules that can be effectively integrated into meteorology courses on instrumentation, measurement science, and observing systems to supplement traditional pedagogies and enhance blended instruction. The modules will address topics such as principles of instrumentation and measurement to the theory and practice of measuring a host of meteorological variables. The impact will have a profound effect on the atmospheric observational sciences community by fulfilling a need for contemporary, interactive, multimedia guided education and training modules integrating the latest instructional design and assessment tools in observational science. Thousands of undergraduate and graduate students will benefit, while course instructors will value a set of high quality modules to use as supplements to their courses. The modules can serve as an alternative to observational research training and fill the void between field projects or assist those schools that lack the resources to stage a field- or laboratory-based instrumentation experience. This project brings together the intellectual capital of the scientists and engineers of National Center for Atmospheric Research Earth Observing Laboratory as subject matter experts, the artistic talents and instructional design acumen of the COMET program, and the project leadership, vision, teaching expertise in instruments and observational science at Millersville University.

  8. PC-based instrumentation for electrodermal activity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tronstad, Christian; Grimnes, Sverre; Martinsen, Ørjan G.; Amundsen, Vegard; Wojniusz, Slawomir

    2010-04-01

    A PC-based EDA measuring system is presented. The system is composed of a laptop with a PCMCIA DAQ-card running LabVIEW® software, a small front-end with a dual op-amp IC and a few passive components, and three skin-surface electrodes. The electrode system gives a monopolar measurement below the measuring electrode regardless of the electrode sizes, unless very small. Usage of the system is demonstrated by measurements from a mental stress experiment on 17 volunteers. There was a significant correlation (R=0.51, p>0.001) between the self-assessed stress-level and the EDA response frequency. The system allows easy on-site customization in software of measuring parameters, signal-quality monitoring and non-linearity detection in real time. We believe that the most suited use for the system is for stationary experimental purposes where this flexibility is desired. The system is easy to reproduce by engineers interested in doing EDA research.

  9. The Second Cabauw Intercomparison Campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide Measuring Instruments — CINDI-2 — Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apituley, Arnoud; van Roozendael, Michel; Hendrick, Francois; Kreher, Karin; Richter, Andreas; Wagner, Thomas; Friess, Udo; Participants, Cindi-2

    2017-04-01

    For the validation of space borne observations of NO2 and other trace gases from hyperspectral imagers, ground based instruments based on the MAXDOAS technique are an excellent choice, since they rely on similar retrieval techniques as the observations from orbit. In both cases, retrievals take into account the light path of scattered sunlight though the entire atmosphere. Since MAXDOAS instruments are relatively low cost and can be operated autonomously almost anywhere, they are credible candidates to form a world-wide ground based reference network for satellite observations. To ensure proper traceability of the MAXDOAS observations, a thorough intercomparison is mandatory. The Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) site in centre of The Netherlands was the stage of the Cabauw Intercomparison of Nitrogen Dioxide Measuring Instruments (CINDI) in June-July 2009 and again for the second campaign, CINDI-2, in 2016. Cabauw was chosen because the flat terrain offered a free view of large parts of the horizon, needed to accommodate the viewing geometry of the MAXDOAS observations. The location is under influence of both clean as well as polluted airmasses. This gives a wide range of possible trace gas concentrations and mixtures. Furthermore, at CESAR a wide range of observations are routinely carried out that fulfil the requirement to provide the background necessary for unraveling the differences between the observations from different MAXDOAS instruments that can be quite diverse in design and data treatment. These observations include parameters needed to understand the light paths, i.e. in-situ aerosol observations of optical and microphysical properties, as well as vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties by (Raman) lidar. In addition, vertical profiles of NO2 could be measured during CINDI-2 using the unique NO2 sonde, and a NO2 lidar system. With the imminent launch of Sentinel-5 Precursor/TROPOMI, with a nadir pixelsize of 3.5 × 3

  10. Measuring the quality of life of children with cerebral palsy: comparing the conceptual differences and psychometric properties of three instruments.

    PubMed

    Davis, Elise; Shelly, Amy; Waters, Elizabeth; Davern, Melanie

    2010-02-01

    To compare the conceptual differences, internal consistency, and validity of the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life Questionnaire for Children (CP QOL-Child), the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ), and a European generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaire (10-domain version; KIDSCREEN-10) for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Two hundred and four primary caregivers (185 females [91%], 19 males [9%]) of children with CP aged 4 to 12 years (mean 8 y 4 mo [SD 2.51]; 112 males [55%], 92 females [46%], Gross Motor Function Classification System level I=18%, II=28%, III=14%, IV=11%, V=28%) provided demographic data and completed the CP QOL-Child, CHQ, and KIDSCREEN-10. Fifty-four children with CP aged 9 to 12 years completed the CP QOL-Child and KIDSCREEN-10. The KIDSCREEN-10 and CP QOL-Child were developed to measure general HRQOL and CP-specific QOL respectively, whereas the CHQ was developed to measure functional health and well-being. In terms of internal consistency, KIDSCREEN-10 (Cronbach's alpha=0.86) and CP QOL-Child (0.74-0.91) outperformed the CHQ (0.18-0.96). In terms of validity, all instruments were moderately correlated. Floor and ceiling effects, although minimal or not evident for KIDSCREEN-10 and CP QOL-Child (1-4.9%), were apparent for CHQ (0.5-62.9%). Conceptually and psychometrically, KIDSCREEN-10 and CP QOL-Child performed more strongly than the CHQ, for children with CP. The choice between these two instruments will depend on the questions posed and outcomes sought by the researcher or clinician.

  11. A Wireless Fluid-Level Measurement Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a recently developed wireless measurement acquisition system to fluid-level measurement. This type of fluid-level measurement system alleviates many shortcomings of fluid-level measurement methods currently being used, including limited applicability of any one fluid-level sensor design. Measurement acquisition shortcomings include the necessity for power to be supplied to each sensor and for the measurement to be extracted from each sensor via a physical connection to the sensor. Another shortcoming is existing measurement systems require that a data channel and signal conditioning electronics be dedicated to each sensor. Use of wires results in other shortcomings such as logistics needed to add or replace sensors, weight, potential for electrical arcing and wire degradations. The fluid level sensor design is a simple passive inductor-capacitor circuit that is not subject to mechanical failure that is possible when float and lever-arm systems are used. Methods are presented for using the sensor in caustic, acidic or cryogenic fluids. Oscillating magnetic fields are used to power the sensor. Once electrically excited, the sensor produces a magnetic field response. The response frequency corresponds to the amount to fluid within the capacitor s electric field. The sensor design can be modified for measuring the level of any fluid or fluent substance that can be stored in a non-conductive reservoir. The interrogation method for discerning changes in the sensor response frequency is also presented.

  12. A Reversible, Non-invasive Method for Airway Resistance Measurements and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Sampling in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Polikepahad, Sumanth; Barranco, Wade T.; Porter, Paul; Anderson, Bruce; Kheradmand, Farrah; Corry, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Airway hyperreactivity (AHR) measurements and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid sampling are essential to experimental asthma models, but repeated procedures to obtain such measurements in the same animal are generally not feasible. Here, we demonstrate protocols for obtaining from mice repeated measurements of AHR and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples. Mice were challenged intranasally seven times over 14 days with a potent allergen or sham treated. Prior to the initial challenge, and within 24 hours following each intranasal challenge, the same animals were anesthetized, orally intubated and mechanically ventilated. AHR, assessed by comparing dose response curves of respiratory system resistance (RRS) induced by increasing intravenous doses of acetylcholine (Ach) chloride between sham and allergen-challenged animals, were determined. Afterwards, and via the same intubation, the left lung was lavaged so that differential enumeration of airway cells could be performed. These studies reveal that repeated measurements of AHR and BAL fluid collection are possible from the same animals and that maximal airway hyperresponsiveness and airway eosinophilia are achieved within 7-10 days of initiating allergen challenge. This novel technique significantly reduces the number of mice required for longitudinal experimentation and is applicable to diverse rodent species, disease models and airway physiology instruments. PMID:20389278

  13. Instrument for the measurement of retinal vessel oxygen saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewes, Jonathan J.; Smith, Matthew H.; Denninghoff, Kurt R.; Hillman, Lloyd W.

    1999-06-01

    Retinal vessel oxygen saturation has been suggested as a parameter for monitoring a wide range of conditions including occult blood los and a variety of ophthalmic diseases. We have developed an Eye Oximeter (EOX), that noninvasively measures the oxygen saturation of the blood in individual large retinal vessels using scanning lasers. 1D vessel extinction profiles are obtained at four wavelengths (629, 678, 821 and 899 nm), and the vessel transmittances computed. The oxygen saturation of blood within the vessel is then calculated from the transmittance data. We have performed an in vitro experiment on human blood which demonstrates the calibration of the EOX measurements and validates our oximetry equations. Retinal vessel oxygen saturation was measured in a human subject and found to be 65%O2Sat and 101 - 102%O2Sat in the veins and arteries on the optic disk. Irregularities in the background measured away from the optic disk resulted in a large variance in the calculated saturation when compared to measurements made on the disk.

  14. Optical microsensor for continuous glucose measurements in interstitial fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesberg, Jonathon T.; Cao, Chuanshun; Yager, Jeffrey R.; Prineas, John P.; Coretsopoulos, Chris; Arnold, Mark A.; Olafsen, Linda J.; Santilli, Michael

    2006-02-01

    Tight control of blood glucose levels has been shown to dramatically reduce the long-term complications of diabetes. Current invasive technology for monitoring glucose levels is effective but underutilized by people with diabetes because of the pain of repeated finger-sticks, the inconvenience of handling samples of blood, and the cost of reagent strips. A continuous glucose sensor coupled with an insulin delivery system could provide closed-loop glucose control without the need for discrete sampling or user intervention. We describe an optical glucose microsensor based on absorption spectroscopy in interstitial fluid that can potentially be implanted to provide continuous glucose readings. Light from a GaInAsSb LED in the 2.2-2.4 μm wavelength range is passed through a sample of interstitial fluid and a linear variable filter before being detected by an uncooled, 32-element GaInAsSb detector array. Spectral resolution is provided by the linear variable filter, which has a 10 nm band pass and a center wavelength that varies from 2.18-2.38 μm (4600-4200 cm -1) over the length of the detector array. The sensor assembly is a monolithic design requiring no coupling optics. In the present system, the LED running with 100 mA of drive current delivers 20 nW of power to each of the detector pixels, which have a noise-equivalent-power of 3 pW/Hz 1/2. This is sufficient to provide a signal-to-noise ratio of 4500 Hz 1/2 under detector-noise limited conditions. This signal-to-noise ratio corresponds to a spectral noise level less than 10 μAU for a five minute integration, which should be sufficient for sub-millimolar glucose detection.

  15. Gyroscopic Instruments for Instrument Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brombacher, W G; Trent, W C

    1938-01-01

    The gyroscopic instruments commonly used in instrument flying in the United States are the turn indicator, the directional gyro, the gyromagnetic compass, the gyroscopic horizon, and the automatic pilot. These instruments are described. Performance data and the method of testing in the laboratory are given for the turn indicator, the directional gyro, and the gyroscopic horizon. Apparatus for driving the instruments is discussed.

  16. New instrument for tribocharge measurement due to single particle impacts.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hideo; Ghadiri, Mojtaba; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Ding, Yu Long; Pitt, Kendal G

    2007-02-01

    During particulate solid processing, particle-particle and particle-wall collisions can generate electrostatic charges. This may lead to a variety of problems ranging from fire and explosion hazards to segregation, caking, and blocking. A fundamental understanding of the particle charging in such situations is therefore essential. For this purpose we have developed a new device that can measure charge transfer due to impact between a single particle and a metal plate. The device consists of an impact test system and two sets of Faraday cage and preamplifier for charge measurement. With current amplifiers, high-resolution measurements of particle charges of approximately 1 and 10 fC have been achieved before and after the impact, respectively. The device allows charge measurements of single particles with a size as small as approximately 100 microm impacting on the target at different incident angles with a velocity up to about 80 m/s. Further analyses of the charge transfer as a function of particle initial charge define an equilibrium charge, i.e., an initial charge level prior to impact for which no net charge transfer would occur as a result of impact.

  17. New instrument for tribocharge measurement due to single particle impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hideo; Ghadiri, Mojtaba; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Long Ding, Yu; Pitt, Kendal G.

    2007-02-01

    During particulate solid processing, particle-particle and particle-wall collisions can generate electrostatic charges. This may lead to a variety of problems ranging from fire and explosion hazards to segregation, caking, and blocking. A fundamental understanding of the particle charging in such situations is therefore essential. For this purpose we have developed a new device that can measure charge transfer due to impact between a single particle and a metal plate. The device consists of an impact test system and two sets of Faraday cage and preamplifier for charge measurement. With current amplifiers, high-resolution measurements of particle charges of approximately 1 and 10fC have been achieved before and after the impact, respectively. The device allows charge measurements of single particles with a size as small as ˜100μm impacting on the target at different incident angles with a velocity up to about 80m/s. Further analyses of the charge transfer as a function of particle initial charge define an equilibrium charge, i.e., an initial charge level prior to impact for which no net charge transfer would occur as a result of impact.

  18. New instrument for tribocharge measurement due to single particle impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Hideo; Ghadiri, Mojtaba; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Ding Yulong; Pitt, Kendal G.

    2007-02-15

    During particulate solid processing, particle-particle and particle-wall collisions can generate electrostatic charges. This may lead to a variety of problems ranging from fire and explosion hazards to segregation, caking, and blocking. A fundamental understanding of the particle charging in such situations is therefore essential. For this purpose we have developed a new device that can measure charge transfer due to impact between a single particle and a metal plate. The device consists of an impact test system and two sets of Faraday cage and preamplifier for charge measurement. With current amplifiers, high-resolution measurements of particle charges of approximately 1 and 10 fC have been achieved before and after the impact, respectively. The device allows charge measurements of single particles with a size as small as {approx}100 {mu}m impacting on the target at different incident angles with a velocity up to about 80 m/s. Further analyses of the charge transfer as a function of particle initial charge define an equilibrium charge, i.e., an initial charge level prior to impact for which no net charge transfer would occur as a result of impact.

  19. Design of a surface deformation measuring instrument for the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    1993-01-01

    This final technical report covers the work accomplished (under NAG3-1300) from 1 October 1991 to 1 October 1993. The grant is a direct result of Dr. H. Philip Stahl's (of Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology) participation in the NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program at NASA Lewis Research Center sponsored by Case Western Reserve University and the Ohio Aerospace Institute. The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) is a fundamental fluid physics experiment designed to provide quantitative data on the thermocapillary flow of fluid under the influence of an increased localized surface temperature. STDCE flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia in the First United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) in June 1992. The second flight of this experiment (STDCE-2) is scheduled for 1995. The specific science objectives of STDCE-2 are to determine the extent and nature of thermocapillary flows, the effect of heating mode and level, the effect of the liquid free-surface shape, and the onset conditions for and nature of oscillatory flows. In order to satisfy one of these objectives, an instrument for measuring the shape of an air/oil free surface must be developed.

  20. Design of a surface deformation measuring instrument for the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE-2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    1993-12-01

    This final technical report covers the work accomplished (under NAG3-1300) from 1 October 1991 to 1 October 1993. The grant is a direct result of Dr. H. Philip Stahl's (of Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology) participation in the NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program at NASA Lewis Research Center sponsored by Case Western Reserve University and the Ohio Aerospace Institute. The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) is a fundamental fluid physics experiment designed to provide quantitative data on the thermocapillary flow of fluid under the influence of an increased localized surface temperature. STDCE flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia in the First United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) in June 1992. The second flight of this experiment (STDCE-2) is scheduled for 1995. The specific science objectives of STDCE-2 are to determine the extent and nature of thermocapillary flows, the effect of heating mode and level, the effect of the liquid free-surface shape, and the onset conditions for and nature of oscillatory flows. In order to satisfy one of these objectives, an instrument for measuring the shape of an air/oil free surface must be developed.

  1. Ruggedized Instrumentation Package for Marine Mammal Evoked Potential Hearing Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    equipment taken to Portugal and tested on the Pilot whale . Combined equipment tested on the beach for the Pygmy killer whale and on the striped...Ruggedized package assemblage continues. Audiograms of the long finned pilot whale , the pygmy killer whale and the striped dolphin were measured...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 2 IMPACT/APPLICATIONS Of the 85 species of whales and

  2. Thermodynamic properties and static structure factor for a Yukawa fluid in the mean spherical approximation.

    PubMed

    Montes-Perez, J; Cruz-Vera, A; Herrera, J N

    2011-12-01

    This work presents the full analytic expressions for the thermodynamic properties and the static structure factor for a hard sphere plus 1-Yukawa fluid within the mean spherical approximation. To obtain these properties of the fluid type Yukawa analytically it was necessary to solve an equation of fourth order for the scaling parameter on a large scale. The physical root of this equation was determined by imposing physical conditions. The results of this work are obtained from seminal papers of Blum and Høye. We show that is not necessary the use the series expansion to solve the equation for the scaling parameter. We applied our theoretical result to find the thermodynamic and the static structure factor for krypton. Our results are in good agreement with those obtained in an experimental form or by simulation using the Monte Carlo method.

  3. Gene Expression Measurement Module (GEMM) - A Fully Automated, Miniaturized Instrument for Measuring Gene Expression in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Peyvan, Kia; Karouia, Fathi; Ricco, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The capability to measure gene expression on board spacecraft opens the door to a large number of high-value experiments on the influence of the space environment on biological systems. For example, measurements of gene expression will help us to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment on a wide range of organisms from microbes to humans, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, and determine the metabolic bases of microbial pathogenicity and drug resistance. These and other applications hold significant potential for discoveries in space biology, biotechnology, and medicine. Supported by funding from the NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development Program, we are developing a fully automated, miniaturized, integrated fluidic system for small spacecraft capable of in-situ measurement of expression of several hundreds of microbial genes from multiple samples. The instrument will be capable of (1) lysing cell walls of bacteria sampled from cultures grown in space, (2) extracting and purifying RNA released from cells, (3) hybridizing the RNA on a microarray and (4) providing readout of the microarray signal, all in a single microfluidics cartridge. The device is suitable for deployment on nanosatellite platforms developed by NASA Ames' Small Spacecraft Division. To meet space and other technical constraints imposed by these platforms, a number of technical innovations are being implemented. The integration and end-to-end technological and biological validation of the instrument are carried out using as a model the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus, known for its remarkable metabolic diversity and resilience to adverse conditions. Each step in the measurement process-lysis, nucleic acid extraction, purification, and hybridization to an array-is assessed through comparison of the results obtained using the instrument with

  4. Impact of measurable physical phenomena on contact thermal comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fojtlín, Miloš; Pokorný, Jan; Fišer, Jan; Toma, Róbert; Tuhovčák, Ján

    Cabin HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air-conditioning) systems have become an essential part of personal vehicles as demands for comfortable transport are still rising. In fact, 85 % of the car trips in Europe are shorter than 18 km and last only up to 30 minutes. Under such conditions, the HVAC unit cannot often ensure desired cabin environment and passengers are prone to experience thermal stress. For this reason, additional comfort systems, such as heated or ventilated seats, are available on the market. However, there is no straightforward method to evaluate thermal comfort at the contact surfaces nowadays. The aim of this work is to summarise information about heated and ventilated seats. These technologies use electrical heating and fan driven air to contact area in order to achieve enhanced comfort. It is also expected, that such measures may contribute to lower energy consumption. Yet, in real conditions it is almost impossible to measure the airflow through the ventilated seat directly. Therefore, there is a need for an approach that would correlate measurable physical phenomena with thermal comfort. For this reason, a method that exploits a measurement of temperatures and humidity at the contact area is proposed. Preliminary results that correlate comfort with measurable physical phenomena are demonstrated.

  5. Instruments and Methods for Measuring the Flow of Water Around Ships and Ship Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1948-03-01

    Showing Arrangement of Orifices Figure 2 - Cylindrical Pitot Tube tubes convenient for observation, or, in the mercury manometer , to bring the water...investigate the wake of models at high* er speeds, it became necessary to have an instrument with a greater range of measurement. A 13-tube mercury ... manometer was designed for this purpose. This iU Figure 9 - Spherical Pltot Tube and Manometer Mounted on Model Th« position of the sphere relative

  6. Consistent properties reconstruction on adaptive Cartesian meshes for complex fluids computations

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Guoping . E-mail: xiag@purdue.edu; Li, Ding; Merkle, Charles L.

    2007-07-01

    An efficient reconstruction procedure for evaluating the constitutive properties of a complex fluid from general or specialized thermodynamic databases is presented. Properties and their pertinent derivatives are evaluated by means of an adaptive Cartesian mesh in the thermodynamic plane that provides user-specified accuracy over any selected domain. The Cartesian grid produces a binary tree data structure whose search efficiency is competitive with that for an equally spaced table or with simple equations of state such as a perfect gas. Reconstruction is accomplished on a triangular subdivision of the 2D Cartesian mesh that ensures function continuity across cell boundaries in equally and unequally spaced portions of the table to C {sup 0}, C {sup 1} or C {sup 2} levels. The C {sup 0} and C {sup 1} reconstructions fit the equation of state and enthalpy relations separately, while the C {sup 2} reconstruction fits the Helmholtz or Gibbs function enabling EOS/enthalpy consistency also. All three reconstruction levels appear effective for CFD solutions obtained to date. The efficiency of the method