Science.gov

Sample records for instruments for measuring fluid properties or phenomena

  1. Method for measuring settling phenomena by means of frequency domain instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Apuzzo, M.; D'Arco, M.; Liccardo, A.; Vadursi, M.

    2016-05-01

    The paper deals with the analysis of settling phenomena that characterize the step response of digital to analog converters, amplifiers, and several other devices. Settling is described by means of a minimal second order model that is suitable to account for the distortion terms recognized in the signal spectrum. An alternative method for dynamic performance assessment of systems characterized by poor settling performance is then proposed. Thanks to the use of high bandwidth spectrum analyzers, the proposed method overtakes the limits characterizing the measurement approaches based on the use of time-domain instruments in the presence of modern ultra-wideband systems.

  2. Method for measuring settling phenomena by means of frequency domain instrumentation.

    PubMed

    D'Apuzzo, M; D'Arco, M; Liccardo, A; Vadursi, M

    2016-05-01

    The paper deals with the analysis of settling phenomena that characterize the step response of digital to analog converters, amplifiers, and several other devices. Settling is described by means of a minimal second order model that is suitable to account for the distortion terms recognized in the signal spectrum. An alternative method for dynamic performance assessment of systems characterized by poor settling performance is then proposed. Thanks to the use of high bandwidth spectrum analyzers, the proposed method overtakes the limits characterizing the measurement approaches based on the use of time-domain instruments in the presence of modern ultra-wideband systems. PMID:27250466

  3. Instrument continuously measures density of flowing fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, R. B.; Macinko, J.; Miller, C. E.

    1967-01-01

    Electromechanical densitometer continuously measures the densities of either single-phase or two-phase flowing cryogenic fluids. Measurement is made on actual flow. The instrument operates on the principle that the mass of any vibrating system is a primary factor in determining the dynamic characteristics of the system.

  4. Fluid property measurements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devaney, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Fluid properties of refrigerant-21 were investigated at temperatures from the freezing point to 423 Kelvin and at pressures to 1.38 x 10 to the 8th power N/sq m (20,000 psia). The fluid properties included were: density, vapor pressure, viscosity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, freezing point and bulk modulus. Tables of smooth values are reported.

  5. A Robust Magnetic Resonance Imager For Ground and Flight Based Measurements of Fluid Physics Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a powerful and versatile, noninvasive method for studying fluid transport problems, However, its applications to these types of investigations have been limited. A primary factor that limits the application of NMR has been the lack of a user-friendly, versatile, and inexpensive NMR imaging apparatus that can be used by scientists who are not familiar with sophisticated NMR. To rectify this situation, we developed a user-friendly, NMR imager for projects of relevance to the MRD science community. To that end, we performed preliminary collaborative experiments between NASA, NCMR, and New Mexico Resonance in the high field NMR set up at New Mexico Resonance to track wetting front dynamics in foams under gravity. The experiments were done in a 30 cm, 1.9T Oxford magnet with a TECMAG Libra spectrometer (Tecmag, Inc., Houston, TX). We used two different imaging strategies depending on whether the water in the foam sample was static or moving. Stationary water distributions were imaged with the standard Fourier imaging method, as used in medical MRI, in which data are acquired from all parts of the region of interest at all times and Fourier transformed into a static spatial image.

  6. Ebulliometers for measuring the thermodynamic properties of fluids and fluid mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, L.A.; Silva, A.M.

    1994-09-01

    The design and operation of two ebulliometers is described. One is constructed of glass and is used for measuring vapor pressures of fluids at low reduced temperatures and pressures. The other is constructed of metal. It can be used for vapor pressure measurements, and also for the study of fluid mixture thermodynamics through the determination of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution. The advantages and potential problems associated with ebulliometers are described, and typical results are given for the properties of alternative refrigerants.

  7. An integrative review of literature examining psychometric properties of instruments measuring anxiety or fear in hospitalized children.

    PubMed

    Foster, Roxie L; Park, Jeong-hwan

    2012-06-01

    Anxiety and fear are among the most frequently reported emotional responses to hospitalization and are known to be contributing factors to pain and other negative patient outcomes. The first step in confronting unnecessary anxiety and fear is to identify valid and clinically feasible assessment instruments. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate instruments that measure children's fear or anxiety associated with hospitalization or painful procedures. A search was conducted of published English-language literature from 1980 through 2010 with the use of Ovid Health and Psychosocial Instruments, Medline, Nursing/Academic Edition, Cinahl, and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria specified that the self-report instrument: 1) was developed in English; 2) was developed for and/or widely used with hospitalized children or children undergoing medical procedures or treatment; and 3) had research evidence of psychometric properties from at least five different studies. A comprehensive review of the literature revealed only five fear or anxiety instruments with adequate testing for evaluation of reliability and validity. Although all instruments have beginning psychometric adequacy, no one tool stands out as superior to the others. Therefore, we recommend that researchers and clinicians exercise caution in choosing assessment instruments, balancing potential strengths with reported limitations. Using more than one tool (triangulating) may be one way to achieve more credible results. Knowledge of credible existing instruments alerts us to what is possible today and to the imperative for research that will improve communication with children tomorrow. PMID:22652282

  8. Concepts and methods for describing critical phenomena in fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengers, J. V.; Sengers, J. M. H. L.

    1977-01-01

    The predictions of theoretical models for a critical-point phase transistion in fluids, namely the classical equation with third-degree critical isotherm, that with fifth-degree critical isotherm, and the lattice gas, are reviewed. The renormalization group theory of critical phenomena and the hypothesis of universality of critical behavior supported by this theory are discussed as well as the nature of gravity effects and how they affect cricital-region experimentation in fluids. The behavior of the thermodynamic properties and the correlation function is formulated in terms of scaling laws. The predictions of these scaling laws and of the hypothesis of universality of critical behavior are compared with experimental data for one-component fluids and it is indicated how the methods can be extended to describe critical phenomena in fluid mixtures.

  9. Advanced optical measuring systems for measuring the properties of fluids and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Four advanced optical models are reviewed for the measurement of visualization of flow and structural properties. Double-exposure, diffuse-illumination, holographic interferometry can be used for three-dimensional flow visualization. When this method is combined with optical heterodyning, precise measurements of structural displacements or fluid density are possible. Time-average holography is well known as a method for displaying vibrational mode shapes, but it also can be used for flow visualization and flow measurements. Deflectometry is used to measure or visualize the deflection of light rays from collimation. Said deflection occurs because of refraction in a fluid or because of reflection from a tilted surface. The moire technique for deflectometry, when combined with optical heterodyning, permits very precise measurements of these quantities. The rainbow schlieren method of deflectometry allows varying deflection angles to be encoded with colors for visualization.

  10. Reduced Order Models for Fluid-Structure Interaction Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, Daniele

    With the advent of active flow control devices for regulating the structural responses of systems involving fluid-structure interaction phenomena, there is a growing need of efficient models that can be used to control the system. The first step is then to be able to model the system in an efficient way based on reduced-order models. This is needed so that accurate predictions of the system evolution could be performed in a fast manner, ideally in real time. However, existing reduced-order models of fluid-structure interaction phenomena that provide closed-form solutions are applicable to only a limited set of scenarios while for real applications high-fidelity experiments or numerical simulations are required, which are unsuitable as efficient or reduced-order models. This thesis proposes a novel reduced-order and efficient model for fluid-structure interaction phenomena. The model structure employed is such that it is generic for different fluid-structure interaction problems. Based on this structure, the model is first built for a given fluid-structure interaction problem based on a database generated through high-fidelity numerical simulations while it can subsequently be used to predict the structural response over a wide set of flow conditions for the fluid-structure interaction problem at hand. The model is tested on two cases: a cylinder suspended in a low Reynolds number flow that includes the lock-in region and an airfoil subjected to plunge oscillations in a high Reynolds number regime. For each case, in addition to training profile we also present validation profiles that are used to determine the performance of the reduced-order model. The reduced-order model devised in this study proved to be an effective and efficient modeling method for fluid-structure interaction phenomena and it shown its applicability in very different kind of scenarios.

  11. Quantum Simulator for Transport Phenomena in Fluid Flows.

    PubMed

    Mezzacapo, A; Sanz, M; Lamata, L; Egusquiza, I L; Succi, S; Solano, E

    2015-01-01

    Transport phenomena still stand as one of the most challenging problems in computational physics. By exploiting the analogies between Dirac and lattice Boltzmann equations, we develop a quantum simulator based on pseudospin-boson quantum systems, which is suitable for encoding fluid dynamics transport phenomena within a lattice kinetic formalism. It is shown that both the streaming and collision processes of lattice Boltzmann dynamics can be implemented with controlled quantum operations, using a heralded quantum protocol to encode non-unitary scattering processes. The proposed simulator is amenable to realization in controlled quantum platforms, such as ion-trap quantum computers or circuit quantum electrodynamics processors. PMID:26278968

  12. Quantum Simulator for Transport Phenomena in Fluid Flows.

    PubMed

    Mezzacapo, A; Sanz, M; Lamata, L; Egusquiza, I L; Succi, S; Solano, E

    2015-08-17

    Transport phenomena still stand as one of the most challenging problems in computational physics. By exploiting the analogies between Dirac and lattice Boltzmann equations, we develop a quantum simulator based on pseudospin-boson quantum systems, which is suitable for encoding fluid dynamics transport phenomena within a lattice kinetic formalism. It is shown that both the streaming and collision processes of lattice Boltzmann dynamics can be implemented with controlled quantum operations, using a heralded quantum protocol to encode non-unitary scattering processes. The proposed simulator is amenable to realization in controlled quantum platforms, such as ion-trap quantum computers or circuit quantum electrodynamics processors.

  13. Apparatus for in-situ calibration of instruments that measure fluid depth

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, M.D.

    1994-01-11

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for in-situ calibration of distance measuring equipment. The method comprises obtaining a first distance measurement in a first location, then obtaining at least one other distance measurement in at least one other location of a precisely known distance from the first location, and calculating a calibration constant. The method is applied specifically to calculating a calibration constant for obtaining fluid level and embodied in an apparatus using a pressure transducer and a spacer of precisely known length. The calibration constant is used to calculate the depth of a fluid from subsequent single pressure measurements at any submerged position. 8 figures.

  14. Apparatus for in-situ calibration of instruments that measure fluid depth

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Melvin D.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for in-situ calibration of distance measuring equipment. The method comprises obtaining a first distance measurement in a first location, then obtaining at least one other distance measurement in at least one other location of a precisely known distance from the first location, and calculating a calibration constant. The method is applied specifically to calculating a calibration constant for obtaining fluid level and embodied in an apparatus using a pressure transducer and a spacer of precisely known length. The calibration constant is used to calculate the depth of a fluid from subsequent single pressure measurements at any submerged position.

  15. Laser Doppler instrument measures fluid velocity without reference beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourquin, K. R.; Shigemoto, F. H.

    1971-01-01

    Fluid velocity is measured by focusing laser beam on moving fluid and measuring Doppler shift in frequency which results when radiation is scattered by particles either originally present or deliberately injected into moving fluid.

  16. Means and Method for Measurement of Drilling Fluid Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysyannikov, A.; Kondrashov, P.; Pavlova, P.

    2016-06-01

    The paper addresses the problem on creation of a new design of the device for determining rheological parameters of drilling fluids and the basic requirements which it must meet. The key quantitative parameters that define the developed device are provided. The algorithm of determining the coefficient of the yield point from the rheological Shvedov- Bingam model at a relative speed of rotation of glasses from the investigated drilling fluid of 300 and 600 rpm is presented.

  17. Pupil Alignment Measuring Technique and Alignment Reference for Instruments or Optical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, John G.

    2010-01-01

    A technique was created to measure the pupil alignment of instruments in situ by measuring calibrated pupil alignment references (PARs) in instruments. The PAR can also be measured using an alignment telescope or an imaging system. PAR allows the verification of the science instrument (SI) pupil alignment at the integrated science instrument module (ISIM) level of assembly at ambient and cryogenic operating temperature. This will allow verification of the ISIM+SI alignment, and provide feedback to realign the SI if necessary.

  18. Instrumented sphere method for measuring thermal pressure in fluids and isotropic stresses and reaction kinetics in thermosetting resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merzlyakov, Mikhail; Meng, Yan; Simon, Sindee L.; McKenna, Gregory B.

    2004-10-01

    A novel technique is described for measuring thermal pressure in fluids and for measuring isotropic stress development and reaction kinetics in thermosetting resins during cure and thermal cycling. The method uses a 12.7-mm-diam sealed stainless steel spherical pressure vessel to impose three-dimensional isotropic constraints. The vessel is instrumented with strain gauges and thermocouples. Both isotropic stresses and reaction kinetics during cure at cure temperatures as high as 300 °C can be measured. In addition, measurement of the isotropic stress as a function of temperature yields the thermal pressure coefficient in both the glassy and rubbery (or liquid) states. Experimental results are presented for sucrose benzoate, a pressure-transmitting oil di-2-ethylhexylsebacate and an epoxy resin. The method provides reproducible estimates for the thermal pressure coefficient and the stresses are highly isotropic. A suggestion for improved versions of the device is: thicker walled vessels can be used to increase the upper stress limit (currently at 30 MPa). Also if a lower temperature range is to be studied, then aluminum can be used as a vessel material. Since epoxy resins have better adhesion to aluminum than to stainless steel, there may be an advantage to this.

  19. ASRDI oxygen technology survey. Volume 5: Density and liquid level measurement instrumentation for the cryogenic fluids oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roder, H. M.

    1974-01-01

    Information is presented on instrumentation for density measurement, liquid level measurement, quantity gauging, and phase measurement. Coverage of existing information directly concerned with oxygen was given primary emphasis. A description of the physical principle of measurement for each instrumentation type is included. The basic materials of construction are listed if available from the source document for each instrument discussed. Cleaning requirements, procedures, and verification techniques are included.

  20. Space Commercial Opportunities for Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavert, R.

    2000-01-01

    Microgravity research at NASA has been an undertaking that has included both science and commercial approaches since the late 80s and early 90s. The Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena community has been developed, through NASA's science grants, into a valuable base of expertise in microgravity science. This was achieved through both ground and flight scientific research. Commercial microgravity research has been primarily promoted thorough NASA sponsored Centers for Space Commercialization which develop cost sharing partnerships with industry. As an example, the Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP)at Northeastern University has been working with cost sharing industry partners in developing Zeolites and zeo-type materials as an efficient storage medium for hydrogen fuel. Greater commercial interest is emerging. The U.S. Congress has passed the Commercial Space Act of 1998 to encourage the development of a commercial space industry in the United States. The Act has provisions for the commercialization of the International Space Station (ISS). Increased efforts have been made by NASA to enable industrial ventures on-board the ISS. A Web site has been established at http://commercial/nasa/gov which includes two important special announcements. One is an open request for entrepreneurial offers related to the commercial development and use of the ISS. The second is a price structure and schedule for U.S. resources and accommodations. The purpose of the presentation is to make the Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena community, which understands the importance of microgravity experimentation, aware of important aspects of ISS commercial development. It is a desire that this awareness will be translated into a recognition of Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena application opportunities coordinated through the broad contacts of this community with industry.

  1. Seismoelectric Phenomena in Fluid-Saturated Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Block, G I; Harris, J G

    2005-04-22

    Seismoelectric phenomena in sediments arise from acoustic wave-induced fluid motion in the pore space, which perturbs the electrostatic equilibrium of the electric double layer on the grain surfaces. Experimental techniques and the apparatus built to study this electrokinetic (EK) effect are described and outcomes for studies of seismoelectric phenomena in loose glass microspheres and medium-grain sand are presented. By varying the NaCl concentration in the pore fluid, we measured the conductivity dependence of two kinds of EK behavior: (1) the electric fields generated within the samples by the passage of transmitted acoustic waves, and (2) the electromagnetic wave produced at the fluid-sediment interface by the incident acoustic wave. Both phenomena are caused by relative fluid motion in the sediment pores--this feature is characteristic of poroelastic (Biot) media, but not predicted by either viscoelastic fluid or solid models. A model of plane-wave reflection from a fluid-sediment interface using EK-Biot theory leads to theoretical predictions that compare well to the experimental data for both sand and glass microspheres.

  2. New instrumentation for optical measuring of oxygen in gas or dissolved in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trettnak, W.; Gruber, W.; Reininger, F.; O'Leary, P.; Klimant, I.

    The optical oxygen sensor is a novel device for the determination of oxygen in gases or dissolved in liquids. It is based on the measurement principle of fluorescence quenching, which is completely different from that of polarographic oxygen sensors (today the most widespread devices for oxygen detection). The new instrument offers features and advantages, which render it not only a realistic alternative, but, for specific applications, make it superior to existing electrochemical methods. The system is based on low-cost semiconductor devices (light-emitting diodes, photodiodes, low-cost analogue and digital components) and new LED-compatible oxygen-sensitive membranes. The flow cell of the instrument may be thermostatted and the sensor can be calibrated by a simple two-point calibration procedure. The optical oxygen sensor is particularly suitable for measuring dissolved oxygen in respirometry, since no oxygen is consumed by the device and the signal is independent of sample flowrate or stirring speed. Typical fields of application are monitoring of oxygen in ground and drinking water, in process controll in bioreactors and in breath gas and blood gas analysis.

  3. Instrumented thick-walled tube method for measuring thermal pressure in fluids and isotropic stresses in thermosetting resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merzlyakov, Mikhail; Simon, Sindee L.; McKenna, Gregory B.

    2005-06-01

    We have developed a method for measuring the thermal pressure coefficient and cure-induced and thermally induced stresses based on an instrumented thick-walled tube vessel. The device has been demonstrated at pressures up to 330 MPa and temperatures to 300 °C. The method uses a sealed stainless steel thick-walled tube to impose three-dimensional isotropic constraints. The tube is instrumented with strain gauges in hoop and in axial directions and can be used in open or closed configurations. By making measurements of the isotropic stresses as a function of temperature, the method allows determination of the thermal pressure coefficient in both the glassy and rubbery (or liquid) states. The method also can be used to measure isotropic stress development in thermosetting resins during cure and subsequent thermal cycling. Experimental results are presented for sucrose benzoate, di-2-ethylhexylsebacate, and an epoxy resin. The current report shows that the method provides reliable estimates for the thermal pressure coefficient. The thermal pressure coefficient is determined with resolution on the order of 10kPa/K. Among advantages of the method is that the tubes are reusable, even when measurements are made for cure response of thermosetting resins.

  4. Acoustic properties of a crack containing magmatic or hydrothermal fluids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kumagai, H.; Chouet, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    We estimate the acoustic properties of a crack containing maginatic or hydrothermal fluids to quantify the source properties of long-period (LP) events observed in volcanic areas assuming that a crack-like structure is the source of LP events. The tails of synthetic waveforms obtained from a model of a fluid-driven crack are analyzed by the Sompi method to determine the complex frequencies of one of the modes of crack resonance over a wide range of the model parameters ??/a and ??f/??s, where ?? is the P wave velocity of the rock matrix, a is the sound speed of the fluid, and ??f and ??s are the densities of the fluid and rock matrix, respectively. The quality factor due to radiation loss (Qr) for the selected mode almost monotonically increases with increasing ??/a, while the dimensionless frequency (??) of the mode decreases with increasing ??/a and ??f/??s. These results are used to estimate Q and ?? for a crack containing various types of fluids (gas-gas mixtures, liquid-gas mixtures, and dusty and misty gases) for values of a, ??f, and quality factor due to intrinsic losses (Qi) appropriate for these types of fluids, in which Q is given by Q-1 = Qr-1 + Qi-1. For a crack containing such fluids, we obtain Q ranging from almost unity to several hundred, which consistently explains the wide variety of quality factors measured in LP events observed at various volcanoes. We underscore the importance of dusty and misty gases containing small-size particles with radii around 1 ??m to explain long-lasting oscillations with Q significantly larger than 100. Our results may provide a basis for the interpretation of spatial and temporal variations in the observed complex frequencies of LP events in terms of fluid compositions beneath volcanoes. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Ultrasonic techniques for measuring physical properties of fluids in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantea, Cristian

    Ultrasonic-based measurement techniques, either in the time domain or in the frequency domain, include a wide range of experimental methods for investigating physical properties of materials. This discussion is specifically focused on ultrasonic methods and instrumentation development for the determination of liquid properties at conditions typically found in subsurface environments (in the U.S., more than 80% of total energy needs are provided by subsurface energy sources). Such sensors require materials that can withstand harsh conditions of high pressure, high temperature and corrosiveness. These include the piezoelectric material, electrically conductive adhesives, sensor housings/enclosures, and the signal carrying cables, to name a few. A complete sensor package was developed for operation at high temperatures and pressures characteristic to geothermal/oil-industry reservoirs. This package is designed to provide real-time, simultaneous measurements of multiple physical parameters, such as temperature, pressure, salinity and sound speed. The basic principle for this sensor's operation is an ultrasonic frequency domain technique, combined with transducer resonance tracking. This multipurpose acoustic sensor can be used at depths of several thousand meters, temperatures up to 250 °C, and in a very corrosive environment. In the context of high precision measurement of sound speed, the determination of acoustic nonlinearity of liquids will also be discussed, using two different approaches: (i) the thermodynamic method, in which precise and accurate frequency domain sound speed measurements are performed at high pressure and high temperature, and (ii) a modified finite amplitude method, requiring time domain measurements of the second harmonic at room temperature. Efforts toward the development of an acoustic source of collimated low-frequency (10-150 kHz) beam, with applications in imaging, will also be presented.

  6. The Game Transfer Phenomena Scale: An Instrument for Investigating the Nonvolitional Effects of Video Game Playing.

    PubMed

    Ortiz de Gortari, Angelica B; Pontes, Halley M; Griffiths, Mark D

    2015-10-01

    A variety of instruments have been developed to assess different dimensions of playing video games and its effects on cognitions, affect, and behaviors. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Game Transfer Phenomena Scale (GTPS) that assesses nonvolitional phenomena experienced after playing video games (i.e., altered perceptions, automatic mental processes, and involuntary behaviors). A total of 1,736 gamers participated in an online survey used as the basis for the analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to confirm the factorial structure of the GTPS. The five-factor structure using the 20 indicators based on the analysis of gamers' self-reports fitted the data well. Population cross-validity was also achieved, and the positive associations between the session length and overall scores indicate the GTPS warranted criterion-related validity. Although the understanding of Game Transfer Phenomena is still in its infancy, the GTPS appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing nonvolitional gaming-related phenomena. The GTPS can be used for understanding the phenomenology of post-effects of playing video games.

  7. Mobile CARS - IRS Instrument for Simultaneous Spectroscopic Measurement of Multiple Properties in Gaseous Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bivolaru, Daniel; Lee, Joseph W.; Jones, Stephen B.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Weikl, M. C.; Magnotti, G.; Cutler, Andrew D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a measurement system based on the dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and interferometric Rayleigh scattering (IRS) methods. The IRS measurement is performed simultaneously with the CARS measurement using a common green laser beam as a narrow-band light source. The mobile CARS-IRS instrument is designed for the use both in laboratories as well as in ground-based combustion test facilities. Furthermore, it is designed to be easily transported between laboratory and test facility. It performs single-point spatially and temporally resolved simultaneous measurements of temperature, species mole fraction of N2, O2, and H2, and two-components of velocity. A mobile laser system can be placed inside or outside the test facility, while a beam receiving and monitoring system is placed near the measurement location. Measurements in a laboratory small-scale Mach 1.6 H2-air combustion-heated supersonic jet were performed to test the capability of the system. Final setup and pretests of a larger scale reacting jet are ongoing at NASA Langley Research Center s Direct Connect Supersonic Combustor Test Facility (DCSCTF).

  8. [Adhesive properties and related phenomena for powdered pharmaceuticals].

    PubMed

    Otsuka, A

    1998-04-01

    This report deals with adhesive properties and related phenomena of powdered materials including pharmaceuticals. The adhesive force between a powder particle and substrate as well as the tensile strength of a powder bed and tablet was measured. Various factors were found to affect powder adhesion. Physical properties such as the size, shape and surface roughness were examined. The adhesive force between a particle and substrate decreased remarkably in the presence of ultrafine particles, which is of interest since the addition of adequate amount of "glidant" causes an increase in powder fluidity. From a pharmaceutical point of view, temperature and humidity were essential to particle adhesion. For several organic substances, the adhesive force increased significantly at homologous temperatures more than ca. 0.7, suggesting the sintering mechanism to be operative. The adhsive force between polymer films and glass beads varied according to polymer and relative humidity. A close correlation of water sorbed by the polymer film with adhesive force was noted. In connection with powder fluidity, compaction properties were studied by the centrifugal and tapping methods. Apparent adhesion defined as the ratio of the adhesive force between two contacting particles to the external force acting on a particle was noted to be the primary determinant of the void fraction or the porosity of the powder bed, indicating that the probability of particle displacement essentially depended on apparent adhesion.

  9. Instrumentation for analytical scale supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Berger, Terry A

    2015-11-20

    Analytical scale supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is largely a sub-discipline of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), in that most of the hardware and software can be used for either technique. The aspects that separate the 2 techniques stem from the use of carbon dioxide (CO2) as the main component of the mobile phase in SFC. The high compressibility and low viscosity of CO2 mean that pumps, and autosamplers designed for HPLC either need to be modified or an alternate means of dealing with compressibility needs to be found. The inclusion of a back pressure regulator and a high pressure flow cell for any UV-Vis detector are also necessary. Details of the various approaches, problems and solutions are described. Characteristics, such as adiabatic vs. isothermal compressibility, thermal gradients, and refractive index issues are dealt with in detail. PMID:26212805

  10. Instrumentation for analytical scale supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Berger, Terry A

    2015-11-20

    Analytical scale supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is largely a sub-discipline of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), in that most of the hardware and software can be used for either technique. The aspects that separate the 2 techniques stem from the use of carbon dioxide (CO2) as the main component of the mobile phase in SFC. The high compressibility and low viscosity of CO2 mean that pumps, and autosamplers designed for HPLC either need to be modified or an alternate means of dealing with compressibility needs to be found. The inclusion of a back pressure regulator and a high pressure flow cell for any UV-Vis detector are also necessary. Details of the various approaches, problems and solutions are described. Characteristics, such as adiabatic vs. isothermal compressibility, thermal gradients, and refractive index issues are dealt with in detail.

  11. Fluid Flow Phenomena during Welding

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    MOLTEN WELD POOLS are dynamic. Liquid in the weld pool in acted on by several strong forces, which can result in high-velocity fluid motion. Fluid flow velocities exceeding 1 m/s (3.3 ft/s) have been observed in gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds under ordinary welding conditions, and higher velocities have been measured in submerged arc welds. Fluid flow is important because it affects weld shape and is related to the formation of a variety of weld defects. Moving liquid transports heat and often dominates heat transport in the weld pool. Because heat transport by mass flow depends on the direction and speed of fluid motion, weld pool shape can differ dramatically from that predicted by conductive heat flow. Temperature gradients are also altered by fluid flow, which can affect weld microstructure. A number of defects in GTA welds have been attributed to fluid flow or changes in fluid flow, including lack of penetration, top bead roughness, humped beads, finger penetration, and undercutting. Instabilities in the liquid film around the keyhole in electron beam and laser welds are responsible for the uneven penetration (spiking) characteristic of these types of welds.

  12. Method and apparatus for continuous fluid leak monitoring and detection in analytical instruments and instrument systems

    DOEpatents

    Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Ronald J.

    2010-07-13

    A method and device are disclosed that provide for detection of fluid leaks in analytical instruments and instrument systems. The leak detection device includes a collection tube, a fluid absorbing material, and a circuit that electrically couples to an indicator device. When assembled, the leak detection device detects and monitors for fluid leaks, providing a preselected response in conjunction with the indicator device when contacted by a fluid.

  13. A Differential Pressure Instrument with Wireless Telemetry for In-Situ Measurement of Fluid Flow across Sediment-Water Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Alan T.; Karam, Hanan N.; Mulligan, Ann E.; Harvey, Charles F.; Hammar, Terence R.; Hemond, Harold F.

    2009-01-01

    An instrument has been built to carry out continuous in-situ measurement of small differences in water pressure, conductivity and temperature, in natural surface water and groundwater systems. A low-cost data telemetry system provides data on shore in real time if desired. The immediate purpose of measurements by this device is to continuously infer fluxes of water across the sediment-water interface in a complex estuarine system; however, direct application to assessment of sediment-water fluxes in rivers, lakes, and other systems is also possible. Key objectives of the design include both low cost, and accuracy of the order of ±0.5 mm H2O in measured head difference between the instrument's two pressure ports. These objectives have been met, although a revision to the design of one component was found to be necessary. Deployments of up to nine months, and wireless range in excess of 300 m have been demonstrated. PMID:22389608

  14. Flame Arrival Measurement By Instrumented Spark Plug or Head Gasket

    1995-04-10

    PLUGBIN was developed to support Sandia technologies involving instrumented head gaskets and spark plugs for engine research and development. It acquires and processes measurements of flame arrival and pressure from a spark ignition. Flame arrival is determined from analog ionization-probe or visible-emission signals, and/or digitial signals from a dedicated flame arrival measurement processor. The pressure measurements are analyzed to determine the time of peak pressure and the time to burn 10 and 90 percent ofmore » the charge. Histograms are then calculated and displayed for each measurement.« less

  15. On the modeling of a piezoellectrically actuated micro-sensor for measurement of microscale fluid physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, Mina; Hossainpour, Siamak; Rezazadeh, Ghader

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of a novel micro-electromechanical sensor for measurement of microscale fluid physical properties. The proposed sensor is made up of a micro-beam with one end fixed and a micro-plate as a sensing element at its free end, which is immersed in a microscale fluid media. As fluids show different behavior in microscale than in macroscale, the microscale fluid media have been modeled based on micro-polar theory. So non-classical properties of fluid that are absent in macroscale flows need to be measured. In order to actuate the sensor longitudinally, an AC voltage is applied to the piezoelectric layers on the upper and lower surfaces of the micro-beam. Coupled governing partial differential equations of motion of the fluid field and longitudinal vibration of the micro-beam have been derived based on micro-polar theory. The obtained governing differential equations with time-varying boundary conditions have been simplified and transformed to an enhanced form with homogenous boundary conditions. Then, they have been discretized over the beam and fluid domain using Galerkin-based reduced-order model. The dynamic response of the sensing element for different piezoelectric actuation voltages and different exciting frequencies has been studied. It has been shown that by investigating damping and inertial effect fluid loading on response of the micro-beam, properties of a microscale fluid can be measured. At the end, effects of geometrical parameters of the sensor on the response of sensing element have been studied.

  16. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Fluid Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Nguyen, Thanh X. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Method and apparatus for making measurements on fluids related to their complex permeability are disclosed. A microwave probe is provided for exposure to the fluids. The probe can be non-intrusive or can also be positioned at the location where measurements are to be made. The impedance of the probe is determined. in part. by the complex dielectric constant of the fluids at the probe. A radio frequency signal is transmitted to the probe and the reflected signal is phase and amplitude detected at a rapid rate for the purpose of identifying the fluids. Multiple probes may be selectively positioned to monitor the behavior of the fluids including their flow rate. Fluids may be identified as between two or more different fluids as well as multiple phases of the same fluid based on differences between their complex permittivities.

  17. Instrumentation for the determination of material properties from spectroscopic measurements of total integrated scatter

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, G.L.; Barber, T.E.; Neu, J.T.

    1995-06-19

    A variety of important optical properties can be determined from spectroscopic analysis of diffuse reflectance of surfaces. The design of a small user friendly, light-weight, field hardened, computer controlled device for performing infrared spectroscopic analysis of trace contaminants on surfaces is described. The device employs a miniature Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer with very efficient diffuse reflectance optics and a portable computer to provide reflectance spectra of surfaces measured relative to some idealized surface. These spectra yield qualitative and quantitative chemical information from a host of surfaces that has imminently practical applications in the determination of surface identification, contamination, and degradation.

  18. Apparatus for measurements of PVT properties and their derivatives for fluids and fluid mixtures with a metal bellows as a variable-volume vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, T.; Iso, A.; Higashi, Y.; Uematsu, M.; Watanabe, K.

    1989-09-01

    A new apparatus for measurements of PVT properties and their derivatives with a metal bellows was designed for fluids and fluid mixtures of a fixed composition for pressures up to 20 MPa in the range of temperatures from room-temperature condition to 473 K. The apparatus, procedures, and results of calibrations are described. The capabilities of the apparatus are illustrated by means of the vapor-pressure measurements for chlorodifluoromethane and the PVT measurements of sulfur hexafluoride. Temperatures were set and kept constant at the values desired within ±3 mK and pressures within ±2 kPa. It was shown that density derivatives with respect to pressure at constant temperature and those with respect to temperature at constant pressure may both obtain from the experimental results.

  19. Assessment of the measurement properties of the post stroke motor function instruments available in Brazil: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Elaine; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F.; Simões, Luan; Guerra, Ana C. C.; Lemos, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background While there are several instruments in Brazil that measure motor function in patients after stroke, it is unknown whether the measurement properties of these instruments are appropriate. Objective To identify the motor function instruments available in Brazil for patients after stroke. To assess the methodological quality of the studies and the results related to the measurement properties of these instruments. Method Two independent reviewers conducted searches on PubMed, LILACS, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Scopus. Studies that aimed to cross-culturally adapt an existing instrument or create a Brazilian instrument and test at least one measurement property related to motor function in patients after stroke were included. The methodological quality of these studies was checked by the COSMIN checklist with 4-point rating scale and the results of the measurement properties were analyzed by the criteria developed by Terwee et al. Results A total of 11 instruments were considered eligible, none of which were created in Brazil. The process of cross-cultural adaptation was inadequate in 10 out of 11 instruments due to the lack of back-translation or due to inappropriate target population. All of the instruments presented flaws in the measurement properties, especially reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity. Conclusion The flaws observed in both cross-cultural adaptation process and testing measurement properties make the results inconclusive on the validity of the available instruments. Adequate procedures of cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties of these instruments are strongly needed. PMID:26982452

  20. Instrumentation for detailed bridge-scour measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landers, Mark N.; Mueller, David S.; Trent, Roy E.

    1993-01-01

    A portable instrumentation system is being developed to obtain channel bathymetry during floods for detailed bridge-scour measurements. Portable scour measuring systems have four components: sounding instrument, horizontal positioning instrument, deployment mechanisms, and data storage device. The sounding instrument will be a digital fathometer. Horizontal position will be measured using a range-azimuth based hydrographic survey system. The deployment mechanism designed for this system is a remote-controlled boat using a small waterplane area, twin-hull design. An on-board computer and radio will monitor the vessel instrumentation, record measured data, and telemeter data to shore.

  1. An instrument to measure mechanical up-conversion phenomena in metals in the elastic regime.

    PubMed

    Vajente, G; Quintero, E A; Ni, X; Arai, K; Gustafson, E K; Robertson, N A; Sanchez, E J; Greer, J R; Adhikari, R X

    2016-06-01

    Crystalline materials, such as metals, are known to exhibit deviation from a simple linear relation between strain and stress when the latter exceeds the yield stress. In addition, it has been shown that metals respond to varying external stress in a discontinuous way in this regime, exhibiting discrete releases of energy. This crackling noise has been extensively studied both experimentally and theoretically when the metals are operating in the plastic regime. In our study, we focus on the behavior of metals in the elastic regime, where the stresses are well below the yield stress. We describe an instrument that aims to characterize non-linear mechanical noise in metals when stressed in the elastic regime. In macroscopic systems, this phenomenon is expected to manifest as a non-stationary noise modulated by external disturbances applied to the material, a form of mechanical up-conversion of noise. The main motivation for this work is for the case of maraging steel components (cantilevers and wires) in the suspension systems of terrestrial gravitational wave detectors. Such instruments are planned to reach very ambitious displacement sensitivities, and therefore mechanical noise in the cantilevers could prove to be a limiting factor for the detectors' final sensitivities, mainly due to non-linear up-conversion of low frequency residual seismic motion to the frequencies of interest for the gravitational wave observations. We describe here the experimental setup, with a target sensitivity of 10(-15) m/Hz in the frequency range of 10-1000 Hz, a simple phenomenological model of the non-linear mechanical noise, and the analysis method that is inspired by this model. PMID:27370497

  2. An instrument to measure mechanical up-conversion phenomena in metals in the elastic regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajente, G.; Quintero, E. A.; Ni, X.; Arai, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Robertson, N. A.; Sanchez, E. J.; Greer, J. R.; Adhikari, R. X.

    2016-06-01

    Crystalline materials, such as metals, are known to exhibit deviation from a simple linear relation between strain and stress when the latter exceeds the yield stress. In addition, it has been shown that metals respond to varying external stress in a discontinuous way in this regime, exhibiting discrete releases of energy. This crackling noise has been extensively studied both experimentally and theoretically when the metals are operating in the plastic regime. In our study, we focus on the behavior of metals in the elastic regime, where the stresses are well below the yield stress. We describe an instrument that aims to characterize non-linear mechanical noise in metals when stressed in the elastic regime. In macroscopic systems, this phenomenon is expected to manifest as a non-stationary noise modulated by external disturbances applied to the material, a form of mechanical up-conversion of noise. The main motivation for this work is for the case of maraging steel components (cantilevers and wires) in the suspension systems of terrestrial gravitational wave detectors. Such instruments are planned to reach very ambitious displacement sensitivities, and therefore mechanical noise in the cantilevers could prove to be a limiting factor for the detectors' final sensitivities, mainly due to non-linear up-conversion of low frequency residual seismic motion to the frequencies of interest for the gravitational wave observations. We describe here the experimental setup, with a target sensitivity of 10-15 m/ √{ Hz } in the frequency range of 10-1000 Hz, a simple phenomenological model of the non-linear mechanical noise, and the analysis method that is inspired by this model.

  3. An instrument to measure mechanical up-conversion phenomena in metals in the elastic regime.

    PubMed

    Vajente, G; Quintero, E A; Ni, X; Arai, K; Gustafson, E K; Robertson, N A; Sanchez, E J; Greer, J R; Adhikari, R X

    2016-06-01

    Crystalline materials, such as metals, are known to exhibit deviation from a simple linear relation between strain and stress when the latter exceeds the yield stress. In addition, it has been shown that metals respond to varying external stress in a discontinuous way in this regime, exhibiting discrete releases of energy. This crackling noise has been extensively studied both experimentally and theoretically when the metals are operating in the plastic regime. In our study, we focus on the behavior of metals in the elastic regime, where the stresses are well below the yield stress. We describe an instrument that aims to characterize non-linear mechanical noise in metals when stressed in the elastic regime. In macroscopic systems, this phenomenon is expected to manifest as a non-stationary noise modulated by external disturbances applied to the material, a form of mechanical up-conversion of noise. The main motivation for this work is for the case of maraging steel components (cantilevers and wires) in the suspension systems of terrestrial gravitational wave detectors. Such instruments are planned to reach very ambitious displacement sensitivities, and therefore mechanical noise in the cantilevers could prove to be a limiting factor for the detectors' final sensitivities, mainly due to non-linear up-conversion of low frequency residual seismic motion to the frequencies of interest for the gravitational wave observations. We describe here the experimental setup, with a target sensitivity of 10(-15) m/Hz in the frequency range of 10-1000 Hz, a simple phenomenological model of the non-linear mechanical noise, and the analysis method that is inspired by this model.

  4. An instrument for environmental control of vapor pressure and temperature for tensile creep and other mechanical property measurements.

    PubMed

    Majsztrik, P W; Bocarsly, A B; Benziger, J B

    2007-10-01

    An instrument for measuring the creep response of a material maintained under a controlled environment of temperature and vapor pressure is described. The temperature range of the instrument is 20-250 degrees C while the range of vapor pressure is 0-1 atm. Data are presented for tests conducted on this instrument with Nafion, a perfluorinated ionomer developed by DuPont and used as a membrane in polymer exchange membrane fuel cells, over a range of temperature and water vapor pressure. The data are useful for predicting long-term creep behavior of the material in the fuel cell environment as well as providing insight to molecular level interactions in the material as a function of temperature and hydration. Measurements including dynamic and equilibrium strain due to water uptake as well as elastic modulus are described. The main features of the instrument are presented along with experimental methodology and analysis of results. The adaptation of the instrument to other mechanical tests is briefly described.

  5. Development of measurement capabilities for the thermophysical properties of energy-related fluids. Annual report, December 1, 1993--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-17

    Objectives are to develop state-of-the-art experimental apparatus for measuring the thermophysical properties of a wide range of fluids and fluid mixtures important to the energy, chemical, and energy-related industries, and carry out benchmark measurements on key systems. Measurement capabilities to be developed cover transport properties, thermodynamic properties, phase equilibria properties, and dielectric properties. The new apparatus will make it possible to study a wide range of complex fluid systems under conditions that have been previously inaccessible. Specific measurement capabilities to be developed are: Thermal Conductivity Apparatus, Vibrating Wire Viscometer, Dual-Sinker Densimeter, High-Temperature Vibrating Tube Densimeter, Dynamic Phase Equilibria Apparatus, Apparatus for Dilute Solutions, Total-Enthalpy Flow Calorimeter, Dielectric Constant Apparatus. The research also includes benchmark experimental measurements on pure and mixed alternative refrigerants, aqueous solutions, and carefully selected systems consisting of species of diverse size (methane + neopentane) and polarity (methane + ammonia) important for development of predictive models for energy-related fluids.

  6. Method for simultaneous measurement of mass loading and fluid property changes using a quartz crystal microbalance

    DOEpatents

    Granstaff, V.E.; Martin, S.J.

    1993-04-13

    A method is described, using a quartz crystal microbalance, to obtain simultaneous measurement of solid mass accumulation and changes in liquid density-viscosity product. The simultaneous real-time measurements of electrical parameters yields that changes in surface mass can be differentiated from changes in solution properties. Two methods to obtain the admittance/frequency data are employed.

  7. Method for simultaneous measurement of mass loading and fluid property changes using a quartz crystal microbalance

    DOEpatents

    Granstaff, Victoria E.; Martin, Stephen J.

    1993-01-01

    A method, using a quartz crystal microbalance, to obtain simultaneous measurement of solid mass accumulation and changes in liquid density-viscosity product. The simultaneous real-time measurements of electrical parameters yields that changes in surface mass can be differentiated from changes in solution properties. Two methods to obtain the admittance/frequency data are employed.

  8. Method for simultaneous measurement of mass loading and fluid property changes using a quartz crystal microbalance

    SciTech Connect

    Granstaff, V.E.; Martin, S.J.

    1991-12-31

    A method, using a quartz crystal microbalance, to obtain simultaneous measurement of solid mass accumulation and changes in liquid density-viscosity product. The simultaneous real-time measurements of electrical parameters yields that changes in surface mass can be differentiated from changes in solution properties. Two methods to obtain the admittance/frequency data are employed.

  9. Vibrating Transducers for Fluid Measurement.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surtees, Anthony J.

    When a structure vibrates in a fluid, some of this is carried with it creating inertial loading whilst compression adds a stiffness effect. In addition there is energy dissipation arising from viscous losses and acoustic radiation. By design, any one of these properties can be arranged to predominate. A tuning fork transducer with flat rectangular tines, is discussed. In this, a narrow laminar of gas is pumped in and out as the tines vibrate. The increase in kinetic energy contributed by this high velocity gas, gives the device a large sensitivity as a density transducer. The resonator is incorporated as the frequency controlling element in a high stability oscillator. Small piezoelectric elements are used to excite and pick-up the vibrations. A typical stability equivalent to a pressure change of 0.05 mBar, is achieved. Temperature effects are given careful analysis. A circular tuning fork, where the tines produce a radial gas displacement, is also reviewed. Common to all, is the linearity of frequency ^2 with the inverse of density for pressures above 50 mBar; a departure from linearity below this pressure (acoustic in origin); and below 10 mBar, an overriding stiffness effect where the frequency paradoxically increases with pressure. A further design comprises a resonator in which the gas is confined to two cylindrical cavities above and below a thin circular diaphragm, clamped at the periphery. In the fundamental mode, the alternating change in cavity volume exerts a stiffness, while in the first overtone, the predominantly lateral motion of the gas across the cavity adds inertia. Frequency^2 is linear with pressure for the fundamental, while for the first overtone it is inversely linear with density. A theory which is sufficiently accurate for general design purposes is presented. A sensitive viscometer is also discussed where a long rod is excited into a torsional mode with two securing nodes a quarter wavelength from either end. Driving the rod with a burst

  10. Measuring Aerosol Optical Properties with the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veefkind, J. P.; Torres, O.; Syniuk, A.; Decae, R.; deLeeuw, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is the Dutch-Finnish contribution to the NASA EOS-Aura mission scheduled for launch in January 2004. OM1 is an imaging spectrometer that will measure the back-scattered Solar radiance between 270 an 500 nm. With its relatively high spatial resolution (13x24 sq km at nadir) and daily global coverage. OM1 will make a major contribution to our understanding of atmospheric chemistry and to climate research. OM1 will provide data continuity with the TOMS instruments. One of the pleasant surprises of the TOMS data record was its information on aerosol properties. First, only the absorbing aerosol index, which is sensitive to elevated lay- ers of aerosols such as desert dust and smoke aerosols, was derived. Recently these methods were further improved to yield aerosol optical thickness and single scattering albedo over land and ocean for 19 years of TOMS data (1979-1992,1997-2002), making it one of the longest and most valuable time series for aerosols presently available. Such long time series are essential to quantify the effect of aerosols on the Earth& climate. The OM1 instrument is better suited to measure aerosols than the TOMS instruments because of the smaller footprint, and better spectral coverage. The better capabilities of OMI will enable us to provide an improved aerosol product, but the knowledge will also be used for further analysis of the aerosol record from TOMS. The OM1 aerosol product that is currently being developed for OM1 combines the TOMS experience and the multi-spectral techniques that are used in the visible and near infrared. The challenge for this new product is to provide aerosol optical thickness and single scattering albedo from the near ultraviolet to the visible (330-500 nm) over land and ocean. In this presentation the methods for deriving the OM1 aerosol product will be presented. Part of these methods developed for OM1 can already be applied to TOMS data and results of such analysis will be shown.

  11. Instrument for Measuring Cryo CTE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vikram, Chandra S.; Hadaway, James B.

    2003-01-01

    Coefficient of thermal expansion is an integral part of the performance of optical systems, especially for those, which operate at cryogenic temperatures. The measurement of the coefficient of relevant materials has been of continuous interest. Besides commercial measurement sources, development of one-of-a-kind tools have always been of interest due to local needs. This paper describes one such development at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). The approach involves two vertical rods (one sample and one reference) on a flat platform. A probe bar is held horizontally atop the two samples. A temperature change will generally cause rotation of the probe bar. A mirrored surface on one end of the probe bar is used to measure the rotation using the reflection of an incident laser beam upon it. A position-sensing detector measures the change of the reflected beam spot position. Using other known quantities, the change determines the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sample material as a function of temperature. A parallel measurement of the rotation of the sample support platform is also performed to account for any unwanted background effects. This system has been demonstrated in a cryogenic chamber at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center X-ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). We present the system details, achievable sensitivity, and up-to-date experimental performance.

  12. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Fluid Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Nguyen, Than X. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus for monitoring the presence, concentration, and the movement of fluids. It is based on utilizing electromagnetic measurements of the complex permittivity of the fluids for detecting and monitoring the fluid. More particularly the apparatus uses one or more microwave probes which are placed at the locations where the measurements are to be made. A radio frequency signal is transmitted to the probe and the reflected signal is phase and amplitude detected at a rapid rate for the purpose of identifying the fluids, based on their dielectric constant at the probe. The apparatus can be used for multiple purposes including measures of flow rates, turbulence, dispersion, fluid identification, and changes in flow conditions of multiple fluids or multiple states of a single fluid in a flowline or a holding container. The apparatus includes a probe consisting of two electrical conductors separated by an insulator. A radio frequency signal is communicated to the probe and is reflected back from the portion of the probe exposed to the fluid. The radio frequency signal also provides a reference signal. An oscillator generates a second signal which combined with each of the reference signal and the reflected signal to produce signals of lower frequencies to facilitate filtering and amplifying those signals. The two signals are then mixed in a detector to produce an output signal that is representative of the phase and amplitude change caused by the reflection of the signal at the probe exposed to the fluid. The detector may be a dual phase detector that provides two such output signals that are in phase quadrature. A phase shifter may be provided for selectively changing the phase of the reference signal to improve the sensitivity of at least one of the output signals for more accurate readings and/or for calibration purposes. The two outputs that are in quadrature with respect to each other may be simultaneously monitored to account for

  13. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    of constant cross sectional area, and to facilitate fluid filling and draining operations in microgravity. The fluid cells may be used singly for bulk solutions, or in a Stokes diaphragm configuration to investigate membrane mediated phenomena. Thermal and electrical driving potentials are applied to the experiment fluids through boundary plates located at the ends of the fluid cells. In the ground based instrument, two constant temperature baths circulate through reservoirs adjacent to the boundary plates, and establish the thermal environment within the fluid cells. The boundary plates also serve as electrodes for measurement and application of electrical potentials. The Fluid Manipulation System associated with the MTA is a computer controlled system that enables storage and transfer of experiment fluids during on orbit operations. The system is used to automatically initiate experiments and manipulate fluids by orchestrating pump and valve operations through scripted sequences. Unique technologies are incorporated in the MTA for measurement of fluid properties. Volumetric Flow Sensors have been developed for precision measurement of total fluid volume contained within the fluid cells over time. This data is most useful for measuring the kinetics of osmosis, where fluid is transported from one fluid cell to another through a semipermeable membrane. The MicroSensor Array has been designed to perform in situ measurement of several important fluid parameters, providing simultaneous measurement of solution composition at multiple locations within the experiment fluids. Micromachined sensors and interface electronics have been developed to measure temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, cation activity, and anion activity. The Profile Refractometer uses a laser optical system to directly image the fluid Index of Refraction profile that exists along the MTA fluid cell axis. A video system acquires images of the RI profile over time, and records the transport kinetics

  14. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

  15. 40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation...

  16. 40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation...

  17. 40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Gas meter or flow instrumentation... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation...

  18. Investigation of physical properties of porous rocks and fluid flow phenomena in porous media using computer assisted tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Kantzas, A. )

    1990-01-01

    Computer assisted tomography is becoming a very attractive tool for petroleum engineers. The method can give an image of a core in two or three dimensions with a very fine resolution and high accuracy. The image data can be processed to give information about the physical properties of the core (density, porosity, mineralogy, heterogeneities) and the fluids within the core (saturation and saturation profiles). This paper presents a software package that uses the CAT scanner output data as input for petrographic and dynamic modelling of a porous rock. Core samples up to 10 cm in diameter are scanned at different x-ray energy levels using an EMI CT5005 full body scanner. The scanner computer is producing an array of normalized linear attenuation coefficients per scanned slice. The resolution is 0.75 mm {times} 0.75 mm while the slice thickness can vary from 15 mm down to 1 mm depending on the bulk density and size of the sample. The developed package analyzes the CAT scanner data for bulk and grain density, effective atomic number, static and dynamic porosity and fluid saturations for up to three fluids present. The capabilities and limitations of the presented algorithm are discussed and characteristic examples are presented.

  19. Electromagnetic probe technique for fluid flow measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. D.; Carl, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    The probes described herein, in various configurations, permit the measurement of the volume fraction of two or more fluids flowing through a pipe. Each probe measures the instantaneous relative dielectric constant of the fluid in immediate proximity. As long as separation of the relative dielectric constant of the fluid is possible, several or even many fluids can be measured in the same flow stream. By using multiple probes, the velocity of each fluid can generally be determined as well as the distribution of each constituent in the pipe. The values are determined by statistical computation. There are many potential applications for probes of this type in industry and government. Possible NASA applications include measurements of helium/hydrazine flow during rocket tests at White Sands, liquid/gas flow in hydrogen or oxygen lines in Orbiter engines, and liquid/gaseous Freon flow in zero gravity tests with the KS135 aircraft at JSC. Much interest has been shown recently by the oil industry. In this a good method is needed to measure the fractions of oil, water, and natural gas flowing in a pipeline and the velocity of each. This particular problem involves an extension of what has been developed to date and our plans to solve this problem will be discussed herein.

  20. Electromagnetic Probe Technique for Fluid Flow Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. D.; Carl, J. R.; Nguyen, T. X.

    1994-01-01

    The probes described herein, in various configurations, permit the measurement of the volume fraction of two or more fluids flowing through a pipe. Each probe measures the instantaneous relative dielectric constant of the fluid in immediate proximity. As long as separation of the relative dielectric constants of each fluid is possible, several or even many fluids can be measured in the same flow steam. By using multiple probes, the velocity of each fluid can generally be determined as well as the distribution of each constituent in the pipe. The values are determined by statistical computation. There are many potential applications for probes of this type in industry and government. Possible NASA applications include measurements of helium/hydrazine flow during rocket tests at White Sands, liquid/gas flow in hydrogen or oxygen lines in Orbiter engines, and liquid/gaseous Freon flow in zero gravity tests with the KS135 aircraft at JSC. Much interest has been shown recently by the oil industry. In this industry, a good method is needed to measure the fractions of oil, water, and natural gas flowing in a pipeline and the velocity of each. This particular problem involves an extension of what has been developed to date and our plans and program to solve this problem will be discussed herein.

  1. An instrumented sample holder for time-lapse microtomography measurements of snow under advective airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebner, P. P.; Grimm, S. A.; Schneebeli, M.; Steinfeld, A.

    2014-09-01

    An instrumented sample holder was developed for time-lapse microtomography of snow samples to enable in situ nondestructive spatial and temporal measurements under controlled advective airflows, temperature gradients, and air humidities. The design was aided by computational fluid dynamics simulations to evaluate the airflow uniformity across the snow sample. Morphological and mass transport properties were evaluated during a 4-day test run. This instrument allows the experimental characterization of metamorphism of snow undergoing structural changes with time.

  2. Measuring the Optical Properties of Astrophysical Dust Analogues: Instrumentation and Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, S. A.; Benford, D. J.; Cataldo, G.; Dwek, E.; Henry, R.; Kinzer, R. E., Jr.; Nuth, J.; Silverberg, R.; Wheeler, C.; Wollack, E.

    2011-01-01

    Dust is found throughout the universe and plays an important role for a wide range of astrophysical phenomena. In recent years, new infrared facilities have provided powerful new data for understanding these phenomena. However, interpretation of these data is often complicated by a lack of complementary information about the optical properties of astronomically relevant materials. The Optical Properties of Astronomical Silicates with Infrared Techniques (OPASI-T) program at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is designed to provide new high-quality laboratory data from which we can derive the optical properties of astrophysical dust analogues. This program makes use of multiple instruments, including new equipment designed and built specifically for this purpose. The suite of instruments allows us to derive optical properties over a wide wavelength range, from the near-infrared through the millimeter, also providing the capability for exploring how these properties depend upon the temperature of the sample. In this paper, we discuss the overall structure of the research program, describe the new instruments that have been developed to meet the science goals, and demonstrate the efficacy of these tools.

  3. Heterodyne QELS instrument for diagnostics of biological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Andrei D.; Ivanova, Mariya A.; Lomakin, Aleksey V.; Noskin, Valentin A.

    1997-05-01

    The instrument for the quasielastic light scattering (QELS), LCS-03 utilizes heterodyne optical scheme which permits a high resolution determination of particle size distribution. The vibration related problems, which are common for the heterodyne techniques, have been overcome by using a single glass block incorporating all the optical elements. The real-time correlation analysis of the photocurrent fluctuations is performed by a PC-embedded analog-to-digit converter card with digital signal processor (DSP) using an original algorithm. Both the technical specifications of the instrument and the software for the size distribution analysis are presented. The heterodyne technique consistently outperforms the homodyne one when the accurate characterization of the particle size distributions in heterogeneous systems is required. Diagnostic analysis of size distribution of particles in blood serum/plasma, liquor and saliva is such an application. This kind of diagnostics usually requires a simultaneous analysis of huge number of QELS data. The original statistical algorithm with graphic user interface is described. We discuss the technical specifications of instrumentation as well as methodical problems of biological fluids QELS diagnostics.

  4. Development of measurement capabilities for the thermophysical properties of energy-related fluids. Annual report, December 1, 1992--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, R.F.

    1993-08-13

    The measurement capabilities to be developed include new apparatus for transport properties, thermodynamic properties, phase equilibria, and dielectric properties. Specific capabilities are: Thermal conductivity apparatus, vibrating wire viscometer, dual-sinker densimeter, high-temperature vibrating tube densimeter, dynamic phase equilibria apparatus, apparatus for dilute solutions, total-enthalpy flow calorimeter. Benchmark measurements were made (no data given) on pure and mixed alternative refrigerants and their mixtures with lubricants, and other fluids.

  5. Satisfaction measurement instruments for healthcare service users: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Renato Santos de; Bourliataux-Lajoinie, Stephane; Martins, Mônica

    2015-01-01

    Patient satisfaction surveys can be an interesting way to improve quality and discuss the concept of patient-centered care. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of the validated patient satisfaction measurement instruments applied in healthcare. The systematic review searched the MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge. The search strategy used the terms: "Patient Satisfaction" AND "Patient centered care" AND "Healthcare survey OR Satisfaction questionnaire" AND "Psychometric properties". 37 studies were included and almost all studies showed that satisfaction is a multidimensional construct. In these studies, 34 different instruments were used and most surveys contained the dimension patient-healthcare professional interactions, physical environment and management process. The COSMIN score for methodological quality showed that most of them scored a good or fair average. We can conclude that there is not a gold standard instrument for patient satisfaction assessment but some dimensions are essential for this construct. PMID:25715288

  6. Measurement control program for NDA instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Hsue, S.T.; Marks, T.

    1983-01-01

    Measurement control checks for nondestructive assay instruments have been a constant and continuing concern at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This paper summarizes the evolution of the measurement control checks in the various high-resolution gamma systems we have developed. In-plant experiences with these systems and checks will be discussed. Based on these experiences, a set of measurement control checks is recommended for high-resolution gamma-ray systems.

  7. Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Lambert, Kevin M.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Durham, Tim; Speed, Kerry; Lange, Robert; Olsen, Art; Smith, Brett; Taylor, Robert; Schmidt, Mark; Racette, Paul; Bonds, Quenton; Brucker, Ludovic; Koenig, Lora; Marshall, Hans-Peter; Vanhille, Ken; Borissenko, Anatoly; Tsang, Leung; Tan, Shurun

    2016-01-01

    This presentation discusses current efforts to develop a Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM). The objective of the effort are as follows: to advance the utility of a wideband active and passive instrument (8-40 gigahertz) to support the snow science community; improve snow measurements through advanced calibration and expanded frequency of active and passive sensors; demonstrate science utility through airborne retrievals of snow water equivalent (SWE); and advance the technology readiness of broadband current sheet array (CSA) antenna technology for spaceflight applications.

  8. Instrumentation for measuring speech privacy in rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horrall, Thomas; Pirn, Rein; Markham, Ben

    2003-10-01

    Federal legislation pertaining to oral privacy in healthcare and financial services industries has increased the need for a convenient and economical way to document speech privacy conditions in offices, medical examination rooms, and certain other workspaces. This legislation is embodied in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA). Both laws require that reasonable measures be put in place to safeguard the oral privacy of patients and clients. While techniques for privacy documentation are known within the acoustical consulting community, it is unlikely that community alone has the capacity to provide the surveys needed to evaluate acoustical conditions and demonstrate compliance with the legislation. A portable computer with integrated soundboard and a suitable amplified loudspeaker and test microphone are all that are needed to perform in situ measurements of articulation index or other accepted indices of speech privacy. Along with modest training, such instrumentation allows technicians to survey a large number of sites economically. Cost-effective components are shown that can meet the requirements for testing in most common environments where oral privacy is likely to be required. Example cases are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of such instrumentation.

  9. Measurement of Turbulent Flow Phenomena for the Lower Plenum of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hugh M. McIlroy Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink; Keith G. Condie; Glenn E. McCreery

    2007-09-01

    Mean velocity field and turbulence data are presented for flow phenomena in a lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR), such as in a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) concept. In preparation for design, safety analyses and licensing, research has begun on readying the computational tools that will be needed to predict the thermal-hydraulics behavior of the reactor design. Fluid dynamics experiments have been designed and built to develop benchmark databases for the assessment of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes and their turbulence models for a typical VHTR plenum geometry in the limiting case of negligible buoyancy and constant fluid properties. This experiment has been proposed as a “Standard Problem” for assessing advanced reactor (CFD) analysis tools. Present results concentrate on the region of the plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered as multiple jets into a confined cross flow - with obstructions. A model of the lower plenum has been fabricated and scaled to the geometric dimensions of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Point Design. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to induce flow features somewhat comparable to those expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. Posts, side walls and end walls are fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive-index of the working fluid so that optical techniques may be employed for the measurements. The experiments were conducted in the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits optical measurements to determine complex flow characteristics in passages and around objects to be obtained without locating a disturbing transducer in the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. The

  10. Pump for molten metal or other fluid

    DOEpatents

    Horton, James A.; Brown, Donald L.

    1994-01-01

    A pump having no moving parts which can be used to pump high temperature molten metal or other fluids in a vacuum or low pressure environment, and a method for pumping such fluids. The pump combines elements of a bubble pump with a trap which isolates the vacuum or low pressure region from the gas used to create the bubbles. When used in a vacuum the trap prevents the pumping gas from escaping into the isolated region and thereby reducing the quality of the vacuum. The pump includes a channel in which a pumping gas is forced under pressure into a cavity where bubbles are formed. The cavity is in contact with a reservoir which contains the molten metal or other fluid which is to be pumped. The bubbles rise up into a column (or pump tube) carrying the fluid with them. At the top of the column is located a deflector which causes the bubbles to burst and the drops of pumped fluid to fall into a trap. The fluid accumulates in the trap, eventually forcing its way to an outlet. A roughing pump can be used to withdraw the pumping gas from the top of the column and assist with maintaining the vacuum or low pressure environment.

  11. Line spread instrumentation for propagation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, W. H., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A line spread device capable of yielding direct measure of a laser beam's line spread function (LSF) was developed and employed in propagation tests conducted in a wind tunnel to examine optimal acoustical suppression techniques for laser cavities exposed to simulated aircraft aerodynamic environments. Measurements were made on various aerodynamic fences and cavity air injection techniques that effect the LSF of a propagating laser. Using the quiescent tunnel as a control, the relative effect of each technique on laser beam quality was determined. The optical instrument employed enabled the comparison of relative beam intensity for each fence or mass injection. It was found that fence height had little effect on beam quality but fence porosity had a marked effect, i.e., 58% porosity alleviated cavity resonance and degraded the beam the least. Mass injection had little effect on the beam LSF. The use of a direct LSF measuring device proved to be a viable means of determining aerodynamic seeing qualities of flow fields.

  12. Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 4, Volume IV: Inherent Optical Properties: Instruments, Characterizations, Field Measurements and Data Analysis Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, J. L.; Fargion, G. S.; McClain, C. R. (Editor); Pegau, S.; Zanefeld, J. R. V.; Mitchell, B. G.; Kahru, M.; Wieland, J.; Stramska, M.

    2003-01-01

    This document stipulates protocols for measuring bio-optical and radiometric data for the Sensor Intercomparision and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project activities and algorithm development. The document is organized into 6 separate volumes as Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 4. Volume I: Introduction, Background, and Conventions; Volume II: Instrument Specifications, Characterization and Calibration; Volume III: Radiometric Measurements and Data Analysis Methods; Volume IV: Inherent Optical Properties: Instruments, Characterization, Field Measurements and Data Analysis Protocols; Volume V: Biogeochemical and Bio-Optical Measurements and Data Analysis Methods; Volume VI: Special Topics in Ocean Optics Protocols and Appendices. The earlier version of Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 3 is entirely superseded by the six volumes of Revision 4 listed above.

  13. Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation. Volume 4; Inherent Optical Properties: Instruments, Characterizations, Field Measurements and Data Analysis Protocols; Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, J. L. (Editor); Fargion, Giuletta S. (Editor); McClain, Charles R. (Editor); Pegau, Scott; Zaneveld, J. Ronald V.; Mitchell, B. Gregg; Kahru, Mati; Wieland, John; Stramska, Malgorzat

    2003-01-01

    This document stipulates protocols for measuring bio-optical and radiometric data for the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project activities and algorithm development. The document is organized into 6 separate volumes as Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 4. Volume I: Introduction, Background and Conventions; Volume II: Instrument Specifications, Characterization and Calibration; Volume III: Radiometric Measurements and Data Analysis Methods; Volume IV: Inherent Optical Properties: Instruments, Characterization, Field Measurements and Data Analysis Protocols; Volume V: Biogeochemical and Bio-Optical Measurements and Data Analysis Methods; Volume VI: Special Topics in Ocean Optics Protocols and Appendices. The earlier version of Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 3 (Mueller and Fargion 2002, Volumes 1 and 2) is entirely superseded by the six volumes of Revision 4 listed above.

  14. Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides a brief summary of the utility of a wideband active and passive (radar and radiometer, respectively) instrument (8-40 GHz) to support the snow science community. The effort seeks to improve snow measurements through advanced calibration and expanded frequency of active and passive sensors and to demonstrate their science utility through airborne retrievals of snow water equivalent (SWE). In addition the effort seeks to advance the technology readiness of broadband current sheet array (CSA) antenna technology for spaceflight applications.

  15. The Complex Trauma Questionnaire (ComplexTQ): development and preliminary psychometric properties of an instrument for measuring early relational trauma

    PubMed Central

    Maggiora Vergano, Carola; Lauriola, Marco; Speranza, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the etiology of adult psychopathology and its relationship with childhood trauma has focused primarily on specific forms of maltreatment. This study developed an instrument for the assessment of childhood and adolescence trauma that would aid in identifying the role of co-occurring childhood stressors and chronic adverse conditions. The Complex Trauma Questionnaire (ComplexTQ), in both clinician and self-report versions, is a measure for the assessment of multi-type maltreatment: physical, psychological, and sexual abuse; physical and emotional neglect as well as other traumatic experiences, such rejection, role reversal, witnessing domestic violence, separations, and losses. The four-point Likert scale allows to specifically indicate with which caregiver the traumatic experience has occurred. A total of 229 participants, a sample of 79 nonclinical and that of 150 high-risk and clinical participants, were assessed with the ComplexTQ clinician version applied to Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) transcripts. Initial analyses indicate acceptable inter-rater reliability. A good fit to a 6-factor model regarding the experience with the mother and to a 5-factor model with the experience with the father was obtained; the internal consistency of factors derived was good. Convergent validity was provided with the AAI scales. ComplexTQ factors discriminated normative from high-risk and clinical samples. The findings suggest a promising, reliable, and valid measurement of early relational trauma that is reported; furthermore, it is easy to complete and is useful for both research and clinical practice. PMID:26388820

  16. A New Digital Holographic Instrument for Measuring Microphysical Properties of Contrails in the SASS (Subsonic Assessment) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, R. Paul

    2000-01-01

    SPEC incorporated designed, built and operated a new instrument, called a pi-Nephelometer, on the NASA DC-8 for the SUCCESS field project. The pi-Nephelometer casts an image of a particle on a 400,000 pixel solid-state camera by freezing the motion of the particle using a 25 ns pulsed, high-power (60 W) laser diode. Unique optical imaging and particle detection systems precisely detect particles and define the depth-of-field so that at least one particle in the image is almost always in focus. A powerful image processing engine processes frames from the solid-state camera, identifies and records regions of interest (i.e. particle images) in real time. Images of ice crystals are displayed and recorded with 5 micron pixel resolution. In addition, a scattered light system simultaneously measures the scattering phase function of the imaged particle. The system consists of twenty-eight 1-mm optical fibers connected to microlenses bonded on the surface of avalanche photo diodes (APDs). Data collected with the pi-Nephelometer during the SUCCESS field project was reported in a special issue of Geophysical Research Letters. The pi-Nephelometer provided the basis for development of a commercial imaging probe, called the cloud particle imager (CPI), which has been installed on several research aircraft and used in More than a dozen field programs.

  17. Apparatus for measuring fluid flow

    DOEpatents

    Smith, J.E.; Thomas, D.G.

    Flow measuring apparatus includes a support loop having strain gages mounted thereon and a drag means which is attached to one end of the support loop and which bends the sides of the support loop and induces strains in the strain gages when a flow stream impacts thereon.

  18. Apparatus for measuring fluid flow

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jack E.; Thomas, David G.

    1984-01-01

    Flow measuring apparatus includes a support loop having strain gages mounted thereon and a drag means which is attached to one end of the support loop and which bends the sides of the support loop and induces strains in the strain gages when a flow stream impacts thereon.

  19. A Simple Instrument for Measuring Surface Forces in Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannon, James; Tromp, Rudolf; Haight, Richard; Ellis, Arthur

    2015-03-01

    We have constructed a simple instrument to measure the interaction force between two surfaces in solution, or in vacuum. Specifically, we measure the interaction between a lens and a thin silicon cantilever. Either the lens, or the cantilever (or both) can be coated with the species of interest. When the lens is brought close to the cantilever surface, the force of interaction causes the cantilever to bend. By measuring the deflection as a function of the distance between the lens and cantilever, the long-range interactions between the two surfaces can be determined. Our approach includes three important innovations. First, a commercial lens with a radius of ~ 1 cm is used for one surface. The relatively large radius of curvature enhances force sensitivity of the method. Second, we use optical interference (Newton's Rings) to determine the distance between lens and cantilever with ~ 1 nm accuracy. Third, we make use of thin crystalline cantilevers (100 μm thick) whose elastic properties can be easily measured. We have achieved a force sensitivity F / R better than 0.001 mN/m. I will discuss the theory of operation of the new instrument and describe measurements made on SiO2 and metal oxide surfaces in water.

  20. Locating Tests and Measurement Instruments for Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastel, Kristen; Morris-Knower, Jim; Marsalis, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Extension educators, staff, and specialists need to use surveys and other measurement instruments to assess their programming and conduct other research. Challenges in locating tests and measurement tools, however, include lack of time and lack of familiarity with techniques that can be used to find them. This article discusses library resources…

  1. Instrumentation for measuring energy inputs to implements

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, F.D.; Wilhelm, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    A microcomputer-based instrumentation system for monitoring tractor operating parameters and energy inputs to implements was developed and mounted on a 75-power-takeoff-KW tractor. The instrumentation system, including sensors and data handling equipment, is discussed. 10 refs.

  2. Isotopic CO2 Instrumentation for UAV Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, A.; Silver, J.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon dioxide is the largest component of anthroprogenic green house gas emissions. Knowing atmospheric 13CO2/12CO2 ratios precisely is important for understanding biogenic and anthroprogenic sources and sinks for carbon. Instrumentation mounted on UAV aircraft would enable important spatial isotopic CO2 information. However, current isotopic CO2 instrumentation have unfavorable attributes for UAV use, such as high power requirements, high cost, high weight, and large size. Here we present the early development of a compact isotopic CO2 instrument that is designed to nullify effects of pressure, temperature and moisture, and will ultimately be suitable for UAV deployment.

  3. A passive DOAS instrument for trace gas measurements on medium sized UAS: Instrumental design and first measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horbanski, Martin; Pöhler, Denis; Mahr, Tobias; Wagner, Thomas; Keleshis, Christos; Ioannou, Stelios; Lange, Manfred A.; Lelieveld, Jos; Platt, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are a new powerful tool for observations in the atmospheric boundary layer. Recent developments in measuring technology allow the construction of compact and sensitive active and passive DOAS instruments which can fit the space and weight constraints on UAS. This opens new possibilities for trace gas measurements in the lower troposphere, especially in areas which are not accessible to manned aviation e.g. volcanic plumes or which should be monitored regularly (e.g. industrial emissions of a stack). We present a new developed passive DOAS instrument for the APAESO Platform of the Cyprus Institute, a medium size UAS. It is equipped with two telescopes for observations in downward (nadir) and horizontal (limb) viewing direction, respectively. Thus it allows determining height profiles and the horizontal distribution of trace gases. This is accomplished by analyzing the radiation collected by the telescopes with compact spectrometers, which cover the UV-blue spectral range allowing to measure a broad variety of atmospheric trace gases (e.g. NO2, SO2, BrO, IO, H2O ...) as well as aerosol properties via O4 absorption. Additionally, the nadir direction is equipped with a VIS-NIR spectrometer. It is used to measure reflection spectra of different types of vegetation. These will serve as references for satellite measurements to create global maps. First measurements on the APAESO platform were performed in October 2012 on Cyprus in a rural area south of Nicosia. The instrument is shown to work reliably and was able to detect NO2, H2O and O4 at atmospheric column densities. The instrumental design and first measurements will be presented and discussed.

  4. Instrument for Measuring Engine Clearance Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, S W

    1920-01-01

    With the advent of the V type engine, a new method to measure the clearance volume in cylinders was needed. It was suggested that this measurement could be made by a process which consisted essentially of simultaneously changing both a known and unknown volume of gas by a known amount and then calculating the magnitude of the unknown from the resulting difference in pressure between the two. An instrument based on this design is described.

  5. An instrumented sample holder for time-lapse micro-tomography measurements of snow under advective airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebner, P. P.; Grimm, S. A.; Schneebeli, M.; Steinfeld, A.

    2014-06-01

    An instrumented sample holder was developed for time-lapse micro-tomography of snow samples to enable in-situ nondestructive spatial and temporal measurements under controlled advective airflows, temperature gradients, and air humidities. The design was aided by computational fluid dynamics simulations to evaluate the airflow uniformity across the snow sample. Morphological and mass transport properties were evaluated during a 4 day test run. This instrument allows the experimental characterization of metamorphism of snow undergoing structural changes with time.

  6. Oscillatory motion based measurement method and sensor for measuring wall shear stress due to fluid flow

    DOEpatents

    Armstrong, William D.; Naughton, Jonathan; Lindberg, William R.

    2008-09-02

    A shear stress sensor for measuring fluid wall shear stress on a test surface is provided. The wall shear stress sensor is comprised of an active sensing surface and a sensor body. An elastic mechanism mounted between the active sensing surface and the sensor body allows movement between the active sensing surface and the sensor body. A driving mechanism forces the shear stress sensor to oscillate. A measuring mechanism measures displacement of the active sensing surface relative to the sensor body. The sensor may be operated under periodic excitation where changes in the nature of the fluid properties or the fluid flow over the sensor measurably changes the amplitude or phase of the motion of the active sensing surface, or changes the force and power required from a control system in order to maintain constant motion. The device may be operated under non-periodic excitation where changes in the nature of the fluid properties or the fluid flow over the sensor change the transient motion of the active sensor surface or change the force and power required from a control system to maintain a specified transient motion of the active sensor surface.

  7. Properties of material in the submillimeter wave region (instrumentation and measurement of index of refraction)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lally, J.; Meister, R.

    1983-01-01

    The Properties of Materials in the Submillimeter Wave Region study was initiated to instrument a system and to make measurements of the complex index of refraction in the wavelength region between 0.1 to 1.0 millimeters. While refractive index data is available for a number of solids and liquids there still exists a need for an additional systematic study of dielectric properties to add to the existing data, to consider the accuracy of the existing data, and to extend measurements in this wavelength region for other selected mateials. The materials chosen for consideration would be those with useful thermal, mechanical, and electrical characteristics. The data is necessary for development of optical components which, for example, include beamsplitters, attenuators, lenses, grids, all useful for development of instrumentation in this relatively unexploited portion of the spectrum.

  8. Self-rated measure of pain frequency, intensity, and burden: psychometric properties of a new instrument for the assessment of pain

    PubMed Central

    dela Cruz, Adriane M.; Bernstein, Ira H.; Greer, Tracy L.; Walker, Robrina; Rethorst, Chad D.; Grannemann, Bruce; Carmody, Thomas; Trivedi, Madhukar H.

    2014-01-01

    Background A brief, self-administered measurement of pain frequency, intensity, and burden is desirable in both research and clinical settings. We describe the development and initial psychometric properties of a new instrument, the Pain Frequency, Intensity, and Burden Scale (P-FIBS). Methods The P-FIBS was administered to all participants (N=302) with psychostimulant use disorders in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network’s STRIDE (Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dose Exercise) multisite trial. Results The four items on the P-FIBS demonstrate high item-total correlations (range 0.70–0.85) with a high Cronbach’s alpha (0.90). The P-FIBS demonstrated a strong negative correlation with the bodily pain sub-score of the Short Form Health Survey (r=−0.76, p<0.0001) and did not correlate with a measure of cocaine (r=0.09, p=0.12) or methamphetamine (r=−0.06, p=0.33) craving. Conclusions The P-FIBS demonstrates good psychometric properties. This brief measure can be used to assess pain in research settings or as a screen in clinical settings. Further research is needed to assess the measure’s sensitivity to change with treatment. PMID:25194231

  9. Critique of fluid theory of magnetospheric phenomena. [kinetic theory vs two fluid models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heikkila, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of the limitations and shortcomings of the fluid theory of magnetospheric phenomena. Following a brief qualitative review of the various theoretical approaches and of their interrelation, some of the limitations of the fluid theory with respect to magnetospheric problems are outlined, and the subsequent fallacies are exposed. The idea of frozen field convection and the concept of field line annihilation or merging are criticized. In conclusion, a plea is made for a more balanced approach to magnetospheric problems.

  10. An Undergraduate Experiment for the Measurement of the Speed of Sound in Air: Phenomena and Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hujiang; Zhao, Xiaohong; Wang, Xin; Xiao, Jinghua

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present and discuss some phenomena in an undergraduate experiment for the measurement of the speed of sound in air. A square wave distorts when connected to a piezoelectric transducer. Moreover, the amplitude of the receiving signal varies with the driving frequency. Comparing with the Gibbs phenomenon, these phenomena can be…

  11. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation--An Introduction to Supercritical Fluid Chromatography: Part 1: Principles and Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmieri, Margo D.

    1988-01-01

    Identifies the properties and characteristics of supercritical fluids. Discusses the methodology for supercritical fluid chromatography including flow rate, plate height, column efficiency, viscosity, and other factors. Reviews instruments, column types, and elution conditions. Lists supercritical fluid data for 22 compounds, mostly organic. (MVL)

  12. Measurement techniques and instruments for airborne nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Khan, A H; Mishra, Amit; Pandey, Poonam; Singh, Abhishek; Kisku, G C

    2011-02-01

    PM10 and PM2.5 are being monitored for asssessment of human health exposure. Laser aerosol spectrometry (25-300 nm), Aerasense Nano Monitors (10-300 nm), Aerasense Nano Tracer (10-300 nm) could be used for qualitative and quantitative detection. There is a need to develop instrumentation and methods for a wide range of engineered nanomaterials that are smaller in size and in very low concentrations in aerial, terrestrial and aquatic environment. PMID:21485853

  13. Measurement of interstage fluid-annulus dynamical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, M. L.; Makay, E.; Diaz-Tous, I. A.

    1982-01-01

    The work described in this paper is part of an Electric Power Research Institute sponsored effort to improve rotor vibrational performance on power plant feed water pumps. A major objective of this effort is to reduce vibration levels by devising inter-stage sealing configurations with optimized damping capacity, realizing that the typical multi-stage centrifugal pump has several ore inter-stage fluid annuli than it has journal bearings. Also, the fluid annuli are distributed between the journal bearings where vibration levels are highest and can therefore be 'exercised' more as dampers than can the bearings. Described in this paper is a test apparatus which has been built to experimentally determine fluid-annulus dynamical coefficients for various configurations of inter-stage sealing geometry.

  14. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    of constant cross sectional area, and to facilitate fluid filling and draining operations in microgravity. The fluid cells may be used singly for bulk solutions, or in a Stokes diaphragm configuration to investigate membrane mediated phenomena. Thermal and electrical driving potentials are applied to the experiment fluids through boundary plates located at the ends of the fluid cells. In the ground based instrument, two constant temperature baths circulate through reservoirs adjacent to the boundary plates, and establish the thermal environment within the fluid cells. The boundary plates also serve as electrodes for measurement and application of electrical potentials. The Fluid Manipulation System associated with the MTA is a computer controlled system that enables storage and transfer of experiment fluids during on orbit operations. The system is used to automatically initiate experiments and manipulate fluids by orchestrating pump and valve operations through scripted sequences. Unique technologies are incorporated in the MTA for measurement of fluid properties. Volumetric Flow Sensors have been developed for precision measurement of total fluid volume contained within the fluid cells over time. This data is most useful for measuring the kinetics of osmosis, where fluid is transported from one fluid cell to another through a semipermeable membrane. The MicroSensor Array has been designed to perform in situ measurement of several important fluid parameters, providing simultaneous measurement of solution composition at multiple locations within the experiment fluids. Micromachined sensors and interface electronics have been developed to measure temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, cation activity, and anion activity. The Profile Refractometer uses a laser optical system to directly image the fluid Index of Refraction profile that exists along the MTA fluid cell axis. A video system acquires images of the RI profile over time, and records the transport kinetics

  15. Instrumentation for the in-situ measurement of building envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Grot, R.; Modera, M.; Fang, J.B.; Park, H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the types of instrumentation that can be used for the in-situ measurement of the thermal resistance of building components. Four types of instrumentation are described: noncontact spot radiometers, contact heat flow transducers, portable calorimeters, and a type of portable guarded hot plate device developed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, called an envelope thermal testing unit. A brief description of each device is given along with a description of how the device is used to measure in-situ thermal properties of building components. A theoretical justification of the use of long-term averaging of the heat flow and temperature data for estimating the thermal resistance is also presented. The accuracy of each in-situ measurement method is accessed.

  16. Instrument for Measuring Temperature of Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Nixon, Thomas; Pagnutti, Mary; Zanoni, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    A pseudo-Brewster angle infrared radiometer has been proposed for use in noncontact measurement of the surface temperature of a large body of water (e.g., a lake or ocean). This radiometer could be situated on a waterborne, airborne, or spaceborne platform. The design of the pseudo-Brewster angle radiometer would exploit the spectral emissivity and polarization characteristics of water to minimize errors attributable to the emissivity of water and to the reflection of downwelling (e.g., Solar and cloud-reflected) infrared radiation.

  17. Fluctuation theory of critical phenomena in fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynov, G. A.

    2016-07-01

    It is assumed that critical phenomena are generated by density wave fluctuations carrying a certain kinetic energy. It is noted that all coupling equations for critical indices are obtained within the context of this hypothesis. Critical indices are evaluated for 15 liquids more accurately than when using the current theory of critical phenomena.

  18. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  19. Instrumentation for the Future Lunar Missions: Multicomponent Electromagnetic Measurements at Long Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmasova, Ivana; Santolik, Ondrej; Belyayev, Serhiy; Uhlir, Ludek; Skalsky, Alexander; Pronenko, Vira; Lan, Radek

    The LEMRA-L instrument (Long-wavelength Electro-Magnetic Radiation Analyzer) will be implemented on the LUNA-GLOB spacecraft. It will analyze the data of the three-axial flux gate (DC - 10Hz) and searchcoil (1Hz - 10kHz) magnetometers LEMI. It will measure intensity, polarization, and coherence properties of waves in plasmas of the solar wind, in the lunar wake and its boundaries, and study the magnetic anomalies. We will use new modern robust onboard analysis methods to estimate the wave coherence, sense of polarization, ellipticity, and wave-vector direction, and thus substantially compress the transmitted data volumes, while conserving the important scientific information. In the burst mode data set intended for studying nonlinear phenomena, we will conserve the continuous flux-gate magnetometer data and discrete snapshots of three axial waveform measurements. In the survey-mode data set, continuous flux-gate magnetometer data will be transmitted together with onboard analyzed and averaged spectral matrices from the higher-frequency wave measurements or with onboard calculated propagation and polarization parameters.

  20. Numerical Simulation of Low Mach Number Fluid - Phenomena.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitsma, Scott H.

    wavelengths. Required steady solution accuracy, convergence acceleration techniques, boundary condition/flow field interactions and the challenges of scale resolution are addressed. The computed results are in agreement with linear stability theory and experimental measurements. The overall conclusion is that this methodology, once optimized, represents a potentially valuable tool for studying the physics of fluid-acoustic phenomena including edgetone feedback, cavity resonance, transition phenomena and eventually turbulent flow noise generation.

  1. Instrument for Measuring Temperature of Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Nixon, Thomas; Pagnutti, Mary; Zanoni, Vicki

    2003-01-01

    A pseudo-Brewster-angle infrared radiometer has been proposed for use in noncontact measurement of the surface temperature of a large body of water (e.g., a lake or ocean). This radiometer could be situated on a waterborne, airborne, or spaceborne platform. The design of the pseudo-Brewster-angle radiometer would exploit the spectral-emissivity and polarization characteristics of water to minimize errors attributable to the emissivity of water and to the reflection of downwelling (e.g., Solar and cloud-reflected) infrared radiation. The relevant emissivity and polarization characteristics are the following: . The Brewster angle is the angle at which light polarized parallel to the plane of incidence on a purely dielectric material is not reflected. The pseudo-Brewster angle, defined for a lossy dielectric (somewhat electrically conductive) material, is the angle for which the reflectivity for parallel-polarized light is minimized. For pure water, the reflectivity for parallel-polarized light is only 2.2 x 10(exp -4) at its pseudo- Brewster angle of 51deg. The reflectivity remains near zero, several degrees off from the 51deg optimum, allowing this angle of incidence requirement to be easily achieved. . The wavelength range of interest for measuring water temperatures is 8 to 12 microns. The emissivity of water for parallel- polarized light at the pseudo-Brewster angle is greater than 0.999 in this wavelength range. The radiometer would be sensitive in the wavelength range of 8 to 12 microns, would be equipped with a polarizer to discriminate against infrared light polarized perpendicular to the plane of incidence, and would be aimed toward a body of water at the pseudo- Brewster angle (see figure). Because the infrared radiation entering the radiometer would be polarized parallel to the plane of incidence and because very little downwelling parallel-polarized radiation would be reflected into the radiometer on account of the pseudo-Brewster arrangement, the

  2. An Electronic Measurement Instrumentation of the Impedance of a Loaded Fuel Cell or Battery

    PubMed Central

    Aglzim, El-Hassane; Rouane, Amar; El-Moznine, Reddad

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an inexpensive electronic measurement instrumentation developed in our laboratory, to measure and plot the impedance of a loaded fuel cell or battery. Impedance measurements were taken by using the load modulation method. This instrumentation has been developed around a VXI system stand which controls electronic cards. Software under Hpvee® was developed for automatic measurements and the layout of the impedance of the fuel cell on load. The measurement environment, like the ambient temperature, the fuel cell temperature, the level of the hydrogen, etc…, were taken with several sensors that enable us to control the measurement. To filter the noise and the influence of the 50Hz, we have implemented a synchronous detection which filters in a very narrow way around the useful signal. The theoretical result obtained by a simulation under Pspice® of the method used consolidates the choice of this method and the possibility of obtaining correct and exploitable results. The experimental results are preliminary results on a 12V vehicle battery, having an inrush current of 330A and a capacity of 40Ah (impedance measurements on a fuel cell are in progress, and will be the subject of a forthcoming paper). The results were plotted at various nominal voltages of the battery (12.7V, 10V, 8V and 5V) and with two imposed currents (0.6A and 4A). The Nyquist diagram resulting from the experimental data enable us to show an influence of the load of the battery on its internal impedance. The similitude in the graph form and in order of magnitude of the values obtained (both theoretical and practical) enables us to validate our electronic measurement instrumentation. One of the future uses for this instrumentation is to integrate it with several control sensors, on a vehicle as an embedded system to monitor the degradation of fuel cell membranes.

  3. Towards a measurement instrument for determinants of innovations

    PubMed Central

    Fleuren, Margot A.H.; Paulussen, Theo G.W.M.; Van Dommelen, Paula; Van Buuren, Stef

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop a short instrument to measure determinants of innovations that may affect its implementation. Design We pooled the original data from eight empirical studies of the implementation of evidence-based innovations. The studies used a list of 60 potentially relevant determinants based on a systematic review of empirical studies and a Delphi study among implementation experts. Each study used similar methods to measure both the implementation of the innovation and determinants. Missing values in the final data set were replaced by plausible values using multiple imputation. We assessed which determinants predicted completeness of use of the innovation (% of recommendations applied). In addition, 22 implementation experts were consulted about the results and about implications for designing a short instrument. Setting Eight innovations introduced in Preventive Child Health Care or schools in the Netherlands. Participants Doctors, nurses, doctor's assistants and teachers; 1977 respondents in total. Results The initial list of 60 determinants could be reduced to 29. Twenty-one determinants were based on the pooled analysis of the eight studies, seven on the theoretical expectations of the experts consulted and one new determinant was added on the basis of the experts' practical experience. Conclusions The instrument is promising and should be further validated. We invite researchers to use and explore the instrument in multiple settings. The instrument describes how each determinant should preferably be measured (questions and response scales). It can be used both before and after the introduction of an innovation to gain an understanding of the critical change objectives. PMID:24951511

  4. Characterization of a traceable profiler instrument for areal roughness measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen-Schmidt, P.

    2011-09-01

    A two-dimensional profiler instrument was designed and realized at the PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt). The main function of the instrument is to provide traceable results in the field of roughness measurement. It is equipped with a linear moving stylus which is guided by precision air bearings. The moving part of the stylus has weight around 1 g and is carried by a magnetic field. The contacting force of the tip onto the surface under test is controlled by a small voice coil actuator in a closed control loop. Vertical movements of the stylus are captured by two different, completely independent measurement systems, covering a range of 100 µm. The first one is an interferometer, which provides a traceable signal, and the second one is an inductive measurement system. The signal from the inductive measurement system is calibrated by the interferometer. The sample under test is carried within the x-y-plane by a linear guided table with low noise air bearings. These air bearings are preloaded by vacuum and a constant gap is achieved by gas pressure controllers. Both axes of the table are driven by linear voice coil actuators and their movement in the plane is measured by linear encoders. The sample carrier is equipped with two axes tilt compensation, by which the sample under test can be levelled automatically using the measurement system of the stylus. Real-time data acquisition, manual handling and automated procedures are managed by a programmable controller and proprietary software written in LabVIEW. After measurement, data from the system can be directly transferred into the smd- or sdf-format. Results of measurements on different samples to characterize the metrological behaviour of the instrument will be reported. To characterize the uncertainty of the instrument, a model is applied, which is in accordance with approved rules for contact stylus instruments.

  5. Smartphone measurement engineering - Innovative challenges for science & education, instrumentation & training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, D.; Dittrich, P.-G.; Duentsch, E.

    2010-07-01

    Smartphones have an enormous conceptual and structural influence on measurement science & education, instrumentation & training. Smartphones are matured. They became convenient, reliable and affordable. In 2009 worldwide 174 million Smartphones has been delivered. Measurement with Smartphones is ready for the future. In only 10 years the German vision industry tripled its global sales volume to one Billion Euro/Year. Machine vision is used for mobile object identification, contactless industrial quality control, personalized health care, remote facility and transport management, safety critical surveillance and all tasks which are too complex for the human eye or too monotonous for the human brain. Aim of the paper is to describe selected success stories for the application of Smartphones for measurement engineering in science and education, instrumentation and training.

  6. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205 Performance... or 0.2% of max K 0.2% of pt. K or 0.1% of max K 0.1% of max. Dewpoint sensor for intake air, PM.... Dilution air, inlet air, exhaust, and sample flow meters c n 1 s 1 Hz means of 5 Hz samples 2.5% of pt....

  7. Standard of Measurement for Student Evaluation Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simione, Kathleen; Cadden, David; Mattie, Angela

    2008-01-01

    For colleges and universities, the expectation for excellence in teaching and learning has made development of a system for measuring teaching effectiveness critical. Teaching effectiveness is generally assessed with a comprehensive review of skills including instructional design, instructional delivery and course management. This requires student…

  8. Measuring the Youth Bullying Experience: A Systematic Review of the Psychometric Properties of Available Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vessey, Judith; Strout, Tania D.; DiFazio, Rachel L.; Walker, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bullying is a significant problem in schools and measuring this concept remains problematic. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify the published self-report measures developed to assess youth bullying; (2) evaluate their psychometric properties and instrument characteristics; and (3) evaluate the quality of identified…

  9. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  11. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  12. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  13. An instrument for measuring differentiated nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Allender, C D; Egan, E C; Newman, M A

    1995-04-01

    Newman's trilevel model of professional nursing practice specifies the roles of staff nurse, team leader and clinician/case manager. Essential elements of the roles are time and place orientation, assignment of clients, nursing observation and communication and nursing interventions. A pilot study to establish validity, clarity and fit of items was administered to three groups of nurses to fit the trilevel model categories through assessment of their job descriptions. Percentage of response indicated the instrument's ability to differentiate the roles. PMID:7731594

  14. 40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... best fit calibration curve for the instrument (as a function of the calibration device flow measurement) from the calibration points to determine corrected flow. The points on the calibration curve...

  15. Searching for Electrical Properties, Phenomena and Mechanisms in the Construction and Function of Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Kanev, Ivan; Mei, Wai-Ning; Mizuno, Akira; DeHaai, Kristi; Sanmann, Jennifer; Hess, Michelle; Starr, Lois; Grove, Jennifer; Dave, Bhavana; Sanger, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Our studies reveal previously unidentified electrical properties of chromosomes: (1) chromosomes are amazingly similar in construction and function to electrical transformers; (2) chromosomes possess in their construction and function, components similar to those of electric generators, conductors, condensers, switches, and other components of electrical circuits; (3) chromosomes demonstrate in nano-scale level electromagnetic interactions, resonance, fusion and other phenomena similar to those described by equations in classical physics. These electrical properties and phenomena provide a possible explanation for unclear and poorly understood mechanisms in clinical genetics including: (a) electrically based mechanisms responsible for breaks, translocations, fusions, and other chromosomal abnormalities associated with cancer, intellectual disability, infertility, pregnancy loss, Down syndrome, and other genetic disorders; (b) electrically based mechanisms involved in crossing over, non-disjunction and other events during meiosis and mitosis; (c) mechanisms demonstrating heterochromatin to be electrically active and genetically important. PMID:24688715

  16. Fluid physics phenomena of resistojet thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, Kenneth J. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This final report includes a list of publications and part of an M.S. thesis titled 'Analyses in Theoretical and Experimental Fluid Flow', by Tony G. Howell. The thesis discusses analyses of momentum and heat transfer occurring in a laminar boundary layer of a non-Newtonian power-law fluid, and experiments completed in a simulated space thruster's plume for prediction comparison.

  17. Prototype instrument for noninvasive ultrasonic inspection and identification of fluids in sealed containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Brian J.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Eckenrode, Brian A.

    2006-05-01

    Government agencies and homeland security related organizations have identified the need to develop and establish a wide range of unprecedented capabilities for providing scientific and technical forensic services to investigations involving hazardous chemical, biological, and radiological materials, including extremely dangerous chemical and biological warfare agents. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a prototype portable, handheld, hazardous materials acoustic inspection prototype that provides noninvasive container interrogation and material identification capabilities using nondestructive ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements. Due to the wide variety of fluids as well as container sizes and materials encountered in various law enforcement inspection activities, the need for high measurement sensitivity and advanced ultrasonic measurement techniques were identified. The prototype was developed using a versatile electronics platform, advanced ultrasonic wave propagation methods, and advanced signal processing techniques. This paper primarily focuses on the ultrasonic measurement methods and signal processing techniques incorporated into the prototype. High bandwidth ultrasonic transducers combined with an advanced pulse compression technique allowed researchers to 1) obtain high signal-to-noise ratios and 2) obtain accurate and consistent time-of-flight (TOF) measurements through a variety of highly attenuative containers and fluid media. Results of work conducted in the laboratory have demonstrated that the prototype experimental measurement technique also provided information regarding container properties, which will be utilized in future container-independent measurements of hidden liquids.

  18. Prototype Instrument for Noninvasive Ultrasonic Inspection and Indentification of Fluids in Sealed Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Brian J.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Eckenrode, Brian A.

    2006-08-01

    Government agencies and homeland security related organizations have identified the need to develop and establish a wide range of unprecedented capabilities for providing scientific and technical forensic services to investigations involving hazardous chemical, biological, and radiological materials, including extremely dangerous chemical and biological warfare agents. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a prototype portable, hand-held, hazardous materials acoustic inspection prototype that provides noninvasive container interrogation and material identification capabilities using nondestructive ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements. Due to the wide variety of fluids as well as container sizes and materials encountered in various law enforcement inspection activities, the need for high measurement sensitivity and advanced ultrasonic measurement techniques were identified. The prototype was developed using a versatile electronics platform, advanced ultrasonic wave propagation methods, and advanced signal processing techniques. This paper primarily focuses on the ultrasonic measurement methods and signal processing techniques incorporated into the prototype. High bandwidth ultrasonic transducers combined with an advanced pulse compression technique allowed researchers to 1) obtain high signal-to-noise ratios and 2) obtain accurate and consistent time-of-flight (TOF) measurements through a variety of highly attenuative containers and fluid media. Results of work conducted in the laboratory have demonstrated that the prototype experimental measurement technique also provided information regarding container properties, which will be utilized in future container-independent measurements of hidden liquids.

  19. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) of this section, or (ii) Develop a continuous best fit calibration curve for the instrument (as a... flow. The points on the calibration curve relative to the calibration device measurements must...

  20. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) of this section; or (ii) Develop a continuous best fit calibration curve for the instrument (as a... flow. The points on the calibration curve relative to the calibration device measurements must...

  1. Measurement of Turbulent Flow Phenomena for the Lower Plenum of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hugh M. McIlroy, Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink

    2010-02-01

    Mean velocity field and turbulence data are presented that measure turbulent flow phenomena in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) similar to a General Atomics design (Gas-Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor). The datawere obtained in the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and are offered as a benchmark for assessing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. The primary objective of this paper is to document the experiment and present a sample of the data set that has been established for this standard problem. Present results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). The flowin the lower plenum consists of multiple jets injected into a confined crossflow—with obstructions. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to approximate flow scaled to that expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. Posts, side walls and end walls are fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive index of the mineral oil working fluid so that optical techniques may be employed for the measurements. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits optical measurements to determine flow characteristics in complex passages and around objects to be obtained without locating intrusive transducers that will disturb the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. An advantage of the INL system is its large size, leading to improved spatial and temporal resolution compared to similar facilities at smaller scales. A three-dimensional (3D) particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to collect the data. Inlet-jet Reynolds numbers (based on the hydraulic diameter of the jet

  2. The fluid surface shape and capillary phenomena under lowered gravity or weightlessness with application to space materials science (powder metallurgy technology: impregnation, liquid-phase sintering; welding, brazing)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidich, Yu. V.; Gab, I. I.; Evdokimov, V. A.; Kurkova, D. I.; Stetsyuk, T. V.; Grigorenko, N. F.; Chemigovtsev, E. P.; Zhuraviev, V. S.; Krasovsky, V. P.

    Some capillary phenomena, shapes of surfaces and menisci of liquids, wetting processes under lowered or zero value of Earth gravitation acceleration (weightlessness) are studied. Theoretically, on the basis of computer integration of classic capillarity equations using previously created programs and varying acceleration g values, and experimentally, modelling weightlessness on the Earth (using small volumes, namely drops of a liquid under lowered gravitation action, or creating interphase boundaries between nonmiscible liquids of equal density), the shape of liquid phases surface (for molten metals) are studied in most typical systems: a drop on a solid surface and liquid meniscus in a cylindrical channel. The experiments concerning to wetting contact angles dependence on gravitation discussed today were carried out (independence of wetting contact angle on value and direction of gravitation vector action is shown). The wetting contact angles in model systems are specially measured also at zero gravitational pressure, which is of basic importance for the theory of capillarity. The results are used in technology of materials brazing, powder metallurgy, in manufacturing of heat pipes porous capillary structures with an eye to implementation of these technologies in space environments (microgravitation).

  3. Strategy for non-contact freeform measurements with a cylinder coordinate measuring instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutler, A.

    2015-10-01

    The strategy for measuring and analyzing freeforms with a new high precision cylinder coordinate measuring instrument equipped with an optical point sensor is presented. As freeforms compared to aspheres are not rotationally symmetric considering outline and shape the measuring process has to be designed in new ways. In addition fiducials on the sample or fixture have to be measured to determine position and orientation, i.e. a coordinate system, of the sample. In the following analysis process this coordinate system has to be taken into account. The performance of the measuring instrument is demonstrated and measuring results of different samples are shown.

  4. FLUID: A numerical interpolation procedure for obtaining thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1977-01-01

    A computer program subroutine, FLUID, was developed to calculate thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluid substances. It provides for determining the thermodynamic state from assigned values for temperature-density, pressure-density, temperature-pressure, pressure-entropy, or pressure-enthalpy. Liquid or two-phase (liquid-gas) conditions are considered as well as the gas phase. A van der Waals model is used to obtain approximate state values; these values are then corrected for real gas effects by model-correction factors obtained from tables based on experimental data. Saturation conditions, specific heat, entropy, and enthalpy data are included in the tables for each gas. Since these tables are external to the FLUID subroutine itself, FLUID can implement any gas for which a set of tables has been generated. (A setup phase is used to establish pointers dynamically to the tables for a specific gas.) Data-table preparation is described. FLUID is available in both SFTRAN and FORTRAN

  5. Antenna Characterization for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental characterization of the antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurement (WISM) under development for the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), is discussed. A current sheet antenna, consisting of a small, 6x6 element, dual-linear polarized array with integrated beamformer, feeds an offset parabolic reflector, enabling WISM operation over an 8 to 40 GHz frequency band. An overview of the test program implemented for both the feed and the reflector antenna is given along with select results for specific frequencies utilized by the radar and radiometric sensors of the WISM.

  6. Antenna Characterization for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental characterization of the antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM) under development for the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), is discussed. A current sheet antenna, consisting of a small, 6x6 element, dual-linear polarized array with integrated beamformer, feeds an offset parabolic reflector, enabling WISM operation over an 8 to 40 GHz frequency band. An overview of the test program implemented for both the feed and the reflector antenna is given along with select results for specific frequencies utilized by the radar and radiometric sensors of the WISM.

  7. Critical phenomena in a low gravity environment. [in fluids as materials science models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengers, J. V.; Moldover, M. R.

    1978-01-01

    Various types of critical point phenomena are discussed including the gas-liquid phase transition of a fluid, the spontaneous magnetization of a ferromagnet below the Curie temperature, and structural phase transitions of solid materials. The interrelation of thermodynamic properties by scaling laws is considered noting theories for the validity of scaling laws and the principle of universality. Gravity effects are reviewed noting that in earth-based experiments the phenomena are significantly influenced by the earth's gravitational field and that fluid samples that are spatially homogeneous cannot be realized near the gas-liquid critical point.

  8. Estimation of cometary surface layer properties from grazing angle measurements done by the CONSERT instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statz, C.; Ciarletti, V.; Hegler, S.; Plettemeier, D.; Angeli, K.; Herique, A.; Kofman, W.

    2013-09-01

    The main scientific objective of the Comet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmission (CONSERT) [1] is to determine the dielectric properties of comet 67P/Chuyurmov-Gerasimenko's nucleus. This will be achieved by performing a sounding of the comet's core between the lander "Philae" launched onto the comet's surface and the orbiter "Rosetta". For the sounding the lander will receive and process the radio signal emitted by the CONSERT instrument aboard the orbiter and retransmit a signal to the orbiter. With data measured during the first science phase, a three-dimensional model of the material distribution with regard to the complex ielectric permittivity of the comet's nucleus is to be reconstructed. In addition to the sounding through the comet's core the instrument will be operated under grazing incidence, i.e. on a part of the orbit where the orbiter moves below the horizon and the direct path between orbiter and lander vanishes. From these measurements the the properties of the surfaces layers are to be estimated. In order to investigate and understand the influence of the permittivity distribution of the surface layers on the grazing angle and the CONSERT signal in case of grazing incidence, simulations of the electromagnetic wave propagation were performed using the well know pseudo-spectral-time-domain method and differential raytracing. The simulations were performed on actual shape models of comet 67P/Chuyurmov-Gerasimenko and material models described in [2]. Exemplary results of these simulations are shown in Fig. 1 and indicate the feasibility of using grazing angle measurements to estimate properties of the surface layering.

  9. AC resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, P.J.

    1983-10-04

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

  10. AC Resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

  11. Fluid Transport Phenomena in Ocular Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Candia, Oscar A.; Alvarez, Lawrence J.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses three largely unrecognized aspects related to fluid movement in ocular tissues; namely, a) the dynamic changes in water permeability observed in corneal and conjunctival epithelia under anisotonic conditions; b) the indications that the fluid transport rate exhibited by the ciliary epithelium is insufficient to explain aqueous humor production; and c) the evidence for fluid movement into and out of the lens during accommodation. We have studied each of these subjects in recent years and present an evaluation of our data within the context of the results of others who have also worked on electrolyte and fluid transport in ocular tissues. We propose that 1) the corneal and conjunctival epithelia, with apical aspects naturally exposed to variable tonicities, are capable of regulating their water permeabilities as part of the cell-volume regulatory process, 2) fluid may directly enter the anterior chamber of the eye across the anterior surface of the iris, thereby representing an additional entry pathway for aqueous humor production, and 3) changes in lens volume occur during accommodation, and such changes are best explained by a net influx and efflux of fluid. PMID:18289913

  12. 40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement. 92.117 Section 92.117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas...

  13. High bandwidth linear viscoelastic properties of complex fluids from the measurement of their free surface fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottier, Basile; Talini, Laurence; Frétigny, Christian

    2012-02-01

    We present a new optical method to measure the linear viscoelastic properties of materials, ranging from complex fluids to soft solids, within a large frequency range (about 0.1--10^4 Hz). The surface fluctuation specular reflection technique is based on the measurement of the thermal fluctuations of the free surfaces of materials at which a laser beam is specularly reflected. The propagation of the thermal surface waves depends on the surface tension, density, and complex viscoelastic modulus of the material. For known surface tension and density, we show that the frequency dependent elastic and loss moduli can be deduced from the fluctuation spectrum. Using a viscoelastic solid (a cross-linked PDMS), which linear viscoelastic properties are known in a large frequency range from rheometric measurements and the time--temperature superposition principle, we show that there is a good agreement between the rheological characterization provided by rheometric and fluctuation measurements. We also present measurements conducted with complex fluids that are supramolecular polymer solutions. The agreement with other low frequency and high frequency rheological measurements is again very good, and we discuss the sensitivity of the technique to surface viscoelasticity.

  14. Magnetically suspended centrifuge for studies of nonlinear phenomena in stratified fluids: Developmental aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Gillies, G.T.; Lawson, M.A. ); Ritter, R.C.; Lawkins, W.F.; Thompson, S.; Sartory, W.K.

    1989-10-01

    Design studies of a novel magnetically suspended centrifuge suggest that such a device would be useful for investigating the nonlinear dynamics of interfacial waves in a rotating two-phase liquid. In its final form, the apparatus would use magnetic bearings, a directly-driven rotor, precision temperature control, and vibration isolation. The mechanical noise in the magnetic suspension coil of a preliminary apparatus was measured to be 3-{mu}m rms in a 5-kHz bandwidth. However, these vibrations were attenuated by an active differentiator to the point where there was no observable oscillation in a 183-gram suspended test mass.

  15. Radiometric instrumentation and measurements guide for photovoltaic performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.

    1997-04-01

    The Photovoltaic Module and Systems Performance and Engineering Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory performs indoor and outdoor standardization, testing, and monitoring of the performance of a wide range of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion devices and systems. The PV Radiometric Measurements and Evaluation Team (PVSRME) within that project is responsible for measurement and characterization of natural and artificial optical radiation which stimulates the PV effect. The PV manufacturing and research and development community often approaches project members for technical information and guidance. A great area of interest is radiometric instrumentation, measurement techniques, and data analysis applied to understanding and improving PV cell, module, and system performance. At the Photovoltaic Radiometric Measurements Workshop conducted by the PVSRME team in July 1995, the need to communicate knowledge of solar and optical radiometric measurements and instrumentation, gained as a result of NREL`s long-term experiences, was identified as an activity that would promote improved measurement processes and measurement quality in the PV research and manufacturing community. The purpose of this document is to address the practical and engineering need to understand optical and solar radiometric instrument performance, selection, calibration, installation, and maintenance applicable to indoor and outdoor radiometric measurements for PV calibration, performance, and testing applications. An introductory section addresses radiometric concepts and definitions. Next, concepts essential to spectral radiometric measurements are discussed. Broadband radiometric instrumentation and measurement concepts are then discussed. Each type of measurement serves as an important component of the PV cell, module, and system performance measurement and characterization process.

  16. Measurement techniques and instruments suitable for life-prediction testing of photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noel, G. T.; Sliemers, F. A.; Deringer, G. C.; Wood, V. E.; Wilkes, K. E.; Gaines, G. B.; Carmichael, D. C.

    1978-01-01

    Array failure modes, relevant materials property changes, and primary degradation mechanisms are discussed as a prerequisite to identifying suitable measurement techniques and instruments. Candidate techniques and instruments are identified on the basis of extensive reviews of published and unpublished information. These methods are organized in six measurement categories - chemical, electrical, optical, thermal, mechanical, and other physicals. Using specified evaluation criteria, the most promising techniques and instruments for use in life prediction tests of arrays were selected.

  17. Compact Instrument for Measuring Profile of a Light Beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanyan, Valeri

    2004-01-01

    The beamviewer is an optical device designed to be attached to a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector for measuring the spatial distribution of intensity of a beam of light (the beam profile ) at a designated plane intersecting the beam. The beamviewer-and-CCD combination is particularly well suited for measuring the radiant- power profile (for a steady beam) or the radiant-energy profile (for a pulsed beam) impinging on the input face or emerging from the output face of a bundle of optical fibers. The beamviewer and-CCD combination could also be used as a general laboratory instrument for profiling light beams, including beams emerging through small holes and laser beams in free space.

  18. A compact DOAS instrument optimised for ammonia field-measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neftel, Albrecht; Sintermann, Joerg; Dietrich, Klaus; Häni, Christoph; Jocher, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Accurate, high time-resolution measurements of NH3 in ambient air are still a challenge due to the stickiness of this molecule and its interactions with inlet or instrument surfaces. Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) with open-path arrangement offers a contact-free in-situ approach to determine ambient NH3. We present a DOAS instrument, optimised for open-path field-measurements of ambient ammonia (NH3) alongside nitrogen oxide (NO) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). This device, operating in the UV range over paths of up to 100 m, is a further development of the miniDOAS presented by Volten et al. (2012). We use a temperature-controlled spectrometer, a deuterium light source and a modified optical arrangement. The system was set up in a robust, field-deployable, temperature-regulated housing. For the evaluation of light spectra a new high-pass filter routine based upon robust baseline extraction with local regression was used. In order to fit differential absorption cross-sections to the measurements, multiple linear regression is performed including terms of an autoregressive-moving-average model. In this presentation we discuss the influence of filter and fit procedure on the precision and accuracy of the system with examples of field measurements with artificial NH3 sources. Volten, H., Bergwerff, J. B., Haaima, M., Lolkema, D. E., Berkhout, A. J. C., van der Hoff, G. R., Potma, C. J. M., Wichink Kruit, R. J., van Pul, W. A. J. and Swart, D. P. J.: Two instruments based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) to measure accurate ammonia concentrations in the atmosphere, Atmospheric Meas. Tech., 5(2), 413-427, doi:10.5194/amt-5-413-2012, 2012.

  19. Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Bhim (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    The Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference provides the scientific community the opportunity to view the current scope of the Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Program, current research opportunities, and plans for the near future. The conference focuses not only on fundamental research but also on applications of this knowledge towards enabling future space exploration missions. A whole session dedicated to biological fluid physics shows increased emphasis that the program has placed on interdisciplinary research. The conference includes invited plenary talks, technical paper presentations, poster presentations, and exhibits. This TM is a compilation of abstracts of the papers and the posters presented at the conference. Web-based proceedings, including the charts used by the presenters, will be posted on the web shortly after the conference.

  20. Damping properties for vibration suppression in electrohydraulic servo-valve torque motor using magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jinghui; Li, Songjing; Han, Hasiaoqier

    2014-04-01

    Aiming to suppress high frequency vibrations of a torque motor in electrohydraulic servo-valves, damping properties of an ester-based Fe3O4 magnetic fluid operating in the squeeze mode are studied in this Letter. The expression of damping forces due to the magnetic fluid on the torque motor is derived and simplified based on the measured magneto-viscosity property. Dynamic characteristics of the torque motor with and without the magnetic fluid are simulated and tested. Damping properties of magnetic fluid for the vibration suppression of a torque motor are verified by the good agreement between the predicted and tested results.

  1. New Platforms for Suborbital Astronomical Observations and In Situ Atmospheric Measurements: Spacecraft, Instruments, and Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodway, K.; DeForest, C. E.; Diller, J.; Vilas, F.; Sollitt, L. S.; Reyes, M. F.; Filo, A. S.; Anderson, E.

    2014-12-01

    Suborbital astronomical observations have over 50 years' history using NASA's sounding rockets and experimental space planes. The new commercial space industry is developing suborbital reusable launch vehicles (sRLV's) to provide low-cost, flexible, and frequent access to space at ~100 km altitude. In the case of XCOR Aerospace's Lynx spacecraft, the vehicle design and capabilities work well for hosting specially designed experiments that can be flown with a human-tended researcher or alone with the pilot on a customized mission. Some of the first-generation instruments and facilities that will conduct solar observations on dedicated Lynx science missions include the SwRI Solar Instrument Pointing Platform (SSIPP) and Atsa Suborbital Observatory, as well as KickSat sprites, which are picosatellites for in situ atmospheric and solar phenomena measurements. The SSIPP is a demonstration two-stage pointed solar observatory that operates inside the Lynx cockpit. The coarse pointing stage includes the pilot in the feedback loop, and the fine stage stabilizes the solar image to achieve arcsecond class pointing. SSIPP is a stepping-stone to future external instruments that can operate with larger apertures and shorter wavelengths in the solar atmosphere. The Planetary Science Institute's Atsa Suborbital Observatory combines the strengths of ground-based observatories and space-based observing to create a facility where a telescope is maintained and used interchangeably with either in-house facility instruments or user-provided instruments. The Atsa prototype is a proof of concept, hand-guided camera that mounts on the interior of the Lynx cockpit to test target acquisition and tracking for human-operated suborbital astronomy. KickSat sprites are mass-producible, one inch printed circuit boards (PCBs) populated by programmable off the shelf microprocessors and radios for real time data transmission. The sprite PCBs can integrate chip-based radiometers, magnetometers

  2. Instrumentation for Measurement of Gas Permeability of Polymeric Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Billy T.; Wood, George M.; Brown, Kenneth G.; Burns, Karen S.

    1993-01-01

    A mass spectrometric 'Dynamic Delta' method for the measurement of gas permeability of polymeric membranes has been developed. The method is universally applicable for measurement of the permeability of any gas through polymeric membrane materials. The usual large sample size of more than 100 square centimeters required for other methods is not necessary for this new method which requires a size less than one square centimeter. The new method should fulfill requirements and find applicability for industrial materials such as food packaging, contact lenses and other commercial materials where gas permeability or permselectivity properties are important.

  3. The MOPITT instrument as a Prototype for Long-Term Space-Based Atmospheric Measurements in the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, James

    2016-07-01

    One of the major characteristics of the Anthropocene will be changes in all the Earth systems on many timescales. Changes that occur within a generation will be very significant for policy decisions and these will require measurements on corresponding timescales from space-based instruments, but these times are long compared to traditional satellite lifetimes. Whether by luck or by good design there are now a number of satellite missions that are recording data over long time periods. With a single instrument, decadal and longer time series of relevant atmospheric parameters have been achieved and the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument is one such instrument. Launched on 18th December 1999 on the Terra spacecraft, MOPITT has now completed more than 16 years of operation measuring carbon monoxide (CO) over the planet and the mission continues. It is entirely possible that these measurements will span two decades before completion. MOPITT therefore offers a case study of a very long single-instrument time series, albeit one with challenges because this longevity was not part of the original design criteria: The original design specified about a five year life and this has already been considerably exceeded. MOPITT does enable us to look at long term trends and intermittent phenomena over the planet for an extended period of tie encompassing an entire solar cycle and many cycles of El Niño and other quasi-periodic phenomena. This presentation will consider, with examples, some of the advantages and some of the problems of these long-term space measurements with an eye to the future and the needs of future generations. MOPITT was provided to NASA's Terra spacecraft by the Canadian Space Agency and was built by COMDEV of Cambridge, Ontario. Data processing is performed by the MOPITT team at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO. Instrument control is by the team at the University of Toronto.

  4. The Impact of Fluid Properties and Flow Conditions on the Measurement of Relative Permeability and Residual CO2 Trapping Saturation for CO2-Brine Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, B.; Al-Menhali, A.; Krevor, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Successful industrial scale carbon dioxide injection into deep saline aquifers will be dependent on the ability to model the flow of the fluid and to quantify the impact of various trapping mechanisms. The effectiveness of the models is in turn dependent on high quality laboratory measurements of basic multiphase flow properties such as relative permeability and residual trapping at reservoir conditions. Compared with typical oil-brine systems, however, a unique defining characteristic of the CO2-brine system is its combination of high viscosity ratio and low density ratio. This combination of properties results in unique complications for experiments with CO2 and brine and unique flow conditions must be used to achieve the combined goals of observations across a large saturation range and the avoidance of the effects of heterogeneity as well as capillary forces and gravity segregation. We have simulated the corefloods experiments at various conditions and calculated with different interpretation techniques: Steady state method, JBN-type method and history matching. As one of the essential mechanisms for CO2 storage underground, residual trapping refers to the trapping of CO2 through capillary forces within the pore space of a permeable aquifer. There are few studies that have observed the trapping characteristics for CO2-brine systems in permeable rocks, including the impact of reservoir conditions, and this remains a major uncertainty for geologic CO2 storage. This work presents results from a core-flooding laboratory that has been recently developed at Imperial College dedicated to observations of CO2-brine systems. The apparatus includes high precision pumps, accurate temperature control and a rotating X-ray CT scanner that allows experiments to be performed in both vertical and horizontal directions. The proper approach to measuring relative permeability for CO2-brine system is proposed and demonstrated. The changes in residual trapping correlated to pressure

  5. Instrumentation for chemical species measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, C.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Instrument advances made during 1987-1990 for atmospheric trace species measurements are reviewed. Problems discussed include types of measurement strategies, oxidant species, reductant species, and flux measurement. Particular attention is given to odd oxygen species, hydrogen oxides, hydrocarbon oxy and peroxy radicals, halogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxides, hydrocarbons, oxygenated hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, reduced sulfur compounds, ammonia, cyanide compounds, water vapor, nitrous oxide, hydrogen halides, fully halogenated carbon compounds, fully halogenated carbonyl compounds, and sulfur hexafluoride. 195 refs.

  6. POLVSM (Polarized Volume Scattering Meter) instrument: an innovative device to measure the directional and polarized scattering properties of hydrosols.

    PubMed

    Chami, Malik; Thirouard, Alexandre; Harmel, Tristan

    2014-10-20

    An innovative instrument dedicated to the multispectral measurements of the directional and polarized scattering properties of the hydrosols, so-called POLVSM, is described. The instrument could be used onboard a ship, as a benchtop instrument, or at laboratory. The originality of the POLVSM concept relies on the use of a double periscopic optical system whose role is (i) to separate the plane containing the light source from the scattering plane containing the sample and the receiver and (ii) to prevent from any specularly reflected light within the sample chamber. As a result, a wide range of scattering angle, namely from 1° to 179°, is covered by the detector. Another originality of the instrument is to measure the Mueller scattering matrix elements, including the degree of polarization. A relevant calibration procedure, which could be of great interest as well for other instruments, is proposed to convert the raw data into physical units. The relative uncertainty in POLVSM data was determined at ± 4.3%. The analysis of measurements of the volume scattering function and degree of polarization performed under controlled conditions for samples dominated either by inorganic hydrosols or phytoplankton monospecific species showed a good consistency with literature, thus confirming the good performance of the POLVSM device. Comparisons of POLVSM data with theoretical calculations showed that Mie theory could reproduce efficiently the measurements of the VSF and degree of polarization for the case of inorganic hydrosols sample, despite the likely non sphericity of these particles as revealed by one of the element of the Mueller matrix. Our results suggested as well that a sophisticated modeling of the heterogeneous internal structure of living cells, or at least, the use of layered sphere models, is needed to correctly predict the directional and polarized effects of phytoplankton on the oceanic radiation. The relevance of performing angularly resolved measurements

  7. POLVSM (Polarized Volume Scattering Meter) instrument: an innovative device to measure the directional and polarized scattering properties of hydrosols.

    PubMed

    Chami, Malik; Thirouard, Alexandre; Harmel, Tristan

    2014-10-20

    An innovative instrument dedicated to the multispectral measurements of the directional and polarized scattering properties of the hydrosols, so-called POLVSM, is described. The instrument could be used onboard a ship, as a benchtop instrument, or at laboratory. The originality of the POLVSM concept relies on the use of a double periscopic optical system whose role is (i) to separate the plane containing the light source from the scattering plane containing the sample and the receiver and (ii) to prevent from any specularly reflected light within the sample chamber. As a result, a wide range of scattering angle, namely from 1° to 179°, is covered by the detector. Another originality of the instrument is to measure the Mueller scattering matrix elements, including the degree of polarization. A relevant calibration procedure, which could be of great interest as well for other instruments, is proposed to convert the raw data into physical units. The relative uncertainty in POLVSM data was determined at ± 4.3%. The analysis of measurements of the volume scattering function and degree of polarization performed under controlled conditions for samples dominated either by inorganic hydrosols or phytoplankton monospecific species showed a good consistency with literature, thus confirming the good performance of the POLVSM device. Comparisons of POLVSM data with theoretical calculations showed that Mie theory could reproduce efficiently the measurements of the VSF and degree of polarization for the case of inorganic hydrosols sample, despite the likely non sphericity of these particles as revealed by one of the element of the Mueller matrix. Our results suggested as well that a sophisticated modeling of the heterogeneous internal structure of living cells, or at least, the use of layered sphere models, is needed to correctly predict the directional and polarized effects of phytoplankton on the oceanic radiation. The relevance of performing angularly resolved measurements

  8. Apparatus for characterizing the temporo-spatial properties of a dynamic fluid front and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Battiste, Richard L

    2013-12-31

    Methods and apparatus are described for characterizing the temporal-spatial properties of a dynamic fluid front within a mold space while the mold space is being filled with fluid. A method includes providing a mold defining a mold space and having one or more openings into the mold space; heating a plurality of temperature sensors that extend into the mold space; injecting a fluid into th emold space through the openings, the fluid experiencing a dynamic fluid front while filling the mold space with a fluid; and characterizing temporal-spatial properties of the dynamic fluid front by monitoring a termperature of each of the plurality of heated temperature sensors while the mold space is being filled with the fluid. An apparatus includes a mold defining a mold space; one or more openings for introducing a fluid into th emold space and filling the mold space with the fluid, the fluid experiencing a dynamic fluid front while filling the mold space; a plurality of heated temperature sensors extending into the mold space; and a computer coupled to the plurality of heated temperature sensors for characterizing the temporal-spatial properties of the dynamic fluid front.

  9. Apparatus for characterizing the temporo-spatial properties of a dynamic fluid front and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Battiste, Richard L.

    2007-12-25

    Methods and apparatus are described for characterizing the temporal-spatial properties of a dynamic fluid front within a mold space while the mold space is being filled with fluid. A method includes providing a mold defining a mold space and having one or more openings into the mold space; heating a plurality of temperature sensors that extend into the mold space; injecting a fluid into the mold space through the openings, the fluid experiencing a dynamic fluid front while filling the mold space with the fluid; and characterizing temporal-spatial properties of the dynamic fluid front by monitoring a temperature of each of the plurality of heated temperature sensors while the mold space is being filled with the fluid. An apparatus includes a mold defining a mold space; one or more openings for introducing a fluid into the mold space and filling the mold space with the fluid, the fluid experiencing a dynamic fluid front while filling the mold space; a plurality of heated temperature sensors extending into the mold space; and a computer coupled to the plurality of heated temperature sensors for characterizing the temporal-spatial properties of the dynamic fluid front.

  10. Interactive FORTRAN IV computer programs for the thermodynamic and transport properties of selected cryogens (fluids pack)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The thermodynamic and transport properties of selected cryogens had programmed into a series of computer routines. Input variables are any two of P, rho or T in the single phase regions and either P or T for the saturated liquid or vapor state. The output is pressure, density, temperature, entropy, enthalpy for all of the fluids and in most cases specific heat capacity and speed of sound. Viscosity and thermal conductivity are also given for most of the fluids. The programs are designed for access by remote terminal; however, they have been written in a modular form to allow the user to select either specific fluids or specific properties for particular needs. The program includes properties for hydrogen, helium, neon, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and methane. The programs include properties for gaseous and liquid states usually from the triple point to some upper limit of pressure and temperature which varies from fluid to fluid.

  11. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, Thomas G.; Thacker, Louis H.; Fine, H. Alan

    1993-01-01

    An instrument for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets 12, the packets 12 having a wall 14 sufficiently thin that it can be deformed by the application of an external vacuum to small area thereof. The instrument has a detector head 18 for placement against the deformable wall 14 of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall 14, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe 20. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector 26. An abrupt change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the vacuum applied through the head 18 to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum Within the packet 12. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum reference plate 44 is placed beneath the packet 12 to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface 16 of the packet. A packet production line model is also described.

  12. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, T.G.; Thacker, L.H.; Fine, H.A.

    1995-04-18

    An instrument is disclosed for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets, the packets having a wall that it can be deformed by the application of an external dynamic vacuum to an area thereof. The instrument has a detector head for placement against the deformable wall of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector. A change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the dynamic vacuum applied through the head be to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum plate is placed beneath the packet to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface of the packet. A vacuum can be applied to a recess in this vacuum plate, the value of which can be used to calibrate the vacuum transducer in the detector head. 4 figs.

  13. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, Thomas G.; Thacker, Louis H.; Fine, H. Alan

    1995-01-01

    An instrument for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets 12, the packets 12 having a wall 14 that it can be deformed by the application of an external dynamic vacuum to an area thereof. The instrument has a detector head 18 for placement against the deformable wall 14 of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall 14, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe 20. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector 26. A change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the dynamic vacuum applied through the head be to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet 12. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum plate 44 is placed beneath the packet 12 to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface 16 of the packet. A vacuum can be applied to a recess in this vacuum plate, the value of which can be used to calibrate the vacuum transducer in the detector head.

  14. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, T.G.; Thacker, L.H.; Fine, H.A.

    1993-10-05

    An instrument is described for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets, the packets having a wall sufficiently thin that it can be deformed by the application of an external vacuum to small area thereof. The instrument has a detector head for placement against the deformable wall of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector. An abrupt change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the vacuum applied through the head to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum reference plate is placed beneath the packet to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface of the packet. A packet production line model is also described. 3 figures.

  15. Design Considerations for Remote High-Speed Pressure Measurements of Dynamic Combustion Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Rohrssen, Robert; Perez, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    As gas turbine combustion systems evolve to achieve ultra-low emission targets, monitoring and controlling dynamic combustion processes becomes increasingly important. These dynamic processes may include flame extinction, combustion-driven instabilities, or other dynamic combustion phenomena. Pressure sensors can be incorporated into the combustor liner design, but this approach is complicated by the harsh operating environment. One practical solution involves locating the sensor in a more remote location, such as outside the pressure casing. The sensor can be connected to the measurement point by small diameter tubing. Although this is a practical approach, the dynamics of the tubing can introduce significant errors into the pressure measurement. This paper addresses measurement errors associated with semi-infinite coil remote sensing setups and proposes an approach to improve the accuracy of these types of measurements.

  16. Doppler instrumentation for measuring blood velocity and flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, R. W.; Hottinger, C. F.; Meindl, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Doppler ultrasonic blood flowmeters are reviewed in detail. The importance of measurement accuracy for transcutaneous flowmeters and their clinical application is stressed. Doppler imaging was combined with conventional pulse echo imaging, and diagnostic information was extracted from flow signals. The range and extent of applications of Doppler instruments was also presented.

  17. A miniDOAS instrument optimised for ammonia field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintermann, Jörg; Dietrich, Klaus; Häni, Christoph; Bell, Michael; Jocher, Markus; Neftel, Albrecht

    2016-06-01

    We present a differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument, called "miniDOAS", optimised for optical open-path field-measurements of ambient ammonia (NH3) alongside nitrogen oxide (NO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The instrument is a further development of the miniDOAS presented by Volten et al. (2012). We use a temperature-controlled spectrometer, a deuterium light source and a modified optical arrangement. The system was set up in a robust, field-deployable, temperature-regulated housing. For the evaluation of light spectra we use a new high-pass filter routine based upon robust baseline extraction with local regression. Multiple linear regression including terms of an autoregressive-moving-average model is used to determine concentrations. For NH3 the random uncertainty is about 1.4 % of the concentration, and not better than 0.2 µg m-3. Potential biases for the slope of the calibration are given by the precision of the differential absorption cross sections (±3 %) and for the offset by the precision of the estimation of concentration offsets (cref) introduced by the reference spectrum Iref. Comparisons of miniDOAS measurements to those by NH3 acid trap devices showed good agreement. The miniDOAS can be flexibly used for a wide range of field trials, such as micrometeorological NH3 flux measurements with approaches based upon horizontal or vertical concentration differences. Results from such applications covering concentration dynamics of less than one up to several hundreds of µg m-3 are presented.

  18. Aerosol Characterization and New Instrumentation for Better Understanding Snow Radiative Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beres, N. D.

    2015-12-01

    Snow albedo is determined by snowpack thickness and grain size, but also affected by contamination with light-absorbing, microscopic (e.g., mineral dust, combustion aerosols, bio-aerosols) and macroscopic (e.g., microalgae, plant debris, sand, organisms) compounds. Most currently available instruments for measuring snow albedo utilize the natural, downward flux of solar radiation and the reflected upward flux. This reliance on solar radiation (and, thus, large zenith angles and clear-sky conditions) leads to severe constraints, preventing characterization of detailed diurnal snow albedo cycles. Here, we describe instrumentation and methodologies to address these limitations with the development and deployment of new snow radiation sensors for measuring surface spectral and in-snow radiative properties. This novel instrumentation will be tested at the CRREL/UCSB Eastern Sierra (CUES) Snow Study Site at Mammoth Mountain, which is extensively instrumented for characterizing snow properties including snow albedo and surface morphology. However, it has been lacking instrumentation for the characterization of aerosols that can be deposited on the snow surface through dry and wet deposition. Currently, we are installing aerosol instrumentation at the CUES site, which are also described. This includes instruments for the multi-wavelength measurement of aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients and for the characterization of aerosol size distribution. Knowledge of aerosol concentration and physical and optical properties will allow for the study of aerosol deposition and modification of snow albedo and for establishing an aerosol climatology for the CUES site.

  19. Instrument for Aircraft-Icing and Cloud-Physics Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilie, Lyle; Bouley, Dan; Sivo, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The figure shows a compact, rugged, simple sensor head that is part of an instrumentation system for making measurements to characterize the severity of aircraft-icing conditions and/or to perform research on cloud physics. The quantities that are calculated from measurement data acquired by this system and that are used to quantify the severity of icing conditions include sizes of cloud water drops, cloud liquid water content (LWC), cloud ice water content (IWC), and cloud total water content (TWC). The sensor head is mounted on the outside of an aircraft, positioned and oriented to intercept the ambient airflow. The sensor head consists of an open housing that is heated in a controlled manner to keep it free of ice and that contains four hot-wire elements. The hot-wire sensing elements have different shapes and sizes and, therefore, exhibit different measurement efficiencies with respect to droplet size and water phase (liquid, frozen, or mixed). Three of the hot-wire sensing elements are oriented across the airflow so as to intercept incoming cloud water. For each of these elements, the LWC or TWC affects the power required to maintain a constant temperature in the presence of cloud water.

  20. Fluid models and simulations of biological cell phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenspan, H. P.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamics of coated droplets are examined within the context of biofluids. Of specific interest is the manner in which the shape of a droplet, the motion within it as well as that of aggregates of droplets can be controlled by the modulation of surface properties and the extent to which such fluid phenomena are an intrinsic part of cellular processes. From the standpoint of biology, an objective is to elucidate some of the general dynamical features that affect the disposition of an entire cell, cell colonies and tissues. Conventionally averaged field variables of continuum mechanics are used to describe the overall global effects which result from the myriad of small scale molecular interactions. An attempt is made to establish cause and effect relationships from correct dynamical laws of motion rather than by what may have been unnecessary invocation of metabolic or life processes. Several topics are discussed where there are strong analogies droplets and cells including: encapsulated droplets/cell membranes; droplet shape/cell shape; adhesion and spread of a droplet/cell motility and adhesion; and oams and multiphase flows/cell aggregates and tissues. Evidence is presented to show that certain concepts of continuum theory such as suface tension, surface free energy, contact angle, bending moments, etc. are relevant and applicable to the study of cell biology.

  1. Primary care assessment instruments for patients at risk of, or with, persistent pain: opportunistic findings from a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Grimmer-Somers, Karen; Kumar, Saravana; Vipond, Nic; Hall, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    Background Early identification in primary care settings of individuals with, or at-risk of, developing persistent pain, is important to limit development of disability. There is little information to assist primary care providers to choose or deliver relevant, efficient, and soundly constructed assessment instruments for this purpose. Objective We recently published the findings of a literature review, which produced a compendium of assessment instruments to identify adults with, or at-risk of developing, persistent pain of noncancer origin. This paper reports on instruments opportunistically identified during this review which may be appropriate to primary health care settings for early identification of such patients. Results One hundred sixteen potentially useful instruments were initially identified in the review, measuring pain severity, psychological distress, functional capacity, quality of life or multidimensional constructs of persistent pain. Following a series of steps, 45 instruments were shortlisted, with sound clinical utility and strong psychometric properties. Of these, 16 instruments were appropriate to primary health care settings because of simple wording, brief items, short administration time, and ease of scoring. Conclusion No one assessment instrument captured all constructs of persistent pain. The 16 instruments provide a broad choice for primary care clinicians to assist with early identification of adults at risk of, or with persistent pain. PMID:20360895

  2. An inexpensive instrument for measuring wave exposure and water velocity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Figurski, J.D.; Malone, D.; Lacy, J.R.; Denny, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ocean waves drive a wide variety of nearshore physical processes, structuring entire ecosystems through their direct and indirect effects on the settlement, behavior, and survivorship of marine organisms. However, wave exposure remains difficult and expensive to measure. Here, we report on an inexpensive and easily constructed instrument for measuring wave-induced water velocities. The underwater relative swell kinetics instrument (URSKI) is a subsurface float tethered by a short (<1 m) line to the seafloor. Contained within the float is an accelerometer that records the tilt of the float in response to passing waves. During two field trials totaling 358 h, we confirmed the accuracy and precision of URSKI measurements through comparison to velocities measured by an in situ acoustic Doppler velocimeter and those predicted by a standard swell model, and we evaluated how the dimensions of the devices, its buoyancy, and sampling frequency can be modified for use in a variety of environments.

  3. Portable digital lock-in instrument to determine chemical constituents with single-color absorption measurements for Global Health Initiatives.

    PubMed

    Vacas-Jacques, Paulino; Linnes, Jacqueline; Young, Anna; Gerrard, Victoria; Gomez-Marquez, Jose

    2014-03-01

    Innovations in international health require the use of state-of-the-art technology to enable clinical chemistry for diagnostics of bodily fluids. We propose the implementation of a portable and affordable lock-in amplifier-based instrument that employs digital technology to perform biochemical diagnostics on blood, urine, and other fluids. The digital instrument is composed of light source and optoelectronic sensor, lock-in detection electronics, microcontroller unit, and user interface components working with either power supply or batteries. The instrument performs lock-in detection provided that three conditions are met. First, the optoelectronic signal of interest needs be encoded in the envelope of an amplitude-modulated waveform. Second, the reference signal required in the demodulation channel has to be frequency and phase locked with respect to the optoelectronic carrier signal. Third, the reference signal should be conditioned appropriately. We present three approaches to condition the signal appropriately: high-pass filtering the reference signal, precise offset tuning the reference level by low-pass filtering, and by using a voltage divider network. We assess the performance of the lock-in instrument by comparing it to a benchmark device and by determining protein concentration with single-color absorption measurements. We validate the concentration values obtained with the proposed instrument using chemical concentration measurements. Finally, we demonstrate that accurate retrieval of phase information can be achieved by using the same instrument.

  4. Portable digital lock-in instrument to determine chemical constituents with single-color absorption measurements for Global Health Initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Vacas-Jacques, Paulino; Linnes, Jacqueline; Young, Anna; Gomez-Marquez, Jose; Gerrard, Victoria

    2014-03-15

    Innovations in international health require the use of state-of-the-art technology to enable clinical chemistry for diagnostics of bodily fluids. We propose the implementation of a portable and affordable lock-in amplifier-based instrument that employs digital technology to perform biochemical diagnostics on blood, urine, and other fluids. The digital instrument is composed of light source and optoelectronic sensor, lock-in detection electronics, microcontroller unit, and user interface components working with either power supply or batteries. The instrument performs lock-in detection provided that three conditions are met. First, the optoelectronic signal of interest needs be encoded in the envelope of an amplitude-modulated waveform. Second, the reference signal required in the demodulation channel has to be frequency and phase locked with respect to the optoelectronic carrier signal. Third, the reference signal should be conditioned appropriately. We present three approaches to condition the signal appropriately: high-pass filtering the reference signal, precise offset tuning the reference level by low-pass filtering, and by using a voltage divider network. We assess the performance of the lock-in instrument by comparing it to a benchmark device and by determining protein concentration with single-color absorption measurements. We validate the concentration values obtained with the proposed instrument using chemical concentration measurements. Finally, we demonstrate that accurate retrieval of phase information can be achieved by using the same instrument.

  5. Portable digital lock-in instrument to determine chemical constituents with single-color absorption measurements for Global Health Initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacas-Jacques, Paulino; Linnes, Jacqueline; Young, Anna; Gerrard, Victoria; Gomez-Marquez, Jose

    2014-03-01

    Innovations in international health require the use of state-of-the-art technology to enable clinical chemistry for diagnostics of bodily fluids. We propose the implementation of a portable and affordable lock-in amplifier-based instrument that employs digital technology to perform biochemical diagnostics on blood, urine, and other fluids. The digital instrument is composed of light source and optoelectronic sensor, lock-in detection electronics, microcontroller unit, and user interface components working with either power supply or batteries. The instrument performs lock-in detection provided that three conditions are met. First, the optoelectronic signal of interest needs be encoded in the envelope of an amplitude-modulated waveform. Second, the reference signal required in the demodulation channel has to be frequency and phase locked with respect to the optoelectronic carrier signal. Third, the reference signal should be conditioned appropriately. We present three approaches to condition the signal appropriately: high-pass filtering the reference signal, precise offset tuning the reference level by low-pass filtering, and by using a voltage divider network. We assess the performance of the lock-in instrument by comparing it to a benchmark device and by determining protein concentration with single-color absorption measurements. We validate the concentration values obtained with the proposed instrument using chemical concentration measurements. Finally, we demonstrate that accurate retrieval of phase information can be achieved by using the same instrument.

  6. Mass measuring instrument for use under microgravity conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Yusaku; Yokota, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Seiji; Sugita, Yoichi; Ito, Hitomi; Shimada, Kazuhito

    2008-05-15

    A prototype instrument for measuring astronaut body mass under microgravity conditions has been developed and its performance was evaluated by parabolic flight tests. The instrument, which is the space scale, is applied as follows. Connect the subject astronaut to the space scale with a rubber cord. Use a force transducer to measure the force acting on the subject and an optical interferometer to measure the velocity of the subject. The subject's mass is calculated as the impulse divided by the velocity change, i.e., M={integral}Fdt/{delta}v. Parabolic flight by using a jet aircraft produces a zero-gravity condition lasting approximately 20 s. The performance of the prototype space scale was evaluated during such a flight by measuring the mass of a sample object.

  7. Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Astronaut Mike Fincke places droplets of honey onto the strings for the Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM) investigation onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The FMVM experiment measures the time it takes for two individual highly viscous fluid droplets to coalesce or merge into one droplet. Different fluids and droplet size combinations were tested in the series of experiments. By using the microgravity environment, researchers can measure the viscosity or 'thickness' of fluids without the influence of containers and gravity using this new technique. Understanding viscosity could help scientists understand industrially important materials such as paints, emulsions, polymer melts and even foams used to produce pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic products.

  8. Instrumentation of sampling aircraft for measurement of launch vehicle effluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wornom, D. E.; Woods, D. C.; Thomas, M. E.; Tyson, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    An aircraft was selected and instrumented to measure effluents emitted from large solid propellant rockets during launch activities. The considerations involved in aircraft selection, sampling probes, and instrumentation are discussed with respect to obtaining valid airborne measurements. Discussions of the data acquisition system used, the instrument power system, and operational sampling procedures are included. Representative measurements obtained from an actual rocket launch monitoring activity are also presented.

  9. A method for thermal diffusivity measurement in fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín, E.; Hernández-Rosales, E.; Mansanares, A. M.; Ivanov, R.; Rojas-Trigos, J. B.; Calderón, A.

    2013-10-01

    A technique is proposed for thermal diffusivity measurement in fluids. It is based on the Angstrom method, but with excitation of thermal waves by electromagnetic energy absorption and pyroelectric detection. The good agreement between measured thermal diffusivity of air and some test liquids with literature values shows the validity of the method. It is free of some limitations of conventional photopyroelectric technique with length scanning because it is free of moving parts inside the sample and because it avoids problems associated with the non-parallelism between thermal wave generator surface and sensor. It does not require any data normalization procedure or special sample preparation.

  10. A method for thermal diffusivity measurement in fluids.

    PubMed

    Marín, E; Hernández-Rosales, E; Mansanares, A M; Ivanov, R; Rojas-Trigos, J B; Calderón, A

    2013-10-01

    A technique is proposed for thermal diffusivity measurement in fluids. It is based on the Angstrom method, but with excitation of thermal waves by electromagnetic energy absorption and pyroelectric detection. The good agreement between measured thermal diffusivity of air and some test liquids with literature values shows the validity of the method. It is free of some limitations of conventional photopyroelectric technique with length scanning because it is free of moving parts inside the sample and because it avoids problems associated with the non-parallelism between thermal wave generator surface and sensor. It does not require any data normalization procedure or special sample preparation. PMID:24182147

  11. Development of a new instrument for direct skin friction measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vakili, A. D.; Wu, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    A device developed for the direct measurement of wall shear stress generated by flows is described. Simple and symmetric in design with optional small moving mass and no internal friction, the features employed in the design eliminate most of the difficulties associated with the traditional floating element balances. The device is basically small and can be made in various sizes. Vibration problems associated with the floating element skin friction balances were found to be minimized due to the design symmetry and optional damping provided. The design eliminates or reduces the errors associated with conventional floating element devices: such as errors due to gaps, pressure gradient, acceleration, heat transfer, and temperature change. The instrument is equipped with various sensing systems and the output signal is a linear function of the wall shear stress. Dynamic measurements could be made in a limited range and measurements in liquids could be performed readily. Measurement made in the three different tunnels show excellent agreement with data obtained by the floating element devices and other techniques.

  12. Instrument for measuring moment of inertia with high precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yongjun; Lin, Min; Guo, Bin

    2010-08-01

    Accurate calculation of the moment of inertia of an irregular body is made difficult by the large number of quantities. A popular method is to use a trifilar suspension system to measure the period of oscillation of the body in the horizontal plane. In this paper, an instrument for measuring the moment of inertia based on trifilar pendulum is designed; some sources of error are discussed; three metal disks with known moments of inertia are used to calibrate the instrument, the other metal disks with known moments of inertia are used to test the accuracy of the instrument. The results are consistent when compared with calculated moment of inertia of the metal disks. In addition, the instrument could be used to measure the moment of inertia of other irregular objects. The period of oscillation is acquired by the capture mode of MSP430 microprocessor, the mass is obtained by the Electronic Balance and the data is transferred to the MSP430 via serial port.

  13. Simple Instruments for Continuous Measurement of Trapped Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, P.; Desorgher, L.; Zehnder, A.

    1996-12-01

    Particles trapped in the Earth's radiation belts form a particular danger to spacecraft and their equipment. The high energy particles can penetrate deep into a satellite and cause upsets in the electronics or unrecoverable damage. It is therefore of practical importance, not only for design, but also for spacecraft operations, to have models able to predict the particle environment for any position at any time. Up to now static models have been commonly used, constructed from a set of data measured over a particular period, which are supposed to describe average particle fluxes. They do not take into account the dynamics and variability of the environment. The magnetosphere is known to be a dynamical system, strongly influenced by the solar wind and Interplanetary Magnetic Field. It is therefore crucial to consider solar and magnetospheric data simultaneously in constructing forecasting models. Moreover, forecasts must be based on actual data, which allows comparison of prediction and observation, and improvement of the model. This implies that the "system" must be continuously monitored. Whereas solar data is continuously gathered by different ground and space-based observatories, trapped particles are measured only sporadically by instruments covering specific parts of geomagnetic coordinate space. In order to overcome this shortage of particle data, the European Space Agency, ESA is sponsoring the development of a simple instrument, which is light and requires low-power, to be acceptable as a supplementary payload on many scientific and applications satellites. This has the advantage of being low-cost, potentially resulting in many carriers and provides the host spacecraft with valuable radiation environment and effects housekeeping data. The first step in this direction has been the construction of two models of the Radiation Environment Monitor, REM, launched into two different orbits in 1994. It has proved to be a reliable monitor of radiation belt particles

  14. Method and apparatus for measuring the intensity and phase of one or more ultrashort light pulses and for measuring optical properties of materials

    DOEpatents

    Trebino, Rick P.; DeLong, Kenneth W.

    1996-01-01

    The intensity and phase of one or more ultrashort light pulses are obtained using a non-linear optical medium. Information derived from the light pulses is also used to measure optical properties of materials. Various retrieval techniques are employed. Both "instantaneously" and "non-instantaneously" responding optical mediums may be used.

  15. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 141 - Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating, as Appropriate) Certification Course G...—Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating... following ratings: (a) Flight Instructor Instrument—Airplane. (b) Flight Instructor...

  16. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 141 - Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating, as Appropriate) Certification Course G...—Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating... following ratings: (a) Flight Instructor Instrument—Airplane. (b) Flight Instructor...

  17. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 141 - Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating, as Appropriate) Certification Course G...—Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating... following ratings: (a) Flight Instructor Instrument—Airplane. (b) Flight Instructor...

  18. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 141 - Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating, as Appropriate) Certification Course G...—Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating... following ratings: (a) Flight Instructor Instrument—Airplane. (b) Flight Instructor...

  19. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 141 - Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating, as Appropriate) Certification Course G...—Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating... following ratings: (a) Flight Instructor Instrument—Airplane. (b) Flight Instructor...

  20. Method for noninvasive determination of acoustic properties of fluids inside pipes

    DOEpatents

    None

    2016-08-02

    A method for determining the composition of fluids flowing through pipes from noninvasive measurements of acoustic properties of the fluid is described. The method includes exciting a first transducer located on the external surface of the pipe through which the fluid under investigation is flowing, to generate an ultrasound chirp signal, as opposed to conventional pulses. The chirp signal is received by a second transducer disposed on the external surface of the pipe opposing the location of the first transducer, from which the transit time through the fluid is determined and the sound speed of the ultrasound in the fluid is calculated. The composition of a fluid is calculated from the sound speed therein. The fluid density may also be derived from measurements of sound attenuation. Several signal processing approaches are described for extracting the transit time information from the data with the effects of the pipe wall having been subtracted.

  1. Virtual Instrument for Emissions Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Armando; Ramos, Rogelio; Montero, Gisela; Coronado, Marcos; García, Conrado; Pérez, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    The gases emissions measurement systems in internal combustion engines are strict and expensive nowadays. For this reason, a virtual instrument was developed to measure the combustion emissions from an internal combustion diesel engine, running with diesel-biodiesel mixtures. This software is called virtual instrument for emissions measurement (VIEM), and it was developed in the platform of LabVIEW 2010® virtual programming. VIEM works with sensors connected to a signal conditioning system, and a data acquisition system is used as interface for a computer in order to measure and monitor in real time the emissions of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2 gases. This paper shows the results of the VIEM programming, the integrated circuits diagrams used for the signal conditioning of sensors, and the sensors characterization of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2. VIEM is a low-cost instrument and is simple and easy to use. Besides, it is scalable, making it flexible and defined by the user. PMID:27034893

  2. Virtual Instrument for Emissions Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Armando; Ramos, Rogelio; Montero, Gisela; Coronado, Marcos; García, Conrado; Pérez, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    The gases emissions measurement systems in internal combustion engines are strict and expensive nowadays. For this reason, a virtual instrument was developed to measure the combustion emissions from an internal combustion diesel engine, running with diesel-biodiesel mixtures. This software is called virtual instrument for emissions measurement (VIEM), and it was developed in the platform of LabVIEW 2010® virtual programming. VIEM works with sensors connected to a signal conditioning system, and a data acquisition system is used as interface for a computer in order to measure and monitor in real time the emissions of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2 gases. This paper shows the results of the VIEM programming, the integrated circuits diagrams used for the signal conditioning of sensors, and the sensors characterization of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2. VIEM is a low-cost instrument and is simple and easy to use. Besides, it is scalable, making it flexible and defined by the user.

  3. Virtual Instrument for Emissions Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Armando; Montero, Gisela; Coronado, Marcos; García, Conrado; Pérez, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    The gases emissions measurement systems in internal combustion engines are strict and expensive nowadays. For this reason, a virtual instrument was developed to measure the combustion emissions from an internal combustion diesel engine, running with diesel-biodiesel mixtures. This software is called virtual instrument for emissions measurement (VIEM), and it was developed in the platform of LabVIEW 2010® virtual programming. VIEM works with sensors connected to a signal conditioning system, and a data acquisition system is used as interface for a computer in order to measure and monitor in real time the emissions of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2 gases. This paper shows the results of the VIEM programming, the integrated circuits diagrams used for the signal conditioning of sensors, and the sensors characterization of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2. VIEM is a low-cost instrument and is simple and easy to use. Besides, it is scalable, making it flexible and defined by the user. PMID:27034893

  4. Instrument for Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Materials at Low Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James; Sass, Jared; Johnson, Wesley

    2010-01-01

    With the advance of polymer and other non-metallic material sciences, whole new series of polymeric materials and composites are being created. These materials are being optimized for many different applications including cryogenic and low-temperature industrial processes. Engineers need these data to perform detailed system designs and enable new design possibilities for improved control, reliability, and efficiency in specific applications. One main area of interest is cryogenic structural elements and fluid handling components and other parts, films, and coatings for low-temperature application. An important thermal property of these new materials is the apparent thermal conductivity (k-value).

  5. Optical phenomena and antifrosting property on biomimetics slippery fluid-infused antireflective films via layer-by-layer comparison with superhydrophobic and antireflective films.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Kengo; Nishizawa, Shingo; Kyung, Kyu-Hong; Shiratori, Seimei

    2014-08-27

    Sophisticated material interfaces generated by natural life forms such as lotus leaves and Nepenthes pitcher plants have exceptional abilities to resolve challenges in wide areas of industry and medicine. The nano- and microstructures inspired by these natural materials can repel various liquids and form self-cleaning coatings. In particular, slippery liquid-infused surfaces are receiving remarkable interest as transparent, nonfouling, and antifrosting synthetic surfaces for solar cells and optical devices. Here we focus on the transparency of lubricant-infused texture on antireflective films fabricated by layer-by-layer self-assembly that decrease light scattering, which is important to maintain device properties. A slippery fluid-infused antireflective film composed of chitin nanofibers less than 50 nm in diameter prevented light scattering at the long-wavelength side by Rayleigh scattering to achieve 97.2% transmittance. Moreover, films composed of the same materials demonstrated three different morphologies: superhydrophilicity with antireflection, superhydrophobicity, and omniphobicity, mimicking the biological structures of moth eyes, lotus leaves, and pitcher plants, respectively. The effect of thermal changes on the ability of each film to prevent frost formation was investigated. The slippery fluid-infused antireflective film showed effective antifrosting behavior. PMID:25093243

  6. Application of DOAS Instruments for Trace Gas Measurements on Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horbanski, M.; Pöhler, D.; Mahr, T.; Wagner, T.; Platt, U.

    2012-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are a new powerful tool for observations in the atmospheric boundary layer. Recent developments in measuring technology allow the construction of compact and sensitive active and passive DOAS instruments which can fit the space and weight constraints on Unmanned Aircraft Systems. This opens new possibilities for trace gas measurements in the lower troposphere, especially in areas which are not accessible to manned aviation e.g. volcanic plumes or which should be monitored regularly (e.g. industrial emissions of a stack). Two DOAS instruments for the APAESO platform of the Energy, Environment and Water Research Centre (EEWRC) at the Cyprus Institute are presented. Our first system is a passive DOAS for remote sensing applications which measures scattered sunlight and light reflected by the surface. It is equipped with telescopes for observations in downward (nadir) and horizontal (limb) viewing direction. Thus it allows determining height profiles and the spatial distribution of trace gases. For this the light is analysed by a compact spectrometer which covers the UV-blue range allowing to measure a broad variety of atmospheric trace gases (e.g. NO2, SO2, BrO, IO, H2O ...) and aerosol properties via O4 absorption. Additionally, the nadir direction is equipped with a system for the observation of surface properties. It will be used to measure and analyse reflection of different types of vegetation. The spectra will serve as reference spectra for satellite measurements to create global maps. The instrumental setup and the results of first test flights are shown. The second instrument which is currently under development is a Cavity Enhanced (CE-) DOAS for in situ measurements of NO3. In contrast to the passive DOAS it is able to perform night time measurements as it uses an active LED light source. This is important for studies of NO3 since it plays an important role in night time chemistry while it is rapidly photolysed during daytime

  7. Device and method for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, Marcos German; Boucher, Timothy J

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow.

  8. Device and method for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, M.G.; Boucher, T.J.

    1998-11-10

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.

  9. An instrument for precision magnetic measurements of large magnetic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrán, D.; Bordas, J.; Campmany, J.; Molins, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Traveria, M.

    2001-02-01

    A high precision-system for measuring the three-dimensional distribution of magnetic fields over large volumes, such as those produced by accelerator magnets, has been designed and commissioned. This instrument can be calibrated to a precision of ±1 G for magnetic fields of up to 1.5 T by means of an NMR system. A moving arm containing a 3D Hall probe scans the volume (up to 500×250×3000 mm 3) with a precision of ±50 μm in any direction. After appropriate identification of the various sources of error, and the optimisation of the various parts of the instrument where they are generated, an overall precision of ±2 G has been achieved, i.e. a relative precision of ±2×10 -4 for a nominal field of 1 T.

  10. Momentum Flux Measuring Instrument for Neutral and Charged Particle Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavers, Greg; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Schafer, Charles F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An instrument to measure the momentum flux (total pressure) of plasma and neutral particle jets onto a surface has been developed. While this instrument was developed for magnetized plasmas, the concept works for non-magnetized plasmas as well. We have measured forces as small as 10(exp -4) Newtons on a surface immersed in the plasma where small forces are due to ionic and neutral particles with kinetic energies on the order of a few eV impacting the surface. This instrument, a force sensor, uses a target plate (surface) that is immersed in the plasma and connected to one end of an alumina rod while the opposite end of the alumina rod is mechanically connected to a titanium beam on which four strain gauges are mounted. The force on the target generates torque causing strain in the beam. The resulting strain measurements can be correlated to a force on the target plate. The alumina rod electrically and thermally isolates the target plate from the strain gauge beam and allows the strain gauges to be located out of the plasma flow while also serving as a moment arm of several inches to increase the strain in the beam at the strain gauge location. These force measurements correspond directly to momentum flux and may be used with known plasma conditions to place boundaries on the kinetic energies of the plasma and neutral particles. The force measurements may also be used to infer thrust produced by a plasma propulsive device. Stainless steel, titanium, molybdenum, and aluminum flat target plates have been used. Momentum flux measurements of H2, D2, He, and Ar plasmas produced in a magnetized plasma device have been performed.

  11. Stacked-disc structure for fluid filter or valve silencer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagler, Jr., Ray (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A stacked-disc structure is comprised of a stack of annular discs (13) scalloped along the outer edge to provide lobes (13a) and etched on one side to provide lands (13a). A web (13d) is retained in the lobes to strengthen the discs so that they will not collapse due to high fluid pressure. The stack of discs is retained by a housing (10) having a fluted interior wall to retain the ends of the lobes. End plates (11 and 12) secure the stack of discs with a spacer (14) at one end having lands (14a) on lobes which match the lobes of the stacked discs to allow fluid to flow into, or out of, the spaces between the lobes of the stacked discs. The spaces between the lands on the etched discs provide passages for fluid flow into or out of the hollow core of the stack. The height of the lands (i.e., depth of the etch) determines the size of the smallest particle that will be permitted to flow through. The stacked-disc structure may be connected to the inlet of a valve, or be incorporated into the valve housing on the inlet side of the valve seat to assure substantially constant fluid velocity, and thereby reduce valve noise when the valve is operated.

  12. Self-contained instrument for measuring subterranean tunnel wall deflection

    DOEpatents

    Rasmussen, Donald Edgar; Hof, Jr., Peter John

    1978-01-01

    The deflection of a subterranean tunnel is measured with a rod-like, self-contained instrument that is adapted to be inserted into a radially extending bore of the tunnel adjacent an end of the tunnel where the tunnel is being dug. One end of the instrument is anchored at the end of the bore remote from the tunnel wall, while the other end of the intrument is anchored adjacent the end of the wall in proximity to the tunnel wall. The two ends of the instrument are linearly displaceable relative to each other; the displacement is measured by a transducer means mounted on the instrument. Included in the instrument is a data storage means including a paper tape recorder periodically responsive to a parallel binary signal indicative of the measured displacement.

  13. Determination of constant-volume balloon capabilities for aeronautical research. [specifically measurement of atmospheric phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatom, F. B.; King, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    The proper application of constant-volume balloons (CVB) for measurement of atmospheric phenomena was determined. And with the proper interpretation of the resulting data. A literature survey covering 176 references is included. the governing equations describing the three-dimensional motion of a CVB immersed in a flow field are developed. The flowfield model is periodic, three-dimensional, and nonhomogeneous, with mean translational motion. The balloon motion and flow field equations are cast into dimensionless form for greater generality, and certain significant dimensionless groups are identified. An alternate treatment of the balloon motion, based on first-order perturbation analysis, is also presented. A description of the digital computer program, BALLOON, used for numerically integrating the governing equations is provided.

  14. Fluid friction in incompressible laminar convection: Reynolds' analogy revisited for variable fluid properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahulikar, S. P.; Herwig, H.

    2008-03-01

    The Reynolds' analogy between the Stanton number (St) and the skin friction coefficient (cf) is popularly believed to hold when St increases with increasing cf, for simple situations. In this investigation, the validity of Reynolds' analogy between St and cf for micro-convection of liquids with variations in fluid properties is re-examined. It is found that the Sieder-Tate's property-ratio method for obtaining Nusselt number corrections is theoretically based on the validity of Reynolds' analogy. The inverse dependence of Reynolds number and skin friction coefficient is the basis for validity of the Reynolds' analogy, in convective flows with fluid property variations. This leads to the unexpected outcome that Reynolds' analogy now results in St increasing with decreasing cf. These results and their analyses indicate that the validity of Reynolds' analogy is based on deeper foundations, and the well-known validity criterion is a special case.

  15. A new instrument for high statistics measurement of photomultiplier characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollo, C. M.; Bozza, C.; Chiarusi, T.; Costa, M.; Di Capua, F.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Mele, R.; Migliozzi, P.; Pellegrino, C.; Riccobene, G.; Vivolo, D.

    2016-08-01

    Since the early days of experimental particle physics photomultipliers (PMTs) have played an important role in the detector design. Thanks to their capability of fast photon counting, PMTs are extensively used in the new-generation of astroparticle physics experiments, such as air, ice and water Cherenkov detectors. Small size PMTs (<= 3 inches diameter) show little sensitivity to the Earth magnetic field, small transit time, stable transit time spread; the price per photocathode area is less comparing to the one for the large area PMTs, typically used so far in such applications. Together with developments and reduced price of multichannel electronics, the use of PMTs of 3-inches or smaller diameter is a promising option even for nowadays large volume detectors. In this paper we report on the design and performance of a new instrument for mass characterisation of PMTs (from 1 inch to 3 inches size), capable to calibrate hundreds of PMTs per day and provide measurements of dark counts, signal amplitude, late-, delayed-, pre- and after-pulses, transit time and transit time spread.

  16. Final report on the design and development of a Rolling Float Meter for drilling-fluid outflow measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Staller, G.E.; Westmoreland, J.J.; Whitlow, G.L.; Wright, E.K.; Glowka, D.A.

    1998-03-01

    Lost circulation, which is the loss of well drilling fluids to the formation while drilling, is a common problem encountered while drilling geothermal wells. The rapid detection of the loss of well drilling fluids is critical to the successful and cost-effective treatment of the wellbore to stop or minimize lost circulation. Sandia National Laboratories has developed an instrument to accurately measure the outflow rate of drilling fluids while drilling. This instrument, the Rolling Float Meter, has been under development at Sandia since 1991 and is now available for utilization by interested industry users. This report documents recent Rolling Float Meter design upgrades resulting from field testing and industry input, the effects of ongoing testing and evaluation both in the laboratory and in the field, and the final design package that is available to transfer this technology to industry users.

  17. Micromechanical transient sensor for measuring viscosity and density of a fluid

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Oden, Patrick I.; Warmack, Robert J.; Finot, Eric Laurent

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring the viscosity and/or specific density of a fluid utilizes a microcantilever vibrated in the analyte fluid. The source of vibration is switched on and off and the transient behavior or decay in amplitude of the vibration is monitored. The method is particularly useful for the measurement of process conditions in remote locations in real time.

  18. Critical phenomena in the aspherical gravitational collapse of radiation fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgarte, Thomas W.; Montero, Pedro J.

    2015-12-01

    We study critical phenomena in the gravitational collapse of a radiation fluid. We perform numerical simulations in both spherical symmetry and axisymmetry, and observe critical scaling in both supercritical evolutions, which lead to the formation of a black hole, and subcritical evolutions, in which case the fluid disperses to infinity and leaves behind flat space. We identify the critical solution in spherically symmetric collapse, find evidence for its universality, and study the approach to this critical solution in the absence of spherical symmetry. For the cases that we consider, aspherical deviations from the spherically symmetric critical solution decay in damped oscillations in a manner that is consistent with the behavior found by Gundlach in perturbative calculations. Our simulations are performed with an unconstrained evolution code, implemented in spherical polar coordinates, and adopting "moving-puncture" coordinates.

  19. Automated, Miniaturized Instrument for Measuring Gene Expression in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, A.; Peyvan, K.; Danley, D.; Ricco, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    To facilitate astrobiological studies on the survival and adaptation of microorganisms and mixed microbial cultures to space environment, we have been developing a fully automated, miniaturized system for measuring their gene expression on small spacecraft. This low-cost, multi-purpose instrument represents a major scientific and technological advancement in our ability to study the impact of the space environment on biological systems by providing data on cellular metabolism and regulation orders of magnitude richer than what is currently available. The system supports growth of the organism, lyse it to release the expressed RNA, label the RNA, read the expression levels of a large number of genes by microarray analysis of labeled RNA and transmit the measurements to Earth. To measure gene expression we use microarray technology developed by CombiMatrix, which is based on electrochemical reactions on arrays of electrodes on a semiconductor substrate. Since the electrical integrity of the microarray remains intact after probe synthesis, the circuitry can be employed to sense nucleic acid binding at each electrode. CombiMatrix arrays can be sectored to allow multiple samples per chip. In addition, a single array can be used for several assays. The array has been integrated into an automated microfluidic cartridge that uses flexible reagent blisters and pinch pumping to move liquid reagents between chambers. The proposed instrument will help to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, and test our ability to sustain and grow in space organisms that can be used for life support and in situ resource utilization during long-duration space exploration. The instrument is suitable for small satellite platforms, which provide frequent, low cost access to space. It can be also used on any other platform in space

  20. Aerothermodynamic test instrumentation and measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-02-01

    A reference source is presented which includes procedures and equations relating to the measurement of pressure, temperature, fluid flow, and other fundamental quantities relating to thermodynamics, aerodynamics, fluid dynamics, heat transfer, and properties of materials. Emphasis is given to aerospace applications.

  1. REVIEW ARTICLE: Molecular electronics: prospects for instrumentation and measurement science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, M. C.

    1996-05-01

    Molecular electronics is a new, exciting, interdisciplinary field of research. The subject broadly concerns the exploitation of organic materials in electronic and optoelectronic devices. There are many current commercial applications, including liquid crystal displays, conductive polymer sensors and pyroelectric plastics. Longer term developments might include molecular computational devices. In this review, the scope of molecular electronics is first discussed. Three examples of ongoing research that could have an impact on instrumentation and measurement science are then described. This is followed by some speculation on the possibilities for `molecular scale' electronic systems.

  2. On-line fast response device and method for measuring dissolved gas in a fluid

    DOEpatents

    Tutu, Narinder Kumar

    2011-01-11

    A method and device for the measurement of dissolved gas within a fluid. The fluid, substantially a liquid, is pumped into a pipe. The flow of the fluid is temporally restricted, creating one or more low pressure regions. A measurement indicative of trapped air is taken before and after the restriction. The amount of dissolved air is calculated from the difference between the first and second measurements. Preferably measurements indicative of trapped air is obtained from one or more pressure transducers, capacitance transducers, or combinations thereof. In the alternative, other methods such as those utilizing x-rays or gamma rays may also be used to detect trapped air. Preferably, the fluid is a hydraulic fluid, whereby dissolved air in the fluid is detected.

  3. Apparatus for measuring a sorbate dispersed in a fluid stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Updike, O. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A sensitive, miniature apparatus was designed for measuring low concentrations of a sorbate dispersed in a fluid stream. The device consists of an elongated body having a surface capable of sorbing an amount of the sorbate proportional to the concentration in the fluid stream and propagating acoustic energy along its length. The acoustic energy is converted to an electrical output signal corresponding to the concentration of sorbate in the fluid stream. The device can be designed to exhibit high sensitivity to extremely small amounts of sorbate dispersed in a fluid stream and to exhibit low sensitivity to large amounts of sorbate. Another advantage is that the apparatus may be formed in a microminiature size and at a low cost using bath microfabrication technology.

  4. Systems and methods for separating particles and/or substances from a sample fluid

    DOEpatents

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Dougherty, George M.; Dzenitis, John M.; Miles, Robin R.; Clague, David S.

    2016-11-01

    Systems and methods for separating particles and/or toxins from a sample fluid. A method according to one embodiment comprises simultaneously passing a sample fluid and a buffer fluid through a chamber such that a fluidic interface is formed between the sample fluid and the buffer fluid as the fluids pass through the chamber, the sample fluid having particles of interest therein; applying a force to the fluids for urging the particles of interest to pass through the interface into the buffer fluid; and substantially separating the buffer fluid from the sample fluid.

  5. Capacitive Sensors for Measuring Masses of Cryogenic Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurge, Mark; Youngquist, Robert

    2003-01-01

    An effort is under way to develop capacitive sensors for measuring the masses of cryogenic fluids in tanks. These sensors are intended to function in both microgravitational and normal gravitational settings, and should not be confused with level sensors, including capacitive ones. A sensor of this type is conceptually simple in the sense that (1) it includes only one capacitor and (2) if properly designed, its single capacitance reading should be readily convertible to a close approximation of the mass of the cryogenic fluid in the tank. Consider a pair of electrically insulated electrodes used as a simple capacitive sensor. In general, the capacitance is proportional to the permittivity of the dielectric medium (in this case, a cryogenic fluid) between the electrodes. The success of design and operation of a sensor of the present type depends on the accuracy of the assumption that to a close approximation, the permittivity of the cryogenic fluid varies linearly with the density of the fluid. Data on liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, and liquid hydrogen, reported by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, indicate that the permittivities and densities of these fluids are, indeed, linearly related to within a few tenths of a percent over the pressure and temperature regions of interest. Hence, ignoring geometric effects for the moment, the capacitance between two electrodes immersed in the fluid should vary linearly with the density, and, hence, with the mass of the fluid. Of course, it is necessary to take account of the tank geometry. Because most cryogenic tanks do not have uniform cross sections, the readings of level sensors, including capacitive ones, are not linearly correlated with the masses of fluids in the tanks. In a sensor of the present type, the capacitor electrodes are shaped so that at a given height, the capacitance per unit height is approximately proportional to the cross-sectional area of the tank in the horizontal plane at that

  6. Soil thermal resistivity and thermal stability measuring instrument. Volume 2: Manual for operation and use of the thermal property analyzer and statistical weather analysis program to determine thermal design parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, S. A.; Radhakrishna, H. S.; Chu, F. Y.; Ford, G. L.; Griffin, J. D. A.; Steinmanis, J.

    1981-11-01

    Numerous considerations influence the thermal design of an underground power cable, including the soil thermal resistivity, thermal diffusivity and thermal stability. Each of these properties is a function of soil moisture which is in turn a function of past weather, soil composition, and biological burden. The Neher-McGrath formalism has been widely used for thermal cable design. However, this formalism assumes knowledge of soil thermal properties (resistivity and diffusivity). For design purposes, these parameters should be treated statistically, since weather varies greatly from year to year. As well, soil thermal property surveys are normally required along the route to assess the thermal quality of the native soil. This project is intended to fill the gap between the need to carry out thermal design and the use of the Neher-McGrath formalism which is normally employed. This goal has been addressed through: development of instrumentation and methods of measuring soil thermal properties in situ and in the laboratory; recommendation of methods for conducting soil surveys along a proposed cable route and of assessing the thermal quality of soils; and development of a computerized method to treat soil thermal design parameters on a statistical basis using computerized weather records as supplied by the US Environmental Data Service. The use of the methods and instrumentation developed as a result of this contract should permit less conservative thermal design thereby improving the economics of underground transmission. As well, these techniques and instrumentation facilitate weather-dependent prediction of cable ampacity for installed cables, monitoring of backfill thermal stability, and many other new practices.

  7. Microprocessor instruments for measuring nonlinear distortions; algorithms for digital processing of the measurement signal and an estimate of the errors

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, M.Ya.; Chinkov, V.N.

    1995-09-01

    Rational algorithms for measuring the harmonic coefficient in microprocessor instruments for measuring nonlinear distortions based on digital processing of the codes of the instantaneous values of the signal being investigated are described and the errors of such instruments are obtained.

  8. ASRDI oxygen technology survey. Volume 6: Flow measurement instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, D. B.

    1974-01-01

    A summary is provided of information available on liquid and gaseous oxygen flowmetering including an evaluation of commercial meters. The instrument types, physical principles of measurement, and performance characteristics are described. Problems concerning flow measurements of less than plus or minus two percent uncertainty are reviewed. Recommendations concerning work on flow reference systems, the use of surrogate fluids, and standard tests for oxygen flow measurements are also presented.

  9. Procedure for measuring simultaneously the solar and visible properties of glazing with complex internal or external structures.

    PubMed

    Gentle, A R; Smith, G B

    2014-10-20

    Accurate solar and visual transmittances of materials in which surfaces or internal structures are complex are often not easily amenable to standard procedures with laboratory-based spectrophotometers and integrating spheres. Localized "hot spots" of intensity are common in such materials, so data on small samples is unreliable. A novel device and simple protocols have been developed and undergone validation testing. Simultaneous solar and visible transmittance and reflectance data have been acquired for skylight components and multilayer polycarbonate roof panels. The pyranometer and lux sensor setups also directly yield "light coolness" in lumens/watt. Sample areas must be large, and, although mainly in sheet form, some testing has been done on curved panels. The instrument, its operation, and the simple calculations used are described. Results on a subset of diffuse and partially diffuse materials with no hot spots have been cross checked using 150 mm integrating spheres with a spectrophotometer and the Air Mass 1.5 spectrum. Indications are that results are as good or better than with such spheres for transmittance, but reflectance techniques need refinement for some sample types.

  10. Procedure for measuring simultaneously the solar and visible properties of glazing with complex internal or external structures.

    PubMed

    Gentle, A R; Smith, G B

    2014-10-20

    Accurate solar and visual transmittances of materials in which surfaces or internal structures are complex are often not easily amenable to standard procedures with laboratory-based spectrophotometers and integrating spheres. Localized "hot spots" of intensity are common in such materials, so data on small samples is unreliable. A novel device and simple protocols have been developed and undergone validation testing. Simultaneous solar and visible transmittance and reflectance data have been acquired for skylight components and multilayer polycarbonate roof panels. The pyranometer and lux sensor setups also directly yield "light coolness" in lumens/watt. Sample areas must be large, and, although mainly in sheet form, some testing has been done on curved panels. The instrument, its operation, and the simple calculations used are described. Results on a subset of diffuse and partially diffuse materials with no hot spots have been cross checked using 150 mm integrating spheres with a spectrophotometer and the Air Mass 1.5 spectrum. Indications are that results are as good or better than with such spheres for transmittance, but reflectance techniques need refinement for some sample types. PMID:25402807

  11. [Psychometric properties of an instrument for assessing cyber-sex addiction].

    PubMed

    Ballester Arnal, Rafael; Gil Llario, Ma Dolores; Gómez Martínez, Sandra; Gil Juliá, Beatriz

    2010-11-01

    Psychometric properties of an instrument for assessing cyber-sex addiction. Cyber-sex addiction is a «new pathology» whose prevalence has grown rapidly in recent years. Therefore, it is important to have validated assessment instruments. The aim of this study was the adaptation and validation of the Internet Sex Screening Test (ISST) for its use in a Spanish population. The instrument was administered to 1239 Spanish college students. The results yielded five components that account for 47.5% of the variance. Internal consistency was .88 and temporal stability was .84. Moreover, the instrument had adequate convergent and discriminant validity and was related to other behaviors such as the use of pornography, internet addiction, number of hours online and sexual frequency. Therefore, this tool is proposed as an appropriate measure to assess cyber-sex addiction. PMID:21044551

  12. [Psychometric properties of an instrument for assessing cyber-sex addiction].

    PubMed

    Ballester Arnal, Rafael; Gil Llario, Ma Dolores; Gómez Martínez, Sandra; Gil Juliá, Beatriz

    2010-11-01

    Psychometric properties of an instrument for assessing cyber-sex addiction. Cyber-sex addiction is a «new pathology» whose prevalence has grown rapidly in recent years. Therefore, it is important to have validated assessment instruments. The aim of this study was the adaptation and validation of the Internet Sex Screening Test (ISST) for its use in a Spanish population. The instrument was administered to 1239 Spanish college students. The results yielded five components that account for 47.5% of the variance. Internal consistency was .88 and temporal stability was .84. Moreover, the instrument had adequate convergent and discriminant validity and was related to other behaviors such as the use of pornography, internet addiction, number of hours online and sexual frequency. Therefore, this tool is proposed as an appropriate measure to assess cyber-sex addiction.

  13. Radar measurement instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartl, P.

    1983-02-01

    The radar techniques used for Earth observation are reviewed. Range, direction and speed measuring techniques, and the principles of scatterometers, side-looking radar, altimeters and SAR are discussed. The ERS-1 radar package including the active microwave instrumentation and the radar altimeter are described. The analysis of the calibration problems leads to the conclusion that only the test of the system loop as a whole, besides the individual part tests, can provide a calibration in the absolute sense.

  14. Development of a prototype fluid volume measurement system. [for urine volume measurement on space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppendiek, H. F.; Sabin, C. M.; Meckel, P. T.

    1974-01-01

    The research is reported in applying the axial fluid temperature differential flowmeter to a urine volume measurement system for space missions. The fluid volume measurement system is described along with the prototype equipment package. Flowmeter calibration, electronic signal processing, and typical void volume measurements are also described.

  15. Instrumentation for the measurement of autofluorescence in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graaff, Reindert; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Lutgers, Helen L.; Baptist, Rene; de Jong, Ed D.; Zijp, Jaap R.; Links, Thera P.; Smit, Andries J.; Rakhorst, Gerhard

    2005-04-01

    A setup to measure skin autofluorescence was developed to assess accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) in patients noninvasively. The method applies direct blacklight tube illumination of the skin of the lower arm, and spectrometry. The setup displays skin autofluorescence (AF) as a ratio of mean intensities detected from the skin between 420-600 nm and 300-420 nm, respectively. In an early clinical application in 46 and control subjects matched for age and gender, AF was significantly increased in the patients (p = 0.015), and highly correlated with skin AGE's that were determined from skin biopsies in both groups. A large follow-up study on type 2 diabetes mellitus, ongoing since 2001 with more than 1000 subjects, aims to assess the value of the instrument in predicting chronic complications of diabetes. At baseline, a relation with age, glycemic status and with complications present was found. In a study in patients with end stage renal disease on dialysis AF was a strong and independent predictor of total and cardiovascular mortality. A commercial version of this AGE-reader is now under development and becomes available early 2005 (DiagnOptics B.V., Groningen, The Netherlands). One of the remaining questions, that will be answered by measuring so-called Exciation-Emission Matrices (EEM's) of the skin tissue in vivo, is whether a more selective choice of wavelengths is more strongly related to clinical characteristics. An experimental instrument to measure these EEM's was, therefore, developed as well. Clinical measurements are underway of EEM's in patient groups with diabetes mellitus and in healthy volunteers.

  16. Instrumentation for Structure Measurements on Highly Non-equilibrium Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Richard; Benmore, Chris J; Neuefeind, Joerg C; Wilding, Martin C

    2011-01-01

    Containerless techniques (levitation) completely eliminate contact with the sample. This unique sample environment allows deep supercooling of many liquids and avoids contamination of high temperature melts. Recent experiments at the APS high energy beamline 11 ID-C used aerodynamic levitation with laser beam heating and acoustic levitation with cryogenic cooling. By using these two methods, liquids were studied over much of the temperature range from -40 to +2500 C. This paper briefly describes the instrumentation and its use with an -Si area detector that allows fast, in-situ measurements. Use of the instruments is illustrated with examples of measurements on molten oxides and aqueous materials.

  17. Measurement properties of instruments evaluating self-care and related concepts in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Clari, Marco; Matarese, Maria; Alvaro, Rosaria; Piredda, Michela; De Marinis, Maria Grazia

    2016-01-01

    The use of valid and reliable instruments for assessing self-care is crucial for the evaluation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management programs. The aim of this review is to evaluate the measurement properties and theoretical foundations of instruments for assessing self-care and related concepts in people with COPD. A systematic review was conducted of articles describing the development and validation of self-care instruments. The methodological quality of the measurement properties was assessed using the COSMIN checklist. Ten studies were included evaluating five instruments: three for assessing self-care and self-management and two for assessing self-efficacy. The COPD Self-Efficacy Scale was the most studied instrument, but due to poor study methodological quality, evidence about its measurement properties is inconclusive. Evidence from the COPD Self-Management Scale is more promising, but only one study tested its properties. Due to inconclusive evidence of their measurement properties, no instrument can be recommended for clinical use.

  18. Automated, Miniaturized Instrument for Measuring Gene Expression in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Danley, David; Payvan, Kia; Ricco, Antonio

    To facilitate astrobiological studies on the survival and adaptation of microorganisms and mixed microbial cultures to space environment, we have been developing a fully automated, minia-turized system for measuring their gene expression on small spacecraft. This low-cost, multi-purpose instrument represents a major scientific and technological advancement in our ability to study the impact of the space environment on biological systems by providing data on cel-lular metabolism and regulation orders of magnitude richer than what is currently available. The system supports growth of the organism, lyse it to release the expressed RNA, label the RNA, read the expression levels of a large number of genes by microarray analysis of labeled RNA and transmit the measurements to Earth. To measure gene expression we use microarray technology developed by CombiMatrix, which is based on electrochemical reactions on arrays of electrodes on a semiconductor substrate. Since the electrical integrity of the microarray re-mains intact after probe synthesis, the circuitry can be employed to sense nucleic acid binding at each electrode. CombiMatrix arrays can be sectored to allow multiple samples per chip. In addition, a single array can be used for several assays. The array has been integrated into an automated microfluidic cartridge that uses flexible reagent blisters and pinch pumping to move liquid reagents between chambers. The proposed instrument will help to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions be-yond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, and test our ability to sustain and grow in space organ-isms that can be used for life support and in situ resource utilization during long-duration space exploration. The instrument is suitable for small satellite platforms, which provide frequent, low cost access to space. It can be also used on any other platform in space

  19. An instrument for measuring thermal inertia in the field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, S. E.; Schieldge, J. P.; Kahle, A. B.

    1982-01-01

    Features and test results of a thermal inertial meter (TIM) for cataloging the thermal inertial of surface material in situ as a basis for satellite remote sensing of geologic materials are described. The instrument is employed to determine the temperature rise of the materials in the field, with the assumptions that the sample and a standard are homogeneous in composition, the heat flux density is constant at the surface of each material, and the specimens are thick enough to be treated as semi-infinite bodies. A formula for calculating thermal inertia is presented, and the components of the TIM are detailed. A box with three compartments, two holding standards, is placed on the sample surface with the third compartment open to the specimen. Dolomite and quartz are used as references when all samples are measured after heating. Tests with rocks and sand in Nevada and California revealed that chert has a higher thermal inertia than barite.

  20. Future instrumentation and missions for measurements of tropospheric trace species from space: Workshop recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    It was recommended that gas filter correlation radiometry and high-resolution interferometry be exploited and expanded for measurements of the distribution of tropospheric trace gases. Instruments and missions were identified and discussed. Several instrument/measurement/mission feasibility studies were recommended, including: a three-layer measurement of carbon monoxide, using a nadir-viewing gas filter correlation radiometer; a lower or middle tropospheric measurement of methane, using a nadir-viewing gas filter correlation radiometer; and a survey of lower, middle, and upper tropospheric trace gases using a nadir-viewing high-resolution interferometer operating in the thermal emission mode. It was also concluded that lidar systems appear to have the potential of obtaining measurments of tropospheric trace gases and aerosols from space. In addition to the specific instrument/mission recommendations, the panels made several general recommendations that may lead to future spaceborne instruments, techniques, and missions for tropospheric research.

  1. Psychometric properties of instruments for assessing depression among African youth: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mutumba, Massy; Tomlinson, Mark; Tsai, Alexander C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the psychometric properties of instruments used to screen for major depressive disorder or assess depression symptom severity among African youth. Methods: Systematic search terms were applied to seven bibliographic databases: African Journals Online, the African Journal Archive, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and the WHO African Index Medicus. Studies examining the reliability and/or validity of depression assessment tools were selected for inclusion if they were based on data collected from youth (any author definition) in an African member state of the United Nations. We extracted data on study population characteristics, sampling strategy, sample size, the instrument assessed, and the type of reliability and/or validity evidence provided. Results: Of 1,027 records, we included 23 studies of 10,499 youth in 10 African countries. Most studies reported excellent scale reliability, but there was much less evidence of equivalence or criterion-related validity. No measures were validated in more than two countries. Conclusions: There is a paucity of evidence on the reliability or validity of depression assessment among African youth. The field is constrained by a lack of established criterion standards, but studies incorporating mixed methods offer promising strategies for guiding the process of cross-cultural development and validation. PMID:25391712

  2. Compact Instruments Measure Heat Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Based in Huntsville, Alabama, AZ Technology Inc. is a woman- and veteran-owned business that offers expertise in electromechanical-optical design and advanced coatings. AZ Technology has received eight Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center for the development of spectral reflectometers and the measurement of surface thermal properties. The company uses a variety of measurement services and instruments, including the Spectrafire, a portable spectral emissometer it used to assist General Electric with the design of its award-winning Giraffe Warmer for neonatal intensive care units.

  3. An Automated Instrument for the Measurement of Bark Microrelief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Stan, J. T.; Jarvis, M.; Levia, D. F.

    2009-05-01

    Bark microrelief is of importance to the physiological ecology of forested ecosystems because it has been documented to influence the distribution of corticolous lichens, stemflow generation, and forest biogeochemical cycles. Hitherto no instrument existed to characterize the inherent variability of bark microrelief with high spatial resolution. Our newly-designed bark microrelief instrument, the LaserBarkTM, consists of a hinged ring, laser rangefinder, and motor linked to a standard laptop. The LaserBarkTM produces trunk cross- sections at a 0.33 degree horizontal resolution and detects bark ridge-to furrow heights at < 1 mm resolution. The LaserBarkTM was validated by comparing measurements of bark microrelief between the instrument and digital calipers. The mean absolute error of the instrument was 0.83 mm. Our bark microrelief instrument can supply critical requisite information of bark microstructure that be used by researchers to interpret the distribution of lichens and bryophytes on tree surfaces, relate stemflow yield and chemistry to bark microrelief, and provide detailed measurements of the changes of bark microrelief with stem dehydration. In short, the LaserBarkTM can be used to gain a more holistic understanding of the functional ecology of forest ecosystems.

  4. Semiconductor laser-based ranging instrument for earth gravity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Millar, Pamela S.; Sun, Xiaoli

    1995-01-01

    A laser ranging instrument is being developed to measure the spatial variations in the Earth's gravity field. It will range in space to a cube corner on a passive co-orbiting sub-satellite with a velocity accuracy of 20 to 50 microns/sec by using AlGaAs lasers intensity modulated at 2 GHz.

  5. Development Of An Experiment For Measuring Flow Phenomena Occurring In A Lower Plenum For VHTR CFD Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. McEligot; K.G. Condie; G. E. Mc Creery; H. M. Mc Ilroy

    2005-09-01

    The objective of the present report is to document the design of our first experiment to measure generic flow phenomena expected to occur in the lower plenum of a typical prismatic VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) concept. In the process, fabrication sketches are provided for the use of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) analysts wishing to employ the data for assessment of their proposed codes. The general approach of the project is to develop new benchmark experiments for assessment in parallel with CFD and coupled CFD/systems code calculations for the same geometry. One aspect of the complex flow in a prismatic VHTR is being addressed: flow and thermal mixing in the lower plenum ("hot streaking" issue). Current prismatic VHTR concepts were examined to identify their proposed flow conditions and geometries over the range from normal operation to decay heat removal in a pressurized cooldown. Approximate analyses were applied to determine key non-dimensional parameters and their magnitudes over this operating range. The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered to be a situation of multiple jets into a confined crossflow -- with obstructions. Flow is expected to be turbulent with momentum-dominated turbulent jets entering; buoyancy influences are estimated to be negligible in normal full power operation. Experiments are needed for the combined features of the lower plenum flows. Missing from the typical jet experiments available are interactions with nearby circular posts and with vertical posts in the vicinity of vertical walls - with near stagnant surroundings at one extreme and significant crossflow at the other.

  6. High spatial resolution measurements of ram accelerator gas dynamic phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkey, J. B.; Burnham, E. A.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    High spatial resolution experimental tube wall pressure measurements of ram accelerator gas dynamic phenomena are presented. The projectile resembles the centerbody of a ramjet and travels supersonically through a tube filled with a combustible gaseous mixture, with the tube acting as the outer cowling. Pressure data are recorded as the projectile passes by sensors mounted in the tube wall at various locations along the tube. Data obtained by using a special highly instrumented section of tube has allowed the recording of gas dynamic phenomena with a spatial resolution on the order of one tenth the projectile length. High spatial resolution tube wall pressure data from the three regimes of propulsion studied to date (subdetonative, transdetonative, and superdetonative) are presented and reveal the 3D character of the flowfield induced by projectile fins and the canting of the projectile body relative to the tube wall. Also presented for comparison to the experimental data are calculations made with an inviscid, 3D CFD code.

  7. A framework and a measurement instrument for sustainability of work practices in long-term care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In health care, many organizations are working on quality improvement and/or innovation of their care practices. Although the effectiveness of improvement processes has been studied extensively, little attention has been given to sustainability of the changed work practices after implementation. The objective of this study is to develop a theoretical framework and measurement instrument for sustainability. To this end sustainability is conceptualized with two dimensions: routinization and institutionalization. Methods The exploratory methodological design consisted of three phases: a) framework development; b) instrument development; and c) field testing in former improvement teams in a quality improvement program for health care (N teams = 63, N individual = 112). Data were collected not until at least one year had passed after implementation. Underlying constructs and their interrelations were explored using Structural Equation Modeling and Principal Component Analyses. Internal consistency was computed with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. A long and a short version of the instrument are proposed. Results The χ2- difference test of the -2 Log Likelihood estimates demonstrated that the hierarchical two factor model with routinization and institutionalization as separate constructs showed a better fit than the one factor model (p < .01). Secondly, construct validity of the instrument was strong as indicated by the high factor loadings of the items. Finally, the internal consistency of the subscales was good. Conclusions The theoretical framework offers a valuable starting point for the analysis of sustainability on the level of actual changed work practices. Even though the two dimensions routinization and institutionalization are related, they are clearly distinguishable and each has distinct value in the discussion of sustainability. Finally, the subscales conformed to psychometric properties defined in literature. The instrument can be used in the

  8. FLUID- THERMODYNAMIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    The accurate computation of the thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids is a necessity for many engineering calculations. The FLUID program was developed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids in both the liquid and gas phases. Fluid properties are calculated using a simple gas model, empirical corrections, and an efficient numerical interpolation scheme. FLUID produces results that are in very good agreement with measured values, while being much faster than older more complex programs developed for the same purpose. A Van der Waals equation of state model is used to obtain approximate state values. These values are corrected for real-gas effects by model correction factors obtained from tables based on experimental data. These tables also accurately compensate for the special circumstances which arise whenever phase conditions occur. Viscosity and thermal conductivity values are computed directly from tables. Interpolation within tables is based on Lagrange's three point formula. A set of tables must be generated for each fluid implemented. FLUID currently contains tables for nine fluids including dry air and steam. The user can add tables for any fluid for which adequate thermal property data is available. The FLUID routine is structured so that it may easily be incorporated into engineering programs. The IBM 360 version of FLUID was developed in 1977. It is written in FORTRAN IV and has been implemented on an IBM 360 with a central memory requirement of approximately 222K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID is written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77 and has been implemented on an IBM PC with a memory requirement of 128K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID was developed in 1986.

  9. FLUID- THERMODYNAMIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS (IBM VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    The accurate computation of the thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids is a necessity for many engineering calculations. The FLUID program was developed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids in both the liquid and gas phases. Fluid properties are calculated using a simple gas model, empirical corrections, and an efficient numerical interpolation scheme. FLUID produces results that are in very good agreement with measured values, while being much faster than older more complex programs developed for the same purpose. A Van der Waals equation of state model is used to obtain approximate state values. These values are corrected for real-gas effects by model correction factors obtained from tables based on experimental data. These tables also accurately compensate for the special circumstances which arise whenever phase conditions occur. Viscosity and thermal conductivity values are computed directly from tables. Interpolation within tables is based on Lagrange's three point formula. A set of tables must be generated for each fluid implemented. FLUID currently contains tables for nine fluids including dry air and steam. The user can add tables for any fluid for which adequate thermal property data is available. The FLUID routine is structured so that it may easily be incorporated into engineering programs. The IBM 360 version of FLUID was developed in 1977. It is written in FORTRAN IV and has been implemented on an IBM 360 with a central memory requirement of approximately 222K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID is written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77 and has been implemented on an IBM PC with a memory requirement of 128K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID was developed in 1986.

  10. 46 CFR 67.265 - Requirements for instruments evidencing satisfaction or release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for instruments evidencing satisfaction or... for instruments evidencing satisfaction or release. An instrument satisfying or releasing a mortgage... claim of lien is recorded. If the recording information cannot be provided because the satisfaction...

  11. 46 CFR 67.265 - Requirements for instruments evidencing satisfaction or release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for instruments evidencing satisfaction or... for instruments evidencing satisfaction or release. An instrument satisfying or releasing a mortgage... claim of lien is recorded. If the recording information cannot be provided because the satisfaction...

  12. An instrument for measuring the complex permittivity of the Martian top soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grard, R.

    1988-01-01

    This permittivity measuring instrument measures the resistivity rho and the relative dielectric constant epsilon sub r of the Martian top soil along the path of a rover. This aim is achieved by measuring the real and imaginary parts of the complex permittivity epsilon = epsilon sub r - j epsilon sub i where epsilon sub i = omega epsilon sub o rho/1; epsilon sub 1 is the permittivity of vacuum and omega is a variable angular working frequency. The experimental technique consists in evaluating the mutual, or transfer, impedance of a quadrupolar probe, i.e., in quantifying the influence of the Martian ground on the electrical coupling of two Hertz dipoles. The horizontal and vertical spatial resolutions are of the order of the length and separation of the dipoles, typically 1 to 2 metres. The four-electrode method for measuring the ground resistivity on earth was first applied by Wenner and Schlumberger, but the proposed investigation bears closer resemblance to a similar instrument developed for ground surveying at shallow depth, in connection with archaelogical and pedological research. A quadrupolar probe will provide essential information about the electric properties of the Martian ground and will contribute usefully to the identification of the soil structure and composition in association with other experimental equipment (camera, infra-red detector, gamma and X-ray spectrometers, chemical analyzers, ground temperature probes).

  13. Capacitance Probe for Fluid Flow and Volume Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Nguyen, Thanh X. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Method and apparatus for making measurements on fluids are disclosed, including the use of a capacitive probe for measuring the flow volume of a material within a flow stream. The capacitance probe has at least two elongate electrodes and, in a specific embodiment of the invention, has three parallel elongate electrodes with the center electrode being an extension of the center conductor of a co-axial cable. A conductance probe is also provided to provide more accurate flow volume data in response to conductivity of the material within the flow stream. A preferred embodiment of the present invention provides for a gas flow stream through a micro-gravity environment that allows for monitoring a flow volume of a fluid sample, such as a urine sample, that is entrained within the gas flow stream.

  14. Capacitance probe for fluid flow and volume measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Nguyen, Thanh X. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Method and apparatus for making measurements on fluids are disclosed, including the use of a capacitive probe for measuring the flow volume of a material within a flow stream. The capacitance probe has at least two elongate electrodes and, in a specific embodiment of the invention, has three parallel elongate electrodes with the center electrode being an extension of the center conductor of a co-axial cable. A conductance probe is also provided to provide more accurate flow volume data in response to conductivity of the material within the flow stream. A preferred embodiment of the present invention provides for a gas flow stream through a microgravity environment that allows for monitoring a flow volume of a fluid sample, such as a urine sample, that is entrained within the gas flow stream.

  15. Tidal interaction: A possible explanation for geysers and other fluid phenomena in the Neptune-Triton system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, W. D.; Wood, C. L.

    1993-03-01

    Discovery of geyser-like plumes on the surface of Triton was a highlight of Voyager 2's passage through the Neptune planetary system. Remarkable as these observations were, they were not entirely without precedent. Considering the confirmed predictions for the 1979 Voyager Jovian passage, it was logical to consider other solar system bodies beside Io where tidal effects could be a significant factor in surface processes. It was our intuition that the Neptune-Triton gravitational bond acting at high inclination to the Neptune equator and the fact that Neptune was a fluid body was significant oblateness would produce tidal and mechanical forces that could be transformed into thermal energy vented on Triton's surface. Prior to the Voyager flyby, others have noted that capture and evolution of Triton's orbit from extreme eccentricity to near circular state today would have resulted in significant tidal heating, but these analysts disregard current day forces. Our calculations indicate that the time varying forces between Neptune-Triton fall midway between those exerted in the Earth-Moon and Jupiter-Io systems, and considering the low level of other energy inputs, this source of internal energy should not be ignored when seeking an explanation for surface activity. In each planet-satellite case, residual or steady-state eccentricity causes time-varying stresses on internal satellite strata. In the case of Jupiter the residual eccentricity is due largely to Galilean satellite interactions, particularly Io-Europa, but in the case of Neptune-Triton, it is the effect of Triton's inclined orbit about an oblate primary.

  16. Tidal interaction: A possible explanation for geysers and other fluid phenomena in the Neptune-Triton system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, W. D.; Wood, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Discovery of geyser-like plumes on the surface of Triton was a highlight of Voyager 2's passage through the Neptune planetary system. Remarkable as these observations were, they were not entirely without precedent. Considering the confirmed predictions for the 1979 Voyager Jovian passage, it was logical to consider other solar system bodies beside Io where tidal effects could be a significant factor in surface processes. It was our intuition that the Neptune-Triton gravitational bond acting at high inclination to the Neptune equator and the fact that Neptune was a fluid body was significant oblateness would produce tidal and mechanical forces that could be transformed into thermal energy vented on Triton's surface. Prior to the Voyager flyby, others have noted that capture and evolution of Triton's orbit from extreme eccentricity to near circular state today would have resulted in significant tidal heating, but these analysts disregard current day forces. Our calculations indicate that the time varying forces between Neptune-Triton fall midway between those exerted in the Earth-Moon and Jupiter-Io systems, and considering the low level of other energy inputs, this source of internal energy should not be ignored when seeking an explanation for surface activity. In each planet-satellite case, residual or steady-state eccentricity causes time-varying stresses on internal satellite strata. In the case of Jupiter the residual eccentricity is due largely to Galilean satellite interactions, particularly Io-Europa, but in the case of Neptune-Triton, it is the effect of Triton's inclined orbit about an oblate primary.

  17. Deriving aerosol properties from measurements of the Atmosphere-Surface Radiation Automatic Instrument (ASRAI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hua; Li, Donghui; Li, Zhengqiang; Zheng, Xiaobing; Li, Xin; Xie, Yisong; Liu, Enchao

    2015-10-01

    The Atmosphere-surface Radiation Automatic Instrument (ASRAI) is a newly developed hyper-spectral apparatus by Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (AIOFM, CAS), measuring total spectral irradiance, diffuse spectral irradiance of atmosphere and reflected radiance of the land surface for the purpose of in-situ calibration. The instrument applies VIS-SWIR spectrum (0.4~1.0 μm) with an averaged spectral resolution of 0.004 μm. The goal of this paper is to describe a method of deriving both aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol modes from irradiance measurements under free cloudy conditions. The total columnar amounts of water vapor and oxygen are first inferred from solar transmitted irradiance at strong absorption wavelength. The AOD together with total columnar amounts of ozone and nitrogen dioxide are determined by a nonlinear least distance fitting method. Moreover, it is able to infer aerosol modes from the spectral dependency of AOD because different aerosol modes have their inherent spectral extinction characteristics. With assumption that the real aerosol is an idea of "external mixing" of four basic components, dust-like, water-soluble, oceanic and soot, the percentage of volume concentration of each component can be retrieved. A spectrum matching technology based on Euclidean-distance method is adopted to find the most approximate combination of components. The volume concentration ratios of four basic components are in accordance with our prior knowledge of regional aerosol climatology. Another advantage is that the retrievals would facilitate the TOA simulation when applying 6S model for satellite calibration.

  18. 40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurement instrumentation. 201.22... PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT; INTERSTATE RAIL CARRIERS Measurement Criteria § 201.22 Measurement instrumentation. (a) A sound level meter or alternate sound level...

  19. 40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Measurement instrumentation. 201.22... PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT; INTERSTATE RAIL CARRIERS Measurement Criteria § 201.22 Measurement instrumentation. (a) A sound level meter or alternate sound level...

  20. 40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Measurement instrumentation. 201.22... PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT; INTERSTATE RAIL CARRIERS Measurement Criteria § 201.22 Measurement instrumentation. (a) A sound level meter or alternate sound level...

  1. A high sampling rate digital holographic imager instrument for the in situ measurements of hydrometeors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaikkonen, Ville A.; Mäkynen, Anssi J.

    2016-06-01

    A novel digital in-line holographic imaging instrument designed for acquiring properties of individual hydrometeors in situ is presented. The instrument has a large measurement volume of 670 cm3. This combined with fast frame rate imaging and software controlled multi-exposure capabilities results in a representative sampling of rain and snowfall events. Hydrometeors are measured and analyzed from the in-focus images with microscopic resolution, and their 3D locations inside the measurement volume are determined. The instrument is designed to operate in cold climates and to produce reliable measurements also during strong winds. The imaging rate of the instrument was designed to be adequately high to observe the dynamic nature of rain and snow falls. By recording multi-exposure holograms, the effective frame rate can be increased. This allows the measurements of the velocities of the fast-falling hydrometeors. The instrument and the hologram processing are described; as well as results from laboratory tests and the first field measurements are shown. As a result, the resolving power of the instrument was measured to vary between 11 and 18 microns inside the measurement volume near the center of the field-of-view. Velocity vectors were measured both from multi-exposure and high frame rate holograms. The measured velocities ranged from 0.1 to 4 m/s. In addition, the projections of a flat-shaped and rotating snowflake imaged at different locations inside the measurement volume demonstrated the possibility to estimate the shape of the hydrometeor from multiple viewing angles.

  2. Determination of interfacial properties using a PC-SAFT based classical density functional theory for fluid mixtures of industrial interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian; Cristancho, Diego; Srivastava, Rakesh

    In this paper, a recent development of a PC-SAFT based classical density functional theory (DFT) is applied to the determination of interfacial properties of pure fluids and mixtures of industrial interest. Initially, the DFT formalism is described and the methodology for the property calculations explained. The consistency of this approach allows the determination of interfacial properties for fluids using the PC-SAFT equation of state parameters determined from bulk physical property data, such as vapor-liquid-equilibrium and densities. This methodology is an excellent alternative for the predictions of interfacial property of fluids and extrapolation to high pressure ranges where experimental measurements becomes challenging.

  3. Modular instrumentation system for real-time measurements and control on reciprocating engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, W. J.; Birchenough, A. G.

    1980-01-01

    An instrumentation system was developed for reciprocating engines. Among the parameters measured are the indicated mean effective pressure, or theoretical work per cycle, and the mass fraction burn rate, a measure of the combustion rate in the cylinder. These computations are performed from measured cylinder pressure and crankshaft angle and are available in real time for the experimenter. A 100 or 200 consecutive-cycle sample is analyzed to reduce the effect of cyclic variations in the engine. Data are displayed in bargraph form, and the mean and standard deviation are computed. Other instruments are also described.

  4. Building a Low-Cost, Six-Electrode Instrument to Measure Electrical Properties of Self-Assembled Monolayers of Gold Nanoparticles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Ralph W.; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new low-cost, six-electrode instrument for measuring the electrical properties of the self-assembled monolayers of gold particles is being described. The system can also be used to measure conductive liquids, except for those that contain aqua region.

  5. Neutron-multiplication measurement instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results.

  6. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow and density of fluid in a conduit having a gradual bend

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, Marcos German; Boucher, Timothy J.

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow.

  7. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow and density of fluid in a conduit having a gradual bend

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, M.G.; Boucher, T.J.

    1998-10-27

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.

  8. Gene Expression Measurement Module (GEMM) - a fully automated, miniaturized instrument for measuring gene expression in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karouia, Fathi; Ricco, Antonio; Pohorille, Andrew; Peyvan, Kianoosh

    2012-07-01

    The capability to measure gene expression on board spacecrafts opens the doors to a large number of experiments on the influence of space environment on biological systems that will profoundly impact our ability to conduct safe and effective space travel, and might also shed light on terrestrial physiology or biological function and human disease and aging processes. Measurements of gene expression will help us to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment on a wide range of organisms from microbes to humans, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, determine metabolic basis of microbial pathogenicity and drug resistance, test our ability to sustain and grow in space organisms that can be used for life support and in situ resource utilization during long-duration space exploration, and monitor both the spacecraft environment and crew health. These and other applications hold significant potential for discoveries in space biology, biotechnology and medicine. Accordingly, supported by funding from the NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development Program, we are developing a fully automated, miniaturized, integrated fluidic system for small spacecraft capable of in-situ measuring microbial expression of thousands of genes from multiple samples. The instrument will be capable of (1) lysing bacterial cell walls, (2) extracting and purifying RNA released from cells, (3) hybridizing it on a microarray and (4) providing electrochemical readout, all in a microfluidics cartridge. The prototype under development is suitable for deployment on nanosatellite platforms developed by the NASA Small Spacecraft Office. The first target application is to cultivate and measure gene expression of the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus, i.e. a cyanobacterium known to exhibit remarkable metabolic diversity and resilience to adverse conditions

  9. Precision Tiltmeter as a Reference for Slope MeasuringInstruments

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Domning, Edward E.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Smith, Brian V.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2007-08-01

    The next generation of synchrotrons and free electron lasers require extremely high-performance x-ray optical systems for proper focusing. The necessary optics cannot be fabricated without the use of precise optical metrology instrumentation. In particular, the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) based on the pencil-beam interferometer is a valuable tool for low-spatial-frequency slope measurement with x-ray optics. The limitations of such a device are set by the amount of systematic errors and noise. A significant improvement of LTP performance was the addition of an optical reference channel, which allowed to partially account for systematic errors associated with wiggling and wobbling of the LTP carriage. However, the optical reference is affected by changing optical path length, non-homogeneous optics, and air turbulence. In the present work, we experimentally investigate the questions related to the use of a precision tiltmeter as a reference channel. Dependence of the tiltmeter performance on horizontal acceleration, temperature drift, motion regime, and kinematical scheme of the translation stage has been investigated. It is shown that at an appropriate experimental arrangement, the tiltmeter provides a slope reference for the LTP system with accuracy on the level of 0.1 {micro}rad (rms).

  10. Confirmatory measurement channels for LIF-based bioaerosol instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisson, Scott E.; Crocker, Robert W.; Kulp, Thomas J.; Reichardt, Thomas A.; Reilly, Peter T. A.; Whitten, William B.

    2008-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Detect-to-Protect (DTP) program, a multilab [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] effort is addressing the need for useable detect-to-warn bioaerosol sensors for public facility protection. Towards this end, the SNL team is investigating the use of rapid fluorogenic staining to infer the protein content of bioaerosols. This is being implemented in a flow cytometer wherein each particle detected generates coincident signals of correlated forward scatter, side scatter, and fluorescence. Several thousand such coincident signal sets are typically collected to generate a distribution describing the probability of observing a particle with certain scattering and fluorescence values. These data are collected for sample particles in both a stained and unstained state. A linear unmixing analysis is performed to differentiate components in the mixture. In this paper, we discuss the implementation of the staining process and the cytometric measurement, the results of their application to the analysis of known and blind samples, and a potential instrumental implementations that would use staining.

  11. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  12. Computer program for calculating thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Braon, A. K.; Peller, I. C.

    1975-01-01

    Computer code has been developed to provide thermodynamic and transport properties of liquid argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, fluorine, helium, methane, neon, nitrogen, oxygen, and parahydrogen. Equation of state and transport coefficients are updated and other fluids added as new material becomes available.

  13. Critical Phenomena in the Aspherical Collapse of Radiation Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgarte, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    We study critical phenomena in the gravitational collapse of radiation fluids. We perform numerical simulations in both spherical symmetry and axisymmetry, and observe critical scaling in both supercritical evolutions, which lead to the formation of a black hole, and subcritical evolutions, in which case the fluid disperses to infinity and leaves behind flat space. We identify the critical solution in spherically symmetric collapse, and study the approach to this critical solution in the absence of spherical symmetry. Our simulations are preformed with an unconstrained evolution code, implemented in spherical polar coordinates, and adopting ``moving-puncture'' coordinates. Supported in part by NSF Grant No. PHY-1402780 to Bowdoin College.

  14. Flow-induced birefringence measurement system using dual-crystal transverse electro-optic modulator for microgravity fluid physics applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Jeffrey R.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a new instrument that can measure fast transient birefringence and polymer chain orientation angle in complex fluids. The instrument uses a dual-crystal transverse electro-optic modulator with the second crystal's modulation voltage applied 180 deg out of phase from that of the first crystal. In this manner, the second crystal compensates for the intrinsic static birefringence of the first crystal, and it doubles the modulation depth. By incorporating a transverse electro-optic modulator with two lithium-niobate (LiNbO3) crystals oriented orthogonal to each other with a custom-designed optical system, we have produced a very small robust instrument capable of fast transient retardation measurements. By measuring the sample thickness or optical path length through the sample, we can calculate the transient birefringence. This system can also measure dichroism. We have compared the calibration results and retardation and orientation angle measurements of this instrument with those of a photoelastic modulator (PEM) based system using a quarter wave plate and a high-precision 1/16-wave plate to simulate a birefringent sample. Transient birefringence measurements on the order of 10(exp -9) can be measured using either modulator.

  15. Spinal motion and intradiscal pressure measurements before and after lumbar spine instrumentation with titanium or PEEK rods.

    PubMed

    Abode-Iyamah, Kingsley; Kim, Sam Byeong; Grosland, Nicole; Kumar, Rajinder; Belirgen, Muhittin; Lim, Tae Hong; Torner, James; Hitchon, Patrick W

    2014-04-01

    Spinal instrumentation and fusion have been incriminated as contributing to adjacent segment degeneration (ASD). It has been suggested that ASD results from increased range of motion and intradiscal pressure (IDP) adjacent to instrumentation. Posterior dynamic stabilization with polyetheretherketone (PEEK) rods has been proposed as potentially advantageous compared to rigid instrumentation with titanium (Ti) rods in reducing the incidence of ASD. We evaluated segmental motions in the cadaveric spine instrumented with PEEK or Ti rods from L3 to S1, as well as the adjacent segment motions and IDP at L1-2 and L2-3. Human cadaveric spines were potted at T12-L1 and S1-2. Spinal instrumentation from L3-S1 was accomplished using pedicle screws with either PEEK or Ti rods. Specimens were subjected to displacement controlled testing: 15° flexion, 15° extension, 10° lateral bending, and 5° right axial rotation using the MTS machine (MTS, Minneapolis, MN, USA). Intradiscal pressure was measured by placing pressure transducers into the intervertebral disc at L1-2 and L2-3. Spinal motion of L2 relative to L3, and L3 relative to S1 was tracked using a three dimensional motion analysis system. Instrumentation with PEEK and Ti rods was associated with a decrease in L3-S1 motion compared to the intact state that was significant in flexion (p=0.002), and extension (p=0.0075). Instrumentation with PEEK and Ti rods was associated with an increase in IDP at L1-2 that was significant in flexion (p=0.0028). Instrumentation with either PEEK or Ti rods resulted in decreased motion at the instrumented levels while increasing IDP at the adjacent level.

  16. Survey of aerosol optical properties measured as a function of wavelength with multiple photoacoustic instruments in Sacramento during the CARES campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, M. K.; Flowers, B. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Mazzoleni, C.; Lack, D. A.; Gyawali, M. S.; Gorkowski, K.; Fast, J. D.; Zaveri, R. A.; Hubbe, J.; Aiken, A. C.

    2010-12-01

    The goal of the Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) in Central California was to develop scientific knowledge on the life cycle of black carbon and organic aerosols in a mixed urban and forested region. The focus was to improve mechanisms by which carbonaceous aerosols are produced and modified and how they alter their optical properties. To achieve this we deployed ten photoacoustic instruments at ground sites (T0 in Sacramento, and T1 in Cool) and on aircraft (DOE-G1 and NOAA-P3) to measure aerosol absorption and scattering as a function of wavelength. Optical properties were measured at 1064, 871, 780, 532, 405, 375 and 355 nm. Analysis of optical properties over this wide spectral range is being used to attribute the contributions of black, brown and organic carbon as it mixes with other aerosol constituents. Diurnal variations of optical properties measured at T0 reflect urban sources while those at T1 are influenced by local biogenic emissions mixed with transported urban emissions. We present optical evidence of particle nucleation and secondary organic formation at the ground sites. Airborne observations on the G-1 are used to gain a regional perspective and also test for self-consistency and/or performances of instruments. We focus on the inter-comparison flight on 18th June, 2010 where photoacoustic data from the NOAA-P3 (Calnex) and G-1 instruments are compared. Our data are combined with measurements of tracers (e.g. CO 2 and CO) and output from WRF-models to gain a predictive understanding of radiative forcing by carbonaceous aerosols in a mixed urban and forested regime.

  17. Integrated, Multi-Scale Characterization of Imbibition and Wettability Phenomena Using Magnetic Resonance and Wide-Band Dielectric Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mukul M. Sharma; Steven L. Bryant; Carlos Torres-Verdin; George Hirasaki

    2007-09-30

    The petrophysical properties of rocks, particularly their relative permeability and wettability, strongly influence the efficiency and the time-scale of all hydrocarbon recovery processes. However, the quantitative relationships needed to account for the influence of wettability and pore structure on multi-phase flow are not yet available, largely due to the complexity of the phenomena controlling wettability and the difficulty of characterizing rock properties at the relevant length scales. This project brings together several advanced technologies to characterize pore structure and wettability. Grain-scale models are developed that help to better interpret the electric and dielectric response of rocks. These studies allow the computation of realistic configurations of two immiscible fluids as a function of wettability and geologic characteristics. These fluid configurations form a basis for predicting and explaining macroscopic behavior, including the relationship between relative permeability, wettability and laboratory and wireline log measurements of NMR and dielectric response. Dielectric and NMR measurements have been made show that the response of the rocks depends on the wetting and flow properties of the rock. The theoretical models can be used for a better interpretation and inversion of standard well logs to obtain accurate and reliable estimates of fluid saturation and of their producibility. The ultimate benefit of this combined theoretical/empirical approach for reservoir characterization is that rather than reproducing the behavior of any particular sample or set of samples, it can explain and predict trends in behavior that can be applied at a range of length scales, including correlation with wireline logs, seismic, and geologic units and strata. This approach can substantially enhance wireline log interpretation for reservoir characterization and provide better descriptions, at several scales, of crucial reservoir flow properties that govern oil

  18. Functional capacity, physical activity and muscle strength assessment of individuals with non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review of instruments and their measurement properties

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The measurement properties of instruments used to assess functional capacity, physical activity and muscle strength in participants with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have not been systematically reviewed. Method Objectives: To identify outcome measures used to assess these outcomes in participants with NSCLC; and to evaluate, synthesise and compare the measurement properties of the outcome measures identified. Data Sources: A systematic review of articles using electronic databases MEDLINE (1950–2012), CINAHL (1982–2012), EMBASE (1980–2012), Cochrane Library (2012), Expanded Academic ASAP (1994–2012), Health Collection Informit (1995–2012) and PEDRO (1999–2012). Additional studies were identified by searching personal files and cross referencing. Eligibility Criteria for Study Selection: Search one: studies which assessed functional capacity, physical activity or muscle strength in participants with NSCLC using non-laboratory objective tests were included. Search two: studies which evaluated a measurement property (inter- or intra-rater reliability; measurement error; criterion or construct validity; or responsiveness) in NSCLC for one of the outcome measures identified in search one. Studies published in English from 1980 were eligible. Data Extraction and Methodological Quality Assessment: data collection form was developed and data extracted. Methodological quality of studies was assessed by two independent reviewers using the 4-point COSMIN checklist. Results Thirteen outcome measures were identified. Thirty-one studies evaluating measurement properties of the outcome measures in participants with NSCLC were included. Functional capacity was assessed using the six- and twelve-minute walk tests; incremental- and endurance-shuttle walk tests; and the stair-climbing test. Criterion validity for three of these measures was established in NSCLC but not the reliability or responsiveness. Physical activity was measured using accelerometers

  19. An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Davis, Douglas D.; Beltz, Nobert; Bandy, Alan R.; Ferek, Ronald J.; Thornton, Donald C.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the NASA Tropospheric Chemistry Program, a series of field intercomparisons have been conducted to evaluate the state-of-the art for measuring key tropospheric species. One of the objectives of the third intercomparison campaign in this series, Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 (CITE 3), was to evaluate instrumentation for making reliable tropospheric aircraft measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide. This paper reports the results of the intercomparisons of five sulfur dioxide measurement methods ranging from filter techniques, in which samples collected in flight are returned to the laboratory for analyses (chemiluminescent or ion chromatographic), to near real-time, in-flight measurements via gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric, and chemiluminescent techniques. All techniques showed some tendency to track sizeable changes in ambient SO2 such as those associated with altitude changes. For SO2 mixing ratios in the range of 200 pptv to a few ppbv, agreement among the techniques varies from about 30% to several orders of magnitude, depending upon the pair of measurements intercompared. For SO2 mixing ratios less than 200 pptv, measurements from the techniques are uncorrelated. In general, observed differences in the measurement of standards do not account for the flight results. The CITE 3 results do not unambiguously identify one or more of the measurement techniques as providing valid or invalid SO2 measurements, but identify the range of 'potential' uncertainty in SO2 measurements reported by currently available instrumentation and as measured under realistic aircraft environments.

  20. Soil Shear Properties Assessment, Resistance, Thermal, and Triboelectric Analysis (SPARTTA) Tool: A New Multitool Instrument for Identifying the Physical Properties of In-situ Soils on Planetary Surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Peters, G. H.; Beegle, L. W.; Zhou, Y. M.; Van Stryk, N.; Carey, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    SPARTTA is a low cost, low mass (< 1 kg), and low power (< 5 watt) deployable rover-arm mounted contact instrument that will provide a new capability for measurements of the physical properties of in-situ soils on a planetary surface. SPARTTA is TRL-4 and is able to characterize the mechanical (shear and compressive strength), thermal (conductivity), and electrical (dielectric spectroscopy and triboelectric charging) properties of soils through the integration of five specialized tools into a small, portable instrument, analogous to the Swiss army knife. All of the SPARTTA components are based on classical terrestrial soil analytical tools. Each component will be used to measure a specific physical property of a planetary regolith. SPARTTA will be easily adaptable to a wide range of surface environments for any future planetary robotic surface mission. A key innovation of SPARTTA is its state-of-the-art miniature packaging approach which enables in-situ comprehensive analyses of the physical properties of soils on any planetary body (e.g. asteroids, comets, etc.) with a single compact instrument. SPARTTA will specifically address several high-priority science goals identified in the Decadal Study regarding the physical properties of planetary soils, liquid water/water-ice detection, and electrostatics for bodies as diverse as comets, Trojan asteroids, Mars and the Moon [Planetary Science Decadal Study, 2013]. Additionally, it will provide valuable data to assist engineers in designing landing, drilling, coring, and sample acquisition systems for future Discovery, New Frontiers missions, or flagship landed missions.

  1. A Procedure for Measuring Microplastics using Pressurized Fluid Extraction.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Stephen; Gautam, Anil

    2016-06-01

    A method based on pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) was developed for measuring microplastics in environmental samples. This method can address some limitations of the current microplastic methods and provide laboratories with a simple analytical method for quantifying common microplastics in a range of environmental samples. The method was initially developed by recovering 101% to 111% of spiked plastics on glass beads and was then applied to a composted municipal waste sample with spike recoveries ranging from 85% to 94%. The results from municipal waste samples and soil samples collected from an industrial area demonstrated that the method is a promising alternative for determining the concentration and identity of microplastics in environmental samples.

  2. Do Two or More Multicomponent Instruments Measure the Same Construct? Testing Construct Congruence Using Latent Variable Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Tong, Bing

    2016-01-01

    A latent variable modeling procedure is discussed that can be used to test if two or more homogeneous multicomponent instruments with distinct components are measuring the same underlying construct. The method is widely applicable in scale construction and development research and can also be of special interest in construct validation studies.…

  3. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2004-05-03

    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  4. Apparatus for measuring particle properties

    DOEpatents

    Rader, D.J.; Castaneda, J.N.; Grasser, T.W.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1998-08-11

    An apparatus is described for determining particle properties from detected light scattered by the particles. The apparatus uses a light beam with novel intensity characteristics to discriminate between particles that pass through the beam and those that pass through an edge of the beam. The apparatus can also discriminate between light scattered by one particle and light scattered by multiple particles. The particle`s size can be determined from the intensity of the light scattered. The particle`s velocity can be determined from the elapsed time between various intensities of the light scattered. 11 figs.

  5. Apparatus for measuring particle properties

    DOEpatents

    Rader, Daniel J.; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Grasser, Thomas W.; Brockmann, John E.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for determining particle properties from detected light scattered by the particles. The apparatus uses a light beam with novel intensity characteristics to discriminate between particles that pass through the beam and those that pass through an edge of the beam. The apparatus can also discriminate between light scattered by one particle and light scattered by multiple particles. The particle's size can be determined from the intensity of the light scattered. The particle's velocity can be determined from the elapsed time between various intensities of the light scattered.

  6. Quantitative phase-field modeling for wetting phenomena.

    PubMed

    Badillo, Arnoldo

    2015-03-01

    A new phase-field model is developed for studying partial wetting. The introduction of a third phase representing a solid wall allows for the derivation of a new surface tension force that accounts for energy changes at the contact line. In contrast to other multi-phase-field formulations, the present model does not need the introduction of surface energies for the fluid-wall interactions. Instead, all wetting properties are included in a unique parameter known as the equilibrium contact angle θeq. The model requires the solution of a single elliptic phase-field equation, which, coupled to conservation laws for mass and linear momentum, admits the existence of steady and unsteady compact solutions (compactons). The representation of the wall by an additional phase field allows for the study of wetting phenomena on flat, rough, or patterned surfaces in a straightforward manner. The model contains only two free parameters, a measure of interface thickness W and β, which is used in the definition of the mixture viscosity μ=μlϕl+μvϕv+βμlϕw. The former controls the convergence towards the sharp interface limit and the latter the energy dissipation at the contact line. Simulations on rough surfaces show that by taking values for β higher than 1, the model can reproduce, on average, the effects of pinning events of the contact line during its dynamic motion. The model is able to capture, in good agreement with experimental observations, many physical phenomena fundamental to wetting science, such as the wetting transition on micro-structured surfaces and droplet dynamics on solid substrates. PMID:25871200

  7. Fluid-sorption phenomena in sterilized polyethylene acetabular prostheses.

    PubMed

    Clarke, I C; Starkebaum, W; Hosseinian, A; McGuire, P; Okuda, R; Salovey, R; Young, R

    1985-05-01

    The weight changes due to fluid-sorption were measured in 62 radiation-sterilized acetabular sockets and 10 unsterilized discs. The materials included two types of ultra-high molecular weight (UHMW) polyethylene (RCH 1000; Hi-Fax 1900) and a carbon-fibre-reinforced polyethylene (CFPE). The fluid absorption curve was consistently biphasic. In the first 30 d soak-period (Phase 1), the initial rate of fluid absorption averaged 153 micrograms/d for conventional UHMW polyethylene and 278 micrograms/d for carbon-fibre-reinforced polyethylene. In Phase 2, beyond 30 d and up to 400 d, fluid absorption reduced to linear rates of 27 micrograms/d for UHMW polyethylene and 43 micrograms/d for CFPE. The latter soak-weight-gain values corresponded to only 0.00016%/d and 0.00034%/d respectively. There was little difference in absorption rates between sterilized and unsterilized samples. However soak rates were generally higher in water compared to serum.

  8. High-resolution compact shear stress sensor for direct measurement of skin friction in fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Muchen; Kim, Chang-Jin ``Cj''

    2015-11-01

    The high-resolution measurement of skin friction in complex flows has long been of great interest but also a challenge in fluid mechanics. Compared with indirect measurement methods (e.g., laser Doppler velocimetry), direct measurement methods (e.g., floating element) do not involve any analogy and assumption but tend to suffer from instrumentation challenges, such as low sensing resolution or misalignments. Recently, silicon micromachined floating plates showed good resolution and perfect alignment but were too small for general purposes and too fragile to attach other surface samples repeatedly. In this work, we report a skin friction sensor consisting of a monolithic floating plate and a high-resolution optical encoder to measure its displacement. The key for the high resolution is in the suspension beams, which are very narrow (e.g., 0.25 mm) to sense small frictions along the flow direction but thick (e.g., 5 mm) to be robust along all other directions. This compact, low profile, and complete sensor is easy to use and allows repeated attachment and detachment of surface samples. The sheer-stress sensor has been tested in water tunnel and towing tank at different flow conditions, showing high sensing resolution for skin friction measurement. Supported by National Science Foundation (NSF) (No. 1336966) and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) (No. HR0011-15-2-0021).

  9. A review of instruments to measure interprofessional collaboration for chronic disease management for community-living older adults.

    PubMed

    Bookey-Bassett, Sue; Markle-Reid, Maureen; McKey, Colleen; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori

    2016-01-01

    It is acknowledged internationally that chronic disease management (CDM) for community-living older adults (CLOA) is an increasingly complex process. CDM for older adults, who are often living with multiple chronic conditions, requires coordination of various health and social services. Coordination is enabled through interprofessional collaboration (IPC) among individual providers, community organizations, and health sectors. Measuring IPC is complicated given there are multiple conceptualisations and measures of IPC. A literature review of several healthcare, psychological, and social science electronic databases was conducted to locate instruments that measure IPC at the team level and have published evidence of their reliability and validity. Five instruments met the criteria and were critically reviewed to determine their strengths and limitations as they relate to CDM for CLOA. A comparison of the characteristics, psychometric properties, and overall concordance of each instrument with salient attributes of IPC found the Collaborative Practice Assessment Tool to be the most appropriate instrument for measuring IPC for CDM in CLOA.

  10. Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference: Exposition Topical Areas 1-6. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Bhim (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    The Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference provides the scientific community the opportunity to view the current scope of the Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Program, current research opportunities, and plans for the near future. The conference focuses not only on fundamental research but also on applications of this knowledge towards enabling future space exploration missions. A whole session dedicated to biological fluid physics shows increased emphasis that the program has placed on interdisciplinary research. The conference includes invited plenary talks, technical paper presentations, poster presentations, and exhibits. This CP (conference proceeding) is a compilation of the abstracts, presentations, and posters presented at the conference.

  11. Thermal Anomalies and Fluid Geochemistry Framework In Occurrence of The 2000-2001 Nizza Monferrato Seismic Sequence (northern Italy): Episodic Changes In The Fault Zone Heat Flow Or Chemical Mixing Phenomena ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrocchi, F.; Favara, R.; Capasso, G.; Pizzino, L.; Bencini, R.; Cinti, D.

    Soon after and soon before the August 21, 2000 earthquake (Ml = 5.2), occurred at 7:14 pm, in the Nizza Monferrato area (Piemonte, Northern Italy) several episodes of heating up (reaching 30 C from a normal regional background around 10oC) affecting groundwater from wells and springs were recorded. The area affected by the temperature uprising in the shallow aquifers is around 20 Km x 30 Km wide, elongated in a N-S direction (the same evidenced by the strike-slip left -lateral focal mechanism), from Incisa Scapaccino to Nizza Monferrato towns. Water temperatures of some wells remained anomalous, lasting for 3-4 months, returning to normal values very slowly. Also in concomitance with the Ml = 4.0 event, occurred on August 2001 in the same area, similar phenomena were observed. We performed geochemical and hydrogeological surveys (around 40 sites as a whole were selected for chemical and isotopic analyses and the hottest wells several times, in a yearly period) to understand the causes of this temperature uprising also in relation to the presence of the Acqui Terme thermal spring (70 C) located at 30 Km o Southward. On field we measured temperature, pH, Eh, electrical conductivity, and 222Rn. Moreover major elements (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, SO4), minor elements (NH4 e NO3, PO4, Li, B, SiO2, F, Br, Sr), and trace elements (Fe, Mn, As, Sb, Hg, U) as well as H, O, C isotopic ratios were analyzed in laboratory. Dissolved gases water analyzed selecting 9 sites. The collected data showed that, apart from the noteworthy changes in the well temperatures, no peculiar variations in fluid geochemistry occurred in time. On the basis of the experimental geochemical evidences, the work focuses on the geochemical and physico-chemical trends, the isotopic analyses and the anomalous- episodic change of the heat flow in an "activated" fault zoneas the Bacino Terziario Piemontese one. The "frictional heating" process, the "stress-driven phase transitions" and episodic variations in the

  12. Instrumentation for measuring the dynamic pressure on rotating compressor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, H. P.; Lanati, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    To establish the capability for measurement of oscillatory pressure on rotating blades, miniature fast response semiconductor strain gage pressure transducers (2mm x 0.33mm) were mounted in several configurations on thin titanium and steel compressor blades and subjected to pressure cycles from 1 to 310 kPa during static tests and spin tests. Static test conditions included 20 C to 150 C, 0 to 3000 tensile microstrain, -1000 to +1000 bending microstrain and + or - 650G vibration. The spin test conditions included 20 C to 82 C at 0 to 90,000G. Durability was excellent. Pressure transducer sensitivity changed by only a few percent over this range of environmental conditions. Noise signal due to oscillatory acceleration normal to the diaphragm was acceptable (0.33Pa/G). Noise signal due to oscillatory strain was acceptable (0.5 Pa/microstrain) when the transducer was mounted on a 0.05mm rubber pad, with a total buildup of 0.38mm on the measure surface. Back mounting or partial recessing to eliminate buildup, increased the strain effect to 1.2 Pa/microstrain. Flush mounting within the blade to eliminate buildup reduced the strain effect, but required development of a special transducer shape. This transducer was not available in time for spin tests. Unpredictable zero drift + or - 14 kPa ruled out the use of these mounting arrangements for accurate steady-state (D.C.) measurements on rotating blades. The two best configurations fully developed and spin tested were then successfully applied in the NAS3-20606 rotating fan flutter program for quantitative measurement of oscillatory pressure amplitudes.

  13. A New Instrument for the Measurement of the Waveform in X-Ray Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Jiménez, Francisco J.; Martínez-Hernández, Marco A.

    2004-09-01

    The experience gained in the quality control in X-ray units used in Radiology has demonstrated that the measurement of the waveform of the X-ray beam, measured as the response of a radiation detector is very helpful to decide if the unit fulfills the quality control requirements and also has been useful to define some kind of faults in the unit. Several instruments are available on the market to make this measurement but they need in general a storage or digital oscilloscope to see the waveform. In this work a stand alone new instrument is proposed in which the waveform is seen in a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). The instrument is based in the X-ray response of a photo diode. The analog response depending on time is converted to digital numbers that are stored sequentially in a memory. The stored information is recovered with a microcontroller and reconstructed in the screen of the LCD. The instrument is able to measure in the mammographic range from 22 kV to 35 kV and in the conventional range from 40 kV to 120 kV in the different settings of current encountered on practical applications, the time range for the measurement of the X-ray shot is from 100 ms to 3 s. The instrument can be useful in quality control practices and in the verification and maintenance of X-ray units.

  14. Cavity-enhanced quantum-cascade laser-based instrument for carbon monoxide measurements.

    PubMed

    Provencal, Robert; Gupta, Manish; Owano, Thomas G; Baer, Douglas S; Ricci, Kenneth N; O'Keefe, Anthony; Podolske, James R

    2005-11-01

    An autonomous instrument based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy has been developed and successfully deployed for measurements of carbon monoxide in the troposphere and tropopause onboard a NASA DC-8 aircraft. The instrument (Carbon Monoxide Gas Analyzer) consists of a measurement cell comprised of two high-reflectivity mirrors, a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser, gas sampling system, control and data-acquisition electronics, and data-analysis software. CO measurements were determined from high-resolution CO absorption line shapes obtained by tuning the laser wavelength over the R(7) transition of the fundamental vibration band near 2172.8 cm(-1). The instrument reports CO mixing ratio (mole fraction) at a 1-Hz rate based on measured absorption, gas temperature, and pressure using Beer's Law. During several flights in May-June 2004 and January 2005 that reached altitudes of 41,000 ft (12.5 km), the instrument recorded CO values with a precision of 0.2 ppbv (1-s averaging time) and an accuracy limited by the reference CO gas cylinder (uncertainty < 1.0%). Despite moderate turbulence and measurements of particulate-laden airflows, the instrument operated consistently and did not require any maintenance, mirror cleaning, or optical realignment during the flights. PMID:16270560

  15. Cavity-enhanced quantum-cascade laser-based instrument for carbon monoxide measurements.

    PubMed

    Provencal, Robert; Gupta, Manish; Owano, Thomas G; Baer, Douglas S; Ricci, Kenneth N; O'Keefe, Anthony; Podolske, James R

    2005-11-01

    An autonomous instrument based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy has been developed and successfully deployed for measurements of carbon monoxide in the troposphere and tropopause onboard a NASA DC-8 aircraft. The instrument (Carbon Monoxide Gas Analyzer) consists of a measurement cell comprised of two high-reflectivity mirrors, a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser, gas sampling system, control and data-acquisition electronics, and data-analysis software. CO measurements were determined from high-resolution CO absorption line shapes obtained by tuning the laser wavelength over the R(7) transition of the fundamental vibration band near 2172.8 cm(-1). The instrument reports CO mixing ratio (mole fraction) at a 1-Hz rate based on measured absorption, gas temperature, and pressure using Beer's Law. During several flights in May-June 2004 and January 2005 that reached altitudes of 41,000 ft (12.5 km), the instrument recorded CO values with a precision of 0.2 ppbv (1-s averaging time) and an accuracy limited by the reference CO gas cylinder (uncertainty < 1.0%). Despite moderate turbulence and measurements of particulate-laden airflows, the instrument operated consistently and did not require any maintenance, mirror cleaning, or optical realignment during the flights.

  16. Biomagnetic instrumentation and measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iufer, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The instruments and techniques of biomagnetic measurement have progressed greatly in the past 15 years and are now of a quality appropriate to clinical applications. The paper reports on recent developments in the design and application of SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) magnetometers to biomagnetic measurement. The discussion covers biomagnetic field levels, magnetocardiography, magnetic susceptibility plethysmography, ambient noise and sensor types, principles of operation of a SQUID magnetometer, and laboratory techniques. Of the many promising applications of noninvasive biomagnetic measurement, magnetocardiography is the most advanced and the most likely to find clinical application in the near future.

  17. [Value of electronic measuring instruments for optimizing functional TMJ diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Zimmer, B; Keese, E; Kubein-Meesenburg, D

    1989-09-01

    In order to get additional information about the significance of electronic axiographic recordings in TMJ-diagnosis, 34 patients, who showed 47 clicking TMJs, were examined by use of an electronic axiographic instrument (SAS-system). The frequency of the detected findings emphasize the value of electronic axiographic devices for differential diagnosis. In detail the following conclusions could be drawn: examination of different types of movement is recommended because clicking must not exist in all types, recording in more than one plane is necessary in order to detect the (prevailing) plane of dislocation, a magnification of tracings provides addition information concerning different types of clicking.

  18. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... flow through the particulate filters, methanol impingers and formaldehyde impingers. These instruments... calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. 86.1320-90 Section 86.1320-90 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... flow through the particulate filters, methanol impingers and formaldehyde impingers. These instruments... calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. 86.1320-90 Section 86.1320-90 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... flow through the particulate filters, methanol impingers and formaldehyde impingers. These instruments... calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. 86.1320-90 Section 86.1320-90 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and...

  1. A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Michael D.; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W.

    2009-05-01

    A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5mN with a resolution of 15μN. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments.

  2. A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    West, Michael D.; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W.

    2009-05-15

    A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5 mN with a resolution of 15 {mu}N. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments.

  3. A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas.

    PubMed

    West, Michael D; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W

    2009-05-01

    A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5 mN with a resolution of 15 microN. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments. PMID:19485509

  4. Thermodynamically Constrained Averaging Theory Approach for Modeling Flow and Transport Phenomena in Porous Medium Systems: 5. Single-Fluid-Phase Transport

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cass T.

    2009-01-01

    This work is the fifth in a series of papers on the thermodynamically constrained averaging theory (TCAT) approach for modeling flow and transport phenomena in multiscale porous medium systems. The general TCAT framework and the mathematical foundation presented in previous works are used to develop models that describe species transport and single-fluid-phase flow through a porous medium system in varying physical regimes. Classical irreversible thermodynamics formulations for species in fluids, solids, and interfaces are developed. Two different approaches are presented, one that makes use of a momentum equation for each entity along with constitutive relations for species diffusion and dispersion, and a second approach that makes use of a momentum equation for each species in an entity. The alternative models are developed by relying upon different approaches to constrain an entropy inequality using mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations. The resultant constrained entropy inequality is simplified and used to guide the development of closed models. Specific instances of dilute and non-dilute systems are examined and compared to alternative formulation approaches. PMID:22563137

  5. Development of a solar-cell dust opacity measurement instrument for Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey; Jenkins, Phillip P.

    1996-01-01

    The atmosphere of Mars has a considerable load of suspended dust. Over time, this dust is deposited out of the atmosphere. The mechanism and the temporal and geographical variation of this deposition are not well characterized. Measurements of settling rates and dust properties are of considerable scientific interest. Atmospheric dust affects the atmospheric solar absorption and thus the heat balance of Mars, as well as serving as nucleation sites for water and CO2 frost. Knowledge of dust properties is of critical interest to design and prediction of the lifetime and power output of solar arrays, and also to design of mechanical mechanisms and radiators. An instrument has been designed and fabricated to measure the dust accumulation during the course of the Mars Pathfinder rover mission. The solar-cell coverglass transmission experiment will measure the change in optical opacity of a transparent coverglass as dust settles on the surface, and a quartz crystal monitor will measure the mass deposited.

  6. Measuring Communicative Participation: A Review of Self-Report Instruments in Speech-Language Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Eadie, Tanya L.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Klasner, Estelle R.; Dudgeon, Brian J.; Deitz, Jean C.; Baylor, Carolyn R.; Miller, Robert M.; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To assess the adequacy of self-report instruments in speech-language pathology for measuring a construct called communicative participation. Method Six instruments were evaluated relative to (a) the construct measured, (b) the relevance of individual items to communicative participation, and (c) their psychometric properties. Results No instrument exclusively measured communicative participation. Twenty-six percent (n = 34) of all items (N = 132) across the reviewed instruments were consistent with communicative participation. The majority (76%) of the 34 items were associated with general communication, while the remaining 24% of the items were associated with communication at work, during leisure, or for establishing relationships. Instruments varied relative to psychometric properties. Conclusions No existing self-report instruments in speech-language pathology were found to be solely dedicated to measuring communicative participation. Developing an instrument for measuring communicative participation is essential for meeting the requirements of our scope of practice. PMID:17102143

  7. Test of a Prototype Instrument for the Direct Measurement of the Neutral Interstellar Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, M.; Wurz, P.; Bochsler, P.; Mobius, E.; Quinn, J.; Fuselier, S. A.; DeFazio, J.; Stephen, T. M.

    2002-05-01

    We have constructed and tested a prototype instrument for the direct measurement of neutral interstellar gas (ISG). The particle detection of this instrument bases on the conversion of energetic neutral atoms to negative ions using surface ionization. Special emphasis was put on the actual conversion surfaces and the relevant energy range for the ISG as seen from a spacecraft (10eV to 1keV). The created negative ions are subsequently coarsely energy analyzed via electrostatic deflection and mass analyzed using the time of flight technique. We present data recorded with this instrument from two calibration facilities providing neutral particle beams. From these data we calculate the detection efficiencies and deduce the expected performance for the direct measurement of the interstellar gas flow on future missions, such as Interstellar Pathfinder, Outer heliospheric Imager, or Interstellar Probe.

  8. Method and apparatus for monitoring and measuring the surface tension of a fluid using fiber optics

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Bernard M.; Ketterson, John B.; Bohanon, Thomas M.; Mikrut, John M.

    1994-01-01

    A non-contact method and apparatus for measuring and monitoring the surface of a fluid using fiber optics and interferometric detection to permit measurement mechanical characteristics' fluid surfaces. The apparatus employs an alternating electric field gradient for generating a capillary wave on the surface of the fluid. A fiber optic coupler and optical fiber directs a portion of a laser beam onto the surface of the fluid, another portion of the laser beam onto the photo sensor, and directs light reflected from the surface of the fluid onto the photo sensor. The output of the photo sensor is processed and coupled to a phase sensitive detector to permit measurement of phase shift between the drive signal creating the capillary wave and the detected signal. This phase shift information is then used to determine mechanical properties of the fluid surface such as surface tension, surface elasticity, and surface inhomogeneity. The resulting test structure is easily made compact, portable, and easy to align and use.

  9. Method and apparatus for monitoring and measuring the surface tension of a fluid using fiber optics

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, B.M.; Ketterson, J.B.; Bohanon, T.M.; Mikrut, J.M.

    1994-04-12

    A non-contact method and apparatus are described for measuring and monitoring the surface of a fluid using fiber optics and interferometric detection to permit measurement of mechanical characteristics of fluid surfaces. The apparatus employs an alternating electric field gradient for generating a capillary wave on the surface of the fluid. A fiber optic coupler and optical fiber directs a portion of a laser beam onto the surface of the fluid, another portion of the laser beam onto the photo sensor, and directs light reflected from the surface of the fluid onto the photo sensor. The output of the photo sensor is processed and coupled to a phase sensitive detector to permit measurement of phase shift between the drive signal creating the capillary wave and the detected signal. This phase shift information is then used to determine mechanical properties of the fluid surface such as surface tension, surface elasticity, and surface inhomogeneity. The resulting test structure is easily made compact, portable, and easy to align and use. 4 figures.

  10. Conception and realization of a new viscometer using a magnetic fluid for measuring biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Brancher, J P; Lucius, M; Bernardin, D; Raihani, R; Stoltz, J F

    1984-01-01

    The viscometer described in this paper comprises a vertical cylinder containing the fluid to be tested and an inner, hollow cylinder floating in the fluid and filled with magnetic liquid. The magnetic liquid and inner cylinder are set in motion by applying a rotating magnetic field. Torque is balanced by the stresses in the fluid and the inertia of the rotating cylinder. The main characteristics of this new apparatus are: - possibility of applying various torques to the rotor. Measurements of angular velocity are made on the inner cylinder (in general, conventional viscometers are built on the opposite principle), - study in transient flow. Various measurements on Newtonian fluids (water, plasma, oils, etc.) and on blood suspensions have made it possible to improve the accuracy of the method. PMID:6592002

  11. Fluid-Structure Analysis of Opening Phenomena in a Collapsible Airway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadiali, Samir N.; Banks, Julie; Swarts, J. Douglas

    2003-11-01

    Several physiological functions require the opening of collapsed respiratory airways. For example, the Eustachian tube (ET), which connects the nasopharynx with the middle ear (ME), must be periodically opened to maintain ambient ME pressures. These openings normally occur during swallowing when muscle contraction deforms the surrounding soft tissue. The inability to open the ET results in the most common and costly ear disease in children, Otitis Media. Although tissue-based treatments have been purposed, the influence of the various tissue mechanical properties on flow phenomena has not been investigated. A computational model of ET opening was developed using in-vivo structural data to investigate these fluid-structure interactions. This model accounts for both tissue deformation and the resulting airflow in a non-circular conduit. Results indicate that ET opening is more sensitive to the applied muscle forces than elastic tissue properties. These models have therefore identified how different tissue elements alter ET opening phenomena, which elements should be targeted for treatment and the optimal mechanical properties of these tissue constructs. Research supported by NIH grant DC005345.

  12. A Procedure for Measuring Microplastics using Pressurized Fluid Extraction.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Stephen; Gautam, Anil

    2016-06-01

    A method based on pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) was developed for measuring microplastics in environmental samples. This method can address some limitations of the current microplastic methods and provide laboratories with a simple analytical method for quantifying common microplastics in a range of environmental samples. The method was initially developed by recovering 101% to 111% of spiked plastics on glass beads and was then applied to a composted municipal waste sample with spike recoveries ranging from 85% to 94%. The results from municipal waste samples and soil samples collected from an industrial area demonstrated that the method is a promising alternative for determining the concentration and identity of microplastics in environmental samples. PMID:27172172

  13. Pressure/temperature fluid cell apparatus for the neutron powder diffractometer instrument: Probing atomic structure in situ

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Hsiu -Wen; Fanelli, Victor R.; Reiche, Helmut M.; Larson, Eric; Taylor, Mark A.; Xu, Hongwu; Zhu, Jinlong; Siewenie, Joan; Page, Katharine

    2014-12-24

    This contribution describes a new local structure compatible gas/liquid cell apparatus for probing disordered materials at high pressures and variable temperatures in the Neutron Powder Diffraction instrument at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory. The new sample environment offers choices for sample canister thickness and canister material type. Finite element modeling is utilized to establish maximum allowable working pressures of 414 MPa at 15 K and 121 MPa at 600 K. High quality atomic pair distribution function data extraction and modeling have been demonstrated for a calibration standard (Si powder) and for supercritical and subcritical CO2measurements. Asmore » a result, the new sample environment was designed to specifically target experimental studies of the local atomic structures involved in geologic CO2 sequestration, but will be equally applicable to a wide variety of energy applications, including sorption of fluids on nano/meso-porous solids, clathrate hydrate formation, catalysis, carbon capture, and H2 and natural gas uptake/storage.« less

  14. Pressure/temperature fluid cell apparatus for the neutron powder diffractometer instrument: Probing atomic structure in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hsiu-Wen; Fanelli, Victor R.; Reiche, Helmut M.; Larson, Eric; Taylor, Mark A.; Siewenie, Joan; Xu, Hongwu; Zhu, Jinlong; Page, Katharine

    2014-12-15

    This contribution describes a new local structure compatible gas/liquid cell apparatus for probing disordered materials at high pressures and variable temperatures in the Neutron Powder Diffraction instrument at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory. The new sample environment offers choices for sample canister thickness and canister material type. Finite element modeling is utilized to establish maximum allowable working pressures of 414 MPa at 15 K and 121 MPa at 600 K. High quality atomic pair distribution function data extraction and modeling have been demonstrated for a calibration standard (Si powder) and for supercritical and subcritical CO{sub 2} measurements. The new sample environment was designed to specifically target experimental studies of the local atomic structures involved in geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration, but will be equally applicable to a wide variety of energy applications, including sorption of fluids on nano/meso-porous solids, clathrate hydrate formation, catalysis, carbon capture, and H{sub 2} and natural gas uptake/storage.

  15. The Measuring Instrument of Plumb Coaxial Error for Longdistance Orifices Based on Laser Collimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B.; Yu, M. Y.

    2006-10-01

    Introduce the measuring instrument of plumb coaxial error for long-distance orifices which is according to the measuring requests of Flange Place of experiment fast neutron reactor in nuclear power equipment and designed by combining the laser collimation technique and CCD imaging technique. The measuring instrument constructs the plumb line with utilizing the characteristic of laser and making the CDD as imaging screen, and the line is regarded as the datum line in measurement and used for measuring coaxial error of the large orifices' manufacture and assemblage under plumb state. Angle resolving power is: 0.3"; displacement resolving power is: 0.02 mm; respective degree of uncertainty of measurement results are: 0.1"; 0.01 mm. The paper detailed introduces the idiographic design principle and measure method of the measuring instrument, and analyzes the measure error. It is applied to measure the precision of manufacture and the coaxial error of assemblage of the large or heavy pipe casting equipment.

  16. Fluid Physical and Transport Phenomena Studies aboard the International Space Station: Planned Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Bhim S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments planned for the International Spare Station. NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications has established a world-class research program in fluid physics and transport phenomena. This program combines the vast expertise of the world research community with NASA's unique microgravity facilities with the objectives of gaining new insight into fluid phenomena by removing the confounding effect of gravity. Due to its criticality to many terrestrial and space-based processes and phenomena, fluid physics and transport phenomena play a central role in the NASA's Microgravity Program. Through widely publicized research announcement and well established peer-reviews, the program has been able to attract a number of world-class researchers and acquired a critical mass of investigations that is now adding rapidly to this field. Currently there arc a total of 106 ground-based and 20 candidate flight principal investigators conducting research in four major thrust areas in the program: complex flows, multiphase flow and phase change, interfacial phenomena, and dynamics and instabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) to be launched in 1998, provides the microgravity research community with a unprecedented opportunity to conduct long-duration microgravity experiments which can be controlled and operated from the Principal Investigators' own laboratory. Frequent planned shuttle flights to the Station will provide opportunities to conduct many more experiments than were previously possible. NASA Lewis Research Center is in the process of designing a Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) to be located in the Laboratory Module of the ISS that will not only accommodate multiple users but, allow a broad range of fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments to be conducted in a cost effective manner.

  17. Designing Chemistry Practice Exams for Enhanced Benefits: An Instrument for Comparing Performance and Mental Effort Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, Karen J.; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    The design and use of a chemistry practice exam instrument that includes a measure for student mental effort is described in this paper. Use of such an instrument can beneficial to chemistry students and chemistry educators as well as chemical education researchers from both a content and cognitive science perspective. The method for calculating…

  18. 3ω slope comparative method for fluid and powder thermal conductivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, X. H.; Qiu, L.; Yue, P.; Wang, G.; Tang, D. W.

    2016-09-01

    By analyzing the relationship among the heat penetration depth, measurement frequency and detector characteristic parameters, a simple and practical 3ω slope comparative method has been proposed. The corresponding measurement system for measuring the thermal properties of fluids and powder materials was established and verified using several specimens with known thermophysical parameters, such as alcohol, distilled water, and air. Compared to the two-dimensional model, the data processing of the method is relatively simple and quick. Due to the elimination of errors introduced by the detector parameter measurement, the measurement accuracy of the method is higher than the conventional one-dimensional model. By using an appropriate frequency range, the new method is time saving and convenient for measuring the thermal conductivity of fluids and powders with low thermal conductivity. Based on the analysis, the effective thermal conductivity of nano-SiO2 powder is accurately determined.

  19. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit using an elbow flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, Marcos G.; Boucher, Timothy J.

    1997-01-01

    A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit. The system utilizes pressure transducers disposed generally in line upstream and downstream of the flow of fluid in a bend in the conduit. Data from the pressure transducers is transmitted to a microprocessor or computer. The pressure differential measured by the pressure transducers is then used to calculate the fluid flow rate in the conduit. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to control flow, total fluid dispersed, (in, for example, an irrigation system), area of dispersal or other desired effect based on the fluid flow in the conduit.

  20. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit using an elbow flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, M.G.; Boucher, T.J.

    1997-06-24

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit. The system utilizes pressure transducers disposed generally in line upstream and downstream of the flow of fluid in a bend in the conduit. Data from the pressure transducers is transmitted to a microprocessor or computer. The pressure differential measured by the pressure transducers is then used to calculate the fluid flow rate in the conduit. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to control flow, total fluid dispersed, (in, for example, an irrigation system), area of dispersal or other desired effect based on the fluid flow in the conduit. 2 figs.

  1. MIPROPS - INTERACTIVE FORTRAN PROGRAMS FOR MICROCOMPUTERS TO CALCULATE THE THERMAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TWELVE FLUIDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleghorn, T. F.

    1994-01-01

    MIPROPS is a set of programs which gives the thermophysical and transport properties of selected fluids. Although these programs are written in FORTRAN 77 for implementation on microcomputers, they are direct translations of interactive FORTRAN IV programs which were originally developed for large mainframes. MIPROPS calculates the properties of fluids in both the liquid and vapor states over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. The fluids included are: helium, parahydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, nitrogen trifluoride, methane, ethylene, ethane, propane, and iso- and normal butane. All of the programs except for the helium program utilize the same mathematical model of the equation of state. A separate program was necessary for helium, as the model for the helium thermodynamic surface is of a different form. The input variables are any two of pressure, density, or temperature for the single phase regions, and either pressure or temperature for the saturated liquid or vapor states. The output is pressure, density, temperature, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, specific heat capacities, and speed of sound. In addition, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and dielectric constants are calculated for most of the fluids. The user can select either a single point or a table of output values for a specified temperature range, and can display the data either in engineering or metric units. This machine independent FORTRAN 77 program was implemented on an IBM PC XT with an MS-DOS 3.21 operating system. It has a memory requirement of approximately 100K. The program was developed in 1986.

  2. Instrumentation and Measurements for Electron Emission from Charged Insulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, Alec M.

    2005-01-01

    The electron was first discovered in 1898 by Sir John Joseph Thomson and has since been the subject of detailed study by nearly every scientific discipline. At nearly the same time Heinrich Rudolf Hertz conducted a series of experiments using cathode tubes, high potentials and ultraviolet light. When applying a large potential to a cathode he found that an arching event across the metal plates would occur. In addition, when shining an ultraviolet light on the metal he found that less potential was required to induce the spark. This result, taken together with other electrical phenomena brought about by the shining of light upon metal and was eventually termed the photoelectric effect. The work of Thomson and Hertz represent the beginning of electron emission studies and a body of ideas that pervade nearly all aspects of physics. In particular these ideas tell us a great deal about the nature of physical interactions within solids. In this thesis we will focus on the emission of electrons induced by an incident electron source over a range of energies, in which one can observe changes in emitted electron flux and energy distribution. In particular, when energetic particles impinge on a solid they can impart their energy, exciting electrons within the material. If this energy is sufficient to overcome surface energy barriers such as the work function, electron affinity or surface charge potential, electrons can escape from the material. The extent of electron emission from the material can be quantified as the ratio of incident particle flux to emitted particle flux, and is termed the electron yield.

  3. 77 FR 37409 - Request for Domains, Instruments, and Measures for Development of a Standardized Instrument for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... (for example, broad functional areas such as access, communication, coordination of care, customer... Protection and Affordable Care Act (the Affordable Care Act) requires the Department of Health and Human... plans plus the experience of the consumer interacting with the health care system and the experience...

  4. The Plasma Instrument for Magnetic Sounding (PIMS): Enabling Required Plasma Measurements for the Exploration of Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westlake, J. H.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Kasper, J. C.; Case, A. W.; Rymer, A. M.; Khurana, K. K.; Stevens, M. L.; Jia, X.; Slavin, J. A.; Paty, C. S.; Smith, H. T.; Kivelson, M.; Saur, J.; Krupp, N.; Roussos, E.; Korth, H.

    2015-12-01

    Europa exists in a complicated plasma environment where the tilt of Jupiter's magnetic field and rapid rotation rate leads to a dynamic interaction with Europa's ionospheric plasma. While understanding this plasma interaction is interesting in its own right, it is crucial for successfully magnetically sounding Europa's subsurface ocean. . In magnetic sounding, currents induced in Europa by the changing Jovian plasma produce a detectable secondary magnetic field that reflects properties of Europa's subsurface ocean such as depth and conductivity. This technique was successfully employed with Galileo observations of Europa to demonstrate that Europa indeed has a subsurface ocean containing more liquid water than Earth's oceans. While these Galileo observations contributed to the renewed interest in Europa, the results raised major questions that remain unanswered, in part due to the large uncertainties in the ice shell thickness, ocean depth, and ocean salinity due to limitations in the observations. Here we present the scientific goals of the Plasma Instrument for Magnetic Sounding (PIMS), one of the 9 instruments selected for the Europa Multiple Flyby Mission. We specifically address how PIMS plasma measurements will transform the accuracy of magnetic sounding of Europa's subsurface oceans. We also present synergistic science with other Europa instrumentation such as the ultraviolet spectrometer, mass spectrometer, and the radar.

  5. The Cabauw Intercomparison Campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide Measuring Instruments (CINDI): Design, Execution, and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piters, Ankie; Boersma, K.F.; Kroon, M.; Hains, J. C.; Roozendael, M. Van; Wittrock, F.; Abuhassan, N.; Adams, C.; Akrami, M.; Allaart, M. A. F.; Apituley, A.; Beirle, S.; Bergwerff, J. B.; Berkhout, A. J. C.; Brunner, D.; Cede, A.; Chong, J.; Clemer, K.; Fayt, C.; FrieB, U.; Gast, L. F. L.; Gil-Ojeda, M.; Goutail, F.; Graves, R.; Griesfeller, A.

    2012-01-01

    From June to July 2009 more than thirty different in-situ and remote sensing instruments from all over the world participated in the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI). The campaign took place at KNMI's Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) in the Netherlands. Its main objectives were to determine the accuracy of state-ofthe- art ground-based measurement techniques for the detection of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (both in-situ and remote sensing), and to investigate their usability in satellite data validation. The expected outcomes are recommendations regarding the operation and calibration of such instruments, retrieval settings, and observation strategies for the use in ground-based networks for air quality monitoring and satellite data validation. Twenty-four optical spectrometers participated in the campaign, of which twenty-one had the capability to scan different elevation angles consecutively, the so-called Multi-axis DOAS systems, thereby collecting vertical profile information, in particular for nitrogen dioxide and aerosol. Various in-situ samplers and lidar instruments simultaneously characterized the variability of atmospheric trace gases and the physical properties of aerosol particles. A large data set of continuous measurements of these atmospheric constituents has been collected under various meteorological conditions and air pollution levels. Together with the permanent measurement capability at the CESAR site characterizing the meteorological state of the atmosphere, the CINDI campaign provided a comprehensive observational data set of atmospheric constituents in a highly polluted region of the world during summertime. First detailed comparisons performed with the CINDI data show that slant column measurements of NO2, O4 and HCHO with MAX-DOAS agree within 5 to 15%, vertical profiles of NO2 derived from several independent instruments agree within 25% of one another, and MAX

  6. Molecular model for chirality phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latinwo, Folarin; Stillinger, Frank H.; Debenedetti, Pablo G.

    2016-10-01

    Chirality is a hallmark feature for molecular recognition in biology and chemical physics. We present a three-dimensional continuum model for studying chirality phenomena in condensed phases using molecular simulations. Our model system is based upon a simple four-site molecule and incorporates non-trivial kinetic behavior, including the ability to switch chirality or racemize, as well as thermodynamics arising from an energetic preference for specific chiral interactions. In particular, we introduce a chiral renormalization parameter that can locally favor either homochiral or heterochiral configurations. Using this model, we explore a range of chirality-specific phenomena, including the kinetics of chiral inversion, the mechanism of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the liquid, chirally driven liquid-liquid phase separation, and chiral crystal structures.

  7. PREFACE: Fourh Workshop on Non-Equilibrium Phenomena in Supercooled Fluids, Glasses and Amorphous Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreozzi, Laura; Giordano, Marco; Leporini, Dino; Tosi, Mario

    2007-04-01

    round-table discussion sessions were organized to discuss issues that have special impact on our current understanding (or lack of it) of the dynamics of glass transition: 'Low-energy excitations and relaxations in glasses' and 'An assessment of current theories: interconnections and relevance to experiments'. We are very grateful to M A Ramos and R Bömer, and to P G Debenedetti and H Z Cummins for organizing and leading these two activities. Two very active and profitable poster sessions collected contributions on the themes of relaxation processes, cooperativity in polymers and mixtures, polyamorphism and water, biomaterials, relaxation, aging phenomena in thin films, confined and complex systems, and theoretical aspect, energy landscape and molecular dynamics, low temperature, glass and PT procedures, tracer dynamics, heterogeneity and relaxation in glass formers We acknowledge the generous support given to the workshop by our institutions, and in particular by Scuola Normale Superiore. The organization of the events in its beautiful rooms and corridors, as well as the lunches and coffee breaks held in its courtyard, especially favoured meetings and discussions between the participants. Several public and private Institutions have also supported our efforts and we would like to thank them warmly: they are the 'Soft Matter' Center of Rome, the INFN Section in Pisa, the CNR/INFM Polylab, and Ital Scientifica, TA Instruments, Novocontrol Technologies, Up Group, Isole e Olena. Finally, we express our gratitude to all those individuals—we mention here in particular Dr Ciro Autiero, Dr Massimo Faetti, Dr Fabio Zulli, Ms Patrizia Pucci, and Ms Caterina D'Elia—who have given their work and time to the making and running of the Workshop.

  8. Psychometric properties of an instrument to measure nursing students' quality of life.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yanxiang; Xu, Min; Li, Xiuyun

    2015-07-01

    It is important for clinical nursing teachers and managers to recognize the importance of nursing students' quality of life (QOL) since they are the source of future nurses. As yet, there is no quality of life evaluation scale (QOLES) specific to them. This study designed a quantitative instrument for evaluating QOL of nursing students. The study design was a descriptive survey with mixed methods including literature review, panel discussion, Delphi method, and statistical analysis. The data were collected from 880 nursing students from four teaching hospitals in Wuhan, China. The reliability and validity of the scale were tested through completion of the QOLES in a cluster sampling method. The total scale included 18 items in three domains: physical, psychological, and social functional. The cumulative contributing rate of the three common factors was 65.23%. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the scale was 0.82. This scale had good reliability and validity to evaluate nursing students' QOL.

  9. Psychometric properties of an instrument to measure nursing students' quality of life.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yanxiang; Xu, Min; Li, Xiuyun

    2015-07-01

    It is important for clinical nursing teachers and managers to recognize the importance of nursing students' quality of life (QOL) since they are the source of future nurses. As yet, there is no quality of life evaluation scale (QOLES) specific to them. This study designed a quantitative instrument for evaluating QOL of nursing students. The study design was a descriptive survey with mixed methods including literature review, panel discussion, Delphi method, and statistical analysis. The data were collected from 880 nursing students from four teaching hospitals in Wuhan, China. The reliability and validity of the scale were tested through completion of the QOLES in a cluster sampling method. The total scale included 18 items in three domains: physical, psychological, and social functional. The cumulative contributing rate of the three common factors was 65.23%. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the scale was 0.82. This scale had good reliability and validity to evaluate nursing students' QOL. PMID:25935667

  10. Psychometric Evaluation of an Instrument for Measuring Organizational Climate for Quality: Evidence From a National Sample of Infection Preventionists.

    PubMed

    Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Nembhard, Ingrid M; Schnall, Rebecca; Nelson, Shanelle; Stone, Patricia W

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in measuring the climate for infection prevention; however, reliable and valid instruments are lacking. This study tested the psychometric properties of the Leading a Culture of Quality for Infection Prevention (LCQ-IP) instrument measuring the infection prevention climate in a sample of 972 infection preventionists from acute care hospitals. An exploratory principal component analysis showed that the instrument had structural validity and captured 4 factors related to the climate for infection prevention: Psychological Safety, Prioritization of Quality, Supportive Work Environment, and Improvement Orientation. LCQ-IP exhibited excellent internal consistency, with a Cronbach α of .926. Criterion validity was supported with overall LCQ-IP scores, increasing with the number of evidence-based prevention policies in place (P = .047). This psychometrically sound instrument may be helpful to researchers and providers in assessing climate for quality related to infection prevention. PMID:25999523

  11. Psychometric Evaluation of an Instrument for Measuring Organizational Climate for Quality: Evidence From a National Sample of Infection Preventionists.

    PubMed

    Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Nembhard, Ingrid M; Schnall, Rebecca; Nelson, Shanelle; Stone, Patricia W

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in measuring the climate for infection prevention; however, reliable and valid instruments are lacking. This study tested the psychometric properties of the Leading a Culture of Quality for Infection Prevention (LCQ-IP) instrument measuring the infection prevention climate in a sample of 972 infection preventionists from acute care hospitals. An exploratory principal component analysis showed that the instrument had structural validity and captured 4 factors related to the climate for infection prevention: Psychological Safety, Prioritization of Quality, Supportive Work Environment, and Improvement Orientation. LCQ-IP exhibited excellent internal consistency, with a Cronbach α of .926. Criterion validity was supported with overall LCQ-IP scores, increasing with the number of evidence-based prevention policies in place (P = .047). This psychometrically sound instrument may be helpful to researchers and providers in assessing climate for quality related to infection prevention.

  12. The Berkeley Puppet Interview: A Screening Instrument for Measuring Psychopathology in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Lisanne L.; van Daal, Carlijn; van der Maten, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Otten, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Background: While child self-reports of psychopathology are increasingly accepted, little standardized instruments are utilized for these practices. The Berkeley Puppet Interview (BPI) is an age-appropriate instrument for self-reports of problem behavior by young children. Objective: Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the BPI will be…

  13. Information Content Analysis for the Multi-Viewing, Multi-Channel, Multi-Polarization Imaging (3MI) Instrument : Toward Retrieval of Vertically Resolved Cloud Properties from Passive Only Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedi, J.; Merlin, G.; Labonnote, L.; Cornet, C.; Ferlay, N.; Desmons, M.; Dubuisson, P.; Parol, F.; Davis, A. B.; Marbach, T.

    2014-12-01

    The EUMETSAT Polar System- Second Generation (EPS-SG) is currently under development to take over the current EUMETSAT Polar System at the 2020 horizon. As part of it, the Multi-Viewing Multi-Channel Multi-Polarization Imaging mission (3MI) will be dedicated to the operational monitoring of aerosols but will also provide unique observations for characterization of cloud properties building on the legacy of POLDER and particularly of its 3rd mission (PARASOL) within the A-Train. Through the synergy of POLDER3/PARASOL and MODIS/AQUA several studies have demonstrated the great interest of combining multispectral, multiangle and polarization measurements in the visible, near and shortwave infrared to better constrain retrieval of clouds microphysical and macrophysical properties. Remote-sensing of cloud thermodynamic phase (Riedi et al, 2010), liquid (Bréon and Doutriaux-Boucher, 2005) or ice clouds microphysics (Zhang et al, 2009; Cole et al, 2012), cloud radiative (Zeng et al, 2012) or macrophysical properties (Ferlay et al, 2010; Desmons et al, 2013) can unarguably benefit from the additional information content brought by polarization and multiangle measurements. At the same time, retrieval algorithms are gaining further complexity and skills. Thanks to availability of computational resources, practical implementation of optimal estimation or related optimization techniques (Delanoe & Hogan, 2008; Dubovik et al, 2013) have appeared that allow simultaneous and consistent retrieval of larger sets of parameters from constantly growing observations vectors. Therefore 3MI observations will not only allow to improve accuracy of future cloud products but also opens perspectives for the development of new retrieval algorithms. A major challenge for cloud remote-sensing from passive measurements is to obtain information on clouds properties vertical distribution and structure. Through results of a comprehensive information content analysis we will illustrate our current

  14. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt gradual bend

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, Marcos German

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt bend. The system includes pressure transducers, one disposed in the conduit at the inside of the bend and one or more disposed in the conduit at the outside of the bend but spaced a distance therefrom. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow.

  15. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt gradual bend

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, M.G.

    1998-02-10

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt bend. The system includes pressure transducers, one disposed in the conduit at the inside of the bend and one or more disposed in the conduit at the outside of the bend but spaced a distance therefrom. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.

  16. The coupled dynamics of fluids and spacecraft in low gravity and low gravity fluid measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John; Peterson, Lee D.; Crawley, Edward F.

    1987-01-01

    The very large mass fraction of liquids stored on broad current and future generation spacecraft has made critical the technologies of describing the fluid-spacecraft dynamics and measuring or gauging the fluid. Combined efforts in these areas are described, and preliminary results are presented. The coupled dynamics of fluids and spacecraft in low gravity study is characterizing the parametric behavior of fluid-spacecraft systems in which interaction between the fluid and spacecraft dynamics is encountered. Particular emphasis is given to the importance of nonlinear fluid free surface phenomena to the coupled dynamics. An experimental apparatus has been developed for demonstrating a coupled fluid-spacecraft system. In these experiments, slosh force signals are fed back to a model tank actuator through a tunable analog second order integration circuit. In this manner, the tank motion is coupled to the resulting slosh force. Results are being obtained in 1-g and in low-g (on the NASA KC-135) using dynamic systems nondimensionally identical except for the Bond numbers.

  17. Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena in a Simulated Reduced Gravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipa, J.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a ground-based apparatus that allows the cancellation of gravity on a fluid using magnetic forces. The present system was designed for liquid oxygen studies over the range 0.001 - 5 g s. This fluid is an essential component of any flight mission using substantial amounts of liquid propellant, especially manned missions. The apparatus has been used to reduce the hydrostatic compression near the oxygen critical point and to demonstrate inverted phase separation. It could also be used to study pool boiling and two-phase heat transfer in Martian, Lunar or near-zero gravity, as well as phenomena such as Marangoni flow and convective instabilities. These studies would contribute directly to the reliability and optimization of the Moon and Mars flight programs.

  18. The rhesus measurement system: A new instrument for space research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonfeld, Julie E.; Hines, John W.

    1993-01-01

    The Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) is a research environment designed to study the effects of microgravity using rhesus primates as human surrogates. This experimental model allows investigators to study numerous aspects of microgravity exposure without compromising crew member activities. Currently, the RRF is slated for two missions to collect its data, the first mission is SLS-3, due to fly in late 1995. The RRF is a joint effort between the United States and France. The science and hardware portions of the project are being shared between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and France's Centre National D'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The RRF is composed of many different subsystems in order to acquire data, provide life support, environmental enrichment, computer facilities and measurement capabilities for two rhesus primates aboard a nominal sixteen day mission. One of these subsystems is the Rhesus Measurement System (RMS). The RMS is designed to obtain in-flight physiological measurements from sensors interfaced with the subject. The RMS will acquire, preprocess, and transfer the physiologic data to the Flight Data System (FDS) for relay to the ground during flight. The measurements which will be taken by the RMS during the first flight will be respiration, measured at two different sites; electromyogram (EMG) at three different sites; electroencephalogram (EEG); electrocardiogram (ECG); and body temperature. These measurements taken by the RMS will assist the research team in meeting the science objectives of the RRF project.

  19. The theoretical analysis of an instrument for linear and angular displacements of the steered wheel measuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wach, K.

    2016-09-01

    In the paper the theoretical analysis of the measuring instrument for determination of translation and rotation of the stub axle with the steered wheel against car body was presented. The instrument is made of nine links with elongation sensors embedded in it. One of several possible structures of instrument of this kind was presented. Basing on solution of the geometrical constraints system of equations of the device, the numerical analysis of the measurement accuracy was conducted.

  20. Obscura telescope with a MEMS micromirror array for space observation of transient luminous phenomena or fast-moving objects.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Garipov, G K; Jeon, J A; Khrenov, B A; Kim, J E; Kim, M; Kim, Y K; Lee, C-H; Lee, J; Na, G W; Nam, S; Park, I H; Park, Y-S

    2008-12-01

    We introduce a novel telescope consisting of a pinhole-like camera with rotatable MEMS micromirrors substituting for pinholes. The design is ideal for observations of transient luminous phenomena or fast-moving objects, such as upper atmospheric lightning and bright gamma ray bursts. The advantage of the MEMS "obscura telescope" over conventional cameras is that it is capable both of searching for events over a wide field of view, and fast zooming to allow detailed investigation of the structure of events. It is also able to track the triggering object to investigate its space-time development, and to center the interesting portion of the image on the photodetector array. We present the proposed system and the test results for the MEMS obscura telescope which has a field of view of 11.3 degrees, sixteen times zoom-in and tracking within 1 ms.

  1. Obscura telescope with a MEMS micromirror array for space observation of transient luminous phenomena or fast-moving objects.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Garipov, G K; Jeon, J A; Khrenov, B A; Kim, J E; Kim, M; Kim, Y K; Lee, C-H; Lee, J; Na, G W; Nam, S; Park, I H; Park, Y-S

    2008-12-01

    We introduce a novel telescope consisting of a pinhole-like camera with rotatable MEMS micromirrors substituting for pinholes. The design is ideal for observations of transient luminous phenomena or fast-moving objects, such as upper atmospheric lightning and bright gamma ray bursts. The advantage of the MEMS "obscura telescope" over conventional cameras is that it is capable both of searching for events over a wide field of view, and fast zooming to allow detailed investigation of the structure of events. It is also able to track the triggering object to investigate its space-time development, and to center the interesting portion of the image on the photodetector array. We present the proposed system and the test results for the MEMS obscura telescope which has a field of view of 11.3 degrees, sixteen times zoom-in and tracking within 1 ms. PMID:19065163

  2. Correlation between gas compositions and physical phenomena affecting the reservoir fluid in Palinpinon geothermal field (Philippines)

    SciTech Connect

    D'More F.; Nuti, S.; Ruaya, J.R.; Ramos-Candelaria, M.N.; Seastres, J.S.

    1993-01-28

    Using thermodynamic gas equilibria to calculate temperature and steam fraction in the reservoir, three main physical phenomena due to exploitation of Palinpinon field are identified. 1) Pressure drawdown producing a local increase in the computed steam fraction, with the fluid maintaining high temperature values (close to 300°C). Strong decline in flow rate is observed. 2) Irreversible steam losses from the original high temperature liquid phase during its ascent through fractures in upper zones of the reservoir. Steam is generally lost at temperatures (e.g. 240°C) lower then those of the original aquifer. 3) Dilution and cooling effects due to reinjection fluid returns. These are function of the local geostructural conditions linking through fractures the injectors and production wells. The computed fraction of the recovered reinjected brine can in some case exceed 80% of the total produced fluid. At the same time the computed gas equilibration temperatures can decline from 280-300°C to as low as 215-220°C. Comparing these values with the well bottom measured temperatures, the proposed methodology based on gas chemistry gives more reliable temperature estimate than water chemistry based geothermometers for fluids with high fractions of injected brine.

  3. A Wireless Fluid-Level Measurement Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a recently developed wireless measurement acquisition system to fluid-level measurement. This type of fluid-level measurement system alleviates many shortcomings of fluid-level measurement methods currently being used, including limited applicability of any one fluid-level sensor design. Measurement acquisition shortcomings include the necessity for power to be supplied to each sensor and for the measurement to be extracted from each sensor via a physical connection to the sensor. Another shortcoming is existing measurement systems require that a data channel and signal conditioning electronics be dedicated to each sensor. Use of wires results in other shortcomings such as logistics needed to add or replace sensors, weight, potential for electrical arcing and wire degradations. The fluid level sensor design is a simple passive inductor-capacitor circuit that is not subject to mechanical failure that is possible when float and lever-arm systems are used. Methods are presented for using the sensor in caustic, acidic or cryogenic fluids. Oscillating magnetic fields are used to power the sensor. Once electrically excited, the sensor produces a magnetic field response. The response frequency corresponds to the amount to fluid within the capacitor s electric field. The sensor design can be modified for measuring the level of any fluid or fluent substance that can be stored in a non-conductive reservoir. The interrogation method for discerning changes in the sensor response frequency is also presented.

  4. Acoustic input impedance measurements on brass instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, Robert W., Jr.

    2002-11-01

    Measurement of the acoustic input impedance of a brass instrument can reveal something about the instrument's intonation, its reasonable playing range, its tone color, and perhaps whether the mouthpiece used for the impedance measurement is appropriate for the instrument. Such measurements are made at sound-presssure levels much lower than those encountered under playing conditions. Thus, impedance measurements may offer the only feasible way to infer something about the playing characteristics of instruments, typically museum specimens, that are too rare or too fragile to be played. In this paper the effects of some of the available choices of sound source and stimulus signal on measurement accuracy will be explored. Driver-transducer nonlinearity, source impedance, signal-to-noise ratio, and any necessary signal processing will be discussed.

  5. Computer program for computing the properties of seventeen fluids. [cryogenic liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, J. A.; Friend, D. G.; Arp, V. D.; Mccarty, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    The present study describes modifications and additions to the MIPROPS computer program for calculating the thermophysical properties of 17 fluids. These changes include adding new fluids, new properties, and a new interface to the program. The new program allows the user to select the input and output parameters and the units to be displayed for each parameter. Fluids added to the MIPROPS program are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, deuterium, helium, normal hydrogen, and xenon. The most recent modifications to the MIPROPS program are the addition of viscosity and thermal conductivity correlations for parahydrogen and the addition of the fluids normal hydrogen and xenon. The recently added interface considerably increases the program's utility.

  6. Gene Expression Measurement Module (GEMM) - A Fully Automated, Miniaturized Instrument for Measuring Gene Expression in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Peyvan, Kia; Karouia, Fathi; Ricco, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The capability to measure gene expression on board spacecraft opens the door to a large number of high-value experiments on the influence of the space environment on biological systems. For example, measurements of gene expression will help us to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment on a wide range of organisms from microbes to humans, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, and determine the metabolic bases of microbial pathogenicity and drug resistance. These and other applications hold significant potential for discoveries in space biology, biotechnology, and medicine. Supported by funding from the NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development Program, we are developing a fully automated, miniaturized, integrated fluidic system for small spacecraft capable of in-situ measurement of expression of several hundreds of microbial genes from multiple samples. The instrument will be capable of (1) lysing cell walls of bacteria sampled from cultures grown in space, (2) extracting and purifying RNA released from cells, (3) hybridizing the RNA on a microarray and (4) providing readout of the microarray signal, all in a single microfluidics cartridge. The device is suitable for deployment on nanosatellite platforms developed by NASA Ames' Small Spacecraft Division. To meet space and other technical constraints imposed by these platforms, a number of technical innovations are being implemented. The integration and end-to-end technological and biological validation of the instrument are carried out using as a model the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus, known for its remarkable metabolic diversity and resilience to adverse conditions. Each step in the measurement process-lysis, nucleic acid extraction, purification, and hybridization to an array-is assessed through comparison of the results obtained using the instrument with

  7. Design of a surface deformation measuring instrument for the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    1993-01-01

    This final technical report covers the work accomplished (under NAG3-1300) from 1 October 1991 to 1 October 1993. The grant is a direct result of Dr. H. Philip Stahl's (of Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology) participation in the NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program at NASA Lewis Research Center sponsored by Case Western Reserve University and the Ohio Aerospace Institute. The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) is a fundamental fluid physics experiment designed to provide quantitative data on the thermocapillary flow of fluid under the influence of an increased localized surface temperature. STDCE flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia in the First United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) in June 1992. The second flight of this experiment (STDCE-2) is scheduled for 1995. The specific science objectives of STDCE-2 are to determine the extent and nature of thermocapillary flows, the effect of heating mode and level, the effect of the liquid free-surface shape, and the onset conditions for and nature of oscillatory flows. In order to satisfy one of these objectives, an instrument for measuring the shape of an air/oil free surface must be developed.

  8. Gyroscopic Instruments for Instrument Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brombacher, W G; Trent, W C

    1938-01-01

    The gyroscopic instruments commonly used in instrument flying in the United States are the turn indicator, the directional gyro, the gyromagnetic compass, the gyroscopic horizon, and the automatic pilot. These instruments are described. Performance data and the method of testing in the laboratory are given for the turn indicator, the directional gyro, and the gyroscopic horizon. Apparatus for driving the instruments is discussed.

  9. Spacelab experiment definition study on phase transition and critical phenomena in fluids: Interim report on experimental justification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moldover, M. R.; Hocken, M. R.; Gammon, R. W.; Sengers, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    Pure fluids and fluid mixtures near critical points are identified and are related to the progress of several disciplines. Consideration is given to thermodynamic properties, transport properties, and the complex nonlinear phenomena which occur when fluids undergo phase transitions in the critical region. The distinction is made between practical limits which may be extended by advances in technology and intrinsic ones which arise from the modification of fluid properties by the earth's gravitational field. The kinds of experiments near critical points which could best exploit the low gravity environment of an orbiting laboratory are identified. These include studies of the index of refraction, constant volume specific heat, and phase separation.

  10. Radioenzymatic microassay for picogram quantities of serotonin or acetylserotonin in biological fluids and tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, M.N.; Benedict, C.R.

    1987-06-01

    This paper describes several modifications of the original radioenzymatic assay for serotonin which increase the sensitivity of the assay 20-fold as well as enhance its reliability. Using this method serotonin concentrations can be directly measured in biological examples without precleaning the sample. When compared to currently available methods this assay is specific and sensitive to approximately 1 pg of serotonin and can be used to measure serotonin levels in individual brain nuclei or microliter quantities of biological fluids. This assay can be easily adapted for the direct measurement of N-acetylserotonin. A large number of samples can be assayed in a single working day.

  11. Electromagnetic, heat and fluid flow phenomena in levitated metal droplets both under earthbound and microgravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szekely, Julian

    1988-01-01

    The purpose is to develop an improved understanding of the electromagnetic, heat, and fluid flow phenomena in electromagnetically levitated metal droplets, both under earthbound and microgravity conditions. The main motivation for doing this work, together with the past accomplishments, and the plans for future research are discussed.

  12. Systems and methods for thermal imaging technique for measuring mixing of fluids

    DOEpatents

    Booten, Charles; Tomerlin, Jeff; Winkler, Jon

    2016-06-14

    Systems and methods for thermal imaging for measuring mixing of fluids are provided. In one embodiment, a method for measuring mixing of gaseous fluids using thermal imaging comprises: positioning a thermal test medium parallel to a direction gaseous fluid flow from an outlet vent of a momentum source, wherein when the source is operating, the fluid flows across a surface of the medium; obtaining an ambient temperature value from a baseline thermal image of the surface; obtaining at least one operational thermal image of the surface when the fluid is flowing from the outlet vent across the surface, wherein the fluid has a temperature different than the ambient temperature; and calculating at least one temperature-difference fraction associated with at least a first position on the surface based on a difference between temperature measurements obtained from the at least one operational thermal image and the ambient temperature value.

  13. New Equations for the Physical Properties of Geothermal Fluid near Vent Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, H.

    2004-05-01

    A set of workable fitted polynomial equations for calculating the physical properties: density, specific heat, adiabetic lapse rate and potential temperature of geothermal fluid (0~370 degree centigrade) in response to the temperature, pressure and salinity change, are attempted to be established in this study. The freshwater component of the equations are extracted from the recently released tabulated data of freshwater properties by Wagner and Prub (2002) which is recommended by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS). The salt water component of the equation, based on the near-linear relationship of density/specific heat with the salinity, is extracted from the classical lower temperature Equation of State of Seawater 1980's data sets. The freshwater and salt water components are combined to make the set of workable equation. The polynomial equations are calibrated with the existing experimental data and are also applied to the available geothermal fluid data released by the Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) office for back calculating the density and porosity. Though there are no reliable experimental data on the effect of salinity on density and specific heat in high temperature (>40 degree centigrade), the theoretical extension of the salt component are better in estimating the physical properties of the geothermal fluid than using only the freshwater equations or using only the regular seawater equation which limits its temperature to 0 and 40 degree centigrade.

  14. The CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS instrument - Part 2: Raman scattering probability measurements and retrieval of aerosol optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Ivan; Coburn, Sean; Berg, Larry K.; Lantz, Kathy; Michalsky, Joseph; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-08-01

    The multiannual global mean of aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD550) over land is ˜ 0.19, and that over oceans is ˜ 0.13. About 45 % of the Earth surface shows AOD550 smaller than 0.1. There is a need for measurement techniques that are optimized to measure aerosol optical properties under low AOD conditions. We present an inherently calibrated retrieval (i.e., no need for radiance calibration) to simultaneously measure AOD and the aerosol phase function parameter, g, based on measurements of azimuth distributions of the Raman scattering probability (RSP), the near-absolute rotational Raman scattering (RRS) intensity. We employ radiative transfer model simulations to show that for solar azimuth RSP measurements at solar elevation and solar zenith angle (SZA) smaller than 80°, RSP is insensitive to the vertical distribution of aerosols and maximally sensitive to changes in AOD and g under near-molecular scattering conditions. The University of Colorado two-dimensional Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS) instrument was deployed as part of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) at Cape Cod, MA, during the summer of 2012 to measure direct sun spectra and RSP from scattered light spectra at solar relative azimuth angles (SRAAs) between 5 and 170°. During two case study days with (1) high aerosol load (17 July, 0.3 < AOD430 < 0.6) and (2) near-molecular scattering conditions (22 July, AOD430 < 0.13) we compare RSP-based retrievals of AOD430 and g with data from a co-located CIMEL sun photometer, Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), and an airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2). The average difference (relative to DOAS) for AOD430 is +0.012 ± 0.023 (CIMEL), -0.012 ± 0.024 (MFRSR), -0.011 ± 0.014 (HSRL-2), and +0.023 ± 0.013 (CIMELAOD - MFRSRAOD) and yields the following expressions for correlations between different instruments

  15. Instrument for stable high temperature Seebeck coefficient and resistivity measurements under controlled oxygen partial pressure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Sharma, Peter Anand

    2015-04-28

    The transport properties of ceramic materials strongly depend on oxygen activity, which is tuned by changing the partial oxygen pressure (pO2) prior to and during measurement. Within, we describe an instrument for highly stable measurements of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity at temperatures up to 1300 K with controlled oxygen partial pressure. An all platinum construction is used to avoid potential materials instabilities that can cause measurement drift. Two independent heaters are employed to establish a small temperature gradient for Seebeck measurements, while keeping the average temperature constant and avoiding errors associated with pO2-induced drifts in thermocouple readings. Oxygen equilibriummore » is monitored using both an O2 sensor and the transient behavior of the resistance as a proxy. A pO2 range of 10-25–100 atm can be established with appropriate gas mixtures. Seebeck measurements were calibrated against a high purity platinum wire, Pt/Pt–Rh thermocouple wire, and a Bi2Te3 Seebeck coefficient Standard Reference Material. To demonstrate the utility of this instrument for oxide materials we present measurements as a function of pO2 on a 1 % Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystal, and show systematic changes in properties consistent with oxygen vacancy defect chemistry. Thus, an approximately 11% increase in power factor over a pO2 range of 10-19–10-8 atm at 973 K for the donor-doped single crystals is observed.« less

  16. Instrument for stable high temperature Seebeck coefficient and resistivity measurements under controlled oxygen partial pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Sharma, Peter Anand

    2015-04-28

    The transport properties of ceramic materials strongly depend on oxygen activity, which is tuned by changing the partial oxygen pressure (pO2) prior to and during measurement. Within, we describe an instrument for highly stable measurements of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity at temperatures up to 1300 K with controlled oxygen partial pressure. An all platinum construction is used to avoid potential materials instabilities that can cause measurement drift. Two independent heaters are employed to establish a small temperature gradient for Seebeck measurements, while keeping the average temperature constant and avoiding errors associated with pO2-induced drifts in thermocouple readings. Oxygen equilibrium is monitored using both an O2 sensor and the transient behavior of the resistance as a proxy. A pO2 range of 10-25–100 atm can be established with appropriate gas mixtures. Seebeck measurements were calibrated against a high purity platinum wire, Pt/Pt–Rh thermocouple wire, and a Bi2Te3 Seebeck coefficient Standard Reference Material. To demonstrate the utility of this instrument for oxide materials we present measurements as a function of pO2 on a 1 % Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystal, and show systematic changes in properties consistent with oxygen vacancy defect chemistry. Thus, an approximately 11% increase in power factor over a pO2 range of 10-19–10-8 atm at 973 K for the donor-doped single crystals is observed.

  17. Mechanical property degradation of graphite/polyimide composites after exposure to moisture or shuttle orbiter fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisagor, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of moisture exposure on the mechanical properties of graphite polyimide systems are presented. The mechanism of the degradation and the magnitude of the affect associated with specific mechanical properties is investigated. An experimental effort involving exposure to selected environmental variables and subsequent mechanical property testing and analysis is included.

  18. New Instrument for Measuring Size-resolved Submicron Sea Spray Particle Production From Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, N.; Petters, M. D.; Reed, R. E.; Dawson, K. W.; Phillips, B.; Royalty, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Marine aerosols play an important role in controlling the Earth's radiation balance, cloud formation and microphysical properties, and the chemistry of the marine atmosphere. As aerosol effects on climate are estimated from the difference between model simulations with present-day and with preindustrial aerosol and precursor emissions, accurate knowledge of size- and composition-dependent production flux of sea spray particles is important for correct assessment of the role of anthropogenic aerosols in climate change. One particular knowledge gap in sea spray particle emissions resides in yet uncharacterized contributions of sea spray to the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) budget over the marine boundary layer. The chemical composition of 50 to 200 nm sized sea spray particles, most critical to modeling CCN concentration from size distribution data is often simplified as purely organic, purely sea-salt or mixture of both. The lack of accurate information of the size-dependent production flux of sub-micron sea spray particles prevents the modeling community from resolving discrepancies between model-predicted and measured CCN number concentration in the marine boundary layer. We designed a new system for size-selected sea spray aerosol flux measurement that is composed of a 3D sonic anemometer, two thermodenuders, three differential mobility analyzers, two condensation particle counters, and a CCN counter. The system is designed to operate in both Eddy Covariance (EC) and Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) modes. The system is based on the volatility/humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer technique and is therefore designed to measure the size-resolved turbulent fluxes of sub-micron sized sea-salt particles for a wide range of meteorological, hydrological and ocean chemical/biological conditions. The method and the setup will be presented along with some results from a recent field-deployment of the instrument at the North Carolina coast. This presentation

  19. Proposal for a Universal Test Mirror for Characterization of SlopeMeasuring Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Warwick, Tony; Noll,Tino; Siewert, Frank; Zeschke, Thomas; Geckeler, Ralf D.

    2007-07-31

    The development of third generation light sources like theAdvanced Light Source (ALS) or BESSY II brought to a focus the need forhigh performance synchrotron optics with unprecedented tolerances forslope error and micro roughness. Proposed beam lines at Free ElectronLasers (FEL) require optical elements up to a length of one meter,characterized by a residual slope error in the range of 0.1murad (rms),and rms values of 0.1 nm for micro roughness. These optical elements mustbe inspected by highly accurate measuring instruments, providing ameasurement uncertainty lower than the specified accuracy of the surfaceunder test. It is essential that metrology devices in use at synchrotronlaboratories be precisely characterized and calibrated to achieve thistarget. In this paper we discuss a proposal for a Universal Test Mirror(UTM) as a realization of a high performance calibration instrument. Theinstrument would provide an ideal calibration surface to replicate aredundant surface under test of redundant figure. The application of asophisticated calibration instrument will allow the elimination of themajority of the systematic error from the error budget of an individualmeasurement of a particular optical element. We present the limitationsof existing methods, initial UTM design considerations, possiblecalibration algorithms, and an estimation of the expectedaccuracy.

  20. The measurement of fatigue: a new instrument.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, J E; Jandorf, L; Krupp, L B

    1993-10-01

    Fatigue is a frequent medical symptom which has not been routinely measured. We present a 29-item fatigue assessment instrument, describe its psychometric properties, and use it to differentiate normal fatigue from fatigue related medical disorders. Differences in fatigue across a variety of medical disorders, the reproducibility of the fatigue instrument, and its convergent validity with other fatigue measures are also described.

  1. Experimenting cavitation measuring instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toulouse, G.

    1988-09-01

    A calibrating method for measuring the volume of cavitation bubbles is presented and the results of open air experiments are given. The bubbles appearing on the surface of a marine rotating propeller are measured using CCD cameras and optical procedures. Square bubble section first approximations is used. The performance of cameras equipped with light amplifiers is studied in order to use them for real bubble cross section measurements.

  2. A new automatic system for angular measurement and calibration in radiometric instruments.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Jose Manuel Andujar; Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel Martínez; Garcia, Jonathan Medina; Nieto, Francisco Jose Aguilar

    2010-01-01

    This paper puts forward the design, construction and testing of a new automatic system for angular-response measurement and calibration in radiometric instruments. Its main characteristics include precision, speed, resolution, noise immunity, easy programming and operation. The developed system calculates the cosine error of the radiometer under test by means of a virtual instrument, from the measures it takes and through a mathematical procedure, thus allowing correcting the radiometer with the aim of preventing cosine error in its measurements.

  3. WISM - A Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurement: Past Accomplishments, Current Status, and Path Forward

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonds, Quenton; Racette, Paul; Durham, Tim (Principal Investigator)

    2016-01-01

    Presented are the prior accomplishments, current status and path forward for GSFC's Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurement (WISM). This work is a high level overview of the project, presented via Webinar to the IEEE young professionals.

  4. Physical Activity Measurement Instruments for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capio, Catherine M.; Sit, Cindy H. P.; Abernethy, Bruce; Rotor, Esmerita R.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This paper is a systematic review of physical activity measurement instruments for field-based studies involving children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Database searches using PubMed Central, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and PEDro located 12 research papers, identifying seven instruments that met the inclusion…

  5. A project to experimentally and theoretically examine fluid interfacial wave phenomena in a rotating cylindrical geometry: Current results and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Lawkins, W.F.; Thompson, S.; Sartory, W.K.; Gillies, G.T.; Ritter, R.C.

    1987-09-01

    A prototype of the new instrument for experimentally studying stratified fluid wave phenomena in a rotating cylindrical geometry, both of infinitesimal and nonlinear forms, has been designed, built, and partially characterized. Furthermore, a model for analyzing the use of control forces to eliminate infinitesimal instabilities from the fluid/mechanical system has been developed and used. Finally, a nonlinear model for analyzing forced interfacial waves has been defined and steps are currently being taken to implement that model. 28 refs., 50 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Design of an 8-40 GHz Antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.; Trent, Christopher; Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of land surface snow remains a significant challenge in the remote sensing arena. Developing the tools needed to remotely measure Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) is an important priority. The Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM) is being developed to address this need. WISM is an airborne instrument comprised of a dual-frequency (X- and Ku-bands) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and dual-frequency (K- and Ka-bands) radiometer. A unique feature of this instrument is that all measurement bands share a common antenna aperture consisting of an array feed reflector that covers the entire bandwidth. This paper covers the design and fabrication of the wideband array feed which is based on tightly coupled dipole arrays. Implementation using a relatively new multi-layer microfabrication process results in a small, 6x6 element, dual-linear polarized array with beamformer that operates from 8 to 40 gigahertz.

  7. An Instrument to Measure Anomia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Allen B.

    1980-01-01

    Four hundred and eighty-six disadvantaged adults from North Carolina were the subjects in a study that factor-analyzed three instruments designed to measure anomia, yielding a 12-item unidimensional scale. (The refined combination scale is presented as of potential usefulness for research on the effects of educational intervention on anomia.) (LRA)

  8. Instrumental phase-based method for Fourier transform spectrometer measurements processing

    SciTech Connect

    Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Tarabini, Marco

    2011-04-20

    Phase correction is a critical procedure for most space-borne Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs) whose accuracy (owing to often poor signal-to-noise ratio, SNR) can be jeopardized from many uncontrollable environmental conditions. This work considers the phase correction in an FTS working under significant temperature change during the measurement and affected by mechanical disturbances. The implemented method is based on the identification of an instrumental phase that is dependent on the interferometer temperature and on the extraction of a linear phase component through a least-squares approach. The use of an instrumental phase parameterized with the interferometer temperature eases the determination of the linear phase that can be extracted using only a narrow spectral region selected to be immune from disturbances. The procedure, in this way, is made robust against phase errors arising from instrumental effects, a key feature to reduce the disturbances through spectra averaging. The method was specifically developed for the Mars IR Mapper spectrometer, that was designed for operation onboard a rover on the Mars surface; the validation was performed using ground and in-flight measurements of the Fourier transform IR spectrometer planetary Fourier spectrometer, onboard the MarsExpress mission. The symmetrization has been exploited also for the spectra calibration, highlighting the issues deriving from the cases of relevant beamsplitter emission. The applicability of this procedure to other instruments is conditional to the presence in the spectra of at least one spectral region with a large SNR along with a negligible (or known) beamsplitter emission. For the PFS instrument, the processing of data with relevant beamsplitter emission has been performed exploiting the absorption carbon dioxide bands present in Martian spectra.

  9. Instrumental phase-based method for Fourier transform spectrometer measurements processing.

    PubMed

    Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Tarabini, Marco

    2011-04-20

    Phase correction is a critical procedure for most space-borne Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs) whose accuracy (owing to often poor signal-to-noise ratio, SNR) can be jeopardized from many uncontrollable environmental conditions. This work considers the phase correction in an FTS working under significant temperature change during the measurement and affected by mechanical disturbances. The implemented method is based on the identification of an instrumental phase that is dependent on the interferometer temperature and on the extraction of a linear phase component through a least-squares approach. The use of an instrumental phase parameterized with the interferometer temperature eases the determination of the linear phase that can be extracted using only a narrow spectral region selected to be immune from disturbances. The procedure, in this way, is made robust against phase errors arising from instrumental effects, a key feature to reduce the disturbances through spectra averaging. The method was specifically developed for the Mars IR Mapper spectrometer, that was designed for operation onboard a rover on the Mars surface; the validation was performed using ground and in-flight measurements of the Fourier transform IR spectrometer planetary Fourier spectrometer, onboard the MarsExpress mission. The symmetrization has been exploited also for the spectra calibration, highlighting the issues deriving from the cases of relevant beamsplitter emission. The applicability of this procedure to other instruments is conditional to the presence in the spectra of at least one spectral region with a large SNR along with a negligible (or known) beamsplitter emission. For the PFS instrument, the processing of data with relevant beamsplitter emission has been performed exploiting the absorption carbon dioxide bands present in Martian spectra. PMID:21509063

  10. Instrumental phase-based method for Fourier transform spectrometer measurements processing.

    PubMed

    Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Tarabini, Marco

    2011-04-20

    Phase correction is a critical procedure for most space-borne Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs) whose accuracy (owing to often poor signal-to-noise ratio, SNR) can be jeopardized from many uncontrollable environmental conditions. This work considers the phase correction in an FTS working under significant temperature change during the measurement and affected by mechanical disturbances. The implemented method is based on the identification of an instrumental phase that is dependent on the interferometer temperature and on the extraction of a linear phase component through a least-squares approach. The use of an instrumental phase parameterized with the interferometer temperature eases the determination of the linear phase that can be extracted using only a narrow spectral region selected to be immune from disturbances. The procedure, in this way, is made robust against phase errors arising from instrumental effects, a key feature to reduce the disturbances through spectra averaging. The method was specifically developed for the Mars IR Mapper spectrometer, that was designed for operation onboard a rover on the Mars surface; the validation was performed using ground and in-flight measurements of the Fourier transform IR spectrometer planetary Fourier spectrometer, onboard the MarsExpress mission. The symmetrization has been exploited also for the spectra calibration, highlighting the issues deriving from the cases of relevant beamsplitter emission. The applicability of this procedure to other instruments is conditional to the presence in the spectra of at least one spectral region with a large SNR along with a negligible (or known) beamsplitter emission. For the PFS instrument, the processing of data with relevant beamsplitter emission has been performed exploiting the absorption carbon dioxide bands present in Martian spectra.

  11. Heights integrated model as instrument for simulation of hydrodynamic, radiation transport, and heat conduction phenomena of laser-produced plasma in EUV applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Sizyuk, V.; Hassanein, A.; Morozov, V.; Sizyuk, T.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2007-01-16

    The HEIGHTS integrated model has been developed as an instrument for simulation and optimization of laser-produced plasma (LPP) sources relevant to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The model combines three general parts: hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and heat conduction. The first part employs a total variation diminishing scheme in the Lax-Friedrich formulation (TVD-LF); the second part, a Monte Carlo model; and the third part, implicit schemes with sparse matrix technology. All model parts consider physical processes in three-dimensional geometry. The influence of a generated magnetic field on laser plasma behavior was estimated, and it was found that this effect could be neglected for laser intensities relevant to EUV (up to {approx}10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}). All applied schemes were tested on analytical problems separately. Benchmark modeling of the full EUV source problem with a planar tin target showed good correspondence with experimental and theoretical data. Preliminary results are presented for tin droplet- and planar-target LPP devices. The influence of three-dimensional effects on EUV properties of source is discussed.

  12. Hydrazine engine plume contamination mapping. [measuring instruments for rocket exhaust from liquid propellant rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chirivella, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    Instrumentation for the measurement of plume exhaust specie deposition rates were developed and demonstrated. The instruments, two sets of quartz crystal microbalances, were designed for low temperature operation in the back flow and variable temperature operation in the core flow regions of an exhaust plume. These quartz crystal microbalances performed nominally, and measurements of exhaust specie deposition rates for 8400 number of pulses for a 0.1-lb monopropellant thruster are reported.

  13. Instrument for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at high pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Haskel, D.; Tseng, Y. C.; Lang, J. C.; Sinogeikin, S.

    2007-08-15

    An instrument has been developed for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements at high pressures and low temperatures. This instrument couples a nonmagnetic copper-beryllium diamond anvil cell featuring perforated diamonds with a helium flow cryostat and an electromagnet. The applied pressure can be controlled in situ using a gas membrane and calibrated using Cu K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements. The performance of this instrument was tested by measuring the XMCD spectra of the Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} giant magnetocaloric material.

  14. Measurement of Flow Phenomena in a VHTR Lower Plenum Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hugh M. McIlroy Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink

    2007-06-01

    Mean velocity and turbulence data that measure turbulent flow phenomena in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor are presented as a follow-up to summaries presented at the 2006 Annual Meeting and the 2006 Winter Meeting. The experiments were designed to develop benchmark databases to support the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum to validate the heat transfer and fluid flow software that will be used to study the behavior of the VHTR system.

  15. Instrumentation, Equipment and Methods for the In Vivo Measurement of Radioactive Material in the Body

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, Timothy P.

    2005-07-01

    The current applications for the in vivo measurement of radioactive material can be divided into three broad categories: (1) occupational exposure monitoring, (2) monitoring of the public, and (3) medical monitoring. The focus of this chapter is on occupational exposure monitoring that is part of an internal dosimetry program for monitoring workers for intakes and assessing the dose consequences of an intake. In the 1920's when electroscopes were first used to measure radium in the body of dial painters issues affecting the measurement accuracy were identified related to external contamination interferences, properly measuring the instrument background, need for measurement QC, microphonic interferences, shielding and others. The sophistication of the radiation detection instrumentation has evolved to the point where most systems today employ one or more detectors primarily either sodium iodide or germanium. Many different styles of detectors and cryostat designs are used at different facilities. However, the same issues identified in the 1920's are still issues today. The in vivo measurement systems are calibrated with anthropometric phantoms that simulate the body or parts of the body. Whole body phantoms, torso phantoms, lung phantoms, thyroid phantoms and skeletal phantoms are just some of the different types used.The systems are typically shielded with low background materials such as pre-World War II steel from battleships. Interferences can come from naturally occurring radioactive material, medically administered radiopharmaceuticals, equipment instability, non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation and other sources. These contribute to the uncertainties in measurement results that can range from 10% to 1000% or more depending on the measurement system, the energy of the radiation associated with the radionuclide to be measured, the accuracy of the phantom versus the person especially how well the distributions of activity match.

  16. A Multidimensional Scaling Approach to Dimensionality Assessment for Measurement Instruments Modeled by Multidimensional Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Maritsa

    2011-01-01

    The statistical assessment of dimensionality provides evidence of the underlying constructs measured by a survey or test instrument. This study focuses on educational measurement, specifically tests comprised of items described as multidimensional. That is, items that require examinee proficiency in multiple content areas and/or multiple cognitive…

  17. Probe systems for measuring static pressure and turbulence intensity in fluid streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method and an apparatus for measuring time-averaged static or ambient pressure and turbulence intensity in a turbulent stream are discussed. The procedure involves placing a plurality of probes in the stream. Each probe responds in a different manner to characteristics of the fluid stream, preferably as a result of having varying cross sections. The responses from the probes are used to eliminate unwanted components in the measured quantities for accurate determination of selected characteristics.

  18. Calibration of Instruments for Measuring Wind Velocity and Direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogler, Raymond D.; Pilny, Miroslav J.

    1950-01-01

    Signal Corps wind equipment AN/GMQ-1 consisting of a 3-cup anemometer and wind vane was calibrated for wind velocities from 1 to 200 miles per hour. Cup-shaft failure prevented calibration at higher wind velocities. The action of the wind vane was checked and found to have very poor directional accuracy below a velocity of 8 miles per hour. After shaft failure was reported to the Signal Corps, the cup rotors were redesigned by strengthening the shafts for better operation at high velocities. The anemometer with the redesigned cup rotors was recalibrated, but cup-shaft failure occurred again at a wind velocity of approximately 220 miles per hour. In the course of this calibration two standard generators were checked for signal output variation, and a wind-speed meter was calibrated for use with each of the redesigned cup rotors. The variation of pressure coefficient with air-flow direction at four orifices on a disk-shaped pitot head was obtained for wind velocities of 37.79 53.6, and 98.9 miles per hour. A pitot-static tube mounted in the nose of a vane was calibrated up to a dynamic pressure of 155 pounds per square foot, or approximately 256 miles per hour,

  19. Comparative measurements using different particle size instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chigier, N.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the measurement and comparison of particle size and velocity measurements in sprays. The general nature of sprays and the development of standard, consistent research sprays are described. The instruments considered in this paper are: pulsed laser photography, holography, television, and cinematography; laser anemometry and interferometry using visibility, peak amplitude, and intensity ratioing; and laser diffraction. Calibration is by graticule, reticle, powders with known size distributions in liquid cells, monosize sprays, and, eventually, standard sprays. Statistical analyses including spatial and temporal long-time averaging as well as high-frequency response time histories with conditional sampling are examined. Previous attempts at comparing instruments, the making of simultaneous or consecutive measurements with similar types and different types of imaging, interferometric, and diffraction instruments are reviewed. A program of calibration and experiments for comparing and assessing different instruments is presented.

  20. Artificial Fluid Properties for Large-Eddy Simulation of Compressible Turbulent Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, A W

    2007-01-08

    An alternative methodology is described for Large-Eddy Simulation of flows involving shocks, turbulence and mixing. In lieu of filtering the governing equations, it is postulated that the large-scale behavior of an ''LES'' fluid, i.e., a fluid with artificial properties, will be similar to that of a real fluid, provided the artificial properties obey certain constraints. The artificial properties consist of modifications to the shear viscosity, bulk viscosity, thermal conductivity and species diffusivity of a fluid. The modified transport coefficients are designed to damp out high wavenumber modes, close to the resolution limit, without corrupting lower modes. Requisite behavior of the artificial properties is discussed and results are shown for a variety of test problems, each designed to exercise different aspects of the models. When combined with a 10th-order compact scheme, the overall method exhibits excellent resolution characteristics for turbulent mixing, while capturing shocks and material interfaces in crisp fashion.

  1. Artificial fluid properties for large-eddy simulation of compressible turbulent mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Andrew W.

    2007-05-01

    An alternative methodology is described for large-eddy simulation (LES) of flows involving shocks, turbulence, and mixing. In lieu of filtering the governing equations, it is postulated that the large-scale behavior of a LES fluid, i.e., a fluid with artificial properties, will be similar to that of a real fluid, provided the artificial properties obey certain constraints. The artificial properties consist of modifications to the shear viscosity, bulk viscosity, thermal conductivity, and species diffusivity of a fluid. The modified transport coefficients are designed to damp out high wavenumber modes, close to the resolution limit, without corrupting lower modes. Requisite behavior of the artificial properties is discussed and results are shown for a variety of test problems, each designed to exercise different aspects of the models. When combined with a tenth-order compact scheme, the overall method exhibits excellent resolution characteristics for turbulent mixing, while capturing shocks and material interfaces in a crisp fashion.

  2. Measurement of sound velocity profiles in fluids for process monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, M.; Kühnicke, E.; Lenz, M.; Bock, M.

    2012-12-01

    In ultrasonic measurements, the time of flight to the object interface is often the only information that is analysed. Conventionally it is only possible to determine distances or sound velocities if the other value is known. The current paper deals with a novel method to measure the sound propagation path length and the sound velocity in media with moving scattering particles simultaneously. Since the focal position also depends on sound velocity, it can be used as a second parameter. Via calibration curves it is possible to determine the focal position and sound velocity from the measured time of flight to the focus, which is correlated to the maximum of averaged echo signal amplitude. To move focal position along the acoustic axis, an annular array is used. This allows measuring sound velocity locally resolved without any previous knowledge of the acoustic media and without a reference reflector. In previous publications the functional efficiency of this method was shown for media with constant velocities. In this work the accuracy of these measurements is improved. Furthermore first measurements and simulations are introduced for non-homogeneous media. Therefore an experimental set-up was created to generate a linear temperature gradient, which also causes a gradient of sound velocity.

  3. A simplified perturbation theory for equilibrium properties of triangular-well fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Largo, J.; Solana, J. R.

    2000-09-01

    A simple expression for the first coordination shell of the radial distribution function of the reference hard-sphere fluid is used in combination with Barker-Henderson perturbation theory to obtain the thermodynamic properties of triangular-well fluids. These properties are expressed analytically in terms of density, temperature, and range of the potential. It is found that the results are accurate for a wide range of densities and temperatures in comparison with existing simulation data.

  4. Direct measurements of transport properties are essential for site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.; Conca, J.L.

    1994-08-01

    Direct measurements of transport parameters on subsurface sediments using, the UFA method provided detailed hydrostratigraphic mapping, and subsurface flux distributions at a mixed-waste disposal site at Hanford. Seven hundred unsaturated conductivity measurements on fifty samples were obtained in only six months total of UFA run time. These data are used to provide realistic information to conceptual models, predictive models and restoration strategies. The UFA instrument consists of an ultracentrifuge with a constant, ultralow flow pump that provides fluid to the sample surface through a rotating seal assembly and microdispersal system. Effluent from the sample is collected in a transparent, volumetrically-calibrated chamber at the bottom of the sample assembly. Using a strobe light, an observer can check the chamber while the sample is being centrifuged. Materials can be run in the UFA as recomposited samples or in situ samples can be subcored directly into the sample UFA chamber.

  5. An Instrument for the Measurement of Parental Authority Prototypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buri, John R.

    Baumrind (1971) proposed three distinct patterns of parental authority (permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness) and measured these parenting styles through interviews with parents and their children and through observations of parents interacting with their children. This study was undertaken to develop a readily-accessible,…

  6. An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon disulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Davis, Douglas D.; Thornton, Donald C.; Johnson, James E.; Bandy, Alan R.; Saltzman, Eric S.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Barrick, John D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports results of NASA's Chemical Instrumentation and Test Evaluation (CITE 3) during which airborne measurements for carbonyl sulfide (COS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were intercompared. Instrumentation included a gas chromatograph using flame photometric detection (COS, H2S, and CS2), a gas chromatograph using mass spectrometric detection (COS) and CS2), a gas chromatograph using fluorination and subsequent SF6 detection via electron capture (COS and CS2), and the Natusch technique (H2S). The measurements were made over the Atlantic Ocean east of North and South America during flights from NASA's Wallops Flight Center, Virginia, and Natal, Brazil, in August/September 1989. Most of the intercomparisons for H2S and CS2 were at mixing ratios less than 25 pptv and less than 10 pptv, respectively, with a maximum mixing ratio of about 100 pptv and 50 pptv, respectively. Carbonyl sulfide intercomparisons were at mixing ratios between 400 and 600 pptv. Measurements were intercompared from data bases constructed from time periods of simultaneous or overlapping measurements. Agreement among the COS techniques averaged about 5%, and individual measurements were generally within 10%. For H2S and at mixing ratio greater than 25 pptv, the instruments agreed on average to about 15%. At mixing ratios less than 25 pptv the agreement was about 5 pptv. For CS2 (mixing ratios less than 50 pptv), two techniques agreed on average to about 4 pptv, and the third exhibited a bias (relative to the other two) that varied in the range of 3-7 pptv. CS2 mixing ratios over the ocean east of Natal as measured by the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer technique were only a few pptv and were below the detection limits of the other two techniques. The CITE 3 data are used to estimate the current uncertainty associated with aircraft measurements of COS, H2S, and CS2 in the remote troposphere.

  7. Solar oscillations instrumentation and measurement theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appourchaux, T.

    1988-01-01

    Solar-oscillation instruments are reviewed. Common characteristics include detecting solar radial velocities on Fraunhofer lines with a 2-point measuring technique, high spectral resolution and stability, etc. The choice of the spectral line for getting a high signal to solar noise ratio is addressed. Velocity imaging of solar oscillations modes is detailed, including spatial sampling and span, highest observable degree. Applications of these different analyses is applied to existing or future helioseismology instruments.

  8. Microwave techniques for physical property measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M.

    1993-01-01

    Industrial processing of metals and ceramics is now being streamlined by the development of theoretical models. High temperature thermophysical properties of these materials are required to successfully apply these theories. Unfortunately, there is insufficient experimental data available for many of these properties, particularly in the molten state. Microwave fields can be used to measure specific heat, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and dielectric constants at high temperatures. We propose to (1) develop a microwave flash method (analogous to the laser flash technique) that can simultaneously measure the thermal diffusivity and specific heat of insulators and semiconductors at high temperatures, (2) an appropriate theory and experimental apparatus to demonstrate the measurement of the specific heat of a metal using a new microwave ac specific heat technique, and (3) experimental methods for noncontact measurement of the real and imaginary dielectric constants.

  9. Satellite Instrument Calibration for Measuring Global Climate Change: Report of a Workshop.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohring, George; Wielicki, Bruce; Spencer, Roy; Emery, Bill; Datla, Raju

    2005-09-01

    Measuring the small changes associated with long-term global climate change from space is a daunting task. The satellite instruments must be capable of observing atmospheric and surface temperature trends as small as 0.1°C decade-1, ozone changes as little as 1% decade-1, and variations in the sun's output as tiny as 0.1% decade-1. To address these problems and recommend directions for improvements in satellite instrument calibration, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Integrated Program Office (NPOESS-IPO), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) organized a workshop at the University of Maryland Inn and Conference Center, College Park, Maryland, 12 14 November 2002. Some 75 scientists participated including researchers who develop and analyze long-term datasets from satellites, experts in the field of satellite instrument calibration, and physicists working on state-of-the-art calibration sources and standards.The workshop defined the absolute accuracies and long-term stabilities of global climate datasets that are needed to detect expected trends, translated these dataset accuracies and stabilities to required satellite instrument accuracies and stabilities, and evaluated the ability of current observing systems to meet these requirements. The workshop's recommendations include a set of basic axioms or overarching principles that must guide high quality climate observations in general, and a road map for improving satellite instrument characterization, calibration, intercalibration, and associated activities to meet the challenge of measuring global climate change. The workshop also recommended that a follow-up workshop be conducted to discuss implementation of the road map developed at this workshop.


  10. Bubble Measuring Instrument and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer. respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

  11. Bubble measuring instrument and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer, respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

  12. Bubble Measuring Instrument and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer, respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

  13. Bubble Measuring Instrument and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting. distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer, respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receive, the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

  14. Interexaminer reliability and concurrent validity of two instruments for the measurement of cervical ranges of motion.

    PubMed

    Zachman, Z J; Traina, A D; Keating, J C; Bolles, S T; Braun-Porter, L

    1989-06-01

    The reliability of measurement of cervical ranges of motion (ROM) has rarely been studied. The current study evaluated the interexaminer reliability and concurrent validity of two instruments (rangiometer and goniometer) for measuring cervical ranges of motion. Twenty-four consenting subjects were assigned to random orders of examiners, instruments and planes of motion. Thirteen measurements of cervical motion and neutral positions were evaluated by two examiners using each instrument. Interexaminer reliability coefficients were generally greater than interinstrument coefficients, and both were higher than a combination of interexaminer/interinstrument predictions. The r values for rangiometric objectivity were higher than those of the goniometer in 9 of 10 cervical ranges of motion. The rangiometer is a moderately reliable instrument for measuring cervical ranges of motion. PMID:2746145

  15. Design of an 8-40 GHz Antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.; Trent, Christopher R.; Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This poster describes the implementation of a 6x6 element, dual linear polarized array with beamformer that operates from about 8-40 GHz. It is implemented using a relatively new multi-layer microfabrication process. The beamformer includes baluns that feed dual-polarized differential antenna elements and reactive splitters that cover the full frequency range of operation. This fixed beam array (FBA) serves as the feed for a multi-band instrument designed to measure snow water equivalent (SWE) from an airborne platform known as the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM).

  16. Acoustically coupled gas bubbles in fluids: time-domain phenomena.

    PubMed

    Feuillade, C

    2001-06-01

    In previous work [C. Feuillade, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 1178-1190 (1995)] a coupled oscillator formalism was introduced for describing collective resonances, scattering, and superresonances, of multiple gas bubbles in a fluid. Subsequently, time-domain investigations of the impulse response of coupled systems have disclosed the exact conditions which determine whether the ensemble scattering behavior should be described using: either (a), a multiple scattering; or (b), a self-consistent methodology. The determining factor is the Q of the individual scatterers, and their typical spatial separations in the medium. For highly damped or sparse systems, e.g., scattering from loose schools of swimbladder fish, or from a gassy seabed containing entrained bubbles, the multiple scatter counting approach should be applicable. For more strongly coupled systems, e.g., a dense cloud of resonating bubbles in the water column, energy exchange may be due primarily to radiative cycling rather than scattering, in which case a self-consistent approach is indicated. The result has implications for both volume and bottom scattering applications.

  17. Modern method and instrument for measuring psychic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hideg, Janos; Remes, Peter; Bognar, Laszlo; Agoston, Mihaly

    This paper shows that cortical processing of information quantity can be given in bits, while speed of information processing can be given in bit/sec; therefore the information processing ability can be denoted in algebraical expression. Changes of emotional tension can be objectified by galvanic skin reflex and pulse reaction. This method and device is suitable to measure psychic state of space station personnel and to predict psychic activity.

  18. A Hydrostatic Bearing Test System for Measuring Bearing Load Using Magnetic-Fluid Lubricants.

    PubMed

    Weng, Huei Chu; Chen, Lu-Yu

    2016-05-01

    This paper conducts a study on the design of a hydrostatic bearing test system. It involves the determination of viscous properties of magnetic-fluid lubricants. The load of a hydrostatic thrust bearing using a water-based magnetite nanofluid of varying volume flow rate is measured under an applied external induction field via the test system. Results reveal that the presence of nanoparticles in a carrier liquid would cause an enhanced bearing load. Such an effect could be further magnified by increasing the lubricant volume flow rate or the external induction field strength. PMID:27483902

  19. A method for measuring picosecond phenomena in photolabile species: the emission lifetime of bacteriorhodopsin.

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, M D; Marcus, M A; Lewis, A; Mahr, H; Frigo, N

    1976-01-01

    We have measured the emission lifetime of bacteriorhodopsin at physiological temperatures to be 15 +/- 3 ps using a technique which employs a mode-locked dye laser, a sum frequency light gate, and a continuous flow system. We observe no concentration dependence of the lifetime over the range of 1.1 X 10(-4) M to 1.0 X 10(-5) M. We conclude that the emission which we observe comes from bacteriorhodopsin and not one of its photochemically produced intermediates, and that the emission cannot originate from the state into which light is absorbed. PMID:990393

  20. A Greener Approach for Measuring Colligative Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Sean M.; Gordon-Wylie, Scott W.

    2005-01-01

    As a first step towards the greening of instructional laboratories, we present a new greener version of a laboratory procedure designed to measure colligative properties. The greener procedure substitutes the nontoxic, noncarcinogenic compounds stearic, myristic, lauric, and palmitic acids for the less benign aromatic compounds p-dichlorobenzene,…

  1. Continuity and internal properties of Gulf Coast sandstones and their implications for geopressured fluid production

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, R.A.; Ewing, T.E.; Tyler, N.

    1983-01-01

    The intrinsic properties of the genetic sandstone units that typify many geopressured geothermal aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Gulf Coast region were systematically investigated classified, and differentiated. The following topics are coverd: structural and stratigraphic limits of sandstone reservoirs, characteristics and dimensions of Gulf Coast sandstones; fault-compartment areas; comparison of production and geologic estimates of aquifer fluid volume; geologic setting and reservoir characteristics, Wells of Opportunity; internal properties of sandstones; and implications for geopressured fluid production. (MHR)

  2. Search for New Phenomena Using W/Z + (b)-Jets Measurements Performed with the ATLAS Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues

    2015-06-30

    The Project proposed to use data of the ATLAS experiment, obtained during the 2011 and 2012 data-taking campaigns, to pursue studies of the strong interaction (QCD) and to examine promising signatures for new physics. The Project also contains a service component dedicated to a detector development initiative. The objective of the strong interaction studies is to determine how various predictions from the main theory (QCD) compare to the data. Results of a set of measurements developed by the Tufts team indicate that the dominant factor of discrepancy between data and QCD predictions come from the mis-modeling of the low energy gluon radiation as described by algorithms called parton showers. The discrepancies introduced by parton showers on LHC predictions could even be larger than the effect due to completely new phenomena (dark matter, supersymmetry, etc.) and could thus block further discoveries at the LHC. Some of the results obtained in the course of this Project also specify how QCD predictions must be improved in order to open the possibility for the discovery of something completely new at the LHC during Run-II. This has been integrated in the Run-II ATLAS physics program. Another objective of Tufts studies of the strong interaction was to determine how the hypothesis about an intrinsic heavy-quark component of the proton (strange, charm or bottom quarks) could be tested at the LHC. This hypothesis has been proposed by theorists 30 years ago and is still controversial. The Tufts team demonstrated that intrinsic charms can be observed, or severely constrained, at the LHC, and determine how the measurement should be performed in order to maximize its sensitivity to such an intrinsic heavy-quark component of the proton. Tufts also embarked on performing the measurement that is in progress, but final results are not yet available. They should shade a light of understanding on the fundamental structure of the proton. Determining the nature of dark matter

  3. Evidence for using air or fluid when identifying the epidural space.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Curtis L; Rodriguez, Ricardo E; Schmidt, James; Austin, Paul N

    2013-02-01

    Lumbar epidural analgesia is frequently employed to provide pain relief for women during labor. Anesthesia providers use various methods to identify the epidural space. Some providers use air, some use fluid, and others use a combination of air and fluid during the loss of resistance technique. Loss of resistance to air has been speculated to result in a lesser quality of analgesia compared with loss of resistance to only fluid. A search strategy focusing on preappraised sources was used to locate evidence from interventional and observational studies. Four evidence sources were located, including a systematic review with meta-analysis of 4 older studies. The evidence reviewed was inconclusive in determining whether a difference in analgesia quality results from the use of air or fluid during the loss of resistance technique. Future studies should include an adequate number of subjects and address other problems such as operator experience, observer blinding, equivalence of subject characteristics, outcomes definition and measurement, and composition of epidural solution. Providers should consider other factors when selecting loss of resistance medium, such as the reported complications of large amounts of air injected into the epidural space and surrounding structures.

  4. Specifying and calibrating instrumentations for wideband electronic power measurements. [in switching circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesco, D. J.; Weikle, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    The wideband electric power measurement related topics of electronic wattmeter calibration and specification are discussed. Tested calibration techniques are described in detail. Analytical methods used to determine the bandwidth requirements of instrumentation for switching circuit waveforms are presented and illustrated with examples from electric vehicle type applications. Analog multiplier wattmeters, digital wattmeters and calculating digital oscilloscopes are compared. The instrumentation characteristics which are critical to accurate wideband power measurement are described.

  5. Measuring a caring culture in hospitals: a systematic review of instruments

    PubMed Central

    Hesselink, G; Kuis, E; Pijnenburg, M; Wollersheim, H

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify instruments or components of instruments that aim to measure aspects of a caring culture-shared beliefs, norms and values that direct professionals and managers to act caring in hospitals, and to evaluate their psychometric properties. Design Systematic review. Data sources PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Web of Science and the International bibliography of the Social Sciences. Study selection Peer-reviewed articles describing (components of) instruments measuring aspects of a caring culture in a hospital setting. Studies had to report psychometric data regarding the reliability or validity of the instrument. Potentially useful instruments that were identified after the title and abstract scan were assessed on relevance by an expert panel (n=12) using the RAND-modified Delphi procedure. Results Of the 6399 references identified, 75 were examined in detail. 7 studies each covering a unique instrument met our inclusion criteria. On average, 24% of the instrument's items were considered relevant for measuring aspects of the hospital's caring culture. Studies showed moderate-to-high validity and reliability scores. Validity was addressed for 6 of the 7 instruments. Face, content (90%) and construct (60%) validity were the most frequently reported psychometric properties described. One study (14%) reported discriminant validity of the instrument. Reliability data were available for all of the instruments. Internal consistency was the most frequently reported psychometric property for the instruments and demonstrated by: a Cronbach's α coefficient (80%), subscale intercorrelations (60%), and item–total correlations (40%). Conclusions The ultimate standard for measuring a caring culture in hospitals does not exist. Existing instruments provide partial coverage and lack information on discriminant validity, responsiveness and feasibility. Characteristics of the instruments included in this review could provide useful input for the design of a

  6. The MSA: An Instrument for Measuring Motivation to Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Philip H.; Lawton, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    While there is a growing body of research on study abroad programs, as Li, Olson, and Frieze (2013) observed, "Research on study abroad has primarily focused on the effects or outcomes of study abroad participation on the students involved in these programs…Very limited attention has been devoted to studying factors affecting students'…

  7. EDITORIAL: Advances in Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments for Production Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Takaya, Yasuhiro; Gao, Yongsheng; Krystek, Michael

    2008-08-01

    . Neuschaefer-Rube et al, also from PTB, present procedures and standards to test tactile and optical microsensors and micro-computed tomography systems, which are similar to the established tests for classical coordinate measuring machines and assess local and global sensor characteristics. The last three papers are related to micro/nano-metrology and intelligent instrumentation. Jiang et al from Tohoku University describe the fabrication of piezoresistive nanocantilevers for ultra-sensitive force detection by using spin-out diffusion, EB lithography and FAB etching, respectively. Y-C Liu et al from National Taiwan University develop an economical and highly sensitive optical accelerometer using a commercial optical pickup head. Michihata et al from Osaka University experimentally investigate the positioning sensing property and accuracy of a laser trapping probe for a nano-coordinate measuring machine. As guest editors, we believe that this special feature presents the newest information on advances in measurement technology and intelligent instruments from basic research to applied systems for Production Engineering. We would like to thank all the authors for their great contributions to this special feature and the referees for their careful reviews of the papers. We would also like to express our thanks and appreciation to Professor P Hauptmann, Editor-in-Chief of MST, for his kind offer to publish selected ISMTII 2007 papers in MST, and to the publishing staff of MST for their dedicated efforts that have made this special feature possible.

  8. Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift (CAPS) Method for Airborne Aerosol Light Extinction Measurement: Instrument Validation and First Results from Field Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, A.; Perim de Faria, J.; Berg, M.; Bundke, U.; Freedman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring the direct impact of aerosol particles on climate requires the continuous measurement of aerosol optical parameters like the aerosol extinction coefficient on a regular basis. Remote sensing and ground-based networks are well in place (e.g., AERONET, ACTRIS), whereas the regular in situ measurement of vertical profiles of atmospheric aerosol optical properties remains still an important challenge in quantifying climate change. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) responds to the increasing requests for long-term, routine in situ observational data by using commercial passenger aircraft as measurement platform. However, scientific instrumentation for the measurement of atmospheric constituents requires major modifications before being deployable aboard in-service passenger aircraft. Recently, a compact and robust family of optical instruments based on the cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPS) technique has become available for measuring aerosol light extinction. While this technique was successfully deployed for ground-based atmospheric measurements under various conditions, its suitability for operation aboard aircraft in the free and upper free troposphere still has to be demonstrated. In this work, the modifications of a CAPS PMex instrument for measuring aerosol light extinction on aircraft, the results from subsequent laboratory tests for evaluating the modified instrument prototype, and first results from a field deployment aboard a research aircraft will be covered. In laboratory studies, the instrument showed excellent agreement (deviation < 5%) with theoretical values calculated from Rayleigh scattering cross-sections, when operated on pressurized air and CO2 at ambient and low pressure (~200 hPa). For monodisperse and polydisperse aerosols, reference aerosol extinction coefficients were calculated from measured size distributions and agreed with the CAPS PMex instrument

  9. Development of an optical sensor for the measurement of density in a multiphase cryogenic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, Valentin

    This research describes the theoretical mode, development and testing of an all optical flow meter capable of making a direct density measurement in a single- and multiphase cryogenic fluid. The sensing method is based on the interaction of light with the physical state of the fluid. The optical sensor only minimally interacts with the fluid, thereby not perturbing the state condition of the flow and avoiding complications of existing volumetric and mass flow devices. The theoretical basis of the device is a Bruggeman model of effective medium theory. This provides a direct density measurement of any number of fluid phase constituents and provides an effective measurement scheme to perform the necessary calculations without undue computation. Materials for the optical sensor were qualified and tested in a relevant liquid nitrogen cryogenic environment. The theorized device was developed through a series of prototype iterations. Various prototype devices were tested and evaluated in full-scale water and full-scale liquid nitrogen flow facilities. Results verified the response predicted by the theoretical model with an approximate 0.8% error in density measurement. Data obtained by the sensor was also used to determine a secondary density measurement, fluid velocity, and bubble sizing and distribution statistics. The sensor functioned successfully in liquid nitrogen submersion and the design has been hydrostatically tested to 204 atmospheres or 3000 pounds per square inch. Propulsion research and development has direct roots in the sensing technology available. For liquid propulsion rocket engines the ability to measure mass flow is currently limited by the environmental constraints and approximations inherent to the existing measurement technology. The optical flow sensor can provide an enabling method for supporting test and evaluation operations as part of a ground based propulsion testing in addition to supporting safe and efficient operation of space flight and

  10. Final Report: Operational Retrieval of Cloud Microphysical Properties Using Combined Measurements by Diverse Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Richard T. Austin

    2008-06-30

    The report on the final phase of the project describes improvements in the ice and liquid cloud retrieval algorithms due to the use of three-parameter particle size distributions in which all three parameters may vary with height, testing of the improved retrievals by comparisons of measured and calculated fluxes, and further improvement in liquid retrievals obtained by adding liquid water path information from the microwave radiometer to radar and visible optical depth information.

  11. Calibration method and apparatus for measuring the concentration of components in a fluid

    DOEpatents

    Durham, Michael D.; Sagan, Francis J.; Burkhardt, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    A calibration method and apparatus for use in measuring the concentrations of components of a fluid is provided. The measurements are determined from the intensity of radiation over a selected range of radiation wavelengths using peak-to-trough calculations. The peak-to-trough calculations are simplified by compensating for radiation absorption by the apparatus. The invention also allows absorption characteristics of an interfering fluid component to be accurately determined and negated thereby facilitating analysis of the fluid.

  12. Calibration method and apparatus for measuring the concentration of components in a fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.; Sagan, F.J.; Burkhardt, M.R.

    1993-12-21

    A calibration method and apparatus for use in measuring the concentrations of components of a fluid is provided. The measurements are determined from the intensity of radiation over a selected range of radiation wavelengths using peak-to-trough calculations. The peak-to-trough calculations are simplified by compensating for radiation absorption by the apparatus. The invention also allows absorption characteristics of an interfering fluid component to be accurately determined and negated thereby facilitating analysis of the fluid. 7 figures.

  13. Problems affecting the fidelity of pressure measuring instruments for planetary probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    Determination is made of the nature and magnitude of surface-related effects that cause errors in pressure measuring instruments, with special reference being made to instruments intended for use in planetary probes. The interaction of gases with clean surfaces of metals likely to be used as gage construction materials was studied. Special emphasis was placed on the adsorption, chemical reaction, and electron-induced desorption processes. The results indicated that all metals tested were subject to surface processes which would degrade gage fidelity. It was also found, however, that the formation of inert adsorbed layers on these metal surfaces, such as carbon on platinum, greatly reduced or eliminated these effects. This process, combined with a system design which avoids contact between reactive gases and hot filaments, appears to offer the most promising solution to the gage fidelity problem.

  14. Containerless thermophysical property measurements for liquid metals

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Z.L.; Pryor, K.E.; Hauge, R.H.; Margrave, J.L.

    1995-04-01

    Methods for measuring the thermophysical properties of liquid metals including sample size and density, translational and vibrational modes, surface tension, emissivity and thermodynamic temperature have been developed in the authors laboratory. Sample shape, size and density are measured with a video-imaging and computer processing technique. The translational and vibrational frequencies are monitored through the use of a continuous duo-lateral position sensor, where appropriate analysis of the data provides surface tension information. A two-channel polarization modulation ellipsometer has been developed to measure the optical constants and emissivity of a levitated metal drop. Preliminary results from the use of these techniques have been promising.

  15. Measuring addiction propensity and severity: the need for a new instrument.

    PubMed

    Conway, Kevin P; Levy, Janet; Vanyukov, Michael; Chandler, Redonna; Rutter, Joni; Swan, Gary E; Neale, Michael

    2010-09-01

    Drug addiction research requires but lacks a valid and reliable way to measure both the risk (propensity) to develop addiction and the severity of manifest addiction. This paper argues for a new measurement approach and instrument to quantify propensity to and severity of addiction, based on the testable assumption that these constructs can be mapped onto the same dimension of liability to addiction. The case for this new direction becomes clear from a critical review of empirical data and the current instrumentation. The many assessment instruments in use today have proven utility, reliability, and validity, but they are of limited use for evaluating individual differences in propensity and severity. The conceptual and methodological shortcomings of instruments currently used in research and clinical practice can be overcome through the use of new technologies to develop a reliable, valid, and standardized assessment instrument(s) to measure and distinguish individual variations in expression of the underlying latent trait(s) that comprises propensity to and severity of drug addiction. Such instrumentation would enhance our capacity for drug addiction research on linkages and interactions among familial, genetic, psychosocial, and neurobiological factors associated with variations in propensity and severity. It would lead to new opportunities in substance abuse prevention, treatment, and services research, as well as in interventions and implementation science for drug addiction.

  16. Measuring Addiction Propensity and Severity: The Need for a New Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Kevin P.; Levy, Janet; Vanyukov, Michael; Chandler, Redonna; Rutter, Joni; Swan, Gary E.; Neale, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Drug addiction research requires but lacks a valid and reliable way to measure both the risk (propensity) to develop addiction and the severity of manifest addiction. This paper argues for a new measurement approach and instrument to quantify propensity to and severity of addiction, based on the testable assumption that these constructs can be mapped onto the same dimension of liability to addiction. The case for this new direction becomes clear from a critical review of empirical data and the current instrumentation. The many assessment instruments in use today have proven utility, reliability, and validity, but they are of limited use for evaluating individual differences in propensity and severity. The conceptual and methodological shortcomings of instruments currently used in research and clinical practice can be overcome through the use of new technologies to develop a reliable, valid, and standardized assessment instrument(s) to measure and distinguish individual variations in expression of the underlying latent trait(s) that comprises propensity to and severity of drug addiction. Such instrumentation would enhance our capacity for drug addiction research on linkages and interactions among familial, genetic, psychosocial, and neurobiological factors associated with variations in propensity and severity. It would lead to new opportunities in substance abuse prevention, treatment, and services research, as well as in interventions and implementation science for drug addiction. PMID:20462706

  17. Instrumentation for time-resolved dynamic and static dichroic measurements of polymers with a near-IR acoustooptic tunable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweat, Joseph Allen

    1999-11-01

    The optical measurement of the orientational response of chemical functional groups of a polymer as it is subjected to conventional dynamic mechanical analysis can give insight into the rheological behavior of the polymer while under repetitive strain based on the chemical structure. Instrumentation used in the mid infrared has included the use of grating monochromators and interferometers. The use of a multiply modulated optical signal has decreased the level of noise to observe the small amplitude changes (typically >10-3 absorbance units) associated with the repetitive oscillatory strain. The use of digital signal processing to replace phase sensitive detection for demodulation of the optical signal has greatly reduced the spectral collection time. In addition, multiplexing gained with the use of step-scan interferometry in making time resolved measurements has aided in making the procedure more practical. However, instrumental complexity and expense are drawbacks. By incorporating the high throughput, polarized tuned beam, and rapid wavelength switching capability of an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF), a dynamic instrument with integrated centralized control by a single microprocessor has been built. it operates in the near infrared with a rapid dynamic data collection time and requires the use of only a single modulation in the form of the sample oscillatory strain. The near infrared permits thicker samples to reduce sample preparation tune or allows polymers to be tested without pretreatment. The use of Fourier based digital filtering improves the signal to noise ratio of the dynamic differential spectra. The instrument is cost effective and rugged in comparison to step-scan interferometers yet has a rapid data collection rate allowing use in a routine industrial setting. Information from these measurements can aid in determining the rheological properties necessary for the end use functionality of a polymer. Additionally, AOTF instrumentation can be used

  18. Proceedings of the fluid flow measurement

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This report presents reports which were presented at the Third International Symposium on Fluid Flow Measurement. Topics were concerned with metering, calibration, flow modeling, and gas properties. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  19. Spectrometer for measuring the concentration of components in a fluid stream and method for using same

    DOEpatents

    Durham, Michael D.; Stedman, Donald H.; Ebner, Timothy G.; Burkhardt, Mark R.

    1991-01-01

    A device and method for measuring the concentrations of components of a fluid stream. Preferably, the fluid stream is an in situ gas stream, such as a fossil fuel fired flue gas in a smoke stack. The measurements are determined from the intensity of radiation over a selected range of radiation wavelengths using peak-to-trough calculations. The need for a reference intensity is eliminated.

  20. Spectrometer for measuring the concentration of components in a fluid stream and method for using same

    DOEpatents

    Durham, M.D.; Stedman, D.H.; Ebner, T.G.; Burkhardt, M.R.

    1991-12-03

    A device and method are described for measuring the concentrations of components of a fluid stream. Preferably, the fluid stream is an in-situ gas stream, such as a fossil fuel fired flue gas in a smoke stack. The measurements are determined from the intensity of radiation over a selected range of radiation wavelengths using peak-to-trough calculations. The need for a reference intensity is eliminated. 15 figures.

  1. Advanced working fluids: Thermodynamic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Lloyd L.; Gering, Kevin L.

    1990-10-01

    Electrolytes are used as working fluids in gas fired heat pump chiller engine cycles. To find out which molecular parameters of the electrolytes impact on cycle performance, a molecular theory is developed for calculating solution properties, enthalpies, vapor-liquid equilibria, and engine cycle performance. Aqueous and ammoniac single and mixed salt solutions in single and multisolvent systems are investigated. An accurate correlation is developed to evaluate properties for concentrated electrolyte solutions. Sensitivity analysis is used to determine the impact of molecular parameters on the thermodynamic properties and cycle performance. The preferred electrolytes are of 1-1 valence type, small ion size, high molecular weight, and in strongly colligative cosolvent. The operating windows are determined for a number of absorption fluids of industrial importance.

  2. Development of an Instrument for Measuring Clinicians’ Power Perceptions in the Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Bartos, Christa E.; Fridsma, Douglas B.; Butler, Brian S.; Penrod, Louis E.; Becich, Michael J.; Crowley, Rebecca S.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the development of an instrument to measure clinicians’ perceptions of their personal power in the workplace in relation to resistance to computerized physician order entry (CPOE). The instrument is based on French and Raven’s six bases of social power and uses a semantic differential methodology. A measurement study was conducted to determine the reliability and validity of the survey. The survey was administered online and distributed via a URL by email to 19 physicians, nurses, and health unit coordinators from a university hospital. Acceptable reliability was achieved by removing or moving some semantic differential word pairs used to represent the six power bases (alpha range from 0.76–0.89). The Semantic Differential Power Perception (SDPP) survey validity was tested against an already validated instrument and found to be acceptable (correlation range from 0.51–0.81). The SDPP survey instrument was determined to be both reliable and valid. PMID:18375189

  3. Advanced Ultrasonic Measurement Methodology for Non-Invasive Interrogation and Identification of Fluids in Sealed Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Brian J.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Eckenrode, Brian A.

    2006-03-16

    The Hazardous Materials Response Unit (HMRU) and the Counterterrorism and Forensic Science Research Unit (CTFSRU), Laboratory Division, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) have been mandated to develop and establish a wide range of unprecedented capabilities for providing scientific and technical forensic services to investigations involving hazardous chemical, biological, and radiological materials, including extremely dangerous chemical and biological warfare agents. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a portable, hand-held, hazardous materials acoustic inspection device (HAZAID) that provides noninvasive container interrogation and material identification capabilities using nondestructive ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements. Due to the wide variety of fluids as well as container sizes and materials, the need for high measurement sensitivity and advanced ultrasonic measurement techniques were identified. The HAZAID prototype was developed using a versatile electronics platform, advanced ultrasonic wave propagation methods, and advanced signal processing techniques. This paper primarily focuses on the ultrasonic measurement methods and signal processing techniques incorporated into the HAZAID prototype. High bandwidth ultrasonic transducers combined with the advanced pulse compression technique allowed researchers to 1) impart large amounts of energy, 2) obtain high signal-to-noise ratios, and 3) obtain accurate and consistent time-of-flight (TOF) measurements through a variety of highly attenuative containers and fluid media. Results of this feasibility study demonstrated that the HAZAID experimental measurement technique also provided information regarding container properties, which will be utilized in future container-independent measurements of hidden liquids.

  4. Advanced ultrasonic measurement methodology for non-invasive interrogation and identification of fluids in sealed containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Brian J.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Eckenrode, Brian A.

    2006-03-01

    Government agencies and homeland security related organizations have identified the need to develop and establish a wide range of unprecedented capabilities for providing scientific and technical forensic services to investigations involving hazardous chemical, biological, and radiological materials, including extremely dangerous chemical and biological warfare agents. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a prototype portable, hand-held, hazardous materials acoustic inspection prototype that provides noninvasive container interrogation and material identification capabilities using nondestructive ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements. Due to the wide variety of fluids as well as container sizes and materials encountered in various law enforcement inspection activities, the need for high measurement sensitivity and advanced ultrasonic measurement techniques were identified. The prototype was developed using a versatile electronics platform, advanced ultrasonic wave propagation methods, and advanced signal processing techniques. This paper primarily focuses on the ultrasonic measurement methods and signal processing techniques incorporated into the prototype. High bandwidth ultrasonic transducers combined with an advanced pulse compression technique allowed researchers to 1) obtain high signal-to-noise ratios and 2) obtain accurate and consistent time-of-flight (TOF) measurements through a variety of highly attenuative containers and fluid media. Results of work conducted in the laboratory have demonstrated that the prototype experimental measurement technique also provided information regarding container properties, which will be utilized in future container-independent measurements of hidden liquids.

  5. Advanced ultrasonic measurement methodology for non-invasive interrogation and identification of fluids in sealed containers

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Brian J.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Eckenrode, Brian A.

    2006-05-01

    Government agencies and homeland security related organizations have identified the need to develop and establish a wide range of unprecedented capabilities for providing scientific and technical forensic services to investigations involving hazardous chemical, biological, and radiological materials, including extremely dangerous chemical and biological warfare agents. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a prototype portable, hand-held, hazardous materials acoustic inspection prototype that provides noninvasive container interrogation and material identification capabilities using nondestructive ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements. Due to the wide variety of fluids as well as container sizes and materials encountered in various law enforcement inspection activities, the need for high measurement sensitivity and advanced ultrasonic measurement techniques were identified. The prototype was developed using a versatile electronics platform, advanced ultrasonic wave propagation methods, and advanced signal processing techniques. This paper primarily focuses on the ultrasonic measurement methods and signal processing techniques incorporated into the prototype. High bandwidth ultrasonic transducers combined with an advanced pulse compression technique allowed researchers to 1) obtain high signal-to-noise ratios and 2) obtain accurate and consistent time-of-flight (TOF) measurements through a variety of highly attenuative containers and fluid media. Results of work conducted in the laboratory have demonstrated that the prototype experimental measurement technique also provided information regarding container properties, which will be utilized in future container-independent measurements of hidden liquids.

  6. Instrumentation for measuring lake and reservoir evaporation by the energy-budget and mass-transfer methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturrock, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Instrumentation currently used by the U.S. Geological Survey in studies of lake and reservoir evaporation is described in this paper. This instrumentation is used for the measurement of solar and terrestrial energy necessary to apply the mass-transfer or energy budget methods. The energy budget requires a quantative determination of all form of energy entering or leaving the lake as well as determination of the change in storage of energy within the lake. (USGS)

  7. Introduction to meteorological measurements and data handling for solar energy applications. Task IV. Development of an isolation handbook and instrument package

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The following are covered: the Sun and its radiation, solar radiation and atmospheric interaction, solar radiation measurement methods, spectral irradiance measurements of natural sources, the measurement of infrared radiation, the measurement of circumsolar radiation, some empirical properties of solar radiation and related parameters, duration of sunshine, and meteorological variables related to solar energy. Included in appendices are manufacturers and distributors of solar radiation measuring instruments and an approximate method for quality control of solar radiation instruments. (MHR)

  8. Mechanical Properties of the Surface Material of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko Measured By the Casse Instrument Onboard the Philae Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapmeyer, M.; Fischer, H. H.; Seidensticker, K. J.; Arnold, W.; Faber, C.; Möhlmann, D.; Thiel, K.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing of ocean color is a critical tool for assessing the productivity of marine ecosystems and monitoring changes resulting from climatic or environmental influences. Yet water-leaving radiance comprises less than 10% of the signal measured from space, making correction for absorption and scattering by the intervening atmosphere imperative. Traditional ocean color retrieval algorithms utilize a standard set of aerosol models and the assumption of negligible water-leaving radiance in the near-infrared. Modern improvements have been developed to handle absorbing aerosols such as urban particulates in coastal areas and transported desert dust over the open ocean, where ocean fertilization can impact biological productivity at the base of the marine food chain. Even so, imperfect knowledge of the absorbing aerosol optical properties or their height distribution results in well-documented sources of error. In the UV, the problem of UV-enhanced absorption and nonsphericity of certain aerosol types are amplified due to the increased Rayleigh and aerosol optical depth, especially at off-nadir view angles. Multi-angle spectro-polarimetric measurements have been advocated as an additional tool to better understand and retrieve the aerosol properties needed for atmospheric correction for ocean color retrievals. The central concern of the work to be described is the assessment of the effects of absorbing aerosol properties on water leaving radiance measurement uncertainty by neglecting UV-enhanced absorption of carbonaceous particles and by not accounting for dust nonsphericity. In addition, we evaluate the polarimetric sensitivity of absorbing aerosol properties in light of measurement uncertainties achievable for the next generation of multi-angle polarimetric imaging instruments, and demonstrate advantages and disadvantages of wavelength selection in the UV/VNIR range. The phase matrices for the spherical smoke particles were calculated using a standard

  9. Dual physiological rate measurement instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Tommy G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The object of the invention is to provide an instrument for converting a physiological pulse rate into a corresponding linear output voltage. The instrument which accurately measures the rate of an unknown rectangular pulse wave over an extended range of values comprises a phase-locked loop including a phase comparator, a filtering network, and a voltage-controlled oscillator, arranged in cascade. The phase comparator has a first input responsive to the pulse wave and a second input responsive to the output signal of the voltage-controlled oscillator. The comparator provides a signal dependent on the difference in phase and frequency between the signals appearing on the first and second inputs. A high-input impedance amplifier accepts an output from the filtering network and provides an amplified output DC signal to a utilization device for providing a measurement of the rate of the pulse wave.

  10. Optical Performance of Breadboard Amon-Ra Imaging Channel Instrument for Deep Space Albedo Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Won Hyun; Kim, Seonghui; Lee, Hanshin; Yi, Hyun-Su; Lee, Jae-Min; Ham, Sun-Jung; Yoon, Jeeyeon; Kim, Sug-Whan; Yang, Ho Soon; Choi, Ki-Hyuk; Kim, Zeen Chul; Lockwood, Mike; Morris, Nigel; Tosh, Ian

    2007-03-01

    The AmonRa instrument, the primary payload of the international EARTHSHINE mission, is designed for measurement of deep space albedo from L1 halo orbit. We report the optical design, tolerance analysis and the optical performance of the breadborad AmonRa imaging channel instrument optimized for the mission science requirements. In particular, an advanced wavefront feedback process control technique was used for the instrumentation process including part fabrication, system alignment and integration. The measured performances for the complete breadboard system are the RMS 0.091 wave(test wavelength: 632.8 nm) in wavefront error, the ensquared energy of 61.7%(in 14 μ m) and the MTF of 35.3%(Nyquist frequency: 35.7 mm^{-1}) at the center field. These resulting optical system performances prove that the breadboard AmonRa instrument, as built, satisfies the science requirements of the EARTHSHINE mission.

  11. Magnetic properties and concurrence for fluid {sup 3}He on kagome lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Ananikian, N. S. Ananikian, L. N.; Lazaryan, H. A.

    2012-10-15

    We present the results of magnetic properties and entanglement for kagome lattice using Heisenberg model with two- and three-site exchange interactions in strong magnetic field. Kagome lattice correspond to the third layer of fluid {sup 3}He absorbed on the surface of graphite. The magnetic properties and concurrence as a measure of pairwise thermal entanglement are studied by means of variational mean-field like treatment based on Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality. The system exhibits different magnetic behaviors depending on the values of the exchange parameters (J{sub 2}, J{sub 3}). We have obtained the magnetization plateaus at low temperatures. The central theme of the paper is comparing the entanglement and magnetic behavior for kagome lattice. We have found that in the antiferromagnetic region behavior of the concurrence coincides with the magnetic susceptibility one.

  12. Instrumentation for near-Earth measurement of orbital debris and cosmic dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuzzolino, Anthony J.

    1992-01-01

    Dust instrumentation based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) dust sensor arrays is described which will measure the masses, fluxes, velocities, and trajectories of orbital debris particles and natural micrometeoroids. Orbital debris particles are distinguished from natural particles (cosmic dust) by means of the velocity/trajectory information. The instrumentation will measure particle trajectory with a mean error of approximately 7 degrees (for isotropic flux) and is designed for measurements over the particle diameter range of approximately 2 to 200 micro-m. For future missions having Earth-return capabilities, arrays of capture cell devices positioned behind the PVDF trajectory system would provide for Earth-based chemical and isotopic analysis of captured dust.

  13. Total body electrical conductivity measurements: an evaluation of current instrumentation for infants.

    PubMed

    Fiorotto, M L; de Bruin, N C; Brans, Y W; Degenhart, H J; Visser, H K

    1995-01-01

    Quantitation of the body's fat and learn masses is an important component of nutritional assessment. Such measurements, however, are difficult to conduct routinely in infants due to the numerous limitations of traditional methods. The application of total body electrical conductivity measurements for quantitating fat-free mass (FFM) overcomes many of these limitations. The instruments required to perform these measurements in pediatric patients (HP-2) have recently become commercially available, but their measurement performance has not been evaluated. In these studies, we compared the precision, day-to-day variability, and magnetic field profile of three HP-2 instruments. We also derived a new calibration equation that relates the FFM to the total body electrical conductivity measurement in piglets, and compared it with an equation (provided currently by the manufacturer) derived on a prototype instrument. The performance of the instruments was generally similar, although a significant difference in the magnetic field of one instrument was identified. The coefficient of variation of inanimate phantom measurements varied from +/- 0.2 to +/- 0.5%, and the day-to-day variability was generally similar. Such measurement error is significant (+/- 0.035 to +/- 0.078 kg FFM) for small subjects. The new calibration equation was similar to the original equation; therefore, all the data were pooled to generate a new equation that is linear at least to 10 kg. Thus, the HP-2 total body electrical conductivity instruments, which can be safely and easily used to measure FFM and fat in infants through 1 y of age, proved to be reliable and precise, and results obtained from different instruments can be confidently compared. PMID:7700740

  14. Instrument for the on-line measurement of dynamic parameters for hard-disk drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Changsheng; Hu, Yi-Ming; Pei, Xiandeng

    1993-09-01

    A computer based instrument for the measurements of dynamic parameters of hard disk drives(HDD)-Multi-Parameter On-line Test System of Disk Drive (MOTSODD) has been developed. Several new methods and techniques were used to solve the problems of measuring some specific parameters such as the static stiffness of positioning system the structure resonance frequency of the positioning mechanism and the statistical average power consumption of the voice-coil-motor(VCM) especially when the HDD is in operation. More than 20 parameters of the positioning system and the spindle system of the HDD can easily be obtained. The hardware is a complete integration of the high speed data acquisition unit the arbitrary waveform synthesizer and the multi-interface controller. A parameter measurement methods library has been established to meet the complicated measurement requirements. The virtual panel technique and a high speed graphic environment were developed to enhance the performances of the instrument.

  15. A wireless pH sensor using magnetoelasticity for measurement of body fluid acidity.

    PubMed

    Pang, Pengfei; Gao, Xianjuan; Xiao, Xilin; Yang, Wenyue; Cai, Qingyun; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2007-04-01

    The determination of body fluid acidity using a wireless magnetoelastic pH-sensitive sensor is described. The sensor was fabricated by casting a layer of pH-sensitive polymer on a magnetoelastic ribbon. In response to an externally applied time-varying magnetic field, the magnetoelastic sensor mechanically vibrates at a characteristic frequency that is inversely dependent upon the mass of the pH polymer film, which varies as the film swells and shrinks in response to pH. As the magnetoelastic sensor is magnetostrictive, the mechanical vibrations of the sensor launch magnetic flux that can be detected remotely using a pickup coil. The sensor can be used for direct measurements of body fluid acidity without a pretreatment of the sample by using a filtration membrane. A reversible and linear response was obtained between pH 5.0 and 8.0 with a measurement resolution of pH 0.1 and a slope of 0.2 kHz pH(-1). Since there are no physical connections between the sensor and the instrument, the sensor can be applied to in vivo and in situ monitoring of the physiological pH and its fluctuations.

  16. Laser Doppler instrumentation for the measurement of retinal blood flow: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Feke, G T

    2006-01-01

    The theory underlying the development of laser Doppler instrumentation for the measurement of retinal blood flow is framed in terms of (a) the enunciation of the Doppler principle; (b) the invention of the laser; and (c) the invention of the technique known as optical mixing spectroscopy. The features of the instrumentation, beginning with the first prototype in 1972 and culminating with the introduction of the Canon Laser Blood Flowmeter in 1998 are presented in detail. Results from seven separate studies reporting on the reproducibility of retinal blood flow measurements using the Canon instrument, as well as a review of 12 separate presentations made at the 2004 annual meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) using the Canon instrument in studies involving retinal circulatory physiology and associated clinical research are also presented. PMID:17265797

  17. A Conceptual Model and Set of Instruments for Measuring Student Engagement in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldspink, Christopher; Foster, Margot

    2013-01-01

    This work has its origins with research into the effects of pedagogy on student engagement and learning outcomes. It summarises the development of self-report and observation instruments for measuring student engagement suitable for early years to senior secondary. The measures are sensitive to the context and experience of learning rather than,…

  18. High-latitude opportunities for flow measurements with the EUI instrument onboard Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gissot, Samuel; Brajsa, Roman

    The Solar Orbiter mission will offer a unique out-of-ecliptic vantage point which represents an excellent opportunity to address the cyclic nature of solar magnetic activity and key questions for our understanding of solar dynamo such as transport of flux at high latitudes and the properties of the polar magnetic field. Our current knowledge of solar activity at high latitudes is limited by the ecliptic position of past and current instruments so that characterizing the solar flows remains difficult because of this ecliptic viewing angle. This is a major limitation to our knowledge of meridional circulation and differential rotation at all latitudes and radii. During the out-of-the-ecliptic phase of the mission, Solar Orbiter will reach heliographic latitudes of 25(°) during the nominal mission and as high as 34(°) during the extended mission and thus contribute to new constraints and understanding for solar dynamo models. Following past work on tracer tracking of coronal bright points and the inter-instrument measurements of flows, we will present the lessons learned to address these issues using the Solar Orbiter EUI and PHI remote sensing instruments. In particular, we will present a method for the detection and tracking of high-latitude tracers from which one can derive requirements on the specific high solar inclination science windows of Solar Orbiter. We will illustrate how this will contribute to refine our current knowledge of differential rotation and meridional flows and discuss how the successive Solar Orbiter passes at perihelion could extend these solar activity indices over cycle time scales.

  19. Advanced near-and mid-infrared laser based instruments for atmospheric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Dirk; Weibring, Petter; Spuler, Scott; Walega, James; Spowart, Mike; Fried, Alan

    2010-05-01

    We present new ground and airborne instruments for atmospheric measurements based on fiber and diode laser sources. This versatile optical technology can be configured to provide high resolution, sensitive, selective, and real-time measurements. In particular we will present current and planned instruments to measure important trace gas species, including isotopes, and 3D wind-speeds from an aircraft platform. All the instruments presented leverage technology advances made in the photonics and optical telecommunication industry. We have developed a set of tools based around these technological building blocks and used them to design a suite of measurement capabilities for use by the atmospheric research community. Optical technologies have been accumulating a proven record of robust performance, and enable one to built more lightweight and compact instrumentation for easy deployment for traditional ground, advanced sea, and airborne measurement platforms. We will present how these enabling optical technologies have served as the foundation for select instruments, and provide a roadmap for future development opportunities.

  20. Filtered Rayleigh scattering diagnostic for multi-parameter thermal-fluids measurements : LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beresh, Steven Jay; Grasser, Thomas W.; Kearney, Sean Patrick; Schefer, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Simulation-based life-cycle-engineering and the ASCI program have resulted in models of unprecedented size and fidelity. The validation of these models requires high-resolution, multi-parameter diagnostics. Within the thermal-fluids disciplines, the need for detailed, high-fidelity measurements exceeds the limits of current engineering sciences capabilities and severely tests the state of the art. The focus of this LDRD is the development and application of filtered Rayleigh scattering (FRS) for high-resolution, nonintrusive measurement of gas-phase velocity and temperature. With FRS, the flow is laser-illuminated and Rayleigh scattering from naturally occurring sources is detected through a molecular filter. The filtered transmission may be interpreted to yield point or planar measurements of three-component velocities and/or thermodynamic state. Different experimental configurations may be employed to obtain compromises between spatial resolution, time resolution, and the quantity of simultaneously measured flow variables. In this report, we present the results of a three-year LDRD-funded effort to develop FRS combustion thermometry and Aerosciences velocity measurement systems. The working principles and details of our FRS opto-electronic system are presented in detail. For combustion thermometry we present 2-D, spatially correlated FRS results from nonsooting premixed and diffusion flames and from a sooting premixed flame. The FRS-measured temperatures are accurate to within {+-}50 K (3%) in a premixed CH4-air flame and within {+-}100 K for a vortex-strained diluted CH4-air diffusion flame where the FRS technique is severely tested by large variation in scattering cross section. In the diffusion flame work, FRS has been combined with Raman imaging of the CH4 fuel molecule to correct for the local light scattering properties of the combustion gases. To our knowledge, this is the first extension of FRS to nonpremixed combustion and the first use of joint FRS

  1. Fluid flow meter for measuring the rate of fluid flow in a conduit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, P. R. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A tube fluid flow rate meter consists of a reservoir divided by flexible diaphragm into two separate isolated compartments. The incoming and outgoing tubes open into the compartments. The orifice is sized to allow maximum tube fluid flow. Opposing compression springs are secured within the two compartments on opposite sides of the orifice to maintain orifice position when the tube fluid pressure is zero. A tapered element is centered in, and extends through the orifice into the compartment, leaving an annular opening between the element and the perimeter of the oriface. The size varies as the diaphragm flexes with changes in the tube fluid pressure to change the fluid flow through the opening. The light source directs light upon the element which in turn scatters the light through the opening into the compartment. The light detector in the compartment senses the scattered light to generate a signal indicating the amount of fluid.

  2. Estimation of Fluid Properties and Phase Equilibria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herskowitz, M.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a course (given to junior/senior students with strong background in thermodynamics and transport phenomena) that covers the theoretical and practical aspects of properties estimation. An outline for the course is included. (JN)

  3. Development and application of an instrument for spatially resolved Seebeck coefficient measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakutayev, Andriy; Luciano, Frank J.; Bollinger, Vincent P.; Sigdel, Ajaya K.; Ndione, Paul F.; Perkins, John D.; Berry, Joseph J.; Parilla, Philip A.; Ginley, David S.

    2013-05-01

    The Seebeck coefficient is a key indicator of the majority carrier type (electrons or holes) in a material. The recent trend toward the development of combinatorial materials research methods has necessitated the development of a new high-throughput approach to measuring the Seebeck coefficient at spatially distinct points across any sample. The overall strategy of the high-throughput experiments is to quickly identify the region of interest on the sample at some expense of accuracy, and then study this region by more conventional techniques. The instrument for spatially resolved Seebeck coefficient measurements reported here relies on establishing a temperature difference across the entire compositionally graded thin-film and consecutive mapping of the resulting voltage as a function of position, which facilitates the temperature-dependent measurements up to 400 °C. The results of the designed instrument are verified at ambient temperature to be repeatable over 10 identical samples and accurate to within 10% versus conventional Seebeck coefficient measurements over the -100 to +150 μV/K range using both n-type and p-type conductive oxides as test cases. The developed instrument was used to determine the sign of electrical carriers of compositionally graded Zn-Co-O and Ni-Co-O libraries prepared by combinatorial sputtering. As a result of this study, both cobalt-based materials were determined to have p-type conduction over a broad single-phase region of chemical compositions and small variation of the Seebeck coefficient over the entire investigated range of compositions and temperature.

  4. Instrument Development Procedures for Maze Measures. Technical Report # 08-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Kimy; Sundstrom-Hebert, Krystal; Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Tindal, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the instrument development of maze measures for grades 3-8. Each maze passage contained twelve omitted words that students filled in by choosing the best-fit word from among the provided options. In this technical report, we describe the process of creating, reviewing, and pilot testing the maze measures.…

  5. An ultrasonic instrument for measuring density and viscosity of tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S.H.; Chien, H.T.; Raptis, A.C.

    1997-10-01

    An estimated 381,000 m{sup 3}/1.1 x 10{sup 9} Ci of radioactive waste are stored in high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Savannah River, Idaho Nuclear Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and West Valley facilities. This nuclear waste has created one of the most complex waste management and cleanup problems that face the United States. Release of radioactive materials into the environment from underground waste tanks requires immediate cleanup and waste retrieval. Hydraulic mobilization with mixer pumps will be used to retrieve waste slurries and salt cakes from storage tanks. To ensure that transport lines in the hydraulic system will not become plugged, the physical properties of the slurries must be monitored. Characterization of a slurry flow requires reliable measurement of slurry density, mass flow, viscosity, and volume percent of solids. Such measurements are preferably made with on-line nonintrusive sensors that can provide continuous real-time monitoring. With the support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM-50), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing an ultrasonic instrument for in-line monitoring of physical properties of radioactive tank waste.

  6. On the use of refractive-index-matched hydrogel for fluid velocity measurement within and around geometrically complex solid obstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitzman, Joel S.; Samuel, Lianna C.; Craig, Anna E.; Zeller, Robert B.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory-based particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure current-driven hydrodynamics within and around a collection of complex obstacles. These obstacles were fabricated using a specialty superabsorbent hydrogel produced through the free-radical copolymerization of sodium acrylate and acrylamide. The optical properties of this gel were found to be nearly identical to those of liquid water. Because of refractive index matching (RIM) of both the fluid and solid media, PIV laser light sheets passed through the obstructions without significant degradation or modification. As a result, all tracer particles suspended in the flow were uniformly illuminated, regardless of their position or proximity relative to individual obstacle features. PIV light sheets were also successfully imaged through the hydrogel, enabling accurate velocity measurement in regions that would otherwise be optically inaccessible. These outcomes were reached without reliance on unconventional fluids or specialized flow facilities. For many experimenters interested in fluid-solid interactions, hydrogel-based RIM may thus be less costly and more adaptable than methods that rely on the existing suite of techniques.

  7. Is the Scale for Measuring Motivational Interviewing Skills a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the primary care professionals motivational skills?: EVEM study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lifestyle is one of the main determinants of people’s health. It is essential to find the most effective prevention strategies to be used to encourage behavioral changes in their patients. Many theories are available that explain change or adherence to specific health behaviors in subjects. In this sense the named Motivational Interviewing has increasingly gained relevance. Few well-validated instruments are available for measuring doctors’ communication skills, and more specifically the Motivational Interviewing. Methods/Design The hypothesis of this study is that the Scale for Measuring Motivational Interviewing Skills (EVEM questionnaire) is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the primary care professionals skills to get behavior change in patients. To test the hypothesis we have designed a prospective, observational, multi-center study to validate a measuring instrument. –Scope: Thirty-two primary care centers in Spain. -Sampling and Size: a) face and consensual validity: A group composed of 15 experts in Motivational Interviewing. b) Assessment of the psychometric properties of the scale; 50 physician- patient encounters will be videoed; a total of 162 interviews will be conducted with six standardized patients, and another 200 interviews will be conducted with 50 real patients (n=362). Four physicians will be specially trained to assess 30 interviews randomly selected to test the scale reproducibility. -Measurements for to test the hypothesis: a) Face validity: development of a draft questionnaire based on a theoretical model, by using Delphi-type methodology with experts. b) Scale psychometric properties: intraobservers will evaluate video recorded interviews: content-scalability validity (Exploratory Factor Analysis), internal consistency (Cronbach alpha), intra-/inter-observer reliability (Kappa index, intraclass correlation coefficient, Bland & Altman methodology), generalizability, construct validity and sensitivity to change

  8. Non-linear hydrotectonic phenomena: Part I - fluid flow in open fractures under dynamical stress loading

    SciTech Connect

    Archambeau, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    A fractured solid under stress loading (or unloading) can be viewed as behaving macroscopically as a medium with internal, hidden, degrees of freedom, wherein changes in fracture geometry (i.e. opening, closing and extension) and flow of fluid and gas within fractures will produce major changes in stresses and strains within the solid. Likewise, the flow process within fractures will be strongly coupled to deformation within the solid through boundary conditions on the fracture surfaces. The effects in the solid can, in part, be phenomenologically represented as inelastic or plastic processes in the macroscopic view. However, there are clearly phenomena associated with fracture growth and open fracture fluid flows that produce effects that can not be described using ordinary inelastic phenomenology. This is evident from the fact that a variety of energy release phenomena can occur, including seismic emissions of previously stored strain energy due to fracture growth, release of disolved gas from fluids in the fractures resulting in enhanced buoyancy and subsequent energetic flows of gas and fluids through the fracture system which can produce raid extension of old fractures and the creation of new ones. Additionally, the flows will be modulated by the opening and closing of fractures due to deformation in the solid, so that the flow process is strongly coupled to dynamical processes in the surrounding solid matrix, some of which are induced by the flow itself.

  9. Laser Absorption spectrometer instrument for tomographic 2D-measurement of climate gas emission from soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Anne; Wagner, Steven; Dreizler, Andreas; Ebert, Volker

    2014-05-01

    One of the most intricate effects in climate modelling is the role of permafrost thawing during the global warming process. Soil that has formerly never totally lost its ice cover now emits climate gases due to melting processes[1]. For a better prediction of climate development and possible feedback mechanisms, insights into physical procedures (like e.g. gas emission from underground reservoirs) are required[2]. Therefore, a long-term quantification of greenhouse gas concentrations (and further on fluxes) is necessary and the related structures that are responsible for emission need to be identified. In particular the spatial heterogeneity of soils caused by soil internal structures (e.g. soil composition changes or surface cracks) or by surface modifications (e.g. by plant growth) generate considerable complexities and difficulties for local measurements, for example with soil chambers. For such situations, which often cannot be avoided, a spatially resolved 2D-measurement to identify and quantify the gas emission from the structured soil would be needed, to better understand the influence of the soil sub-structures on the emission behavior. Thus we designed a spatially scanning laser absorption spectrometer setup to determine a 2D-gas concentration map in the soil-air boundary layer. The setup is designed to cover the surfaces in the range of square meters in a horizontal plane above the soil to be investigated. Existing field instruments for gas concentration or flux measurements are based on point-wise measurements, so structure identification is very tedious or even impossible. For this reason, we have developed a tomographic in-situ instrument based on TDLAS ('tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy') that delivers absolute gas concentration distributions of areas with 0.8m × 0.8m size, without any need for reference measurements with a calibration gas. It is a simple and robust device based on a combination of scanning mirrors and reflecting foils, so

  10. Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M. P.; King, J. C.; Gorman, B. P.; Marshall, Doug W.

    2013-01-01

    Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ~10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1- bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

  11. Determination of properties of fluids for solar-cooling applications. Literature survey

    SciTech Connect

    Podoll, R.T.

    1981-02-01

    A detailed literature search of the available thermodynamic data of proposed refrigerant/absorbent pairs and measurement of those data that are unmeasured or unreliable are reported. The data to be obtained for the pure fluids included: the critical temperature, pressure and volume; the vapor pressure curve; the latent heat of vaporization at the normal boiling point; the freezing point; the specific heat of the liquid and vapor; and the specific volumes of the saturated liquids and vapors. For the fluid mixtures, the data included the dew point and bubble point at four specified pressures plus the heats of mixing and specific heat at several solution compositions. Pure fluids surveyed included: ammonia, methylamine, ethylamine, chlorodifluoromethane (R-22), fluorodichloromethane (R-21), ethylene glycol, 1,4-Butanediol, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DGDE), N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), N,N-dimethylhexanamide (DMH), N,N-dimethyldecanamide (DMD). Binary fluid mixtures surveyed included: ammonia/ethylene glycol; ammonia/1,4-butanediol; methylamine/ethylene glycol; methylamine/1,4-butanediol; ethylamine/ethylene glycol; ethylamine/1,4-butanediol; and R-22/ DGDE. (LEW)

  12. Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, M. P.; King, J. C.; Gorman, B. P.; Marshall, D. W.

    2013-01-01

    Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ˜10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1-bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

  13. Aerodynamic levitator furnace for measuring thermophysical properties of refractory liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langstaff, D.; Gunn, M.; Greaves, G. N.; Marsing, A.; Kargl, F.

    2013-12-01

    The development of novel contactless aerodynamic laser heated levitation techniques is reported that enable thermophysical properties of refractory liquids to be measured in situ in the solid, liquid, and supercooled liquid state and demonstrated here for alumina. Starting with polished crystalline ruby spheres, we show how, by accurately measuring the changing radius, the known density in the solid state can be reproduced from room temperature to the melting point at 2323 K. Once molten, by coupling the floating liquid drop to acoustic oscillations via the levitating gas, the mechanical resonance and damping of the liquid can be measured precisely with high-speed high-resolution shadow cast imaging. The resonance frequency relates to the surface tension, the decay constant to the viscosity, and the ellipsoidal size and shape of the levitating drop to the density. This unique instrumentation enables these related thermophysical properties to be recorded in situ over the entire liquid and supercooled range of alumina, from the boiling point at 3240 K, until spontaneous crystallization occurs around 1860 K, almost 500 below the melting point. We believe that the utility that this unique instrumentation provides will be applicable to studying these important properties in many other high temperature liquids.

  14. Aerodynamic levitator furnace for measuring thermophysical properties of refractory liquids.

    PubMed

    Langstaff, D; Gunn, M; Greaves, G N; Marsing, A; Kargl, F

    2013-12-01

    The development of novel contactless aerodynamic laser heated levitation techniques is reported that enable thermophysical properties of refractory liquids to be measured in situ in the solid, liquid, and supercooled liquid state and demonstrated here for alumina. Starting with polished crystalline ruby spheres, we show how, by accurately measuring the changing radius, the known density in the solid state can be reproduced from room temperature to the melting point at 2323 K. Once molten, by coupling the floating liquid drop to acoustic oscillations via the levitating gas, the mechanical resonance and damping of the liquid can be measured precisely with high-speed high-resolution shadow cast imaging. The resonance frequency relates to the surface tension, the decay constant to the viscosity, and the ellipsoidal size and shape of the levitating drop to the density. This unique instrumentation enables these related thermophysical properties to be recorded in situ over the entire liquid and supercooled range of alumina, from the boiling point at 3240 K, until spontaneous crystallization occurs around 1860 K, almost 500 below the melting point. We believe that the utility that this unique instrumentation provides will be applicable to studying these important properties in many other high temperature liquids. PMID:24387452

  15. Diode laser based photoacoustic gas measuring instruments intended for medical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, Anna; Mohácsi, Árpád; Novák, Péter; Aladzic, Daniela; Turzó, Kinga; Rakonczay, Zoltán; Erős, Gábor; Boros, Mihály; Nagy, Katalin; Szabó, Gábor

    2012-06-01

    Analysis of breath and gases emanated from skin can be used for early and non-invasive diagnosis of various kinds of diseases. Two portable, compact, photoacoustic spectroscopy based trace gas sensors were developed for the detection of methane emanated from skin and ammonia emanated from oral cavity. The light sources were distributed feedback diode lasers emitting at the absorption lines of ammonia and methane, at 1.53 μm and 1.65 μm, respectively. Photoacoustic method ensures high selectivity, therefore cross-sensitivity was negligible even with large amount of water vapor and carbon dioxide in the gas sample. In case of ammonia a preconcentration unit was used to achieve lower minimum detectable concentration. Gas sample from the oral cavity was drawn through a glass tube to the preconcentration unit that chemically bonded ammonia and released it when heated. The minimum detectable concentration of ammonia was 10 ppb for 15 s gas sampling time (gas sample of 250 cm3). For methane minimum detectable concentration of 0.25 ppm was found with 12 s integration time, and it was proved to be adequate for the detection of methane emanated from human skin and from mice. Instruments measuring methane and ammonia are currently installed at two medical research laboratories at University of Szeged and tested as instruments for non-invasive clinical trials. The aim of the measurements is to determine correlations between diseases or metabolic processes and emanated gases.

  16. ALADIN: an atmosphere laser doppler wind lidar instrument for wind velocity measurements from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Rodolphe; Ghibaudo, Jean-Bernard; Labandibar, Jean-Yves; Willetts, David V.; Vaughan, M.; Pearson, G.; Harris, M. R.; Flamant, Pierre H.; Salamitou, P.; Dabas, Alain; Charasse, R.; Midavaine, Thierri; Royer, Michel; Heimel, H.

    1995-12-01

    AEROSPATIALE, leading a European team, has just conducted a successful study, under ESA contract, to demonstrate the feasibility of a spaceborne Doppler wind lidar instrument meeting the scientific requirements of wind velocity measurements from space with high spatial resolution. A first parametric investigation, based upon the initial set of mission requirements, and supported by dedicated models and detailed trade-off studies, took account of capabilities of the most promising signal processing algorithms and calibration/validation constrains: it yielded a large conically scanned instrument deemed technologically risky. A risk analysis was then carried out to propose a less challenging instrument meeting most key mission requirements. The fixed line-of-sight concept with return signal accumulation appeared as most attractive. A second set of requirements agreed upon by scientific users was therefore issued, with relaxed constraints mainly on horizontal resolution, keeping roughly the same level of wind velocity measurement accuracy. A second instrument and subsystem trade- off was then performed to eventually produce an attractive instrument concept based upon a pair of small diameter telescopes each one associated to one scanning mirror rotating stepwise around the telescope axis, which drastically reduces the detection bandwidth. Following the main contract, studies of accommodation on the International Space Station have been performed, confirming the interest of such an instrument for wind measurements from space.

  17. ALADIN: an atmospheric laser Doppler wind lidar instrument for wind velocity measurements from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Rodolphe; Ghibaudo, Jean-Bernard; Labandibar, Jean-Yves; Willetts, David V.; Vaughan, M.; Pearson, G.; Harris, M. R.; Flamant, Pierre H.; Salamitou, P.; Dabas, Alain; Lieutaud, F.; Charasse, R.; Midavaine, Thierri; Royer, Michel; Heimel, H.

    1996-10-01

    AEROSPATIALE, leading a European team, has just conducted a successful study, under ESA contract, to demonstrate the feasibility of a spaceborne Doppler wind lidar instrument meeting the scientific requirements of wind velocity measurements from space with high spatial resolution. A first parametric investigation, based upon the initial set of mission requirements, and supported by dedicated models and detailed trade-off studies, took account of capabilities of most promising signal processing algorithms and calibration/validation constraints: it yielded a large conically scanned instrument deemed technologically risky. A risk analysis was then carried out to propose a less challenging instrument meeting most key mission requirements. The fixed line-of-sight concept with return signal accumulation appeared as most attractive. A second set of requirements agreed upon by scientific users was therefore issued, with relaxed constraints mainly on horizontal resolution, keeping roughly the same level of wind velocity measurement accuracy. A second instrument and subsystem trade-off was then performed to eventually produce an attractive instrument concept based upon a pair of small diameter telescopes each one associated to one scanning mirror rotating stepwise around the telescope axis, which drastically reduces the detection bandwidth. Following the main contract, studies of accommodation on the International Space Station have been performed, confirming the interest of such an instrument for wind measurements from space.

  18. Foundations of measurement and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshawsky, Isidore

    1990-01-01

    The user of instrumentation has provided an understanding of the factors that influence instrument performance, selection, and application, and of the methods of interpreting and presenting the results of measurements. Such understanding is prerequisite to the successful attainment of the best compromise among reliability, accuracy, speed, cost, and importance of the measurement operation in achieving the ultimate goal of a project. Some subjects covered are dimensions; units; sources of measurement error; methods of describing and estimating accuracy; deduction and presentation of results through empirical equations, including the method of least squares; experimental and analytical methods of determining the static and dynamic behavior of instrumentation systems, including the use of analogs.

  19. Development of optical near-infrared spectroscopy instruments for human skin sebum measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Msabbri, A. R.; Mohamad, M.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Omar, A. F.

    2014-05-01

    There are many techniques and instruments that are currently available to give better results for measuring the quality of human skin. In this study, two non-invasive spectroscopy instruments have been used namely NIRQuest spectrometer and ASD FieldSpec® 3 Spectroradiometer. Both of these spectroscopy instruments were used to find the correlation technique with the commercial instruments (DermaLab® USB Sebum Module). Initially an experiment was conducted to find intensities peak of the absorption of oleic acid as a part of sebum composition. From the spectra peak of the absorbance, the wavelength will be determined. Next step was to measure the reflectance of human skin sebum by using two spectroscopic instruments. The analysis will carry on at the wavelength that have been chosen from the previous study and also from the wavelength of the fatty acid to find the best wavelength that contribute in sebum composition. From several analyses, the wavelengths that contribute in sebum were 1208, 1414, 1726, and 1758 nm that obtained the value of R2 0.8444 for NIRQuest Spectrometer and 0.8532 for ASD FieldSpec® 3 Spectroradiometer. For future research this non- invasive techniques can be used in dermatology field for the use of various skin analysis. Besides that, the less wavelength used is an advantage to develop instruments with less amount of wavelength sensor. It can reduce the cost of development.

  20. Calibration of optical probe instruments for the measurement of surface microtopography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainsah, E.; Dong, Weiping P.; King, Tim

    1995-01-01

    Although noncontacting instruments for the measurement of the 3D microtopography of surfaces are now widely available and are used on a routine basis in many branches of science and engineering, information on many aspects of their use, from measurement through characterization to interpretation, is still limited. One important area in which clear information is required is calibration. This paper sets out to breach some of the gap by proposing routines for the complete calibration of optical probe based instruments for the measurement of surface microtopography. It is suggested that contacting and noncontacting instruments can be calibrated in a very similar manner, but that a few subtle but relevant differences need to be borne in mind and the calibration routine modified accordingly. The calibration of stylus instruments using a calibrated sphere as practiced by some instrument manufacturers (and as is common practice with coordinate measurement machines - CMM) has been advocated with the observation that this technique might be of even greater relevance in optical probe based systems. A new technique based on optical sensors is also proposed for the calibration of the diameter of the optical probe.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE, REAL-TIME ALPHA RADIATION MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR LIQUID STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-03-14

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has expressed a need for an on-line, real-time instrument for assaying alpha-emitting radionuclides (uranium and the transuranics) in effluent waters leaving DOE sites to ensure compliance with regulatory limits. Due to the short range of alpha particles in water ({approximately}40 Im), it is necessary now to intermittently collect samples of water and send them to a central laboratory for analysis. A lengthy and costly procedure is used to separate and measure the radionuclides from each sample. Large variations in radionuclide concentrations in the water may go undetected due to the sporadic sampling. Even when detected, the reading may not be representative of the actual stream concentration. To address these issues, the Advanced Technologies Group of Thermo Power Corporation (a Thermo Electron company) is developing a real-time, field-deployable alpha monitor based on a solid-state silicon wafer semiconductor (US Patent 5,652,013 and pending, assigned to the US Department of Energy). The Thermo Water Alpha Monitor will serve to monitor effluent water streams (Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area) and will be suitable for process control of remediation as well as decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) operations, such as monitoring scrubber or rinse water radioactivity levels (Mixed Waste, Plutonium, and D and D Focus Area). It would be applicable for assaying other liquids, such as oil, or solids after proper preconditioning. Rapid isotopic alpha air monitoring is also possible using this technology. This report details the program's accomplishments to date. Most significantly, the Alpha Monitoring Instrument was successfully field demonstrated on water 100X below the Environmental Protection Agency's proposed safe drinking water limit--down to under 1 pCi/1. During the Field Test, the Alpha Monitoring Instrument successfully analyzed isotopic uranium levels on a total of five different surface water, process water, and

  2. A cryogenically cooled photofragment fluorescence instrument for measuring stratospheric water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstock, Elliot M.; Schwab, James J.; Nee, Jan Bai; Schwab, M. J.; Anderson, James G.

    1990-01-01

    An instrument developed for high-resolution daytime measurements of water vapor in the stratosphere using the technique of photofragment fluorescence is examined. A detailed description of all aspects of the instrument, as well as the results of its first two flights, are presented. The main areas of concern were optical baffling, cryogen transfer, water vapor measurement without contamination, and a dual path absorption measurement. Results of the second flight test indicate that the problems of instrument and gondola contamination, identified in the first flight test, were solved. A signal-to-noise ratio of about 50:1 for 10 sec of averaging throughout the stratosphere is achieved, as well as an altitude resolution of better than 100 m.

  3. Development of An Instrumented, Modular "mole" For In-situ Subsurface Measurements On Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, L.; Kochan, H.; Michaelis, H.; Möhlmann, D.; Neuhaus, D.; Popp, J.; Spohn, T.; Stuffler, T.; Tokano, T.; Wernecke, R.

    On the Beagle 2 lander of ESA's Mars Express mission in 2003, a small mechanical "Mole" on a tether will be used to achieve percussive penetration into the Martian regolith to a maximum depth of some 1E1.5 m with the main objective of acquiring subsurface soil samples for analysis on the lander. For future planetary missions it is proposed to develop this concept further in order to accommodate a number of instru- ment sensor heads inside the Mole, enabling different measurements to be performed in the regolith as a function of depth. Such an instrumented, and perhaps even modular, Mole could be utilized to probe the regolith of solar system objects such as Mercury, Mars, the Earth's moon or asteroids. Depending on the mission target, different in- struments to be deployed to the subsurface will be of relevance. Candidates include thermal sensors, volatile detection sensors (including water vapor and adsorbed water for Mars applications), a multispectral imaging sensor head (soil texture and spectral reflectance) and a Raman spectrometer optical head (detailed soil mineralogy). Based on applications on various space missions, most of these instruments are already under development and will be small enough that at least their front ends can be accommo- dated inside a compact cylindrical Mole having an expected internal diameter between 20E35 mm. A particular design challenge is going to be the internal electronics and the electrical/optical interface required to pre-process sensor data and transmit them to the lander above the surface. To minimize the overall mass and length of the instrumented Mole, internal electronics should serve common functions among the accommodated instruments. Another area to be closely studied is temperature rise of the Mole due to its internal dissipation while in the subsurface which could jeopardize thermal mea- surements or could even render internal equipment inoperable. Where the physical integration of sensors is concerned

  4. Intercomparison of active, passive and continuous instruments for radon and radon progeny measurements in the EML chamber and test facility

    SciTech Connect

    George, A.C.; Knutson, E.O.; Tu, K.W.; Fisenne, I.M.

    1995-12-01

    The results from the May 1995 Intercomparison of Active, Passive and Continuous Instruments for Radon and Radon Progeny Measurement conducted in the EML radon exposure and test facility are presented. Represented were 13 participants that measure radon with open faced and diffusion barrier activated carbon collectors, 10 with nuclear alpha track detectors, 9 with short-term and long-term electret/ionization chambers, and 13 with active and passive commercial electronic continuous monitors. For radon progeny, there were four participants that came in person to take part in the grab sampling methodology for measuring individual radon progeny and the potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC). There were 11 participants with continuous and integrating commercial electronic instruments that are used for measuring the PAEC. The results indicate that all the tested instruments that measure radon fulfill their intended purpose. All instruments and methods used for grab sampling for radon progeny did very well. However, most of the continuous and integrating electronic instruments used for measuring the PAEC or working level appear to underestimate the potential risk from radon progeny when the concentration of particles onto which the radon progeny are attached is <5,000 cm{sup -3}.

  5. An Instrument for In Situ Measuring the Volume Scattering Function of Water: Design, Calibration and Primary Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cai; Cao, Wenxi; Yu, Jing; Ke, Tiancun; Lu, Guixin; Yang, Yuezhong; Guo, Chaoying

    2012-01-01

    The optical volume scattering function (VSF) of seawater is a fundamental property used in the calculation of radiative transfer for applications in the study of the upper-ocean heat balance, the photosynthetic productivity of the ocean, and the chemical transformation of photoreactive compounds. A new instrument to simultaneously measure the VSF in seven directions between 20° to 160°, the attenuation coefficient, and the depth of water is presented. The instrument is self-contained and can be automatically controlled by the depth under water. The self-contained data can be easily downloaded by an ultra-short-wave communication system. A calibration test was performed in the laboratory based on precise estimation of the scattering volume and optical radiometric calibration of the detectors. The measurement error of the VSF measurement instrument has been estimated in the laboratory based on the Mie theory, and the average error is less than 12%. The instrument was used to measure and analyze the variation characteristics of the VSF with angle, depth and water quality in Daya Bay for the first time. From these in situ data, we have found that the phase functions proposed by Fournier-Forand, measured by Petzold in San Diego Harbor and Sokolov in Black Sea do not fit with our measurements in Daya. These discrepancies could manly due to high proportion of suspended calcium carbonate mineral-like particles with high refractive index in Daya Bay. PMID:22666043

  6. An instrument for in situ measuring the volume scattering function of water: design, calibration and primary experiments.

    PubMed

    Li, Cai; Cao, Wenxi; Yu, Jing; Ke, Tiancun; Lu, Guixin; Yang, Yuezhong; Guo, Chaoying

    2012-01-01

    The optical volume scattering function (VSF) of seawater is a fundamental property used in the calculation of radiative transfer for applications in the study of the upper-ocean heat balance, the photosynthetic productivity of the ocean, and the chemical transformation of photoreactive compounds. A new instrument to simultaneously measure the VSF in seven directions between 20° to 160°, the attenuation coefficient, and the depth of water is presented. The instrument is self-contained and can be automatically controlled by the depth under water. The self-contained data can be easily downloaded by an ultra-short-wave communication system. A calibration test was performed in the laboratory based on precise estimation of the scattering volume and optical radiometric calibration of the detectors. The measurement error of the VSF measurement instrument has been estimated in the laboratory based on the Mie theory, and the average error is less than 12%. The instrument was used to measure and analyze the variation characteristics of the VSF with angle, depth and water quality in Daya Bay for the first time. From these in situ data, we have found that the phase functions proposed by Fournier-Forand, measured by Petzold in San Diego Harbor and Sokolov in Black Sea do not fit with our measurements in Daya. These discrepancies could manly due to high proportion of suspended calcium carbonate mineral-like particles with high refractive index in Daya Bay.

  7. Fluid permeability measurement system and method

    DOEpatents

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis; Renner, Michael John

    2008-02-05

    A system for measuring the permeance of a material. The permeability of the material may also be derived. The system provides a liquid or high concentration fluid bath on one side of a material test sample, and a gas flow across the opposing side of the material test sample. The mass flow rate of permeated fluid as a fraction of the combined mass flow rate of gas and permeated fluid is used to calculate the permeance of the material. The material test sample may be a sheet, a tube, or a solid shape. Operational test conditions may be varied, including concentration of the fluid, temperature of the fluid, strain profile of the material test sample, and differential pressure across the material test sample.

  8. Laser beam manifold and particle photography system for use in fluid velocity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, R. B.; Campbell, C. W.

    1980-01-01

    A laser beam manifold and particle photography system has been developed for use in fluid velocity measurements. The laser manifold is a device which transforms a single laser beam into several uniform parallel beams. By orienting two manifolds mutually perpendicular, an optical grid can be formed which acts as a reference for fluid velocity measurements. This optical grid is for all practical purposes totally nonperturbing to the flow. Tracer particles moving in the plane of the grid are then photographed to yield fluid velocities that can be measured relative to the optical grid. System construction and theory are presented.

  9. In vitro digestive fluid extraction as a measure of the bioavailability of sediment-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Sources of variation and implications for partitioning models

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, D.P.; Mayer, L.M.

    1998-05-01

    In vitro extraction of contaminated sediments using the digestive fluid of a deposit-feeding polychaete has recently been proposed to study contaminant bioaccumulation mechanisms and perhaps to better quantify the bioavailable contaminant fraction. This approach was evaluated using digestive fluid from the polychaete Arenicola brasiliensis and six marine sediments containing both spiked radiolabeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and in situ-contaminated unlabeled PAHs. The proportion of total contaminant extracted by digestive fluid from each sediment varied from 22 to 71% and 13 to 52%, for phenanthrene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively. The proportions of contaminant solubilized were inversely correlated with the sediments` organic carbon content. The extent of PAH solubilization among sediments by A. brasiliensis digestive fluid was highly correlated with that of digestive fluid from the echiuran Urechis caupo and appears to be a consequence of surfactant properties of the fluids rather than of their enzymatic activity. The proportion of PAHs solubilized in vitro was similar to in vivo measurements of solubilization for contaminant exposures lasting about 24 h. However, with continued exposure, in vivo PAH concentrations in the digestive fluid increased fivefold, suggesting that digestive fluid is retained in the gut longer than sediment and thus accumulates PAHs through sequential digestion of many gut volumes. This phenomenon may enhance contaminant fugacity in the gut and increase the potential for bioaccumulation or toxicity.

  10. Mars Exploration Rovers as Virtual Instruments for Determination of Terrain Roughness and Physical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Lindemann, R.; Matijevic, J.; Richter, L.; Sullivan, R.; Haldemann, A.; Anderson, R.; Snider, N.

    2003-01-01

    The two 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs), in combination with the Athena Payload, will be used as virtual instrument systems to infer terrain properties during traverses, in addition to using the rover wheels to excavate trenches, exposing subsurface materials for remote and in-situ observations. The MERs are being modeled using finite element-based rover system transfer functions that utilize the distribution of masses associated with the vehicle, together with suspension and wheel dynamics, to infer surface roughness and mechanical properties from traverse time series data containing vehicle yaw, pitch, roll, encoder counts, and motor currents. These analyses will be supplemented with imaging and other Athena Payload measurements. The approach is being validated using Sojourner data, the FIDO rover, and experiments with MER testbed vehicles. In addition to conducting traverse science and associated analyses, trenches will be excavated by the MERs to depths of approximately 10-20 cm by locking all but one of the front wheels and rotating that wheel backwards so that the excavated material is piled up on the side of the trench away from the vehicle. Soil cohesion and angle of internal friction will be determined from the trench telemetry data. Emission spectroscopy and in-situ observations will be made using the Athena payload before and after imaging. Trenching and observational protocols have been developed using Sojourner results; data from the FIDO rover, including trenches dug into sand, mud cracks, and weakly indurated bedrock; and experiments with MER testbed rovers. Particular attention will be focused on Mini-TES measurements designed to determine the abundance and state of subsurface water (e.g. hydrated, in zeolites, residual pore ice?) predicted to be present from Odyssey GRS/NS/HEND data.

  11. Extension of Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program's Fluid Property Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Kishan

    2011-01-01

    This internship focused on the development of additional capabilities for the General Fluid Systems Simulation Program (GFSSP). GFSSP is a thermo-fluid code used to evaluate system performance by a finite volume-based network analysis method. The program was developed primarily to analyze the complex internal flow of propulsion systems and is capable of solving many problems related to thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. GFSSP is integrated with thermodynamic programs that provide fluid properties for sub-cooled, superheated, and saturation states. For fluids that are not included in the thermodynamic property program, look-up property tables can be provided. The look-up property tables of the current release version can only handle sub-cooled and superheated states. The primary purpose of the internship was to extend the look-up tables to handle saturated states. This involves a) generation of a property table using REFPROP, a thermodynamic property program that is widely used, and b) modifications of the Fortran source code to read in an additional property table containing saturation data for both saturated liquid and saturated vapor states. Also, a method was implemented to calculate the thermodynamic properties of user-fluids within the saturation region, given values of pressure and enthalpy. These additions required new code to be written, and older code had to be adjusted to accommodate the new capabilities. Ultimately, the changes will lead to the incorporation of this new capability in future versions of GFSSP. This paper describes the development and validation of the new capability.

  12. Strategies for Successfully Teaching Students with ADD or ADHD in Instrumental Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melago, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers can easily encounter students with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the instrumental lesson setting. Applicable to instrumental lesson settings in the public or private schools, private studios, or college studios, this article focuses on specific strategies ranging from the…

  13. Measuring team factors thought to influence the success of quality improvement in primary care: a systematic review of instruments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Measuring team factors in evaluations of Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) may provide important information for enhancing CQI processes and outcomes; however, the large number of potentially relevant factors and associated measurement instruments makes inclusion of such measures challenging. This review aims to provide guidance on the selection of instruments for measuring team-level factors by systematically collating, categorizing, and reviewing quantitative self-report instruments. Methods Data sources: We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Health and Psychosocial Instruments; reference lists of systematic reviews; and citations and references of the main report of instruments. Study selection: To determine the scope of the review, we developed and used a conceptual framework designed to capture factors relevant to evaluating CQI in primary care (the InQuIRe framework). We included papers reporting development or use of an instrument measuring factors relevant to teamwork. Data extracted included instrument purpose; theoretical basis, constructs measured and definitions; development methods and assessment of measurement properties. Analysis and synthesis: We used qualitative analysis of instrument content and our initial framework to develop a taxonomy for summarizing and comparing instruments. Instrument content was categorized using the taxonomy, illustrating coverage of the InQuIRe framework. Methods of development and evidence of measurement properties were reviewed for instruments with potential for use in primary care. Results We identified 192 potentially relevant instruments, 170 of which were analyzed to develop the taxonomy. Eighty-one instruments measured constructs relevant to CQI teams in primary care, with content covering teamwork context (45 instruments measured enabling conditions or attitudes to teamwork), team process (57 instruments measured teamwork behaviors), and team outcomes (59 instruments measured perceptions of the team or

  14. Interaction between compressible fluid and sound in a flue instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Taizo; Akamura, Takahiro; Nagao, Yuki; Iwasaki, Takuya; Nakano, Kenʼichiro; Takahashi, Kinʼya; Aoyagi, Mutsumi

    2014-12-01

    In order to study the generation of (aerodynamic) sound in flue instruments, we numerically apply Howe's energy corollary for a two-dimensional model of a flue instrument. Howe's energy corollary enables us to estimate the energy transfer between the fluid flow and acoustic field. To implement it, separating the acoustic field from the fluid flow is needed. However the complete method to numerically achieve it has not been established yet. In this work, we develop an approximate method, which has been recently proposed in their experimental studies by Yoshikawa et al (2012 J. Sound Vib. 331 2558-77) and others, and we apply it to the simulation of the model instrument. We first calculate fluid flow and acoustic oscillation simultaneously by a compressible fluid solver. Next referring to the information on the acoustic oscillation obtained we set up a pressure source on an acoustic solver and reproduce almost the same acoustic oscillation with it. Combining those results, we are able to calculate Howe's energy corollary. The numerical result shows that the aerodynamic sound is generated from the oscillating jet rather than the vortices shed by the collision of it with the edge of the mouth opening, namely vortex shedding.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE, REAL-TIME ALPHA RADIATION MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR LIQUID STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-22

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has expressed a need for an on-line, real-time instrument for assaying alpha-emitting radionuclides (uranium and the transuranics) in effluent waters leaving DOE sites to ensure compliance with regulatory limits. Due to the short range of alpha particles in water ({approximately}40 Tm), it is necessary now to intermittently collect samples of water and send them to a central laboratory for analysis. A lengthy and costly procedure is used to separate and measure the radionuclides from each sample. Large variations in radionuclide concentrations in the water may go undetected due to the sporadic sampling. Even when detected, the reading may not be representative of the actual stream concentration. To address these issues, Tecogen, a division of Thermo Power Corporation, a Thermo Electron company, is developing a real-time, field-deployable, alpha monitor based on a solid-state silicon wafer semiconductor (patent pending, to be assigned to the Department of Energy). The Thermo Alpha Monitor (TAM) will serve to monitor effluent water streams (Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area) and will be suitable for process control of remediation as well as decontamination and decommissioning operations, such as monitoring scrubber or rinse water radioactivity levels (Mixed Waste Focus Area and D&D Focus Area). It would be applicable for assaying other liquids, such as oil, or solids after proper preconditioning. Rapid isotopic alpha air monitoring is also possible using this technology. This instrument for direct counting of alpha-emitters in aqueous streams is presently being developed by Thermo Power under a development program funded by the DOE Environmental Management program (DOE-EM), administered by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). Under this contract, Thermo Power has demonstrated a solid-state, silicon-based semiconductor instrument, which uses a proprietary film-based collection system to quantitatively extract the

  16. Methods and apparatus for measurement of electronic properties of geological formations through borehole casing

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B.

    1989-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for measuring electronic properties of geological formations and cement layers adjacent to cased boreholes including resistivities, polarization phenomena and dielectric constants. Current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. At least three voltage measuring electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing measure the voltage at various points thereon. The voltage differences between discrete pairs of the voltage measuring electrodes provide a measurement of differential current conducted into formation in the vicinity of those electrodes. These measurements facilitate calculation of the resistivities of the adjacent geological formations as well as an indication of whether cement is present. Measurements of the differential voltage response to transient currents provide a measurement of the polarization phenomena in formation as well as the capacitance of the casing in contact with the formation which is useful for determining whether oil and gas are present. Lithological characteristics of the formation such as the presence or absence of clay can also be determined. A calibration procedure is provided for minimizing errors induced by variations in the casing. The device also may be placed within the pipe attached to a drill bit while drilling open holes.

  17. Methods and apparatus for measurement of electronic properties of geological formations through borehole casing

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for measuring electronic properties of geological formations and cement layers adjacent to cased boreholes including resistivities, polarization phenomena and dielectric constants. Current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. At least three voltage measuring electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing measure the voltage at various points thereon. The voltage differences between discrete pairs of the voltage measuring electrodes provide a measurement of the differential current conducted into formation in the vicinity of those electrodes. These measurements facilitate calculation of the resistivities of the adjacent geological formations as well as an indication of whether cement is present. Measurements of the differential voltage response to transient currents provide a measurement of the polarization phenomena in formation as well as the capacitance of the casing in contact with the formation which is useful for determining whether oil and gas present. Lithological characteristics of the formation such as the pressence or absence of clay can also be determined. A calibration procedure is provided for minimizing errors induced by variations in the casing. The device also may be placed within the pipe attached to a drill bit while drilling open holes.

  18. Methods and apparatus for measurement of electronic properties of geological formations through borehole casing

    DOEpatents

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1991-08-27

    Methods and apparatus are provided for measuring electronic properties of geological formations and cement layers adjacent to cased boreholes including resistivities, polarization phenomena and dielectric constants. Current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. At least three voltage measuring electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing measure the voltage at various points thereon. The voltage differences between discrete pairs of the voltage measuring electrodes provide a measurement of the differential current conducted into the formation in the vicinity of those electrodes. These measurements facilitate calculation of the resistivities of the adjacent geological formations as well as an indication of whether cement is present. Measurements of the differential voltage response to transient currents provide a measurement of the polarization phenomena in formation as well as the capacitance of the casing in contact with the formation which is useful for determining whether oil and gas are present. Lithological characteristics of the formation such as the presence or absence of clay can also be determined. A calibration procedure is provided for minimizing errors induced by variations in the casing. The device also may be placed within the pipe attached to a drill bit while drilling open holes. 48 figures.

  19. Methods and apparatus for measurement of electronic properties of geological formations through borehole casing

    DOEpatents

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1989-11-21

    Methods and apparatus are provided for measuring electronic properties of geological formations and cement layers adjacent to cased boreholes including resistivities, polarization phenomena and dielectric constants. Current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. At least three voltage measuring electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing measure the voltage at various points thereon. The voltage differences between discrete pairs of the voltage measuring electrodes provide a measurement of differential current conducted into formation in the vicinity of those electrodes. These measurements facilitate calculation of the resistivities of the adjacent geological formations as well as an indication of whether cement is present. Measurements of the differential voltage response to transient currents provide a measurement of the polarization phenomena in formation as well as the capacitance of the casing in contact with the formation which is useful for determining whether oil and gas are present. Lithological characteristics of the formation such as the presence or absence of clay can also be determined. A calibration procedure is provided for minimizing errors induced by variations in the casing. The device also may be placed within the pipe attached to a drill bit while drilling open holes. 48 figs.

  20. Interferometric 30 m bench for calibrations of 1D scales and optical distance measuring instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkuri, J.; Rantanen, A.; Manninen, J.; Esala, V.-P.; Lassila, A.

    2012-09-01

    During construction of a new metrology building for MIKES, a 30 m interferometric bench was designed. The objective was to implement a straight, stable, adjustable and multifunctional 30 m measuring bench for calibrations. Special attention was paid to eliminating the effects of thermal expansion and inevitable concrete shrinkage. The linear guide, situated on top of a monolithic concrete beam, comprises two parallel round shafts with adjustable fixtures every 1 m. A carriage is moved along the rail and its position is followed by a reference interferometer. Depending on the measurement task, one or two retro-reflectors are fixed on the carriage. A microscope with a CCD camera and a monitor can be used to detect line mark positions on different line standards. When calibrating optical distance measuring instruments, various targets can be fixed to the carriage. For the most accurate measurements an online Abbe-error correction based on simultaneous carriage pitch measurement by a separate laser interferometer is applied. The bench is used for calibrations of machinist scales, tapes, circometers, electronic distance meters, total stations and laser trackers. The estimated expanded uncertainty for 30 m displacement for highest accuracy calibrations is 2.6 µm.

  1. An instrument for in situ comet nucleus surface density profile measurement by gamma ray attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Andrew J.; Gadomski, Stanislaw; Banaszkiewicz, Marek; Spohn, Tilman; Ahrens, Thomas J.; Whyndham, Matthew; Zarnecki, John C.

    2001-08-01

    The MUPUS experiment on the Rosetta Lander will measure thermal and mechanical properties as well as the bulk density of the cometary material at and just below the surface of the nucleus of comet 46P/Wirtanen. A profile of bulk density vs. depth will be obtained by measuring the attenuation of 662 keV gamma rays emitted by a 137Cs source. Compton scattering is the dominant interaction process at this energy, the attenuation depending directly on the total number of electrons along the source-detector path. This in turn is approximately proportional to the column density. We report here on the design of the bulk density instrument and the results of related Monte Carlo simulations, laboratory tests and calculations of the instrument's performance. The 137Cs radioisotope source is mounted in the tip of the MUPUS thermal probe - a 10 mm diameter rod, to be hammered into the surface of the nucleus to a depth of ˜370 mm. Two cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors mounted at the top of the probe will monitor the count rate of 662 keV photons. Due to the statistics of photon counting, the integration time required to measure column density to a particular accuracy varies with depth as well as with bulk density. The required integration time is minimised for a material thickness equal to twice the exponential attenuation length. At shallower depths the required time rises due to the smaller fractional change in count rate with varying depth, while at greater depths the reduced count rate demands longer integration times. The former effect and the fact that the first 45 mm of the source-detector path passes not through the comet but through the material of the probe, mean that the first density measurement cannot be made until the source has reached a depth of perhaps 100 mm. The laboratory experiments indicate that at this depth an integration time no less than 348 s (falling to 93.9 s at full penetration) would be required to measure a bulk density of 1000 kg m -3 to 5

  2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INSTRUMENT FOR MEASURING THE UNDERSTANDING OF PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCORMICK, FLOYD G.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO DEVELOP AN INSTRUMENT FOR MEASURING PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES IN FARM MANAGEMENT WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE. PRINCIPLES WERE IDENTIFIED FROM LITERATURE SELECTED BY AGRICULTURAL ECONOMISTS. FORTY-FIVE MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS WERE REFINED ON THE BASIS OF RESULTS OF THREE PRETESTS AND…

  3. Beyond Instrumentation: Redesigning Measures and Methods for Evaluating the Graduate College Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardré, Patricia L.; Hackett, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript chronicles the process and products of a redesign for evaluation of the graduate college experience (GCE) which was initiated by a university graduate college, based on its observed need to reconsider and update its measures and methods for assessing graduate students' experiences. We examined the existing instrumentation and…

  4. Optical properties of mercury ion thruster exhausts and implications for science instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monahan, K. M.; Goldstein, R.

    1974-01-01

    Emission from the exhaust plume of a 30 cm mercury ion thruster was measured from 160 to 600 nm as a function of axial and radial distance from the thruster discharge chamber. The spectrally dispersed absolute intensities were used to construct an empirical volume rate function. The function was integrated along a typical instrument field of view, and the resulting apparent brightness was compared with instrument sensitivities to evaluate the extent of optical interference. Most of the emitted radiation came from UV lines of excited mercury atoms and ions, with no observable continuum emission. The intensity levels degraded rapidly with distance from the thruster so that optical interference was negligible for fields of view not intercepting the beam axis. The operation of only one instrument, a zodiacal photopolarimeter, was considered incompatible with simultaneous thruster operation.

  5. Representative equations for the thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids near the gas-liquid critical point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengers, J. V.; Basu, R. S.; Sengers, J. M. H. L.

    1981-01-01

    A survey is presented of representative equations for various thermophysical properties of fluids in the critical region. Representative equations for the transport properties are included. Semi-empirical modifications of the theoretically predicted asymtotic critical behavior that yield simple and practical representations of the fluid properties in the critical region are emphasized.

  6. Instrumentation for measuring and recording streamflow data at river-control structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1983-01-01

    Instrumentation was developed in the mid to late 60 's to resolve the dilemma of intolerably high percentages of missing streamflow records on certain large and highly controlled streams in industrialized parts of the United States. Analysis of the field situation at specific problem sites quickly suggested that conventional stream gaging techniques should be supplanted by new instruments, designed to measure key hydraulic data at the nearest stream control structures. The key data were found universally to include some combination of a length measurement to specify the vertical height of a gate opening in a dam; measurement of pressure head differential in a turbine; a count of lockages; and precise measurement of time, to give one master reference scale to which all measurements could be keyed. The instruments designed to collect such key data are the shaft position digitizer, the shaft output follower, the STACOM manometer, the lock pressure switch, and the digital data collection console. Although their design was prompted by the need to collect data at river control structures their potential for field use is not that restrictive. Several of these instruments have already found widespread use in the hydrologic data collection program at large. In the 12-1/2 yr period from June 1968 to December 1980 nineteen different river control structures were instrumented. The general experience to date has been a marked improvement in completeness of record, with the average performance somewhere in the 80 percentile range. Performance percentiles at individual sites have ranged from the mid 90 's to about 70. Maintenance records show the instruments to be virtually trouble free, except for the unpredictable acts of nature and man. (Author 's abstract)

  7. Near-critical point phenomena in fluids (19-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beysens, D.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding the effects of gravity is essential if the behavior of fluids is to be predicted in spacecraft and orbital stations, and, more generally, to give a better understanding of the hydrodynamics in these systems. An understanding is sought of the behavior of fluids in space. What should emerge from the International Microgravity Lab (IML-1) mission is a better understanding of the kinetics of growth in off-critical conditions, in both liquid mixtures and pure fluids. This complex phenomenon is the object of intensive study in physics and materials sciences area. It is also expected that the IML-1 flight will procure key results to provide a better understanding of how a pure fluid can be homogenized without gravity induced convections, and to what extent the 'Piston Effect' is effective in thermalizing the compressible fluids.

  8. The Quantitative Measurement of Organizational Culture in Health Care: A Review of the Available Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Tim; Mannion, Russell; Davies, Huw; Marshall, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Objective To review the quantitative instruments available to health service researchers who want to measure culture and cultural change. Data Sources A literature search was conducted using Medline, Cinahl, Helmis, Psychlit, Dhdata, and the database of the King's Fund in London for articles published up to June 2001, using the phrase “organizational culture.” In addition, all citations and the gray literature were reviewed and advice was sought from experts in the field to identify instruments not found on the electronic databases. The search focused on instruments used to quantify culture with a track record, or potential for use, in health care settings. Data Extraction For each instrument we examined the cultural dimensions addressed, the number of items for each questionnaire, the measurement scale adopted, examples of studies that had used the tool, the scientific properties of the instrument, and its strengths and limitations. Principal Findings Thirteen instruments were found that satisfied our inclusion criteria, of which nine have a track record in studies involving health care organizations. The instruments varied considerably in terms of their grounding in theory, format, length, scope, and scientific properties. Conclusions A range of instruments with differing characteristics are available to researchers interested in organizational culture, all of which have limitations in terms of their scope, ease of use, or scientific properties. The choice of instrument should be determined by how organizational culture is conceptualized by the research team, the purpose of the investigation, intended use of the results, and availability of resources. PMID:12822919

  9. Influence of fluid-structure interaction on microcantilever vibrations: applications to rheological fluid measurement and chemical detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, I.; Lemaire, E.; Caillard, B.; Debéda, H.; Lucat, C.; Heinrich, S. M.; Josse, F.; Brand, O.

    2013-05-01

    At the microscale, cantilever vibrations depend not only on the microstructure's properties and geometry but also on the properties of the surrounding medium. In fact, when a microcantilever vibrates in a fluid, the fluid offers resistance to the motion of the beam. The study of the influence of the hydrodynamic force on the microcantilever's vibrational spectrum can be used to either (1) optimize the use of microcantilevers for chemical detection in liquid media or (2) extract the mechanical properties of the fluid. The classical method for application (1) in gas is to operate the microcantilever in the dynamic transverse bending mode for chemical detection. However, the performance of microcantilevers excited in this standard out-of-plane dynamic mode drastically decreases in viscous liquid media. When immersed in liquids, in order to limit the decrease of both the resonant frequency and the quality factor, alternative vibration modes that primarily shear the fluid (rather than involving motion normal to the fluid/beam interface) have been studied and tested: these include in-plane vibration modes (lateral bending mode and elongation mode). For application (2), the classical method to measure the rheological properties of fluids is to use a rheometer. To overcome the limitations of this classical method, an alternative method based on the use of silicon microcantilevers is presented. The method, which is based on the use of analytical equations for the hydrodynamic force, permits the measurement of the complex shear modulus of viscoelastic fluids over a wide frequency range.

  10. Fluid property and operational effects on swirl injector atomization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, G. B., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Results of atomization tests of rocket injection elements are correlated in terms of the test fluid properties and the injection element operating conditions. The type of element modeled has a central, swirling liquid oxidizer flow; and a coaxial, axial gaseous fuel flow. Results of the correlations describe the effect of geometry, fluid properties, and operating conditions on liquid atomization. The ranges of test conditions allow reasonable extrapolation to actual high-pressure engine operating conditions. At such conditions, the swirl element should produce exceptionally finely-atomized and well-distributed spray for high combustion performance. United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) completed a test program to measure fluid spray atomization, in terms of droplet size and droplet size distributions, for swirling-flow injection elements. Element sizes and dimensions covered ranges of dimensions representative of typical cryogenic (O2/H2) liquid rocket engine practice. Relevant dimensions include the element diameter, the tangential-entry metering slot length, and the coastal fuel slot radial gap. Test fluids included water, simulated Jet-A, and Freon 113. These fluids cover ranges of properties which include or approach those of liquid oxygen. Gaseous nitrogen simulated the coaxial gaseous hydrogen fuel flow.

  11. Review of Measurement Instruments and Procedures for Assessing Mobility Behaviors: Implications for Quantitative Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Donna H.

    The literature review identifies information regarding the emergence of mobility skills in infants and young handicapped children, including rolling, crawling, creeping, and walking. Sections discuss the following topics: assessment instruments relevant to mobility, the identification of developmental milestones in mobility, and a hierarchy of the…

  12. Rainbow phenomena: Development of a laser-based, non- intrusive technique for measuring droplet size, temperature and velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beeck, Jeronimus Petrus Antonius Johannes

    Liquid sprays appear in a variety of aerospace, automotive and industrial applications. In order to be able to employ the optimal spray configuration it is essential that one first develops a complete understanding of the fundamental phenomena that influence and control the overall spray performance for such applications. Toward this end, the development of advanced diagnostic tools is necessary for studying spray processes in both ideal laboratory conditions and realistic environments. The objective of the thesis was to study the first-order rainbow and to apply it to the non-intrusive determination of droplet parameters in spray environments. The first-order rainbow is created in the laboratory by droplets scattering laser light and this is therefore monochromatic. The effect of size and temperature (and thereby refractive index) of spherical droplets on the rainbow characteristics have been predicted by the Lorenz-Mie and Airy theories. Experiments on satellite droplets around an unstable water jet, performed with a linear CCD-camera, have revealed the effect of droplet non-sphericity on the accuracy of the temperature and size measurements. To understand this effect better, a surface integral method has been developed which describes the behaviour of the rainbow for an ellipsoidal scatterer. The theoretical approach is based on the vectorial Kirchhoff integral relation taken over the electric field on the droplet surface, with the electric field obtained using ray- optics. The integral has been solved by looking for the ridge of stationary points in the integrand of the Kirchhoff integral. A comparison with the Lorenz-Mie theory has validated the approach in the special case of spherical scatterers. The surface integral method endorses the experimental non-sphericity detection method that selects, using the rainbow pattern, spherical droplets. This method has considerably improved the accuracy of the droplet parameters measured using the rainbow technique. A

  13. National Instrument Facility for Electromagnetic Studies of the Continents (EMSOC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wannamaker, P. E.; Park, S. K.; Booker, J. R.; Egbert, G. D.; Jiracek, G. R.; Chave, A. D.

    2002-12-01

    EMSOC (Electromagnetic Studies of the Continents) is an NSF-supported, multi-institutional consortium that fosters research in electromagnetic (EM) studies of the Earth by maintaining and providing magnetotelluric (MT) equipment to U.S. institutions and their co-workers. The MT method measures electrical resistivity (or its inverse conductivity), which is one of only a handful of physical properties with which we can understand dynamic Earth processes. EMSOC-supported experiments, often a component of multidisciplinary studies, have mapped fluids and domains of probable weakness within the San Andreas fault zone, orogen-wide partial melting and mobility beneath the Tibetan Plateau, buoyant mantle supporting the High Sierra, and prograde fluid generation and rheological controls beneath the Southern Alps orogen of New Zealand. The EMSOC National Instrument Facility is a collaborative venture by the Universities of Washington, Utah, and California at Riverside formed in response to rising costs to NSF for rental of modern MT systems for experiments and the lack of commercial availability of long period (1-30,000 s) instruments. Starting in 1998, this facility has supported 27 projects by 10 institutions. EMSOC equipment has also allowed the exposure of the MT method to nonspecialists at the NSF-supported field geophysical education and research program SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience). Allocation of the instruments is determined by a steering committee with representatives from six institutions, which convenes formally at every fall AGU meeting. Currently, EMSOC intends to modernize the existing pool of long period instruments, add magnetic sensors capable of recording at higher frequencies (>1000 Hz), and complete the establishment of an archive for all data collected with the EMSOC instruments in collaboration with the IRIS-DMC. Information about facility activities is available on the EMSOC web site vortex.ucr.edu/emsoc/index.html.

  14. Compact Instruments Measure Helium-Leak Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, Stephen; Immer, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Compact, lightweight instruments have been developed for measuring small flows of helium and/or detecting helium leaks in solenoid valves when the valves are nominally closed. These instruments do not impede the flows when the valves are nominally open. They can be integrated into newly fabricated valves or retrofitted to previously fabricated valves. Each instrument includes an upstream and a downstream thermistor separated by a heater, plus associated analog and digital heater-control, signal- conditioning, and data-processing circuits. The thermistors and heater are off-the-shelf surface mount components mounted on a circuit board in the flow path. The operation of the instrument is based on a well-established thermal mass-flow-measurement technique: Convection by the flow that one seeks to measure gives rise to transfer of heat from the heater to the downstream thermistor. The temperature difference measured by the thermistors is directly related to the rate of flow. The calibration curve from temperature gradient to helium flow is closely approximated via fifth-order polynomial. A microprocessor that is part of the electronic circuitry implements the calibration curve to compute the flow rate from the thermistor readings.

  15. Assessment of Customer Service in Academic Health Care Libraries (ACSAHL): an instrument for measuring customer service*†

    PubMed Central

    Crossno, Jon E.; Berkins, Brenda; Gotcher, Nancy; Hill, Judith L.; McConoughey, Michelle; Walters, Mitchel

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: In a pilot study, the library had good results using SERVQUAL, a respected and often-used instrument for measuring customer satisfaction. The SERVQUAL instrument itself, however, received some serious and well-founded criticism from the respondents to our survey. The purpose of this study was to test the comparability of the results of SERVQUAL with a revised and shortened instrument modeled on SERVQUAL. The revised instrument, the Assessment of Customer Service in Academic Health Care Libraries (ACSAHL), was designed to better assess customer service in academic health care libraries. Methods: Surveys were sent to clients who had used the document delivery services at three academic medical libraries in Texas over the previous twelve to eighteen months. ACSAHL surveys were sent exclusively to clients at University of Texas (UT) Southwestern, while the client pools at the two other institutions were randomly divided and provided either SERVQUAL or ACSAHL surveys. Results: Results indicated that more respondents preferred the shorter ACSAHL instrument to the longer and more complex SERVQUAL instrument. Also, comparing the scores from both surveys indicated that ACSAHL elicited comparable results. Conclusions: ACSAHL appears to measure the same type of data in similar settings, but additional testing is recommended both to confirm the survey's results through data replication and to investigate whether the instrument applies to different service areas. PMID:11337948

  16. Dualex: A New Instrument for Field Measurements of Epidermal Ultraviolet Absorbance by Chlorophyll Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulas, Yves; Cerovic, Zoran G.; Cartelat, Aurélie; Moya, Ismaël

    2004-08-01

    Dualex (dual excitation) is a field-portable instrument, hereby described, for the assessment of polyphenolic compounds in leaves from the measurement of UV absorbance of the leaf epidermis by double excitation of chlorophyll fluorescence. The instrument takes advantage of a feedback loop that equalizes the fluorescence level induced by a reference red light to the UV-light-induced fluorescence level. This allows quick measurement from attached leaves even under field conditions. The use of light-emitting diodes and of a leaf-clip configuration makes Dualex a user-friendly instrument with potential applications in ecophysiological research, light climate analysis, agriculture, forestry, horticulture, pest management, selection of medicinal plants, and wherever accumulation of leaf polyphenolics is involved in plant responses to the environment.

  17. Instrument for the measurement and determination of chemical pulse column parameters

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, Norman J.; Morgan, John P.

    1990-01-01

    An instrument for monitoring and measuring pneumatic driving force pulse parameters applied to chemical separation pulse columns obtains real time pulse frequency and root mean square amplitude values, calculates column inch values and compares these values against preset limits to alert column operators to the variations of pulse column operational parameters beyond desired limits.

  18. The Development of a Valid and Reliable Instrument for Measuring Instructional Coaching Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Aimee Anton; Dudek, Marged Howley; Rittenberg, Rebekah; Larson, William

    2014-01-01

    This research used data from educators and teacher candidates in Ohio (a state in the Midwestern United States) to produce a valid and reliable instrument for measuring instructional coaching skills. The research involved three pilot tests with large samples of respondents. Initial items came from the extant literature on instructional coaching,…

  19. Fundamental radar properties. II. Coherent phenomena in space-time.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Andrew K

    2008-01-01

    A previous publication [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A19, 946-956 (2002)] presented a general formulation of radiative systems based on special relativity, and properties of imaging radar were derived as examples. Complex and diverse properties of radar images were shown to have a simple and unified origin when viewed as lower-dimensional (temporal) projections of the space-time structure of a radar observation. A diagram was developed that could be manipulated for a simple, intuitive view of the underlying structure of radar observations and phenomena. That treatment is here extended to include coherent phenomena as they appear in the lower time dimensions of the image. Various known coherent properties of imaging radar and interferometry are derived. The formulation is shown to be a generalization of a conventional echo correlation and is extended to a second spatial dimension. From this perspective, coherent properties also have a surprisingly simple and unified structure; their observed complexity is somewhat illusory, also a consequence of projection onto the lower temporal dimension of the receiver. While this formulation and the rules governing it are quite different from the standard treatments, they have the considerable advantage of providing a much simpler, intuitive, and unified description of radiative (radar and optical) systems that is rooted in fundamental physics. PMID:18157218

  20. An Instrumented Mouthguard for Measuring Linear and Angular Head Impact Kinematics in American Football

    PubMed Central

    Camarillo, David B.; Shull, Pete B.; Mattson, James; Shultz, Rebecca; Garza, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel instrumented mouthguard as a research device for measuring head impact kinematics. To evaluate kinematic accuracy, laboratory impact testing was performed at sites on the helmet and facemask for determining how closely instrumented mouthguard data matched data from an anthropomorphic test device. Laboratory testing results showed that peak linear acceleration (r2 = 0.96), peak angular acceleration (r2 = 0.89), and peak angular velocity (r2 = 0.98) measurements were highly correlated between the instrumented mouthguard and anthropomorphic test device. Normalized root-mean-square errors for impact time traces were 9.9 ± 4.4% for linear acceleration, 9.7 ± 7.0% for angular acceleration, and 10.4 ± 9.9% for angular velocity. This study demonstrates the potential of an instrumented mouthguard as a research tool for measuring in vivo impacts, which could help uncover the link between head impact kinematics and brain injury in American football. PMID:23604848

  1. An instrumented mouthguard for measuring linear and angular head impact kinematics in American football.

    PubMed

    Camarillo, David B; Shull, Pete B; Mattson, James; Shultz, Rebecca; Garza, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel instrumented mouthguard as a research device for measuring head impact kinematics. To evaluate kinematic accuracy, laboratory impact testing was performed at sites on the helmet and facemask for determining how closely instrumented mouthguard data matched data from an anthropomorphic test device. Laboratory testing results showed that peak linear acceleration (r (2) = 0.96), peak angular acceleration (r (2) = 0.89), and peak angular velocity (r (2) = 0.98) measurements were highly correlated between the instrumented mouthguard and anthropomorphic test device. Normalized root-mean-square errors for impact time traces were 9.9 ± 4.4% for linear acceleration, 9.7 ± 7.0% for angular acceleration, and 10.4 ± 9.9% for angular velocity. This study demonstrates the potential of an instrumented mouthguard as a research tool for measuring in vivo impacts, which could help uncover the link between head impact kinematics and brain injury in American football.

  2. A short-pulse Ka-band instrumentation radar for foliage attenuation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puranen, Mikko; Eskelinen, Pekka

    2008-10-01

    A portable Ka-band instrumentation radar for foliage attenuation measurements has been designed. It uses direct dielectric resonator oscillator multiplier pulse modulation giving a half power pulse width of 17 ns. The dual conversion scalar receiver utilizes either a digital storage oscilloscope in envelope detection format or a special gated comparator arrangement providing 1 m resolution and associated led seven segment display for data analysis. The calibrated dynamic range is better than 37 dB with an equivalent noise floor of 0.005 dBsm at 25 m test range distance. First experiments indicate an effective beamwidth close to 1°. The total weight is below 5 kg and the unit can be mounted on a conventional photographic tripod. Power is supplied from a 12 V/6 A h sealed lead acid battery giving an operating time in excess of 10 h.

  3. Development of a surgical instrument for measuring forces applied to the ossicles of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, Michael; Bergin, Mike; Wylie, Grant; Ross, Peter; Dove, Richard; Bird, Phil

    2012-12-01

    Surgery of the middle ear is a delicate process that requires the surgeon to manipulate the ossicles, the smallest bones in the body. Excessive force applied to the ossicles can easily be transmitted through to the inner ear which may cause a permanent sensorineural hearing loss. An instrument was required to measure the forces applied to cadaveric temporal bone ossicles with the vision of measuring forces in vivo at a later stage. A feasibility study was conducted to investigate a method of measuring force and torque applied to the ossicles of the middle ear. Information from research papers was gathered to determine the expected amplitudes. The study looked at commercially available transducers as well as constructing an instrument using individual axis transducers coupled together. A prototype surgical instrument was constructed using the ATI industrial automation Nano17 six axis transducer. The Nano17 allows for the measurement of force and torque in the X, Y and Z axis to a resolution of 1/320 N. The use of the Nano17 enabled rapid development of the surgical instrument. It meets the requirements for its use on cadaveric models and has the potential to be a useful data collection tool in vivo.

  4. An instrument for spatial conductivity measurements of high Tc superconducting (HTSC) materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vansant, T.

    1991-01-01

    High T(sub c) Superconducting (HTSC) thin films are suggested for use in a number of aerospace applications such as an IR bolometer and as electromagnetic shielding. As part of its flight assurance role, the Materials Branch of the Goddard Space Flight Center has initiated development of an instrument capable of measuring variations in conductivity for flat samples using an eddy current testing device and an X-Y positioning table. This instrument was used to examine bulk HTSC samples. System changes that would enable characterization of thin film materials are discussed.

  5. How students measure up: An assessment instrument for introductory computer science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Adrienne

    This dissertation presents an assessment instrument specifically designed for programming-first introductory sequences in computer science as given in Computing Curricula 2001: Computer Science Volume. The first-year computer science course has been the focus of many recent innovations and many recent debates in the computer science curriculum. There is significant disagreement as to effective methodology in the first year of computing, and there has been no shortage of ideas as to what predicts student success in the first year of the computing curriculum. However, most investigations into predictors of success lack an appropriately validated assessment instrument to support or refute their findings. This is presumably due to the fact that there are very few validated assessment instruments available for assessing student performance in the first year of computing instruction. The instrument presented here is not designed to test particular language constructs, but rather the underlying principles of the first year of computing instruction. It has been administered to students at the end of their first year of an introductory computer science curriculum. Data needed for analysis of the instrument for reliability and validity was collected and analyzed. Use of this instrument enables validated assessment of student progress at the end of their first year, and also enables the study of further innovations in the curriculum for the first year computer science courses.

  6. Measuring transient high temperature thermal phenomena in hostile environment

    SciTech Connect

    Brenden, B.B.; Hartman, J.S.; Reich, F.R.

    1980-01-01

    The design of equipment for measuring temperature and strain in a rapidly heated and pressurized cylinder of stainless steel is discussed. Simultaneous cinematography of the full circumference of the cylinder without interference with temperature and strain measurements is also illustrated. The integrated system uses a reflective chamber for the sample and requires careful consideration of the spectral energy distribution utilized by each instrument.

  7. Updated, expanded, fluid properties handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gershman, R.; Osugi, J. T.; Sherman, A. L.

    1971-01-01

    Revised handbook presents quantitative data, in the form of graphs and charts, pertaining to thermodynamic properties of specific cryogenic fluids and several metals. References to sources of data are cited.

  8. Thermodynamic model for calorimetric and phase coexistence properties of coal derived fluids. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The work on this project was initiated on September 1, 1989. The project consisted of three different tasks. 1. A thermodynamic model to predict VLE and calorimetric properties of coal liquids. 2. VLE measurements at high temperature and high pressure for coal model compounds and 3. Chromatographic characterization of coal liquids for distribution of heteroatoms. The thermodynamic model developed is an extension of the previous model developed for VLE of coal derived fluids (DOE Grant no. FG22-86PC90541). The model uses the modified UNIFAC correlation for the liquid phase. Some unavailable UNIFAC interactions parameters have been regressed from experimental VLE and excess enthalpy data. The model is successful in predicting binary VLE and excess enthalpy data. Further refinements of the model are suggested. An apparatus for the high pressure high temperature VLE data measurements has been built and tested. Tetralin-Quinoline is the first binary system selected for data measurements. The equipment was tested by measuring 325{degree}C isotherm for this system and comparing it with literature data. Additional isotherms at 350{degree}C and 370{degree}C have been measured. The framework for a characterization procedure for coal derived liquids has been developed. A coal liquid is defined by a true molecular weight distribution and distribution of heteroatoms as a function of molecular weights. Size exclusions liquid chromatography, elemental analysis and FTIR spectroscopy methods are used to obtain the molecular weight and hetroatom distributions. Further work in this area should include refinements of the characterization procedure, high temperature high pressure VLE data measurements for selective model compound binary systems, and improvement of the thermodynamic model using the new measured data and consistent with the developments in the characterization procedure.

  9. Cake properties in ultrafiltration of TiO2 fine particles combined with HA: in situ measurement of cake thickness by fluid dynamic gauging and CFD calculation of imposed shear stress for cake controlling.

    PubMed

    Du, Xing; Qu, Fangshu; Liang, Heng; Li, Kai; Chang, Haiqing; Li, Guibai

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the cake buildup of TiO2 fine particles in the presence of humid acid (HA) and cake layer controlling during ultrafiltration (UF) were investigated. Specifically, we measured the cake thickness using fluid dynamic gauging (FDG) method under various solution conditions, including TiO2 concentration (0.1-0.5 g/L), HA concentration (0-5 mg/L, total organic carbon (TOC)), and pH values (e.g., 4, 6 and 10), and calculated the shear stress distribution induced by stirring using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to analyze the cake layer controlling conditions, including the operation flux (50-200 L m(-2) h(-1)) and TiO2 concentration (0.1-0.5 g/L). It was found that lower TiO2/HA concentration ratio could lead to exceedingly severe membrane fouling because of the formation of a relatively denser cake layer by filling the voids of cake layer with HA, and pH was essential for cake layer formation owing to the net repulsion between particles. Additionally, it was observed that shear stress was rewarding for mitigating cake growth under lower operation flux as a result of sufficient back-transport forces, and exhibited an excellent performance on cake layer controlling in lower TiO2 concentrations due to slight interaction forces on the vicinity of membrane.

  10. Psychometric Properties of the Affect Intensity and Reactivity Measure Adapted for Youth (AIR-Y)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rachel E.; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Reardon, Laura E.; Hawks, Erin

    2009-01-01

    A valid and reliable instrument for measuring affect intensity does not exist for adolescents; such a measure may help to refine understanding of emotion among youths. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and clinical relevance of a measure of affect intensity adapted for youths. Two hundred five community…

  11. An instrument for measuring bacterial penetration through fabrics used for barrier clothing.

    PubMed Central

    Ransjö, U.; Hambraeus, A.

    1979-01-01

    A new instrument has been designed to measure the penetration by rubbing of bacteria from cloth contaminated in the nursing of burn patients through fabrics designed for barrier garments. Most fabrics tested dry reduced the transfer of bacteria from the source cloth to about 10%, irrespective of the results of air filter tests, which agrees with mock nursing results. When the fabrics were tested against a wet surface, the transfer of bacteria rapidly reached 100% if the fabrics had a high wettability, but was slower for fabrics with a low wettability. Through closely woven waterproofed cotton, transfer was 5--25%, but increased three- to four-fold after ten launderings, in line with the water absorption. Transfer through plastic-laminated material was less than 1%. The results suggest that barrier garments should be made either of plastic or of recently waterproofed closely woven cotton at points of contact between nurse and patient where the clothes may be wetted by bacteria-containing wound secretions. Images Plate 1 PMID:376694

  12. Accounting for the effects of pore fluid chemistry on spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements: the specific polarizability concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, L. D.; Weller, A.; Zhang, C.; Breede, K.; Johnson, T. J.; Nordsiek, S.; Redden, G. D.; Fox, D. T.

    2011-12-01

    Recent spectral induced polarization (SIP) research has advanced our understanding of the controls of the physical and hydraulic properties of porous media on both the polarization magnitude and relaxation length scales in porous media. A critical current challenge is to improve our understanding of how pore fluid chemistry modifies the interfacial polarization measured with the SIP technique. We report results from two laboratory-scale experiments designed to advance this understanding. In the first experiment, we analyzed the influence of electrolyte concentration and valence on the interfacial polarization of three sandstones with differing porosity and permeability. A Debye decomposition (DD) approach was used to determine normalized chargeability and average relaxation time from spectral data. We find that SIP measurements of the polarization magnitude (single frequency imaginary conductivity and normalized chargeability derived from the DD) of sandstone samples can be described by the product of the pore space related internal surface and a quantity that represents the polarizability of the mineral-fluid interface and depends on electrolyte concentration and valence. We introduce a new parameter, the specific polarizability, describing this dependence. In the second experiment, we investigated the effect of pH and hydroxyl ion concentration on the interfacial polarization of both silica gel and well-sorted sand. We find a strong dependence of the polarization on pH in the silica gel. Evidence for the same dependence exists for the sand, although the signal is only just above the noise threshold (~0.1 mrad) of the instrument. We relate the weaker signal observed in the sands to the much smaller pore space related internal surface relative to silica gel, a unique substance with surface area in excess of 500 m2/g. These observations suggest that the specific polarizability is also a function of pH, although the pH dependence is likely to be weak in SIP

  13. Broadband optical mammography instrument for depth-resolved imaging and local dynamic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, Nishanth; Kainerstorfer, Jana M.; Sassaroli, Angelo; Anderson, Pamela G.; Fantini, Sergio

    2016-02-01

    We present a continuous-wave instrument for non-invasive diffuse optical imaging of the breast in a parallel-plate transmission geometry. The instrument measures continuous spectra in the wavelength range 650-1000 nm, with an intensity noise level <1.5% and a spatial sampling rate of 5 points/cm in the x- and y-directions. We collect the optical transmission at four locations, one collinear and three offset with respect to the illumination optical fiber, to recover the depth of optical inhomogeneities in the tissue. We imaged a tissue-like, breast shaped, silicone phantom (6 cm thick) with two embedded absorbing structures: a black circle (1.7 cm in diameter) and a black stripe (3 mm wide), designed to mimic a tumor and a blood vessel, respectively. The use of a spatially multiplexed detection scheme allows for the generation of on-axis and off-axis projection images simultaneously, as opposed to requiring multiple scans, thus decreasing scan-time and motion artifacts. This technique localizes detected inhomogeneities in 3D and accurately assigns their depth to within 1 mm in the ideal conditions of otherwise homogeneous tissue-like phantoms. We also measured induced hemodynamic changes in the breast of a healthy human subject at a selected location (no scanning). We applied a cyclic, arterial blood pressure perturbation by alternating inflation (to a pressure of 200 mmHg) and deflation of a pneumatic cuff around the subject's thigh at a frequency of 0.05 Hz, and measured oscillations with amplitudes up to 1 μM and 0.2 μM in the tissue concentrations of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin, respectively. These hemodynamic oscillations provide information about the vascular structure and functional integrity in tissue, and may be used to assess healthy or abnormal perfusion in a clinical setting.

  14. Management of fluid mud in estuaries, bays, and lakes. II: Measurement, modeling, and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAnally, W.H.; Teeter, A.; Schoellhamer, D.; Friedrichs, C.; Hamilton, D.; Hayter, E.; Shrestha, P.; Rodriguez, H.; Sheremet, A.; Kirby, R.

    2007-01-01

    Techniques for measurement, modeling, and management of fluid mud are available, but research is needed to improve them. Fluid mud can be difficult to detect, measure, or sample, which has led to new instruments and new ways of using existing instruments. Multifrequency acoustic fathometers sense neither density nor viscosity and are, therefore, unreliable in measuring fluid mud. Nuclear density probes, towed sleds, seismic, and drop probes equipped with density meters offer the potential for accurate measurements. Numerical modeling of fluid mud requires solving governing equations for flow velocity, density, pressure, salinity, water surface, plus sediment submodels. A number of such models exist in one-, two-, and three-dimensional form, but they rely on empirical relationships that require substantial site-specific validation to observations. Management of fluid mud techniques can be classified as those that accomplish: Source control, formation control, and removal. Nautical depth, a fourth category, defines the channel bottom as a specific fluid mud density or alternative parameter as safe for navigation. Source control includes watershed management measures to keep fine sediment out of waterways and in-water measures such as structures and traps. Formation control methods include streamlined channels and structures plus other measures to reduce flocculation and structures that train currents. Removal methods include the traditional dredging and transport of dredged material plus agitation that contributes to formation control and/or nautical depth. Conditioning of fluid mud by dredging and aerating offers the possibility of improved navigability. Two examples-the Atchafalaya Bar Channel and Savannah Harbor-illustrate the use of measurements and management of fluid mud. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  15. New instruments for measuring x-rays from rocket-triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Dayeh, M.; Dwyer, J. R.; Uman, M. A.; Rassoul, H. K.; Rakov, V. A.; Caraway, L.; Wright, B.; Chrest, A.; Rambo, K. J.; Jordan, D. M.; Jerauld, J.; Smyth, C.

    2003-12-01

    We have previously reported the observations of energetic radiation from rocket-triggered lightning made in the summer of 2002. These observations used one 12.7 cm diameter NaI(Tl)/PMT detector and one identical control detector (with no scintillator), housed in a container designed to operate in the electromagnetically noisy environment near lightning. Since then, we have constructed four new instruments, using seven 7.6 cm diameter NaI(Tl)/PMT detectors plus one control detector. The instruments were each housed in a heavy aluminum box. The sides of the boxes were 1.27 cm thick, except for a 0.32 cm thick Al window on the top that allowed x-rays with energies down to 30 keV to enter. The boxes were welded and RF gaskets and O-rings were used on all access doors to prevent RF noise, moisture and light from entering. The instruments were battery powered, and controlled on and off through fiber optic signals. In addition, the data were transmitted through fiber optic cables to a receiver in a shielded metal trailer and saved on the hard drives of three PCs. Data acquisition was initiated by an external trigger derived from the lightning current, signaling the time of the leading edge of the return strokes or other large current pulses. The entire waveforms from seven of the PMT detectors were then digitized with 0.2 microsecond resolution for 220 msec with 20 msec of pre-trigger sampling. For three detectors the waveforms were digitized with 10 nanosecond resolution for 10 msec with 1 msec of pre-trigger sampling. Measurements were made using these instruments at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, FL during the summer of 2003, and 10 flashes were observed with a total of 28 dart leader/return strokes sequences and two initial continuous current intervals. For the first five lightning flashes, 1.7 cm thick bronze collimators were placed around and in front of the detectors in order to study the intensity and arrival

  16. The LYOT+ UV/EUV instrumentation for measuring the magnetic field in the corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchère, Frederic; Vial, Jean Claude

    2013-04-01

    The solar corona is the seat of a variability which involves basic processes of plasma-magnetic field interaction in the universe, while also being a source of disturbances for spacecraft, technology, and possibly for human beings. Of special interest are coronal mass ejections (CMEs) with their associated Eruptive Prominences (EPs). Since they are basically driven by instabilities of the magnetic field in the corona, the measurement of the magnetic field before, after (and during) the event is critical in the corona. Also of interest for these studies and the source of the solar wind, the radial velocity of the plasma is a critical parameter to be determined. We present a new proposal to CNES called LYOT+ which meets the above-mentioned objectives: measurement of the coronal magnetic field up to 2 solar radii, of the electron density and the radial velocity. These measurements are complemented by EUV images of the underlying corona providing plasma diagnostic and magnetic field morphology. We describe the proposed combination of EUV imager and VUV and visible coronagraph. A main feature of the proposed instrumentation is the extended overlap of the fields-of-view of both instruments. In our presentation, we focus on the polarimetric concept which leads to the determination of the magnetic field through the Hanle effect. We also mention the extensive studies already performed in designing the instrumentation and testing parts of it. In summary, science, instrumentation and constraints on missions on which LYOT+ could be implemented, are presented.

  17. Measurement of the extinction coefficients of magnetic fluids

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A novel spectral transmittance approach for measuring the extinction coefficient of magnetic fluids is proposed. The measuring principle and accuracy of the approach are analysed. Experiments are conducted to measure the extinction coefficient of magnetic fluids with different particle volume fractions. The relative uncertainty of experimental data is less than 1.8%. The experimental results indicate that the extinction coefficient of magnetic fluids increases with increase of the volume fraction of suspended magnetic nanoparticles and the optical properties of the particle material have a significant effect on the extinction coefficient of the magnetic fluids. PMID:21711742

  18. Fluid Physics Experiments onboard International Space Station: Through the Eyes of a Scientist.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevtsova, Valentina

    Fluids are present everywhere in everyday life. They are also present as fuel, in support systems or as consumable in rockets and onboard of satellites and space stations. Everyone experiences every day that fluids are very sensitive to gravity: on Earth liquids flow downwards and gases mostly rise. Nowadays much of the interest of the scientific community is on studying the phenomena at microscales in so-called microfluidic systems. However, at smaller scales the experimental investigation of convective flows becomes increasingly difficult as the control parameter Ra scales with g L (3) (g; acceleration level, L: length scale). A unique alternative to the difficulty of investigating systems with small length scale on the ground is to reduce the gravity level g. In systems with interfaces, buoyancy forces are proportional to the volume of the liquid, while capillary forces act solely on the liquid surface. The importance of buoyancy diminishes either at very small scales or with reducing the acceleration level. Under the weightless conditions of space where buoyancy is virtually eliminated, other mechanisms such as capillary forces, diffusion, vibration, shear forces, electrostatic and electromagnetic forces are dominating in the fluid behaviour. This is why research in space represents a powerful tool for scientific research in this field. Understanding how fluids work really matters and so does measuring their properties accurately. Presently, a number of scientific laboratories, as usual goes with multi-user instruments, are involved in fluid research on the ISS. The programme of fluid physics experiments on-board deals with capillary flows, diffusion, dynamics in complex fluids (foams, emulsions and granular matter), heat transfer processes with phase change, physics and physico-chemistry near or beyond the critical point and it also extends to combustion physics. The top-level objectives of fluid research in space are as follows: (i) to investigate fluid

  19. Instruments measuring blunted affect in schizophrenia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kilian, Sanja; Asmal, Laila; Goosen, Anneke; Chiliza, Bonginkosi; Phahladira, Lebogang; Emsley, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Blunted affect, also referred to as emotional blunting, is a prominent symptom of schizophrenia. Patients with blunted affect have difficulty in expressing their emotions. The work of Abrams and Taylor and their development of the Rating Scale for Emotional Blunting in the late 1970's was an early indicator that blunted affect could indeed be assessed reliably. Since then, several new instruments assessing negative symptoms with subscales measuring blunted affect have been developed. In light of this, we aim to provide researchers and clinicians with a systematic review of the different instruments used to assess blunted affect by providing a comparison of the type, characteristics, administration and psychometric properties of these instruments. Studies reporting on the psychometric properties of instruments assessing blunted affect in patients with schizophrenia were included. Reviews and case studies were excluded. We reviewed 30 full-text articles and included 15 articles and 10 instruments in this systematic review. On average the instruments take 15-30 minutes to administer. We found that blunted affect items common across all instruments assess: gestures, facial expressions and vocal expressions. The CAINS Self-report Expression Subscale, had a low internal consistency score. This suggests that this sub-scale does not reliably assess patients' self-reported blunted affect symptoms and is likely due to the nature of blunted affect. Instruments correlated minimally with instruments measuring positive symptoms and more importantly with depression suggesting that the instruments distinguish between seemingly similar symptoms.

  20. Application of transport phenomena analysis technique to cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Lam, C H; Hansen, E A; Hall, W A; Hubel, A

    2013-12-01

    The study of hydrocephalus and the modeling of cerebrospinal fluid flow have proceeded in the past using mathematical analysis that was very capable of prediction phenomenonologically but not well in physiologic parameters. In this paper, the basis of fluid dynamics at the physiologic state is explained using first established equations of transport phenomenon. Then, microscopic and molecular level techniques of modeling are described using porous media theory and chemical kinetic theory and then applied to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. Using techniques of transport analysis allows the field of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics to approach the level of sophistication of urine and blood transport. Concepts such as intracellular and intercellular pathways, compartmentalization, and tortuosity are associated with quantifiable parameters that are relevant to the anatomy and physiology of cerebrospinal fluid transport. The engineering field of transport phenomenon is rich and steeped in architectural, aeronautical, nautical, and more recently biological history. This paper summarizes and reviews the approaches that have been taken in the field of engineering and applies it to CSF flow. PMID:24091435