Science.gov

Sample records for insular area energy

  1. Report to Congress on Insular Area energy vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to Section 1406 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486), which directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to ``conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption,`` and to ``outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency.`` The Act defines the insular areas to be the US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean, and Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Palau in the Pacific. In the study, ``unique vulnerabilities`` were defined as susceptibility to: (1) more frequent or more likely interruptions of oil supplies compared to the US Mainland, and/or (2) disproportionately larger or more likely economic losses in the event of an oil supply disruption. In order to assess unique vulnerabilities, the study examined the insular areas` experience during past global disruptions of oil supplies and during local emergencies caused by natural disasters. The effects of several possible future global disruptions and local emergencies were also analyzed. Analyses were based on historical data, simulations using energy and economic models, and interviews with officials in the insular governments and the energy industry.

  2. Insular Area energy vulnerability, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands. Technical Appendix 1

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.; Willard, E.E.; Efferding, S.

    1994-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to Section 1406 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 192-486). The Act directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to ``conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption,`` and to ``outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency.`` The Act defines the insular areas to be the US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean, and Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Palau in the Pacific. This report is the analysis of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. In the study, ``unique vulnerabilities`` were defined as susceptibility to: (1) more frequent or more likely interruptions of oil supplies compared to the mainland, and/or (2) disproportionately larger or more likely economic losses in the event of an oil supply disruption. In order to asses unique vulnerabilities, the study examined in the insular areas` experience during past global disruptions of oil supplies and during local emergencies caused by natural disasters. The effects of several possible future global disruptions and local emergencies were also analyzed. Analyses were based on historical data, simulations using energy and economic models, and interviews with officials in the insular governments and the energy industry.

  3. 24 CFR 92.60 - Allocation amounts for insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation amounts for insular areas. 92.60 Section 92.60 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula Insular Areas...

  4. 24 CFR 92.60 - Allocation amounts for insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocation amounts for insular areas. 92.60 Section 92.60 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula Insular Areas...

  5. 75 FR 20237 - Interagency Group on Insular Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ..., 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-9078 Filed 4-16-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... on Insular Areas By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Interagency Group on Insular...

  6. 45 CFR 97.13 - How does an insular area apply for a consolidated grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does an insular area apply for a consolidated... CONSOLIDATION OF GRANTS TO THE INSULAR AREAS § 97.13 How does an insular area apply for a consolidated grant? (a) An insular area may apply for a consolidated grant in lieu of filing an individual application...

  7. 45 CFR 97.13 - How does an insular area apply for a consolidated grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does an insular area apply for a consolidated... CONSOLIDATION OF GRANTS TO THE INSULAR AREAS § 97.13 How does an insular area apply for a consolidated grant? (a) An insular area may apply for a consolidated grant in lieu of filing an individual application...

  8. 34 CFR 76.131 - How does an insular area apply for a consolidated grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How does an insular area apply for a consolidated grant... PROGRAMS How a State Applies for a Grant Consolidated Grant Applications for Insular Areas § 76.131 How does an insular area apply for a consolidated grant? (a) An Insular Area that desires to apply for...

  9. 24 CFR 35.940 - Special requirements for insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special requirements for insular areas. 35.940 Section 35.940 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL...

  10. 24 CFR 35.940 - Special requirements for insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special requirements for insular areas. 35.940 Section 35.940 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL...

  11. 24 CFR 35.940 - Special requirements for insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special requirements for insular areas. 35.940 Section 35.940 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL...

  12. 24 CFR 35.940 - Special requirements for insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special requirements for insular areas. 35.940 Section 35.940 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL...

  13. 24 CFR 35.940 - Special requirements for insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special requirements for insular areas. 35.940 Section 35.940 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL...

  14. 24 CFR 570.441 - Citizen participation-insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) General. An insular area jurisdiction submitting an abbreviated consolidated plan under 24 CFR 91.235... jurisdiction submitting a complete consolidated plan in accordance with 24 CFR 91.200 through 91.230 shall... Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  15. 24 CFR 570.441 - Citizen participation-insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) General. An insular area jurisdiction submitting an abbreviated consolidated plan under 24 CFR 91.235... jurisdiction submitting a complete consolidated plan in accordance with 24 CFR 91.200 through 91.230 shall... Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  16. 24 CFR 570.442 - Reallocations-Insular Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Reallocations-Insular Areas. 570.442 Section 570.442 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  17. 24 CFR 570.442 - Reallocations-Insular Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reallocations-Insular Areas. 570.442 Section 570.442 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  18. 24 CFR 570.441 - Citizen participation-insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) General. An insular area jurisdiction submitting an abbreviated consolidated plan under 24 CFR 91.235... jurisdiction submitting a complete consolidated plan in accordance with 24 CFR 91.200 through 91.230 shall... Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  19. 24 CFR 570.442 - Reallocations-Insular Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reallocations-Insular Areas. 570.442 Section 570.442 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  20. 24 CFR 570.442 - Reallocations-Insular Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reallocations-Insular Areas. 570.442 Section 570.442 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Small Cities,...

  1. 24 CFR 570.442 - Reallocations-Insular Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reallocations-Insular Areas. 570.442 Section 570.442 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Small Cities,...

  2. 34 CFR 76.131 - How does an insular area apply for a consolidated grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Insular Area will use the funds received under the consolidated grant during the fiscal year for... consolidation of funds; and (4) Contains a budget that includes a description of the allocation of...

  3. 47 CFR 54.101 - Supported services for rural, insular and high cost areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... extent the local government in an eligible carrier's service area has implemented 911 or enhanced 911... cost areas. 54.101 Section 54.101 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... services for rural, insular and high cost areas. (a) Services designated for support. The...

  4. 76 FR 38370 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for Pacific Insular Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Marine Conservation Plan for Pacific Insular Areas; Western Pacific Sustainable Fisheries Fund AGENCY...: Jarad Makaiau, Sustainable Fisheries, NMFS Pacific Islands Regional Office, 808-944-2108. SUPPLEMENTARY... Sustainable Fisheries Fund (Fund) for use by the Council. Additionally, amounts received by the...

  5. Medicaid and CHIP: Opportunities Exist to Improve U.S. Insular Area Demographic Data That Could Be Used to Help Determine Federal Funding. GAO-09-558R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Linda T.

    2009-01-01

    The five largest insular areas of the United States--American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands--receive federal funding through Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), joint federal-state programs that finance health care for certain low-income…

  6. Successful Aging among Elders Living in the Mani Continental Region vs. Insular Areas of the Mediterranean: the MEDIS Study.

    PubMed

    Mariolis, Anargiros; Foscolou, Alexandra; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Piscopo, Suzanne; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Tsakountakis, Nikos; Zeimbekis, Akis; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Gotsis, Efthimios; Metallinos, George; Tyrovola, Dimitra; Tur, Josep-Antoni; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Lionis, Christos; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the role of geography i.e., continental vs. insular Mediterranean, on successful aging among older inhabitants. During 2005-2014, 2693 elderly (aged 65 to 100 years) individuals from 21 Mediterranean islands in Greece, Italy and Spain as well as Cyprus, Malta, and the rural region of Mani (southeast continental region of Greece keeping old-time traditions), were voluntarily recruited. Successful aging was evaluated using a validated index composed of 10 health-related socio-lifestyle and clinical characteristics. After accounting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, smoking habits, MedDietScore and access to health care services, the older inhabitants of islands were found to have a higher level of the successful aging index when compared to their counterparts in Mani (Beta=0.174, p<0.001); moreover, islanders exhibited slightly more years of "good" health (68.7 vs 68.4 years for Mani residents (p=0.99)). However, compared to the residents of Mani, islanders had 1.64 times higher odds (95%CI, 1.08-2.48) for having hypertension, 2.4-times higher odds (95%CI, 1.34-4.21) for having diabetes and 1.52 times higher odds (95%CI, 0.97-2.38) for having hypercholesterolemia. Engaging in physical activities and healthy dietary habits were the major determinants of healthy aging, among islanders as compared to their counterparts of continental Mani region. Elder residents of the continental Mani area enjoyed a better health status, whereas elder islanders had a higher level of successful aging; a finding which could be attributed to differences in lifestyle among elders. PMID:27330843

  7. Successful Aging among Elders Living in the Mani Continental Region vs. Insular Areas of the Mediterranean: the MEDIS Study

    PubMed Central

    Mariolis, Anargiros; Foscolou, Alexandra; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Piscopo, Suzanne; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Tsakountakis, Nikos; Zeimbekis, Akis; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Gotsis, Efthimios; Metallinos, George; Tyrovola, Dimitra; Tur, Josep-Antoni; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Lionis, Christos; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the role of geography i.e., continental vs. insular Mediterranean, on successful aging among older inhabitants. During 2005-2014, 2693 elderly (aged 65 to 100 years) individuals from 21 Mediterranean islands in Greece, Italy and Spain as well as Cyprus, Malta, and the rural region of Mani (southeast continental region of Greece keeping old-time traditions), were voluntarily recruited. Successful aging was evaluated using a validated index composed of 10 health-related socio-lifestyle and clinical characteristics. After accounting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, smoking habits, MedDietScore and access to health care services, the older inhabitants of islands were found to have a higher level of the successful aging index when compared to their counterparts in Mani (Beta=0.174, p<0.001); moreover, islanders exhibited slightly more years of “good” health (68.7 vs 68.4 years for Mani residents (p=0.99)). However, compared to the residents of Mani, islanders had 1.64 times higher odds (95%CI, 1.08-2.48) for having hypertension, 2.4-times higher odds (95%CI, 1.34-4.21) for having diabetes and 1.52 times higher odds (95%CI, 0.97-2.38) for having hypercholesterolemia. Engaging in physical activities and healthy dietary habits were the major determinants of healthy aging, among islanders as compared to their counterparts of continental Mani region. Elder residents of the continental Mani area enjoyed a better health status, whereas elder islanders had a higher level of successful aging; a finding which could be attributed to differences in lifestyle among elders. PMID:27330843

  8. Successful Aging among Elders Living in the Mani Continental Region vs. Insular Areas of the Mediterranean: the MEDIS Study.

    PubMed

    Mariolis, Anargiros; Foscolou, Alexandra; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Piscopo, Suzanne; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Tsakountakis, Nikos; Zeimbekis, Akis; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Gotsis, Efthimios; Metallinos, George; Tyrovola, Dimitra; Tur, Josep-Antoni; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Lionis, Christos; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the role of geography i.e., continental vs. insular Mediterranean, on successful aging among older inhabitants. During 2005-2014, 2693 elderly (aged 65 to 100 years) individuals from 21 Mediterranean islands in Greece, Italy and Spain as well as Cyprus, Malta, and the rural region of Mani (southeast continental region of Greece keeping old-time traditions), were voluntarily recruited. Successful aging was evaluated using a validated index composed of 10 health-related socio-lifestyle and clinical characteristics. After accounting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, smoking habits, MedDietScore and access to health care services, the older inhabitants of islands were found to have a higher level of the successful aging index when compared to their counterparts in Mani (Beta=0.174, p<0.001); moreover, islanders exhibited slightly more years of "good" health (68.7 vs 68.4 years for Mani residents (p=0.99)). However, compared to the residents of Mani, islanders had 1.64 times higher odds (95%CI, 1.08-2.48) for having hypertension, 2.4-times higher odds (95%CI, 1.34-4.21) for having diabetes and 1.52 times higher odds (95%CI, 0.97-2.38) for having hypercholesterolemia. Engaging in physical activities and healthy dietary habits were the major determinants of healthy aging, among islanders as compared to their counterparts of continental Mani region. Elder residents of the continental Mani area enjoyed a better health status, whereas elder islanders had a higher level of successful aging; a finding which could be attributed to differences in lifestyle among elders.

  9. Dynamic connectivity patterns from an insular marine protected area in the Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, Gaspar; Torre-Cosio, Jorge; Munguia-Vega, Adrián; Marinone, Silvio Guido; Lavín, Miguel F.; Cinti, Ana; Moreno-Báez, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    We studied connectivity patterns from a small and isolated island in the Gulf of California (San Pedro Mártir Island Biosphere Reserve), as a source of propagules to surrounding Marine Protected Areas and fishing sites. We used a particle-tracking scheme based on the outputs of a three-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic model to assess the spatial domain to which the island exports larvae as well as larvae retention. We modeled the release of passive particles from locations around the island during the four release dates (May 15 and 31, and June 14 and 30), matching the lunar phases and the peak of the reproductive season for several commercial invertebrates and fish, at the time when currents in the Gulf typically reverse. For each simulation we analyzed the data at 15, 20 and 30 days after the release to represent different planktonic propagule durations. Particle dispersion was highly dynamic and spread over ~ 600 km along the coast over the study period. Overall, we observed potential ecological connectivity with a few key distant fishing sites that changed trough time, and potential genetic connectivity towards many near and distant sites, including all neighboring Marine Protected Areas, although not simultaneously. The percentages of particles remaining within the boundaries of the island tended to decline from May to June, and decreased with delayed planktonic propagule duration. The design of effective Marine Protected Areas should acknowledge the dynamic nature of connectivity patterns, for instance, by establishing adaptive network reserves to respond to changing ocean features that match reproductive patterns of target species and fisheries behavior.

  10. The insular cortex: a review.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuys, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    The human insular cortex forms a distinct, but entirely hidden lobe, situated in the depth of the Sylvian fissure. Here, we first review the recent literature on the connectivity and the functions of this structure. It appears that this small lobe, taking up less than 2% of the total cortical surface area, receives afferents from some sensory thalamic nuclei, is (mostly reciprocally) connected with the amygdala and with many limbic and association cortical areas, and is implicated in an astonishingly large number of widely different functions, ranging from pain perception and speech production to the processing of social emotions. Next, we embark on a long, adventurous journey through the voluminous literature on the structural organization of the insular cortex. This journey yielded the following take-home messages: (1) The meticulous, but mostly neglected publications of Rose (1928) and Brockhaus (1940) are still invaluable for our understanding of the architecture of the mammalian insular cortex. (2) The relation of the insular cortex to the adjacent claustrum is neither ontogenetical nor functional, but purely topographical. (3) The insular cortex has passed through a spectacular progressive differentiation during hominoid evolution, but the assumption of Craig (2009) that the human anterior insula has no homologue in the rhesus monkey is untenable. (4) The concept of Mesulam and Mufson (1985), that the primate insula is essentially composed of three concentrically arranged zones, agranular, dysgranular, and granular, is presumably correct, but there is at present much confusion concerning the more detailed architecture of the anterior insular cortex. (5) The large spindle-shaped cells in the fifth layer of the insular cortex, currently known as von Economo neurons (VENs), are not only confined to large-brained mammals, such as whales, elephants, apes, and humans, but also occur in monkeys and prosimians, as well as in the pygmy hippopotamus, the Atlantic

  11. To-and-fro optical voltage signal propagation between the insular gustatory and parietal oral somatosensory areas in rat cortex slices.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Kato, Nobuo; Sugai, Tokio; Honjo, Makoto; Sato, Jun; Segami, Natsuki; Onoda, Norihiko

    2004-07-23

    Taste perception depends not only on special taste information processed in the insular cortex, but also on oral somesthetic processing in the parietal cortex. Many insular cortex neurons show multimodal responsiveness. Such multimodality may be enabled by signal exchange between these two cortices. By using the protocol that we have developed, a synchronized population oscillation of synaptic potentials was induced in the parietal cortex by stimulation to the insular cortex in rat neocortex slices. The spatiotemporal pattern of propagation of this oscillation was studied by recording voltage-sensitive optical signals and field potentials. The first wavelet of the oscillation was propagated from the insular stimulation site to the parietal cortex. However, the second and later wavelets propagated back from the parietal cortex to the insular cortex. The oscillation was detected in the insular cortex as well, but was actually generated in the parietal cortex. Thus, the initial peak of optical signal, sent from the insular to parietal cortex, served to generate oscillatory responses in the parietal cortex, which propagated back to the insular cortex wave-by-wave. We propose that this to-and-fro propagation may be an artificially exaggerated demonstration of an intrinsic mechanism relevant to signal exchange between the parietal and insular cortices.

  12. Insular cortex and neuropsychiatric disorders: a review of recent literature.

    PubMed

    Nagai, M; Kishi, K; Kato, S

    2007-09-01

    The insular cortex is located in the centre of the cerebral hemisphere, having connections with the primary and secondary somatosensory areas, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdaloid body, prefrontal cortex, superior temporal gyrus, temporal pole, orbitofrontal cortex, frontal and parietal opercula, primary and association auditory cortices, visual association cortex, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and motor cortex. Accordingly, dense connections exist among insular cortex neurons. The insular cortex is involved in the processing of visceral sensory, visceral motor, vestibular, attention, pain, emotion, verbal, motor information, inputs related to music and eating, in addition to gustatory, olfactory, visual, auditory, and tactile data. In this article, the literature on the relationship between the insular cortex and neuropsychiatric disorders was summarized following a computer search of the Pub-Med database. Recent neuroimaging data, including voxel based morphometry, PET and fMRI, revealed that the insular cortex was involved in various neuropsychiatric diseases such as mood disorders, panic disorders, PTSD, obsessive-compulsive disorders, eating disorders, and schizophrenia. Investigations of functions and connections of the insular cortex suggest that sensory information including gustatory, olfactory, visual, auditory, and tactile inputs converge on the insular cortex, and that these multimodal sensory information may be integrated there.

  13. Attenuated sensitivity to the emotions of others by insular lesion.

    PubMed

    Terasawa, Yuri; Kurosaki, Yoshiko; Ibata, Yukio; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Umeda, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The insular cortex has been considered to be the neural base of visceral sensation for many years. Previous studies in psychology and cognitive neuroscience have accumulated evidence indicating that interoception is an essential factor in the subjective feeling of emotion. Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that anterior insular cortex activation is associated with accessing interoceptive information and underpinning the subjective experience of emotional state. Only a small number of studies have focused on the influence of insular damage on emotion processing and interoceptive awareness. Moreover, disparate hypotheses have been proposed for the alteration of emotion processing by insular lesions. Some studies show that insular lesions yield an inability for understanding and representing disgust exclusively, but other studies suggest that such lesions modulate arousal and valence judgments for both positive and negative emotions. In this study, we examined the alteration in emotion recognition in three right insular and adjacent area damaged cases with well-preserved higher cognitive function. Participants performed an experimental task using morphed photos that ranged between neutral and emotional facial expressions (i.e., anger, sadness, disgust, and happiness). Recognition rates of particular emotions were calculated to measure emotional sensitivity. In addition, they performed heartbeat perception task for measuring interoceptive accuracy. The cases identified emotions that have high arousal level (e.g., anger) as less aroused emotions (e.g., sadness) and a case showed remarkably low interoceptive accuracy. The current results show that insular lesions lead to attenuated emotional sensitivity across emotions, rather than category-specific impairments such as to disgust. Despite the small number of cases, our findings suggest that the insular cortex modulates recognition of emotional saliency and mediates interoceptive and emotional awareness. PMID

  14. Insular cortex epilepsy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dang Khoa; Nguyen, Dong Bach; Malak, Ramez; Bouthillier, Alain

    2009-08-01

    In this review the authors discuss insular cortex epilepsy, an under-recognized localization-related syndrome that may explain some temporal (but also frontal and parietal lobe) epilepsy surgery failures. The insula may generate a variety of symptoms (including visceral, motor and somatosensory) that mimic temporal, frontal or parietal lobe onset seizures. Intracerebral electrodes directly implanted in the insula are currently the only way to confirm insular seizures. Consideration should be given to exploration of the insular cortex in MRI negative patients with seizure semiology consistent with insular onset seizures. Electroencephalographers should have a low threshold to sample this region, especially in the absence of a structural lesion. Microneurosurgical technical advances allow resective surgery of the insula with relatively low morbidity. PMID:19760905

  15. Insular volume reduction in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Saze, Teruyasu; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Namiki, Chihiro; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Hayashi, Takuji; Murai, Toshiya

    2007-12-01

    Structural and functional abnormalities of the insular cortex have been reported in patients with schizophrenia. Most studies have shown that the insular volumes in schizophrenia patients are smaller than those of healthy people. As the insular cortex is functio-anatomically divided into anterior and posterior subdivisons, recent research is focused on uncovering a specific subdivisional abnormality of the insula in patients with schizophrenia. A recent ROI-based volumetric MRI study demonstrated specific left anterior insular volume reduction in chronic schizophrenia patients (Makris N, Goldstein J, Kennedy D, Hodge S, Caviness V, Faraone S, Tsuang M, Seidman L (2006) Decreased volume of left and total anterior insular lobule in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 83:155-171). On the other hand, our VBM-based volumetric study revealed a reduction in right posterior insular volume (Yamada M, Hirao K, Namiki C, Hanakawa T, Fukuyama H, Hayashi T, Murai T (2007) Social cognition and frontal lobe pathology in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometric study. NeuroImage 35:292-298). In order to address these controversial results, ROI-based subdivisional volumetry was performed using the MRI images from the same population we analyzed in our previous VBM-study. The sample group comprised 20 schizophrenia patients and 20 matched healthy controls. Patients with schizophrenia showed a global reduction in insular gray matter volumes relative to healthy comparison subjects. In a simple comparison of the volumes of each subdivision between the groups, a statistically significant volume reduction in patients with schizophrenia was demonstrated only in the right posterior insula. This study suggests that insular abnormalities in schizophrenia would include anterior as well as posterior parts. Each subdivisional abnormality may impact on different aspects of the pathophysiology and psychopathology of schizophrenia; these relationships should be the focus of future research.

  16. Environmental drivers of megafaunal assemblage composition and biomass distribution over mainland and insular slopes of the Balearic Basin (Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, E.; Cartes, J. E.; Papiol, V.; López-Pérez, C.

    2013-08-01

    The influence of mesoscale physical and trophic variables on deep-sea megafauna, a scale of variation often neglected in deep-sea studies, is crucial for understanding their role in the ecosystem. Drivers of megafaunal assemblage composition and biomass distribution have been investigated in two contrasting areas of the Balearic basin in the NW Mediterranean: on the mainland slope (Catalonian coasts) and on the insular slope (North of Mallorca, Balearic Islands). An experimental bottom trawl survey was carried out during summer 2010, at stations in both sub-areas located between 450 and 2200 m water depth. Environmental data were collected simultaneously: near-bottom physical parameters, and the elemental and isotopic composition of sediments. Initially, data were analysed along the whole depth gradient, and then assemblages from the two areas were compared. Analysis of the trawls showed the existence of one group associated with the upper slope (US=450-690 m), another with the middle slope (MS=1000-1300 m) and a third with the lower slope (LS=1400-2200 m). Also, significant differences in the assemblage composition were found between mainland and insular slopes at MS. Dominance by different species was evident when the two areas were compared by SIMPER analysis. The greatest fish biomass was recorded in both areas at 1000-1300 m, a zone linked to minimum temperature and maximum O2 concentration on the bottom. Near the mainland, fish assemblages were best explained (43% of total variance, DISTLM analysis) by prey availability (gelatinous zooplankton biomass). On the insular slope, trophic webs seemed less complex and were based on vertical input of surface primary production. Decapods, which reached their highest biomass values on the upper slope, were correlated with salinity and temperature in both the areas. However, while hydrographic conditions (temperature and salinity) seemed to be the most important variables over the insular slope, resource availability

  17. Deciphering arboviral emergence within insular ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Tortosa, Pablo; Pascalis, Hervé; Guernier, Vanina; Cardinale, Eric; Le Corre, Matthieu; Goodman, Steven M; Dellagi, Koussay

    2012-08-01

    The spatial dynamics of zoonotic arthropod-borne viruses is a fashionable though challenging topic. Inter-human local transmission of a given arbovirus during an outbreak and its spread over large distances are considered as key parameters of emergence. Here, we suggest that insular ecosystems provide ideal natural "laboratory" conditions to uncouple local transmission from long distance spread, and differentiate these two processes. Due to geographic isolation, often-limited land surface area and relatively homogenous ecosystems, oceanic islands display low species richness and often-high levels of endemism. These aspects provide the means for comprehensive entomological surveys and investigations of original host/pathogen interactions. In addition, islands are interconnected through discrete anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic exchanges: whilst islands maintain a substantial level of human and domestic animal exchange with other neighbouring or distant territories, they also comprise dispersal and migratory pathways of volant organisms (insects, birds and bats). Hence, both anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic exchanges in island systems are easier to identify and investigate than in continuous, continental systems. Finally, island ecosystems tend to be notably simpler, more prone to invasive taxa and, therefore, easier to document the colonization or displacement of vector species. These different aspects are presented and overlaid upon the spread of arboviruses within two distinct insular systems: islands of Polynesia and the south-western Indian Ocean. The former have been repeatedly affected by Dengue fever epidemics, while the latter recently suffered four successive epidemics, probably of east African origin, three of which involved the emerging viruses Chikungunya, Rift Valley and Dengue fever. Here, we review some new insights into arboviral spread and evolution associated with investigations that followed these epidemics, as well as several aspects that

  18. Patterns of bathymetric distribution among deep-sea fauna at local spatial scale: comparison of mainland vs. insular areas [review article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Maynou, Francesc; Moranta, Joan; Massutí, Enric; Lloris, Domènec; Morales-Nin, Beatriz

    2004-01-01

    We have compared the distribution of mesopelagic, benthopelagic and benthic fauna between two areas: one on the continental side of the Catalan Sea (cCS: northwestern Mediterranean) and one to the SW of the Balearic Islands (SWB: southwestern Mediterranean) at depths between 147 and 2266 m. Based on 88 bathyal fish and crustaceans (Decapoda and Peracarida) dominant in these communities, we compared the maximum depth of occurrence (MDO) of (upper) middle-slope species and the minimum depth of occurrence (mDO) of lower-slope dwelling species. Mid-slope fish, decapods, peracarids and, within the latter, amphipods and cumaceans had a deeper MDO in the cCS than in the SWB. Depth differences between MDO of species were significant for all taxa, except isopods. In the same way, lower slope fish and decapods had a shallower mDO in the SWB than in the cCS. Within peracarids, the dominant taxon (amphipods) also followed this trend. Depth differences in mDO of species between the areas were significant for decapods and for amphipods (not for fish, nor all peracarids nor cumaceans). In summary, most taxa showed a deeper depth distribution of middle-slope species in the cCS, and a shallower depth distribution of lower-slope dwelling species in the SWB. This suggests that the whole community, from small detritus-feeders (peracarids) to top predators (fish) have a similar response to a common signal. Much basic information on the biology and possible environmental factors affecting deep-sea species distribution is not available, so causes of the trends demonstrated here cannot be fully evaluated. In spite of these obvious limitations, we have shown that (1) mesopelagic decapods (e.g., Gennadas elegans and Sergia robusta), with a higher dependence upon primary sources of food close to the surface primary production, showed greater differences in their mDO between the areas than benthopelagic (e.g., Acanthephyra eximia, Nematocarcinus exilis) and benthic (e.g., Stereomastis sculpta

  19. Neurofeedback of the difference in activation of the anterior cingulate cortex and posterior insular cortex: two functionally connected areas in the processing of pain.

    PubMed

    Rance, Mariela; Ruttorf, Michaela; Nees, Frauke; Schad, Lothar R; Flor, Herta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the analysis of the effect of a learned increase in the dissociation between the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and the left posterior insula (pInsL) on pain intensity and unpleasantness and the contribution of each region to the effect, exploring the possibility to influence the perception of pain with neurofeedback methods. We trained ten healthy subjects to increase the difference in the blood oxygenation level-dependent response between the rACC and pInsL to painful electric stimuli. Subjects learned to increase the dissociation with either the rACC (state 1) or the pInsL (state 2) being higher. For feedback we subtracted the signal of one region from the other and provided feedback in four conditions with six trials each yielding two different states: [rACC-pInsL increase (state 1), rACC-pInsL decrease (state 2), pInsL-rACC increase (state 2), pInsL-rACC decrease (state 1)]. Significant changes in the dissociation from trial one to six were seen in all conditions. There were significant changes from trial one to six in the pInsL in three of the four conditions, the rACC showed no significant change. Pain intensity or unpleasantness ratings were unrelated to the dissociation between the regions and the activation in each region. Learning success in the conditions did not significantly correlate and there was no significant correlation between the two respective conditions of one state, i.e., learning to achieve a specific state is not a stable ability. The pInsL seems to be the driving force behind changes in the learned dissociation between the regions. Despite successful differential modulation of activation in areas responsive to the painful stimulus, no corresponding changes in the perception of pain intensity or unpleasantness emerged. Learning to induce different states of dissociation between the areas is not a stable ability since success did not correlate overall or between two conditions of the the same state. PMID

  20. Altered Functional Connectivity Patterns of the Insular Subregions in Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Liu, Kai; Ma, Xujing; Li, Zhiqiang; Duan, Xujun; An, Dongmei; Gong, Qiyong; Zhou, Dong; Chen, Huafu

    2015-07-01

    Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are characterized by unstable cognitive-emotional and motor system, which is engaged in hyperactivity of limbic regions and sensorimotor area. The insula, which is a part of the limbic system, includes various subregions with some distinct connectivity patterns separately. However, whether these insular subregions show different connectivity patterns respectively in PNES remains largely unknown. We aimed to investigate the functional connectivity (FC) of insular subregions in PNES and extend the understanding of the complex pathophysiological mechanisms of this disease. A resting-state FC based on the insular subregions were conducted in 18 patients and 20 healthy controls. We examined the differences in FC values between PNES patients and controls using two sample t test. Our results showed patients had significantly stronger FC between insular subregions and sensorimotor network, lingual gyrus, superior parietal gyrus and putamen, which suggested a hyperlink pattern of insular subregions involved in abnormal emotion regulation, cognitive processes and motor function in PNES. Pearson correlation analysis between the mean FC values within abnormal regions and the frequency of PNES further indicated PNES exhibited abnormal functional organization whose stressful emotion of patients have great direct influence on their motor functions. The differentially impaired functional connectivity patterns of insular subregions might provide new insights into the complex neurological mechanism of PNES.

  1. Dopaminergic modulation of impulsive decision making in the rat insular cortex.

    PubMed

    Pattij, Tommy; Schetters, Dustin; Schoffelmeer, Anton N M

    2014-08-15

    Neuroimaging studies have implicated the insular cortex in cognitive processes including decision making. Nonetheless, little is known about the mechanisms by which the insula contributes to impulsive decision making. In this regard, the dopamine system is known to be importantly involved in decision making processes, including impulsive decision making. The aim of the current set of experiments was to further elucidate the importance of dopamine signaling in the agranular insular cortex in impulsive decision making. This compartment of the insular cortex is highly interconnected with brain areas such as the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala and ventral striatum which are implicated in decision making processes. Male rats were trained in a delay-discounting task and upon stable baseline performance implanted with bilateral cannulae in the agranular insular cortex. Intracranial infusions of the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 and dopamine D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride revealed that particularly blocking dopamine D1 receptors centered on the insular cortex promoted impulsive decision making. Together, the present results demonstrate an important role of the agranular insular cortex in impulsive decision making and, more specifically, highlight the contribution of dopamine D1-like receptors.

  2. Relation of the insular claustrum to the neocortex in Insectivora.

    PubMed

    Narkiewicz, O; Mamos, L

    1990-01-01

    The claustra of 9 species of Insectivora (Sorex araneus, Sorex minutus, Tenrec ecaudatus, Solenodon paradoxus, Neomys fodiens, Erinaceus europaeus, Talpa europaea, Desmana moschata, Potamogale velox) were investigated. In all examined animals we found two parts of the insular claustrum: the main part called by us the pars principalis and more medially situated lamina profunda claustri. In the "basal" Insectivora the main part is in close contact with the layer VIa of the neocortex. In some more developed "basal" and in all "progressive" Insectivora the area capsularis appears. Dorsolaterally it separates the main part of the insular claustrum from the neocortex and possesses, besides neurons, also numerous fibers of the extreme capsule. The above data strongly suggest that in the phylogenesis the insular claustrum originates from the cortex from which it gets separated by the extreme capsule. Lamina profunda claustri is rather a narrow band of neurons situated on the medial side of the pars principalis and mostly separated from it by a thin lamina of white substance. Lamina profunda is continuous with the layer VIb of the neocortex.

  3. Indocyanine green as an adjunct for resection of insular gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Abhidha; Rangarajan, Vithal; Kaswa, Amol; Jain, Sonal; Goel, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Many controversies exist regarding the extent of resection for insular gliomas and the timing of resection. Several techniques and adjuncts are used to maximize safety during resection of these tumors. We describe the use of indocyanine green (ICG) to identify the branches of the middle cerebral artery and discuss its utility to increase safety for resection for insular gliomas. Materials and Methods: Five patients with insular gliomas were surgically treated by the authors from June 2013 to June 2014. The patients presented with complaints of either a headache or recurring episodes of convulsions. All the patients were operated with the aid of neuronavigation and tractography. The long perforating branches of the middle cerebral artery course through the insula and pass onward to supply the corona radiata. It is essential to preserve these vessels to prevent postoperative neurological deficits. ICG (Aurogreen) was used to identify and preserve the long perforating arteries of the middle cerebral artery. Results: ICG dye correctly identified the long perforating branches of the middle cerebral artery and easily distinguished these vessels from the short perforating branches. All the branches of the middle cerebral artery that coursed through the tumor and had an onward course were preserved in all the patients. Only one patient developed a transient right sided hemiparesis that had improved at follow-up. Conclusions: Surgery for insular gliomas is challenging due to its location adjacent to eloquent areas, important white fiber tracts and the course of the middle cerebral artery within it. ICG is useful to identify and preserve the long perforating branches of the middle cerebral artery that course through the tumor and traverse onward to supply the corona radiata. PMID:27366256

  4. America's Energy Potential: A Summary and Explanation; Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Third Congress, First Session. [Committee Print].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udall, Morris K.

    This report reviews America's current energy position. The energy sources studied include oil and gas, coal, nuclear energy, solar energy, and geothermal energy. Each source is analyzed in terms of current use, technology for extracting and developing the energy, research and development funding, and projections for future consumption and…

  5. Household waste compositional analysis variation from insular communities in the framework of waste prevention strategy plans.

    PubMed

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Lasaridi, Katia; Voukkali, Irene; Loizia, Pantelitsa; Chroni, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data regarding waste generation, affecting factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. In order to decrease the environmental impacts of waste management the choice of prevention plan as well as the treatment method must be based on the features of the waste that are produced in a specific area. Factors such as culture, economic development, climate, and energy sources have an impact on waste composition; composition influences the need of collecting waste more or less frequently of waste collection and disposition. The research question was to discover the main barriers concerning the compositional analysis in Insular Communities under warm climate conditions and the findings from this study enabled the main contents of a waste management plan to be established. These included advice to residents on waste minimisation, liaison with stakeholders and the expansion of kerbside recycling schemes.

  6. Household waste compositional analysis variation from insular communities in the framework of waste prevention strategy plans.

    PubMed

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Lasaridi, Katia; Voukkali, Irene; Loizia, Pantelitsa; Chroni, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data regarding waste generation, affecting factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. In order to decrease the environmental impacts of waste management the choice of prevention plan as well as the treatment method must be based on the features of the waste that are produced in a specific area. Factors such as culture, economic development, climate, and energy sources have an impact on waste composition; composition influences the need of collecting waste more or less frequently of waste collection and disposition. The research question was to discover the main barriers concerning the compositional analysis in Insular Communities under warm climate conditions and the findings from this study enabled the main contents of a waste management plan to be established. These included advice to residents on waste minimisation, liaison with stakeholders and the expansion of kerbside recycling schemes. PMID:25690412

  7. Classification tree methods provide a multifactorial approach to predicting insular body size evolution in rodents.

    PubMed

    Durst, Paul A P; Roth, V Louise

    2012-04-01

    Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain size changes in insular mammals, but no single variable suffices to explain the diversity of responses, particularly within Rodentia. Here in a data set on insular rodents, we observe strong consistency in the direction of size change within islands and within species but (outside of Heteromyidae) little consistency at broader taxonomic scales. Using traits of islands and of species in a classification tree analysis, we find the most important factor predicting direction of change to be mainland body mass (large rodents decrease, small ones increase); other variables (island climate, number of rodent species, and area) were significant, although their roles as revealed by the classification tree were context dependent. Ecological interactions appear relatively uninformative, and on any given island, the largest and smallest rodent species converged or diverged in size with equal frequency. Our approach provides a promising framework for continuing examination of insular body size evolution. PMID:22437183

  8. Forest fires in the insular Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Robbins, A Marcus J; Eckelmann, Claus-Martin; Quiñones, Maya

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a summary of the forest fire reports in the insular Caribbean derived from both management reports and an analysis of publicly available Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrodiometer (MODIS) satellite active fire products from the region. A vast difference between the amount of fires reported by land managers and fire points in the MODIS Fire Information for Resource Management System data can be observed. Future research is recommended to better understand the nature of these differences. While there is a general lack of available statistical data on forest fires in the Caribbean, a few general observations can be made: Forest fires occur mainly in dry forest types (500 to 1000 mm of mean annual rainfall). These are also the areas where most human settlements are located. Lowland high forests and montane forests with higher rainfall (1000 and more mm y(-1)) are less susceptible to forest fire, but they can burn in exceptionally dry years. Most of the dry forest ecosystems in the Caribbean can be considered to be fire-sensitive ecosystems, while the pine forests in the Caribbean (Cuba, Dominican Republic, and the Bahamas) are maintained by wildfires. In fire-sensitive ecosystems, uncontrolled burning often encourages the spread of alien invasive species. A Caribbean Fire Management Cooperation Strategy was developed between 2005 and 2006 under auspices of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. This regional strategy aims to strengthen Caribbean fire management networking by encouraging closer collaboration among countries with similar ecological conditions. The strategy for the Caribbean identifies a number of research, training, and management activities to improve wildfire management capacity in the Caribbean.

  9. Forest fires in the insular Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Robbins, A Marcus J; Eckelmann, Claus-Martin; Quiñones, Maya

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a summary of the forest fire reports in the insular Caribbean derived from both management reports and an analysis of publicly available Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrodiometer (MODIS) satellite active fire products from the region. A vast difference between the amount of fires reported by land managers and fire points in the MODIS Fire Information for Resource Management System data can be observed. Future research is recommended to better understand the nature of these differences. While there is a general lack of available statistical data on forest fires in the Caribbean, a few general observations can be made: Forest fires occur mainly in dry forest types (500 to 1000 mm of mean annual rainfall). These are also the areas where most human settlements are located. Lowland high forests and montane forests with higher rainfall (1000 and more mm y(-1)) are less susceptible to forest fire, but they can burn in exceptionally dry years. Most of the dry forest ecosystems in the Caribbean can be considered to be fire-sensitive ecosystems, while the pine forests in the Caribbean (Cuba, Dominican Republic, and the Bahamas) are maintained by wildfires. In fire-sensitive ecosystems, uncontrolled burning often encourages the spread of alien invasive species. A Caribbean Fire Management Cooperation Strategy was developed between 2005 and 2006 under auspices of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. This regional strategy aims to strengthen Caribbean fire management networking by encouraging closer collaboration among countries with similar ecological conditions. The strategy for the Caribbean identifies a number of research, training, and management activities to improve wildfire management capacity in the Caribbean. PMID:19205174

  10. The insular cortex: a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Butti, Camilla; Hof, Patrick R

    2010-06-01

    The human insular cortex is involved in a variety of viscerosensory, visceromotor, and interoceptive functions, and plays a role in complex processes such as emotions, music, and language. Across mammals, the insula has considerable morphologic variability. We review the structure and connectivity of the insula in laboratory animals (mouse, domestic cat, macaque monkey), and we present original data on the morphology and cytoarchitecture of insular cortex in less common species including a large carnivore (the Atlantic walrus, Odobenus rosmarus), two artiodactyls (the pigmy hippopotamus, Hexaprotodon liberiensis, and the Western bongo, Tragelaphus eurycerus), two cetaceans (the beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas, and the minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and a sirenian (the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris). The insula shows substantial variability in shape, extent, and gyral and sulcal patterns, as well as differences in laminar organization, cellular specialization, and structural association with the claustrum. Our observations reveal that the insular cortex is extremely variable among mammals. These differences could be related to the role exerted by specific and selective pressures on cortical structure during evolution. We conclude that it is not possible to identify a general model of organization for the mammalian insular cortex. PMID:20512368

  11. Extreme insular dwarfism evolved in a mammoth.

    PubMed

    Herridge, Victoria L; Lister, Adrian M

    2012-08-22

    The insular dwarfism seen in Pleistocene elephants has come to epitomize the island rule; yet our understanding of this phenomenon is hampered by poor taxonomy. For Mediterranean dwarf elephants, where the most extreme cases of insular dwarfism are observed, a key systematic question remains unresolved: are all taxa phyletic dwarfs of a single mainland species Palaeoloxodon antiquus (straight-tusked elephant), or are some referable to Mammuthus (mammoths)? Ancient DNA and geochronological evidence have been used to support a Mammuthus origin for the Cretan 'Palaeoloxodon' creticus, but these studies have been shown to be flawed. On the basis of existing collections and recent field discoveries, we present new, morphological evidence for the taxonomic status of 'P'. creticus, and show that it is indeed a mammoth, most probably derived from Early Pleistocene Mammuthus meridionalis or possibly Late Pliocene Mammuthus rumanus. We also show that Mammuthus creticus is smaller than other known insular dwarf mammoths, and is similar in size to the smallest dwarf Palaeoloxodon species from Sicily and Malta, making it the smallest mammoth species known to have existed. These findings indicate that extreme insular dwarfism has evolved to a similar degree independently in two elephant lineages.

  12. Extreme insular dwarfism evolved in a mammoth.

    PubMed

    Herridge, Victoria L; Lister, Adrian M

    2012-08-22

    The insular dwarfism seen in Pleistocene elephants has come to epitomize the island rule; yet our understanding of this phenomenon is hampered by poor taxonomy. For Mediterranean dwarf elephants, where the most extreme cases of insular dwarfism are observed, a key systematic question remains unresolved: are all taxa phyletic dwarfs of a single mainland species Palaeoloxodon antiquus (straight-tusked elephant), or are some referable to Mammuthus (mammoths)? Ancient DNA and geochronological evidence have been used to support a Mammuthus origin for the Cretan 'Palaeoloxodon' creticus, but these studies have been shown to be flawed. On the basis of existing collections and recent field discoveries, we present new, morphological evidence for the taxonomic status of 'P'. creticus, and show that it is indeed a mammoth, most probably derived from Early Pleistocene Mammuthus meridionalis or possibly Late Pliocene Mammuthus rumanus. We also show that Mammuthus creticus is smaller than other known insular dwarf mammoths, and is similar in size to the smallest dwarf Palaeoloxodon species from Sicily and Malta, making it the smallest mammoth species known to have existed. These findings indicate that extreme insular dwarfism has evolved to a similar degree independently in two elephant lineages. PMID:22572206

  13. Differential Responses of the Insular Cortex Gyri to Autonomic Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Macey, Paul M.; Wu, Paula; Kumar, Rajesh; Ogren, Jennifer A.; Richardson, Heidi L.; Woo, Mary A.; Harper, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    Determining insular functional topography is essential for assessing autonomic consequences of neural injury. We examined that topography in the five major insular cortex gyri to three autonomic challenges, the Valsalva, hand grip, and foot cold pressor, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) procedures. Fifty-seven healthy subjects (age±std: 47±9 years) performed four 18 s Valsalva maneuvers (30 mmHg load pressure), four hand grip challenges (16 s at 80% effort), and a foot cold pressor (60 s, 4°C), with fMRI scans recorded every 2 s. Signal trends were compared across gyri using repeated measures ANOVA. Significantly (P<0.05) higher signals in left anterior versus posterior gyri appeared during Valsalva strain, and in the first 4 s of recovery. The right anterior gyri showed sustained higher signals up to 2 s post-challenge, relative to posterior gyri, with sub-gyral differentiation. Left anterior gyri signals were higher than posterior areas during the hand grip challenge. All right anterior gyri showed increased signals over posterior up to 12 s post-challenge, with decline in the most-anterior gyrus from 10–24 s during recovery. The left three anterior gyri showed relatively lower signals only during the 90 s recovery of the cold pressor, while the two most-anterior right gyri signals increased only during the stimulus. More-differentiated representation of autonomic signals appear in the anterior right insula for the Valsalva maneuver, a bilateral, more-posterior signal representation for hand grip, and preferentially right-sided, anterior-posterior representation for the cold pressor. The functional organization of the insular cortex is gyri-specific to unique autonomic challenges. PMID:22342370

  14. Neural processing of gustatory information in insular circuits.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Arianna; Haley, Melissa; Fontanini, Alfredo

    2012-08-01

    The insular cortex is the primary cortical site devoted to taste processing. A large body of evidence is available for how insular neurons respond to gustatory stimulation in both anesthetized and behaving animals. Most of the reports describe broadly tuned neurons that are involved in processing the chemosensory, physiological and psychological aspects of gustatory experience. However little is known about how these neural responses map onto insular circuits. Particularly mysterious is the functional role of the three subdivisions of the insular cortex: the granular, the dysgranular and the agranular insular cortices. In this article we review data on the organization of the local and long-distance circuits in the three subdivisions. The functional significance of these results is discussed in light of the latest electrophysiological data. A view of the insular cortex as a functionally integrated system devoted to processing gustatory, multimodal, cognitive and affective information is proposed. PMID:22554880

  15. Multidimensional assessment of empathic abilities in patients with insular glioma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Wang, Guangming; Ma, Ru; Jing, Fang; Zhang, Yongjun; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Peng; Niu, Chaoshi; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence that there are two possible systems for empathy: affective empathy (AE) and cognitive empathy (CE). Neuroimaging paradigms have proven that the insular cortex is involved in empathy processing, particularly in AE. However, these observations do not provide causal evidence for the role of the insula in empathy. Although impairments in empathy have been described following insular damage in a few case studies, it is not clear whether insular cortex is involved in CE and whether these two systems are impaired independently or laterally in patients with insular gliomas. In this study, we assessed 17 patients with an insular glioma, 17 patients with a noninsular glioma, and 30 healthy controls using a method that combined a self-report empathy questionnaire with the emotion recognition task, assessment of empathy for others' pain, and the emotional perspective-taking paradigm. We found that patients with an insular glioma had lower scores for empathic concern and perspective taking than did either healthy controls or lesion controls. The patients' abilities to recognize facial emotions, perceive others' pain, and understand the emotional perspectives of others were also significantly impaired. Furthermore, we did not observe a laterality effect on either AE or CE among those with insular lesions. These findings revealed that both AE and CE are impaired in patients with an insular glioma and that the insular cortex may be a central neuroanatomical structure in both the AE and CE systems. PMID:27456973

  16. Hyperacusis following unilateral damage to the insular cortex: a three-case report.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Olivier; Turgeon, Christine; Champoux, Sara; Ménard, Lucie; Rouleau, Isabelle; Lassonde, Maryse; Lepore, Franco; Nguyen, Dang K

    2015-05-01

    The insula is a multisensory area involved in various brain functions, including central auditory processing. However, its specific role in auditory function remains unclear. Here we report three cases of persistent hypersensitivity to auditory stimuli following damage to the insular cortex, using behavioral and neurophysiological measures. Two patients who complained of auditory disturbance since they suffered an isolated unilateral insular stroke, and one epileptic patient who underwent right insular resection for control of drug-resistant seizures, were involved in this study. These patients, all young adult women, were tested for auditory function more than one year after brain injury, and were compared to 10 healthy control participants matched for age, sex, and education. The assessment included pure-tone detection and speech detection in quiet, loudness discomfort levels, random gap detection, recognition of frequency and duration patterns, binaural separation, dichotic listening, as well as late-latency auditory event-related potentials (ERPs). Each patient showed mild or moderate hyperacusis, as revealed by decreased loudness discomfort levels, which was more important on the side of lesion in two cases. Tests of temporal processing also revealed impairments, in concordance with previous findings. ERPs of two patients were characterised by increased amplitude of the P3b component elicited during a two-tone auditory oddball detection task. This study is the first to report cases of persistent hyperacusis following damage to the insular cortex, and suggests that the insula is involved in modulating the perceived intensity of the incoming auditory stimuli during late-stage processing.

  17. Population size and time since island isolation determine genetic diversity loss in insular frog populations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Supen; Zhu, Wei; Gao, Xu; Li, Xianping; Yan, Shaofei; Liu, Xuan; Yang, Ji; Gao, Zengxiang; Li, Yiming

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to loss of genetic diversity in fragmented populations is crucial for conservation measurements. Land-bridge archipelagoes offer ideal model systems for identifying the long-term effects of these factors on genetic variations in wild populations. In this study, we used nine microsatellite markers to quantify genetic diversity and differentiation of 810 pond frogs (Pelophylax nigromaculatus) from 24 islands of the Zhoushan Archipelago and three sites on nearby mainland China and estimated the effects of the island area, population size, time since island isolation, distance to the mainland and distance to the nearest larger island on reduced genetic diversity of insular populations. The mainland populations displayed higher genetic diversity than insular populations. Genetic differentiations and no obvious gene flow were detected among the frog populations on the islands. Hierarchical partitioning analysis showed that only time since island isolation (square-root-transformed) and population size (log-transformed) significantly contributed to insular genetic diversity. These results suggest that decreased genetic diversity and genetic differentiations among insular populations may have been caused by random genetic drift following isolation by rising sea levels during the Holocene. The results provide strong evidence for a relationship between retained genetic diversity and population size and time since island isolation for pond frogs on the islands, consistent with the prediction of the neutral theory for finite populations. Our study highlights the importance of the size and estimated isolation time of populations in understanding the mechanisms of genetic diversity loss and differentiation in fragmented wild populations.

  18. The biogeography of threatened insular iguanas and opportunities for invasive vertebrate management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tershy, Bernie R.; Newton, Kelly M.; Spatz, Dena R.; Swinnerton, Kirsty; Iverson, John B.; Fisher, Robert N.; Harlow, Peter S.; Holmes, Nick D.; Croll, Donald A.; Iverson, J.B.; Grant, T. D.; Knapp, C. R.; Pasachnik, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Iguanas are a particularly threatened group of reptiles, with 61% of species at risk of extinction. Primary threats to iguanas include habitat loss, direct and indirect impacts by invasive vertebrates, overexploitation, and human disturbance. As conspicuous, charismatic vertebrates, iguanas also represent excellent flagships for biodiversity conservation. To assist planning for invasive vertebrate management and thus benefit threatened iguana recovery, we identified all islands with known extant or extirpated populations of Critically Endangered and Endangered insular iguana taxa as recognized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. For each island, we determined total area, sovereignty, the presence of invasive alien vertebrates, and human population. For the 23 taxa of threatened insular iguanas we identified 230 populations, of which iguanas were extant on 185 islands and extirpated from 45 islands. Twenty-one iguana taxa (91% of all threatened insular iguana taxa) occurred on at least one island with invasive vertebrates present; 16 taxa had 100% of their population(s) on islands with invasive vertebrates present. Rodents, cats, ungulates, and dogs were the most common invasive vertebrates. We discuss biosecurity, eradication, and control of invasive vertebrates to benefit iguana recovery: (1) on islands already free of invasive vertebrates; (2) on islands with high iguana endemicity; and (3) for species and subspecies with small total populations occurring across multiple small islands. Our analyses provide an important first step toward understanding how invasive vertebrate management can be planned effectively to benefit threatened insular iguanas.

  19. Role of the insular cortex in taste familiarity.

    PubMed

    Moraga-Amaro, Rodrigo; Cortés-Rojas, Andrés; Simon, Felipe; Stehberg, Jimmy

    2014-03-01

    Determining the role of the main gustatory cortical area within the insular cortex (IC), in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) has been elusive due to effective compensatory mechanisms that allow animals to learn in spite of lacking IC. IC lesions performed before CTA training induces mild if any memory impairments, while IC lesions done weeks after CTA produce amnesia. IC lesions before taste presentation have also been shown not to affect taste familiarity learning (attenuation of neophobia). This lack of effect could be either explained by compensation from other brain areas or by a lack of involvement of the IC in taste familiarity. To assess this issue, rats were bilaterally IC lesioned with ibotenic acid (200-300 nl.; 15 mg/ml) one week before or after taste familiarity, using either a preferred (0.1%) or a non-preferred (0.5%) saccharin solution. Rats lesioned before familiarity showed a decrease in neophobia to both solutions but no difference in their familiarity curve or their slope. When animals were familiarized and then IC lesioned, both IC lesioned groups treated the solutions as familiar, showing no differences from sham animals in their retention of familiarity. However, both lesioned groups showed increased latent inhibition (or impaired CTA) when CTA trained after repeated pre-exposures. The role of the IC in familiarity was also assessed using temporary inactivation of the IC, using bilateral micro-infusions of sodium channel blocker bupivacaine before each of 3 saccharin daily presentations. Intra-insular bupivacaine had no effects on familiarity acquisition, but did impair CTA learning in a different group of rats micro-infused before saccharin presentation in a CTA training protocol. Our data indicate that the IC is not essentially involved in acquisition or retention of taste familiarity, suggesting regional dissociation of areas involved in CTA and taste familiarity.

  20. Dwarfism in insular sloths: biogeography, selection, and evolutionary rate.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert P; Handley, Charles O

    2002-05-01

    The islands of Bocas del Toro, Panama, were sequentially separated from the adjacent mainland by rising sea levels during the past 10,000 years. Three-toed sloths (Bradypus) from five islands are smaller than their mainland counterparts, and the insular populations themselves vary in mean body size. We first examine relationships between body size and physical characteristics of the islands, testing hypotheses regarding optimal body size, evolutionary equilibria, and the presence of dispersal in this system. To do so, we conduct linear regressions of body size onto island area, distance from the mainland, and island age. Second, we retroactively calculate two measures of the evolutionary rate of change in body size (haldanes and darwins) and the standardized linear selection differential, or selection intensity (i). We also test the observed morphological changes against models of evolution by genetic drift. The results indicate that mean body size decreases linearly with island age, explaining up to 97% of the variation among population means. Neither island area nor distance from the mainland is significant in multiple regressions that include island age. Thus, we find no evidence for differential optimal body size among islands, or for dispersal in the system. In contrast, the dependence of body size on island age suggests uniform directional selection for small body size in the insular populations. Although genetic drift cannot be discounted as the cause for this evolution in body size, the probability is small given the consistent direction of evolution (repeated dwarfism). The insular sloths show a sustained rate of evolution similar to those measured in haldanes over tens of generations, appearing to unite micro- and macroevolutionary time scales. Furthermore, the magnitude and rate of this example of rapid differentiation fall within predictions of theoretical models from population genetics. However, the linearity of the relationship between body size and

  1. Reduced insular volume in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Larson, Melissa Patricia; King, Jace Bradford; Terry, Janine; McGlade, Erin Catherine; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether structural differences in the insula and anterior cingulate (ACC), two critical areas of the “salience network,” co-exist in adolescents with ADHD compared to healthy controls (HC). In addition we aimed to determine if structural changes within these regions correlate with attention and inhibitory function. Nineteen adolescents with ADHD and 25 HC received MRI scans on a 3T magnet. Morphometric analysis was performed with FreeSurfer. Youths with ADHD were found to have a bilateral reduction in anterior insular (AIC) gray matter volumes compared to HC. Furthermore, the left AIC was found to positively correlate with oppositional symptoms, while the right AIC was found to associate with both attention problems and inhibition. To our knowledge this is the first report of a bilateral reduction in AIC volumes in ADHD. Our findings suggest a role for the insula in modulating attention and inhibitory capacity in ADHD. PMID:23142193

  2. Kinetic energy budgets in areas of convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.

    1979-01-01

    Synoptic scale budgets of kinetic energy are computed using 3 and 6 h data from three of NASA's Atmospheric Variability Experiments (AVE's). Numerous areas of intense convection occurred during the three experiments. Large kinetic energy variability, with periods as short as 6 h, is observed in budgets computed over each entire experiment area and over limited volumes that barely enclose the convection and move with it. Kinetic energy generation and transport processes in the smaller volumes are often a maximum when the enclosed storms are near peak intensity, but the nature of the various energy processes differs between storm cases and seems closely related to the synoptic conditions. A commonly observed energy budget for peak storm intensity indicates that generation of kinetic energy by cross-contour flow is the major energy source while dissipation to subgrid scales is the major sink. Synoptic scale vertical motion transports kinetic energy from lower to upper levels of the atmosphere while low-level horizontal flux convergence and upper-level horizontal divergence also occur. Spatial fields of the energy budget terms show that the storm environment is a major center of energy activity for the entire area.

  3. Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Angie; Bertjens, Steve; Lieurance, Mike; Berguson, Bill; Buchman, Dan

    2012-12-31

    The Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project evaluated the potential for biomass energy production and utilization throughout the Driftless Region of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The research and demonstration aspect of the project specifically focused on biomass energy feedstock availability and production potential in the region, as well as utilization potential of biomass feedstocks for heat, electrical energy production, or combined heat and power operations. The Driftless Region was evaluated because the topography of the area offers more acres of marginal soils on steep slopes, wooded areas, and riparian corridors than the surrounding “Corn Belt”. These regional land characteristics were identified as potentially providing opportunity for biomass feedstock production that could compete with traditional agriculture commodity crops economically. The project researched establishment methods and costs for growing switchgrass on marginal agricultural lands to determine the economic and quantitative feasibility of switchgrass production for biomass energy purposes. The project was successful in identifying the best management and establishment practices for switchgrass in the Driftless Area, but also demonstrated that simple economic payback versus commodity crops could not be achieved at the time of the research. The project also analyzed the availability of woody biomass and production potential for growing woody biomass for large scale biomass energy production in the Driftless Area. Analysis determined that significant resources exist, but costs to harvest and deliver to the site were roughly 60% greater than that of natural gas at the time of the study. The project contributed significantly to identifying both production potential of biomass energy crops and existing feedstock availability in the Driftless Area. The project also analyzed the economic feasibility of dedicated energy crops in the Driftless Area. High commodity crop prices

  4. 38 CFR 3.40 - Philippine and Insular Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Forces. 3.40 Section 3.40 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Insular Forces. (a) Regular Philippine Scouts. Service in the Philippine Scouts (except that described in paragraph (b) of this section), the Insular Force of the Navy, Samoan Native Guard, and Samoan Native...

  5. 38 CFR 3.40 - Philippine and Insular Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Forces. 3.40 Section 3.40 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Insular Forces. (a) Regular Philippine Scouts. Service in the Philippine Scouts (except that described in paragraph (b) of this section), the Insular Force of the Navy, Samoan Native Guard, and Samoan Native...

  6. 38 CFR 3.40 - Philippine and Insular Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Forces. 3.40 Section 3.40 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Insular Forces. (a) Regular Philippine Scouts. Service in the Philippine Scouts (except that described in paragraph (b) of this section), the Insular Force of the Navy, Samoan Native Guard, and Samoan Native...

  7. 38 CFR 3.40 - Philippine and Insular Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Forces. 3.40 Section 3.40 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Insular Forces. (a) Regular Philippine Scouts. Service in the Philippine Scouts (except that described in paragraph (b) of this section), the Insular Force of the Navy, Samoan Native Guard, and Samoan Native...

  8. The association of insular stroke with lesion volume.

    PubMed

    Kodumuri, Nishanth; Sebastian, Rajani; Davis, Cameron; Posner, Joseph; Kim, Eun Hye; Tippett, Donna C; Wright, Amy; Hillis, Argye E

    2016-01-01

    The insula has been implicated in many sequelae of stroke. It is the area most commonly infarcted in people with post-stroke arrhythmias, loss of thermal sensation, hospital acquired pneumonia, and apraxia of speech. We hypothesized that some of these results reflect the fact that: (1) ischemic strokes that involve the insula are larger than strokes that exclude the insula (and therefore are associated with more common and persistent deficits); and (2) insular involvement is a marker of middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. We analyzed MRI scans of 861 patients with acute ischemic hemispheric strokes unselected for functional deficits, and compared infarcts involving the insula to infarcts not involving the insula using t-tests for continuous variables and chi square tests for dichotomous variables. Mean infarct volume was larger for infarcts including the insula (n = 232) versus excluding the insula (n = 629): 65.8 ± 78.8 versus 10.2 ± 15.9 cm(3) (p < 0.00001). Even when we removed lacunar infarcts, mean volume of non-lacunar infarcts that included insula (n = 775) were larger than non-lacunar infarcts (n = 227) that excluded insula: 67.0 cm(3) ± 79.2 versus 11.5 cm(3) ± 16.7 (p < 0.00001). Of infarcts in the 90th percentile for volume, 87% included the insula (χ(2) = 181.8; p < 0.00001). Furthermore, 79.0% infarcts due to MCA occlusion included the insula; 78.5% of infarcts without MCA occlusion excluded the insula (χ(2) = 93.1; p < 0.0001). The association between insular damage and acute or chronic sequelae likely often reflects the fact that insular infarct is a marker of large infarcts caused by occlusion of the MCA more than a specific role of the insula in a range of functions. Particularly in acute stroke, some deficits may also be due to ischemia of the MCA or ICA territory caused by large vessel occlusion. PMID:26909326

  9. Space shuttle entry terminal area energy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    A historical account of the development for Shuttle's Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) is presented. A derivation and explanation of logic and equations are provided as a supplement to the well documented guidance computation requirements contained within the official Functional Subsystem Software Requirements (FSSR) published by Rockwell for NASA. The FSSR contains the full set of equations and logic, whereas this document addresses just certain areas for amplification.

  10. Extensive Clonality and Strong Differentiation in the Insular Pacific Tree Santalum insulare: Implications for its Conservation

    PubMed Central

    LHUILLIER, EMELINE; BUTAUD, JEAN-FRANÇOIS; BOUVET, JEAN-MARC

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The impact of evolutionary forces on insular systems is particularly exacerbated by the remoteness of islands, strong founder effects, small population size and the influence of biotic and abiotic factors. Patterns of molecular diversity were analysed in an island system with Santalum insulare, a sandalwood species endemic to eastern Polynesia. The aims were to evaluate clonality and to study the genetic diversity and structure of this species, in order to understand the evolutionary process and to define a conservation strategy. • Methods Eight nuclear microsatellites were used to investigate clonality, genetic variation and structure of the French Polynesian sandalwood populations found on ten islands distributed over three archipelagos. • Key Results It was found that 58 % of the 384 trees analysed were clones. The real size of the populations is thus dramatically reduced, with sometimes only one genet producing ramets by root suckering. The diversity parameters were low for islands (nA = 1·5–5·0; HE = 0·28–0·49). No departure from Hardy–Weinberg proportion was observed except within Tahiti island, where a significant excess of homozygotes was noted in the highland population. Genetic structure was characterized by high levels of differentiation between archipelagos (27 % of the total variation) and islands (FST = 0·50). The neighbour-joining tree did not discriminate the three archipelagos but separated the Society archipelago from the other two. • Conclusions This study shows that clonality is a frequent phenomenon in S. insulare. The genetic diversity within populations is lower than the values assessed in species distributed on the mainland, as a consequence of insularity. But this can also be explained by the overexploitation of sandalwood. The differentiation between archipelagos and islands within archipelagos is very high because of the limited gene flow due to oceanic barriers. Delineation of evolutionary

  11. Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Leasing Areas for the BOEM New Jersey Wind Energy Area

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Elliott, D.; Fields, J.; Parker, Z.; Scott, G.; Draxl, C.

    2013-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under an interagency agreement with the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), is providing technical assistance to identify and delineate leasing areas for offshore wind energy development within the Atlantic Coast Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) established by BOEM. This report focuses on NREL's development and evaluation of the delineations for the New Jersey (NJ) WEA. The overarching objective of this study is to develop a logical process by which the New Jersey WEA can be subdivided into non-overlapping leasing areas for BOEM's use in developing an auction process in a renewable energy lease sale. NREL identified a selection of leasing areas and proposed delineation boundaries within the established NJ WEA. The primary output of the interagency agreement is this report, which documents the methodology, including key variables and assumptions, by which the leasing areas were identified and delineated.

  12. Anterior insular cortex and emotional awareness.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaosi; Hof, Patrick R; Friston, Karl J; Fan, Jin

    2013-10-15

    This paper reviews the foundation for a role of the human anterior insular cortex (AIC) in emotional awareness, defined as the conscious experience of emotions. We first introduce the neuroanatomical features of AIC and existing findings on emotional awareness. Using empathy, the awareness and understanding of other people's emotional states, as a test case, we then present evidence to demonstrate: 1) AIC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are commonly coactivated as revealed by a meta-analysis, 2) AIC is functionally dissociable from ACC, 3) AIC integrates stimulus-driven and top-down information, and 4) AIC is necessary for emotional awareness. We propose a model in which AIC serves two major functions: integrating bottom-up interoceptive signals with top-down predictions to generate a current awareness state and providing descending predictions to visceral systems that provide a point of reference for autonomic reflexes. We argue that AIC is critical and necessary for emotional awareness.

  13. Anterior Insular Cortex and Emotional Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaosi; Hof, Patrick R.; Friston, Karl J.; Fan, Jin

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the foundation for a role of the human anterior insular cortex (AIC) in emotional awareness, defined as the conscious experience of emotions. We first introduce the neuroanatomical features of AIC and existing findings on emotional awareness. Using empathy, the awareness and understanding of other people’s emotional states, as a test case, we then present evidence to demonstrate: 1) AIC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are commonly coactivated as revealed by a meta-analysis, 2) AIC is functionally dissociable from ACC, 3) AIC integrates stimulus-driven and top-down information, and 4) AIC is necessary for emotional awareness. We propose a model in which AIC serves two major functions: integrating bottom-up interoceptive signals with top-down predictions to generate a current awareness state and providing descending predictions to visceral systems that provide a point of reference for autonomic reflexes. We argue that AIC is critical and necessary for emotional awareness. PMID:23749500

  14. Behavioural Variant Frontotemporal Dementia with Bilateral Insular Hypometabolism: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Ananya; Sood, Mamta; Bhad, Roshan; Tripathi, Manjari

    2016-04-01

    Fronto-Temporal Dementia (FTD) is a cluster of syndromes, characterized by progressive deterioration of cognition, language and/or behavioural changes associated with degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes. A 53-year-old man was admitted with a history of gradually progressive behavioural disturbances, disinhibition, unprovoked anger outbursts, apathy, disorganised behaviour and impaired self-care. A clinical diagnosis of Fronto temporal Dementia (behavioural variant) was made. Extensive investigations found no abnormality except in FDG-PET scan of the brain which revealed hypo metabolism in bilateral anterior insular region. Insula is an important brain area implicated in emotional awareness and behaviour control. Hypo metabolism in insular region in the absence of any structural neuroimaging findings, in a case of behavioural variant of Fronto-temporal dementia suggest that, it might be one of the earliest neurobiological changes occurring in this disorder. PMID:27190928

  15. Behavioural Variant Frontotemporal Dementia with Bilateral Insular Hypometabolism: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Mamta; Bhad, Roshan; Tripathi, Manjari

    2016-01-01

    Fronto-Temporal Dementia (FTD) is a cluster of syndromes, characterized by progressive deterioration of cognition, language and/or behavioural changes associated with degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes. A 53-year-old man was admitted with a history of gradually progressive behavioural disturbances, disinhibition, unprovoked anger outbursts, apathy, disorganised behaviour and impaired self-care. A clinical diagnosis of Fronto temporal Dementia (behavioural variant) was made. Extensive investigations found no abnormality except in FDG-PET scan of the brain which revealed hypo metabolism in bilateral anterior insular region. Insula is an important brain area implicated in emotional awareness and behaviour control. Hypo metabolism in insular region in the absence of any structural neuroimaging findings, in a case of behavioural variant of Fronto-temporal dementia suggest that, it might be one of the earliest neurobiological changes occurring in this disorder. PMID:27190928

  16. Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Leasing Areas for the BOEM Maryland Wind Energy Area

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Elliott, D.; Fields, J.; Parker, Z.; Scott, G.; Draxl, C.

    2013-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under an interagency agreement with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), is providing technical assistance to identify and delineate leasing areas for offshore wind energy development within the Atlantic Coast Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) established by BOEM. This report focuses on NREL's evaluation of the delineation proposed by the Maryland Energy Administration (MEA) for the Maryland (MD) WEA and two alternative delineations. The objectives of the NREL evaluation were to assess MEA's proposed delineation of the MD WEA, perform independent analysis, and recommend how the MD WEA should be delineated.

  17. Household waste compositional analysis variation from insular communities in the framework of waste prevention strategy plans

    SciTech Connect

    Zorpas, Antonis A.; Lasaridi, Katia; Voukkali, Irene; Loizia, Pantelitsa; Chroni, Christina

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Waste framework directive has set clear waste prevention procedures. • Household Compositional analysis. • Waste management plans. • Zero waste approach. • Waste generation. - Abstract: Waste management planning requires reliable data regarding waste generation, affecting factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. In order to decrease the environmental impacts of waste management the choice of prevention plan as well as the treatment method must be based on the features of the waste that are produced in a specific area. Factors such as culture, economic development, climate, and energy sources have an impact on waste composition; composition influences the need of collecting waste more or less frequently of waste collection and disposition. The research question was to discover the main barriers concerning the compositional analysis in Insular Communities under warm climate conditions and the findings from this study enabled the main contents of a waste management plan to be established. These included advice to residents on waste minimisation, liaison with stakeholders and the expansion of kerbside recycling schemes.

  18. [Insular epilepsy: A model of cryptic epilepsy. The Lyon experience].

    PubMed

    Isnard, J

    2009-10-01

    The role of the insular lobe in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has often been suggested but never directly demonstrated. In this article, we review data from recent literature and from our own stereo-electroencephalographic (SEEG) recordings in patients referred for temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. Our description of the clinical features of insular lobe seizures is based on data from video and SEEG ictal recordings and direct electric cortical stimulation in a population of 50 consecutive patients whose seizures, on the basis of scalp video EEG recordings, were suspected to originate from, or to rapidly propagate to, the perisylvian cortex. One hundred and forty-four intrainsular electrodes have been implanted in this series of patients. In six patients a stereotyped sequence of ictal symptoms could be identified on the basis of electroclinical correlations. The clinical presentation of insular lobe seizures is that of simple partial seizures occurring in full consciousness, beginning with a sensation of laryngeal constriction followed by paresthesiae that were often unpleasant and affected large cutaneous territories. These initial symptoms were eventually followed by dysarthric speech and/or elementary auditory hallucinations, and seizures often ended with focal dystonic postures. The insular origin of these symptoms was supported by the data from functional cortical mapping of the insula using direct cortical stimulations from a total of 472 intrainsular electrodes in 164 consecutive patients. We were able to reproduce several of the spontaneous ictal symptoms in the six patients with insular seizures. Moreover, from the whole set of insular stimulations that we performed it could be concluded that the insular cortex is involved in somatic, vegetative and visceral functions to which spontaneous ictal insular symptoms are related. The observation of the insular symptoms sequence at the onset of seizures in patients who are candidates for TLE surgery strongly

  19. Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Leasing Areas for the BOEM Massachusetts Wind Energy Area

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Parker, Z.; Fields, M.; Scott, G.; Elliott, D.; Draxl, C.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under an interagency agreement with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), is providing technical assistance to identify and delineate leasing areas for offshore wind energy development within the Atlantic Coast Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) established by BOEM. This report focuses on NREL's development of three delineated leasing area options for the Massachusetts (MA) WEA and the technical evaluation of these leasing areas. The overarching objective of this study is to develop a logical process by which the MA WEA can be subdivided into non-overlapping leasing areas for BOEM's use in developing an auction process in a renewable energy lease sale. NREL worked with BOEM to identify an appropriate number of leasing areas and proposed three delineation alternatives within the MA WEA based on the boundaries announced in May 2012. A primary output of the interagency agreement is this report, which documents the methodology, including key variables and assumptions, by which the leasing areas were identified and delineated.

  20. The Role of the Insular Cortex in Retaliation.

    PubMed

    Emmerling, Franziska; Schuhmann, Teresa; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The insular cortex has consistently been associated with various aspects of emotion regulation and social interaction, including anger processing and overt aggression. Aggression research distinguishes proactive or instrumental aggression from retaliation, i.e. aggression in response to provocation. Here, we investigated the specific role of the insular cortex during retaliation, employing a controlled behavioral aggression paradigm implementing different levels of provocation. Fifteen healthy male volunteers underwent whole brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain regions involved in interaction with either a provoking or a non-provoking opponent. FMRI group analyses were complemented by examining the parametric modulations of brain activity related to the individual level of displayed aggression. These analyses identified a hemispheric lateralization as well as an anatomical segregation of insular cortex with specifically the left posterior part being involved in retaliation. The left-lateralization of insular activity during retaliation is in accordance with evidence from electro-physiological studies, suggesting left-lateralized fronto-cortical dominance during anger processing and aggressive acts. The posterior localization of insular activity, on the other hand, suggests a spatial segregation within insular cortex with particularly the posterior part being involved in the processing of emotions that trigger intense bodily sensations and immediate action tendencies. PMID:27096431

  1. The Role of the Insular Cortex in Retaliation

    PubMed Central

    Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The insular cortex has consistently been associated with various aspects of emotion regulation and social interaction, including anger processing and overt aggression. Aggression research distinguishes proactive or instrumental aggression from retaliation, i.e. aggression in response to provocation. Here, we investigated the specific role of the insular cortex during retaliation, employing a controlled behavioral aggression paradigm implementing different levels of provocation. Fifteen healthy male volunteers underwent whole brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain regions involved in interaction with either a provoking or a non-provoking opponent. FMRI group analyses were complemented by examining the parametric modulations of brain activity related to the individual level of displayed aggression. These analyses identified a hemispheric lateralization as well as an anatomical segregation of insular cortex with specifically the left posterior part being involved in retaliation. The left-lateralization of insular activity during retaliation is in accordance with evidence from electro-physiological studies, suggesting left-lateralized fronto-cortical dominance during anger processing and aggressive acts. The posterior localization of insular activity, on the other hand, suggests a spatial segregation within insular cortex with particularly the posterior part being involved in the processing of emotions that trigger intense bodily sensations and immediate action tendencies. PMID:27096431

  2. Clinical considerations and surgical approaches for low-grade gliomas in deep hemispheric locations: insular lesions.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, J; Gil-Robles, S; Pascual, B

    2016-10-01

    Insula and paralimbic region represent a common location for gliomas in adulthood. However, limbic and paralimbic tumors are rare in children. Reports of pediatric insular tumors are scarce in literature, and most of them are included in adult's series, so their management and outcome can be outlined only after extracting data from these reports. Due to their predominantly low grade, they usually have a benign course for some time, what make them ideal candidates for total resection. However, their intricate location and spread to key areas, including the temporal lobe, make them a surgical challenge. The transsylvian route, with or without resection of the frontal and/or temporal operculae, which requires exposure of part or all of the insula is commonly selected for insular tumor approaches. Intraoperative functional mapping is a standard procedure for resection of central region tumors in adults. In children and young individuals, awake craniotomy is not always possible and surgical planning usually relay on functional and anatomical preoperative studies. The main goal when approaching an insular tumor is to achieve the largest extent of resection to increase overall patient survival while preserving the functional status, minimizing postoperative morbidity and increasing the quality of life. The extent of resection seems to be correlated also with the control of associated (and usually intractable) epilepsy. PMID:27659830

  3. A volumetric comparison of the insular cortex and its subregions in primates

    PubMed Central

    Bauernfeind, Amy L.; de Sousa, Alexandra A.; Avasthi, Tanvi; Dobson, Seth D.; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Lewandowski, Albert H.; Zilles, Karl; Semendeferi, Katerina; Allman, John M.; (Bud) Craig, Arthur D.; Hof, Patrick R.; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2013-01-01

    The neuronal composition of the insula in primates displays a gradient, transitioning from granular neocortex in the posterior-dorsal insula to agranular neocortex in the anterior-ventral insula with an intermediate zone of dysgranularity. Additionally, apes and humans exhibit a distinctive subdomain in the agranular insula, the frontoinsular cortex (FI), defined by the presence of clusters of von Economo neurons (VENs). Studies in humans indicate that the ventral anterior insula, including agranular insular cortex and FI, is involved in social awareness, and that the posterodorsal insula, including granular and dysgranular cortices, produces an internal representation of the body’s homeostatic state. We examined the volumes of these cytoarchitectural areas of insular cortex in 30 primate species, including the volume of FI in apes and humans. Results indicate that the whole insula scales hyperallometrically (exponent = 1.13) relative to total brain mass, and the agranular insula (including FI) scales against total brain mass with even greater positive allometry (exponent = 1.23), providing a potential neural basis for enhancement of social cognition in association with increased brain size. The relative volumes of the subdivisions of the insular cortex, after controlling for total brain volume, are not correlated with species typical social group size. Although its size is predicted by primate-wide allometric scaling patterns, we found that the absolute volume of the left and right agranular insula and left FI are among the most differentially expanded of the human cerebral cortex compared to our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. PMID:23466178

  4. Population size and time since island isolation determine genetic diversity loss in insular frog populations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Supen; Zhu, Wei; Gao, Xu; Li, Xianping; Yan, Shaofei; Liu, Xuan; Yang, Ji; Gao, Zengxiang; Li, Yiming

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to loss of genetic diversity in fragmented populations is crucial for conservation measurements. Land-bridge archipelagoes offer ideal model systems for identifying the long-term effects of these factors on genetic variations in wild populations. In this study, we used nine microsatellite markers to quantify genetic diversity and differentiation of 810 pond frogs (Pelophylax nigromaculatus) from 24 islands of the Zhoushan Archipelago and three sites on nearby mainland China and estimated the effects of the island area, population size, time since island isolation, distance to the mainland and distance to the nearest larger island on reduced genetic diversity of insular populations. The mainland populations displayed higher genetic diversity than insular populations. Genetic differentiations and no obvious gene flow were detected among the frog populations on the islands. Hierarchical partitioning analysis showed that only time since island isolation (square-root-transformed) and population size (log-transformed) significantly contributed to insular genetic diversity. These results suggest that decreased genetic diversity and genetic differentiations among insular populations may have been caused by random genetic drift following isolation by rising sea levels during the Holocene. The results provide strong evidence for a relationship between retained genetic diversity and population size and time since island isolation for pond frogs on the islands, consistent with the prediction of the neutral theory for finite populations. Our study highlights the importance of the size and estimated isolation time of populations in understanding the mechanisms of genetic diversity loss and differentiation in fragmented wild populations. PMID:24351057

  5. Vestibular and visual responses in human posterior insular cortex.

    PubMed

    Frank, Sebastian M; Baumann, Oliver; Mattingley, Jason B; Greenlee, Mark W

    2014-11-15

    The central hub of the cortical vestibular network in humans is likely localized in the region of posterior lateral sulcus. An area characterized by responsiveness to visual motion has previously been described at a similar location and named posterior insular cortex (PIC). Currently it is not known whether PIC processes vestibular information as well. We localized PIC using visual motion stimulation in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and investigated whether PIC also responds to vestibular stimuli. To this end, we designed an MRI-compatible caloric stimulation device that allowed us to stimulate bithermally with hot temperature in one ear and simultaneously cold temperature in the other or with warm temperatures in both ears for baseline. During each trial, participants indicated the presence or absence of self-motion sensations. We found activation in PIC during periods of self motion when vestibular stimulation was carried out with minimal visual input. In combined visual-vestibular stimulation area PIC was activated in a similar fashion during congruent and incongruent stimulation conditions. Our results show that PIC not only responds to visual motion but also to vestibular stimuli related to the sensation of self motion. We suggest that PIC is part of the cortical vestibular network and plays a role in the integration of visual and vestibular stimuli for the perception of self motion.

  6. The Insular Cortex and the Regulation of Cardiac Function.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, Stephen; Cechetto, David

    2016-04-01

    Cortical representation of the heart challenges the orthodox view that cardiac regulation is confined to stereotyped, preprogrammed and rigid responses to exteroceptive or interoceptive environmental stimuli. The insula has been the region most studied in this regard; the results of clinical, experimental, and functional radiological studies show a complex interweave of activity with patterns dynamically varying regarding lateralization and antero-posterior distribution of responsive insular regions. Either acting alone or together with other cortical areas including the anterior cingulate, medial prefrontal, and orbito-frontal cortices as part of a concerted network, the insula can imbue perceptions with autonomic color providing emotional salience, and aiding in learning and behavioral decision choice. In these functions, cardiovascular input and the right anterior insula appear to play an important, if not pivotal role. At a more basic level, the insula gauges cardiovascular responses to exteroceptive and interoceptive stimuli, taking into account memory, cognitive, and reflexive constructs thereby ensuring appropriate survival responses and maintaining emotional and physiological homeostasis. When acquired derangements to the insula occur after stroke, during a seizure or from abnormal central processing of interoceptive or exteroceptive environmental cues as in psychiatric disorders, serious consequences can arise including cardiac electrophysiological, structural and contractile dysfunction and sudden cardiac death. PMID:27065176

  7. Analysis of Offshore Wind Energy Leasing Areas for the Rhode Island/Massachusetts Wind Energy Area

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Elliott, D.; Fields, J.; Parker, Z.; Scott, G.

    2013-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under an interagency agreement with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), is providing technical assistance to BOEM on the identification and delineation of offshore leasing areas for offshore wind energy development within the Atlantic Coast Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) established by BOEM in 2012. This report focuses on NREL's evaluation of BOEM's Rhode Island/Massachusetts (RIMA) WEA leasing areas. The objective of the NREL evaluation was to assess the proposed delineation of the two leasing areas and determine if the division is reasonable and technically sound. Additionally, the evaluation aimed to identify any deficiencies in the delineation. As part of the review, NREL performed the following tasks: 1. Performed a limited review of relevant literature and RIMA call nominations. 2. Executed a quantitative analysis and comparison of the two proposed leasing areas 3. Conducted interviews with University of Rhode Island (URI) staff involved with the URI Special Area Management Plan (SAMP) 4. Prepared this draft report summarizing the key findings.

  8. CREB regulates memory allocation in the insular cortex.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yoshitake; Shobe, Justin L; Zhou, Miou; Huang, Shan; Shuman, Tristan; Cai, Denise J; Golshani, Peyman; Kamata, Masakazu; Silva, Alcino J

    2014-12-01

    The molecular and cellular mechanisms of memory storage have attracted a great deal of attention. By comparison, little is known about memory allocation, the process that determines which specific neurons in a neural network will store a given memory. Previous studies demonstrated that memory allocation is not random in the amygdala; these studies showed that amygdala neurons with higher levels of the cyclic-AMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB) are more likely to be recruited into encoding and storing fear memory. To determine whether specific mechanisms also regulate memory allocation in other brain regions and whether CREB also has a role in this process, we studied insular cortical memory representations for conditioned taste aversion (CTA). In this task, an animal learns to associate a taste (conditioned stimulus [CS]) with the experience of malaise (such as that induced by LiCl; unconditioned stimulus [US]). The insular cortex is required for CTA memory formation and retrieval. CTA learning activates a subpopulation of neurons in this structure, and the insular cortex and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) interact during CTA formation. Here, we used a combination of approaches, including viral vector transfections of insular cortex, arc fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) system, to show that CREB levels determine which insular cortical neurons go on to encode a given conditioned taste memory.

  9. Magnetoencephalographic signatures of insular epileptic spikes based on functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Zerouali, Younes; Pouliot, Philippe; Robert, Manon; Mohamed, Ismail; Bouthillier, Alain; Lesage, Frédéric; Nguyen, Dang K

    2016-09-01

    Failure to recognize insular cortex seizures has recently been identified as a cause of epilepsy surgeries targeting the temporal, parietal, or frontal lobe. Such failures are partly due to the fact that current noninvasive localization techniques fare poorly in recognizing insular epileptic foci. Our group recently demonstrated that magnetoencephalography (MEG) is sensitive to epileptiform spikes generated by the insula. In this study, we assessed the potential of distributed source imaging and functional connectivity analyses to distinguish insular networks underlying the generation of spikes. Nineteen patients with operculo-insular epilepsy were investigated. Each patient underwent MEG as well as T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as part of their standard presurgical evaluation. Cortical sources of MEG spikes were reconstructed with the maximum entropy on the mean algorithm, and their time courses served to analyze source functional connectivity. The results indicate that the anterior and posterior subregions of the insula have specific patterns of functional connectivity mainly involving frontal and parietal regions, respectively. In addition, while their connectivity patterns are qualitatively similar during rest and during spikes, couplings within these networks are much stronger during spikes. These results show that MEG can establish functional connectivity-based signatures that could help in the diagnosis of different subtypes of insular cortex epilepsy. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3250-3261, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27220112

  10. Localization of abnormal discharges causing insular epilepsy by magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeon-Mi; Nakasato, Nobukazu; Tominaga, Teiji

    2012-01-01

    The insula, one of the five cerebral lobes of the brain, is located deep within the brain and lies mainly beneath the temporal lobe. Insular epilepsy can be easily confused and misdiagnosed as temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) because of the similar clinical symptoms and scalp electroencephalography (EEG) findings due to the insula location and neuronal connections with the temporal lobe. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has higher sensitivity and spatial resolution than scalp EEG, and thus can often identify epileptic discharges not revealed by scalp EEG. Simultaneous scalp EEG and MEG were performed to detect and localize epileptic discharges in two patients known to have insular epilepsy associated with cavernous angioma in the insula. Epileptic discharges were detected as abnormal spikes in the EEG and MEG findings. In Patient 1, the sources of all MEG spikes detected simultaneously by EEG and MEG (E/M-spikes) were localized in the anterior temporal lobe, similar to TLE. In contrast, the sources of all MEG spikes detected only by MEG (M-spikes) were adjacent to the insular lesion. In Patient 2, the sources of all MEG spikes detected simultaneously by EEG and MEG (E/M-spikes) were localized in the anterior temporal lobe. These findings indicate that MEG allows us to detect insular activity that is undetectable by scalp EEG. In conclusion, simultaneous EEG and MEG are helpful for detecting spikes and obtaining additional information about the epileptic origin and propagation in patients with insular epilepsy. PMID:22353789

  11. Insular Ecosystems of the Southeastern United States- A Regional Synthesis to Support Biodiversity Conservation in a Changing Climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Wolfe, William J.

    2016-01-01

    In the southeastern United States, insular ecosystems—such as rock outcrops, depression wetlands, high-elevation balds, flood-scoured riparian corridors, and insular prairies and barrens—occupy a small fraction of land area but constitute an important source of regional and global biodiversity, including concentrations of rare and endemic plant taxa. Maintenance of this biodiversity depends upon regimes of abiotic stress and disturbance, incorporating factors such as soil surface temperature, widely fluctuating hydrologic conditions, fires, flood scouring, and episodic droughts that may be subject to alteration by climate change. Over several decades, numerous localized, site-level investigations have yielded important information about the floristics, physical environments, and ecological dynamics of these insular ecosystems; however, the literature from these investigations has generally remained fragmented. This report consists of literature syntheses for eight categories of insular ecosystems of the southeastern United States, concerning (1) physical geography, (2) ecological determinants of community structures including vegetation dynamics and regimes of abiotic stress and disturbance, (3) contributions to regional and global biodiversity, (4) historical and current anthropogenic threats and conservation approaches, and (5) key knowledge gaps relevant to conservation, particularly in terms of climate-change effects on biodiversity. This regional synthesis was undertaken to discern patterns across ecosystems, identify knowledge gaps, and lay the groundwork for future analyses of climate-change vulnerability. Findings from this synthesis indicate that, despite their importance to regional and global biodiversity, insular ecosystems of the southeastern United States have been subjected to a variety of direct and indirect human alterations. In many cases, important questions remain concerning key determinants of ecosystem function. In particular, few

  12. Insular ecosystems of the southeastern United States—A regional synthesis to support biodiversity conservation in a changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Wolfe, William J.

    2016-08-11

    In the southeastern United States, insular ecosystems—such as rock outcrops, depression wetlands, high-elevation balds, flood-scoured riparian corridors, and insular prairies and barrens—occupy a small fraction of land area but constitute an important source of regional and global biodiversity, including concentrations of rare and endemic plant taxa. Maintenance of this biodiversity depends upon regimes of abiotic stress and disturbance, incorporating factors such as soil surface temperature, widely fluctuating hydrologic conditions, fires, flood scouring, and episodic droughts that may be subject to alteration by climate change. Over several decades, numerous localized, site-level investigations have yielded important information about the floristics, physical environments, and ecological dynamics of these insular ecosystems; however, the literature from these investigations has generally remained fragmented. This report consists of literature syntheses for eight categories of insular ecosystems of the southeastern United States, concerning (1) physical geography, (2) ecological determinants of community structures including vegetation dynamics and regimes of abiotic stress and disturbance, (3) contributions to regional and global biodiversity, (4) historical and current anthropogenic threats and conservation approaches, and (5) key knowledge gaps relevant to conservation, particularly in terms of climate-change effects on biodiversity. This regional synthesis was undertaken to discern patterns across ecosystems, identify knowledge gaps, and lay the groundwork for future analyses of climate-change vulnerability. Findings from this synthesis indicate that, despite their importance to regional and global biodiversity, insular ecosystems of the southeastern United States have been subjected to a variety of direct and indirect human alterations. In many cases, important questions remain concerning key determinants of ecosystem function. In particular, few

  13. Effects of insularity on digestion: living on islands induces shifts in physiological and morphological traits in island reptiles.

    PubMed

    Sagonas, Kostas; Pafilis, Panayiotis; Valakos, Efstratios D

    2015-10-01

    Living on islands entails numerous challenges for animals, among which resource scarcity stands out. In order to survive, animals have to optimize energy acquisition. We examined the impact of insularity on digestion comparing a series of physiological and morphological traits of adult males between insular and mainland populations of the Balkan green lizard. Island lizards had longer gastrointestinal tracts and gut passage times and higher digestive efficiencies. The dissection of the hindgut revealed an unexpected finding, the presence of cecal valves that were more frequent in island lizards. Thanks to all above islanders retain food for longer periods and thus maximize energy income and increase the amount of the extracted nutrients. That way, they secure energy income from the limited, in time and quantity, food resources of the islands.

  14. Effects of insularity on digestion: living on islands induces shifts in physiological and morphological traits in island reptiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagonas, Kostas; Pafilis, Panayiotis; Valakos, Efstratios D.

    2015-10-01

    Living on islands entails numerous challenges for animals, among which resource scarcity stands out. In order to survive, animals have to optimize energy acquisition. We examined the impact of insularity on digestion comparing a series of physiological and morphological traits of adult males between insular and mainland populations of the Balkan green lizard. Island lizards had longer gastrointestinal tracts and gut passage times and higher digestive efficiencies. The dissection of the hindgut revealed an unexpected finding, the presence of cecal valves that were more frequent in island lizards. Thanks to all above islanders retain food for longer periods and thus maximize energy income and increase the amount of the extracted nutrients. That way, they secure energy income from the limited, in time and quantity, food resources of the islands.

  15. Kinetic energy budget studies of areas of convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.

    1979-01-01

    Synoptic-scale kinetic energy budgets are being computed for three cases when large areas of intense convection occurred over the Central United States. Major energy activity occurs in the storm areas.

  16. 24 CFR 570.441 - Citizen participation-insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the community development program available to the public before its submission to HUD. (f... the jurisdiction for the development and execution of its community development program. (b) Citizen... community development and housing needs, development of proposed activities, and review of...

  17. 24 CFR 570.441 - Citizen participation-insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the community development program available to the public before its submission to HUD. (f... the jurisdiction for the development and execution of its community development program. (b) Citizen... community development and housing needs, development of proposed activities, and review of...

  18. 24 CFR 570.405 - The insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... costs incurred before HUD approval of the application for funding. However, under unusual circumstances... reimburse costs that will be incurred after submission of the application but before it is approved where... currently under administration, the applicant shall not be invited to submit an application for the...

  19. 24 CFR 570.405 - The insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... costs incurred before HUD approval of the application for funding. However, under unusual circumstances... reimburse costs that will be incurred after submission of the application but before it is approved where... currently under administration, the applicant shall not be invited to submit an application for the...

  20. 24 CFR 570.405 - The insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... section based on the grantee's performance report, the timeliness of close-outs and compliance with fund... based on population of the applicant and its performance in previous years. In determining performance... met in accordance with 24 CFR 58.22, and with the understanding that HUD has no obligation...

  1. 24 CFR 570.405 - The insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... year's funding. (c) Previous audit findings and outstanding monetary obligations. HUD shall not accept for review an application from an applicant that has either an outstanding audit finding for any HUD... or she finds that the applicant has made a good faith effort to clear the audit. In no...

  2. Insular Cortex Is Involved in Consolidation of Object Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico; Okuda, Shoki; Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2005-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that the insular cortex (IC), also termed gustatory cortex, is critically involved in conditioned taste aversion and taste recognition memory. Although most studies of the involvement of the IC in memory have investigated taste, there is some evidence that the IC is involved in memory that is not based on taste. In…

  3. Second Surgery in Insular Low-Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Ius, Tamara; Pauletto, Giada; Cesselli, Daniela; Isola, Miriam; Turella, Luca; Budai, Riccardo; DeMaglio, Giovanna; Eleopra, Roberto; Fadiga, Luciano; Lettieri, Christian; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Beltrami, Carlo Alberto; Skrap, Miran

    2015-01-01

    Background. Given the technical difficulties, a limited number of works have been published on insular gliomas surgery and risk factors for tumor recurrence (TR) are poorly documented. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine TR in adult patients with initial diagnosis of insular Low-Grade Gliomas (LGGs) that subsequently underwent second surgery. Methods. A consecutive series of 53 patients with insular LGGs was retrospectively reviewed; 23 patients had two operations for TR. Results. At the time of second surgery, almost half of the patients had experienced progression into high-grade gliomas (HGGs). Univariate analysis showed that TR is influenced by the following: extent of resection (EOR) (P < 0.002), ΔVT2T1 value (P < 0.001), histological diagnosis of oligodendroglioma (P = 0.017), and mutation of IDH1 (P = 0.022). The multivariate analysis showed that EOR at first surgery was the independent predictor for TR (P < 0.001). Conclusions. In patients with insular LGG the EOR at first surgery represents the major predictive factor for TR. At time of TR, more than 50% of cases had progressed in HGG, raising the question of the oncological management after the first surgery. PMID:26539503

  4. Ideas on the Margins: Professional Counseling and Ideological Insularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, James

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to professionalize counseling practice have yielded extraordinary benefits to counselors. However, professionalization has also caused counselors to adopt strict definitions of their education, practices, and ethics. In order to combat the ideological insularity brought on by professionalization, several marginalized ideas are considered.…

  5. 38 CFR 3.40 - Philippine and Insular Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Philippine and Insular Forces. 3.40 Section 3.40 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.40 Philippine...

  6. Social information processing following resection of the insular cortex.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Olivier; Rouleau, Isabelle; Lassonde, Maryse; Lepore, Franco; Bouthillier, Alain; Nguyen, Dang K

    2015-05-01

    The insula has been implicated in social cognition and empathy in several neuroimaging paradigms. Impairments in social information processing, including specific deficits in disgust recognition, have been described following isolated insular damage, although the evidence remains limited to a few case studies. The present study examines social cognition and empathy in a group of fifteen patients for whom the insula was removed as part of their epilepsy surgery. These patients were compared to a lesion-control group of 15 epileptic patients who had a surgery in the anterior temporal lobe that spared the insula, and to 20 healthy volunteers matched on age, sex, and education. Participants were assessed on an Emotion Recognition Task (ERT), the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test, and a self-administered empathy questionnaire. Patients who underwent insular resection showed poorer ability to recognize facial expressions of emotions and had lower scores of perspective taking on the empathy questionnaire than healthy controls. Using results from healthy controls as normative data, emotion recognition deficits were more frequent in insular patients than in both other groups. Specific emotion analyses revealed impairments in fear recognition in both groups of patients, whereas happiness and surprise recognition was only impaired in patients with insular resection. There was no evidence for a deficit in disgust recognition. The findings suggest that unilateral damage to the operculo-insular region may be associated with subtle impairments in emotion recognition, and provide further clinical evidence of a role of the insula in empathic processes. However, the description of 15 consecutive cases of insula-damaged patients with no specific deficit in disgust recognition seriously challenges the assumptions, based on previous case reports, that the insula is specifically involved in disgust processing.

  7. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with low GABA and high glutamate in the insular cortex.

    PubMed

    Macey, Paul M; Sarma, Manoj K; Nagarajan, Rajakumar; Aysola, Ravi; Siegel, Jerome M; Harper, Ronald M; Thomas, M Albert

    2016-08-01

    The insular cortex is injured in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and responds inappropriately to autonomic challenges, suggesting neural reorganization. The objective of this study was to assess whether the neural changes might result from γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate alterations. We studied 14 OSA patients [mean age ± standard deviation (SD): 47.5 ± 10.5 years; nine male; apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): 29.5 ± 15.6 events h(-1) ] and 22 healthy participants (47.5 ± 10.1 years; 11 male), using magnetic resonance spectroscopy to detect GABA and glutamate levels in insular cortices. We localized the cortices with anatomical scans, and measured neurochemical levels from anterior to mid-regions. Left and right anterior insular cortices showed lower GABA and higher glutamate in OSA versus healthy subjects [GABA left: OSA n = 6: 0.36 ± 0.10 (mean ± SD), healthy n = 5: 0.62 ± 0.18; P < 0.05), right: OSA n = 11: 0.27 ± 0.09, healthy n = 14: 0.45 ± 0.16; P < 0.05; glutamate left: OSA n = 6: 1.61 ± 0.32, healthy n = 8: 0.94 ± 0.34; P < 0.05, right: OSA n = 14: 1.26 ± 0.28, healthy n = 19: 1.02 ± 0.28; P < 0.05]. GABA and glutamate levels were correlated only within the healthy group in the left insula (r: -0.9, P < 0.05). The altered anterior insular levels of GABA and glutamate may modify integration and projections to autonomic areas, contributing to the impaired cardiovascular regulation in OSA.

  8. The human operculo-insular cortex is pain-preferentially but not pain-exclusively activated by trigeminal and olfactory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Lötsch, Jörn; Walter, Carmen; Felden, Lisa; Nöth, Ulrike; Deichmann, Ralf; Oertel, Bruno G

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence about the central nervous representation of pain in the brain suggests that the operculo-insular cortex is a crucial part of the pain matrix. The pain-specificity of a brain region may be tested by administering nociceptive stimuli while controlling for unspecific activations by administering non-nociceptive stimuli. We applied this paradigm to nasal chemosensation, delivering trigeminal or olfactory stimuli, to verify the pain-specificity of the operculo-insular cortex. In detail, brain activations due to intranasal stimulation induced by non-nociceptive olfactory stimuli of hydrogen sulfide (5 ppm) or vanillin (0.8 ppm) were used to mask brain activations due to somatosensory, clearly nociceptive trigeminal stimulations with gaseous carbon dioxide (75% v/v). Functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) images were recorded from 12 healthy volunteers in a 3T head scanner during stimulus administration using an event-related design. We found that significantly more activations following nociceptive than non-nociceptive stimuli were localized bilaterally in two restricted clusters in the brain containing the primary and secondary somatosensory areas and the insular cortices consistent with the operculo-insular cortex. However, these activations completely disappeared when eliminating activations associated with the administration of olfactory stimuli, which were small but measurable. While the present experiments verify that the operculo-insular cortex plays a role in the processing of nociceptive input, they also show that it is not a pain-exclusive brain region and allow, in the experimental context, for the interpretation that the operculo-insular cortex splay a major role in the detection of and responding to salient events, whether or not these events are nociceptive or painful. PMID:22496865

  9. The Cortical Signature of Central Poststroke Pain: Gray Matter Decreases in Somatosensory, Insular, and Prefrontal Cortices.

    PubMed

    Krause, T; Asseyer, S; Taskin, B; Flöel, A; Witte, A V; Mueller, K; Fiebach, J B; Villringer, K; Villringer, A; Jungehulsing, G J

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that cortical structural plasticity plays a crucial role in the emergence and maintenance of chronic pain. Various distinct pain syndromes have accordingly been linked to specific patterns of decreases in regional gray matter volume (GMV). However, it is not known whether central poststroke pain (CPSP) is also associated with cortical structural plasticity. To determine this, we employed T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T and voxel-based morphometry in 45 patients suffering from chronic subcortical sensory stroke with (n = 23) and without CPSP (n = 22), and healthy matched controls (n = 31). CPSP patients showed decreases in GMV in comparison to healthy controls, involving secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), anterior as well as posterior insular cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex, temporal cortex, and nucleus accumbens. Comparing CPSP patients to nonpain patients revealed a similar but more restricted pattern of atrophy comprising S2, ventrolateral prefrontal and temporal cortex. Additionally, GMV in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex negatively correlated to pain intensity ratings. This shows for the first time that CPSP is accompanied by a unique pattern of widespread structural plasticity, which involves the sensory-discriminative areas of insular/somatosensory cortex, but also expands into prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum, where emotional aspects of pain are processed.

  10. Structural basis of empathy and the domain general region in the anterior insular cortex

    PubMed Central

    Mutschler, Isabella; Reinbold, Céline; Wankerl, Johanna; Seifritz, Erich; Ball, Tonio

    2013-01-01

    Empathy is key for healthy social functioning and individual differences in empathy have strong implications for manifold domains of social behavior. Empathy comprises of emotional and cognitive components and may also be closely linked to sensorimotor processes, which go along with the motivation and behavior to respond compassionately to another person's feelings. There is growing evidence for local plastic change in the structure of the healthy adult human brain in response to environmental demands or intrinsic factors. Here we have investigated changes in brain structure resulting from or predisposing to empathy. Structural MRI data of 101 healthy adult females was analyzed. Empathy in fictitious as well as real-life situations was assessed using a validated self-evaluation measure. Furthermore, empathy-related structural effects were also put into the context of a functional map of the anterior insular cortex (AIC) determined by activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis of previous functional imaging studies. We found that gray matter (GM) density in the left dorsal AIC correlates with empathy and that this area overlaps with the domain general region (DGR) of the anterior insula that is situated in-between functional systems involved in emotion–cognition, pain, and motor tasks as determined by our meta-analysis. Thus, we propose that this insular region where we find structural differences depending on individual empathy may play a crucial role in modulating the efficiency of neural integration underlying emotional, cognitive, and sensorimotor information which is essential for global empathy. PMID:23675334

  11. Spatial segregation of somato-sensory and pain activations in the human operculo-insular cortex.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Laure; Faillenot, Isabelle; Barral, Fabrice-Guy; Mauguière, François; Peyron, Roland

    2012-03-01

    The role of operculo-insular region in the processing of somato-sensory inputs, painful or not, is now well established. However, available maps from previous literature show a substantial overlap of cortical areas activated by these stimuli, and the region referred to as the "secondary somatosensory area (SII)" is widely distributed in the parietal operculum. Differentiating SII from posterior insula cortex, which is anatomically contiguous, is not easy, explaining why the "operculo-insular" label has been introduced to describe activations by somatosensory stimuli in this cortical region. Based on the recent cyto-architectural parcellation of the human insular/SII cortices (Eickhoff et al., 2006, Kurth et al., 2010), the present study investigates with functional MRI (fMRI), whether these structural subdivisions could subserve distinct aspects of discriminative somato-sensory functions, including pain. Responses to five types of stimuli applied on the left hand of 25 healthy volunteers were considered: i) tactile stimuli; ii) passive movements; iii) innocuous cold stimuli; iv) non-noxious warm and v) heat pain. Our results show different patterns of activation depending on the type of somato-sensory stimulation. The posterior part of SII (OP1 area), contralateral to stimuli, was the only sub-region activated by all type of stimuli and might therefore be considered as a common cortical target for different types of somato-sensory inputs. Proprioceptive stimulation by passive finger movements activated the posterior part of SII (OP1 sub-region) bilaterally and the contralateral median part of insula (PreCG and MSG). Innocuous cooling activated the contralateral posterior part of SII (OP1) and the dorsal posterior and median part of insula (OP2, PostCG). Pain stimuli induced the most widespread and intense activation that was bilateral in SII (OP1, OP4) and distributed to all sub-regions of contralateral insula (except OP2) and to the anterior part of the

  12. Insular Volume Reduction in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Akiko; Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Nakaaki, Shutaro; Kawaguchi, Takatsune; Kan, Hirohito; Arai, Nobuyuki; Shiraishi, Nao; Hashimoto, Nobuhiko; Akechi, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is highly prevalent, there have been only a few structural imaging studies. Moreover, most of them reported about a volume reduction in amygdale, which plays a key role in the neural function of SAD. Insula is another region of interest. Its hyperactivity in regard to processing negative emotional information or interoceptive awareness has been detected in patients with SAD. Referring to these studies, we hypothesized that insular volumes might reduce in patients with SAD and made a comparison of insular volumes between 13 patients with SAD and 18 healthy controls with matched age and gender using voxel-based morphometry. As a result, we found a significant volume reduction in insula in the SAD group. Our results suggest that the patients with SAD might have an insular volume reduction apart from amygdala. Since insula plays a critical role in the pathology of SAD, more attention should be paid not only to functional study but also morphometrical study of insula. PMID:26834652

  13. Low energy demonstration accelerator technical area 53

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    As part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) need to maintain the capability of producing tritium in support of its historic and near-term stewardship of the nation`s nuclear weapons stockpile, the agency has recently completed a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Tritium Supply and Recycling. The resulting Record of Decision (ROD) determined that over the next three years the DOE would follow a dual-track acquisition strategy that assures tritium production for the nuclear weapon stockpile in a rapid, cost effective, and safe manner. Under this strategy the DOE will further investigate and compare two options for producing tritium: (1) purchase of an existing commercial light-water reactor or irradiation services with an option to purchase the reactor for conversion to a defense facility; and (2) design, build, and test critical components of a system for accelerator production of tritium (APT). The final decision to select the primary production option will be made by the Secretary of Energy in the October 1998 time frame. The alternative not chosen as the primary production method, if feasible, would be developed as a back-up tritium supply source. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental effects that would be expected to occur if the DOE were to design, build, and test critical prototypical components of the accelerator system for tritium production, specifically the front-end low-energy section of the accelerator, at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) would be incrementally developed and tested in five separate stages over the next seven years. The following issues were evaluated for the proposed action: utility demands, air, human health, environmental restoration, waste management, transportation, water, threatened and endangered species, wetlands, cultural resources, and environmental justice.

  14. The insular cortex controls food preferences independently of taste receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Maia, Albino J; de Araujo, Ivan E; Monteiro, Clara; Workman, Virginia; Galhardo, Vasco; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2012-01-01

    The insular cortex (IC) contains the primary sensory cortex for oral chemosensation including gustation, and its integrity is required for appropriate control of feeding behavior. However, it remains unknown whether the role of this brain area in food selection relies on the presence of peripheral taste input. Using multielectrode recordings, we found that the responses of populations of neurons in the IC of freely licking, sweet-blind Trpm5(-/-) mice are modulated by the rewarding postingestive effects of sucrose. FOS immunoreactivity analyses revealed that these responses are restricted to the dorsal insula. Furthermore, bilateral lesions in this area abolished taste-independent preferences for sucrose that can be conditioned in these Trpm5(-/-) animals while preserving their ability to detect sucrose. Overall, these findings demonstrate that, even in the absence of peripheral taste input, IC regulates food choices based on postingestive signals. PMID:22403530

  15. Predictive coding accounts of shared representations in parieto-insular networks.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Keisuke; Grandi, Laura Clara

    2015-04-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons in the ventral premotor cortex (area F5) and inferior parietal cortex (area PFG) in the macaque monkey brain has provided the physiological evidence for direct matching of the intrinsic motor representations of the self and the visual image of the actions of others. The existence of mirror neurons implies that the brain has mechanisms reflecting shared self and other action representations. This may further imply that the neural basis self-body representations may also incorporate components that are shared with other-body representations. It is likely that such a mechanism is also involved in predicting other's touch sensations and emotions. However, the neural basis of shared body representations has remained unclear. Here, we propose a neural basis of body representation of the self and of others in both human and non-human primates. We review a series of behavioral and physiological findings which together paint a picture that the systems underlying such shared representations require integration of conscious exteroception and interoception subserved by a cortical sensory-motor network involving parieto-inner perisylvian circuits (the ventral intraparietal area [VIP]/inferior parietal area [PFG]-secondary somatosensory cortex [SII]/posterior insular cortex [pIC]/anterior insular cortex [aIC]). Based on these findings, we propose a computational mechanism of the shared body representation in the predictive coding (PC) framework. Our mechanism proposes that processes emerging from generative models embedded in these specific neuronal circuits play a pivotal role in distinguishing a self-specific body representation from a shared one. The model successfully accounts for normal and abnormal shared body phenomena such as mirror-touch synesthesia and somatoparaphrenia. In addition, it generates a set of testable experimental predictions. PMID:25447372

  16. Reduction of brain and sense organs in the fossil insular bovid Myotragus.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Meike; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2004-01-01

    Our study of the fossil rupicaprine bovid Myotragus [Bate, 1909] from the Mediterranean island Majorca (Spain) provides evidence that this animal underwent significant changes (reduction) in the relative size of brain and sense organs after geographic isolation at the end of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (Miocene-Pliocene boundary, 5.2 Mya). The changes in the central nervous system of Myotragus parallel the pattern reported for domesticated animals, in which decrease in relative brain size is accompanied by a decrease in the relative size of their sense organs. We interpret the important size reduction of brain and sense organs in Myotragus as an adaptive strategy for more efficient energy use under the special environmental conditions of the insular ecosystem, characterized by absence of predation and limitation of trophic resources.

  17. Insular avian adaptations on two Neotropical continental islands

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Natalie A.; Steadman, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Most studies of avian insular adaptations have focused on oceanic islands, which may not allow characters that are insular adaptations to be teased apart from those that benefit dispersal and colonization. Using birds on continental islands, we investigated characters that evolved in situ in response to insular environments created by late Pleistocene sea level rise. Location Trinidad and Tobago, nearby Caribbean islands and continental South America. Methods We weighed fresh flight muscles and measured museum skeletal specimens of seven species of birds common to the continental islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Results When corrected for body size, study species exhibited significantly smaller flight muscles, sterna and sternal keels on Tobago than on larger Trinidad and continental South America. Tobago populations were more ‘insular’ in their morphologies than conspecifics on Trinidad or the continent in other ways as well, including having longer bills, longer wings, longer tails and longer legs. Main conclusions We hypothesize that the longer bills enhance foraging diversity, the longer wings and tails compensate for the smaller pectoral assemblage (allowing for retention of volancy, but with a probable reduction in flight power and speed), and the longer legs expand perching ability. Each of these differences is likely to be related to the lower diversity and fewer potential predators and competitors on Tobago compared with Trinidad. These patterns of smaller flight muscles and larger bills, legs, wings and tails in island birds are not the results of selection for island dispersal and colonization, but probably arose from selection pressures acting on populations already inhabiting these islands. PMID:23066173

  18. Isolated left posterior insular infarction and convergent roles in verbal fluency, language, memory, and executive function

    PubMed Central

    Ruthirago, Doungporn; DeToledo, John C.

    2016-01-01

    The posterior insular cortex—a complex structure interconnecting various brain regions for different functions—is a rare location for ischemic stroke. We report a patient with isolated left posterior insular infarction who presented with multiple cognitive impairment, including impairment in semantic and phonemic verbal fluency. PMID:27365876

  19. 19 CFR 191.5 - Guantanamo Bay, insular possessions, trust territories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Guantanamo Bay, insular possessions, trust... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.5 Guantanamo Bay, insular possessions, trust territories. Guantanamo Bay Naval Station shall be considered foreign...

  20. 19 CFR 191.5 - Guantanamo Bay, insular possessions, trust territories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guantanamo Bay, insular possessions, trust... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.5 Guantanamo Bay, insular possessions, trust territories. Guantanamo Bay Naval Station shall be considered foreign...

  1. Electrical stimulation of the insular region attenuates nicotine-taking and nicotine-seeking behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pushparaj, Abhiram; Hamani, Clement; Yu, Wilson; Shin, Damian S; Kang, Bin; Nobrega, José N; Le Foll, Bernard

    2013-03-01

    Pharmacological inactivation of the granular insular cortex is able to block nicotine-taking and -seeking behaviors in rats. In this study, we explored the potential of modulating activity in the insular region using electrical stimulation. Animals were trained to self-administer nicotine (0.03 mg/kg per infusion) under a fixed ratio-5 (FR-5) schedule of reinforcement followed by a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. Evaluation of the effect of stimulation in the insular region was performed on nicotine self-administration under FR-5 and PR schedules, as well on reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior induced by nicotine-associated cues or nicotine-priming injections. The effect of stimulation was also examined in brain slices containing insular neurons. Stimulation significantly attenuated nicotine-taking, under both schedules of reinforcement, as well as nicotine-seeking behavior induced by cues and priming. These effects appear to be specific to nicotine-associated behaviors, as stimulation did not have any effect on food-taking behavior. They appear to be anatomically specific, as stimulation surrounding the insular region had no effect on behavior. Stimulation of brain slices containing the insular region was found to inactivate insular neurons. Our results suggest that deep brain stimulation to modulate insular activity should be further explored. PMID:23249816

  2. 19 CFR 7.4 - Watches and watch movements from U.S. insular possessions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... handling of certificates and the transfer of entitlements as contained in 15 CFR part 303. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Watches and watch movements from U.S. insular... STATION § 7.4 Watches and watch movements from U.S. insular possessions. (a) The issuance of...

  3. 19 CFR 7.4 - Watches and watch movements from U.S. insular possessions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... handling of certificates and the transfer of entitlements as contained in 15 CFR part 303. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Watches and watch movements from U.S. insular... STATION § 7.4 Watches and watch movements from U.S. insular possessions. (a) The issuance of...

  4. 19 CFR 7.4 - Watches and watch movements from U.S. insular possessions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... handling of certificates and the transfer of entitlements as contained in 15 CFR part 303. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Watches and watch movements from U.S. insular... STATION § 7.4 Watches and watch movements from U.S. insular possessions. (a) The issuance of...

  5. 19 CFR 7.4 - Watches and watch movements from U.S. insular possessions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... handling of certificates and the transfer of entitlements as contained in 15 CFR part 303. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Watches and watch movements from U.S. insular... STATION § 7.4 Watches and watch movements from U.S. insular possessions. (a) The issuance of...

  6. 19 CFR 7.4 - Watches and watch movements from U.S. insular possessions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... handling of certificates and the transfer of entitlements as contained in 15 CFR part 303. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Watches and watch movements from U.S. insular... STATION § 7.4 Watches and watch movements from U.S. insular possessions. (a) The issuance of...

  7. [Insular carcinoma of the thyroid. An uncommon but aggressive neoplasm].

    PubMed

    Naranjo-Gómez, José Manuel; Folqué-Gómez, Emilio; Moreno-Mata, Nicolás; Moldes-Rodríguez, Milagros; Martínez-Martínez, Patricia; González-Aragoneses, Federico; Orusco-Palomino, Eduardo

    2005-04-01

    Insular carcinoma of the thyroid is an infrequent entity, named in 1984 by Carcangiu when he described its characteristic histology. Clinically and morphologically it is considered to be in an intermediate position between well-differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid (papillary or follicular) and undifferentiated or anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid. However, most authors believe it to be an independent entity. The prognosis of this tumor is worse than that of classic carcinoma of the thyroid, and most authors advise aggressive therapy, which in some cases can achieved prolonged survival. We describe 2 patients who experienced recurrence after treatment for the primary tumor. The recurrences were treated but the clinical courses differed.

  8. Learning touch preferences with a tactile robot using dopamine modulated STDP in a model of insular cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ting-Shuo; Bucci, Liam D.; Krichmar, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Neurorobots enable researchers to study how behaviors are produced by neural mechanisms in an uncertain, noisy, real-world environment. To investigate how the somatosensory system processes noisy, real-world touch inputs, we introduce a neurorobot called CARL-SJR, which has a full-body tactile sensory area. The design of CARL-SJR is such that it encourages people to communicate with it through gentle touch. CARL-SJR provides feedback to users by displaying bright colors on its surface. In the present study, we show that CARL-SJR is capable of learning associations between conditioned stimuli (CS; a color pattern on its surface) and unconditioned stimuli (US; a preferred touch pattern) by applying a spiking neural network (SNN) with neurobiologically inspired plasticity. Specifically, we modeled the primary somatosensory cortex, prefrontal cortex, striatum, and the insular cortex, which is important for hedonic touch, to process noisy data generated directly from CARL-SJR's tactile sensory area. To facilitate learning, we applied dopamine-modulated Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP) to our simulated prefrontal cortex, striatum, and insular cortex. To cope with noisy, varying inputs, the SNN was tuned to produce traveling waves of activity that carried spatiotemporal information. Despite the noisy tactile sensors, spike trains, and variations in subject hand swipes, the learning was quite robust. Further, insular cortex activities in the incremental pathway of dopaminergic reward system allowed us to control CARL-SJR's preference for touch direction without heavily pre-processed inputs. The emerged behaviors we found in this model match animal's behaviors wherein they prefer touch in particular areas and directions. Thus, the results in this paper could serve as an explanation on the underlying neural mechanisms for developing tactile preferences and hedonic touch. PMID:26257639

  9. Kansas Energy 2000. [Inventory of Energy Related Assets. Research Area Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Legg, J.; Nellis, D.; Simons, G.

    1992-03-01

    The Inventory of Energy Related Assets: Research Area Summary is a compilation of resume-type information on energy researchers in the state of Kansas. Researchers are placed in one of four categories: Fossil Energy Research, Alternative Energy Sources, Electric Power Generation and Usage, and Other Energy Research. Each research biography includes a synopsis of recent research, sources of support, and areas of research emphasis.

  10. Phylogeny and adaptation shape the teeth of insular mice.

    PubMed

    Ledevin, Ronan; Chevret, Pascale; Ganem, Guila; Britton-Davidian, Janice; Hardouin, Emilie A; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Pisanu, Benoit; da Luz Mathias, Maria; Schlager, Stefan; Auffray, Jean-Christophe; Renaud, Sabrina

    2016-02-10

    By accompanying human travels since prehistorical times, the house mouse dispersed widely throughout the world, and colonized many islands. The origin of the travellers determined the phylogenetic source of the insular mice, which encountered diverse ecological and environmental conditions on the various islands. Insular mice are thus an exceptional model to disentangle the relative role of phylogeny, ecology and climate in evolution. Molar shape is known to vary according to phylogeny and to respond to adaptation. Using for the first time a three-dimensional geometric morphometric approach, compared with a classical two-dimensional quantification, the relative effects of size variation, phylogeny, climate and ecology were investigated on molar shape diversity across a variety of islands. Phylogeny emerged as the factor of prime importance in shaping the molar. Changes in competition level, mostly driven by the presence or absence of the wood mouse on the different islands, appeared as the second most important effect. Climate and size differences accounted for slight shape variation. This evidences a balanced role of random differentiation related to history of colonization, and of adaptation possibly related to resource exploitation. PMID:26842576

  11. Phylogeny and adaptation shape the teeth of insular mice.

    PubMed

    Ledevin, Ronan; Chevret, Pascale; Ganem, Guila; Britton-Davidian, Janice; Hardouin, Emilie A; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Pisanu, Benoit; da Luz Mathias, Maria; Schlager, Stefan; Auffray, Jean-Christophe; Renaud, Sabrina

    2016-02-10

    By accompanying human travels since prehistorical times, the house mouse dispersed widely throughout the world, and colonized many islands. The origin of the travellers determined the phylogenetic source of the insular mice, which encountered diverse ecological and environmental conditions on the various islands. Insular mice are thus an exceptional model to disentangle the relative role of phylogeny, ecology and climate in evolution. Molar shape is known to vary according to phylogeny and to respond to adaptation. Using for the first time a three-dimensional geometric morphometric approach, compared with a classical two-dimensional quantification, the relative effects of size variation, phylogeny, climate and ecology were investigated on molar shape diversity across a variety of islands. Phylogeny emerged as the factor of prime importance in shaping the molar. Changes in competition level, mostly driven by the presence or absence of the wood mouse on the different islands, appeared as the second most important effect. Climate and size differences accounted for slight shape variation. This evidences a balanced role of random differentiation related to history of colonization, and of adaptation possibly related to resource exploitation.

  12. Parental Praise Correlates with Posterior Insular Cortex Gray Matter Volume in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Matsudaira, Izumi; Yokota, Susumu; Hashimoto, Teruo; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Kohei; Asano, Michiko; Sassa, Yuko; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    A positive parenting style affects psychological and cognitive development in children. Neuroimaging studies revealed that a positive parenting style influenced brain structure in children. Parental praise is a concrete behavior observed in positive parenting. Although previous psychological studies revealed a positive effect of parental praise on children, little is known about the relationship between parental praise and brain structure in children. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a correlation between the parental attitude towards praising their child and gray matter volume in the children (116 boys and 109 girls; mean age, 10.6 years old). We examined the correlation between regional gray matter volume and parental praise using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, to confirm the positive effects of parental praise, we analyzed the correlation between the frequency of parental praise and personality traits in children. We showed that the parental attitude towards praising their child was significantly and positively correlated with the gray matter volume of the left posterior insular cortex in children. Moreover, we found a significant positive correlation between parental attitude towards praising their child and the personality traits of conscientiousness and openness to experience in the children. Prior studies said that gray matter volume in the posterior insula was correlated with empathy, and the functional connectivity between this area and the amygdala was associated with emotional regulation. Furthermore, the posterior insula relates to auditory function, and therefore, was likely involved in the processing of parental praise. Considering the possibility of experience-dependent plasticity, frequent parental praise would lead to increased posterior insular gray matter volume in children. Our study is the first to elucidate the relationship between a specific

  13. Parental Praise Correlates with Posterior Insular Cortex Gray Matter Volume in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Matsudaira, Izumi; Yokota, Susumu; Hashimoto, Teruo; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Kohei; Asano, Michiko; Sassa, Yuko; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    A positive parenting style affects psychological and cognitive development in children. Neuroimaging studies revealed that a positive parenting style influenced brain structure in children. Parental praise is a concrete behavior observed in positive parenting. Although previous psychological studies revealed a positive effect of parental praise on children, little is known about the relationship between parental praise and brain structure in children. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a correlation between the parental attitude towards praising their child and gray matter volume in the children (116 boys and 109 girls; mean age, 10.6 years old). We examined the correlation between regional gray matter volume and parental praise using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, to confirm the positive effects of parental praise, we analyzed the correlation between the frequency of parental praise and personality traits in children. We showed that the parental attitude towards praising their child was significantly and positively correlated with the gray matter volume of the left posterior insular cortex in children. Moreover, we found a significant positive correlation between parental attitude towards praising their child and the personality traits of conscientiousness and openness to experience in the children. Prior studies said that gray matter volume in the posterior insula was correlated with empathy, and the functional connectivity between this area and the amygdala was associated with emotional regulation. Furthermore, the posterior insula relates to auditory function, and therefore, was likely involved in the processing of parental praise. Considering the possibility of experience-dependent plasticity, frequent parental praise would lead to increased posterior insular gray matter volume in children. Our study is the first to elucidate the relationship between a specific

  14. Parental Praise Correlates with Posterior Insular Cortex Gray Matter Volume in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Matsudaira, Izumi; Yokota, Susumu; Hashimoto, Teruo; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Kohei; Asano, Michiko; Sassa, Yuko; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    A positive parenting style affects psychological and cognitive development in children. Neuroimaging studies revealed that a positive parenting style influenced brain structure in children. Parental praise is a concrete behavior observed in positive parenting. Although previous psychological studies revealed a positive effect of parental praise on children, little is known about the relationship between parental praise and brain structure in children. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a correlation between the parental attitude towards praising their child and gray matter volume in the children (116 boys and 109 girls; mean age, 10.6 years old). We examined the correlation between regional gray matter volume and parental praise using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, to confirm the positive effects of parental praise, we analyzed the correlation between the frequency of parental praise and personality traits in children. We showed that the parental attitude towards praising their child was significantly and positively correlated with the gray matter volume of the left posterior insular cortex in children. Moreover, we found a significant positive correlation between parental attitude towards praising their child and the personality traits of conscientiousness and openness to experience in the children. Prior studies said that gray matter volume in the posterior insula was correlated with empathy, and the functional connectivity between this area and the amygdala was associated with emotional regulation. Furthermore, the posterior insula relates to auditory function, and therefore, was likely involved in the processing of parental praise. Considering the possibility of experience-dependent plasticity, frequent parental praise would lead to increased posterior insular gray matter volume in children. Our study is the first to elucidate the relationship between a specific

  15. Neurons in and near insular cortex are responsive to muscular contraction and have sympathetic and/or cardiac-related discharge.

    PubMed

    Ichiyama, Ronaldo M; Waldrop, Tony G; Iwamoto, Gary A

    2004-05-22

    Insular cortex (IC) is recognized as a potential site for "central command" of cardiorespiratory responses during exercise. Muscular contraction (MC) decreased the discharge rate of most IC neurons. Activity of most contraction sensitive neurons was either not altered by elevating blood pressure or showed a response converse to that of MC. IC may thus have a role in central command but the area is clearly modulated by MC. PMID:15145765

  16. Preliminary evaluation of wind energy potential: Cook Inlet area, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hiester, T.R.

    1980-06-01

    This report summarizes work on a project performed under contract to the Alaska Power Administration (APA). The objective of this research was to make a preliminary assessment of the wind energy potential for interconnection with the Cook Inlet area electric power transmission and distribution systems, to identify the most likely candidate regions (25 to 100 square miles each) for energy potential, and to recommend a monitoring program sufficient to quantify the potential.

  17. Energy and other resource conservation within urbanizing areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Peter G.

    1982-05-01

    The reported research seeks to answer several questions regarding energy conservation within urbanizing areas. As a practical matter, to what extent can dependence upon exhaustible resources be reduced? Can these reductions be achieved without severely impairing social well-being and environmental quality? And, what seem to be the prevailing institutional constraints limiting energy conservation within urbanizing areas? The study area was the proposed “downtown” of The Woodlands, a new town north of Houston, Texas. Two plans were developed for this area. In one, no particular attempt was made to conserve energy (conventional plan), while in the other, energy conservation was a primary consideration (conservation plan). For both plans, estimates were made of energy consumption within buildings, in the transportation sector, and in the actual production of building materials themselves (embodied energy). In addition, economic and environmental analyses were performed, including investigation of other resource issues such as water supply, solid waste disposal, stormwater management, and atmospheric emissions. Alternative on-site power systems were also investigated. Within the bounds of economic feasibility and development practicality, it was found that application of energy-conserving methods could yield annual energy savings of as much as 23%, and reduce dependence on prime fuels by 30%. Adverse economic effects on consumers were found to be minimal and environmental quality could be sustained. The major institutional constraints appeared to be those associated with traditional property ownership and with the use of common property resources. The resistance to change of everyday practices in land development and building industries also seemed to constrain potential applications.

  18. Picatinny Arsenal 3000 Area Laboratory Complex Energy Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daryl R.; Goddard, James K.

    2010-05-01

    In response to a request by Picatinny Arsenal, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was asked by the Army to conduct an energy audit of the Arsenal’s 3000 Area Laboratory Complex. The objective of the audit was to identify life-cycle cost-effective measures that the Arsenal could implement to reduce energy costs. A “walk-through” audit of the facilities was conducted on December 7-8, 2009. Findings and recommendations are included in this document.

  19. Altered pain and thermal sensation in subjects with isolated parietal and insular cortical lesions

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuijzen, D.S.; Greenspan, J.D; Kim, J.H.; Lenz, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of sensory function following cortical lesions have often included lesions which multiple cortical, white matter, and thalamic structures. We now test the hypothesis that lesions anatomically constrained to particular insular and parietal structures and their subjacent white matter are associated with different patterns of sensory loss. Sensory loss was measured by quantitative sensory testing (QST), and evaluated statistically with respect to normal values. All seven subjects with insular and/or parietal lesions demonstrated thermal hypoesthesia, although the etiology of the lesions was heterogeneous. Cold and heat hypoalgesia were only found in the subject with the most extensive parietal and insular lesion, which occurred in utero. Cold allodynia occurred clinically and by thresholds in two subjects with isolated ischemic lesions of the posterior insular/ retroinsular cortex, and by thresholds in two subjects with a lesion of parietal cortex with little or no insular involvement. Central pain occurred in the two subjects with clinical allodynia secondary to isolated lesions of the posterior insular/retroinsular cortex, which spared the anterior and posterior parietal cortex. These results suggest that nonpainful cold and heat sensations are jointly mediated by parietal and insular cortical structures so that lesions anywhere in this system may diminish sensitivity. In contrast, thermal pain is more robust requiring larger cortical lesions of these same structures to produce hypoalgesia. In addition, cold allodynia can result from restricted lesions that also produce thermal hypoesthesia, but not from all such lesions. PMID:19939715

  20. Alternative energy sources and new energy technologies for Turkish rural areas

    SciTech Connect

    Ultanir, M.O.

    1983-12-01

    Modern agriculture is an energy consumer sector, also agriculture is an energy conversion process. In addition to biomass energy's raw materials are harvested by agriculture. The concept of energy in agriculture, energy is one of the main and outstanding factor which renders the realization of the overall development of the agriculture and rural areas. Agricultural income depends on total mechanical power in agricultural mechanization; general energy consumption of rural sector; cultural energy consumption by agricultural inputs which are fertilizer, pesticides, indirect energy in machinery, irrigation equipments, buildings and other services; direct energy consumption in agricultural mechanization which are fuel and electricity etc. In general, energy input in the rural areas is classified as direct and indirect. Direct energy input reflects demands for mechanical energy, electrical energy and heat energy. Indirect energy consists of inputs which have been produced by industrial sector and introduced into rural sector. Although conventional energy sources, especially petroleum products are used in meeting direct energy input requirements, alternative energy sources may be used as well in this respect. Especially emphasis is being given to new and renewable alternative sources for heat and electrical energy requirements.

  1. Kinetic energy budgets in areas of intense convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Berecek, E. M.; Ebel, D. M.; Jedlovec, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    A kinetic energy budget analysis of the AVE-SESAME 1 period which coincided with the deadly Red River Valley tornado outbreak is presented. Horizontal flux convergence was found to be the major kinetic energy source to the region, while cross contour destruction was the major sink. Kinetic energy transformations were dominated by processes related to strong jet intrusion into the severe storm area. A kinetic energy budget of the AVE 6 period also is presented. The effects of inherent rawinsonde data errors on widely used basic kinematic parameters, including velocity divergence, vorticity advection, and kinematic vertical motion are described. In addition, an error analysis was performed in terms of the kinetic energy budget equation. Results obtained from downward integration of the continuity equation to obtain kinematic values of vertical motion are described. This alternate procedure shows promising results in severe storm situations.

  2. Duke Energy Photovoltaic Integration Study: Carolinas Service Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Samaan, Nader A.; Meng, Da; Chassin, Forrest S.; Zhang, Yu; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Warwick, William M.; Fuller, Jason C.; Diao, Ruisheng; Nguyen, Tony B.; Jin, Chunlian

    2014-03-01

    Solar energy collected using photovoltaic (PV) technology is a clean and renewable energy source that offers multiple benefits to the electric utility industry and its customers, such as cost predictability, reduced emissions, and loss reduction by distributed installations. Renewable energy goals established in North Carolina Senate Bill 3 (SB3), in combination with the state tax credit and decreases in the cost of energy from PV panels, have resulted in rapid solar power penetration within the Carolinas services areas of Duke Energy. Continued decreases in PV prices are expected to lead to greater PV penetration rates than currently required in SB3. Despite the potential benefits, significant penetration of PV energy is of concern to the utility industry because of its impact on operating reliability and integration cost to customers, and equally important, how any additional costs may be allocated to different customer groups. Some of these impacts might become limiting factors for PV energy, especially growing distributed generation installed at customer sites. Recognizing the importance of renewable energy developments for a sustainable energy future and economic growth, Duke Energy has commissioned this study to simulate the effects of high-PV penetration rates and to initiate the process of quantifying the impacts. The objective of the study is to inform resource plans, guide operation improvements, and drive infrastructure investments for a steady and smooth transition to a new energy mix that provides optimal values to customers. The study team consists of experts from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Power Costs, Inc. (PCI), Clean Power Research (CPR), Alstom Grid, and Duke Energy. PNNL, PCI, and CPR performed the study on generation impacts; Duke Energy modeled the transmission cases; and distribution simulations were conducted by Alstom Grid. PNNL analyzed the results from each work stream and produced the report.

  3. Gustatory insular cortex, aversive taste memory and taste neophobia.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2015-03-01

    Prior research indicates a role for the gustatory insular cortex (GC) in taste neophobia. Rats with lesions of the GC show much weaker avoidance to a novel and potentially dangerous taste than do neurologically intact animals. The current study used the retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) as a tool to determine whether the GC modulates neophobia by processing taste novelty or taste danger. The results show that GC lesions attenuate CTA retention (Experiment 1) and impair taste neophobia (Experiment 2). Given that normal CTA retention does not involve the processing of taste novelty, the pattern of results suggests that the GC is involved in taste neophobia via its function in processing the danger conveyed by a taste stimulus.

  4. ALTERED PREFRONTAL AND INSULAR CORTICAL THICKNESS IN ADOLESCENT MARIJUANA USERS

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Larson, Melissa P.; Bogorodzki, Piotr; Rogowska, Jadwiga; McGlade, Erin; King, Jace B.; Terry, Janine; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Introduction There are limited data regarding the impact of marijuana (MJ) on cortical development during adolescence. Adolescence is a period of substantial brain maturation and cortical thickness abnormalities may be indicative of disruptions of normal cortical development. This investigation applied cortical-surface based techniques to compare cortical thickness measures in MJ using adolescents compared to non-using controls. Methods Eighteen adolescents with heavy MJ use and 18 non-using controls similar in age received MRI scans using a 3T Siemens scanner. Cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation was performed with FreeSurfer. Group differences in cortical thickness were assessed using statistical difference maps covarying for age and gender. Results Compared to non-users, MJ users had decreased cortical thickness in right caudal middle frontal, bilateral insula and bilateral superior frontal corticies. Marijuana users had increased cortical thickness in the bilateral lingual, right superior temporal, right inferior parietal and left paracentral regions. In the MJ users, negative correlations were found between frontal and lingual regions for urinary cannabinoid levels and between age of onset of use and the right superior frontal gyrus. Conclusion This is one of the first studies to evaluate cortical thickness in a group of adolescents with heavy MJ use compared to non-users. Our findings are consistent with prior studies that documented abnormalities in prefrontal and insular regions. Our results suggest that age of regular use may be associated with altered prefrontal cortical gray matter development in adolescents. Furthermore, reduced insular cortical thickness may be a biological marker for increased risk of substance dependence. PMID:21310189

  5. Mesophotic communities of the insular shelf at Tutuila, American Samoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bare, A. Y.; Grimshaw, K. L.; Rooney, J. J.; Sabater, M. G.; Fenner, D.; Carroll, B.

    2010-06-01

    An investigation into the insular shelf and submerged banks surrounding Tutuila, American Samoa, was conducted using a towed camera system. Surveys confirmed the presence of zooxanthellate scleractinian coral communities at mesophotic depths (30-110 m). Quantification of video data, separated into 10-m-depth intervals, yielded a vertical, landward-to-seaward and horizontal distribution of benthic assemblages. Hard substrata composed a majority of bottom cover in shallow water, whereas unconsolidated sediments dominated the deep insular shelf and outer reef slopes. Scleractinian coral cover was highest atop mid-shelf patch reefs and on the submerged bank tops in depths of 30-50 m. Macroalgal cover was highest near shore and on reef slopes approaching the bank tops at 50-60 m. Percent cover of scleractinian coral colony morphology revealed a number of trends. Encrusting corals belonging to the genus Montipora were most abundant at shallow depths with cover gradually decreasing as depth increased. Massive corals, such as Porites spp., displayed a similar trend. Percent cover values of plate-like corals formed a normal distribution, with the highest cover observed in the 60-70 m depth range. Shallow plate-like corals belonged mostly to the genus Acropora and appeared to be significantly prevalent on the northeastern and eastern banks. Deeper plate-like corals on the reef slopes were dominated by Leptoseris, Pachyseris, or Montipora genera. Branching coral cover was high in the 80-110 m depth range. Columnar and free-living corals were also occasionally observed from 40-70 m.

  6. A method for evaluating transport energy consumption in suburban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Marique, Anne-Francoise Reiter, Sigrid

    2012-02-15

    Urban sprawl is a major issue for sustainable development. It represents a significant contribution to energy consumption of a territory especially due to transportation requirements. However, transport energy consumption is rarely taken into account when the sustainability of suburban structures is studied. In this context, the paper presents a method to estimate transport energy consumption in residential suburban areas. The study aimed, on this basis, at highlighting the most efficient strategies needed to promote awareness and to give practical hints on how to reduce transport energy consumption linked to urban sprawl in existing and future suburban neighborhoods. The method uses data collected by using empirical surveys and GIS. An application of this method is presented concerning the comparison of four suburban districts located in Belgium to demonstrate the advantages of the approach. The influence of several parameters, such as distance to work places and services, use of public transport and performance of the vehicles, are then discussed to allow a range of different development situations to be explored. The results of the case studies highlight that traveled distances, and thus a good mix between activities at the living area scale, are of primordial importance for the energy performance, whereas means of transport used is only of little impact. Improving the performance of the vehicles and favoring home-work give also significant energy savings. The method can be used when planning new areas or retrofitting existing ones, as well as promoting more sustainable lifestyles regarding transport habits. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method allows to assess transport energy consumption in suburban areas and highlight the best strategies to reduce it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Home-to-work travels represent the most important part of calculated transport energy consumption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy savings can be achieved by

  7. Altered insular activation and increased insular functional connectivity during sad and happy face processing in adolescent major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Blom, Eva Henje; Connolly, Colm G.; Ho, Tiffany C.; LeWinn, Kaja Z.; Mobayed, Nisreen; Han, Laura; Paulus, Martin P.; Wu, Jing; Simmons, Alan N.; Yang, Tony T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide and occurs commonly first during adolescence. The insular cortex (IC) plays an important role in integrating emotion processing with interoception and has been implicated recently in the pathophysiology of adult and adolescent MDD. However, no studies have yet specifically examined the IC in adolescent MDD during processing of faces in the sad- happy continuum. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the IC during sad and happy face processing in adolescents with MDD compared to healthy controls (HCL). Methods Thirty-one adolescents (22 female) with MDD and 36 (23 female) HCL underwent a well-validated emotional processing fMRI paradigm that included sad and happy face stimuli. Results The MDD group showed significantly less differential activation of the anterior/middle insular cortex (AMIC) in response to sad versus happy faces compared to the HCL group. AMIC also showed greater functional connectivity with right fusiform gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and right amygdala/parahippocampal gyrus in the MDD compared to HCL group. Moreover, differential activation to sad and happy faces in AMIC correlated negatively with depression severity within the MDD group. Limitations Small age-range and cross-sectional nature precluded assessment of development of the AMIC in adolescent depression. Conclusions Given the role of the IC in integrating bodily stimuli with conscious cognitive and emotional processes, our findings of aberrant AMIC function in adolescent MDD provide a neuroscientific rationale for targeting the AMIC in the development of new treatment modalities. PMID:25827506

  8. Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA). Power Systems Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Situ, Cindy H.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides a detailed description of the Johnson Space Center's Power Systems Facility located in the Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA). Facilities and the resources used to support power and battery systems testing are also shown. The contents include: 1) Power Testing; 2) Power Test Equipment Capabilities Summary; 3) Source/Load; 4) Battery Facilities; 5) Battery Test Equipment Capabilities Summary; 6) Battery Testing; 7) Performance Test Equipment; 8) Battery Test Environments; 9) Battery Abuse Chambers; 10) Battery Abuse Capabilities; and 11) Battery Test Area Resources.

  9. Insular carcinoma: a distinct de novo entity among follicular carcinomas of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Pilotti, S; Collini, P; Mariani, L; Placucci, M; Bongarzone, I; Vigneri, P; Cipriani, S; Falcetta, F; Miceli, R; Pierotti, M A; Rilke, F

    1997-12-01

    We reclassified 720 nonmedullary invasive thyroid carcinomas diagnosed and treated between 1975 and 1993. Twenty-seven cases met the criteria of insular carcinoma and 29 cases those of widely invasive follicular carcinoma. Comparison of these histotypes with respect to pathologic stage and overall, relative, and visceral metastasis-free survival showed a significant association between histotype and pT and pN categories. In particular, pT4 (p < 0.001) and pN1 (p < 0.001) categories were more frequent in the insular carcinoma histotype. By contrast, no significant differences in overall, relative, or visceral metastasis-free survival were observed between insular carcinoma and widely invasive follicular carcinoma. Molecular analysis by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism demonstrated RAS gene family point mutations in five of eight cases analyzed in each of the two histotypes, with a high proportion of CAA-->AAA transversion at codon 61 of the N-RAS gene in insular carcinoma. These findings suggest that insular carcinoma represents a de novo entity distinct from widely invasive follicular carcinoma, that widely invasive follicular carcinoma has biologic characteristics more consistent with poorly differentiated than well-differentiated carcinomas, and that both insular carcinoma and widely invasive follicular carcinoma share similar molecular alterations.

  10. How large are the extinct giant insular rodents? New body mass estimations from teeth and bones.

    PubMed

    Moncunill-Solé, Blanca; Jordana, Xavier; Marín-Moratalla, Nekane; Moyà-Solà, Salvador; Köhler, Meike

    2014-03-01

    The island rule entails a modification of the body size of insular mammals, a character related with numerous biological and ecological variables. From the Miocene to human colonization (Holocene), Mediterranean and Canary Islands were unaltered natural ecosystems, with paleofaunas formed with endemic giant rodents among other mammals. Our aim is to create methods to estimate the body masses of fossil island rodents and address the nature of ecological pressures driving the island rule. We created regression equations based on extant rodent data and used these to estimate the body masses of the extinct species. Our results show strong correlations between teeth, cranial and postcranial measurements and body mass, except for the length of the long bones, the transversal diameter of the distal tibia and the anteroposterior diameter of the proximal tibia, where the equations were less reliable. The use of equations obtained from a more homogeneous group (suborder and family) is preferable when analyzing the area of the first molar. The new regressions were applied to estimate the body masses of some Mediterranean and Canarian fossil rodents (Canariomys, C. bravoi 1.5 kg and C. tamarani 1 kg; Hypnomys, H. morpheus 230 g and H. onicensis 200 g; and Muscardinus cyclopeus 100 g). Our results indicate that under absence of predation, resource availability (island area) is the key factor that determines the size of the Canariomys sp. However, under presence of specialized predators (birds of prey), body size evolution is less pronounced (Hypnomys sp.). PMID:24673763

  11. Maps Showing Composition of Surficial Sediments on the Insular Shelf of Southwestern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shideler, Gerald L.

    1980-01-01

    The limited availability of onshore sand deposits for use in construction appears to be a future major problem in Puerto Rico (U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1972; Committee on Puerto Rico and the Sea, 1974). Consequently, the mining of offshore sand deposits as supplemental sources of construction aggregate may becom e necessary. For this reason, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Department of Natural Resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico have conducted investigations of potential offshore sand deposits on the Puerto Rico insular shelf. This report provides information on the composition of surficial sediments on the southwestern Puerto Rico shelf (fig. 1), an area that may be one of the more favorable potential sites for offshore sand resources. Water depths over most of the study area are less than 22 meters (m). The sea floor is composed of live and dead patch and fringing reefs, areas of rock exposures, and sedim ent-covered areas. The adjacent coastline includes prominent embaym ents and a conspicuous rock promontory (Cabo Rojo) connected by a tombolo to the mainland of Puerto Rico. The study area is in the belt of northeast trade winds. Waves approach the coast predominantly from the southeast, resulting in a predominantly westward littoral drift along the south coast (Grove and Trumbull, 1978). Local sand movement on the southern shelf is shown by an active sand wave field south of Bah1a Sucia in which the sand wave crests have migrated toward the southwest (Grove and Trumbull, 1978). The presence of the sand wave field suggests that large volumes of sand having potential for mining are locally present in the study area.

  12. Distribution and biology of Indo-Pacific insular hypogeal shrimps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maciolek, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Ten species of caridean shrimps, representing nine genera in five families, have been found in exposures of the marine water table at 28 islands from Hawaii to the western Indian Ocean. Synthesis of literature information and personal observations indicate that, as a group, these shrimps are characterized by red body pigment, reduced but pigmented eyes, euryhalinity, a proclivity for interstitial seawater in limestone or lava rock, generalized food requirements, and probable pre-Pleistocene origins. The shrimps have not been found in waters cooler than about 20°C.Species are often solitary, but as many as five are known to coexist. Six of the species have widely scattered populations, some as far apart as Hawaii and the Red Sea. Passive oceanic dispersal is endorsed as a general explanation for such apparently disjunct distributions. On the basis of an assumed primary habitat requirement of interstitial marine water, which could include that in shallow submerged rock as well as that in emergent (insular) rock, I hypothesize a much more cosmopolitan distribution of these shrimps in the Indo-Pacific Tropical Zone.

  13. Posterior insular cortex is necessary for conditioned inhibition of fear.

    PubMed

    Foilb, Allison R; Flyer-Adams, Johanna G; Maier, Steven F; Christianson, John P

    2016-10-01

    Veridical detection of safety versus danger is critical to survival. Learned signals for safety inhibit fear, and so when presented, reduce fear responses produced by danger signals. This phenomenon is termed conditioned inhibition of fear. Here, we report that CS+/CS- fear discrimination conditioning over 5 days in rats leads the CS- to become a conditioned inhibitor of fear, as measured by the classic tests of conditioned inhibition: summation and retardation of subsequent fear acquisition. We then show that NMDA-receptor antagonist AP5 injected to posterior insular cortex (IC) before training completely prevented the acquisition of a conditioned fear inhibitor, while intra-AP5 to anterior and medial IC had no effect. To determine if the IC contributes to the recall of learned fear inhibition, injections of the GABAA agonist muscimol were made to posterior IC before a summation test. This resulted in fear inhibition per se, which obscured inference to the effect of IC inactivation with recall of the safety cue. Control experiments sought to determine if the role of the IC in conditioned inhibition learning could be reduced to simpler fear discrimination function, but fear discrimination and recall were unaffected by AP5 or muscimol, respectively, in the posterior IC. These data implicate a role of posterior IC in the learning of conditioned fear inhibitors. PMID:27523750

  14. Allozyme Variation in the Endangered Insular Endemic Castilleja grisea

    PubMed Central

    HELENURM, KAIUS; WEST, RACHEL; BURCKHALTER, STEVEN J.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Genetic diversity in Castilleja grisea, an endangered, perennial herb endemic to San Clemente Island, California was investigated. Subsequent to the elimination of goats from the island in 1992, many populations of C. grisea have reappeared and have been increasing in size. • Methods Nineteen populations were surveyed for their genotype at 19 allozyme loci. • Key Results At the taxon level, 57·9 % of loci are polymorphic with AP = 3·09 and HE = 0·137. Populations averaged 33·0 % polymorphic loci with AP = 2·43 and HE = 0·099. Most variation is found within rather than among populations (GST = 0·128), although differentiation among populations is significant. Genetic identities range from I = 0·960 to I = 1·000 with mean I = 0·990. There is no significant relationship between genetic and geographic distance. Gene flow among populations is Nm = 2·50 based on private alleles and Nm = 1·70 based on FST. Outcrossing rates based on fixation indices average t = 1·01, indicating a primarily outcrossed mating system. • Conclusions The observed genetic variation is moderately high, unusually so for an insular endemic species, suggesting that C. grisea may not have lost substantial genetic variation during 150 years of overgrazing, and indicating that it is unlikely to be endangered by genetic factors. PMID:15820989

  15. Palaeoenvironments of insular Southeast Asia during the Last Glacial Period: a savanna corridor in Sundaland?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Michael I.; Taylor, David; Hunt, Chris

    2005-11-01

    Consideration of a range of evidence from geomorphology, palynology, biogeography and vegetation/climate modelling suggests that a north-south 'savanna corridor' did exist through the continent of Sundaland (modern insular Indonesia and Malaysia) through the Last Glacial Period (LGP) at times of lowered sea-level, as originally proposed by Heaney [1991. Climatic Change 19, 53-61]. A minimal interpretation of the size of this corridor requires a narrow but continuous zone of open 'savanna' vegetation 50-150 km wide, running along the sand-covered divide between the modern South China and Java Seas. This area formed a land bridge between the Malaysian Peninsula and the major islands of Sumatra, Java and Borneo. The savanna corridor connected similar open vegetation types north and south of the equator, and served as a barrier to the dispersal of rainforest-dependent species between Sumatra and Borneo. A maximal interpretation of the available evidence is compatible with the existence of a broad savanna corridor, with forest restricted to refugia primarily in Sumatra, Borneo and the continental shelf beneath the modern South China Sea. This savanna corridor may have provided a convenient route for the rapid early dispersal of modern humans through the region and on into Australasia.

  16. Multiarchitectonic characterization of insular, perirhinal and related regions in a basal mammal, Echinops telfairi.

    PubMed

    Künzle, H; Radtke-Schuller, S

    2000-12-01

    The rhinal cortex was investigated in the Madagascan lesser hedgehog tenrec, a basal placental mammal. This region parallels the rhinal indentation and presumably contains the equivalents of the insular and perirhinal cortices. Using cyto- and myeloarchitectural, enzyme- and immunohistochemical criteria as well as data on the connections with the olfactory bulb, the rhinal cortex was subdivided tentatively along its rostrocaudal and dorsoventral planes. An area caudally adjacent to the rhinal cortex received a prominent input from the olfactory bulb and was also preliminarily characterized in this study. Because previous studies in insectivores remained controversial with regard to the identification of the claustrum, special attention was paid to the laminar organization of the rhinal cortex and its deep cell groups. The tenrec's claustrum was identified and delineated cytoarchitecturally and by its negative acetylcholinesterase stain. Latexin, a molecular marker for characterizing infragranular and claustral cells, also helped to differentiate the claustrum from the cell groups subjacent to it. Thus, the data indicate that in poorly differentiated mammals the claustrum occupies an intermediate deep position within the width of the rhinal cortex, i.e., it is separated from the subcortical white matter by additional, still unidentified, cell groups.

  17. Sediment distribution on a storm-dominated insular shelf, Luquillo, Puerto Rico, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwab, W.C.; Rodriguez, R.W.; Danforthf, W.W.; Gowen, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    A sea-floor mapping investigation designed to assess the sediment distribution, the movement of the nearshore sand supply, and the fate of sediment eroded from the shoreline was conducted using high-resolution sidescan-sonar, seismic reflection, and sediment sampling techniques on the northern insular shelf of Puerto Rico, off the town of Luquillo. Sea-floor structures and the distribution of sediment texture and composition suggest that regional oceanographic processes result in a net offshore direction for cross-shelf sediment transport on the middle and outer shelf during storms. If these same processes are active on the inner shelf, mapping results indicate that this sediment is not transported seaward of a series of east-west trending Pleistocene-age eolianite ridges that outcrop on the middle shelf. The eolianite ridges may act as natural dams, preventing the removal of sediment from the nearshore area. Sand deposits behind the "dams" are up to 20 m thick on the shoreward flank of the ridges.

  18. Macroscopic connection of rat insular cortex: anatomical bases underlying its physiological functions.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    The insular cortex (IC), which lies on the dorsal bank of the rhinal fissure, receives multi-modal sensory inputs, i.e. visceral, gustatory, nociceptive and thermal information from the sensory thalamic nuclei. In contrast to other primary sensory cortices such as visual, auditory and somatosensory areas, the anatomical features of the IC are quite distinctive; more than a half of the IC is composed of agranular or dysgranular cortex, which lacks a complete granular layer (layer IV). In addition to the characteristic layer structures, the IC has dense reciprocal innervations with the limbic structures, including the amygdala and hypothalamus. Such connectivity implies that sensory information processed in the IC is profoundly related to limbic information. By enabling the visualization of functional connectivity in the central nervous system, recent advancements in optical imaging techniques have opened the possibility to elucidate the mechanisms of sensory information processing from a macroscopic perspective. In this review, anatomical and functional features of the IC are overviewed from the aspect of gustatory processing, a typical sensation processed in the IC. In addition, the recently developed optical imaging techniques and their findings in gustatory information processing are summarized. We discuss how these characteristic features of excitatory propagation in the IC play functional roles in transmitting neural excitation arising from the limbic structures to the frontal and orbital cortices. PMID:21708315

  19. Ductulo-insular pancreatic endocrine tumor with amyloid deposition: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Shintaku, Masayuki; Tado, Hiroki; Inayama, Kumiko; Murakami, Takaaki; Suzuki, Takahisa

    2015-04-01

    We report a case of ductulo-insular pancreatic endocrine tumor (DI-PET) in a 50-year-old woman. The patient presented with symptoms and signs of hypoglycemia, and a small tumor in the uncus of the pancreas was extirpated. The tumor predominantly consisted of a neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of grade 2, which surrounded a minor component of ductular proliferation accompanied by a desmoplastic stroma. Both components were largely juxtaposed but admixed with each other in small areas. The NET component was immunoreactive for insulin and accompanied by the marked deposition of amyloid in the stroma. The ductular component consisted of a haphazard proliferation of ductules showing mildly atypical cytological features and immunoreactivities for cytokeratins 7 and 19. DI-PET is a rare composite neoplasm that should be distinguished from mixed ductal-neuroendocrine carcinoma because of the marked differences in treatment modalities and prognoses between the tumors. DI-PET associated with stromal amyloid deposition has not been reported to date. The 'transdifferentiation' of NET cells into ductular cells is considered as the most plausible histogenetic mechanism of this tumor, although other possibilities, such as an origin from a primitive endodermal stem cell or the induction of ductular proliferation by stimulation with NET-derived humoral factors, cannot be excluded. PMID:25684418

  20. Central role for the insular cortex in mediating conditioned responses to anticipatory cues

    PubMed Central

    Kusumoto-Yoshida, Ikue; Liu, Haixin; Chen, Billy T.; Fontanini, Alfredo; Bonci, Antonello

    2015-01-01

    Reward-related circuits are fundamental for initiating feeding on the basis of food-predicting cues, whereas gustatory circuits are believed to be involved in the evaluation of food during consumption. However, accumulating evidence challenges such a rigid separation. The insular cortex (IC), an area largely studied in rodents for its role in taste processing, is involved in representing anticipatory cues. Although IC responses to anticipatory cues are well established, the role of IC cue-related activity in mediating feeding behaviors is poorly understood. Here, we examined the involvement of the IC in the expression of cue-triggered food approach in mice trained with a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm. We observed a significant change in neuronal firing during presentation of the cue. Pharmacological silencing of the IC inhibited food port approach. Such a behavior could be recapitulated by temporally selective inactivation during the cue. These findings represent the first evidence, to our knowledge, that cue-evoked neuronal activity in the mouse IC modulates behavioral output, and demonstrate a causal link between cue responses and feeding behaviors. PMID:25583486

  1. AxIOM: Amphipod crustaceans from insular Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows

    PubMed Central

    Heughebaert, André; Lepoint, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The Neptune grass, Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, 1813, is the most widespread seagrass of the Mediterranean Sea. This foundation species forms large meadows that, through habitat and trophic services, act as biodiversity hotspots. In Neptune grass meadows, amphipod crustaceans are one of the dominant groups of vagile invertebrates, forming an abundant and diverse taxocenosis. They are key ecological components of the complex, pivotal, yet critically endangered Neptune grass ecosystems. Nevertheless, comprehensive qualitative and quantitative data about amphipod fauna found in Mediterranean Neptune grass meadows remain scarce, especially in insular locations. New information Here, we provide in-depth metadata about AxIOM, a sample-based dataset published on the GBIF portal. AxIOM is based on an extensive and spatially hierarchized sampling design with multiple years, seasons, day periods, and methods. Samples were taken along the coasts of Calvi Bay (Corsica, France) and of the Tavolara-Punta Coda Cavallo Marine Protected Area (Sardinia, Italy). In total, AxIOM contains 187 samples documenting occurrence (1775 records) and abundance (10720 specimens) of amphipod crustaceans belonging to 72 species spanning 29 families. The dataset is available at http://ipt.biodiversity.be/resource?r=axiom. PMID:27660521

  2. AxIOM: Amphipod crustaceans from insular Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows

    PubMed Central

    Heughebaert, André; Lepoint, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The Neptune grass, Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, 1813, is the most widespread seagrass of the Mediterranean Sea. This foundation species forms large meadows that, through habitat and trophic services, act as biodiversity hotspots. In Neptune grass meadows, amphipod crustaceans are one of the dominant groups of vagile invertebrates, forming an abundant and diverse taxocenosis. They are key ecological components of the complex, pivotal, yet critically endangered Neptune grass ecosystems. Nevertheless, comprehensive qualitative and quantitative data about amphipod fauna found in Mediterranean Neptune grass meadows remain scarce, especially in insular locations. New information Here, we provide in-depth metadata about AxIOM, a sample-based dataset published on the GBIF portal. AxIOM is based on an extensive and spatially hierarchized sampling design with multiple years, seasons, day periods, and methods. Samples were taken along the coasts of Calvi Bay (Corsica, France) and of the Tavolara-Punta Coda Cavallo Marine Protected Area (Sardinia, Italy). In total, AxIOM contains 187 samples documenting occurrence (1775 records) and abundance (10720 specimens) of amphipod crustaceans belonging to 72 species spanning 29 families. The dataset is available at http://ipt.biodiversity.be/resource?r=axiom.

  3. Increased cellular activity in rat insular cortex after water and salt ingestion induced by fluid depletion.

    PubMed

    Pastuskovas, Cinthia V; Cassell, Martin D; Johnson, Alan Kim; Thunhorst, Robert L

    2003-04-01

    Insular cortex (IC) receives inputs from multiple sensory systems, including taste, and from receptors that monitor body electrolyte and fluid balance and blood pressure. This work analyzed metabolic activity of IC cells after water and sodium ingestion induced by sodium depletion. Rats were injected with the diuretic furosemide (10 mg/kg body wt), followed 5 min later by injections of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (5 mg/kg body wt). After 90 min, some rats received water and 0.3 M NaCl to drink for 2 h while others did not. A third group had access to water and saline but was not depleted of fluids. All rats were killed for processing of brain tissue for Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir). Nondepleted animals had weak-to-moderate levels of Fos-ir within subregions of IC. Fluid-depleted rats without fluid access had significantly increased Fos-ir in all areas of IC. Levels of Fos-ir were highest in fluid-depleted rats that drank water and sodium. Fos-ir levels were highest in anterior regions of IC and lowest in posterior regions of IC. These results implicate visceral, taste, and/or postingestional factors in the increased metabolic activity of cells in IC.

  4. Building and Applying "Insularity Theory": Review on Knapp's Prehistoric and Protohistoric Cyprus, 2008.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsarou-Tzeveleki, Stella

    starting point, places at the disposal of insular archaeology an analytical theoretical scheme of insularity, in which he integrates a number of key concepts (social identity, ethnicity, habitus, migration, colonial theory). These are much used in archaeological interpretation, but previously treated as independent theoretical notions. To those he adds a number of hitherto secondary concepts (connectivity, islandscape, acculturation, hybridization) to which (especially the last) he assigns a leading role. In the in-depth presentation of each concept, he attempts to establish the history of its usage in archaeological theory and patterning, and to offer an exhaustive conceptual and anthropological analysis of it. The theoretical analysis of identity (island, social and ethnic) and the multiple dimensions of mutual influences between cultures emerges as one of Knapp's most important reasoning. Knapp records in detail the models that describe the variations and gradations of communications and their results, whether migration and colonial theory, on the one hand, or peaceful interaction, on the other. He draws our attention to something that usually goes unnoticed, and this is a substantial contribution to the work of every research archaeologist: namely, that there is no such thing as pure identity. Every identity studied by archaeology is the product of acculturation, assimilation or a blending of intersecting identities, ending in hybridization. At this point, however, I would doubt that hybridization, assimilation and cultural blending should be regarded as the natural and definite result where every communication between two different cultural groups leads. In fact Hodder (1982) has challenged this rule after his observations at Baringo, Kenya, where he noticed that the different groups there would rather emphasize their different features at the interaction areas, instead of letting them assimilate with the other's. This important reference would perfectly fit Knapp

  5. The insular cortex and cardiovascular system: a new insight into the brain-heart axis.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Michiaki; Hoshide, Satoshi; Kario, Kazuomi

    2010-01-01

    The classical literature on neurocardiology has focused mainly on the subcortical regions of the central autonomic nervous system. However, recent studies have supported the notion that the cardiovascular system is regulated by cortical modulation. Modern neuroimaging data, including positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging, have revealed that a network consisting of the insular cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, and amygdala plays a crucial role in the regulation of central autonomic nervous system. Because the insular cortex is located in the region of the middle cerebral arteries, its structure tends to be exposed to a higher risk of cerebrovascular disease. The insular cortex damage has been associated with arrhythmia, diurnal blood pressure variation disruption (eg, a non-dipper or riser pattern), myocardial injury, and sleep disordered breathing, as well as higher plasma levels of brain natriuretic peptide, catecholamine, and glucose. This review article focuses on the role of the insular cortex as a mediator for the cardiovascular system and summarizes current knowledge on the relationships between cerebrovascular disease and cardiovascular system dysregulation. Finally, a hypothesis of the neural network involved in cortical cardiovascular modulation, including modulation of the insular cortex, is provided. PMID:20655502

  6. Disrupted resting-state insular subregions functional connectivity in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youxue; Xie, Bing; Chen, Heng; Li, Meiling; Guo, Xiaonan; Chen, Huafu

    2016-07-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is suggested to be a structural and functional abnormality in the insula. The insula, which consists of distinct subregions with various patterns of connectivity, displays complex and diverse functions. However, whether these insular subregions have different patterns of connectivity in PTSD remains unclear. Investigating the abnormal functional connectivity of the insular subregions is crucial to reveal its potential effect on diseases specifically PTSD. This study uses a seed-based method to investigate the altered resting-state functional connectivity of insular subregions in PTSD. We found that patients with PTSD showed reduced functional connectivity compared with healthy controls (HCs) between the left ventral anterior insula and the anterior cingulate cortex. The patients with PTSD also exhibited decreased functional connectivity between the right posterior insula and left inferior parietal lobe, and the postcentral gyrus relative to HCs. These results suggest the involvement of altered functional connectivity of insular subregions in the abnormal regulation of emotion and processing of somatosensory information in patients with PTSD. Such impairments in functional connectivity patterns of the insular subregions may advance our understanding of the pathophysiological basis underlying PTSD. PMID:27399097

  7. Insular cortex representation of dynamic mechanical allodynia in trigeminal neuropathic rats.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Pedro; Dieb, Wisam; Hafidi, Aziz; Voisin, Daniel L; Dallel, Radhouane

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic mechanical allodynia is a widespread symptom of neuropathic pain for which mechanisms are still poorly understood. The present study investigated the organization of dynamic mechanical allodynia processing in the rat insular cortex after chronic constriction injury to the infraorbital nerve (IoN-CCI). Two weeks after unilateral IoN-CCI, rats showed a dramatic bilateral trigeminal dynamic mechanical allodynia. Light, moving stroking of the infraorbital skin resulted in strong, bilateral upregulation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase phosphorylation (pERK-1/2) in the insular cortex of IoN-CCI animals but not sham rats, in whose levels were similar to those of unstimulated IoN-CCI rats. pERK-1/2 was located in neuronal cells only. Stimulus-evoked pERK-1/2 immunopositive cell bodies displayed rostrocaudal gradient and layer selective distribution in the insula, being predominant in the rostral insula and in layers II-III of the dysgranular and to a lesser extent, of the agranular insular cortex. In layers II-III of the rostral dysgranular insular cortex, intense pERK also extended into distal dendrites, up to layer I. These results demonstrate that trigeminal nerve injury induces a significant alteration in the insular cortex processing of tactile stimuli and suggest that ERK phosphorylation contributes to the mechanisms underlying abnormal pain perception under this condition.

  8. The Oldest Gibbon Fossil (Hylobatidae) from Insular Southeast Asia: Evidence from Trinil, (East Java, Indonesia), Lower/Middle Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    Ingicco, Thomas; de Vos, John; Huffman, O. Frank

    2014-01-01

    A fossil femur excavated by Eugène Dubois between 1891–1900 in the Lower/Middle Pleistocene bonebed of the Trinil site (Java, Indonesia) was recognised by us as that of a Hylobatidae. The specimen, Trinil 5703 of the Dubois Collection (Leiden, The Netherlands), has the same distinctive form of fossilization that is seen in many of the bonebed fossils from Trinil in the collection. Anatomical comparison of Trinil 5703 to a sample of carnivore and primate femora, supported by morphometric analyses, lead to the attribution of the fossil to gibbon. Trinil 5703 therefore provides the oldest insular record of this clade, one of the oldest known Hylobatidae fossils from Southeast Asia. Because living Hylobatidae only inhabit evergreen rain forests, the paleoenvironment within the river drainage in the greater Trinil area evidently included forests of this kind during the Lower/Middle Pleistocene as revealed here. PMID:24914951

  9. The oldest gibbon fossil (Hylobatidae) from insular Southeast Asia: evidence from Trinil, (East Java, Indonesia), Lower/Middle Pleistocene.

    PubMed

    Ingicco, Thomas; de Vos, John; Huffman, O Frank

    2014-01-01

    A fossil femur excavated by Eugène Dubois between 1891-1900 in the Lower/Middle Pleistocene bonebed of the Trinil site (Java, Indonesia) was recognised by us as that of a Hylobatidae. The specimen, Trinil 5703 of the Dubois Collection (Leiden, The Netherlands), has the same distinctive form of fossilization that is seen in many of the bonebed fossils from Trinil in the collection. Anatomical comparison of Trinil 5703 to a sample of carnivore and primate femora, supported by morphometric analyses, lead to the attribution of the fossil to gibbon. Trinil 5703 therefore provides the oldest insular record of this clade, one of the oldest known Hylobatidae fossils from Southeast Asia. Because living Hylobatidae only inhabit evergreen rain forests, the paleoenvironment within the river drainage in the greater Trinil area evidently included forests of this kind during the Lower/Middle Pleistocene as revealed here.

  10. Tuberculosis Epidemiology in Islands: Insularity, Hosts and Trade

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Pelayo; Romero, Beatriz; Vicente, Joaquin; Caracappa, Santo; Galluzzo, Paola; Marineo, Sandra; Vicari, Domenico; Torina, Alessandra; Casal, Carmen; de la Fuente, Jose; Gortazar, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Because of their relative simplicity and the barriers to gene flow, islands are ideal systems to study the distribution of biodiversity. However, the knowledge that can be extracted from this peculiar ecosystem regarding epidemiology of economically relevant diseases has not been widely addressed. We used information available in the scientific literature for 10 old world islands or archipelagos and original data on Sicily to gain new insights into the epidemiology of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). We explored three nonexclusive working hypotheses on the processes modulating bovine tuberculosis (bTB) herd prevalence in cattle and MTC strain diversity: insularity, hosts and trade. Results suggest that bTB herd prevalence was positively correlated with island size, the presence of wild hosts, and the number of imported cattle, but neither with isolation nor with cattle density. MTC strain diversity was positively related with cattle bTB prevalence, presence of wild hosts and the number of imported cattle, but not with island size, isolation, and cattle density. The three most common spoligotype patterns coincided between Sicily and mainland Italy. However in Sicily, these common patterns showed a clearer dominance than on the Italian mainland, and seven of 19 patterns (37%) found in Sicily had not been reported from continental Italy. Strain patterns were not spatially clustered in Sicily. We were able to infer several aspects of MTC epidemiology and control in islands and thus in fragmented host and pathogen populations. Our results point out the relevance of the intensity of the cattle commercial networks in the epidemiology of MTC, and suggest that eradication will prove more difficult with increasing size of the island and its environmental complexity, mainly in terms of the diversity of suitable domestic and wild MTC hosts. PMID:23923053

  11. Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, and Left-Right Confusion from a Left Posterior Peri-Insular Infarct

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Cai, X.; Klein, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation. PMID:24817791

  12. A giant submarine slope failure on the northern insular slope of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwab, W.C.; Danforth, W.W.; Scanlon, K.M.; Masson, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    A large amphitheater-shaped scarp, approximately 55 km across, was imaged on the northern insular slope of Puerto Rico using long-range sidescan sonar and bathymetric data. This scarp results from the removal of more than 1500 km3 of Tertiary strata. A review of seismic-reflection profiles, stratigraphic data, and subsidence models of the northern insular margin of Puerto Rico were used to infer that large-scale slope failure was induced by the tectonic oversteepening of the insular slope and was responsible for the formation of the scarp. The oversteepening probably was caused by the most recent episode of convergence of the Caribbean and North American plates, which began between approximately 4 and 2.5 m.y. ago. The Tertiary strata have been tilted approximately 4.5?? to the north in the last 4 m.y. ?? 1991.

  13. Dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion from a left posterior peri-insular infarct.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, S; Cai, X; Klein, J P

    2014-01-01

    The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation. PMID:24817791

  14. Feelings of warmth correlate with neural activity in right anterior insular cortex.

    PubMed

    Olausson, H; Charron, J; Marchand, S; Villemure, C; Strigo, I A; Bushnell, M C

    2005-11-25

    The neural coding of perception can differ from that for the physical attributes of a stimulus. Recent studies suggest that activity in right anterior insular cortex may underlie thermal perception, particularly that of cold. We now examine whether this region is also important for the perception of warmth. We applied cutaneous warm stimuli on the left leg (warmth) in normal subjects (n = 7) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). After each stimulus, subjects rated their subjective intensity of the stimulus using a visual analogue scale (VAS), and correlations were determined between the fMRI signal and the VAS ratings. We found that intensity ratings of warmth correlated with the fMRI signal in the right (contralateral to stimulation) anterior insular cortex. These results, in conjunction with previous reports, suggest that the right anterior insular cortex is important for different types of thermal perception.

  15. Mixed Waste Focus Area: Department of Energy complex needs report

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, J.A.

    1995-11-16

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a new approach in August of 1993 to environmental research and technology development. A key feature of this new approach included establishment of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to identify, develop, and implement needed technologies such that the major environmental management problems related to meeting DOE`s commitments for treatment of mixed wastes under the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA), and in accordance with the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), can be addressed, while cost-effectively expending the funding resources. To define the deficiencies or needs of the EM customers, the MWFA analyzed Proposed Site Treatment Plans (PSTPs), as well as other applicable documents, and conducted site visits throughout the summer of 1995. Representatives from the Office of Waste Management (EM-30), the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and the Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60) at each site visited were requested to consult with the Focus Area to collaboratively define their technology needs. This report documents the needs, deficiencies, technology gaps, and opportunities for expedited treatment activities that were identified during the site visit process. The defined deficiencies and needs are categorized by waste type, namely Wastewaters, Combustible Organics, Sludges/Soils, Debris/Solids, and Unique Wastes, and will be prioritized based on the relative affect the deficiency has on the DOE Complex.

  16. A Case of Semantic Variant Primary Progressive Aphasia with Severe Insular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Chow, T. W.; Links, K. A.; Masterman, D. L.; Mendez, M.F.; Vinters, H. V.

    2012-01-01

    Insular degeneration has been linked to symptoms of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Presented in this case is a patient exhibiting semantic variant primary progressive aphasia, behavioral disturbance. Upon autopsy, he was found to have severe insular atrophy. In addition, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were ineffective in reducing symptoms of obsessive-compulsive behaviours or emotional blunting. This case suggests that Seeley et al.'s hypothesis that VEN and fork cell-rich brain regions, particularly in the insula, are targeted in additional subtypes of FTD beyond the behavioral variant. PMID:22150361

  17. Does the salience network play a cardinal role in psychosis? An emerging hypothesis of insular dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Palaniyappan, Lena; Liddle, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    The insular cortex is one of the brain regions that show consistent abnormalities in both structural and functional neuroimaging studies of schizophrenia. In healthy individuals, the insula has been implicated in a myriad of physiologic functions. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula together constitute the salience network, an intrinsic large-scale network showing strong functional connectivity. Considering the insula as a functional unit along with the ACC provides an integrated understanding of the role of the insula in information processing. In this review, we bring together evidence from imaging studies to understand the role of the salience network in schizophrenia and propose a model of insular dysfunction in psychosis. PMID:21693094

  18. Late Quaternary seismic stratigraphy and structure of the western insular shelf margin of Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanzlik, M.; Mann, P.; Abrams, L.; Grindlay, N.

    2005-12-01

    725 km of high-resolution seismic data were collected over the insular shelf of western Puerto Rico to better understand its late Quaternary depositional and structural history. Due to low tectonic uplift rates of onshore areas in this region, well dated late Quaternary sediments and corals have only been identified in a few scattered onland localities around Puerto Rico. Seismic data from the Rio Anasco delta area of western Puerto Rico reveals four main units with characteristic stratal reflection terminations that total about 25 m in thickness. Because of a lack of well information, age estimates of these late Quaternary units are based on correlations with sea level curves derived from dated coral samples from Puerto Rico, St. Croix, and Antigua. Units include: Unit 1 - a gently folded and faulted basal section correlated to the Oliogene-early Pliocene? carbonate shelf of Puerto Rico; deeper penetration, industry MCS lines show that these rocks are deformed in a broad EW-trenching arch; Unit 2 - chaotic channel fill deposits in incisions related to the lowstand equivalent of the Rio Anasco likely formed during the Last Glacial Maximum about 25-15 ka; Unit 3 - roughly stratified deposits onlapping the top of Unit 2; these are interpreted as an estuarine facies deposited during Holocene sea level transgression; Unit 4 - highly stratified deposits related to progradation of the Anasco delta during sea level rise. The base of unit 4 is a downlap surface interpreted as a maximum flooding surface likely formed about 6 ka. East-northeast-striking faults are observed breaking the younger late Quaternary units in three separate zones off the west coast of Puerto Rico. Onland continuations of these faults have not been identified likely due to cultural overprint of natural scarps on late Quaternary floodplains.

  19. High surface area aerogels for energy storage and efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, Ryan Patrick

    ADAI are demonstrated in a third-generation prototypical thermoelectric generator for automotive waste heat recovery. The second chapter then details two different aerogel-based materials for electrochemical energy storage. It begins with lithium titanate aerogel, which takes advantage of the high surface area of the aerogel morphology to display a batt-cap behavior. This should allow the lithium titanate aerogel to perform at higher rates than would normally be expected for the bulk oxide material. Additionally, the flexibility of the sol-gel process is demonstrated through the incorporation of electrically conductive high-surface area exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets in the oxide. The last section describes the characterization of a LiMn2O 4 spinel coated carbon nanofoam in a non-aqueous electrolyte. The short diffusion path, high surface area and intimately wired architecture of the nanofoam allows the oxide to retain its capacity at significantly higher rates when compared with literature values for the bulk oxide. Additionally, the nanometric length scale improves cycle life, and the high surface area dramatically increases the insertion capacity by providing a higher concentration of surface defects. Taken together, it is clear that aerogels are an extremely attractive class of material for applications pertaining to energy and efficiency, and further research in this area will provide valuable solutions for pressing societal needs. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  20. Extraordinarily high spider densities on islands: flow of energy from the marine to terrestrial food webs and the absence of predation.

    PubMed Central

    Polis, G A; Hurd, S D

    1995-01-01

    Some islands in the Gulf of California support very high densities of spiders. Spider density is negatively correlated with island size; many small islands support 50-200 spiders per m3 of cactus. Energy for these spiders comes primarily from the ocean and not from in situ productivity by land plants. We explicitly connect the marine and terrestrial systems to show that insular food webs represent one endpoint of the marine web. We describe two conduits for marine energy entering these islands: shore drift and seabird colonies. Both conduits are related to island area, having a much stronger effect on smaller islands. This asymmetric effect helps to explain the exceptionally high spider densities on small islands. Although productivity sets the maximal potential densities, predation (by scorpions) limits realized spider abundance. Thus, prey availability and predation act in concert to set insular spider abundance. PMID:7753815

  1. Distinct Excitation to Pulpal Stimuli between Somatosensory and Insular Cortices.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, H; Shirakawa, T; Koshikawa, N; Kobayashi, M

    2016-02-01

    Somatosensory information from the dental pulp is processed in the primary (S1) and secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) and in the insular oral region (IOR). Stimulation of maxillary incisor and molar initially induces excitation in S2/IOR, rostrodorsal to the mandibular incisor and molar pulp-responding regions. Although S1 and S2/IOR play their own roles in nociceptive information processing, the anatomical and physiological differences in the temporal activation kinetics, dependency on stimulation intensity, and additive or summative effects of simultaneous pulpal stimulation are still unknown. This information contributes not only to understanding topographical organization but also to speculating about the roles of S1 and S2/IOR in clinical aspects of pain regulation. In vivo optical imaging enables investigation of the spatiotemporal profiles of cortical excitation with high resolution. We determined the distinct features of optical responses to nociceptive stimulation of dental pulps between S1 and S2/IOR. In comparison to S1, optical signals in S2/IOR showed a larger amplitude with a shorter rise time and a longer decay time responding to maxillary molar pulp stimulation. The latency of excitation in S2/IOR was shorter than in S1. S2/IOR exhibited a lower threshold to evoke optical responses than S1, and the peak amplitude was larger in S2/IOR than in S1. Unexpectedly, the topography of S1 that responded to maxillary and mandibular incisor and molar pulps overlapped with the most ventral sites in S1 that was densely stained with cytochrome oxidase. An additive effect was observed in both S1 and S2/IOR after simultaneous stimulation of bilateral maxillary molar pulps but not after contralateral maxillary and mandibular molar pulp stimulation. These findings suggest that S2/IOR is more sensitive for detecting dental pulp sensation and codes stimulation intensity more precisely than S1. In addition, contra- and ipsilateral dental pulp nociception converges

  2. Spatiotemporal dynamics of excitation in rat insular cortex: intrinsic corticocortical circuit regulates caudal-rostro excitatory propagation from the insular to frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Fujita, S; Adachi, K; Koshikawa, N; Kobayashi, M

    2010-01-13

    The insular cortex (IC), composing unique anatomical connections, receives multi-modal sensory inputs including visceral, gustatory and somatosensory information from sensory thalamic nuclei. Axonal projections from the limbic structures, which have a profound influence on induction of epileptic activity, also converge onto the IC. However, functional connectivity underlying the physiological and pathological roles characteristic to the IC still remains unclear. The present study sought to elucidate the spatiotemporal dynamics of excitatory propagation and their cellular mechanisms in the IC using optical recording in urethane-anesthetized rats. Repetitive electrical stimulations of the IC at 50 Hz demonstrated characteristic patterns of excitatory propagation depending on the stimulation sites. Stimulation of the granular zone of the IC (GI) and other surrounding cortices such as the motor/primary sensory/secondary sensory cortices evoked round-shaped excitatory propagations, which often extended over the borders of adjacent areas, whereas excitation of the agranular and dysgranular zones in the IC (AI and DI, respectively) spread along the rostrocaudal axis parallel to the rhinal fissure. Stimulation of AI/DI often evoked excitation in the dorsolateral orbital cortex, which exhibited spatially discontinuous topography of excitatory propagation in the IC. Pharmacological manipulations using 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3(1H,4H)-dione (DNQX), a non-NMDA receptor antagonist, D-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (D-APV), an NMDA receptor antagonist, and bicuculline methiodide, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, indicate that excitatory propagation was primarily regulated by non-NMDA and GABA(A) receptors. Microinjection of lidocaine or incision of the supragranular layers of the rostrocaudally middle part of excitatory regions suppressed excitation in the remote regions from the stimulation site, suggesting that the excitatory propagation in the IC is largely mediated by

  3. Macaque Parieto-Insular Vestibular Cortex: Responses to self-motion and optic flow

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aihua; DeAngelis, Gregory C.; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2011-01-01

    The parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC) is thought to contain an important representation of vestibular information. Here we describe responses of macaque PIVC neurons to three-dimensional (3D) vestibular and optic flow stimulation. We found robust vestibular responses to both translational and rotational stimuli in the retroinsular (Ri) and adjacent secondary somatosensory (S2) cortices. PIVC neurons did not respond to optic flow stimulation, and vestibular responses were similar in darkness and during visual fixation. Cells in the upper bank and tip of the lateral sulcus (Ri and S2) responded to sinusoidal vestibular stimuli with modulation at the first harmonic frequency, and were directionally tuned. Cells in the lower bank of the lateral sulcus (mostly Ri) often modulated at the second harmonic frequency, and showed either bimodal spatial tuning or no tuning at all. All directions of 3D motion were represented in PIVC, with direction preferences distributed roughly uniformly for translation, but showing a preference for roll rotation. Spatio-temporal profiles of responses to translation revealed that half of PIVC cells followed the linear velocity profile of the stimulus, one-quarter carried signals related to linear acceleration (in the form of two peaks of direction selectivity separated in time), and a few neurons followed the derivative of linear acceleration (jerk). In contrast, mainly velocity-coding cells were found in response to rotation. Thus, PIVC comprises a large functional region in macaque areas Ri and S2, with robust responses to 3D rotation and translation, but is unlikely to play a significant role in visual/vestibular integration for self-motion perception. PMID:20181599

  4. Intrinsic functional connectivity of insular cortex and symptoms of sickness during acute experimental inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lekander, Mats; Karshikoff, Bianka; Johansson, Emilia; Soop, Anne; Fransson, Peter; Lundström, Johan N; Andreasson, Anna; Ingvar, Martin; Petrovic, Predrag; Axelsson, John; Nilsonne, Gustav

    2016-08-01

    Task-based fMRI has been used to study the effects of experimental inflammation on the human brain, but it remains unknown whether intrinsic connectivity in the brain at rest changes during a sickness response. Here, we investigated the effect of experimental inflammation on connectivity between areas relevant for monitoring of bodily states, motivation, and subjective symptoms of sickness. In a double-blind randomized controlled experiment, 52 healthy volunteers were injected with 0.6ng/kg LPS (lipopolysaccharide) or placebo, and participated in a resting state fMRI experiment after approximately 2h 45min. Resting state fMRI data were available from 48 participants, of which 28 received LPS and 20 received placebo. Bilateral anterior and bilateral posterior insula sections were used as seed regions and connectivity with bilateral orbitofrontal and cingulate (anterior and middle) cortices was investigated. Back pain, headache and global sickness increased significantly after as compared to before LPS, while a non-significant trend was shown for increased nausea. Compared to placebo, LPS was followed by increased connectivity between left anterior insula and left midcingulate cortex. This connectivity was significantly correlated to increase in back pain after LPS and tended to be related to increased global sickness, but was not related to increased headache or nausea. LPS did not affect the connectivity from other insular seeds. In conclusion, the finding of increased functional connectivity between left anterior insula and middle cingulate cortex suggests a potential neurophysiological mechanism that can be further tested to understand the subjective feeling of malaise and discomfort during a sickness response. PMID:26732827

  5. Evidence of Conjoint Activation of the Anterior Insular and Cingulate Cortices during Effortful Tasks.

    PubMed

    Engström, Maria; Karlsson, Thomas; Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Craig, A D Bud

    2014-01-01

    The ability to perform effortful tasks is a topic that has received considerable interest in the research of higher functions of the human brain. Neuroimaging studies show that the anterior insular and the anterior cingulate cortices are involved in a multitude of cognitive tasks that require mental effort. In this study, we investigated brain responses to effort using cognitive tasks with task-difficulty modulations and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We hypothesized that effortful performance involves modulation of activation in the anterior insular and the anterior cingulate cortices, and that the modulation correlates with individual performance levels. Healthy participants performed tasks probing verbal working memory capacity using the reading span task, and visual perception speed using the inspection time task. In the fMRI analysis, we focused on identifying effort-related brain activation. The results showed that working memory and inspection time performances were directly related. The bilateral anterior insular and anterior cingulate cortices showed significantly increased activation during each task with common portions that were active across both tasks. We observed increased brain activation in the right anterior insula and the anterior cingulate cortex in participants with low working memory performance. In line with the reported results, we suggest that activation in the anterior insular and cingulate cortices is consistent with the neural efficiency hypothesis (Neubauer).

  6. FMRI of ventral and dorsal processing streams in basic reading processes: insular sensitivity to phonology.

    PubMed

    Borowsky, Ron; Cummine, Jacqueline; Owen, William J; Friesen, Chris Kelland; Shih, Francis; Sarty, Gordon E

    2006-01-01

    Most current models of the neurophysiology of basic reading processes agree on a system involving two cortical streams: a ventral stream (occipital-temporal) used when accessing familiar words encoded in lexical memory, and a dorsal stream (occipital-parietal-frontal) used when phonetically decoding words (i.e., mapping sublexical spelling onto sounds). The models diverge, however, on the issue of whether the insular cortex is involved. The present fMRI study required participants to read aloud exception words (e.g., 'one', which must be read via lexical memory) and pseudohomophones (e.g., 'wun', which must be read via sublexical spelling to sound translation) to examine the processing streams as well as the insular cortex, and their relationship to lexical and sublexical reading processes. The present study supports the notion of independent ventral-lexical and dorsal-sublexical streams, and further suggests the insular cortex to be sensitive to phonological processing (particularly sublexical spelling-sound translation). These latter findings illuminate the nature of insular activity during reading, which must be explored further in future studies, and accounted for in models of the neurophysiology of reading.

  7. 76 FR 66035 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application for Insular Watch and Jewelry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... Watch and Jewelry Program Benefits AGENCY: International Trade Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Departments of Commerce and the Interior (Departments) to administer the distribution of watch duty-exemptions and watch and jewelry duty-refunds to program producers in the U.S. insular possessions and...

  8. Differential Effects of Insular and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Lesions on Risky Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, L.; Bechara, A.; Damasio, H.; Aitken, M. R. F.; Sahakian, B. J.; Robbins, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and insular cortex are implicated in distributed neural circuitry that supports emotional decision-making. Previous studies of patients with vmPFC lesions have focused primarily on decision-making under uncertainty, when outcome probabilities are ambiguous (e.g. the Iowa Gambling Task). It remains unclear…

  9. Cholinergic Neurotransmission in the Posterior Insular Cortex Is Altered in Preclinical Models of Neuropathic Pain: Key Role of Muscarinic M2 Receptors in Donepezil-Induced Antinociception

    PubMed Central

    Ferrier, Jérémy; Bayet-Robert, Mathilde; Dalmann, Romain; El Guerrab, Abderrahim; Aissouni, Youssef; Graveron-Demilly, Danielle; Chalus, Maryse; Pinguet, Jérémy; Eschalier, Alain; Richard, Damien; Daulhac, Laurence; Balayssac, David

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is one of the most debilitating pain conditions, yet no therapeutic strategy has been really effective for its treatment. Hence, a better understanding of its pathophysiological mechanisms is necessary to identify new pharmacological targets. Here, we report important metabolic variations in brain areas involved in pain processing in a rat model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy using HRMAS 1H-NMR spectroscopy. An increased concentration of choline has been evidenced in the posterior insular cortex (pIC) of neuropathic animal, which was significantly correlated with animals' pain thresholds. The screening of 34 genes mRNA involved in the pIC cholinergic system showed an increased expression of the high-affinity choline transporter and especially the muscarinic M2 receptors, which was confirmed by Western blot analysis in oxaliplatin-treated rats and the spared nerve injury model (SNI). Furthermore, pharmacological activation of M2 receptors in the pIC using oxotremorine completely reversed oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia. Consistently, systemic treatment with donepezil, a centrally active acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, prevented and reversed oxaliplatin-induced cold and mechanical allodynia as well as social interaction impairment. Intracerebral microdialysis revealed a lower level of acetylcholine in the pIC of oxaliplatin-treated rats, which was significantly increased by donepezil. Finally, the analgesic effect of donepezil was markedly reduced by a microinjection of the M2 antagonist, methoctramine, within the pIC, in both oxaliplatin-treated rats and spared nerve injury rats. These findings highlight the crucial role of cortical cholinergic neurotransmission as a critical mechanism of neuropathic pain, and suggest that targeting insular M2 receptors using central cholinomimetics could be used for neuropathic pain treatment. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our study describes a decrease in cholinergic neurotransmission in the posterior insular

  10. Energy Vulnerability Assessment for the US Pacific Islands. Technical Appendix 2

    SciTech Connect

    Fesharaki, F.; Rizer, J.P.; Greer, L.S.

    1994-05-01

    The study, Energy Vulnerability Assessment of the US Pacific Islands, was mandated by the Congress of the United States as stated in House Resolution 776-220 of 1992, Section 1406. The resolution states that the US Secretary of Energy shall conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption. Such study shall outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency. The resolution defines insular areas as the US Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Palau. The US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico are not included in this report. The US Department of Energy (USDOE) has broadened the scope of the study contained in the House Resolution to include emergency preparedness and response strategies which would reduce vulnerability to an oil supply disruption as well as steps to ameliorate adverse economic consequences. This includes a review of alternative energy technologies with respect to their potential for reducing dependence on imported petroleum. USDOE has outlined the four tasks of the energy vulnerability assessment as the following: (1) for each island, determine crude oil and refined product demand/supply, and characterize energy and economic infrastructure; (2) forecast global and regional oil trade flow patterns, energy demand/supply, and economic activities; (3) formulate oil supply disruption scenarios and ascertain the general and unique vulnerabilities of these islands to oil supply disruptions; and (4) outline emergency preparedness and response options to secure oil supplies in the short run, and reduce dependence on imported oil in the longer term.

  11. The Low Energy Effective Area of the Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pease, D.; Drake, J. J.; Johnson, C. O.; Kashya, V.; Ratzlaff, P. W.; Wargelin, B. J.; Brinkman, A. C.; Kaastra, J. S.; vanderMeer, R.; Paerels, F. B.

    2000-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory was successfully launched on July 23, 1999, and subsequently began an intensive calibration phase. We present the preliminary results from the in-flight calibration of the low energy response of the High Resolution Camera spectroscopic readout (HRC-S) combined with the Low Energy Transmission Grating (LETG) aboard Chandra. These instruments comprise the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrograph (LETGS). For this calibration study, we employ a pure hydrogen non-LTE white dwarf emission model (T = 25000 K and log g = 9.0) for comparison with the Chandra observations of Sirius B. The pre-flight calibration of the LETGS effective area only covered wavelengths shortward of 44 A (E less than 277 eV). Our Sirius B analysis shows that the HRC-S quantum efficiency (QE) model assumed for longer wavelengths leads to an overestimate of the effective area by an average factor of about 1.6. We derive a correction to the low energy HRC-S QE model to match the predicted and observed Sirius B spectra over the wavelength range of 44-185 A. We make an independent test of our results by the comparison of a Chandra LETGS observation of HZ 43 with pure hydrogen model atmosphere predictions and find good agreement.

  12. 7 CFR 1948.81 - State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RURAL DEVELOPMENT Section 601 Energy Impacted Area Development Assistance Program § 1948.81 State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted...

  13. 7 CFR 1948.81 - State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RURAL DEVELOPMENT Section 601 Energy Impacted Area Development Assistance Program § 1948.81 State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted...

  14. 7 CFR 1948.81 - State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RURAL DEVELOPMENT Section 601 Energy Impacted Area Development Assistance Program § 1948.81 State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted...

  15. Combined adverse effects of cascading events on systems' functionality: an insular case study, French West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desramaut, Nicolas; Wang, Justin; Gehl, Pierre; Marti, Jose; Baills, Audrey; Reveillere, Arnaud

    2013-04-01

    In our modern societies, lifelines play a vital role, even in normal conditions. Therefore, during crises, the dependency to critical infrastructures is likely to be exacerbated. Indeed, in order to provide quick emergency services to the population, systems have to be functional. However, even if not directly damaged, in order to be functional, elements of the different systems have to receive enough resources but also to be able to supply their own services. In a multi-risk approach, this necessity to take into account systemic vulnerability to assess the real impact of natural hazards on society is even made more obvious. For example, impacts of one hazard, taken separately, might not significantly affect societies, but might reduce redundancy, and therefore could increase functional vulnerability to other hazards. The present study aims at analyzing the effects of cascading events on the behaviour of interdependent systems and on the capacities of the health care system to treat the victims. In order to work on a close system, an insular context (Guadeloupe, French West Indies) has been selected. The hazard cascading scenario consists of a M6.3 earthquake striking Basse-Terre, and triggering landslides in the mountainous areas where antecedent precipitations have made the area prone to slide. Damages due to earthquakes have been estimated for the 5 considered systems (buildings, healthcare system, electrical network, water supply network and transportation). Due to their localization in mountainous areas, landslides would affect only transportation networks, with closure of roads. The inter- and intra-dependencies of systems have been modeled thanks to the I2Sim platform developed at UBC. The functionality of each element is therefore the consequence of the physical (direct damage) but also functional (indirect) damage. Analyses are performed for different strategies of resources allocations, and one of the final results is the impact of the induced landslides

  16. Prospects of solar energy in the coastal areas of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emetere, Moses E.; Akinyemi, Marvel L.

    2016-02-01

    The climatic factors in the coastal areas are cogent in planning a stable and functional solar farm. The experiment performed in this study entails a day-to-day solar radiation pattern in coastal areas. The results show that the solar radiation pattern in coastal region portends danger to the performance of solar photovoltaic (PV) module and its lifecycle. The efficiency of the PV module was tested in the harmattan where dust is a major hindrance. The results were related to meteorological parameters which influences the solar radiation over an area. The solar radiation pattern in coastal areas was traced to the solar sectional shading theory which was summarized and explained.

  17. Energy efficient fluid powered linear actuator with variable area

    DOEpatents

    Lind, Randall F.; Love, Lonnie J.

    2016-09-13

    Hydraulic actuation systems having variable displacements and energy recovery capabilities include cylinders with pistons disposed inside of barrels. When operating in energy consuming modes, high speed valves pressurize extension chambers or retraction chambers to provide enough force to meet or counteract an opposite load force. When operating in energy recovery modes, high speed valves return a working fluid from extension chambers or retraction chambers, which are pressurized by a load, to an accumulator for later use.

  18. 75 FR 10463 - Office of Insular Affairs; Allocation of Duty-Exemptions for Calendar Year 2010 for Watch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Changes in Watch, Watch Movement and Jewelry Program for the U.S. Insular Possessions, 65 FR 8048... producer allocation Belair Quartz, Inc 500,000 The balance of the units allocated to the USVI is...

  19. Alternative Energy: A Bay Area Reference Center Workshop. Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kay, Ed.; And Others

    Presented are proceedings and related documents of a workshop on alternative energy resources which was held in April, 1980. This information is intended to bring reference librarians up to date on alternative energy technologies and available reference materials to which library patrons may be directed. Among the speeches included are those…

  20. Checkerboard Patterns, Interspecific Competition, and Extinction: Lessons from Distribution Patterns of Tarsiers (Tarsius) and Slow Lorises (Nycticebus) in Insular Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Nekaris, K. A. I.

    2010-01-01

    Tarsiers (Tarsius) and slow lorises (Nycticebus) are the only extant nocturnal primates occurring in Southeast Asia. Harcourt (1999) hypothesized that in insular Southeast Asia, slow lorises and tarsiers showed a checkerboard distribution on 12 small (<12,000 km2) islands, i.e., only one or the other occurs, and attributed this to extreme levels of competition between these 2 largely faunivorous primates. Further, he predicted slow lorises were able to persist on smaller islands than tarsiers. We re-evaluated these findings using an expanded dataset including 49 islands where tarsiers or slow lorises occur. Tarsiers and slow lorises live on islands of similar size (median size of ca. 300–900 km2), and both taxa inhabit an equal proportion of small, medium, and large islands. On small islands within their area of sympatry tarsiers occur on 1 island, slow lorises on 8, both genera on 3, and we can assume they have become extinct from 11 small islands since the Last Glacial Maximum. Sizes of islands where tarsiers or slow lorises have become extinct do not differ from islands where they are still extant. We show that slow lorises occur on more islands in insular Southeast Asia than perhaps previously assumed, but these islands are not smaller on average than islands where tarsiers occur. A checkerboard distribution between these taxa is not evident. More studies are needed at the macroecological level to assess the importance of biogeographic history in explaining their present-day distribution patterns. PMID:21212813

  1. Differential Involvement of the Agranular vs Granular Insular Cortex in the Acquisition and Performance of Choice Behavior in a Rodent Gambling Task.

    PubMed

    Pushparaj, Abhiram; Kim, Aaron S; Musiol, Martin; Zangen, Abraham; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Zack, Martin; Winstanley, Catharine A; Le Foll, Bernard

    2015-11-01

    Substance-related and addictive disorders, in particular gambling disorder, are known to be associated with risky decision-making behavior. Several neuroimaging studies have identified the involvement of the insular cortex in decision-making under risk. However, the extent of this involvement remains unclear and the specific contributions of two distinct insular subregions, the rostral agranular (RAIC) and the caudal granular (CGIC), have yet to be examined. Animals were trained to perform a rat gambling task (rGT), in which subjects chose between four options that differed in the magnitude and probability of rewards and penalties. In order to address the roles of the RAIC and CGIC in established choice behavior, pharmacological inactivations of these two subregions via local infusions of GABA receptor agonists were performed following 30 rGT training sessions. The contribution made by the RAIC or CGIC to the acquisition of choice behavior was also determined by lesioning these areas before behavioral training. Inactivation of the RAIC, but not of the CGIC, shifted rats' preference toward options with greater reward frequency and lower punishment. Before rGT acquisition, lesions of the RAIC, but not the CGIC, likewise resulted in a higher preference for options with greater reward frequency and lower punishment, and this persisted throughout the 30 training sessions. Our results provide confirmation of the involvement of the RAIC in rGT choice behavior and suggest that the RAIC may mediate detrimental risky decision-making behavior, such as that associated with addiction and gambling disorder.

  2. Make Energy at the Bay Area Maker Faire

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Think. Make. Innovate. A festival of invention, creativity and resourcefulness that gathers makers of all kinds. Scientists are seeking to find innovative solutions to the energy challenges in the world.

  3. Mainland size variation informs predictive models of exceptional insular body size change in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Durst, Paul A. P.; Roth, V. Louise

    2015-01-01

    The tendency for island populations of mammalian taxa to diverge in body size from their mainland counterparts consistently in particular directions is both impressive for its regularity and, especially among rodents, troublesome for its exceptions. However, previous studies have largely ignored mainland body size variation, treating size differences of any magnitude as equally noteworthy. Here, we use distributions of mainland population body sizes to identify island populations as ‘extremely’ big or small, and we compare traits of extreme populations and their islands with those of island populations more typical in body size. We find that although insular rodents vary in the directions of body size change, ‘extreme’ populations tend towards gigantism. With classification tree methods, we develop a predictive model, which points to resource limitations as major drivers in the few cases of insular dwarfism. Highly successful in classifying our dataset, our model also successfully predicts change in untested cases. PMID:26085585

  4. Impaired anterior insular activation during risky decision making in young adults with internet gaming disorder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Deokjong; Lee, Junghan; Yoon, Kang Joon; Kee, Namkoong; Jung, Young-Chul

    2016-05-25

    Internet gaming disorder is defined as excessive and compulsive use of the internet to engage in games that leads to clinically significant psychosocial impairment. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with internet gaming disorder would be less sensitive to high-risk situations and show aberrant brain activation related to risk prediction processing. Young adults with internet gaming disorder underwent functional MRI while performing a risky decision-making task. The healthy control group showed stronger activations within the dorsal attention network and the anterior insular cortex, which were not found in the internet gaming disorder group. Our findings imply that young adults with internet gaming disorder show impaired anterior insular activation during risky decision making, which might make them vulnerable when they need to adapt new behavioral strategies in high-risk situations. PMID:27092470

  5. Mainland size variation informs predictive models of exceptional insular body size change in rodents.

    PubMed

    Durst, Paul A P; Roth, V Louise

    2015-07-01

    The tendency for island populations of mammalian taxa to diverge in body size from their mainland counterparts consistently in particular directions is both impressive for its regularity and, especially among rodents, troublesome for its exceptions. However, previous studies have largely ignored mainland body size variation, treating size differences of any magnitude as equally noteworthy. Here, we use distributions of mainland population body sizes to identify island populations as 'extremely' big or small, and we compare traits of extreme populations and their islands with those of island populations more typical in body size. We find that although insular rodents vary in the directions of body size change, 'extreme' populations tend towards gigantism. With classification tree methods, we develop a predictive model, which points to resource limitations as major drivers in the few cases of insular dwarfism. Highly successful in classifying our dataset, our model also successfully predicts change in untested cases. PMID:26085585

  6. Probabilistic Tractography Recovers a Rostrocaudal Trajectory of Connectivity Variability in the Human Insular Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Cerliani, Leonardo; Thomas, Rajat M; Jbabdi, Saad; Siero, Jeroen CW; Nanetti, Luca; Crippa, Alessandro; Gazzola, Valeria; D'Arceuil, Helen; Keysers, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The insular cortex of macaques has a wide spectrum of anatomical connections whose distribution is related to its heterogeneous cytoarchitecture. Although there is evidence of a similar cytoarchitectural arrangement in humans, the anatomical connectivity of the insula in the human brain has not yet been investigated in vivo. In the present work, we used in vivo probabilistic white-matter tractography and Laplacian eigenmaps (LE) to study the variation of connectivity patterns across insular territories in humans. In each subject and hemisphere, we recovered a rostrocaudal trajectory of connectivity variation ranging from the anterior dorsal and ventral insula to the dorsal caudal part of the long insular gyri. LE suggested that regional transitions among tractography patterns in the insula occur more gradually than in other brain regions. In particular, the change in tractography patterns was more gradual in the insula than in the medial premotor region, where a sharp transition between different tractography patterns was found. The recovered trajectory of connectivity variation in the insula suggests a relation between connectivity and cytoarchitecture in humans resembling that previously found in macaques: tractography seeds from the anterior insula were mainly found in limbic and paralimbic regions and in anterior parts of the inferior frontal gyrus, while seeds from caudal insular territories mostly reached parietal and posterior temporal cortices. Regions in the putative dysgranular insula displayed more heterogeneous connectivity patterns, with regional differences related to the proximity with either putative granular or agranular regions. Hum Brain Mapp 33:2005–2034, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:21761507

  7. The shore fishes of the Trindade-Martin Vaz insular complex: an update.

    PubMed

    Simon, T; Macieira, R M; Joyeux, J-C

    2013-06-01

    A compilation of historical and recent collections and observations of shore fishes yielded 154 recorded species for Trindade and 67 for Martin Vaz. Twelve taxa, mostly small cryptobenthic species with limited dispersal capabilities and low ecological amplitude, are endemic to this insular complex. In several cases, the seamounts of the Vitória-Trindade Chain appear to have acted as stepping stones between the mainland and islands in periods of low sea level. PMID:23731156

  8. The shore fishes of the Trindade-Martin Vaz insular complex: an update.

    PubMed

    Simon, T; Macieira, R M; Joyeux, J-C

    2013-06-01

    A compilation of historical and recent collections and observations of shore fishes yielded 154 recorded species for Trindade and 67 for Martin Vaz. Twelve taxa, mostly small cryptobenthic species with limited dispersal capabilities and low ecological amplitude, are endemic to this insular complex. In several cases, the seamounts of the Vitória-Trindade Chain appear to have acted as stepping stones between the mainland and islands in periods of low sea level.

  9. Variable temporo-insular cortex neuroanatomy in primates suggests a bottleneck effect in eastern gorillas

    PubMed Central

    Barks, Sarah K.; Bauernfeind, Amy L.; Bonar, Christopher J.; Cranfield, Michael R.; de Sousa, Alexandra A.; Erwin, Joseph M.; Hopkins, William D.; Lewandowski, Albert H.; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Phillips, Kimberley A.; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Stimpson, Cheryl D.; Hof, Patrick R.; Zilles, Karl; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we describe an atypical neuroanatomical feature present in several primate species that involves a fusion between the temporal lobe (often including Heschl’s gyrus in great apes) and the posterior dorsal insula, such that a portion of insular cortex forms an isolated pocket medial to the Sylvian fissure. We assessed the frequency of this fusion in 56 primate species (including apes, Old World monkeys, New World monkeys, and strepsirrhines) using either magnetic resonance images or histological sections. A fusion between temporal cortex and posterior insula was present in 22 species (7 apes, 2 Old World monkeys, 4 New World monkeys, and 9 strepsirrhines). The temporo-insular fusion was observed in most eastern gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei and G. b. graueri) specimens (62% and 100% of cases, respectively) but less frequently in other great apes and was never found in humans. We further explored the histology of this fusion in eastern gorillas by examining the cyto- and myeloarchitecture within this region, and observed that the degree to which deep cortical layers and white matter are incorporated into the fusion varies among individuals within a species. We suggest that fusion between temporal and insular cortex is an example of a relatively rare neuroanatomical feature that has become more common in eastern gorillas, possibly as the result of a population bottleneck effect. Characterizing the phylogenetic distribution of this morphology highlights a derived feature of these great apes. PMID:23939630

  10. Insular neural system controls decision-making in healthy and methamphetamine-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Katahira, Kentaro; Inutsuka, Ayumu; Fukumoto, Kazuya; Nakamura, Akihiro; Wang, Tian; Nagai, Taku; Sato, Jun; Sawada, Makoto; Ohira, Hideki; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2015-01-01

    Patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders such as substance-related and addictive disorders exhibit altered decision-making patterns, which may be associated with their behavioral abnormalities. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying such impairments are largely unknown. Using a gambling test, we demonstrated that methamphetamine (METH)-treated rats chose a high-risk/high-reward option more frequently and assigned higher value to high returns than control rats, suggestive of changes in decision-making choice strategy. Immunohistochemical analysis following the gambling test revealed aberrant activation of the insular cortex (INS) and nucleus accumbens in METH-treated animals. Pharmacological studies, together with in vivo microdialysis, showed that the insular neural system played a crucial role in decision-making. Moreover, manipulation of INS activation using designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug technology resulted in alterations to decision-making. Our findings suggest that the INS is a critical region involved in decision-making and that insular neural dysfunction results in risk-taking behaviors associated with altered decision-making. PMID:26150496

  11. Insular neural system controls decision-making in healthy and methamphetamine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Katahira, Kentaro; Inutsuka, Ayumu; Fukumoto, Kazuya; Nakamura, Akihiro; Wang, Tian; Nagai, Taku; Sato, Jun; Sawada, Makoto; Ohira, Hideki; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2015-07-21

    Patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders such as substance-related and addictive disorders exhibit altered decision-making patterns, which may be associated with their behavioral abnormalities. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying such impairments are largely unknown. Using a gambling test, we demonstrated that methamphetamine (METH)-treated rats chose a high-risk/high-reward option more frequently and assigned higher value to high returns than control rats, suggestive of changes in decision-making choice strategy. Immunohistochemical analysis following the gambling test revealed aberrant activation of the insular cortex (INS) and nucleus accumbens in METH-treated animals. Pharmacological studies, together with in vivo microdialysis, showed that the insular neural system played a crucial role in decision-making. Moreover, manipulation of INS activation using designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug technology resulted in alterations to decision-making. Our findings suggest that the INS is a critical region involved in decision-making and that insular neural dysfunction results in risk-taking behaviors associated with altered decision-making.

  12. Insular neural system controls decision-making in healthy and methamphetamine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Katahira, Kentaro; Inutsuka, Ayumu; Fukumoto, Kazuya; Nakamura, Akihiro; Wang, Tian; Nagai, Taku; Sato, Jun; Sawada, Makoto; Ohira, Hideki; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2015-07-21

    Patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders such as substance-related and addictive disorders exhibit altered decision-making patterns, which may be associated with their behavioral abnormalities. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying such impairments are largely unknown. Using a gambling test, we demonstrated that methamphetamine (METH)-treated rats chose a high-risk/high-reward option more frequently and assigned higher value to high returns than control rats, suggestive of changes in decision-making choice strategy. Immunohistochemical analysis following the gambling test revealed aberrant activation of the insular cortex (INS) and nucleus accumbens in METH-treated animals. Pharmacological studies, together with in vivo microdialysis, showed that the insular neural system played a crucial role in decision-making. Moreover, manipulation of INS activation using designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug technology resulted in alterations to decision-making. Our findings suggest that the INS is a critical region involved in decision-making and that insular neural dysfunction results in risk-taking behaviors associated with altered decision-making. PMID:26150496

  13. Insular and hippocampal contributions to remembering people with an impression of bad personality

    PubMed Central

    Shigemune, Yayoi; Nouchi, Rui; Kambara, Toshimune; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Our impressions of other people are formed mainly from the two possible factors of facial attractiveness and trustworthiness. Previous studies have shown the importance of orbitofrontal–hippocampal interactions in the better remembering of attractive faces, and psychological data have indicated that faces giving an impression of untrustworthiness are remembered more accurately than those giving an impression of trustworthiness. However, the neural mechanisms of the latter effect are largely unknown. To investigate this issue, we investigated neural activities with event-related fMRI while the female participants rated their impressions of the personalities of men in terms of trustworthiness. After the rating, memory for faces was tested to identify successful encoding activity. As expected, faces that gave bad impressions were remembered better than those that gave neutral or good impressions. In fMRI data, right insular activity reflected an increasing function of bad impressions, and bilateral hippocampal activities predicted subsequent memory success. Additionally, correlation between these insular and hippocampal regions was significant only in the encoding of faces associated with a bad impression. Better memory for faces associated with an impression of bad personality could reflect greater interaction between the avoidance-related insular region and the encoding-related hippocampal region. PMID:22349799

  14. Aerosol optical, microphysical and radiative properties at regional background insular sites in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, Michaël; Barragan, Rubén; Dulac, François; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Mallet, Marc

    2016-09-01

    In the framework of the ChArMEx (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment; http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) program, the seasonal variability of the aerosol optical, microphysical and radiative properties derived from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network; http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/) is examined in two regional background insular sites in the western Mediterranean Basin: Ersa (Corsica Island, France) and Palma de Mallorca (Mallorca Island, Spain). A third site, Alborán (Alborán Island, Spain), with only a few months of data is considered for examining possible northeast-southwest (NE-SW) gradients of the aforementioned aerosol properties. The AERONET dataset is exclusively composed of level 2.0 inversion products available during the 5-year period 2011-2015. AERONET solar radiative fluxes are compared with ground- and satellite-based flux measurements. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that AERONET fluxes are compared with measurements at the top of the atmosphere. Strong events (with an aerosol optical depth at 440 nm greater than 0.4) of long-range transport aerosols, one of the main drivers of the observed annual cycles and NE-SW gradients, are (1) mineral dust outbreaks predominant in spring and summer in the north and in summer in the south and (2) European pollution episodes predominant in autumn. A NE-SW gradient exists in the western Mediterranean Basin for the aerosol optical depth and especially its coarse-mode fraction, which all together produces a similar gradient for the aerosol direct radiative forcing. The aerosol fine mode is rather homogeneously distributed. Absorption properties are quite variable because of the many and different sources of anthropogenic particles in and around the western Mediterranean Basin: North African and European urban areas, the Iberian and Italian peninsulas, most forest fires and

  15. 7 CFR 1948.81 - State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas... HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Impacted Area Development Assistance Program § 1948.81 State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted...

  16. High Energy Astrophysics with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the findings of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Observatory. It includes information about the LAT, and the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM), detection of the quiet sun and the moon in gamma rays, Pulsars observed by the observatory, Globular Star Clusters, Active Galactic Nucleus, and Gamma-Ray Bursts, with specific information about GRB 080916C.

  17. Two insular regions are differentially involved in behavioral variant FTD and nonfluent/agrammatic variant PPA.

    PubMed

    Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Vitali, Paolo; Santos, Miguel; Henry, Maya; Gola, Kelly; Rosenberg, Lynne; Dronkers, Nina; Miller, Bruce; Seeley, William W; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    The non-fluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) and the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are focal neurodegenerative disorders belonging to the FTD-spectrum clinical syndromes. NfvPPA is characterized by effortful speech and/or agrammatism and left frontal atrophy, while bvFTD is characterized by social-emotional dysfunction often accompanied by right-lateralized frontal damage. Despite their contrasting clinical presentations, both disorders show prominent left anterior insula atrophy. We investigated differential patterns of insular sub-region atrophy in nfvPPA and bvFTD. Based on knowledge of insular connectivity and physiology, we hypothesized that the left superior precentral region of the dorsal anterior insula (SPGI) would be more atrophic in nvfPPA due to its critical role in motor speech, whereas the ventral anterior region would be more atrophied in bvFTD reflecting its known role in social-emotional-autonomic functions. Early stage nfvPPA and bvFTD patients matched for disease severity, age, gender and education and healthy controls participated in the study. Detailed clinical history, neurological examination, neuropsychological screening evaluation, and high-resolution T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were collected. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was applied to perform group comparisons across the whole brain and in bilateral insula region of interest (ROI). Correlation analyses between insular sub-region atrophy and relevant clinical features were performed. Whole brain group comparisons between nfvPPA and bvFTD showed the expected predominantly left or right anterior insular atrophy pattern. ROI analysis of bilateral insula showed that the left SPGI was significantly more atrophied in nfvPPA compared to bvFTD, while the bilateral ventral anterior and right dorsal anterior insula sub-regions were more atrophied in bvFTD than nfvPPA. Only left SPGI volume correlated with speech production

  18. Two insular regions are differentially involved in behavioral variant FTD and nonfluent/agrammatic variant PPA.

    PubMed

    Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Vitali, Paolo; Santos, Miguel; Henry, Maya; Gola, Kelly; Rosenberg, Lynne; Dronkers, Nina; Miller, Bruce; Seeley, William W; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    The non-fluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) and the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are focal neurodegenerative disorders belonging to the FTD-spectrum clinical syndromes. NfvPPA is characterized by effortful speech and/or agrammatism and left frontal atrophy, while bvFTD is characterized by social-emotional dysfunction often accompanied by right-lateralized frontal damage. Despite their contrasting clinical presentations, both disorders show prominent left anterior insula atrophy. We investigated differential patterns of insular sub-region atrophy in nfvPPA and bvFTD. Based on knowledge of insular connectivity and physiology, we hypothesized that the left superior precentral region of the dorsal anterior insula (SPGI) would be more atrophic in nvfPPA due to its critical role in motor speech, whereas the ventral anterior region would be more atrophied in bvFTD reflecting its known role in social-emotional-autonomic functions. Early stage nfvPPA and bvFTD patients matched for disease severity, age, gender and education and healthy controls participated in the study. Detailed clinical history, neurological examination, neuropsychological screening evaluation, and high-resolution T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were collected. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was applied to perform group comparisons across the whole brain and in bilateral insula region of interest (ROI). Correlation analyses between insular sub-region atrophy and relevant clinical features were performed. Whole brain group comparisons between nfvPPA and bvFTD showed the expected predominantly left or right anterior insular atrophy pattern. ROI analysis of bilateral insula showed that the left SPGI was significantly more atrophied in nfvPPA compared to bvFTD, while the bilateral ventral anterior and right dorsal anterior insula sub-regions were more atrophied in bvFTD than nfvPPA. Only left SPGI volume correlated with speech production

  19. High Energy Wide Area Blunt Impact on Composite Aircraft Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFrancisci, Gabriela K.

    The largest source of damage to commercial aircraft is caused by accidental contact with ground service equipment (GSE). The cylindrical bumper typically found on GSE distributes the impact load over a large contact area, possibly spanning multiple internal structural elements (frame bays) of a stiffened-skin fuselage. This type of impact can lead to damage that is widespread and difficult to detect visually. To address this problem, monolithic composite panels of various size and complexity have been modeled and tested quasi-statically and dynamically. The experimental observations have established that detectability is dependent on the impact location and immediately-adjacent internal structure of the panel, as well as the impactor geometry and total deformation of the panel. A methodology to model and predict damage caused by wide area blunt impact events was established, which was then applied to more general cases that were not tested in order to better understand the nature of this type of impact event and how it relates to the final damage state and visual detectability.

  20. 24 CFR 570.440 - Application requirements for insular area grants funded under section 106.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... must submit annual performance reports in accordance with 24 CFR 91.520. ... procedures described in this subpart and in 24 CFR 91.235; or (2) The complete consolidated plan procedures applicable to local governments, discussed at 24 CFR 91.200 through 91.230. (b) Proposed statement....

  1. 78 FR 48861 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for Pacific Insular Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ...). The PRIA are Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Island, Wake Island, and Palmyra Atoll. Before entering into a PIAFA, the Council must develop a 3-year...

  2. 47 CFR 54.101 - Supported services for rural, insular and high cost areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Services Designated for Support § 54.101 Supported... services or functionalities shall be supported by federal universal service support mechanisms: (1) Voice..., shortening call set-up time; (4) Single-party service or its functional equivalent. “Single-party service”...

  3. 24 CFR 570.440 - Application requirements for insular area grants funded under section 106.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... procedures described in this subpart and in 24 CFR 91.235; or (2) The complete consolidated plan procedures applicable to local governments, discussed at 24 CFR 91.200 through 91.230. (b) Proposed statement. An... participation requirements described in § 570.441, if it submits an abbreviated consolidated plan under 24...

  4. 24 CFR 570.440 - Application requirements for insular area grants funded under section 106.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... procedures described in this subpart and in 24 CFR 91.235; or (2) The complete consolidated plan procedures applicable to local governments, discussed at 24 CFR 91.200 through 91.230. (b) Proposed statement. An... participation requirements described in § 570.441, if it submits an abbreviated consolidated plan under 24...

  5. 24 CFR 570.440 - Application requirements for insular area grants funded under section 106.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... procedures described in this subpart and in 24 CFR 91.235; or (2) The complete consolidated plan procedures applicable to local governments, discussed at 24 CFR 91.200 through 91.230. (b) Proposed statement. An... participation requirements described in § 570.441, if it submits an abbreviated consolidated plan under 24...

  6. 24 CFR 570.440 - Application requirements for insular area grants funded under section 106.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... procedures described in this subpart and in 24 CFR 91.235; or (2) The complete consolidated plan procedures applicable to local governments, discussed at 24 CFR 91.200 through 91.230. (b) Proposed statement. An... participation requirements described in § 570.441, if it submits an abbreviated consolidated plan under 24...

  7. Geology of the insular shelf south of St. Thomas and St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, L. E.; Holmes, Charles Ward; Trumbull, James V.

    1971-01-01

    A reconnaissance study has been made of the geology of the insular shelf south of St. Thomas and St. John, Virgin Islands. High-resolution seismic-reflection profiling reveals that a buried northeast-southwest striking bedrock ridge controls the shallow structure of the eastern portion of the shelf. This ridge is thought to be related to the Virgin Islands pluton farther north. Bedrock in the western shelf portion is more deeply buried and is thought to be a flatter terrain, probably lithologically similar to rocks exposed on St. Thomas. The sediment cover appears to consist principally of carbonate grains in the sand-size range. This sand is covered to various degrees by carbonate nodules at depths below about 34 m, but at shallower depths the nodules are not present. Three large areas of sandy bottom were mapped 1) west of Brewers Bay, 2) near Buck Island, and 3) off south-central St. John. Variations in the amounts of land-derived particles, organic matter, and silt/clay sized material were mapped in these bodies.

  8. Genetic structure of introduced populations: 120-year-old DNA footprint of historic introduction in an insular small mammal population

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Siobhan; Blampied, Nick; Peniche, Gabriela; Dozières, Anne; Blackett, Tiffany; Coleman, Stephen; Cornish, Nina; Groombridge, Jim J

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife populations have been introduced to new areas by people for centuries, but this human-mediated movement can disrupt natural patterns of genetic structure by altering patterns of gene flow. Insular populations are particularly prone to these influences due to limited opportunities for natural dispersal onto islands. Consequently, understanding how genetic patterns develop in island populations is important, particularly given that islands are frequently havens for protected wildlife. We examined the evolutionary origins and extent of genetic structure within the introduced island population of red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) on the Channel Island of Jersey using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequence and nuclear microsatellite genotypes. Our findings reveal two different genetic origins and a genetic architecture reflective of the introductions 120 years ago. Genetic structure is marked within the maternally inherited mtDNA, indicating slow dispersal of female squirrels. However, nuclear markers detected only weak genetic structure, indicating substantially greater male dispersal. Data from both mitochondrial and nuclear markers support historic records that squirrels from England were introduced to the west of the island and those from mainland Europe to the east. Although some level of dispersal and introgression across the island between the two introductions is evident, there has not yet been sufficient gene flow to erase this historic genetic “footprint.” We also investigated if inbreeding has contributed to high observed levels of disease, but found no association. Genetic footprints of introductions can persist for considerable periods of time and beyond traditional timeframes of wildlife management. PMID:23532702

  9. Controls for Reusable Launch Vehicles During Terminal Area Energy Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driessen, Brian J.

    2005-01-01

    During the terminal energy management phase of flight (last of three phases) for a reusable launch vehicle, it is common for the controller to receive guidance commands specifying desired values for (i) the roll angle roll q(sub roll), (ii) the acceleration a(sub n) in the body negative z direction, -k(sub A)-bar, and (iii) omega(sub 3), the projection of onto the body-fixed axis k(sub A)-bar, is always indicated by guidance to be zero. The objective of the controller is to regulate the actual values of these three quantities, i.e make them close to the commanded values, while maintaining system stability.

  10. Pre-Surgical Integration of fMRI and DTI of the Sensorimotor System in Transcortical Resection of a High-Grade Insular Astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Ekstrand, Chelsea L.; Mickleborough, Marla J. S.; Fourney, Daryl R.; Gould, Layla A.; Lorentz, Eric J.; Ellchuk, Tasha; Borowsky, Ron W.

    2016-01-01

    Herein we report on a patient with a WHO Grade III astrocytoma in the right insular region in close proximity to the internal capsule who underwent a right frontotemporal craniotomy. Total gross resection of insular gliomas remains surgically challenging based on the possibility of damage to the corticospinal tracts. However, maximizing the extent of resection has been shown to decrease future adverse outcomes. Thus, the goal of such surgeries should focus on maximizing extent of resection while minimizing possible adverse outcomes. In this case, pre-surgical planning included integration of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), to localize motor and sensory pathways. Novel fMRI tasks were individually developed for the patient to maximize both somatosensory and motor activation simultaneously in areas in close proximity to the tumor. Information obtained was used to optimize resection trajectory and extent, facilitating gross total resection of the astrocytoma. Across all three motor-sensory tasks administered, fMRI revealed an area of interest just superior and lateral to the astrocytoma. Further, DTI analyses showed displacement of the corona radiata around the superior dorsal surface of the astrocytoma, extending in the direction of the activation found using fMRI. Taking into account these results, a transcortical superior temporal gyrus surgical approach was chosen in order to avoid the area of interest identified by fMRI and DTI. Total gross resection was achieved and minor post-surgical motor and sensory deficits were temporary. This case highlights the utility of comprehensive pre-surgical planning, including fMRI and DTI, to maximize surgical outcomes on a case-by-case basis. PMID:27013996

  11. Optical mass gauge sensor having an energy per unit area of illumination detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justak, John F. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An optical mass gauge sensor is disclosed comprising a vessel having an interior surface which reflects radiant energy at a wavelength at least partially absorbed by a fluid contained within the vessel, an illuminating device for introducing radiant energy at such wavelength into the vessel interior, and, a detector for measuring the energy per unit area of illumination within the vessel created by the radiant energy which is not absorbed by the fluid.

  12. Methane production and energy evaluation of a farm scaled biogas plant in cold climate area.

    PubMed

    Fjørtoft, Kristian; Morken, John; Hanssen, Jon Fredrik; Briseid, Tormod

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the specific methane production and the energy balance at a small farm scaled mesophilic biogas plant in a cold climate area. The main substrate was dairy cow slurry. Fish silage was used as co-substrate for two of the three test periods. Energy production, substrate volumes and thermal and electric energy consumption was monitored. Methane production depended mainly on type and amount of substrates, while energy consumption depended mainly on the ambient temperature. During summer the main thermal energy consumption was caused by heating of new substrates, while covering for thermal energy losses from digester and pipes required most thermal energy during winter. Fish silage gave a total energy production of 1623 k Wh/m(3), while the dairy cow slurry produced 79 k Wh/m(3) slurry. Total energy demand at the plant varied between 26.9% and 88.2% of the energy produced. PMID:25033326

  13. Methane production and energy evaluation of a farm scaled biogas plant in cold climate area.

    PubMed

    Fjørtoft, Kristian; Morken, John; Hanssen, Jon Fredrik; Briseid, Tormod

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the specific methane production and the energy balance at a small farm scaled mesophilic biogas plant in a cold climate area. The main substrate was dairy cow slurry. Fish silage was used as co-substrate for two of the three test periods. Energy production, substrate volumes and thermal and electric energy consumption was monitored. Methane production depended mainly on type and amount of substrates, while energy consumption depended mainly on the ambient temperature. During summer the main thermal energy consumption was caused by heating of new substrates, while covering for thermal energy losses from digester and pipes required most thermal energy during winter. Fish silage gave a total energy production of 1623 k Wh/m(3), while the dairy cow slurry produced 79 k Wh/m(3) slurry. Total energy demand at the plant varied between 26.9% and 88.2% of the energy produced.

  14. Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Jürgen O; Hüttermann, Aloys

    2009-02-01

    An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO(2) content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

  15. Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Jürgen O.; Hüttermann, Aloys

    2009-02-01

    An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO2 content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

  16. Intracranial spectral amplitude dynamics of perceptual suppression in fronto-insular, occipito-temporal, and primary visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Juan R.; Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Kahane, Philippe; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    If conscious perception requires global information integration across active distant brain networks, how does the loss of conscious perception affect neural processing in these distant networks? Pioneering studies on perceptual suppression (PS) described specific local neural network responses in primary visual cortex, thalamus and lateral prefrontal cortex of the macaque brain. Yet the neural effects of PS have rarely been studied with intracerebral recordings outside these cortices and simultaneously across distant brain areas. Here, we combined (1) a novel experimental paradigm in which we produced a similar perceptual disappearance and also re-appearance by using visual adaptation with transient contrast changes, with (2) electrophysiological observations from human intracranial electrodes sampling wide brain areas. We focused on broadband high-frequency (50–150 Hz, i.e., gamma) and low-frequency (8–24 Hz) neural activity amplitude modulations related to target visibility and invisibility. We report that low-frequency amplitude modulations reflected stimulus visibility in a larger ensemble of recording sites as compared to broadband gamma responses, across distinct brain regions including occipital, temporal and frontal cortices. Moreover, the dynamics of the broadband gamma response distinguished stimulus visibility from stimulus invisibility earlier in anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus than in temporal regions, suggesting a possible role of fronto-insular cortices in top–down processing for conscious perception. Finally, we report that in primary visual cortex only low-frequency amplitude modulations correlated directly with perceptual status. Interestingly, in this sensory area broadband gamma was not modulated during PS but became positively modulated after 300 ms when stimuli were rendered visible again, suggesting that local networks could be ignited by top–down influences during conscious perception. PMID:25642199

  17. Building and Applying "Insularity Theory": Review on Knapp's Prehistoric and Protohistoric Cyprus, 2008.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsarou-Tzeveleki, Stella

    listing of external factors (colonization, invasions) originating in the Near East and the Aegean as sequential narrative history, and the descriptive, systemic analysis of 'materiality, production, trade, migration and colonization which have for long been the cornerstones of Cypriot archaeology' (p. 11). In contrast, he turns his attention towards the internal processes within the island society of Bronze Age Cyprus, which shape its insularity and give it a distinctive identity at this specific period, processes that lead to contextual history and formative tradition. 'To study how any society changes, at any time, it is crucial first to look at internal rather than external factors' (p. 1). Defining the concept of insularity is his aim; therefore, he begins with a number of very apposite rhetorical questions (p. 13) and identifies several individual parameters (connectivity, islandscape, social identity, ethnicity, migration, acculturation, hybridization) to which he assigns collective and individual meanings. The eight chapters that follow may be assigned, broadly, to three general units: in the first of these (ch. 1-2), Knapp offers a synthesis of these parameters in the form of a 'theory of insularity'. In the second (ch. 3-7) he formulates his revised narrative of the prehistory and social identity of the island, which involves a presentation of social and economic, rather than stylistic categories, on the basis of the parameters laid down in his theoretical scheme. Finally, in the third unit (ch. 8), he records his overall conclusions, the new cognitive experiences and concerns that have emerged from the application of his theory, both to Cyprus and to insular archaeology in the Mediterranean and on a world scale. Knapp's synthesis of the theory of insularity in the first unit is a major contribution to Mediterranean archaeology, and makes this book a seminal work. Continuing and broadening Broodbank's (2000) reasoning about the Cyclades, Knapp, with Cyprus as his

  18. The effects of feral cats on insular wildlife: the Club-Med syndrome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steve C.; Danner, Raymond M.; Timm, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic cats have been introduced to many of the world‘s islands where they have been particularly devastating to insular wildlife which, in most cases, evolved in the absence of terrestrial predatory mammals and feline diseases. We review the effects of predation, feline diseases, and the life history characteristics of feral cats and their prey that have contributed to the extirpation and extinction of many insular vertebrate species. The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is a persistent land-based zoonotic pathogen hosted by cats that is known to cause mortality in several insular bird species. It also enters marine environments in cat feces where it can cause the mortality of marine mammals. Feral cats remain widespread on islands throughout the world and are frequently subsidized in colonies which caretakers often assert have little negative effect on native wildlife. However, population genetics, home range, and movement studies all suggest that there are no locations on smaller islands where these cats cannot penetrate within two generations. While the details of past vertebrate extinctions were rarely documented during contemporary time, a strong line of evidence is emerging that the removal of feral cats from islands can rapidly facilitate the recolonization of extirpated species, particularly seabirds. Islands offer unique, mostly self-contained ecosystems in which to conduct controlled studies of the effects of feral cats on wildlife, having implications for continental systems. The response of terrestrial wildlife such as passerine birds, small mammals, and herptiles still needs more thorough long-term monitoring and documentation after the removal of feral cats.

  19. Renewable energy plan of action for American Samoa

    SciTech Connect

    Shupe, J.W. . Pacific Site Office); Stevens, J.W. )

    1990-11-01

    American Samoa has no indigenous fossil fuels and is almost totally dependent for energy on seaborne petroleum. However, the seven Pacific Islands located at 14 degrees south latitude that constitute American Samoa have a wide variety of renewable resources with the potential for substituting for imported oil. Included as possible renewable energy conversion technologies are solar thermal, photovoltaics, wind, geothermal, ocean thermal, and waste-to-energy recovery. This report evaluates the potential of each of these renewable energy alternatives and establishes recommended priorities for their development in American Samoa. Rough cost estimates are also included. Although renewable energy planning is highly site specific, information in this report should find some general application to other tropical insular areas.

  20. Selection-Based Biodiversity at a Small Spatial Scale in a Low-Dispersing Insular Bird.

    PubMed

    Blondel; Dias; Perret; Maistre; Lambrechts

    1999-08-27

    The blue tit is a highly mobile small passerine found in deciduous and evergreen oaks. In mainland populations, gene flow results in local maladaptive timing of breeding in evergreen oak forests, the rarer habitat. However, on the island of Corsica, two populations only 25 kilometers apart are highly specialized and differ between the two habitat types in breeding and morphological traits. In contrast to theoretical predictions about the homogenizing effects of gene flow, this highlights evolutionary consequences of habitat diversification and isolation at a small spatial scale in insular organisms, which should be taken into account in conservation policies.

  1. To require the Secretary of the Interior to assemble a team of technical, policy, and financial experts to address the energy needs of the insular areas of the United States and the Freely Associated States through the development of energy action plans aimed at promoting access to affordable, reliable energy, including increasing use of indigenous clean-energy resources, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Christensen, Donna M. [D-VI-At Large

    2014-12-08

    12/12/2014 Received in the Senate. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.83, which became Public Law 113-235 on 12/16/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Susceptibility to Infection and Immune Response in Insular and Continental Populations of Egyptian Vulture: Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Gangoso, Laura; Grande, Juan M.; Lemus, Jesús A.; Blanco, Guillermo; Grande, Javier; Donázar, José A.

    2009-01-01

    Background A generalized decline in populations of Old World avian scavengers is occurring on a global scale. The main cause of the observed crisis in continental populations of these birds should be looked for in the interaction between two factors - changes in livestock management, including the increased use of pharmaceutical products, and disease. Insular vertebrates seem to be especially susceptible to diseases induced by the arrival of exotic pathogens, a process often favored by human activities, and sedentary and highly dense insular scavengers populations may be thus especially exposed to infection by such pathogens. Here, we compare pathogen prevalence and immune response in insular and continental populations of the globally endangered Egyptian vulture under similar livestock management scenarios, but with different ecological and evolutionary perspectives. Methods/Principal Findings Adult, immature, and fledgling vultures from the Canary Islands and the Iberian Peninsula were sampled to determine a) the prevalence of seven pathogen taxa and b) their immunocompetence, as measured by monitoring techniques (white blood cells counts and immunoglobulins). In the Canarian population, pathogen prevalence was higher and, in addition, an association among pathogens was apparent, contrary to the situation detected in continental populations. Despite that, insular fledglings showed lower leukocyte profiles than continental birds and Canarian fledglings infected by Chlamydophila psittaci showed poorer cellular immune response. Conclusions/Significance A combination of environmental and ecological factors may contribute to explain the high susceptibility to infection found in insular vultures. The scenario described here may be similar in other insular systems where populations of carrion-eaters are in strong decline and are seriously threatened. Higher susceptibility to infection may be a further factor contributing decisively to the extinction of island scavengers

  3. Energy conservation measures at Corps of Engineers recreation areas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Palermo, M.R.

    1981-04-01

    This report identifies energy conservation measures at recreation areas now being used or contemplated by the Corps of Engineers. Consumption at these sites includes energy for lighting, hot water heating, space heating, electrical hookup for campers and operation of water supply and waste water treatment facilities.

  4. Balancing Area Coordination: Efficiently Integrating Renewable Energy Into the Grid, Greening the Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Jessica; Denholm, Paul; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2015-06-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. Coordinating balancing area operation can promote more cost and resource efficient integration of variable renewable energy, such as wind and solar, into power systems. This efficiency is achieved by sharing or coordinating balancing resources and operating reserves across larger geographic boundaries.

  5. Comparison of anterior cingulate vs. insular cortex as targets for real-time fMRI regulation during pain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Emmert, Kirsten; Breimhorst, Markus; Bauermann, Thomas; Birklein, Frank; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Haller, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) neurofeedback allows learning voluntary control over specific brain areas by means of operant conditioning and has been shown to decrease pain perception. To further increase the effect of rt-fMRI neurofeedback on pain, we directly compared two different target regions of the pain network, notably the anterior insular cortex (AIC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Participants for this prospective study were randomly assigned to two age-matched groups of 14 participants each (7 females per group) for AIC and ACC feedback. First, a functional localizer using block-design heat pain stimulation was performed to define the pain-sensitive target region within the AIC or ACC. Second, subjects were asked to down-regulate the BOLD activation in four neurofeedback runs during identical pain stimulation. Data analysis included task-related and functional connectivity analysis. At the behavioral level, pain ratings significantly decreased during feedback vs. localizer runs, but there was no difference between AIC and ACC groups. Concerning neuroimaging, ACC and AIC showed consistent involvement of the caudate nucleus for subjects that learned down-regulation (17/28) in both task-related and functional connectivity analysis. The functional connectivity toward the caudate nucleus is stronger for the ACC while the AIC is more heavily connected to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Consequently, the ACC and AIC are suitable targets for real-time fMRI neurofeedback during pain perception as they both affect the caudate nucleus, although functional connectivity indicates that the direct connection seems to be stronger with the ACC. Additionally, the caudate, an important area involved in pain perception and suppression, could be a good rt-fMRI target itself. Future studies are needed to identify parameters characterizing successful regulators and to assess the effect of repeated rt-fMRI neurofeedback on pain

  6. Distribution of energy storage rate in area of strain localization during tension of austenitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliferuk, W.; Maj, M.; Zembrzycki, K.

    2015-01-01

    The present work is devoted to experimental determination of the energy storage rate in the area of strain localization. The experimental procedure involves two complementary techniques: i.e. infrared thermography (IRT) and visible light imaging. The results of experiments have shown that during the evolution of plastic strain localization the energy storage rate in some areas of the deformed specimen drops to zero. To interpret the decrease of the energy storage rate in terms of micro-mechanisms, microstructural observations using electron back scattered diffraction (EBSC) were performed.

  7. The Wide-area Energy Management System Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Makarov, Yuri V.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2010-08-31

    The higher penetration of intermittent generation resources (including wind and solar generation) in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and California Independent System Operator (CAISO) balancing authorities (BAs) raises issue of requiring expensive additional fast grid balancing services in response to additional intermittency and fast up and down power ramps in the electric supply system. The overall goal of the wide-area energy management system (WAEMS) project is to develop the principles, algorithms, market integration rules, a functional design, and a technical specification for an energy storage system to help cope with unexpected rapid changes in renewable generation power output. The resulting system will store excess energy, control dispatchable load and distributed generation, and utilize inter-area exchange of the excess energy between the California ISO and Bonneville Power Administration control areas. A further goal is to provide a cost-benefit analysis and develop a business model for an investment-based practical deployment of such a system. There are two tasks in Phase 2 of the WAEMS project: the flywheel field tests and the battery evaluation. Two final reports, the Wide-area Energy Management System Phase 2 Flywheel Field Tests Final Report and the Wide-area Energy Storage and Management System Battery Storage Evaluation, were written to summarize the results of the two tasks.

  8. High Surface Area Electrodes Derived from Polymer Wrapped Carbon Nanotubes for Enhanced Energy Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiary Davijani, Amir A; Liu, H Clive; Gupta, Kishor; Kumar, Satish

    2016-09-21

    Electrical double layer capacitors store energy on two adjacent layers, resulting in fast charging and discharging, but their energy density is limited by the available surface area. In this study, using poly(methyl methacrylate) assisted sonication, carbon nanotube buckypapers with specific surface area as high as 950 m(2)/g have been processed. Performance of these high surface area buckypapers have been evaluated as supercapacitor electrodes. The energy density of these high surface area electrodes at low power density of 0.68 kW/kg was 22.3 Wh/kg, and at high power density of 84 kW/kg was 3.13 Wh/kg using the ionic liquid electrolyte. PMID:27556746

  9. High Surface Area Electrodes Derived from Polymer Wrapped Carbon Nanotubes for Enhanced Energy Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiary Davijani, Amir A; Liu, H Clive; Gupta, Kishor; Kumar, Satish

    2016-09-21

    Electrical double layer capacitors store energy on two adjacent layers, resulting in fast charging and discharging, but their energy density is limited by the available surface area. In this study, using poly(methyl methacrylate) assisted sonication, carbon nanotube buckypapers with specific surface area as high as 950 m(2)/g have been processed. Performance of these high surface area buckypapers have been evaluated as supercapacitor electrodes. The energy density of these high surface area electrodes at low power density of 0.68 kW/kg was 22.3 Wh/kg, and at high power density of 84 kW/kg was 3.13 Wh/kg using the ionic liquid electrolyte.

  10. Impact of Balancing Area Size, Obligation Sharing, and Energy Markets on Mitigating Ramping Requirements in Systems with Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.

    2008-01-01

    Balancing area reserve sharing holds the promise of significantly reducing wind integration costs. In a companion paper we examine wind integration costs as a function of balancing area size to determine if the larger system size helps mitigate wind integration cost increases. In this paper we turn to an examination of the NYISO sub-hourly energy market to understand how it incentivizes generators to respond to ramping signals without having to explicitly pay for the service. Because markets appear to have the ability of bringing out supply response in sub-hourly energy markets, and because existing thermal resources appear to have significant untapped ramping capability, we believe that a combination of fast energy markets and combined balancing area operations can increase the grid's ability to absorb higher wind penetrations without experiencing significant operational problems or costs.

  11. Direction-dependent activation of the insular cortex during vertical and horizontal hand movements.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, C; Fautrelle, L; Papaxanthis, C; Fadiga, L; Pozzo, T; White, O

    2016-06-14

    The planning of any motor action requires a complex multisensory processing by the brain. Gravity - immutable on Earth - has been shown to be a key input to these mechanisms. Seminal fMRI studies performed during visual perception of falling objects and self-motion demonstrated that humans represent the action of gravity in parts of the cortical vestibular system; in particular, the insular cortex and the cerebellum. However, little is known as to whether a specific neural network is engaged when processing non-visual signals relevant to gravity. We asked participants to perform vertical and horizontal hand movements without visual control, while lying in a 3T-MRI scanner. We highlighted brain regions activated in the processing of vertical movements, for which the effects of gravity changed during execution. Precisely, the left insula was activated in vertical movements and not in horizontal movements. Moreover, the network identified by contrasting vertical and horizontal movements overlapped with neural correlates previously associated to the processing of simulated self-motion and visual perception of the vertical direction. Interestingly, we found that the insular cortex activity is direction-dependent which suggests that this brain region processes the effects of gravity on the moving limbs through non-visual signals. PMID:27001175

  12. Role of the insular cortex in the modulation of baroreflex sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Saleh, T M; Connell, B J

    1998-05-01

    Cervical vagal stimulation for 2 h results in a depressed baroreflex sensitivity produced by an enhanced sympathetic output, as indicated by increased plasma norepinephrine levels. The current study examined the role of the insular cortex in modulating the vagal stimulation-induced changes in baroreflex sensitivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with thiobutabarbitol sodium and instrumented for recording blood pressure, heart rate, intravenous drug administration, and vagal afferent nerve stimulation. Stereotaxic microinjections (300 nl) of either 5% lidocaine or 0.9% saline were made bilaterally into the insula. Thirty minutes after 2 h of vagal stimulation, the baroreflex was significantly depressed and plasma norepinephrine levels were significantly elevated in both groups. The baroreflex was also significantly depressed after bilateral lidocaine injections into the insula, independent of vagal stimulation. However, no significant change in plasma norepinephrine was observed, suggesting that an attenuated parasympathetic output contributed to the altered baroreflex. Taken together, the results suggest that the insular cortex modulates the cardiac baroreflex through a modulation of parasympathetic output. PMID:9612410

  13. Involvement of the rostral agranular insular cortex in nicotine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Pushparaj, Abhiram; Kim, Aaron S; Musiol, Martin; Trigo, Jose M; Le Foll, Bernard

    2015-09-01

    Our prior work demonstrated the involvement of the caudal granular subregion of the insular cortex in a rat model of nicotine self-administration. Recent studies in various animal models of addiction for nicotine and other drugs have identified a role for the rostral agranular subregion (RAIC). The current research was undertaken to examine the involvement of the RAIC in a rat model of nicotine self-administration. We investigated the inactivating effects of local infusions of a γ-aminobutyric acid agonist mixture (baclofen/muscimol) into the RAIC on nicotine self-administration under a fixed-ratio 5 (FR-5) schedule and on reinstatement of nicotine seeking induced by nicotine-associated cues in rats. We also evaluated the effects of RAIC inactivation on food self-administration under an FR5 schedule as a control. Inactivation of the RAIC decreased nicotine, but not food, self-administration. RAIC inactivation also prevented the reinstatement, after extinction, of nicotine seeking induced by nicotine-associated cues. Our study indicates that the RAIC is involved in nicotine-taking and nicotine-seeking in rats. Modulating insular cortex function appears to be a promising approach for nicotine dependence treatment.

  14. Molecular systematics of Hispaniolan pupfishes (Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodon): implications for the biogeography of insular Caribbean fishes.

    PubMed

    Echelle, Anthony A; Fuselier, Linda; Van Den Bussche, Ronald A; Rodriguez, Carlos M L; Smith, Michael L

    2006-06-01

    We used sequence variation in the mtDNA control-region and ND2 and cyt b genes to assess the systematics and biogeography of the five species of pupfish (Cyprinodon) on Hispaniola. These include four endemics, the relatively large-bodied Cyprinodon bondi, Cyprinodon nichollsi, and Cyprinodon sp., each from a separate lake in southwestern Hispaniola, and Cyprinodon higuey from a coastal lake in eastern Hispaniola. The fifth species consists of coastal populations referable to Cyprinodon variegatus riverendi. The results indicate that Hispaniola has been invaded by at least two forms, first by a late Pliocene progenitor of Cyprinodon variegatus ovinus and the large-bodied Hispaniolan species, and, more recently, by one or more ancestral forms allied with Cyprinodon variegatus variegatus and C. v. riverendi. Levels of divergence indicate that large expanses of open sea have not acted as long-term barriers to inter-island dispersal of cyprinodontiform fishes. This study, together with the molecular systematics of other insular Caribbean fishes, indicates that most insular groups originated from late Neogene dispersal from the mainland. The patterns of mtDNA variation in Cyprinodon showed little congruence with the species/subspecies taxonomy.

  15. Insular dentin formation pattern in human odontogenesis in relation to the scalloped dentino-enamel junction.

    PubMed

    Radlanski, Ralf J; Renz, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    This study is a first report on the modality of early dentin formation in respect to the scalloped pattern of the dentino-enamel junction (DEJ). We applied scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), histological serial sections, and three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions. TEM and SEM showed scallops and secondary scallops on the DEJ of deciduous dental primordia and on deciduous teeth with the enamel cap removed. This peculiar outline of the DEJ requires a specific dentin formation pattern; histological sections showed that dentin formation began at the brims of the scallops, seen as triangular spikes in serial sections. The dentin formation front was not uniform; instead, it was characterized by multiple, insular forming centers, as revealed by our 3D reconstructions. As thicker dentin layers formed, the islands became confluent. Factors are discussed, which may lead to crimpling of the inner enamel epithelium, and maintained as the scalloped pattern of the DEJ develops. Signaling patterns in accordance with the insular dentin formation are unknown so far.

  16. A role for the interoceptive insular cortex in the consolidation of learned fear.

    PubMed

    Casanova, José Patricio; Madrid, Carlos; Contreras, Marco; Rodríguez, María; Vasquez, Mónica; Torrealba, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that learned fear may be related to the function of the interoceptive insular cortex. Using an auditory fear conditioning paradigm in rats, we show that the inactivation of the posterior insular cortex (pIC), the target of the interoceptive thalamus, prior to training produced a marked reduction in fear expression tested 24h later. Accordingly, post-training anisomycin infused immediately, but not 6h after, also reduced fear expression tested the following day, supporting a role for the pIC in consolidation of fear memory. The long-term (ca. a week) and reversible inactivation of the pIC with the sodium channel blocker neosaxitoxin, immediately after fear memory reactivation induced a progressive decrease in the behavioral expression of conditioned fear. In turn, we observed that fear memory reactivation is accompanied by an enhanced expression of Fos and Zif268, early genes involved in neural activity and plasticity. Taken together these data indicate that the pIC is involved in the regulation of fear memories.

  17. Differential Involvement of the Agranular vs Granular Insular Cortex in the Acquisition and Performance of Choice Behavior in a Rodent Gambling Task

    PubMed Central

    Pushparaj, Abhiram; Kim, Aaron S; Musiol, Martin; Zangen, Abraham; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Zack, Martin; Winstanley, Catharine A; Le Foll, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Substance-related and addictive disorders, in particular gambling disorder, are known to be associated with risky decision-making behavior. Several neuroimaging studies have identified the involvement of the insular cortex in decision-making under risk. However, the extent of this involvement remains unclear and the specific contributions of two distinct insular subregions, the rostral agranular (RAIC) and the caudal granular (CGIC), have yet to be examined. Animals were trained to perform a rat gambling task (rGT), in which subjects chose between four options that differed in the magnitude and probability of rewards and penalties. In order to address the roles of the RAIC and CGIC in established choice behavior, pharmacological inactivations of these two subregions via local infusions of GABA receptor agonists were performed following 30 rGT training sessions. The contribution made by the RAIC or CGIC to the acquisition of choice behavior was also determined by lesioning these areas before behavioral training. Inactivation of the RAIC, but not of the CGIC, shifted rats' preference toward options with greater reward frequency and lower punishment. Before rGT acquisition, lesions of the RAIC, but not the CGIC, likewise resulted in a higher preference for options with greater reward frequency and lower punishment, and this persisted throughout the 30 training sessions. Our results provide confirmation of the involvement of the RAIC in rGT choice behavior and suggest that the RAIC may mediate detrimental risky decision-making behavior, such as that associated with addiction and gambling disorder. PMID:25953358

  18. Differential Involvement of the Agranular vs Granular Insular Cortex in the Acquisition and Performance of Choice Behavior in a Rodent Gambling Task.

    PubMed

    Pushparaj, Abhiram; Kim, Aaron S; Musiol, Martin; Zangen, Abraham; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Zack, Martin; Winstanley, Catharine A; Le Foll, Bernard

    2015-11-01

    Substance-related and addictive disorders, in particular gambling disorder, are known to be associated with risky decision-making behavior. Several neuroimaging studies have identified the involvement of the insular cortex in decision-making under risk. However, the extent of this involvement remains unclear and the specific contributions of two distinct insular subregions, the rostral agranular (RAIC) and the caudal granular (CGIC), have yet to be examined. Animals were trained to perform a rat gambling task (rGT), in which subjects chose between four options that differed in the magnitude and probability of rewards and penalties. In order to address the roles of the RAIC and CGIC in established choice behavior, pharmacological inactivations of these two subregions via local infusions of GABA receptor agonists were performed following 30 rGT training sessions. The contribution made by the RAIC or CGIC to the acquisition of choice behavior was also determined by lesioning these areas before behavioral training. Inactivation of the RAIC, but not of the CGIC, shifted rats' preference toward options with greater reward frequency and lower punishment. Before rGT acquisition, lesions of the RAIC, but not the CGIC, likewise resulted in a higher preference for options with greater reward frequency and lower punishment, and this persisted throughout the 30 training sessions. Our results provide confirmation of the involvement of the RAIC in rGT choice behavior and suggest that the RAIC may mediate detrimental risky decision-making behavior, such as that associated with addiction and gambling disorder. PMID:25953358

  19. Cost Effective Simulation of the Hybrid Solar/wind and Diesel Energy System in Rural Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Ee. Y.; Barsoum, Nader

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes the optimization of a hybrid energy system model. Currently in Sarawak, people living in the rural areas still depend on diesel generators to generate electricity. This increases the demand for fossil fuel, creates noise pollution and toxic gas is emitted to the environment. Hence, hybrid energy systems were introduced to replace this conventional energy system as well as improving the living standard in the villages. In this paper, several hybrid energy system configurations were investigated in order to find out the most cost effective hybrid system through Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewability (Homer) software. Homer simulates, optimizes, and analyzes the sensitivity variables for each of the system configurations.

  20. Bilateral lesions in a specific subregion of posterior insular cortex impair conditioned taste aversion expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Schier, Lindsey A; Blonde, Ginger D; Spector, Alan C

    2016-01-01

    The gustatory cortex (GC) is widely regarded for its integral role in the acquisition and retention of conditioned taste aversions (CTAs) in rodents, but large lesions in this area do not always result in CTA impairment. Recently, using a new lesion mapping system, we found that severe CTA expression deficits were associated with damage to a critical zone that included the posterior half of GC in addition to the insular cortex (IC) that is just dorsal and caudal to this region (visceral cortex). Lesions in anterior GC were without effect. Here, neurotoxic bilateral lesions were placed in the anterior half of this critical damage zone, at the confluence of the posterior GC and the anterior visceral cortex (termed IC2 ), the posterior half of this critical damage zone that contains just VC (termed IC3), or both of these subregions (IC2 + IC3). Then, pre- and postsurgically acquired CTAs (to 0.1 M NaCl and 0.1 M sucrose, respectively) were assessed postsurgically in 15-minute one-bottle and 96-hour two-bottle tests. Li-injected rats with histologically confirmed bilateral lesions in IC2 exhibited the most severe CTA deficits, whereas those with bilateral lesions in IC3 were relatively normal, exhibiting transient disruptions in the one-bottle sessions. Groupwise lesion maps showed that CTA-impaired rats had more extensive damage to IC2 than did unimpaired rats. Some individual differences in CTA expression among rats with similar lesion profiles were observed, suggesting idiosyncrasies in the topographic representation of information in the IC. Nevertheless, this study implicates IC2 as the critical zone of the IC for normal CTA expression.

  1. Climate as a driver of tropical insular diversity: comparative phylogeography of two ecologically distinctive frogs in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Brittany S.; Rodríguez-Robles, Javier A.; Cook, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of late Quaternary climate on distributions and evolutionary dynamics of insular species are poorly understood in most tropical archipelagoes. We used ecological niche models under past and current climate to derive hypotheses regarding how stable climatic conditions shaped genetic diversity in two ecologically distinctive frogs in Puerto Rico. Whereas the Mountain Coquí, Eleutherodactylus portoricensis, is restricted to montane forest in the Cayey and Luquillo Mountains, the Red-eyed Coquí, E. antillensis, is a habitat generalist distributed across the entire Puerto Rican Bank (Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, excluding St. Croix). To test our hypotheses, we conducted phylogeographic and population genetic analyses based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci of each species across their range in Puerto Rico. Patterns of population differentiation in E. portoricensis, but not in E. antillensis, supported our hypotheses. For E. portoricensis, these patterns include: individuals isolated by long-term unsuitable climate in the Río Grande de Loíza Basin in eastern Puerto Rico belong to different genetic clusters; past and current climate strongly predicted genetic differentiation; and Cayey and Luquillo Mountains populations split prior to the last interglacial. For E. antillensis, these patterns include: genetic clusters did not fully correspond to predicted long-term unsuitable climate; and past and current climate weakly predicted patterns of genetic differentiation. Genetic signatures in E. antillensis are consistent with a recent range expansion into western Puerto Rico, possibly resulting from climate change and anthropogenic influences. As predicted, regions with a large area of long-term suitable climate were associated with higher genetic diversity in both species, suggesting larger and more stable populations. Finally, we discussed the implications of our findings for developing evidence-based management decisions for E. portoricensis, a taxon

  2. "There Are No Housewives on 'Star Trek'": A Reexamination of Exit Rights for the Children of Insular Fundamentalist Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAvoy, Paula

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, Paula McAvoy addresses the problem caused by the liberal state's necessary tolerance of insular fundamentalist groups and the concern that children raised in such groups do not have a fair opportunity to evaluate their inherited beliefs. This tension comes to the fore around disagreements over schooling and requests for religious…

  3. Contrasting characteristics of the surface energy balance between the urban and rural areas of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linlin; Gao, Zhiqiu; Miao, Shiguang; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Ting; Liu, Maofeng; Li, Dan

    2015-04-01

    A direct comparison of urban and rural surface energy balances, as well as a variety of other variables including incoming shortwave/longwave radiation and aerosol optical depth, is conducted for the Beijing metropolitan area. The results indicate that, overall, the urban area receives a smaller amount of incoming shortwave radiation but a larger amount of incoming longwave radiation. However, comparisons in the aerosol optical depth and cloud fraction at the two locations suggest that neither aerosol optical depth nor cloud fraction alone can explain the difference in the incoming shortwave radiation. The urban-rural differences in the incoming longwave radiation are unlikely to be caused by the presence of more abundant greenhouse gases over the urban area, as suggested by some previous studies, given that water vapor is the most dominant greenhouse gas and precipitable water is found to be less in urban areas. The higher incoming longwave radiation observed over the urban area is mostly likely due to the higher temperatures of the ambient air. The urban area is also found to always produce higher sensible heat fluxes and lower latent heat fluxes in the growing season. Furthermore, the urban area is associated with a larger amount of available energy (the sum of sensible and latent heat fluxes) than the rural area, except in May and October when evapotranspiration in the rural area significantly exceeds that in the urban area. This study provides observational evidence of urban-rural contrasts in relevant energy-balance components that plausibly arise from urban-rural differences in atmospheric and land-surface conditions.

  4. Solar energy development impacts on land cover change and protected areas

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Rebecca R.; Hoffacker, Madison K.; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L.; Wu, Grace C.; Allen, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE) [i.e., ≥1 megawatt (MW)] development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type [photovoltaic (PV) vs. concentrating solar power (CSP)], area (in square kilometers), and capacity (in MW) within the global solar hot spot of the state of California (United States). Additionally, we used the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Last, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrublands and scrublands, comprising 375 km2 of land cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km2 of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in “Compatible” areas. The majority of “Incompatible” USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure, and all USSE installations average at most 7 and 5 km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions. PMID:26483467

  5. Solar Energy Development Impacts on Land-Cover Change and Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffacker, M. K.; Hernandez, R. R.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Wu, G. C.; Allen, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE; i.e., ≥ 1 megawatt [MW]) development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land-cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type (photovoltaic [PV] vs. concentrating solar power [CSP]), area (km2), and capacity (MW) within the global solar hotspot of the state of California (USA). Additionally, we utilized the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility Model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Lastly, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrub- and scrublands, comprising 375 km2 of land-cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km2 of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in compatible areas. The majority of incompatible USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure and all USSE installations average at most seven and five km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions.

  6. Solar energy development impacts on land cover change and protected areas.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Rebecca R; Hoffacker, Madison K; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L; Wu, Grace C; Allen, Michael F

    2015-11-01

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE) [i.e., ≥ 1 megawatt (MW)] development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type [photovoltaic (PV) vs. concentrating solar power (CSP)], area (in square kilometers), and capacity (in MW) within the global solar hot spot of the state of California (United States). Additionally, we used the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Last, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrublands and scrublands, comprising 375 km(2) of land cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km(2) of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in "Compatible" areas. The majority of "Incompatible" USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure, and all USSE installations average at most 7 and 5 km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions.

  7. Solar energy development impacts on land cover change and protected areas.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Rebecca R; Hoffacker, Madison K; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L; Wu, Grace C; Allen, Michael F

    2015-11-01

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE) [i.e., ≥ 1 megawatt (MW)] development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type [photovoltaic (PV) vs. concentrating solar power (CSP)], area (in square kilometers), and capacity (in MW) within the global solar hot spot of the state of California (United States). Additionally, we used the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Last, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrublands and scrublands, comprising 375 km(2) of land cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km(2) of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in "Compatible" areas. The majority of "Incompatible" USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure, and all USSE installations average at most 7 and 5 km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions. PMID:26483467

  8. Quantification of surface amorphous content using dispersive surface energy: the concept of effective amorphous surface area.

    PubMed

    Brum, Jeffrey; Burnett, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    We investigate the use of dispersive surface energy in quantifying surface amorphous content, and the concept of effective amorphous surface area is introduced. An equation is introduced employing the linear combination of surface area normalized square root dispersive surface energy terms. This equation is effective in generating calibration curves when crystalline and amorphous references are used. Inverse gas chromatography is used to generate dispersive surface energy values. Two systems are investigated, and in both cases surface energy data collected for physical mixture samples comprised of amorphous and crystalline references fits the predicted response with good accuracy. Surface amorphous content of processed lactose samples is quantified using the calibration curve, and interpreted within the context of effective amorphous surface area. Data for bulk amorphous content is also utilized to generate a thorough picture of how disorder is distributed throughout the particle. An approach to quantifying surface amorphous content using dispersive surface energy is presented. Quantification is achieved by equating results to an effective amorphous surface area based on reference crystalline, and amorphous materials. PMID:21725707

  9. Sex Differences in Insular Cortex Gyri Responses to the Valsalva Maneuver.

    PubMed

    Macey, Paul M; Rieken, Nicholas S; Kumar, Rajesh; Ogren, Jennifer A; Middlekauff, Holly R; Wu, Paula; Woo, Mary A; Harper, Ronald M

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in autonomic regulation may underlie cardiovascular disease variations between females and males. One key autonomic brain region is the insular cortex, which typically consists of five main gyri in each hemisphere, and shows a topographical organization of autonomic function across those gyri. The present study aims to identify possible sex differences in organization of autonomic function in the insula. We studied brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses to a series of four 18-s Valsalva maneuvers in 22 healthy females (age ± SD: 50.0 ± 7.9 years) and 36 healthy males (45.3 ± 9.2 years). Comparisons of heart rate (HR) and fMRI signals were performed with repeated measures ANOVA (threshold P < 0.05 for all findings). All subjects achieved the target 30 mmHg expiratory pressure for all challenges. Typical HR responses were elicited by the maneuver, including HR increases from ~4 s into the strain period (Phase II) and rapid declines to below baseline 5-10 s, following strain release (Phase IV). Small, but significant, sex differences in HR percent change occurred during the sympathetic-dominant Phase II (female < male) and parasympathetic-dominant Phase IV (female > male, i.e., greater undershoot in males). The insular cortices showed similar patterns in all gyri, with greater signal decreases in males than females. Both sexes exhibited an anterior-posterior topographical organization of insular responses during Phase II, with anterior gyri showing higher responses than more posterior gyri. The exception was the right anterior-most gyrus in females, which had lower responses than the four other right gyri. Responses were lateralized, with right-sided dominance during Phase II in both sexes, except the right anterior-most gyrus in females, which showed lower responses than the left. The findings confirm the anterior and right-sided sympathetic dominance of the insula. Although sex differences

  10. Sex Differences in Insular Cortex Gyri Responses to the Valsalva Maneuver

    PubMed Central

    Macey, Paul M.; Rieken, Nicholas S.; Kumar, Rajesh; Ogren, Jennifer A.; Middlekauff, Holly R.; Wu, Paula; Woo, Mary A.; Harper, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in autonomic regulation may underlie cardiovascular disease variations between females and males. One key autonomic brain region is the insular cortex, which typically consists of five main gyri in each hemisphere, and shows a topographical organization of autonomic function across those gyri. The present study aims to identify possible sex differences in organization of autonomic function in the insula. We studied brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses to a series of four 18-s Valsalva maneuvers in 22 healthy females (age ± SD: 50.0 ± 7.9 years) and 36 healthy males (45.3 ± 9.2 years). Comparisons of heart rate (HR) and fMRI signals were performed with repeated measures ANOVA (threshold P < 0.05 for all findings). All subjects achieved the target 30 mmHg expiratory pressure for all challenges. Typical HR responses were elicited by the maneuver, including HR increases from ~4 s into the strain period (Phase II) and rapid declines to below baseline 5–10 s, following strain release (Phase IV). Small, but significant, sex differences in HR percent change occurred during the sympathetic-dominant Phase II (female < male) and parasympathetic-dominant Phase IV (female > male, i.e., greater undershoot in males). The insular cortices showed similar patterns in all gyri, with greater signal decreases in males than females. Both sexes exhibited an anterior–posterior topographical organization of insular responses during Phase II, with anterior gyri showing higher responses than more posterior gyri. The exception was the right anterior-most gyrus in females, which had lower responses than the four other right gyri. Responses were lateralized, with right-sided dominance during Phase II in both sexes, except the right anterior-most gyrus in females, which showed lower responses than the left. The findings confirm the anterior and right-sided sympathetic dominance of the insula. Although sex

  11. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: Executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morell, D.; Singer, G.

    1980-11-01

    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process.

  12. New Energy Efficient Housing Has Reduced Carbon Footprints in Outer but Not in Inner Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Ottelin, Juudit; Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2015-08-18

    Avoiding urban sprawl and increasing density are often considered as effective means to mitigate climate change through urban planning. However, there have been rapid technological changes in the fields of housing energy and private driving, and the development is continuing. In this study, we analyze the carbon footprints of the residents living in new housing in different urban forms in Finland. We compare the new housing to existing housing stock. In all areas, the emissions from housing energy were significantly lower in new buildings. However, in the inner urban areas the high level of consumption, mostly due to higher affluence, reverse the gains of energy efficient new housing. The smallest carbon footprints were found in newly built outer and peri-urban areas, also when income level differences were taken into account. Rather than strengthening the juxtaposition of urban and suburban areas, we suggest that it would be smarter to recognize the strengths and weaknesses of both modes of living and develop a more systemic strategy that would result in greater sustainability in both areas. Since such strategy does not exist yet, it should be researched and practically developed. It would be beneficial to focus on area specific mitigation measures.

  13. New Energy Efficient Housing Has Reduced Carbon Footprints in Outer but Not in Inner Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Ottelin, Juudit; Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2015-08-18

    Avoiding urban sprawl and increasing density are often considered as effective means to mitigate climate change through urban planning. However, there have been rapid technological changes in the fields of housing energy and private driving, and the development is continuing. In this study, we analyze the carbon footprints of the residents living in new housing in different urban forms in Finland. We compare the new housing to existing housing stock. In all areas, the emissions from housing energy were significantly lower in new buildings. However, in the inner urban areas the high level of consumption, mostly due to higher affluence, reverse the gains of energy efficient new housing. The smallest carbon footprints were found in newly built outer and peri-urban areas, also when income level differences were taken into account. Rather than strengthening the juxtaposition of urban and suburban areas, we suggest that it would be smarter to recognize the strengths and weaknesses of both modes of living and develop a more systemic strategy that would result in greater sustainability in both areas. Since such strategy does not exist yet, it should be researched and practically developed. It would be beneficial to focus on area specific mitigation measures. PMID:26177388

  14. Right insular damage decreases heartbeat awareness and alters cardio-visual effects on bodily self-consciousness.

    PubMed

    Ronchi, Roberta; Bello-Ruiz, Javier; Lukowska, Marta; Herbelin, Bruno; Cabrilo, Ivan; Schaller, Karl; Blanke, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that multisensory integration of bodily signals involving exteroceptive and interoceptive information modulates bodily aspects of self-consciousness such as self-identification and self-location. In the so-called Full Body Illusion subjects watch a virtual body being stroked while they perceive tactile stimulation on their own body inducing illusory self-identification with the virtual body and a change in self-location towards the virtual body. In a related illusion, it has recently been shown that similar changes in self-identification and self-location can be observed when an interoceptive signal is used in association with visual stimulation of the virtual body (i.e., participants observe a virtual body illuminated in synchrony with their heartbeat). Although brain imaging and neuropsychological evidence suggest that the insular cortex is a core region for interoceptive processing (such as cardiac perception and awareness) as well as for self-consciousness, it is currently not known whether the insula mediates cardio-visual modulation of self-consciousness. Here we tested the involvement of insular cortex in heartbeat awareness and cardio-visual manipulation of bodily self-consciousness in a patient before and after resection of a selective right neoplastic insular lesion. Cardio-visual stimulation induced an abnormally enhanced state of bodily self-consciousness; in addition, cardio-visual manipulation was associated with an experienced loss of the spatial unity of the self (illusory bi-location and duplication of his body), not observed in healthy subjects. Heartbeat awareness was found to decrease after insular resection. Based on these data we propose that the insula mediates interoceptive awareness as well as cardio-visual effects on bodily self-consciousness and that insular processing of interoceptive signals is an important mechanism for the experienced unity of the self. PMID:25676677

  15. Right insular damage decreases heartbeat awareness and alters cardio-visual effects on bodily self-consciousness.

    PubMed

    Ronchi, Roberta; Bello-Ruiz, Javier; Lukowska, Marta; Herbelin, Bruno; Cabrilo, Ivan; Schaller, Karl; Blanke, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that multisensory integration of bodily signals involving exteroceptive and interoceptive information modulates bodily aspects of self-consciousness such as self-identification and self-location. In the so-called Full Body Illusion subjects watch a virtual body being stroked while they perceive tactile stimulation on their own body inducing illusory self-identification with the virtual body and a change in self-location towards the virtual body. In a related illusion, it has recently been shown that similar changes in self-identification and self-location can be observed when an interoceptive signal is used in association with visual stimulation of the virtual body (i.e., participants observe a virtual body illuminated in synchrony with their heartbeat). Although brain imaging and neuropsychological evidence suggest that the insular cortex is a core region for interoceptive processing (such as cardiac perception and awareness) as well as for self-consciousness, it is currently not known whether the insula mediates cardio-visual modulation of self-consciousness. Here we tested the involvement of insular cortex in heartbeat awareness and cardio-visual manipulation of bodily self-consciousness in a patient before and after resection of a selective right neoplastic insular lesion. Cardio-visual stimulation induced an abnormally enhanced state of bodily self-consciousness; in addition, cardio-visual manipulation was associated with an experienced loss of the spatial unity of the self (illusory bi-location and duplication of his body), not observed in healthy subjects. Heartbeat awareness was found to decrease after insular resection. Based on these data we propose that the insula mediates interoceptive awareness as well as cardio-visual effects on bodily self-consciousness and that insular processing of interoceptive signals is an important mechanism for the experienced unity of the self.

  16. Three-Dimensional Wind Profiling of Offshore Wind Energy Areas With Airborne Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Cowen, Larry J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Grant, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    A technique has been developed for imaging the wind field over offshore areas being considered for wind farming. This is accomplished with an eye-safe 2-micrometer wavelength coherent Doppler lidar installed in an aircraft. By raster scanning the aircraft over the wind energy area (WEA), a three-dimensional map of the wind vector can be made. This technique was evaluated in 11 flights over the Virginia and Maryland offshore WEAs. Heights above the ocean surface planned for wind turbines are shown to be within the marine boundary layer, and the wind vector is seen to show variation across the geographical area of interest at turbine heights.

  17. Simplified floor-area-based energy-moisture-economic model for residential buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Luis A.

    In the United States, 21% of all energy is used in residential buildings (40% of which is for heating and cooling homes). Promising improvements in residential building energy efficiency are underway such as the Building America Program and the Passive House Concept. The ability of improving energy efficiency in buildings is enhanced by building energy modeling tools, which are well advanced and established but lack generality (each building has to be modeled individually) and require high cost, which limits many residential buildings from taking advantage of such powerful tools. This dissertation attempts to develop guidelines based on a per-building-floor-area basis for designing residential buildings that achieve maximum energy efficiency and minimum life cycle cost. Energy and moisture-mass conservation principles were formulated for residential buildings on a per-building-floor-area basis. This includes thermal energy balance, moisture-mass conservation and life cycle cost. The analysis also includes the effects of day-lighting, initial cost estimation and escalation rates. The model was implemented on Excel so it is available for broader audiences and was validated using the standard BESTEST validation procedure for energy models yielding satisfactory results for different scenarios, within a 90% confidence interval. Using the model, parametric optimization studies were conducted in order to study how each variable affects energy and life cycle cost. An efficient whole-building optimization procedure was developed to determine the optimal design based on key design parameters. Whole-building optimization studies were conducted for 12 climate zones using four different criteria: minimum energy consumption, minimum life cycle cost (35 years) using constant energy costs and minimum life cycle cost (35 years) varying escalation rates (-5%, 10%). Conclusions and recommendations were inferred on how to design an optimal house, using each criterion and for all

  18. Assessment and mapping of desertification sensitivity in an insular sahelian mountain region - case study of the Ribeira Seca Watershed, Cape Verde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, J.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to present the assessment and mapping of the environmental areas sensitive to desertification in an insular sahelian mountain region, in the catchment area of Ribeira Seca, island of Santiago, Cape Verde. Desertification is a threat for the global environment and it represents a serious ecological problem in Cape Verde. To fight both successfully, it requires an evaluation of its consequences and the building of cartography of the sensitivity for arid and semi-arid ecosystems. The model MEDALUS was the basis for this study with the use of six indicators of quality: climate, soil, vegetation, management, water runoff and social. Several sub-indicators were assigned to each indicator with weights variable between 1 (low) and 2 (high) according to the DESIRE Project (WB2). The geometric mean of each of the six indicators of quality was employed to produce the map of environmental sensitivity areas to desertification. The results of this study show that more than 50% of the watershed present obvious evidence of becoming a desertification area. Key words: Cape Verde, desertification, indicators, MEDALUS model, DESIRE project.

  19. Relationship between rainfall and Aedes larval population at two insular sites in Pulau Ketam, Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wee, Lim Kwee; Weng, Sit Nam; Raduan, Norzahira; Wah, Sing Kong; Ming, Wong Hong; Shi, Chew Hwai; Rambli, Firdaus; Ahok, Cheryl Jacyln; Marlina, Suria; Ahmad, Nazni Wasi; Mckemy, Andrew; Vasan, S S; Lim, Lee Han

    2013-03-01

    Two insular settlements (Kampung Pulau Ketam and Kampung Sungai Lima) were selected to study the population dynamics of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, vectors of dengue and chikungunya infections. Ovitrap surveillance was conducted between October 2007 and October 2008. There was an inverse negative association between ovitrap index and rainfall at the time of collection, probably because rainfall increased the number of available oviposition sites. Rainfall and ovitrap index were positively associates the 25th day after rainfall occurred. A minor, second peak was observed from the 38th to the 42nd day. The first peak was consistent with the minimum 18-day period between the hatching of eggs to the first oviposition. The second minor peak could be due to the second gonotrophic cycle of the female mosquitoes. Rainfall is an important environmental factor associated with Aedes breeding at the study sites. PMID:23691624

  20. Dengue vector surveillance in insular settlements of Pulau Ketam, Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, K W; Sit, N W; Norzahira, R; Sing, K W; Wong, H M; Chew, H S; Firdaus, R; Cheryl, J A; Suria, M; Mahathavan, M; Nazni, W A; Lee, H L; McKemy, A; Vasan, S S

    2010-08-01

    A year-long ovitrap surveillance was conducted between November 2007 and October 2008 in two insular settlements (Kampung Pulau Ketam and Kampung Sungai Lima) within the Malaysian island of Pulau Ketam. Eighty standard ovitraps were placed indoors and outdoors of randomly selected houses/locations. Results demonstrated an endemic baseline Aedes population throughout the year without weekly large fluctuations. Kampung Pulau Ketam has high Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus population, but only Ae. aegypti was found in Kampung Sungai Lima. Aedes aegypti showed no preference for ovitraps placed indoor versus outdoor. However, as expected, significantly more outdoor ovitraps were positive for Ae. albopictus (p<0.05). Trends in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti populations mirrored each other suggesting that common factors influenced these two populations. PMID:20962714

  1. Intraoperative Neurophysiological Evidence of Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Stroke in Insular Tumor Surgery.

    PubMed

    León Jorba, Alba; López Cuiña, Miguel; Principe, Alessandro; Villalba Martínez, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is commonly used as a haemostatic agent in all type of surgeries. Some adverse effects have been described related to its use. However, only very few cases are published in the literature of a stroke associated with the application of this agent directly to the brain. We present the case of a patient operated on for a right insular tumor with the assistance of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring who developed a postoperative severe hemiparesis caused by a stroke in left middle cerebral artery territory due to the irrigation with H2O2. Based on this case, we recommend avoiding the H2O2 irrigation for hemostasis in surgery for brain tumors when vascular structures are exposed.

  2. Dynamical predictions of insular hubs for social cognition and their application to stroke

    PubMed Central

    Limongi, Roberto; Tomio, Ailin; Ibanez, Agustin

    2014-01-01

    The insular cortex (IC) is considered a rich hub for context-sensitive emotions/social cognition. Patients with focal IC stroke provide unique opportunities to study socio-emotional processes. Nevertheless, Couto et al. (2013b) have recently reported controversial results regarding IC involvement in emotion and social cognition. Similarly, patients with similar lesions show high functional variability, ranging from almost totally preserved to strongly impaired behavior. Critical evidence suggests that the variability of these patients in the above domains can be explained by enhanced neuroplasticity, compensatory processes, and functional remapping after stroke. Therefore, socio-emotional processes would depend on long-distance connections between the IC and frontotemporal regions. We propose that predictive coding and effective connectivity represent a novel approach to explore functional connectivity and assess compensatory, contralateral, and subsidiary network differences among focal stroke patients. This approach would help explain why socio-emotional performance is so variable within this population. PMID:25408640

  3. Conjoint activity of anterior insular and anterior cingulate cortex: awareness and response

    PubMed Central

    Critchley, Hugo D.

    2010-01-01

    There is now a wealth of evidence that anterior insular and anterior cingulate cortices have a close functional relationship, such that they may be considered together as input and output regions of a functional system. This system is typically engaged across cognitive, affective, and behavioural contexts, suggesting that it is of fundamental importance for mental life. Here, we review the literature and reinforce the case that these brain regions are crucial, firstly, for the production of subjective feelings and, secondly, for co-ordinating appropriate responses to internal and external events. This model seeks to integrate higher-order cortical functions with sensory representation and autonomic control: it is argued that feeling states emerge from the raw data of sensory (including interoceptive) inputs and are integrated through representations in conscious awareness. Correspondingly, autonomic nervous system reactivity is particularly important amongst the responses that accompany conscious experiences. Potential clinical implications are also discussed. PMID:20512367

  4. A new insular species of Rock Gecko (Cnemaspis Boulenger) from Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Grismer, L Lee; Wood, P L Jr; Quah, Evan S H; Anuar, Shahrul; Ngadi, Ehwan; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2015-07-10

    A new, diminutive species of Rock Gecko Cnemaspis mahsuriae sp. nov. of the affinis group, is described from Gunung Raya on Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia and is differentiated from all other species in the affinis group by having a unique combination of characters including a maximum SVL of 36.6 mm; keeled subtibials and ventrals; 21-24 paravertebral tubercles; no tubercles in the lateral caudal furrows; caudal tubercles not encircling tail; no precloacal pores; 23-26 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; no white ocelli in the shoulder region; no yellow postscapular band; and faint yellow bars on the flanks. Cnemaspis mahsuriae sp. nov. is a forest-dwelling species living in close sympatry or paraptry with the insular endemic C. roticanai Grismer & Chan. The Langkawi Archipelago harbors a unique mix of Malaysian and Indochinese taxa and the frequency of new discoveries from this group of islands is increasing.

  5. Introductions do not compensate for functional and phylogenetic losses following extinctions in insular bird assemblages.

    PubMed

    Sobral, Fernando L; Lees, Alexander C; Cianciaruso, Marcus V

    2016-09-01

    The ratio of species extinctions to introductions has been comparable for many insular assemblages, suggesting that introductions could have 'compensated' for extinctions. However, the capacity for introduced species to replace ecological roles and evolutionary history lost following extinction is unclear. We investigated changes in bird functional and phylogenetic diversity in the wake of extinctions and introductions across a sample of 32 islands worldwide. We found that extinct and introduced species have comparable functional and phylogenetic alpha diversity. However, this was distributed at different positions in functional space and in the phylogeny, indicating a 'false compensation'. Introduced and extinct species did not have equivalent functional roles nor belong to similar lineages. This makes it unlikely that novel island biotas composed of introduced taxa will be able to maintain ecological roles and represent the evolutionary histories of pre-disturbance assemblages and highlights the importance of evaluating changes in alpha and beta diversity concurrently. PMID:27353518

  6. Suppressive responses by visual food cues in postprandial activities of insular cortex as revealed by magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2014-06-01

    'Hara-Hachibu' in Japanese means a subjective sense by which we stop eating just before the motivation to eat is completely lost, a similar concept to caloric restriction (CR). Insular cortex is a critical platform which integrates sensory information into decision-making processes in eating behavior. We compared the responses of insular cortex, as assessed by magnetoencephalography (MEG), immediately after presentation of food images in the Fasting condition with those in the 'Hara-Hachibu' condition. Eleven healthy, right-handed males [age, 27.2±9.6 years; body mass index, 22.6±2.1kg/m(2) (mean±SD)] were enrolled in a randomized, two-crossover experiment (Fasting and 'Hara-Hachibu' conditions). Before the MEG recordings in the 'Hara-Hachibu' condition, the participants consumed rice balls as much as they judged themselves to have consumed shortly before reaching satiety. During the MEG recordings, they viewed food pictures projected on a screen. The intensities of MEG responses to viewing food pictures were significantly lower in the 'Hara-Hachibu' condition than those in the Fasting condition (P<0.05). The intensities of the MEG responses to the visual food stimuli in the 'Hara-Hachibu' condition was positively associated with the factor-3 (food tasted) (r=0.693, P=0.018) and aggregated scores (r=0.659, P=0.027) of the Power of Food Scale, a self-report measure of hedonic hunger. These findings may help to elucidate the neural basis of variability of appetite phenotypes under the condition of CR among individuals, and to develop possible strategies for the maintenance of adequate CR in daily life.

  7. Colony insularity through queen control on worker social motivation in ants.

    PubMed

    Boulay, Raphaël; Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Vander Meer, Robert K; Hefetz, Abraham

    2003-05-01

    We investigated the relative contribution of the queen and workers to colony nestmate recognition cues and on colony insularity in the Carpenter ant Camponotus fellah. Workers were either individually isolated, preventing contact with both queen and workers (colonial deprived, CD), kept in queenless groups, allowing only worker-worker interactions (queen deprived, QD) or in queenright (QR) groups. Two weeks post-separation QD and QR workers were amicable towards each other but both rejected their CD nestmates, which suggests that the queen does not measurably influence the colony recognition cues. By contrast, aggression between QD and QR workers from the same original colony was apparent only after six months of separation. This clearly demonstrates the power of the Gestalt and indicates that the queen is not a dominant contributor to the nestmate recognition cues in this species. Aggression between nestmates was correlated with a greater hydrocarbon (HC) profile divergence for CD than for QD and QR workers, supporting the importance of worker-worker interactions in maintaining the colony Gestalt odour. While the queen does not significantly influence nestmate recognition cues, she does influence colony insularity since within 3 days QD (queenless for six months) workers from different colony origins merged to form a single queenless colony. By contrast, the corresponding QR colonies maintained their territoriality and did not merge. The originally divergent cuticular and postpharyngeal gland HC profiles became congruent following the merger. Therefore, while workers supply and blend the recognition signal, the queen affects worker-worker interaction by reducing social motivation and tolerance of alien conspecifics.

  8. Designing an Information System for the Preservation of the Insular Tropical Environment of Reunion Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conruyt, Noël; Sébastien, Didier; Courdier, Rémy; David, Daniel; Sébastien, Nicolas; Ralambondrainy, Tiana

    Decision-makers who wish to manage Insular Tropical Environments more efficiently need to narrow the gap between the production of scientific knowledge in universities, or other labs, and its pragmatic use by the general public and administrations. Today, one of the main challenges concerning the environment is the preservation of the biodiversity of ecosystems that suffer from urban and agricultural pressure. As we can only protect what we know, it is all the more important to share expert knowledge about habitats and species by using Internet in order to educate the public about their wealth and beauty. Based on Reunion Island, and taking into consideration an expected population growth of over 30% in the next twenty years, we are working to predict the human impact on this closed territory. To help tackle these two questions about biodiversity and land consumption, we have designed an Information System (IS) in the framework of the ETIC program. Our aim is to enhance insular tropical environment research in order to help the Reunion National Park to manage its protected territory. On the one hand, biodiversity research is handled statically, using knowledge bases and databases, to enhance Systematics and ecological university research. On the other hand, spatial planning concerns are treated dynamically, using multi-agent systems to simulate population densification movements. These software technologies have been implemented and integrated through a common architectural system in the ETIC program. They were conceived using Web Services that allow each module to communicate its functionalities and information with one another, as well as with external systems.

  9. Colony insularity through queen control on worker social motivation in ants.

    PubMed

    Boulay, Raphaël; Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Vander Meer, Robert K; Hefetz, Abraham

    2003-05-01

    We investigated the relative contribution of the queen and workers to colony nestmate recognition cues and on colony insularity in the Carpenter ant Camponotus fellah. Workers were either individually isolated, preventing contact with both queen and workers (colonial deprived, CD), kept in queenless groups, allowing only worker-worker interactions (queen deprived, QD) or in queenright (QR) groups. Two weeks post-separation QD and QR workers were amicable towards each other but both rejected their CD nestmates, which suggests that the queen does not measurably influence the colony recognition cues. By contrast, aggression between QD and QR workers from the same original colony was apparent only after six months of separation. This clearly demonstrates the power of the Gestalt and indicates that the queen is not a dominant contributor to the nestmate recognition cues in this species. Aggression between nestmates was correlated with a greater hydrocarbon (HC) profile divergence for CD than for QD and QR workers, supporting the importance of worker-worker interactions in maintaining the colony Gestalt odour. While the queen does not significantly influence nestmate recognition cues, she does influence colony insularity since within 3 days QD (queenless for six months) workers from different colony origins merged to form a single queenless colony. By contrast, the corresponding QR colonies maintained their territoriality and did not merge. The originally divergent cuticular and postpharyngeal gland HC profiles became congruent following the merger. Therefore, while workers supply and blend the recognition signal, the queen affects worker-worker interaction by reducing social motivation and tolerance of alien conspecifics. PMID:12803913

  10. 7 CFR 1948.81 - State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... each plan or group of plans is submitted to FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 for approval. (b) The Governor shall consult with the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...) The State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas will include but is not limited to: (1) A...

  11. Kansas Energy 2000. Inventory of energy related assets, Research area summary -- Kansas State University, University of Kansas, Wichita State University: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Legg, J.; Nellis, D.; Simons, G.

    1992-03-01

    The Inventory of Energy Related Assets: Research Area Summary is a compilation of resume-type information on energy researchers in the state of Kansas. Researchers are placed in one of four categories: Fossil Energy Research, Alternative Energy Sources, Electric Power Generation and Usage, and Other Energy Research. Each research biography includes a synopsis of recent research, sources of support, and areas of research emphasis.

  12. Promotion of Wakefulness and Energy Expenditure by Orexin-A in the Ventrolateral Preoptic Area

    PubMed Central

    Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Perez-Leighton, Claudio E.; Kotz, Catherine M.; Billington, Charles J.; Parthasarathy, Sairam; Sinton, Christopher M.; Teske, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) and the orexin/hypocretin neuronal system are key regulators of sleep onset, transitions between vigilance states, and energy homeostasis. Reciprocal projections exist between the VLPO and orexin/hypocretin neurons. Although the importance of the VLPO to sleep regulation is clear, it is unknown whether VLPO neurons are involved in energy balance. The purpose of these studies was to determine if the VLPO is a site of action for orexin-A, and which orexin receptor subtype(s) would mediate these effects of orexin-A. We hypothesized that orexin-A in the VLPO modulates behaviors (sleep and wakefulness, feeding, spontaneous physical activity [SPA]) to increase energy expenditure. Design and Measurements: Sleep, wakefulness, SPA, feeding, and energy expenditure were determined after orexin-A microinjection in the VLPO of male Sprague-Dawley rats with unilateral cannulae targeting the VLPO. We also tested whether pretreatment with a dual orexin receptor antagonist (DORA, TCS-1102) or an OX2R antagonist (JNJ-10397049) blocked the effects of orexin-A on the sleep/wake cycle or SPA, respectively. Results: Orexin-A injected into the VLPO significantly increased wakefulness, SPA, and energy expenditure (SPA-induced and total) and reduced NREM sleep and REM sleep with no effect on food intake. Pretreatment with DORA blocked the increase in wakefulness and the reduction in NREM sleep elicited by orexin-A, and the OX2R antagonist reduced SPA stimulated by orexin-A. Conclusions: These data show the ventrolateral preoptic area is a site of action for orexin-A, which may promote negative energy balance by modulating sleep/wakefulness and stimulating spontaneous physical activity and energy expenditure. Citation: Mavanji V, Perez-Leighton CE, Kotz CM, Billington CJ, Parthasarathy S, Sinton CM, Teske JA. Promotion of wakefulness and energy expenditure by orexin-A in the ventrolateral preoptic area. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1361–1370

  13. To ingest or rest? Specialized roles of lateral hypothalamic area neurons in coordinating energy balance

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Juliette A.; Woodworth, Hillary L.; Leinninger, Gina M.

    2015-01-01

    Survival depends on an organism’s ability to sense nutrient status and accordingly regulate intake and energy expenditure behaviors. Uncoupling of energy sensing and behavior, however, underlies energy balance disorders such as anorexia or obesity. The hypothalamus regulates energy balance, and in particular the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) is poised to coordinate peripheral cues of energy status and behaviors that impact weight, such as drinking, locomotor behavior, arousal/sleep and autonomic output. There are several populations of LHA neurons that are defined by their neuropeptide content and contribute to energy balance. LHA neurons that express the neuropeptides melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) or orexins/hypocretins (OX) are best characterized and these neurons play important roles in regulating ingestion, arousal, locomotor behavior and autonomic function via distinct neuronal circuits. Recently, another population of LHA neurons containing the neuropeptide Neurotensin (Nts) has been implicated in coordinating anorectic stimuli and behavior to regulate hydration and energy balance. Understanding the specific roles of MCH, OX and Nts neurons in harmonizing energy sensing and behavior thus has the potential to inform pharmacological strategies to modify behaviors and treat energy balance disorders. PMID:25741247

  14. Effect of milling temperatures on surface area, surface energy and cohesion of pharmaceutical powders.

    PubMed

    Shah, Umang V; Wang, Zihua; Olusanmi, Dolapo; Narang, Ajit S; Hussain, Munir A; Tobyn, Michael J; Heng, Jerry Y Y

    2015-11-10

    Particle bulk and surface properties are influenced by the powder processing routes. This study demonstrates the effect of milling temperatures on the particle surface properties, particularly surface energy and surface area, and ultimately on powder cohesion. An active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of industrial relevance (brivanib alaninate, BA) was used to demonstrate the effect of two different, but most commonly used milling temperatures (cryogenic vs. ambient). The surface energy of powders milled at both cryogenic and room temperatures increased with increasing milling cycles. The increase in surface energy could be related to the generation of surface amorphous regions. Cohesion for both cryogenic and room temperature milled powders was measured and found to increase with increasing milling cycles. For cryogenic milling, BA had a surface area ∼ 5× higher than the one obtained at room temperature. This was due to the brittle nature of this compound at cryogenic temperature. By decoupling average contributions of surface area and surface energy on cohesion by salinization post-milling, the average contribution of surface energy on cohesion for powders milled at room temperature was 83% and 55% at cryogenic temperature.

  15. Corticotrigeminal Projections from the Insular Cortex to the Trigeminal Caudal Subnucleus Regulate Orofacial Pain after Nerve Injury via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Activation in Insular Cortex Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Li, Zhi-Hua; Feng, Ban; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Han; Li, Hui; Chen, Tao; Cui, Jing; Zang, Wei-Dong; Li, Yun-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cortical neuroplasticity alterations are implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic orofacial pain. However, the relationship between critical cortex excitability and orofacial pain maintenance has not been fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated a top-down corticospinal descending pain modulation pathway from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to the spinal dorsal horn that could directly regulate nociceptive transmission. Thus, we aimed to investigate possible corticotrigeminal connections that directly influence orofacial nociception in rats. Infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (IoN-CCI) induced significant orofacial nociceptive behaviors as well as pain-related negative emotions such as anxiety/depression in rats. By combining retrograde and anterograde tract tracing, we found powerful evidence that the trigeminal caudal subnucleus (Vc), especially the superficial laminae (I/II), received direct descending projections from granular and dysgranular parts of the insular cortex (IC). Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), an important signaling molecule involved in neuroplasticity, was significantly activated in the IC following IoN-CCI. Moreover, in IC slices from IoN-CCI rats, U0126, an inhibitor of ERK activation, decreased both the amplitude and the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and reduced the paired-pulse ratio (PPR) of Vc-projecting neurons. Additionally, U0126 also reduced the number of action potentials in the Vc-projecting neurons. Finally, intra-IC infusion of U0126 obviously decreased Fos expression in the Vc, accompanied by the alleviation of both nociceptive behavior and negative emotions. Thus, the corticotrigeminal descending pathway from the IC to the Vc could directly regulate orofacial pain, and ERK deactivation in the IC could effectively alleviate neuropathic pain as well as pain-related negative emotions in IoN-CCI rats, probably through this top–down pathway. These findings may

  16. Corticotrigeminal Projections from the Insular Cortex to the Trigeminal Caudal Subnucleus Regulate Orofacial Pain after Nerve Injury via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Activation in Insular Cortex Neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Li, Zhi-Hua; Feng, Ban; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Han; Li, Hui; Chen, Tao; Cui, Jing; Zang, Wei-Dong; Li, Yun-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cortical neuroplasticity alterations are implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic orofacial pain. However, the relationship between critical cortex excitability and orofacial pain maintenance has not been fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated a top-down corticospinal descending pain modulation pathway from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to the spinal dorsal horn that could directly regulate nociceptive transmission. Thus, we aimed to investigate possible corticotrigeminal connections that directly influence orofacial nociception in rats. Infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (IoN-CCI) induced significant orofacial nociceptive behaviors as well as pain-related negative emotions such as anxiety/depression in rats. By combining retrograde and anterograde tract tracing, we found powerful evidence that the trigeminal caudal subnucleus (Vc), especially the superficial laminae (I/II), received direct descending projections from granular and dysgranular parts of the insular cortex (IC). Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), an important signaling molecule involved in neuroplasticity, was significantly activated in the IC following IoN-CCI. Moreover, in IC slices from IoN-CCI rats, U0126, an inhibitor of ERK activation, decreased both the amplitude and the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and reduced the paired-pulse ratio (PPR) of Vc-projecting neurons. Additionally, U0126 also reduced the number of action potentials in the Vc-projecting neurons. Finally, intra-IC infusion of U0126 obviously decreased Fos expression in the Vc, accompanied by the alleviation of both nociceptive behavior and negative emotions. Thus, the corticotrigeminal descending pathway from the IC to the Vc could directly regulate orofacial pain, and ERK deactivation in the IC could effectively alleviate neuropathic pain as well as pain-related negative emotions in IoN-CCI rats, probably through this top-down pathway. These findings may help

  17. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Morell, D; Singer, G

    1980-11-01

    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The findings of this analysis are based on an examination of energy development along New Jersey's urban waterfront and along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast, and on redevelopment efforts in Seattle, San Francisco, Boston, and elsewhere. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process. In highly urbanized areas, air quality has become a predominant concern among citizen groups and an influential factor in development of alternative energy facility siting strategies, such as consideration of inland siting connected by pipeline to a smaller coastal facility. The study addresses the economic impact of the permitting process on the desirability of energy facility investments, and the possible effects of the location selected for the facility on the permitting process and investment economics. The economic analysis demonstrates the importance of viewing energy facility investments in a broad perspective that includes the positive or negative impacts of various alternative siting patterns on the permitting process. Conclusions drawn from the studies regarding Federal, state, local, and corporate politics; regulatory, permitting, licensing, environmental assessment, and site selection are summarized. (MCW)

  18. Potential assessment of establishing a renewable energy plant in a rural agricultural area.

    PubMed

    Su, Ming-Chien; Kao, Nien-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Jar

    2012-06-01

    An evaluation of the green energy potential generated from biogas and solar power, using agricultural manure waste and a photovoltaic (PV) system, was conducted in a large geographical area of a rural county with low population density and low pollution. The studied area, Shoufeng Township in Hualien County, is located in eastern Taiwan, where a large amount of manure waste is generated from pig farms that are scattered throughout the county. The objective of the study is to assess the possibility of establishing an integrated manure waste treatment plant by using the generated biogas incorporated with the PV system to produce renewable energy and then feed it back to the incorporated farms. A filed investigation, geographic information system (GIS) application, empirical equations development, and RETScreen modeling were conducted in the study. The results indicate that Shoufeng Township has the highest priority in setting up an integrated treatment and renewable energy plant by using GIS mapping within a 10-km radius of the transportation range. Two scenarios were plotted in assessing the renewable energy plant and the estimated electricity generation, plus the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction was evaluated. Under the current governmental green energy scheme and from a long-term perspective, the assessment shows great potential in establishing the plant, especially in reducing environmental pollution problems, waste treatment, and developing suitable renewable energy.

  19. THE WIDE-AREA ENERGY STORAGE AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM PHASE II Final Report - Flywheel Field Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Makarov, Yuri V.; Weimar, Mark R.; Rudolph, Frank; Murthy, Shashikala; Arseneaux, Jim; Loutan, Clyde; Chowdhury, S.

    2010-08-31

    This research was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operated for the U.S. department of Energy (DOE) by Battelle Memorial Institute for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), California Institute for Energy and Environment (CIEE) and California Energy Commission (CEC). A wide-area energy management system (WAEMS) is a centralized control system that operates energy storage devices (ESDs) located in different places to provide energy and ancillary services that can be shared among balancing authorities (BAs). The goal of this research is to conduct flywheel field tests, investigate the technical characteristics and economics of combined hydro-flywheel regulation services that can be shared between Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and California Independent System Operator (CAISO) controlled areas. This report is the second interim technical report for Phase II of the WAEMS project. This report presents: 1) the methodology of sharing regulation service between balancing authorities, 2) the algorithm to allocate the regulation signal between the flywheel and hydro power plant to minimize the wear-and-tear of the hydro power plants, 3) field results of the hydro-flywheel regulation service (conducted by the Beacon Power), and 4) the performance metrics and economic analysis of the combined hydro-flywheel regulation service.

  20. Topographically Organized Projection to Posterior Insular Cortex from the Posterior Portion of the Ventral Medial Nucleus (VMpo) in the Long-tailed Macaque Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Craig, A.D. (Bud)

    2014-01-01

    Prior anterograde tracing work identified somatotopically organized lamina I trigemino- and spino-thalamic terminations in a cytoarchitectonically distinct portion of posterolateral thalamus of the macaque monkey, named the posterior part of the ventral medial nucleus (VMpo; Craig, 2004b). Microelectrode recordings from clusters of selectively thermoreceptive or nociceptive neurons were used to guide precise micro-injections of various tracers in VMpo. A prior report (Craig and Zhang, 2006) described retrograde tracing results, which confirmed the selective lamina I input to VMpo and the antero-posterior (head to foot) topography. The present report describes the results of micro-injections of anterograde tracers placed at different levels in VMpo, based on the antero-posterior topographic organization of selectively nociceptive units and clusters over nearly the entire extent of VMpo. Each injection produced dense, patchy terminal labeling in a single coherent field within a distinct granular cortical area centered in the fundus of the superior limiting sulcus. The terminations were distributed with a consistent antero-posterior topography over the posterior half of the superior limiting sulcus. These observations demonstrate a specific VMpo projection area in dorsal posterior insular cortex that provides the basis for a somatotopic representation of selectively nociceptive lamina I spinothalamic activity. These results also identify the VMpo terminal area as the posterior half of interoceptive cortex; the anterior half receives input from the vagal-responsive and gustatory neurons in the basal part of the ventral medial nucleus (VMb). PMID:23853108

  1. Lifecycle Assessment of Beijing-Area Building Energy Use and Emissions: Summary Findings and Policy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, Nathaniel; Qin, Yining; Fridley, David

    2010-09-15

    Buildings are at the locus of three trends driving China's increased energy use and emissions: urbanization, growing personal consumption, and surging heavy industrial production. Migration to cities and urban growth create demand for new building construction. Higher levels of per-capita income and consumption drive building operational energy use with demand for higher intensity lighting, thermal comfort, and plug-load power. Demand for new buildings, infrastructure, and electricity requires heavy industrial production. In order to quantify the implications of China's ongoing urbanization, rising personal consumption, and booming heavy industrial sector, this study presents a lifecycle assessment (LCA) of the energy use and carbon emissions related to residential and commercial buildings. The purpose of the LCA model is to quantify the impact of a given building and identify policy linkages to mitigate energy demand and emissions growth related to China's new building construction. As efficiency has become a higher priority with growing energy demand, policy and academic attention to buildings has focused primarily on operational energy use. Existing studies estimate that building operational energy consumption accounts for approximately 25% of total primary energy use in China. However, buildings also require energy for mining, extracting, processing, manufacturing, and transporting materials, as well as energy for construction, maintenance, and decommissioning. Building and supporting infrastructure construction is a major driver of industry consumption--in 2008 industry accounted for 72% of total Chinese energy use. The magnitude of new building construction is large in China--in 2007, for example, total built floor area reached 58 billion square meters. During the construction boom in 2007 and 2008, more than two billion m{sup 2} of building space were added annually; China's recent construction is estimated to account for half of global construction

  2. Continuous Improvement in Battery Testing at the NASA/JSC Energy System Test Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, William; Cook, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    The Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA) at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas conducts development and qualification tests to fulfill Energy System Division responsibilities relevant to ASA programs and projects. EST A has historically called upon a variety of fluid, mechanical, electrical, environmental, and data system capabilities spread amongst five full-service facilities to test human and human supported spacecraft in the areas of propulsion systems, fluid systems, pyrotechnics, power generation, and power distribution and control systems. Improvements at ESTA are being made in full earnest of offering NASA project offices an option to choose a thorough test regime that is balanced with cost and schedule constraints. In order to continue testing of enabling power-related technologies utilized by the Energy System Division, an especially proactive effort has been made to increase the cost effectiveness and schedule responsiveness for battery testing. This paper describes the continuous improvement in battery testing at the Energy Systems Test Area being made through consolidation, streamlining, and standardization.

  3. The relationship between physical and biological habitat conditions and hermatypic coral recruits abundance within insular reefs (Colombian Caribbean).

    PubMed

    Bernal-Sotelo, Katherine; Acosta, Alberto

    2012-09-01

    Little evidence exists on the dependence between the presence and abundance of juvenile hermatypic corals and the conditions of their habitats, despite that juveniles contribute with the understanding of the community structure and its reproductive success. To assess this, the abundance of nine species of juvenile corals was correlated with eight macro-habitat (location of the reef on shelf, depth) and micro-habitat (type and inclination of the substrate, exposure to light, texture and amount of sediment accumulated on bottom, potential growth area for juveniles) conditions. Sampling was conducted in four insular coral reefs in the Colombian Caribbean: two oceanic and two continental reefs (influenced by large rivers), covering a total of 600m2 and the distribution of corals on a vertical gradient. Contingency tables and coefficients (magnitude) and multiple correspondence analyses were used to evaluate the dependency ratios for each species. The results showed that Agaricia tenuifolia displayed the most robust pattern of dependence (two high and two moderate), significant for juveniles present at a high frequency in continental reefs, devoid of potential area for juvenile growth (surrounded by macroalgae), and covering horizontal substrates exposed to light. The juveniles were associated with a habitat of moderate to high bottom accumulation of extremely fine sediment. Porites astreoides presented four moderate dependencies; ocean reefs between 2-16m depths, a high frequency of juveniles on horizontal substrates, exposed to light, non-sedimented and occupied by competitors. Siderastrea siderea displayed three moderate dependences for juveniles in cryptic zones, inclined substrate and devoid of competitors. A. lamarcki, Leptoseris cucullata and A. agaricites presented two moderate dependences; these species share high abundance of juveniles in habitats with no sediment, exposed to light and occupied by competitors (except A. agaricites). The P. porites, Favia

  4. The Transportation Energy and Carbon Footprints of the 100 Largest U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, Frank; Sonnenberg, Anthon; Brown, Marilyn A

    2008-01-01

    We present estimates of the automobile and truck travel based energy and carbon footprints of the largest 100 U.S. metropolitan areas. The footprints are based on the estimated vehicle miles traveled and the transportation fuels consumed. Results are presented on an annual basis and represent end use emissions only. Total carbon emissions, emissions per capita, and emissions per dollar of gross metropolitan product are reported. Two years of annual data were examined, 2000 and 2005, with most of the in-depth analysis focused on the 2005 results. In section 2 we provide background data on the national picture and derive some carbon and energy consumption figures for the nation as a whole. In section 3 of the paper we examine the metropolitan area-wide results based on the sums and averages across all 100 metro areas, and compare these with the national totals and averages. In section 4 we present metropolitan area specific footprints and examine the considerable variation that is found to exist across individual metro areas. In doing so we pay particular attention to the effects that urban form might have on these differences. Finally, section 5 provides a summary of major findings, and a list of caveats that need to be borne in mind when using the results due to known limitations in the data sources used.

  5. Green wireless body area nanonetworks: energy management and the game of survival.

    PubMed

    Misra, Sudip; Islam, Nabiul; Mahapatro, Judhistir; Rodrigues, Joel Jose P C

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we envisage the architecture of Green Wireless Body Area Nanonetwork (GBAN) as a collection of nanodevices, in which each device is capable of communicating in both the molecular and wireless electromagnetic communication modes. The term green refers to the fact that the nanodevices in such a network can harvest energy from their surrounding environment, so that no nanodevice gets old solely due to the reasons attributed to energy depletion. However, the residual energy of a nanodevice can deplete substantially with the lapse of time, if the rate of energy consumption is not comparable with the rate of energy harvesting. It is observed that the rate of energy harvesting is nonlinear and sporadic in nature. So, the management of energy of the nanodevices is fundamentally important. We specifically address this problem in a ubiquitous healthcare monitoring scenario and formulate it as a cooperative Nash Bargaining game. The optimal strategy obtained from the Nash equilibrium solution provides improved network performance in terms of throughput and delay.

  6. Pattern Formation by Phase-Field Relaxation of Bending Energy with Fixed Surface Area and Volume

    PubMed Central

    Banham, Timothy; Li, Bo; Zhao, Yanxiang

    2015-01-01

    We explore a wide variety of patterns of closed surfaces that minimize the elastic bending energy with fixed surface area and volume. To avoid complicated discretization and numerical instabilities for sharp surfaces, we reformulate the underlying constrained minimization problem by constructing phase-field functionals of bending energy with penalty terms for the constraints, and develop stable numerical methods to relax these functionals. We report our extensive computational results with different initial surfaces. These results are discussed in terms of the reduced volume, and are compared with the known results obtained using the sharp-interface approach. Finally, we discuss the implications of our numerical findings. PMID:25314565

  7. Methodological issues in studying an insular, traditional population: a women's health survey among Israeli haredi (ultra-Orthodox) Jews.

    PubMed

    Rier, David A; Schwartzbaum, Avraham; Heller, Chaya

    2008-01-01

    This article describes obstacles encountered and strategies devised in planning and conducting a national telephone health survey (n = 459) of an insular, deeply traditional religious population, haredi (ultra-Orthodox Jewish) Israeli women. The paper discusses how special characteristics of this population influenced study design, sampling, data collection, and interpretation. Sampling employed polling data to identify haredi concentrations. Despite haredim's reputation for low survey participation, we achieved a 71-74% response rate (depending on the unknown eligibility of 24 phones never answered) in interviews conducted in 2003-2004. We describe our systematic attention to special aspects of haredi culture such as: modesty and speech codes; the need for rabbinic endorsement; and the importance of female, haredi interviewers. This research was initiated and managed by a community-based women's health non-governmental organization, in partnership with trained researchers. Our experiences can guide others surveying insular communities, such as traditional Muslim and Christian societies.

  8. A new species of insular Rock Gecko (Genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) from the Bidong Archipelago, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Grismer, L Lee; Wood, Perry L; Ahmad, Amirrudin B; Sumarli, Alexandra S-I; Vazquez, Jessika J; Ismail, Lukman H B; Nance, Ronald; Mohd-Amin, Muhammad Afif B; Othman, Mohamad N A B; Rizaijessika, Syed A; Kuss, Maria; Murdoch, Matthew; Cobos, Anthony

    2014-01-24

    A new insular species Cnemaspis bidongensis sp. nov. (Squamata: Gekkonidae), is described from Pulau Bidong, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia and bears a unique suite of morphological and color pattern characters that differentiate it from all other congeners. Cnemaspis bidongensis sp. nov. is the sister species to C. kendallii (Gray) and represents the fifth insular endemic species of Cnemaspis on archipelagos along the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. This species survived massive deforestation of the small island of Bidong (260 ha) from the mid 1970s to the early 1990s when the island served as a Vietnamese refugee camp and harbored as many as 40,000 people at one time. We hypothesize that this species' generalized lifestyle contributed to its survival, allowing it to seek refuge in rocky microhabitats.

  9. A comprehensive survey of energy-aware routing protocols in wireless body area sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Effatparvar, Mehdi; Dehghan, Mehdi; Rahmani, Amir Masoud

    2016-09-01

    Wireless body area sensor network is a special purpose wireless sensor network that, employing wireless sensor nodes in, on, or around the human body, makes it possible to measure biological parameters of a person for specific applications. One of the most fundamental concerns in wireless body sensor networks is accurate routing in order to send data promptly and properly, and therefore overcome some of the challenges. Routing protocols for such networks are affected by a large number of factors including energy, topology, temperature, posture, the radio range of sensors, and appropriate quality of service in sensor nodes. Since energy is highly important in wireless body area sensor networks, and increasing the network lifetime results in benefiting greatly from sensor capabilities, improving routing performance with reduced energy consumption presents a major challenge. This paper aims to study wireless body area sensor networks and the related routing methods. It also presents a thorough, comprehensive review of routing methods in wireless body area sensor networks from the perspective of energy. Furthermore, different routing methods affecting the parameter of energy will be classified and compared according to their advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, fundamental concepts of wireless body area sensor networks are provided, and then the advantages and disadvantages of these networks are investigated. Since one of the most fundamental issues in wireless body sensor networks is to perform routing so as to transmit data precisely and promptly, we discuss the same issue. As a result, we propose a classification of the available relevant literature with respect to the key challenge of energy in the routing process. With this end in view, all important papers published between 2000 and 2015 are classified under eight categories including 'Mobility-Aware', 'Thermal-Aware', 'Restriction of Location and Number of Relays', 'Link-aware', 'Cluster- and Tree

  10. A comprehensive survey of energy-aware routing protocols in wireless body area sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Effatparvar, Mehdi; Dehghan, Mehdi; Rahmani, Amir Masoud

    2016-09-01

    Wireless body area sensor network is a special purpose wireless sensor network that, employing wireless sensor nodes in, on, or around the human body, makes it possible to measure biological parameters of a person for specific applications. One of the most fundamental concerns in wireless body sensor networks is accurate routing in order to send data promptly and properly, and therefore overcome some of the challenges. Routing protocols for such networks are affected by a large number of factors including energy, topology, temperature, posture, the radio range of sensors, and appropriate quality of service in sensor nodes. Since energy is highly important in wireless body area sensor networks, and increasing the network lifetime results in benefiting greatly from sensor capabilities, improving routing performance with reduced energy consumption presents a major challenge. This paper aims to study wireless body area sensor networks and the related routing methods. It also presents a thorough, comprehensive review of routing methods in wireless body area sensor networks from the perspective of energy. Furthermore, different routing methods affecting the parameter of energy will be classified and compared according to their advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, fundamental concepts of wireless body area sensor networks are provided, and then the advantages and disadvantages of these networks are investigated. Since one of the most fundamental issues in wireless body sensor networks is to perform routing so as to transmit data precisely and promptly, we discuss the same issue. As a result, we propose a classification of the available relevant literature with respect to the key challenge of energy in the routing process. With this end in view, all important papers published between 2000 and 2015 are classified under eight categories including 'Mobility-Aware', 'Thermal-Aware', 'Restriction of Location and Number of Relays', 'Link-aware', 'Cluster- and Tree

  11. Major histocompatibility complex variation in insular populations of the Egyptian vulture: inferences about the roles of genetic drift and selection.

    PubMed

    Agudo, Rosa; Alcaide, Miguel; Rico, Ciro; Lemus, Jesus A; Blanco, Guillermo; Hiraldo, Fernando; Donázar, Jose A

    2011-06-01

    Insular populations have attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists because of their morphological and ecological peculiarities with respect to their mainland counterparts. Founder effects and genetic drift are known to distribute neutral genetic variability in these demes. However, elucidating whether these evolutionary forces have also shaped adaptive variation is crucial to evaluate the real impact of reduced genetic variation in small populations. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are classical examples of evolutionarily relevant loci because of their well-known role in pathogen confrontation and clearance. In this study, we aim to disentangle the partial roles of genetic drift and natural selection in the spatial distribution of MHC variation in insular populations. To this end, we integrate the study of neutral (22 microsatellites and one mtDNA locus) and MHC class II variation in one mainland (Iberia) and two insular populations (Fuerteventura and Menorca) of the endangered Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus). Overall, the distribution of the frequencies of individual MHC alleles (n=17 alleles from two class II B loci) does not significantly depart from neutral expectations, which indicates a prominent role for genetic drift over selection. However, our results point towards an interesting co-evolution of gene duplicates that maintains different pairs of divergent alleles in strong linkage disequilibrium on islands. We hypothesize that the co-evolution of genes may counteract the loss of genetic diversity in insular demes, maximize antigen recognition capabilities when gene diversity is reduced, and promote the co-segregation of the most efficient allele combinations to cope with local pathogen communities.

  12. Major histocompatibility complex variation in insular populations of the Egyptian vulture: inferences about the roles of genetic drift and selection.

    PubMed

    Agudo, Rosa; Alcaide, Miguel; Rico, Ciro; Lemus, Jesus A; Blanco, Guillermo; Hiraldo, Fernando; Donázar, Jose A

    2011-06-01

    Insular populations have attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists because of their morphological and ecological peculiarities with respect to their mainland counterparts. Founder effects and genetic drift are known to distribute neutral genetic variability in these demes. However, elucidating whether these evolutionary forces have also shaped adaptive variation is crucial to evaluate the real impact of reduced genetic variation in small populations. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are classical examples of evolutionarily relevant loci because of their well-known role in pathogen confrontation and clearance. In this study, we aim to disentangle the partial roles of genetic drift and natural selection in the spatial distribution of MHC variation in insular populations. To this end, we integrate the study of neutral (22 microsatellites and one mtDNA locus) and MHC class II variation in one mainland (Iberia) and two insular populations (Fuerteventura and Menorca) of the endangered Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus). Overall, the distribution of the frequencies of individual MHC alleles (n=17 alleles from two class II B loci) does not significantly depart from neutral expectations, which indicates a prominent role for genetic drift over selection. However, our results point towards an interesting co-evolution of gene duplicates that maintains different pairs of divergent alleles in strong linkage disequilibrium on islands. We hypothesize that the co-evolution of genes may counteract the loss of genetic diversity in insular demes, maximize antigen recognition capabilities when gene diversity is reduced, and promote the co-segregation of the most efficient allele combinations to cope with local pathogen communities. PMID:21535276

  13. Atomic environment energies in proteins defined from statistics of accessible and contact surface areas.

    PubMed

    Delarue, M; Koehl, P

    1995-06-01

    Atomic contact potentials are derived by statistical analysis of atomic surface contact areas versus atom type in a database of non-homologous protein structures. The atomic environment is characterized by the surface area accessible to solvent and the surface of contacts with polar and non-polar atoms. Four types of atoms are considered, namely neutral polar atoms from protein backbones and from protein side-chains, non-polar atoms and charged atoms. Potential energies delta Ej(E) are defined from the preference for an atom of type j to be in a given environment E compared to the expected value if everything was random; Boltzmann's law is then used to transform these preferences into energies. These new potentials very clearly discriminate misfolded from correct structural models. The performance of these potentials are critically assessed by monitoring the recognition of the native fold among a large number of alternative structural folding types (the hide-and-seek procedure), as well as by testing if the native sequence can be recovered from a large number of randomly shuffled sequences for a given 3D fold (a procedure similar to the inverse folding problem). We suggest that these potentials reflect the atomic short range non-local interactions in proteins. To characterise atomic solvation alone, similar potentials were derived as a function of the percentage of solvent-accessible area alone. These energies were found to agree reasonably well with the solvation formalism of Eisenberg and McLachlan.

  14. Large-Area Chemical and Biological Decontamination Using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL) System.

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E; Smith, Rob R; Vass, Arpad Alexander; Ilgner, Ralph H; Brown, Gilbert M

    2008-01-01

    Methods for quickly decontaminating large areas exposed to chemical and biological (CB) warfare agents can present significant logistical, manpower, and waste management challenges. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is pursuing an alternate method to decompose CB agents without the use of toxic chemicals or other potentially harmful substances. This process uses a high energy arc lamp (HEAL) system to photochemically decompose CB agents over large areas (12 m2). Preliminary tests indicate that more than 5 decades (99.999%) of an Anthrax spore simulant (Bacillus globigii) were killed in less than 7 seconds of exposure to the HEAL system. When combined with a catalyst material (TiO2) the HEAL system was also effective against a chemical agent simulant, diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP). These results demonstrate the feasibility of a rapid, large-area chemical and biological decontamination method that does not require toxic or corrosive reagents or generate hazardous wastes.

  15. A Hybrid Surface Energy Balance Approach for Large Scale Evapotranspiration Estimation and Prediction in Agricultural Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neale, C. M.; Vinukollu, R. K.; Chavez, J. L.

    2005-05-01

    Over the last few years, several surface energy balance methods for the estimation of latent heat fluxes from remotely sensed satellite imagery have been introduced and/or refined. These models have shown the ability of obtaining seasonal spatially distributed evapotranspiration fluxes at various scales and over large areas. In the arid western United States, water managers are challenged in balancing the high consumptive use of irrigated agriculture with competing urban and ecological uses of fresh water. Water managers from Irrigation Districts and Federal Agencies such as the US Bureau of Reclamation have a need for improved operational tools for the prediction of evapotranspiration and irrigation water demand on a five to ten day timeframe. The paper will present a hybrid model that couples the surface energy balance approach with a simple empirical reflectance-based crop coefficient model, for estimation and prediction of evapotranspiration over large agricultural areas. The model is applied to a rain-fed intensively cultivated agricultural area, close to Ames, Iowa during the summer of 2002. The satellite, airborne and ground fluxes were collected during the SMACEX 02 experiment. The model is run in both simulation and prediction mode and the derived latent heat fluxes are compared spatially and temporally to aircraft derived fluxes from the USU airborne system and ground measured fluxes at thirteen eddy covariance stations, using appropriate upwind footprint source area functions.

  16. The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

    Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

  17. Insular cortex alpha1-adrenoceptors modulate the parasympathetic component of the baroreflex in unanesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Alves, Fernando H F; Crestani, Carlos C; Resstel, Leonardo B M; Correa, Fernando M A

    2009-10-27

    The insular cortex (IC) has been reported to modulate the cardiac parasympathetic activity of the baroreflex in unanesthetized rats. However, which neurotransmitters are involved in this modulation is still unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the possible involvement of local IC-noradrenergic neurotransmission in modulating reflex bradycardiac responses. Bilateral microinjection of the selective alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist WB4101 (15 nmol/100 nL), into the IC of male Wistar rats, increased the gain of reflex bradycardia in response to mean arterial pressure (MAP) increases evoked by intravenous infusion of phenylephrine. However, bilateral microinjection of equimolar doses of either the selective alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist RX821002 or the non-selective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol into the IC did not affect the baroreflex response. No effects were observed in basal MAP or heart rate values after bilateral microinjection of noradrenergic antagonists into the IC, thus suggesting no tonic influence of IC-noradrenergic neurotransmission on resting cardiovascular parameters. In conclusion, these data provide evidence that local IC-noradrenergic neurotransmission has an inhibitory influence on baroreflex responses to blood pressure increase evoked by phenylephrine infusion through activation of alpha(1)-adrenoceptors. PMID:19686710

  18. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the insular cortex modulate baroreflex in unanesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Alves, Fernando H F; Crestani, Carlos C; Resstel, Leonardo B M; Correa, Fernando M A

    2009-05-11

    In the present study, we report the effect of insular cortex (IC) ablation caused by bilateral microinjection of the non-selective synaptic blocker CoCl(2) on cardiac baroreflex response in unanesthetized rats as well as the involvement of local glutamatergic neurotransmission. Unilateral (left or right) microinjection of CoCl(2) (1 nmol/ 100 nL) did not affect the bradycardiac response to blood pressure increase evoked by intravenous infusion of phenylephrine nor the tachycardiac response to blood pressure decrease caused by intravenous infusion of sodium nitroprusside, 10 min after CoCl(2). Bilateral microinjection of CoCl(2) into IC decreased the magnitude of reflex bradycardia without affecting tachycardiac responses. Baroreflex activity returned to control values 60 min after CoCl(2) microinjection, confirming its reversible effect. Further we studied the possible involvement of IC-glutamatergic neurotransmission in baroreflex modulation. We observed that bilateral microinjection of the selective NMDA receptor antagonist LY235959 (4 nmol/100 nL) into the IC decreased the magnitude of reflex bradycardia without affecting tachycardiac responses. IC treatment with the selective non-NMDA antagonist NBQX (4 nmol/100 nL) did not affect baroreflex activity. The results suggest that synapses within the IC have a tonic excitatory influence on the baroreflex parasympathetic component. Moreover, the present data suggest that local NMDA-receptors are involved in the IC-mediated tonic excitatory influence on baroreflex parasympathetic activity. PMID:19217356

  19. Electrophysiological evidence for reciprocal insulo-insular connectivity of baroreceptor-related neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Oppenheimer, S M

    2000-04-28

    The recent indications of specialized lateralization of cardiovascular regulation within the right and left posterior insular cortex of the rat, suggest the possibility of transcallosal connectivity between these regions. This has not been previously demonstrated using physiological techniques. Extracellular neural recordings in 34 urethane anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats demonstrated reciprocal interinsular antidromic and orthodromic activation, elicited with similar median onset latencies (18 ms). The corresponding conduction velocity of these fibers (0.6 m/s) suggests that they may be unmyelinated. Many of the cells showing interhemispheric connectivity also responded to baroreceptor activation, further emphasizing the connectivity pattern in baroreceptor-related units. Both 1 and 25 Hz microstimulation of the contralateral insula indicated that the most frequent orthodromic response was inhibitory, either alone or as part of a biphasic pattern including activation. Chemical stimulation of the insula using L-glutamate was associated with both excitatory and inhibitory orthodromic activation of the contralateral posterior insula, confirming that the orthodromic electrical stimulation was not solely due to activation of fibers of passage. These data suggest that the two insulae may communicate with each other to integrate and balance cardiovascular function between hemispheres. PMID:10773190

  20. Differential coding of uncertain reward in rat insular and orbitofrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Suhyun; Jung, Min Whan

    2016-01-01

    Anterior insular and orbitofrontal cortex (AIC and OFC, respectively) are known to play important roles in decision making under risk. However, risk-related AIC neural activity has not been investigated and it is controversial whether the rodent OFC conveys genuine risk signals. To address these issues, we examined AIC and OFC neuronal activity in rats responding to five distinct auditory cues predicting water reward with different probabilities. Both structures conveyed significant neural signals for reward, value and risk, with value and risk signals conjunctively coded. However, value signals were stronger and appeared earlier in the OFC, and many risk-coding OFC neurons responded only to the cue predicting certain (100%) reward. Also, AIC neurons tended to increase their activity for a prolonged time following a negative outcome and according to previously expected value. These results show that both the AIC and OFC convey neural signals related to reward uncertainty, but in different ways. The OFC might play an important role in encoding certain reward-biased, risk-modulated subjective value, whereas the AIC might convey prolonged negative outcome and disappointment signals. PMID:27052943

  1. Anthropogenic and Climatic Influence on Vegetation Fires in Peatland of Insular Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, S.; Miettinen, J.; Salinas Cortijo, S. V.

    2011-12-01

    Fire is traditionally used as a tool in land clearing by farmers and shifting cultivators in Southeast Asia. However, the small scale clearing of land is increasingly being replaced by modern large-scale conversion of forests into plantations/agricultural land, usually also by fires. Fires get out of control in periods of extreme drought, especially during the El Nino periods, resulting in severe episodes of transboundary air pollution in the form of smoke haze. We use the MODIS active fires product (hotspots) to establish correlations between the temporal and spatial patterns of vegetation fires with climatic variables, land cover change and soil type (peat or non-peat) in the western part of Insular Southeast Asia for a decade from 2001 to 2010. Fire occurrence exhibits a negative correlation with rainfall, and is more severe overall during the El-Nino periods. However, not all regions are equally affected by El-Nino. In Southern Sumatra and Southern Borneo the correlation with El-Nino is high. However, fires in some regions such as the peatland in Riau, Jambi and Sarawak do not appear to be influenced by El-Nino. These regions are also experiencing rapid conversion of forest to large scale plantations.

  2. Genetic drift and rapid evolution of viviparity in insular fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra).

    PubMed

    Velo-Antón, G; Zamudio, K R; Cordero-Rivera, A

    2012-04-01

    Continental islands offer an excellent opportunity to investigate adaptive processes and to time microevolutionary changes that precede macroevolutionary events. We performed a population genetic study of the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra), a species that displays unique intraspecific diversity of reproductive strategies, to address the microevolutionary processes leading to phenotypic and genetic differentiation of island, coastal and interior populations. We used eight microsatellite markers to estimate genetic diversity, population structure and demographic parameters in viviparous insular populations and ovoviviparous coastal and interior populations. Our results show considerable genetic differentiation (F(ST) range: 0.06-0.27), and no clear signs of gene flow among populations, except between the large and admixed interior populations. We find no support for island colonization by rafting or intentional/accidental anthropogenic introductions, indicating that rising sea levels were responsible for isolation of the island populations approximately 9000 years ago. Our study provides evidence of rapid genetic differentiation between island and coastal populations, and rapid evolution of viviparity driven by climatic selective pressures on island populations, geographic isolation with genetic drift, or a combination of these factors. Studies of these viviparous island populations in early stages of divergence help us better understand the microevolutionary processes involved in rapid phenotypic shifts. PMID:22086081

  3. Genetic drift and rapid evolution of viviparity in insular fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra)

    PubMed Central

    Velo-Antón, G; Zamudio, K R; Cordero-Rivera, A

    2012-01-01

    Continental islands offer an excellent opportunity to investigate adaptive processes and to time microevolutionary changes that precede macroevolutionary events. We performed a population genetic study of the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra), a species that displays unique intraspecific diversity of reproductive strategies, to address the microevolutionary processes leading to phenotypic and genetic differentiation of island, coastal and interior populations. We used eight microsatellite markers to estimate genetic diversity, population structure and demographic parameters in viviparous insular populations and ovoviviparous coastal and interior populations. Our results show considerable genetic differentiation (FST range: 0.06–0.27), and no clear signs of gene flow among populations, except between the large and admixed interior populations. We find no support for island colonization by rafting or intentional/accidental anthropogenic introductions, indicating that rising sea levels were responsible for isolation of the island populations approximately 9000 years ago. Our study provides evidence of rapid genetic differentiation between island and coastal populations, and rapid evolution of viviparity driven by climatic selective pressures on island populations, geographic isolation with genetic drift, or a combination of these factors. Studies of these viviparous island populations in early stages of divergence help us better understand the microevolutionary processes involved in rapid phenotypic shifts. PMID:22086081

  4. Genetic drift and rapid evolution of viviparity in insular fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra).

    PubMed

    Velo-Antón, G; Zamudio, K R; Cordero-Rivera, A

    2012-04-01

    Continental islands offer an excellent opportunity to investigate adaptive processes and to time microevolutionary changes that precede macroevolutionary events. We performed a population genetic study of the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra), a species that displays unique intraspecific diversity of reproductive strategies, to address the microevolutionary processes leading to phenotypic and genetic differentiation of island, coastal and interior populations. We used eight microsatellite markers to estimate genetic diversity, population structure and demographic parameters in viviparous insular populations and ovoviviparous coastal and interior populations. Our results show considerable genetic differentiation (F(ST) range: 0.06-0.27), and no clear signs of gene flow among populations, except between the large and admixed interior populations. We find no support for island colonization by rafting or intentional/accidental anthropogenic introductions, indicating that rising sea levels were responsible for isolation of the island populations approximately 9000 years ago. Our study provides evidence of rapid genetic differentiation between island and coastal populations, and rapid evolution of viviparity driven by climatic selective pressures on island populations, geographic isolation with genetic drift, or a combination of these factors. Studies of these viviparous island populations in early stages of divergence help us better understand the microevolutionary processes involved in rapid phenotypic shifts.

  5. The avian fossil record in Insular Southeast Asia and its implications for avian biogeography and palaeoecology.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Hanneke J M

    2014-01-01

    Excavations and studies of existing collections during the last decades have significantly increased the abundance as well as the diversity of the avian fossil record for Insular Southeast Asia. The avian fossil record covers the Eocene through the Holocene, with the majority of bird fossils Pleistocene in age. Fossil bird skeletal remains represent at least 63 species in 54 genera and 27 families, and two ichnospecies are represented by fossil footprints. Birds of prey, owls and swiftlets are common elements. Extinctions seem to have been few, suggesting continuity of avian lineages since at least the Late Pleistocene, although some shifts in species ranges have occurred in response to climatic change. Similarities between the Late Pleistocene avifaunas of Flores and Java suggest a dispersal route across southern Sundaland. Late Pleistocene assemblages of Niah Cave (Borneo) and Liang Bua (Flores) support the rainforest refugium hypothesis in Southeast Asia as they indicate the persistence of forest cover, at least locally, throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. PMID:24688871

  6. The avian fossil record in Insular Southeast Asia and its implications for avian biogeography and palaeoecology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Excavations and studies of existing collections during the last decades have significantly increased the abundance as well as the diversity of the avian fossil record for Insular Southeast Asia. The avian fossil record covers the Eocene through the Holocene, with the majority of bird fossils Pleistocene in age. Fossil bird skeletal remains represent at least 63 species in 54 genera and 27 families, and two ichnospecies are represented by fossil footprints. Birds of prey, owls and swiftlets are common elements. Extinctions seem to have been few, suggesting continuity of avian lineages since at least the Late Pleistocene, although some shifts in species ranges have occurred in response to climatic change. Similarities between the Late Pleistocene avifaunas of Flores and Java suggest a dispersal route across southern Sundaland. Late Pleistocene assemblages of Niah Cave (Borneo) and Liang Bua (Flores) support the rainforest refugium hypothesis in Southeast Asia as they indicate the persistence of forest cover, at least locally, throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. PMID:24688871

  7. Genetic structure in insular and mainland populations of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and their hemosporidian parasites

    PubMed Central

    Bichet, Coraline; Moodley, Yoshan; Penn, Dustin J; Sorci, Gabriele; Garnier, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Small and isolated populations usually exhibit low levels of genetic variability, and thus, they are expected to have a lower capacity to adapt to changes in environmental conditions, such as exposure to pathogens and parasites. Comparing the genetic variability of selectively neutral versus functional loci allows one to assess the evolutionary history of populations and their future evolutionary potential. The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) control immune recognition of parasites, and their unusually high diversity is genes which is likely driven by parasite-mediated balancing selection. Here, we examined diversity and differentiation of neutral microsatellite loci and functional MHC class I genes in house sparrows (Passer domesticus), living in six insular and six mainland populations, and we aimed to determine whether their diversity or differentiation correlates with the diversity and the prevalence of infection of hemosporidian parasites. We found that island bird populations tended to have lower neutral genetic variability, whereas MHC variability gene was similar between island and mainland populations. Similarly, island populations tended to show greater genetic differentiation than mainland populations, especially at microsatellite markers. The maintenance of MHC genetic diversity and its less marked structure in the island populations could be attributed to balancing-selection. The greater MHC differentiation among populations was negatively correlated with similarity in blood parasites (prevalence and diversity of parasite strains) between populations. Even at low prevalence and small geographical scale, haemosporidian parasites might contribute to structure the variability of immune genes among populations of hosts. PMID:25937907

  8. Gene flow between insular, coastal and interior populations of brown bears in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Paetkau, D; Shields, G F; Strobeck, C

    1998-10-01

    The brown bears of coastal Alaska have been recently regarded as comprising from one to three distinct genetic groups. We sampled brown bears from each of the regions for which hypotheses of genetic uniqueness have been made, including the bears of the Kodiak Archipelago and the bears of Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands in southeast Alaska. These samples were analysed with a suite of nuclear microsatellite markers. The 'big brown bears' of coastal Alaska were found to be part of the continuous continental distribution of brown bears, and not genetically isolated from the physically smaller 'grizzly bears' of the interior. By contrast, Kodiak brown bears appear to have experienced little or no genetic exchange with continental populations in recent generations. The bears of the ABC Islands, which have previously been shown to undergo little or no female-mediated gene flow with mainland populations, were found not to be genetically isolated from mainland bears. The data from the four insular populations indicate that female and male dispersal can be reduced or eliminated by water barriers of 2-4 km and 7 km in width, respectively.

  9. [Performance of entero-insular axis in an athletic population: diet and exercise influence].

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Carmen; Quezada-Feijoo, Maribel; Toro, Carmen; Barón-Esquivias, Gonzalo; Segura, Eduardo; Mangas, Alipio; Toro, Rocio

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: La relación existente entre el ejercicio físico y la regulación del apetito puede conducir a una mejora del rendimiento competitivo de los deportistas. Los mediadores del eje entero-insular generan señales neurohumorales que influyen en la regulación del apetito y la homeostasis energética. Objetivo: Determinar la influencia de la dieta y el ejercicio prolongado sobre los péptidos intestinales, grelina, resistina, leptina, e incretinas (GLP-1 y GIP) en una población deportista. MÉTODOS: Este es un estudio prospectivo, de intervención desarrollado desde Octubre 2012 a Marzo 2013. Se incluyeron 32 jugadores de rugby sanos. Se tomaron medidas antropométricas y muestras de sangre en el momento 0 y a los seis meses del estudio. Se distribuyeron aleatoriamente a una dieta bien proteica (DP) o mediterránea (DM) y estudiamos los niveles plasmáticos de adipoquinas e incretinas. Resultados: Las concentraciones plasmáticas de GLP- 1 y GIP presentaron un descenso (p.

  10. A molecular mechanism underlying gustatory memory trace for an association in the insular cortex

    PubMed Central

    Adaikkan, Chinnakkaruppan; Rosenblum, Kobi

    2015-01-01

    Events separated in time are associatively learned in trace conditioning, recruiting more neuronal circuits and molecular mechanisms than in delay conditioning. However, it remains unknown whether a given sensory memory trace is being maintained as a unitary item to associate. Here, we used conditioned taste aversion learning in the rat model, wherein animals associate a novel taste with visceral nausea, and demonstrate that there are two parallel memory traces of a novel taste: a short-duration robust trace, lasting approximately 3 hr, and a parallel long-duration weak one, lasting up to 8 hr, and dependent on the strong trace for its formation. Moreover, only the early robust trace is maintained by a NMDAR-dependent CaMKII- AMPAR pathway in the insular cortex. These findings suggest that a memory trace undergoes rapid modifications, and that the mechanisms underlying trace associative learning differ when items in the memory are experienced at different time points. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07582.001 PMID:26452094

  11. Has living on islands been so simple? Insights from the insular endemic frog Discoglossus montalentii.

    PubMed

    Bisconti, Roberta; Canestrelli, Daniele; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Island populations have been extensively used as model systems in ecology, biogeography, conservation and evolutionary biology, owing to the several simplifying assumptions that they allow. Nevertheless, recent findings from intra-island phylogeographic studies are casting doubts on the generality of some of these underlying assumptions. We investigated the phylogeography, historical demography, and population genetic structure of the Corsican endemic frog, Discoglossus montalentii. In contrast with expectations based on its insular, restricted and continuous distribution, we found evidence of 3 phylogroups, whose rather ancient divergence (Early-Middle Pleistocene) was likely primed by climatic changes that occurred during the 'middle Pleistocene revolution'. Furthermore, their differentiation explained most (68%) of the overall genetic diversity that was observed. These results and the growing evidence from intra-island phylogeographies, suggest that island populations frequently may not conform to some long-standing assumptions, including long-term stability, range-wide panmixia and the correlation of effective population size to the island size. As a consequence, both for theoretical and for applied purposes, the extensive use of these assumptions in the study of island populations warrants a careful re-examination.

  12. Posterior insular cortex – a site of vestibular–somatosensory interaction?

    PubMed Central

    Baier, Bernhard; zu Eulenburg, Peter; Best, Christoph; Geber, Christian; Müller-Forell, Wibke; Birklein, Frank; Dieterich, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Background In previous imaging studies the insular cortex (IC) has been identified as an essential part of the processing of a wide spectrum of perception and sensorimotor integration. Yet, there are no systematic lesion studies in a sufficient number of patients examining whether processing of vestibular and the interaction of somatosensory and vestibular signals take place in the IC. Methods We investigated acute stroke patients with lesions affecting the IC in order to fill this gap. In detail, we explored signs of a vestibular tone imbalance such as the deviation of the subjective visual vertical (SVV). We applied voxel-lesion behaviour mapping analysis in 27 patients with acute unilateral stroke. Results Our data demonstrate that patients with lesions of the posterior IC have an abnormal tilt of SVV. Furthermore, re-analysing data of 20 patients from a previous study, we found a positive correlation between thermal perception contralateral to the stroke and the severity of the SVV tilt. Conclusions We conclude that the IC is a sensory brain region where different modalities might interact. PMID:24392273

  13. Energy-aware Gateway Selection for increasing the lifetime of Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Bayilmis, Cuneyt; Younis, Mohamed

    2012-06-01

    A Wireless Body Area Sensor Network (WBASN) is composed of a set of sensor nodes, placed on, near or within a human body. WBASNs opt to continuously monitor the health conditions of individuals under medical risk, e.g., elders and chronically ill people, without keeping them in a hospital or restraining their motion. A WBASN needs to stay connected to local or wide area networks using wireless technologies in order to send sensor readings to a medical center. The WBASN nodes are implanted within the human body and would thus have limited energy supply. Since the mission of the WBASN is very critical, increasing the lifetime of nodes is essential in order to maintain both practicality and effectiveness. This paper presents a new Gateway Selection Algorithm (GSA) that factors in the use of energy harvesting technologies and dynamically picks the most suitable WBASN node that serves as a gateway to other wireless networks. The goal of GSA is to balance the load among the nodes by adaptively changing the gateway node in WBASN depending on the energy reserve of nodes. Computer modeling and simulations of the proposed GSA are carried out using OPNET. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed GSA approach. PMID:21057885

  14. Development of a Big Area BackLighter for high energy density experiments.

    PubMed

    Flippo, K A; Kline, J L; Doss, F W; Loomis, E N; Emerich, M; Devolder, B; Murphy, T J; Fournier, K B; Kalantar, D H; Regan, S P; Barrios, M A; Merritt, E C; Perry, T S; Tregillis, I L; Welser-Sherrill, L; Fincke, J R

    2014-09-01

    A very large area (7.5 mm(2)) laser-driven x-ray backlighter, termed the Big Area BackLighter (BABL) has been developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to support high energy density experiments. The BABL provides an alternative to Pinhole-Apertured point-projection Backlighting (PABL) for a large field of view. This bypasses the challenges for PABL in the equatorial plane of the NIF target chamber where space is limited because of the unconverted laser light that threatens the diagnostic aperture, the backlighter foil, and the pinhole substrate. A transmission experiment using 132 kJ of NIF laser energy at a maximum intensity of 8.52 × 10(14) W/cm(2) illuminating the BABL demonstrated good conversion efficiency of >3.5% into K-shell emission producing ~4.6 kJ of high energy x rays, while yielding high contrast images with a highly uniform background that agree well with 2D simulated spectra and spatial profiles. PMID:25273720

  15. GLAST: Exploring Nature's Highest Energy Processes with the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digel, Seth; Myers, J. D.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is an international and multi-agency space mission that will study the cosmos in the energy range 10 keV-300 GeV. Several successful exploratory missions in gamma-ray astronomy led to the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). Launched in 1991, EGRET made the first complete survey of the sky in the 30 MeV-10 GeV range. EGRET showed the high-energy gamma-ray sky to be surprisingly dynamic and diverse, with sources ranging from the sun and moon to massive black holes at large redshifts. Most of the gamma-ray sources detected by EGRET remain unidentified. In light of the discoveries with EGRET, the great potential of the next generation gamma-ray telescope can be appreciated. GLAST will have an imaging gamma-ray telescope vastly more capable than instruments flown previously, as well as a secondary instrument to augment the study of gamma-ray bursts. The main instrument, the Large Area Telescope (LAT), will have superior area, angular resolution, field of view, and deadtime that together will provide a factor of 30 or more advance in sensitivity, as well as provide capability for study of transient phenomena. The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will have a field of view several times larger than the LAT and will provide spectral coverage of gamma-ray bursts that extends from the lower limit of the LAT down to 10 keV. The basic parameters of the GBM are compared to those of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) instrument on CGRO in Table 1-2. With the LAT and GBM, GLAST will be a flexible observatory for investigating the great range of astrophysical phenomena best studied in high-energy gamma rays. NASA plans to launch GLAST in late 2005.

  16. Geology and mineral and energy resources, Roswell Resource Area, New Mexico; an interactive computer presentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tidball, Ronald R.; Bartsch-Winkler, S. B.

    1995-01-01

    This Compact Disc-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM) contains a program illustrating the geology and mineral and energy resources of the Roswell Resource Area, an administrative unit of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management in east-central New Mexico. The program enables the user to access information on the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mining history, metallic and industrial mineral commodities, hydrocarbons, and assessments of the area. The program was created with the display software, SuperCard, version 1.5, by Aldus. The program will run only on a Macintosh personal computer. This CD-ROM was produced in accordance with Macintosh HFS standards. The program was developed on a Macintosh II-series computer with system 7.0.1. The program is a compiled, executable form that is nonproprietary and does not require the presence of the SuperCard software.

  17. High-potential geothermal energy resource areas of Nigeria and their geologic and geophysical assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Babalola, O.O.

    1984-04-01

    The widespread occurrence of geothermal manifestations in Nigeria is significant because the wide applicability and relative ease of exploitation of geothermal energy is of vital importance to an industrializing nation like Nigeria. There are two known geothermal resource areas (KGRAs) in Nigeria: the Ikogosi Warm Springs of Ondo State and the Wikki Warm Springs of Bauchi State. These surficial effusions result from the circulation of water to great depths through faults in the basement complex rocks of the area. Within sedimentary areas, high geothermal gradient trends are identified in the Lagos subbasin, the Okitipupa ridge, the Auchi-Agbede are of the Benin flank/hinge line, and the Abakaliki anticlinorium. The deeper Cretaceous and Tertiary sequences of the Niger delta are geopressured geothermal horizons. In the Benue foldbelt, extending from the Abalaliki anticlinorium to the Keana anticline and the Zambuk ridge, several magmatic intrusions emplaced during the Late Cretaceous line the axis of the Benue trough. Positive Bouguer gravity anomalies also parallel this trough and are interpreted to indicate shallow mantle. Parts of this belt and the Ikom, the Jos plateau, Bauchi plateau, and the Adamawa areas, experienced Cenozoic volcanism and magmatism.

  18. Energy balance of the area influenced by brown coal mining in three phases

    SciTech Connect

    Hais, M.; Pecharova, M.; Svoboda, I.

    2005-07-01

    The change in the energy flow on land used for brown coal mining is examined. Terrain mapping was used to obtain land use data for a 14 km{sup 2} mining area and its surroundings. The focus is on the proportion of incident solar energy that is changed to latent heat during evapotranspiration. Each land use unit was assigned an average value for evapotranspiration for the growing season. Satellite data of surface temperature and surface wetness values show incident radiation converted to heat. Relationships between evapotranspiration and surface temperature and between wetness index and evapotranspiration were verified. The results confirm the hypothesis that changes in land use can have a significant effect on total average evapotranspiration. 18 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Adaptive Critic Neural Network-Based Terminal Area Energy Management and Approach and Landing Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, Katie

    2003-01-01

    Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) have different mission requirements than the Space Shuttle, which is used for benchmark guidance design. Therefore, alternative Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) and Approach and Landing (A/L) Guidance schemes can be examined in the interest of cost reduction. A neural network based solution for a finite horizon trajectory optimization problem is presented in this paper. In this approach the optimal trajectory of the vehicle is produced by adaptive critic based neural networks, which were trained off-line to maintain a gradual glideslope.

  20. The obesity‐associated gene Negr1 regulates aspects of energy balance in rat hypothalamic areas

    PubMed Central

    Boender, Arjen J.; van Gestel, Margriet A.; Garner, Keith M.; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Neural growth regulator 1 (Negr1) is among the first common variants that have been associated with the regulation of body mass index. Using AAV technology directed to manipulate Negr1 expression in vivo, we find that decreased expression of Negr1 in periventricular hypothalamic areas leads to increases in body weight, presumably via increased food intake. Moreover, we observed that both increased and decreased levels of Negr1 lead to reduced locomotor activity and body temperature. In sum, our results provide further support for a role of hypothalamic expressed Negr1 in the regulation of energy balance. PMID:25077509

  1. In-Flight Measurement of the Absolute Energy Scale of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W.B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E.D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; /more authors..

    2012-09-20

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to several hundreds of GeV. In this energy band there are no astronomical sources with sufficiently well known and sharp spectral features to allow an absolute calibration of the LAT energy scale. However, the geomagnetic cutoff in the cosmic ray electron-plus-positron (CRE) spectrum in low Earth orbit does provide such a spectral feature. The energy and spectral shape of this cutoff can be calculated with the aid of a numerical code tracing charged particles in the Earth's magnetic field. By comparing the cutoff value with that measured by the LAT in different geomagnetic positions, we have obtained several calibration points between {approx}6 and {approx}13 GeV with an estimated uncertainty of {approx}2%. An energy calibration with such high accuracy reduces the systematic uncertainty in LAT measurements of, for example, the spectral cutoff in the emission from gamma ray pulsars.

  2. A lightweight security scheme for wireless body area networks: design, energy evaluation and proposed microprocessor design.

    PubMed

    Selimis, Georgios; Huang, Li; Massé, Fabien; Tsekoura, Ioanna; Ashouei, Maryam; Catthoor, Francky; Huisken, Jos; Stuyt, Jan; Dolmans, Guido; Penders, Julien; De Groot, Harmke

    2011-10-01

    In order for wireless body area networks to meet widespread adoption, a number of security implications must be explored to promote and maintain fundamental medical ethical principles and social expectations. As a result, integration of security functionality to sensor nodes is required. Integrating security functionality to a wireless sensor node increases the size of the stored software program in program memory, the required time that the sensor's microprocessor needs to process the data and the wireless network traffic which is exchanged among sensors. This security overhead has dominant impact on the energy dissipation which is strongly related to the lifetime of the sensor, a critical aspect in wireless sensor network (WSN) technology. Strict definition of the security functionality, complete hardware model (microprocessor and radio), WBAN topology and the structure of the medium access control (MAC) frame are required for an accurate estimation of the energy that security introduces into the WBAN. In this work, we define a lightweight security scheme for WBAN, we estimate the additional energy consumption that the security scheme introduces to WBAN based on commercial available off-the-shelf hardware components (microprocessor and radio), the network topology and the MAC frame. Furthermore, we propose a new microcontroller design in order to reduce the energy consumption of the system. Experimental results and comparisons with other works are given.

  3. In-Flight Measurement of the Absolute Energy Scale of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbielini, G; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B,; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Gehrels, N.; Hays, E.; McEnery, J. E.; Thompson, D. J.; Troja, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to several hundreds of GeV. In this energy band there are no astronomical sources with sufficiently well known and sharp spectral features to allow an absolute calibration of the LAT energy scale. However, the geomagnetic cutoff in the cosmic ray electron- plus-positron (CRE) spectrum in low Earth orbit does provide such a spectral feature. The energy and spectral shape of this cutoff can be calculated with the aid of a numerical code tracing charged particles in the Earth's magnetic field. By comparing the cutoff value with that measured by the LAT in different geomagnetic positions, we have obtained several calibration points between approx. 6 and approx. 13 GeV with an estimated uncertainty of approx. 2%. An energy calibration with such high accuracy reduces the systematic uncertainty in LAT measurements of, for example, the spectral cutoff in the emission from gamma ray pulsars.

  4. Observations of gamma-ray pulsars at the highest energies with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saz Parkinson, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    One of the most exciting developments in pulsar astrophysics in recent years has been the detection, with ground-based instruments (VERITAS, MAGIC), of pulsed gamma-ray emission from the Crab at very high energies (VHE, E>100 GeV). The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi satellite has detected over 160 pulsars above 100 MeV. Twenty-eight of these have been shown to emit pulsations above 10 GeV and approximately a dozen show emission above 25 GeV. While most gamma-ray pulsars are well-fitted in the GeV range by a power law with an exponential cut-off at around a few GeV, some emission models predict emission at energies above 100 GeV, either through a power-law extrapolation of the low-energy spectrum, or via a new (e.g. Inverse Compton) component. We will present results of our search for high-energy emission from LAT-detected gamma-ray pulsars using the latest Pass 8 data and discuss the prospects of finding the next VHE pulsar, providing a good target (or targets) for follow-up observations with current and future ground-based observatories, like CTA.

  5. Promotion of renewable energy to mitigate impact of heavy use of carbon energy on society and climate change in Central Sub-Saharan Africa remote areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenfack, Joseph; Bignom, Blaise

    2015-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa owns important renewable energy potential and is still heavily using carbon energy. This is having a negative impact on the climate and on the environment. Given the local cost of carbon energy, the purchase power of people, the availability and the reserve of carbon energy in the area, this resource is being heavily used. This practice is harmful to the climate and is also resulting on poor effort to promote renewable energy in remote areas. The important renewable energy potential is still suffering from poor development. The purpose of this paper is among other things aiming at showing the rate of carbon energy use and its potential impact on climate and environment. We will also ensure that the renewable energy resources of Central Sub-Saharan Africa are known and are subject to be used optimally to help mitigate climate change. After showing some negative impacts of carbon energy used in the area, the work also suggests actions to promote and sustain the development of renewable energy. Based on the knowledge of the Central African energy sector, this paper will identify actions for reduce access to carbon energy and improved access to sustainable, friendly, affordable energy services to users as well as a significant improvement of energy infrastructure and the promotion of energy efficiency. We will show all type of carbon energy used, the potential for solar, biomass and hydro while showing where available the level of development. After a swot analysis of the situation, identified obstacles for the promotion of clean energy will be targeted. Finally, suggestions will be made to help the region develop a vision aiming at developing good clean energy policy to increase the status of renewable energy and better contribute to fight against climate change. Cameroon case study will be examined as illustration. Analysis will be made from data collected in the field. |End Text|

  6. Wide-Area Energy Storage and Management system to Balance Intermittent Resources in the Bonneville Power Administration and California ISO Control Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Yang, Bo; DeSteese, John G.; Lu, Shuai; Miller, Carl H.; Nyeng, Preben; Ma, Jian; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Vishwanathan, Vilanyur V.

    2008-06-30

    The entire project addresses the issue of mitigating additional intermittency and fast ramps that occur at higher penetration of intermittent resources, including wind genera-tion, in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the California Independent Sys-tem Operator (California ISO) control areas. The proposed Wide Area Energy Storage and Management System (WAEMS) will address the additional regulation requirement through the energy exchange between the participating control areas and through the use of energy storage and other generation resources. For the BPA and California ISO control centers, the new regulation service will look no different comparing with the traditional regulation resources. The proposed project will benefit the regulation service in these service areas, regardless of the actual degree of penetration of the intermittent resources in the regions. The project develops principles, algorithms, market integration rules, functional de-sign and technical specifications for the WAEMS system. The project is sponsored by BPA and supported in kind by California ISO, Beacon Power Corporation, and the Cali-fornia Energy Commission (CEC).

  7. ENERGY AND MASS FLUX SIMULATIONS IN URBAN AREA USING THE ACASA MODEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marras, S.; Spano, D.; Pyles, R. D.; Falk, M.; Sirca, C.; Miglietta, F.; Snyder, R. L.; Paw U, K.

    2009-12-01

    Urban metabolism considers a city as a system and usually distinguishes between energy and material flows as its components. Population who lives in urban areas is increasing and the exchanges of water, energy and carbon into and out of cities are key to the sustainable design of cities. In this context, it is important to provide quantitative estimate of the urban metabolism components using both observations and modeling of physical flows. Today, Eddy Covariance technique and accurate models are available to simulate the energy and mass flux exchanges in urban environment with a good spatial resolution. The Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm (ACASA) model, developed by University of California, Davis (UCD), is one of the most sophisticated models for estimating energy and mass fluxes between surface and the atmosphere. ACASA was recently modified to simulate energy and mass fluxes in urban environment. ACASA treats the surface and associated fluxes as an interconnected system The atmosphere, the urban surface and the soil are represented as a multilayer system. ACASA incorporates higher-order closure principles for turbulent statistics to predict the effects that higher-order turbulent kinetic and thermodynamic processes have on the surface microenvironment and associated fluxes of heat, moisture, momentum, and carbon. It allows counter-gradient transport that simpler models are unable to describe. Using a set of governing equations, ACASA creates vertical profiles of temperature, humidity, mean wind, and CO2 concentration. ACASA was run for the city of Florence (Italy), which is a case study of the European project “Bridge”. The simulations were compared with in situ measurements taken continuously from 2006 using an eddy covariance system located in the city centre. Different measurement periods were used to parameterize and validate the model. From the preliminary results, good agreement was obtained between simulated and observed fluxes with small

  8. Beachrocks and sea level changes since Middle Holocene: Comparison between the insular group of Mykonos-Delos-Rhenia (Cyclades, Greece) and the southern coast of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desruelles, Stéphane; Fouache, Éric; Ciner, Attila; Dalongeville, Rémi; Pavlopoulos, Kosmas; Kosun, Erdal; Coquinot, Yvan; Potdevin, Jean-Luc

    2009-03-01

    The small insular group of Mykonos-Delos-Rhenia in Cyclades, Greece, and the southern coast of Turkey from Andriake to Arsuz show three bands of beachrocks, emerged up to + 0.35 m and submerged sometimes down to - 4.3 m. Because beachrocks are formed within the intertidal zone by carbonate cementation of the beach deposits during stages of shoreline stabilisation (both eustatic and tectonic), they correspond to different generations indicating different sea level stands. 11 sites on the southern coast of Turkey and 7 bays on the insular group of Mykonos-Delos-Rhenia were studied. 52 beachrock samples were analysed by polarizing microscope, cathodoluminescence and SEM. This study indicated that carbonate elements that constitute most of the samples were at least partly incorporated within the intertidal zone. The adequate method for radiocarbon dating (total sample or cement) was decided according to these observations. Because diagenetic cements seemed difficult to extract manually and the sources of carbonate pollution are limited in Mykonos-Delos-Rhenia, we performed 14C AMS dating on total samples. On the southern coast of Turkey, due to the abundance of micrite in between the limestone pebbles that often constitute the beachrocks, available cements had to be manually extracted for 14C AMS dating. The dates obtained from Mykonos-Delos-Rhenia beachrocks indicate 3 separate sea level stands: the first one at about - 3.6 m (± 0.5 m) around 2000 BC, the second one at about - 2.5 m (± 0.5 m) around 400 BC and finally the third sea level at about - 1 m (± 0.5 m) around 1000 AD. On the southern coast of Turkey, several relative sea level positions in 4 areas (I to IV) are recognised. From Finike Bay to the west (area I), a post-Roman relative sea level rise is observed after a period of coastline stabilisation. The area from the east of Finike Peninsula to Çimtur (area II) witnessed relative sea level rise since mid-Holocene interrupted by 3 phases of stability

  9. GLAST LARGE AREA TELESCOPE: DAILY SURVEY OF HIGH-ENERGY SKY

    SciTech Connect

    Kamae, T

    2003-12-12

    GLAST Large Area Telescope was proposed to NASA in 1999 as follow-up of EGRET on-board Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory by an international collaboration. The proposal has been approved as a part of the GLAST observatory mission in its capability to explore w die range of astrophysics with 5-40 times higher sensitivity and extended energy coverage (20 MeV to 300 GeV) than EGRET. The instrument consists of 16 towers of e{sup +}e{sup -} pair tracker, 16 blocks of segmented electro-magnetic calorimeter, and a st of anti-coincidence plastic scintillator tiles covering the tracker towers. It will have 5-10 times larger on-axis effective area, 6 times wider field-of-view (FOV), and up to 5 times better angular resolution when compared with EGRET. The Large Area Telescope will cover about 40% of the sky above the Earth's horizon in its FOV at any given time and will scan nearly the entire Universe every orbit ({approx} 90min): about 20% of Gamma-Ray Bursts will be observed from the onset of the bursts to the initial after-glow phase; all longer-lasting transients and variabilities will be detected daily at the improved sensitivity.

  10. Facile synthesis of ultrahigh-surface-area hollow carbon nanospheres for enhanced adsorption and energy storage

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fei; Tang, Zhiwei; Huang, Siqi; Chen, Luyi; Liang, Yeru; Mai, Weicong; Zhong, Hui; Fu, Ruowen; Wu, Dingcai

    2015-01-01

    Exceptionally large surface area and well-defined nanostructure are both critical in the field of nanoporous carbons for challenging energy and environmental issues. The pursuit of ultrahigh surface area while maintaining definite nanostructure remains a formidable challenge because extensive creation of pores will undoubtedly give rise to the damage of nanostructures, especially below 100 nm. Here we report that high surface area of up to 3,022 m2 g−1 can be achieved for hollow carbon nanospheres with an outer diameter of 69 nm by a simple carbonization procedure with carefully selected carbon precursors and carbonization conditions. The tailor-made pore structure of hollow carbon nanospheres enables target-oriented applications, as exemplified by their enhanced adsorption capability towards organic vapours, and electrochemical performances as electrodes for supercapacitors and sulphur host materials for lithium–sulphur batteries. The facile approach may open the doors for preparation of highly porous carbons with desired nanostructure for numerous applications. PMID:26072734

  11. Sympathoexcitatory effects of estrogen in the insular cortex are mediated by GABA.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Tarek M; Connell, Barry J; Cribb, Alastair E

    2005-03-10

    The current investigation examined the effect of estrogen in the insular cortex (IC) on autonomic tone and cardiac baroreceptor reflex function and sought to determine if modulation of neurotransmission was responsible for mediating this effect. Experiments were performed in Inactin-anaesthetized, male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were instrumented to record blood pressure, heart rate, vagal parasympathetic and renal sympathetic nerve activities, as well as cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Direct, bilateral injection of 17beta-estradiol (0.5 microM; 200 nl/side) into the IC resulted in a significant increase in sympathetic tone (from 10 +/- 4 to 24 +/- 3) with no significant change in blood pressure, heart rate, parasympathetic tone or BRS measured at 30 min post-injection. This estrogen-induced effect was completely blocked by the co-injection of estrogen with the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182, 780 (20 microM; 200 nl/side). Co-injection of estrogen with a GABA(B), NMDA or non-NMDA receptor antagonists did not effect the estrogen-induced increase in sympathetic tone. Co-injection of a sub-threshold dose of estradiol (0.125 microM; 200 nl/side) with the GABA(A) receptor antagonist, (+)-bicuculline (0.025 microM; 200 nl/side), resulted in an additive response to increase sympathetic nerve activity. These results suggest that estrogen acts on estrogen receptors to modulate GABA(A)-receptor-mediated neurotransmission within the IC to modulate sympathetic tone. PMID:15777759

  12. Histaminergic effects on the frequency of repetitive spike firing in rat insular cortex.

    PubMed

    Takei, Hiroki; Song, Liqiu; Ebihara, Katsuko; Shirakawa, Tetsuo; Koshikawa, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Masayuki

    2012-06-14

    The insular cortex (IC) processes multimodal sensory information including gustatory, visceral, nociceptive, and thermal sensation, and is considered to play a role in the regulation of homeostasis. The IC receives dense histaminergic projection from the tuberomamillary nucleus in the hypothalamus, and recent studies have demonstrated that the blockage of histaminergic receptors impairs physiological functions in the IC. However, little is known about the effects of histamine on the electrophysiological properties of the IC. To explore the effects of histamine on the subthreshold responses and action potential properties in the IC, intracellular recording with a sharp glass electrode was obtained from IC pyramidal cells in cortical slice preparations. Application of histamine (30 μM) increased the frequency of repetitive spike firing in response to a long depolarizing current pulse injection; accompanied by an increase in input resistance. The frequency of repetitive spike firing was estimated by the slope of the frequency-current (f/I) curve. Histamine caused an increase from 23.3±2.3 Hz/nA to 40.3±4.3 Hz/nA. The histamine-induced facilitation of repetitive spike firing was blocked by pre-application of 50 μM cimetidine, an H(2) receptor antagonist, but not 30 μM pyrilamine, an H(1) receptor antagonist. R-α-methylhistamine (10 μM), an H(3) autoreceptor agonist, had little effect on the slope of the f/I curve. These results suggest that the histamine-induced facilitation of firing frequency is mediated via H(2) and not H(1) receptors. In addition, H(3) receptors have a minor role in the intrinsic membrane and firing properties of IC pyramidal cells.

  13. Mindfulness training modulates value signals in ventromedial prefrontal cortex through input from insular cortex.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Ulrich; Gu, Xiaosi; Harvey, Ann H; Fonagy, Peter; Montague, P Read

    2014-10-15

    Neuroimaging research has demonstrated that ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) encodes value signals that can be modulated by top-down cognitive input such as semantic knowledge, price incentives, and monetary favors suggesting that such biases may have an identified biological basis. It has been hypothesized that mindfulness training (MT) provides one path for gaining control over such top-down influences; yet, there have been no direct tests of this hypothesis. Here, we probe the behavioral and neural effects of MT on value signals in vmPFC in a randomized longitudinal design of 8 weeks of MT on an initially naïve subject cohort. The impact of this within-subject training was assessed using two paradigms: one that employed primary rewards (fruit juice) in a simple conditioning task and another that used a well-validated art-viewing paradigm to test bias of monetary favors on preference. We show that MT behaviorally censors the top-down bias of monetary favors through a measurable influence on value signals in vmPFC. MT also modulates value signals in vmPFC to primary reward delivery. Using a separate cohort of subjects we show that 8 weeks of active control training (ACT) generates the same behavioral impact also through an effect on signals in the vmPFC. Importantly, functional connectivity analyses show that value signals in vmPFC are coupled with bilateral posterior insula in the MT groups in both paradigms, but not in the ACT groups. These results suggest that MT integrates interoceptive input from insular cortex in the context of value computations of both primary and secondary rewards.

  14. Differential structural and resting state connectivity between insular subdivisions and other pain-related brain regions.

    PubMed

    Wiech, K; Jbabdi, S; Lin, C S; Andersson, J; Tracey, I

    2014-10-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that the anterior, mid, and posterior division of the insula subserve different functions in the perception of pain. The anterior insula (AI) has predominantly been associated with cognitive-affective aspects of pain, while the mid and posterior divisions have been implicated in sensory-discriminative processing. We examined whether this functional segregation is paralleled by differences in (1) structural and (2) resting state connectivity and (3) in correlations with pain-relevant psychological traits. Analyses were restricted to the 3 insular subdivisions and other pain-related brain regions. Both type of analyses revealed largely overlapping results. The AI division was predominantly connected to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (structural and resting state connectivity) and orbitofrontal cortex (structural connectivity). In contrast, the posterior insula showed strong connections to the primary somatosensory cortex (SI; structural connectivity) and secondary somatosensory cortex (SII; structural and resting state connectivity). The mid insula displayed a hybrid connectivity pattern with strong connections with the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, SII (structural and resting state connectivity) and SI (structural connectivity). Moreover, resting state connectivity revealed strong connectivity of all 3 subdivisions with the thalamus. On the behavioural level, AI structural connectivity was related to the individual degree of pain vigilance and awareness that showed a positive correlation with AI-amygdala connectivity and a negative correlation with AI-rostral anterior cingulate cortex connectivity. In sum, our findings show a differential structural and resting state connectivity for the anterior, mid, and posterior insula with other pain-relevant brain regions, which might at least partly explain their different functional profiles in pain processing.

  15. Reduced spontaneous neuronal activity in the insular cortex and thalamus in healthy adults with insomnia symptoms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Hong; Liu, Cun-Zhi; Zhang, Jihui; Yuan, Zhen; Tang, Li-Rong; Tie, Chang-Le; Fan, Jin; Liu, Qing-Quan

    2016-10-01

    Poor sleep and insomnia have been recognized to be strongly correlated with the development of depression. The exploration of the basic mechanism of sleep disturbance could provide the basis for improved understanding and treatment of insomnia and prevention of depression. In this study, 31 subjects with insomnia symptoms as measured by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) and 71 age- and gender-matched subjects without insomnia symptoms were recruited to participate in a clinical trial. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), we examined the alterations in spontaneous brain activity between the two groups. Correlations between the fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and clinical measurements (e.g., insomnia severity and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAMD] scores) were also tested in all subjects. Compared to healthy participants without insomnia symptoms, participants with insomnia symptoms showed a decreased fALFF in the left ventral anterior insula, bilateral posterior insula, left thalamus, and pons but an increased fALFF in the bilateral middle occipital gyrus and right precentral gyrus. More specifically, a significant, negative correlation of fALFF in the left thalamus with early morning awakening scores and HAMD scores in the overall sample was identified. These results suggest that insomnia symptoms are associated with altered spontaneous activity in the brain regions of several important functional networks, including the insular cortex of the salience and the thalamus of the hyperarousal network. The altered fALFF in the left thalamus supports the "hyperarousal theory" of insomnia symptoms, which could serve as a biomarker for insomnia. PMID:27425430

  16. Interhemispheric insular and inferior frontal connectivity are associated with substance abuse in a psychiatric population.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Humsini; Velasquez, Kenia M; Savjani, Ricky; Molfese, David L; Curtis, Kaylah; Molfese, Peter J; Eagleman, David M; Baldwin, Philip R; Frueh, B Christopher; Fowler, J Christopher; Salas, Ramiro

    2015-05-01

    Substance abuse is highly comorbid with major psychiatric disorders. While the neural underpinnings of drug abuse have been studied extensively, most existing studies compare drug users without comorbidities and healthy, non-user controls. Such studies do not generalize well to typical patients with substance abuse disorders. Therefore, we studied a population of psychiatric inpatients (n = 151) with a range of mental illnesses. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed via structured interviews. Sixty-five percent of patients met criteria for at least one substance use disorder. Patients were recruited for resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) experiments to examine the interhemispheric connectivity between brain regions hypothesized to be involved in drug addiction, namely: the inferior, medial, and superior frontal gyri; insula; striatum; and anterior cingulate cortex. The World Health Organization Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (WHOA) questionnaire was used to further assess drug use. An association between use of tobacco, alcohol, cocaine, sedatives, and hallucinogens with increased insular interhemispheric connectivity was observed. In addition, increased inferior frontal gyrus interhemispheric connectivity was associated with amphetamine and inhalant use. Our results suggest that increased inter-hemispheric insula connectivity is associated with the use of several drugs of abuse. Importantly, psychiatric inpatients without a history of drug dependence were used as an ecologically valid control group rather than the more typical comparison between "mentally ill vs. healthy control" populations. We suggest that dysfunction of interhemispheric connectivity of the insula and to a lesser extent of the inferior frontal gyrus, are related to drug abuse in psychiatric populations.

  17. Mindfulness training modulates value signals in ventromedial prefrontal cortex through input from insular cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Ulrich; Gu, Xiaosi; Harvey, Ann H.; Fonagy, Peter; Montague, P. Read

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging research has demonstrated that ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) encodes value signals that can be modulated by top-down cognitive input such as semantic knowledge, price incentives, and monetary favors suggesting that such biases may have an identified biological basis. It has been hypothesized that mindfulness training (MT) provides one path for gaining control over such top-down influences; yet, there have been no direct tests of this hypothesis. Here, we probe the behavioral and neural effects of MT on value signals in vmPFC in a randomized longitudinal design of 8 weeks of MT on an initially naïve subject cohort. The impact of this within-subject training was assessed using two paradigms: one that employed primary rewards (fruit juice) in a simple conditioning task and another that used a well-validated art-viewing paradigm to test bias of monetary favors on preference. We show that MT behaviorally censors the top-down bias of monetary favors through a measurable influence on value signals in vmPFC. MT also modulates value signals in vmPFC to primary reward delivery. Using a separate cohort of subjects we show that 8 weeks of active control training (ACT) generates the same behavioral impact also through an effect on signals in the vmPFC. Importantly, functional connectivity analyses show that value signals in vmPFC are coupled with bilateral posterior insula in the MT groups in both paradigms, but not in the ACT groups. These results suggest that MT integrates interoceptive input from insular cortex in the context of value computations of both primary and secondary rewards. PMID:24956066

  18. Dynamics of spider glue adhesion: effect of surface energy and contact area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarpuri, Gaurav; Chen, Yizhou; Blackledge, Todd; Dhinojwala, Ali

    Spider glue is a unique biological adhesive which is humidity responsive such that the adhesion continues to increase upto 100% relative humidity (RH) for some species. This is unlike synthetic adhesives that significantly drop in adhesion with an increase in humidity. However, most of adhesion data reported in literature have used clean hydrophilic glass substrate, unlike the hydrophobic, and charged insect cuticle surface that adheres to spider glue in nature. Previously, we have reported that the spider glue viscosity changes over five orders of magnitude with humidity. Here, we vary the surface energy and surface charge of the substrate to test the change in Larnioides cornutus spider glue adhesion with humidity. We find that an increase in both surface energy and surface charge density increases the droplet spreading and there exists an optimum droplet contact area where adhesion is maximized. Moreover, spider glue droplets act as reusable adhesive for low energy hydrophobic surface at the optimum humidity. These results explain why certain prey are caught more efficiently by spiders in their habitat. The mechanism by which spider species tune its glue adhesion for local prey capture can inspire new generation smart adhesives.

  19. 75 FR 1362 - Medical Area Total Energy Plant, Inc., New MATEP Inc.; Notice of Application for Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    .... The facility is a central district energy plant located in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area of... 20426. This filing is accessible online at http://www.ferc.gov , using the ``eLibrary'' link and...

  20. Towards Reliable and Energy-Efficient Incremental Cooperative Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Sidrah; Javaid, Nadeem; Qasim, Umar; Alrajeh, Nabil; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyse incremental cooperative communication for wireless body area networks (WBANs) with different numbers of relays. Energy efficiency (EE) and the packet error rate (PER) are investigated for different schemes. We propose a new cooperative communication scheme with three-stage relaying and compare it to existing schemes. Our proposed scheme provides reliable communication with less PER at the cost of surplus energy consumption. Analytical expressions for the EE of the proposed three-stage cooperative communication scheme are also derived, taking into account the effect of PER. Later on, the proposed three-stage incremental cooperation is implemented in a network layer protocol; enhanced incremental cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (EInCo-CEStat). Extensive simulations are conducted to validate the proposed scheme. Results of incremental relay-based cooperative communication protocols are compared to two existing cooperative routing protocols: cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (Co-CEStat) and InCo-CEStat. It is observed from the simulation results that incremental relay-based cooperation is more energy efficient than the existing conventional cooperation protocol, Co-CEStat. The results also reveal that EInCo-CEStat proves to be more reliable with less PER and higher throughput than both of the counterpart protocols. However, InCo-CEStat has less throughput with a greater stability period and network lifetime. Due to the availability of more redundant links, EInCo-CEStat achieves a reduced packet drop rate at the cost of increased energy consumption.

  1. Impacts of geothermal energy developments on hydrological environment in hot spring areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Water-energy nexus such as geothermal energy developments and its impacts on groundwater, river water, and coastal water is one of the key issues for the sustainable society. This is because the demand of both water and energy resources will be increasing in near future, and the tradeoff between both resources and conflict between stakeholders will be arisen. Geothermal power generation, hot springs heat power generation, and steam power generation, are developing in hot spring areas in Ring of Fire countries including Japan, as renewable and sustainable energy. Impacts of the wasted hot water after using hot springs heat and steam power generation on ecosystem in the rivers have been observed in Beppu, Oita prefecture, Japan. The number of the fish species with wasted hot water in the Hirata river is much less than that without wasted hot water in Hiyakawa river although the dominant species of tilapia was found in the Hirata river with wasted hot water. The water temperature in Hirata rive is increased by wasted hot water by 10 degree C. The impacts of the developments of steam power generations on hot spring water and groundwater in downstream are also evaluated in Beppu. The decreases in temperature and volume of the hot spring water and groundwater after the development are concerning. Stakeholder analysis related to hot spa and power generation business and others in Beppu showed common interests in community development among stakeholders and gaps in prerequisite knowledge and recognition of the geothermal resource in terms of economic/non-economic value and utilization as power generation/hot-spring. We screened stakeholders of four categories (hot spring resorts inhabitants, industries, supporters, environmentalists), and set up three communities consisting of 50 persons of the above categories. One remarkable result regarding the pros and cons of geothermal power in general terms was that the supporter count increased greatly while the neutralities count

  2. Towards Reliable and Energy-Efficient Incremental Cooperative Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Yousaf, Sidrah; Javaid, Nadeem; Qasim, Umar; Alrajeh, Nabil; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyse incremental cooperative communication for wireless body area networks (WBANs) with different numbers of relays. Energy efficiency (EE) and the packet error rate (PER) are investigated for different schemes. We propose a new cooperative communication scheme with three-stage relaying and compare it to existing schemes. Our proposed scheme provides reliable communication with less PER at the cost of surplus energy consumption. Analytical expressions for the EE of the proposed three-stage cooperative communication scheme are also derived, taking into account the effect of PER. Later on, the proposed three-stage incremental cooperation is implemented in a network layer protocol; enhanced incremental cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (EInCo-CEStat). Extensive simulations are conducted to validate the proposed scheme. Results of incremental relay-based cooperative communication protocols are compared to two existing cooperative routing protocols: cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (Co-CEStat) and InCo-CEStat. It is observed from the simulation results that incremental relay-based cooperation is more energy efficient than the existing conventional cooperation protocol, Co-CEStat. The results also reveal that EInCo-CEStat proves to be more reliable with less PER and higher throughput than both of the counterpart protocols. However, InCo-CEStat has less throughput with a greater stability period and network lifetime. Due to the availability of more redundant links, EInCo-CEStat achieves a reduced packet drop rate at the cost of increased energy consumption. PMID:26927104

  3. Towards Reliable and Energy-Efficient Incremental Cooperative Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Sidrah; Javaid, Nadeem; Qasim, Umar; Alrajeh, Nabil; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyse incremental cooperative communication for wireless body area networks (WBANs) with different numbers of relays. Energy efficiency (EE) and the packet error rate (PER) are investigated for different schemes. We propose a new cooperative communication scheme with three-stage relaying and compare it to existing schemes. Our proposed scheme provides reliable communication with less PER at the cost of surplus energy consumption. Analytical expressions for the EE of the proposed three-stage cooperative communication scheme are also derived, taking into account the effect of PER. Later on, the proposed three-stage incremental cooperation is implemented in a network layer protocol; enhanced incremental cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (EInCo-CEStat). Extensive simulations are conducted to validate the proposed scheme. Results of incremental relay-based cooperative communication protocols are compared to two existing cooperative routing protocols: cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (Co-CEStat) and InCo-CEStat. It is observed from the simulation results that incremental relay-based cooperation is more energy efficient than the existing conventional cooperation protocol, Co-CEStat. The results also reveal that EInCo-CEStat proves to be more reliable with less PER and higher throughput than both of the counterpart protocols. However, InCo-CEStat has less throughput with a greater stability period and network lifetime. Due to the availability of more redundant links, EInCo-CEStat achieves a reduced packet drop rate at the cost of increased energy consumption. PMID:26927104

  4. Fuzzy Logic Trajectory Design and Guidance for Terminal Area Energy Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burchett, Bradley

    2003-01-01

    The second generation reusable launch vehicle will leverage many new technologies to make flight to low earth orbit safer and more cost effective. One important capability will be completely autonomous flight during reentry and landing, thus making it unnecessary to man the vehicle for cargo missions with stringent weight constraints. Implementation of sophisticated new guidance and control methods will enable the vehicle to return to earth under less than favorable conditions. The return to earth consists of three phases--Entry, Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM), and Approach and Landing. The Space Shuttle is programmed to fly all three phases of flight automatically, and under normal circumstances the astronaut-pilot takes manual control only during the Approach and Landing phase. The automatic control algorithms used in the Shuttle for TAEM and Approach and Landing have been developed over the past 30 years. They are computationally efficient, and based on careful study of the spacecraft's flight dynamics, and heuristic reasoning. The gliding return trajectory is planned prior to the mission, and only minor adjustments are made during flight for perturbations in the vehicle energy state. With the advent of the X-33 and X-34 technology demonstration vehicles, several authors investigated implementing advanced control methods to provide autonomous real-time design of gliding return trajectories thus enhancing the ability of the vehicle to adjust to unusual energy states. The bulk of work published to date deals primarily with the approach and landing phase of flight where changes in heading angle are small, and range to the runway is monotonically decreasing. These benign flight conditions allow for model simplification and fairly straightforward optimization. This project focuses on the TAEM phase of flight where mathematically precise methods have produced limited results. Fuzzy Logic methods are used to make onboard autonomous gliding return trajectory

  5. An assessment of the available windy land area and wind energy potential in the contiguous United States

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.L.; Wendell, L.L.; Gower, G.L.

    1991-08-01

    Estimates of land areas with various levels of wind energy resource and resultant wind energy potential have been developed for each state in the contiguous United States. The estimates are based on published wind resource data and account for the exclusion of some windy lands as a result of environmental and land-use considerations. Despite these exclusions, the amount of wind resource estimated over the contiguous United States is surprisingly large and has the potential to supply a substantial fraction of the nation's energy needs, even with the use of today's wind turbine technology. Although this study shows that, after exclusions, only about 0.6% of the land area in the contiguous United States is characterized by high wind resource (comparable to that found in windy areas of California where wind energy is being cost-effectively developed), the wind electric potential that could be extracted with today's technology from these areas across the United States is equivalent to about 20% of the current US electric consumption. Future advances in wind turbine technology will further enhance the potential of wind energy. As advances in turbine technology allow areas of moderate wind resource to be developed, more than a tenfold increase in the wind energy potential is possible. These areas, which cover large sections of the Great Plains and are widely distributed throughout many other sections of the country, have the potential of producing more than three times the nation's current electric consumption. 9 refs., 12 figs., 13 tabs.

  6. New threshold temperatures for the development of a North American diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) population and its larval parasitoid, Diadegma insulare (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae).

    PubMed

    Bahar, M H; Soroka, J J; Grenkow, L; Dosdall, L M

    2014-10-01

    The currently accepted lower threshold temperature for the development of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), the world's most destructive insect pest of cruciferous crops, is around 6.0°C, and there is no known upper threshold temperature. Neither are there established threshold temperatures for diamondback moth's major natural enemy, Diadegma insulare (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Laboratory studies were undertaken to determine the survival and development of a North American diamondback moth population and its parasitoid D. insulare at 20 constant temperatures ranging from 2.0 to 38.0°C. Diamondback moth completed development from second instar to adult within a temperature range of 4.0-37°C, and D. insulare completed its life cycle from egg to adult within a temperature range of 4.0-33°C. The developmental data were fitted into one linear and four nonlinear models. Using goodness-of-fit and the ability to estimate parameters of biological significance as selection criteria, the Wang model was the most acceptable among the nonlinear models to describe the relationship between temperature and development of both species. According to this model, the lower and upper threshold temperatures for diamondback moth were 2.1 and 38.0°C, respectively, and for D. insulare they were 2.1 and 34.0°C, respectively. Based on the Degree Day model, diamondback moth required 143 d above the lower threshold of 4.23°C to complete the life cycle, while D. insulare required 286 d above the lower threshold of 2.57°C. This study suggests that temperatures during the crop-growing seasons in North America are not limiting factors for development of either diamondback moth or D. insulare.

  7. Identification of Selected Areas to Support Federal Clean Energy Goals Using Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Belles, Randy; Mays, Gary T; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Poore III, Willis P

    2013-12-01

    This analysis identifies candidate locations, in a broad sense, where there are high concentrations of federal government agency use of electricity, which are also suitable areas for near-term SMRs. Near-term SMRs are based on light-water reactor (LWR) technology with compact design features that are expected to offer a host of safety, siting, construction, and economic benefits. These smaller plants are ideally suited for small electric grids and for locations that cannot support large reactors, thus providing utilities or governement entities with the flexibility to scale power production as demand changes by adding additional power by deploying more modules or reactors in phases. This research project is aimed at providing methodologies, information, and insights to assist the federal government in meeting federal clean energy goals.

  8. Studying the High Energy Gamma Ray Sky with Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamae, T.; Ohsugi, T.; Thompson, D. J.; Watanabe, K.

    1998-01-01

    Building on the success of the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) will make a major step in the study of such subjects as blazars, gamma Ray bursts, the search for dark matter, supernova remnants, pulsars, diffuse radiation, and unidentified high energy sources. The instrument will be built on new and mature detector technologies such as silicon strip detectors, low-power low-noise LSI, and a multilevel data acquisition system. GLAST is in the research and development phase, and one full tower (of 25 total) is now being built in collaborating institutes. The prototype tower will be tested thoroughly at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in the fall of 1999.

  9. [Influence of 175-m-impoundment in Three Gorges Reservoir area on the food web energy sources of main commercial fishes in backwater area of xiaojiang River].

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Yue, Xing-Jian; Wang, Yong-Ming; Jin, Li; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2013-06-01

    The impoundment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) was first reached 175 m in 2010. To approach the influence of this impoundment on the food web energy sources of fishes in the tributaries of TRGA, an analysis was made on the food web energy sources of seven economically important fishes (Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpio, Silurus asotus, Culter mongolicus mongolicus, Mystus macropterus, Pelteobagrus vachelli, and Pelteobagrus nitidus) in the backwater area of Xiaojiang River by using stable isotope method in combining with IsoSource Model. The results showed that before this impoundment (July 2010), microalgae were the main energy sources for the seven species. After this impoundment (December 2010), the contribution ratio of the microalgae decreased somewhat, while the relative contribution of terrestrial C4 plants had an obvious increase. Especially for crucian carp (C. auratus) and catfish (S. asotus), the contribution rate of the C4 plants reached 38-54% and 32-50%, respectively. After the impoundment, at least 30% of the energy resources of these two fishes were come from terrestrial C4 plants, suggesting that the impoundment in TGRA increased the contribution rate of exogenous terrestrial C4 plants as the energy sources of fishes.

  10. Connectivity of Marine Protected Areas and Its Relation with Total Kinetic Energy.

    PubMed

    D'Agostini, Andressa; Gherardi, Douglas Francisco Marcolino; Pezzi, Luciano Ponzi

    2015-01-01

    The East Continental Shelf (ECS) of Brazil is a hotspot of endemism and biodiversity of reef biota in the South Atlantic, hosting a number of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Connectivity of MPAs through larval dispersal influences recruitment, population dynamics, genetic structure and biogeography in coral reef ecosystems. Connectivity of protected reef ecosystem in the ECS was investigated with a hydrodynamic model (ROMS) forcing an Individual Based Model (IBM-Ichthyop), and used groupers (genus Mycteroperca) as functional group. The hydrodynamic output from ROMS was compared with satellite data and showed good agreement with observed surface fields. Eggs were released, in IBM experiments, from April to September along six years (2002-2007) in five MPAs along the ECS. Intrannual variability in recruitment and self-recruitment of grouper larvae was observed, as well as a negative correlation of these population parameters with total Kinetic Energy (KE) used as a metric of the physical environment. Higher KE leads to increased offshore advection of larvae, reduced total recruitment and connectivity of MPAs. Our results indicate high and uni-directional connectivity between MPAs from north to south influenced by the Brazil Current flowing in the same direction. Results also showed that some MPAs act predominantly as "sink" while others are mainly "source" areas. PMID:26448650

  11. Connectivity of Marine Protected Areas and Its Relation with Total Kinetic Energy

    PubMed Central

    D’Agostini, Andressa; Gherardi, Douglas Francisco Marcolino; Pezzi, Luciano Ponzi

    2015-01-01

    The East Continental Shelf (ECS) of Brazil is a hotspot of endemism and biodiversity of reef biota in the South Atlantic, hosting a number of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Connectivity of MPAs through larval dispersal influences recruitment, population dynamics, genetic structure and biogeography in coral reef ecosystems. Connectivity of protected reef ecosystem in the ECS was investigated with a hydrodynamic model (ROMS) forcing an Individual Based Model (IBM—Ichthyop), and used groupers (genus Mycteroperca) as functional group. The hydrodynamic output from ROMS was compared with satellite data and showed good agreement with observed surface fields. Eggs were released, in IBM experiments, from April to September along six years (2002–2007) in five MPAs along the ECS. Intrannual variability in recruitment and self-recruitment of grouper larvae was observed, as well as a negative correlation of these population parameters with total Kinetic Energy (KE) used as a metric of the physical environment. Higher KE leads to increased offshore advection of larvae, reduced total recruitment and connectivity of MPAs. Our results indicate high and uni-directional connectivity between MPAs from north to south influenced by the Brazil Current flowing in the same direction. Results also showed that some MPAs act predominantly as “sink” while others are mainly “source” areas. PMID:26448650

  12. Response of large area avalanche photodiodes to low energy x rays

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, T. R.; Bales, M.; Arp, U.; Dong, B.; Farrell, R.

    2012-05-15

    For an experiment to study neutron radiative beta-decay, we operated large area avalanche photodiodes (APDs) near liquid nitrogen temperature to detect x rays with energies between 0.2 keV and 20 keV. Whereas there are numerous reports of x ray spectrometry using APDs at energies above 1 keV, operation near liquid nitrogen temperature allowed us to reach a nominal threshold of 0.1 keV. However, due to the short penetration depth of x rays below 1 keV, the pulse height spectrum of the APD become complex. We studied the response using monochromatic x ray beams and employed phenomenological fits of the pulse height spectrum to model the measurement of a continuum spectrum from a synchrotron. In addition, the measured pulse height spectrum was modelled using a profile for the variation in efficiency of collection of photoelectrons with depth into the APD. The best results are obtained with the collection efficiency model.

  13. 40 CFR 33.412 - Must an Insular Area or Indian Tribal Government recipient negotiate fair share objectives?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... which can be included in Performance Partnership Grants (PPGs) under 40 CFR part 35, subpart B are not... Government recipient negotiate fair share objectives? 33.412 Section 33.412 Protection of Environment... ENTERPRISES IN UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS Fair Share Objectives § 33.412 Must...

  14. 40 CFR 33.412 - Must an Insular Area or Indian Tribal Government recipient negotiate fair share objectives?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... which can be included in Performance Partnership Grants (PPGs) under 40 CFR part 35, subpart B are not... Government recipient negotiate fair share objectives? 33.412 Section 33.412 Protection of Environment... ENTERPRISES IN UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS Fair Share Objectives § 33.412 Must...

  15. Turning soil survey data into digital soil maps in the Energy Region Eger Research Model Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pásztor, László; Dobos, Anna; Kürti, Lívia; Takács, Katalin; Laborczi, Annamária

    2015-04-01

    Agria-Innoregion Knowledge Centre of the Eszterházy Károly College has carried out targeted basic researches in the field of renewable energy sources and climate change in the framework of TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV project. The project has covered certain issues, which require the specific knowledge of the soil cover; for example: (i) investigation of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of natural and landscape resources; (ii) determination of local amount and characteristics of renewable energy sources; (iii) natural/environmental risk analysis by surveying the risk factors. The Energy Region Eger Research Model Area consists of 23 villages and is located in North-Hungary, at the Western part of Bükkalja. Bükkalja is a pediment surface with erosional valleys and dense river network. The diverse morphology of this area results diversity in soil types and soil properties as well. There was large-scale (1:10,000 and 1:25,000 scale) soil mappings in this area in the 1960's and 1970's which provided soil maps, but with reduced spatial coverage and not with fully functional thematics. To achive the recent tasks (like planning suitable/optimal land-use system, estimating biomass production and development of agricultural and ecomonic systems in terms of sustainable regional development) new survey was planned and carried out by the staff of the College. To map the soils in the study area 10 to 22 soil profiles were uncovered per settlement in 2013 and 2014. Field work was carried out according to the FAO Guidelines for Soil Description and WRB soil classification system was used for naming soils. According to the general goal of soil mapping the survey data had to be spatially extended to regionalize the collected thematic local knowledge related to soil cover. Firstly three thematic maps were compiled by digital soil mapping methods: thickness of topsoil, genetic soil type and rate of surface erosion. High resolution digital elevation model, Earth

  16. Impulsivity is Associated with Increased Metabolism in the Fronto-Insular Network in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tahmasian, Masoud; Rochhausen, Luisa; Maier, Franziska; Williamson, Kim L.; Drzezga, Alexander; Timmermann, Lars; Van Eimeren, Thilo; Eggers, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Various neuroimaging studies demonstrated that the fronto-insular network is implicated in impulsive behavior. We compared glucose metabolism (as a proxy measure of neural activity) among 24 patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) who presented with low or high levels of impulsivity based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS) scores. Subjects underwent 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and the voxel-wise group difference of FDG-metabolism was analyzed in Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8). Subsequently, we performed a partial correlation analysis between the FDG-metabolism and BIS scores, controlling for covariates (i.e., age, sex, severity of disease and levodopa equivalent daily doses). Voxel-wise group comparison revealed higher FDG-metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and right insula in patients with higher impulsivity scores. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the FDG-metabolism and BIS scores. Our findings provide evidence that high impulsivity is associated with increased FDG-metabolism within the fronto-insular network in PD. PMID:26648853

  17. Effects of clonality on the genetic variability of rare, insular species: the case of Ruta microcarpa from the Canary Islands

    PubMed Central

    Meloni, M; Reid, A; Caujapé-Castells, J; Marrero, Á; Fernández-Palacios, J M; Mesa-Coelo, R A; Conti, E

    2013-01-01

    Many plant species combine sexual and clonal reproduction. Clonal propagation has ecological costs mainly related to inbreeding depression and pollen discounting; at the same time, species able to reproduce clonally have ecological and evolutionary advantages being able to persist when conditions are not favorable for sexual reproduction. The presence of clonality has profound consequences on the genetic structure of populations, especially when it represents the predominant reproductive strategy in a population. Theoretical studies suggest that high rate of clonal propagation should increase the effective number of alleles and heterozygosity in a population, while an opposite effect is expected on genetic differentiation among populations and on genotypic diversity. In this study, we ask how clonal propagation affects the genetic diversity of rare insular species, which are often characterized by low levels of genetic diversity, hence at risk of extinction. We used eight polymorphic microsatellite markers to study the genetic structure of the critically endangered insular endemic Ruta microcarpa. We found that clonality appears to positively affect the genetic diversity of R. microcarpa by increasing allelic diversity, polymorphism, and heterozygosity. Moreover, clonal propagation seems to be a more successful reproductive strategy in small, isolated population subjected to environmental stress. Our results suggest that clonal propagation may benefit rare species. However, the advantage of clonal growth may be only short-lived for prolonged clonal growth could ultimately lead to monoclonal populations. Some degree of sexual reproduction may be needed in a predominantly clonal species to ensure long-term viability. PMID:23789068

  18. Energy impacts of heat island reduction strategies in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem

    2001-11-30

    In 2000, the Toronto Atmospheric Fund (TAF) embarked on an initiative to quantify the potential benefits of Heat Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (shade trees, reflective roofs and pavements) in reducing cooling energy use in buildings, lowering the ambient air temperature and improve air quality. This report summarizes the efforts of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to assess the impacts of HIR measures on building cooling- and heating-energy use. We discuss our efforts to calculate annual energy savings and peak-power avoidance of HIR strategies in the building sector of the Greater Toronto Area. The analysis is focused on three major building types that offer most saving potentials: residence, office and retail store. Using an hourly building energy simulation model, we quantify the energy saving potentials of (1) using cool roofs on individual buildings [direct effect], (2) planting deciduous shade trees near south and west walls of building [direct effect], (3) planting coniferous wind-shielding vegetation near building [direct effect], (4) ambient cooling by a large-scale program of urban reforestation with reflective building roofs and pavements [indirect effect], (5) and the combined direct and indirect effects. Results show potential annual energy savings of over $11M (with uniform residential and commercial electricity and gas prices of $0.084/kWh and $5.54/GJ) could be realized by ratepayers from the combined direct and indirect effects of HIR strategies. Of that total, about 88 percent was from the direct impact roughly divided equally among reflective roofs, shade trees and wind-shielding, and the remainder (12 percent) from the indirect impact of the cooler ambient air temperature. The residential sector accounts for over half (59 percent) of the total, offices 13 percent and retail stores 28 percent. Savings from cool roofs were about 20 percent, shade trees 30 percent, wind shielding of tree 37 percent, and indirect effect 12 percent

  19. Temporal Uncertainty and Temporal Estimation Errors Affect Insular Activity and the Frontostriatal Indirect Pathway during Action Update: A Predictive Coding Study

    PubMed Central

    Limongi, Roberto; Pérez, Francisco J.; Modroño, Cristián; González-Mora, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Action update, substituting a prepotent behavior with a new action, allows the organism to counteract surprising environmental demands. However, action update fails when the organism is uncertain about when to release the substituting behavior, when it faces temporal uncertainty. Predictive coding states that accurate perception demands minimization of precise prediction errors. Activity of the right anterior insula (rAI) is associated with temporal uncertainty. Therefore, we hypothesize that temporal uncertainty during action update would cause the AI to decrease the sensitivity to ascending prediction errors. Moreover, action update requires response inhibition which recruits the frontostriatal indirect pathway associated with motor control. Therefore, we also hypothesize that temporal estimation errors modulate frontostriatal connections. To test these hypotheses, we collected fMRI data when participants performed an action-update paradigm within the context of temporal estimation. We fit dynamic causal models to the imaging data. Competing models comprised the inferior occipital gyrus (IOG), right supramarginal gyrus (rSMG), rAI, right presupplementary motor area (rPreSMA), and the right striatum (rSTR). The winning model showed that temporal uncertainty drove activity into the rAI and decreased insular sensitivity to ascending prediction errors, as shown by weak connectivity strength of rSMG→rAI connections. Moreover, temporal estimation errors weakened rPreSMA→rSTR connections and also modulated rAI→rSTR connections, causing the disruption of action update. Results provide information about the neurophysiological implementation of the so-called horse-race model of action control. We suggest that, contrary to what might be believed, unsuccessful action update could be a homeostatic process that represents a Bayes optimal encoding of uncertainty. PMID:27445737

  20. Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Enhances GluN2B Containing NMDA Receptor Binding and Ifenprodil Sensitivity in Rat Agranular Insular Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Clark W.; Candelaria-Cook, Felicha T.; Magcalas, Christy M.; Davies, Suzy; Valenzuela, C. Fernando; Savage, Daniel D.; Hamilton, Derek A.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol affects the expression and function of glutamatergic neurotransmitter receptors in diverse brain regions. The present study was undertaken to fill a current gap in knowledge regarding the regional specificity of ethanol-related alterations in glutamatergic receptors in the frontal cortex. We quantified subregional expression and function of glutamatergic neurotransmitter receptors (AMPARs, NMDARs, GluN2B-containing NMDARs, mGluR1s, and mGluR5s) by radioligand binding in the agranular insular cortex (AID), lateral orbital area (LO), prelimbic cortex (PrL) and primary motor cortex (M1) of adult rats exposed to moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal development. Increased expression of GluN2B-containing NMDARs was observed in AID of ethanol-exposed rats compared to modest reductions in other regions. We subsequently performed slice electrophysiology measurements in a whole-cell patch-clamp preparation to quantify the sensitivity of evoked NMDAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in layer II/III pyramidal neurons of AID to the GluN2B negative allosteric modulator ifenprodil. Consistent with increased GluN2B expression, ifenprodil caused a greater reduction in NMDAR-mediated EPSCs from prenatal alcohol-exposed rats than saccharin-exposed control animals. No alterations in AMPAR-mediated EPSCs or the ratio of AMPARs/NMDARs were observed. Together, these data indicate that moderate prenatal alcohol exposure has a significant and lasting impact on GluN2B-containing receptors in AID, which could help to explain ethanol-related alterations in learning and behaviors that depend on this region. PMID:25747876

  1. Applications of large-area nanopatterning to energy generation and storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Eric N.

    This dissertation encompasses the creation and testing of nanostructured, electrochemically-active energy generation and storage devices, and development of the associated fabrication techniques. The fabricated devices include nanopatterned, plasmonically-active, TiO2+Au thin films for Photocatalytic Water Splitting (PCW), TiO2-based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) incorporating nanopatterned, plasmonically-active metallic front electrodes, and Si nanopillar anodes for Li-ion batteries. Techniques were also developed for encapsulation and removal of wet-etched Si nanowires from their mother substrates. TiO2 was the first material to be widely used for PCW. Its use is hampered by its large bandgap (~3.2eV), and poor recombination lifetimes. Au nanoparticles (NPs) have been previously used to improve recombination lifetimes in TiO2 by separating photogenerated carriers near the NP edges, and to increase photocurrents by injecting plasmonically-excited hot electrons into the TiO2 conduction band. Using nanostructured TiO 2+Au electrodes, we aim to increase the PCW efficiency of TiO2 -based electrodes. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) employ visible-absorbing dyes anchored to a high-surface-area semiconducting scaffold. The front transparent conducting electrode (TCE) is typically ITO, a scarce and expensive material. We aim to increase the efficiency of thin-film DSSCs and eliminate the use of ITO by using a metallic subwavelength array (MESH) of nanoholes as the front TCE. Silicon holds promise as a high-capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries, as it can store ~10x the Li of graphite, the current leading anode material (3569 vs. 372 mAh/g). However, Si undergoes dramatic (>300%) volume expansion upon "lithiation", pulverizing any structure with non-nanoscopic dimensions (>250nm). We created large-area arrays of "nanopillars" with sub-100nm diameters, using roll-to-roll-compatible flexible-mold NIL on commercially-available metal substrates. Ordered

  2. 19 CFR 7.3 - Duty-free treatment of goods imported from insular possessions of the United States other than...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for informal entry under § 143.21 of this chapter or in any case where the port director is otherwise... goods in a shipment not eligible for informal entry under § 143.21 of this chapter are sought to be... the insular possession in substantially the following form: I, (name) of (organization) do...

  3. Enhancement of Inhibitory Avoidance and Conditioned Taste Aversion Memory with Insular Cortex Infusions of 8-Br-cAMP: Involvement of the Basolateral Amygdala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Maria I.; McGaugh, James L.

    2004-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that in rats, the insular cortex (IC) and amygdala are involved in the learning and memory of aversively motivated tasks. The present experiments examined the effects of 8-Br-cAMP, an analog of cAMP, and oxotremorine, a muscarinic agonist, infused into the IC after inhibitory avoidance (IA) training and during the…

  4. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF MARKARIAN 421: THE MISSING PIECE OF ITS SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Buehler, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P. E-mail: anita.reimer@uibk.ac.at E-mail: justin.finke@nrl.navy.mil

    2011-08-01

    We report on the {gamma}-ray activity of the high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae object Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) during the first 1.5 years of Fermi operation, from 2008 August 5 to 2010 March 12. We find that the Large Area Telescope (LAT) {gamma}-ray spectrum above 0.3 GeV can be well described by a power-law function with photon index {Gamma} = 1.78 {+-} 0.02 and average photon flux F(> 0.3 GeV) = (7.23 {+-} 0.16) x 10{sup -8} ph cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Over this time period, the Fermi-LAT spectrum above 0.3 GeV was evaluated on seven-day-long time intervals, showing significant variations in the photon flux (up to a factor {approx}3 from the minimum to the maximum flux) but mild spectral variations. The variability amplitude at X-ray frequencies measured by RXTE/ASM and Swift/BAT is substantially larger than that in {gamma}-rays measured by Fermi-LAT, and these two energy ranges are not significantly correlated. We also present the first results from the 4.5 month long multifrequency campaign on Mrk 421, which included the VLBA, Swift, RXTE, MAGIC, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments that provided excellent temporal and energy coverage of the source throughout the entire campaign (2009 January 19 to 2009 June 1). During this campaign, Mrk 421 showed a low activity at all wavebands. The extensive multi-instrument (radio to TeV) data set provides an unprecedented, complete look at the quiescent spectral energy distribution (SED) for this source. The broadband SED was reproduced with a leptonic (one-zone synchrotron self-Compton) and a hadronic model (synchrotron proton blazar). Both frameworks are able to describe the average SED reasonably well, implying comparable jet powers but very different characteristics for the blazar emission site.

  5. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of Markarian 421: The Missing Piece of its Spectral Energy Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Cannon, A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Escande, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Finke, J.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fukuyama, T.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Georganopoulos, M.; Germani, S.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kadler, M.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S.-H.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nishino, S.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pavlidou, V.; Pearson, T. J.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Readhead, A.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reyes, L. C.; Richards, J. L.; Ritz, S.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stevenson, M.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Troja, E.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Wehrle, A. E.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Yatsu, Y.; Ylinen, T.; Zensus, J. A.; Ziegler, M.; Fermi LAT Collaboration; Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; de Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; Delgado Mendez, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M.; De Sabata, F.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinovi, N.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Kranich, D.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, E.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, J.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, T.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Struebig, J. C.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L. O.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Chen, W. P.; Jordan, B.; Koptelova, E.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Lähteenmäki, A.; McBreen, B.; Larionov, V. M.; Lin, C. S.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Reinthal, R.; Angelakis, E.; Capalbi, M.; Carramiñana, A.

    2011-08-01

    We report on the γ-ray activity of the high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae object Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) during the first 1.5 years of Fermi operation, from 2008 August 5 to 2010 March 12. We find that the Large Area Telescope (LAT) γ-ray spectrum above 0.3 GeV can be well described by a power-law function with photon index Γ = 1.78 ± 0.02 and average photon flux F(> 0.3 GeV) = (7.23 ± 0.16) × 10-8 ph cm-2 s-1. Over this time period, the Fermi-LAT spectrum above 0.3 GeV was evaluated on seven-day-long time intervals, showing significant variations in the photon flux (up to a factor ~3 from the minimum to the maximum flux) but mild spectral variations. The variability amplitude at X-ray frequencies measured by RXTE/ASM and Swift/BAT is substantially larger than that in γ-rays measured by Fermi-LAT, and these two energy ranges are not significantly correlated. We also present the first results from the 4.5 month long multifrequency campaign on Mrk 421, which included the VLBA, Swift, RXTE, MAGIC, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments that provided excellent temporal and energy coverage of the source throughout the entire campaign (2009 January 19 to 2009 June 1). During this campaign, Mrk 421 showed a low activity at all wavebands. The extensive multi-instrument (radio to TeV) data set provides an unprecedented, complete look at the quiescent spectral energy distribution (SED) for this source. The broadband SED was reproduced with a leptonic (one-zone synchrotron self-Compton) and a hadronic model (synchrotron proton blazar). Both frameworks are able to describe the average SED reasonably well, implying comparable jet powers but very different characteristics for the blazar emission site.

  6. Barren area evapotranspiration estimates generated from energy budget measurements in the Gila River valley of Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leppanen, O.E.

    1980-01-01

    Estimates of evapotranspiration for 479 successive days were created by using energy budget measurements. The measurement point was on the 2-kilometer wide flood plain of the Gila River in east-central Arizona, about 18 kilometers above Coolidge Dam. The flood plain had been cleared of all tall vegetation for distances of about 20 kilometers upstream and 5 kilometers downstream from the measurement site. Chaining, raking, and burning had been used to clear the area immediately surrounding the measurement site about 6 months before measurements began. Ground cover was sparse volunteer Bermudagrass and scattered seepwillow for a distance of at least 1 kilometer in all directions from the measurement point . The water table was deep , so most of the evaporated water came from rainfall, but some came from soil moisture deeper than 2 meters. The March to March water loss (evapotranspiration less rain) was about 47 millimeters, evapotranspiration demand was 377 millimeters. Daily rates varied from very small amounts of condensation to almost 5 millimeters of evapotranspiration. (USGS)

  7. Four-point probe electrical resistivity scanning system for large area conductivity and activation energy mapping.

    PubMed

    Shimanovich, Klimentiy; Bouhadana, Yaniv; Keller, David A; Rühle, Sven; Anderson, Assaf Y; Zaban, Arie

    2014-05-01

    The electrical properties of metal oxides play a crucial role in the development of new photovoltaic (PV) systems. Here we demonstrate a general approach for the determination and analysis of these properties in thin films of new metal oxide based PV materials. A high throughput electrical scanning system, which facilitates temperature dependent measurements at different atmospheres for highly resistive samples, was designed and constructed. The instrument is capable of determining conductivity and activation energy values for relatively large sample areas, of about 72 × 72 mm(2), with the implementation of geometrical correction factors. The efficiency of our scanning system was tested using two different samples of CuO and commercially available Fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates. Our high throughput tool was able to identify the electrical properties of both resistive metal oxide thin film samples with high precision and accuracy. The scanning system enabled us to gain insight into transport mechanisms with novel compositions and to use those insights to make smart choices when choosing materials for our multilayer thin film all oxide photovoltaic cells. PMID:24880411

  8. DOE feasibility report on Lake Calumet area refuse-to-energy facility

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-18

    Site analyses and literature reviews were conducted to determine the feasibility of building an energy-producing municipal waste incinerator at Calumet Lake, Illinois. The amount of burnable waste produced within 5 and 10 miles of the near-Chicago site, the composition and heating value of this solid waste, and the air pollution impacts of waste incineration were determined, and the economic value of recovered material or of steam and electricity produced at the plant are discussed. It is concluded that there is sufficient refuse in the area to support a refuse processing center, that increasng landfill costs make such a center economically attractive, and that the Btu content of the refuse is adequate to produce steam for heat and power use. Replacing existing oil-fired power plants with this facility would result in an 88% reduction in current pollutant emission levels. There is a ready market for steam that could be produced. It is recommended that steps be taken to implement the establishment of the proposed waste processing center. (LCL)

  9. Polarization Maintaining, Very-Large-Mode Area, Er Fiber Amplifier for High Energy Pulses at 1572.3 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholoson, J. W.; DeSantolo, A.; Yan, M. F.; Wisk, P.; Mangan, B.; Puc, G.; Yu, A.; Stephen, M.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the first polarization maintaining, very-large-mode-area Er-doped fiber amplifier with 1000 square micron effective area. The amplifier is core pumped by a Raman fiber laser and is used to generate single frequency one microsecond pulses with pulse energy of 368 microJoules, M2 of 1.1, and polarization extinction greater than 20 dB. The amplifier operates at 1572.3 nm, a wavelength useful for trace atmospheric CO2 detection.

  10. Computation of Atomic Solvent Accessible Surface Areas and Gradients for the Calculation of Solvation Energy and Forces on Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, Michelle; Fennel, Christopher; Coutsias, Evangelos; Dill, Kenneth; Brini, Emiliano

    2014-03-01

    Many models for the calculation of solvation energy and forces on a molecule involve atomic solvent accessible surface areas and their gradients. We present analytical formulas for such areas and gradients which utilize the Delaunay tetrahedrization of a molecule and its subset called the α-complex. These formulas have been implemented in a fast computer program in conjunction with a solvation approach called Semi Explicit Assembly (SEA), and has shown to produce quick and physically accurate results.

  11. Strategic Energy Planning (Area 1) Consultants Reports to Citizen Potawatomi Nation Federally Recognized Indian Tribe

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Marvin; Bose, James; Beier, Richard; Chang, Young Bae

    2004-12-01

    The assets that Citizen Potawatomi Nation holds were evaluated to help define the strengths and weaknesses to be used in pursuing economic prosperity. With this baseline assessment, a Planning Team will create a vision for the tribe to integrate into long-term energy and business strategies. Identification of energy efficiency devices, systems and technologies was made, and an estimation of cost benefits of the more promising ideas is submitted for possible inclusion into the final energy plan. Multiple energy resources and sources were identified and their attributes were assessed to determine the appropriateness of each. Methods of saving energy were evaluated and reported on and potential revenue-generating sources that specifically fit the tribe were identified and reported. A primary goal is to create long-term energy strategies to explore development of tribal utility options and analyze renewable energy and energy efficiency options. Associated goals are to consider exploring energy efficiency and renewable economic development projects involving the following topics: (1) Home-scale projects may include construction of a home with energy efficiency or renewable energy features and retrofitting an existing home to add energy efficiency or renewable energy features. (2) Community-scale projects may include medium to large scale energy efficiency building construction, retrofit project, or installation of community renewable energy systems. (3) Small business development may include the creation of a tribal enterprise that would manufacture and distribute solar and wind powered equipment for ranches and farms or create a contracting business to include energy efficiency and renewable retrofits such as geothermal heat pumps. (4) Commercial-scale energy projects may include at a larger scale, the formation of a tribal utility formed to sell power to the commercial grid, or to transmit and distribute power throughout the tribal community, or hydrogen production

  12. Refined estimation of solar energy potential on roof areas using decision trees on CityGML-data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumanns, K.; Löwner, M.-O.

    2009-04-01

    We present a decision tree for a refined solar energy plant potential estimation on roof areas using the exchange format CityGML. Compared to raster datasets CityGML-data holds geometric and semantic information of buildings and roof areas in more detail. In addition to shadowing effects ownership structures and lifetime of roof areas can be incorporated into the valuation. Since the Renewable Energy Sources Act came into force in Germany in 2000, private house owners and municipals raise attention to the production of green electricity. At this the return on invest depends on the statutory price per Watt, the initial costs of the solar energy plant, its lifetime, and the real production of this installation. The latter depends on the radiation that is obtained from and the size of the solar energy plant. In this context the exposition and slope of the roof area is as important as building parts like chimneys or dormers that might shadow parts of the roof. Knowing the controlling factors a decision tree can be created to support a beneficial deployment of a solar energy plant. Also sufficient data has to be available. Airborne raster datasets can only support a coarse estimation of the solar energy potential of roof areas. While they carry no semantically information, even roof installations are hardly to identify. CityGML as an Open Geospatial Consortium standard is an interoperable exchange data format for virtual 3-dimensional Cities. Based on international standards it holds the aforementioned geometric properties as well as semantically information. In Germany many Cities are on the way to provide CityGML dataset, e. g. Berlin. Here we present a decision tree that incorporates geometrically as well as semantically demands for a refined estimation of the solar energy potential on roof areas. Based on CityGML's attribute lists we consider geometries of roofs and roof installations as well as global radiation which can be derived e. g. from the European Solar

  13. Mineral and Energy Resources of the Roswell Resource Area, East-Central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartsch-Winkler, Susan B.; Donatich, Alessandro J.

    1995-01-01

    The sedimentary formations of the Roswell Resource Area have significant mineral and energy resources. Some of the pre-Pennsylvanian sequences in the Northwestern Shelf of the Permian Basin are oil and gas reservoirs, and Pennsylvanian rocks in Tucumcari Basin are reservoirs of oil and gas as well as source rocks for oil and gas in Triassic rocks. Pre-Permian rocks also contain minor deposits of uranium and vanadium, limestone, and gases. Hydrocarbon reservoirs in Permian rocks include associated gases such as carbon dioxide, helium, and nitrogen. Permian rocks are mineralized adjacent to the Lincoln County porphyry belt, and include deposits of copper, uranium, manganese, iron, polymetallic veins, and Mississippi-Valley-type lead-zinc. Industrial minerals in Permian rocks include fluorite, barite, potash, halite, polyhalite, gypsum, anhydrite, sulfur, limestone, dolomite, brine deposits (iodine and bromine), aggregate (sand), and dimension stone. Doubly terminated quartz crystals, called 'Pecos diamonds' and collected as mineral specimens, occur in Permian rocks along the Pecos River. Mesozoic sedimentary rocks are hosts for copper, uranium, and small quantities of gold-silver-tellurium veins, as well as significant deposits of oil and gas, carbon dioxide, asphalt, coal, and dimension stone. Mesozoic rocks contain limited amounts of limestone, gypsum, petrified wood, and clay. Tertiary rocks host ore deposits commonly associated with intrusive rocks, including platinum-group elements, iron skarns, manganese, uranium and vanadium, molybdenum, polymetallic vein deposits, gold-silver-tellurium veins, and thorium-rare-earth veins. Museum-quality quartz crystals are associated with Tertiary intrusive rocks. Industrial minerals in Tertiary rocks include fluorite, vein- and bedded-barite, caliche, limestone, and aggregate. Tertiary and Quaternary sediments host important placer deposits of gold and titanium, and occurrences of silver and uranium. Important industrial

  14. Roles of the Different Sub-Regions of the Insular Cortex in Various Phases of the Decision-Making Process

    PubMed Central

    Droutman, Vita; Bechara, Antoine; Read, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a coherent account of the role of the insular cortex (IC) in decision-making. We follow a conceptualization of decision-making that is very close to one previously proposed by Ernst and Paulus (2005): that the decision process is a progression of four phases: (1) re-focusing attention; (2) evaluation; (3) action; and (4) outcome processing, and we present evidence for the insula’s role in all these phases. We review the existing work on insula’s functional anatomy that subdivides the IC into posterior, dorsal anterior and ventral anterior regions. We re-map the results provided by the existing literature into these subdivisions wherever possible, to identify the components’ role in each decision making phase. In addition, we identify a self-regulating quality of the IC focused on harm avoidance. PMID:26635559

  15. Energy-Water Integrated Assessment of the Sacramento Area and a Demonstration of WEAP-LEAP Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, L. L.; Millstein, D.; Karali, N.; Vicuna, S.; Purkey, D. R.; Heaps, C.; Sieber, J.; Sohn, M.

    2013-12-01

    We report on the full integration of a new basin-scale analysis capability suitable for forecasting demand and supply of water and energy for residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural sector users in a specific region. We selected the Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) framework and the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) system as models to be linked, because of their wide use for regional planning and their balance between model fidelity, data needs, and analysis capability. This is the first fully linked application of these models to our knowledge. We apply the integrated model to study water-energy problems facing the American River and Sacramento region of California. This area is thought to be uniquely vulnerable to climate variability because of compounded climate effects. For example, in the past this area has seen dry and hot spells that have resulted in dramatic spikes in water and electricity demand precisely when regional power production, hydro and thermal, are the most constrained. Energy and water linkages in the study area include power generation, water treatment, agriculture irrigation, and water pumping to residential, commercial, and industrial sectors. To explore how uncertainty in climate prediction affects planning for water and energy resources we forecast water and energy implications for several alternative meteorological conditions. These conditions are derived from climate scenarios from the 'Downscaled CMIP3 and CMIP5 Climate and Hydrology Projections" archives and are coupled with area-specific data. The stress placed on the water-energy system highlighted by this suite of model runs, will demonstrate how uncertainty in climate forecasts is dampened or exacerbated by human infrastructure systems. Modeling results indicate that water and electricity demands and supplies are particularly vulnerable to linked temperature and precipitation extremes, likely to occur with increasing frequency in future due to

  16. Modeling the water and energy balance of vegetated areas with snow accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to quantify soil–atmosphere water and energy exchange is important in understanding agricultural and natural ecosystems, as well as the earth’s climate. We developed a one-dimensional vertical model that calculates solar radiation, canopy energy balance, surface energy balance, snowpack ...

  17. Simplified Floor-Area-Based Energy-Moisture-Economic Model for Residential Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Luis A.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, 21% of all energy is used in residential buildings (40% of which is for heating and cooling homes). Promising improvements in residential building energy efficiency are underway such as the Building America Program and the Passive House Concept. The ability of improving energy efficiency in buildings is enhanced by building…

  18. Review of Kerma-Area Product and total energy incident on patients in radiography, mammography and CT.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hai; Huda, Walter; Mah, Eugene; He, Wenjun

    2015-02-01

    This study estimated the energy incident on patients in radiography, mammography and CT using data related to X-ray beam quantity and quality. The total X-ray beam quantity is the average Air Kerma multiplied by the X-ray beam area and expressed as the Kerma-Area Product (Gy cm(-2)). The X-ray beam quality primarily depends on the target material (and anode angle), X-ray voltage (and ripple) as well as X-ray beam filtration. For any X-ray spectra, dividing total energy (fluence × mean energy) by the X-ray beam Kerma-Area Product yields the energy per Kerma-Area Product value (ε/KAP). Published data on X-ray spectra characteristics and energy fluence per Air Kerma conversion factors were used to determine ε/KAP factors. In radiography, ε/KAP increased from 6 mJ Gy(-1) cm(-2) at the lowest X-ray tube voltage (50 kV) to 25 mJ Gy(-1) cm(-2) at the highest X-ray tube voltage (140 kV). ε/KAP values ranged between 1 and 5 mJ Gy(-1) cm(-2) in mammography and between 24 and 42 mJ Gy(-1) cm(-2) in CT. Changes in waveform ripple resulted in variations in ε/KAP of up to 15 %, similar to the effect of changes resulting in the choice of anode angle. For monoenergetic X-ray photons, there was a sigmoidal-type increase in ε/KAP from 2 mJ Gy(-1) cm(-2) at 20 keV to 42 mJ Gy(-1) cm(-2) at 80 keV. However, between 80 and 150 keV, the ε/KAP shows variations with changing photon energy of <10 %. Taking the average spectrum energy to consist of monoenergetic X rays generally overestimates the true value of ε/KAP. This study illustrated that the energy incident on a patient in any area of radiological imaging can be estimated from the total X-ray beam intensity (KAP) when X-ray beam quality is taken into account. Energy incident on the patient can be used to estimate the energy absorbed by the patient and the corresponding patient effective dose.

  19. Evaporation from a small prairie wetland in the Cottonwood Lake Area, North Dakota - An energy-budget study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parkhurst, R.S.; Winter, T.C.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Sturrock, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Evaporation from Wetland Pl in the Cottonwood Lake area of North Dakota, USA was determined by the energy-budget method for 1982-85 and 1987. Evaporation rates were as high as 0.672 cm day-1. Incoming solar radiation, incoming atmospheric radiation, and long-wave radiation emitted from the water body are the largest energy fluxes to and from the wetland. Because of the small heat storage of the water body, evaporation rates closely track solar radiation on short time scales. The effect of advected energy related to precipitation is small because the water quickly heats up by solar radiation following precipitation. Advected energy related to ground water is minimal because ground-water fluxes are small and groundwater temperature is only about 7 ??C. Energy flux related to sediment heating and thermal storage in the sediments, which might be expected to be large because the water is clear and shallow, affects evaporation rates by less than 5 percent.

  20. Evaluation of an extreme-condition-inverse calibration remote sensing model for mapping energy balance fluxes in arid riparian areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, S.-H.; Hendrickx, J. M. H.; Kleissl, J.; Allen, R. G.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Scott, R. L.; Steinwand, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate information on the distribution of the surface energy balance components in arid riparian areas is needed for sustainable management of water resources as well as for a better understanding of water and heat exchange processes between the land surface and the atmosphere. Since the spatial and temporal distributions of these fluxes over large areas are difficult to determine from ground measurements alone, their prediction from remote sensing data is very attractive as it enables large area coverage and a high repetition rate. In this study the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) was used to estimate all the energy balance components in the arid riparian areas of the Middle Rio Grande Basin (New Mexico), San Pedro Basin (Arizona), and Owens Valley (California). We compare instantaneous and daily SEBAL fluxes derived from Landsat TM images to surface-based measurements with eddy covariance flux towers. This study presents evidence that SEBAL yields reliable estimates for actual evapotranspiration rates in riparian areas of the southwestern United States. The great strength of the SEBAL method is its internal calibration procedure that eliminates most of the bias in latent heat flux at the expense of increased bias in sensible heat flux.

  1. The energy balance of an urban area: Examining temporal and spatial variability through measurements, remote sensing and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offerle, Brian

    Urban environmental problems related to air quality, thermal stress, issues of water demand and quality, all of which are linked directly or indirectly to urban climate, are emerging as major environmental concerns at the start of the 21st century. Thus there are compelling social, political and economic, and scientific reasons that make the study and understanding of the fundamental causes of urban climates critically important. This research addresses these topics through an intensive study of the surface energy balance of Lodz, Poland. The research examines the temporal variability in long-term measurements of urban surface-atmosphere exchange at a downtown location and the spatial variability of this exchange over distinctly different neighborhoods using shorter-term observations. These observations provide the basis for an evaluation of surface energy balance models. Monthly patterns in energy exchange are consistent from year-to-year with variability determined by net radiation and the timing and amount of precipitation. Spatial variability can be determined from plan area fractions of vegetation and impervious surface, though heat storage exerts a strong control on shorter term variability of energy exchange, within and between locations in an urban area. Anthropogenic heat fluxes provide most of the energy driving surface-atmosphere exchange in winter, From a modeling perspective, sensible heat fluxes can be reliably determined from radiometrically sensed surface temperatures and spatially representative surface-atmosphere exchange in an urban area can be determined from satellite remote sensing products. Models of the urban surface energy balance showed good agreement with mean values of energy exchange and under most conditions represented the temporal variability due to synoptic and shorter time scale forcing well.

  2. Socio-Cultural Factors and Energy Resource Development in Rural Areas in the West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Stan L.

    Drawing upon and synthesizing social and demographic data (1940-70) from 14 counties in the Rocky Mountain West which are currently facing extensive population growth as the result of large scale energy resource development, a preliminary model of potential sociocultural impact was developed. Including national energy needs and traditional…

  3. Opportunities in the Fusion Energy Sciences Program. Appendix C: Topical Areas Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-30

    Recent years have brought dramatic advances in the scientific understanding of fusion plasmas and in the generation of fusion power in the laboratory. Today, there is little doubt that fusion energy production is feasible. The challenge is to make fusion energy practical. As a result of the advances of the last few years, there are now exciting opportunities to optimize fusion systems so that an attractive new energy source will be available when it may be needed in the middle of the next century. The risk of conflicts arising from energy shortages and supply cutoffs, as well as the risk of severe environmental impacts from existing methods of energy production, are among the reasons to pursue these opportunities.

  4. Opportunities in the Fusion Energy Sciences Program [Includes Appendix C: Topical Areas Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    Recent years have brought dramatic advances in the scientific understanding of fusion plasmas and in the generation of fusion power in the laboratory. Today, there is little doubt that fusion energy production is feasible. The challenge is to make fusion energy practical. As a result of the advances of the last few years, there are now exciting opportunities to optimize fusion systems so that an attractive new energy source will be available when it may be needed in the middle of the next century. The risk of conflicts arising from energy shortages and supply cutoffs, as well as the risk of severe environmental impacts from existing methods of energy production, are among the reasons to pursue these opportunities.

  5. URBAN EFFICIENT ENERGY EVALUATION IN HIGH RESOLUTION URBAN AREAS BY USING ADAPTED WRF-UCM AND MICROSYS CFD MODELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Jose, R.; Perez, J. L.; Gonzalez, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    Urban metabolism modeling has advanced substantially during the last years due to the increased detail in mesoscale urban parameterization in meteorological mesoscale models and CFD numerical tools. Recently the implementation of the “urban canopy model” (UCM) into the WRF mesoscale meteorological model has produced a substantial advance on the understanding of the urban atmospheric heat flux exchanges in the urban canopy. The need to optimize the use of heat energy in urban environment has produced a substantial increase in the detailed investigation of the urban heat flux exchanges. In this contribution we will show the performance of using a tool called MICROSYS (MICRO scale CFD modelling SYStem) which is an adaptation of the classical urban canopy model but on a high resolution environment by using a classical CFD approach. The energy balance in the urban system can be determined in a micrometeorologicl sense by considering the energy flows in and out of a control volume. For such a control volume reaching from ground to a certain height above buildings, the energy balance equation includes the net radiation, the anthropogenic heat flux, the turbulent sensible heat flux, the turbulent latent heat flux, the net storage change within the control volume, the net advected flux and other sources and sinks. We have applied the MICROSYS model to an area of 5 km x 5 km with 200 m spatial resolution by using the WRF-UCM (adapted and the MICROSYS CFD model. The anthropogenic heat flux has been estimated by using the Flanner M.G. (2009) database and detailed GIS information (50 m resolution) of Madrid city. The Storage energy has been estimated by calculating the energy balance according to the UCM procedure and implementing it into the MICROSYS tool. Results show that MICROSYS can be used as an energy efficient tool to estimate the energy balance of different urban areas and buildings.

  6. Energy and mass exchange between ocean and atmosphere in the area of winter polynya to the north of Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Boris; Wesman, Anna; Sviashchennikov, Pavel; Pavlov, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    The warm inflow of the West Spitsbergen Current keeps waters ice-free in winter to the north of Svalbard, an area also called the Whalers Bay. Here we present results of the winter expedition in the Arctic Ocean to the north of Svalbard on board a research vessel «Helmer Hanssen» in January 2012. The characteristics of the turbulent energy and mass exchange are calculated using an algorithm, which is based on semi-empirical theory of "Monin-Obukhov", adapted to the conditions of marine meteorological observations. The results are compared with the data obtained in this area in February 1986 on board Russian research icebreaker "Otto Schmidt". The features of energy-mass exchange are explained by synoptic and ice conditions in the study area. Intense heat and mass exchange in the area leads to enhanced convective mixing and, thus, upwelling of nutrients to surface waters that can contribute to higher biological activity in the area throughout the food web.

  7. The energy investment decision in the nonresidential building sector: Research into the areas of influence

    SciTech Connect

    Harkreader, S.A.; Ivey, D.L.

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe and to characterize the decision process in the nonresidential building sector as well as the variables influencing energy investment decisions, both of which impact the development of R and D agendas for the Office of Building and Community Systems (BCS). The report reviews the available information on the factors that influence energy investment decisions and identifies information gaps where additional research is needed. This report focuses on variables and combinations of these variables (descriptive states) that influence the non residential energy investment decision maker. Economic and demographic descriptors, energy investment decision maker characteristics, and variables affecting energy investments are identified. This response examines the physical characteristics of buildings, characteristics of the legal environment surrounding buildings, demographic factors, economic factors, and decision processes, all of which impact the nonresidential energy investment market. The emphasis of the report is on providing possible methodologies for projecting the future of the nonresidential energy investment market, as well as, collecting the data necessary for such projections. The use of alternate scenarios is suggested as a projection tool and suggestions for collecting the appropriate data are made in the recommendations.

  8. Identifying solar energy potentials and intensifying the climate-friendly use of photovoltaics within urban areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, N.

    2016-04-01

    Limited non-renewable fossil energy reserves and the essential ideas of sustainability have caused an increase in the demand for solar energy. The intensified use of renewable energy in Germany is primarily encouraged by the German renewable-energy-law. Solar panels mounted on roofs generate electricity using the energy radiated from the sun by taking advantage of the photovoltaic effect. However, not every roof is usable for power generation through solar energy. Therefore, web-based solar energy registers for multiple regions in Germany have been developed that provide detailed information on roofs suitable for carrying solar panels. The analyses are based on a digital object model derived from airborne laser scanning data of high accuracy and a fully automated technology to classify the points. First, roof points are separated according to their single roof sides and are converted into polygons. Then, exposure, slope, size of the roof, and particularly shading effects are computed to calculate the solar potential of each roof side. The web-GIS provides detailed information about the roof's suitability, such as the installable capacity and the expected generation of electricity. Thus, it helps house owners to calculate their investment and later revenues.

  9. Cooling energy savings potential of light-colored roofs for residential and commercial buildings in 11 US metropolitan areas

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.; Pomerantz, M.; Gabersek, S.; Gartland, L.

    1997-05-01

    Light-colored roofs reflect more sunlight than dark roofs, thus they keep buildings cooler and reduce air-conditioning demand. Typical roofs in the United States are dark, which creates a potential for savings energy and money by changing to reflective roofs. In this report, the authors make quantitative estimates of the impact of roof color by simulating prototypical buildings with light- and dark-colored roofs and calculating savings by taking the differences in annual cooling and heating energy use, and peak electricity demand. Monetary savings are calculated using local utility rates. Savings are estimated for 11 U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in a variety of climates.

  10. Leaf area controls on energy partitioning of a temperate mountain grassland.

    PubMed

    Hammerle, A; Haslwanter, A; Tappeiner, U; Cernusca, A; Wohlfahrt, G

    2008-03-20

    Using a six year data set of eddy covariance flux measurements of sensible and latent heat, soil heat flux, net radiation, above-ground phytomass and meteorological driving forces energy partitioning was investigated at a temperate mountain grassland managed as a hay meadow in the Stubai Valley (Austria). The main findings of the study were: (i) Energy partitioning was dominated by latent heat, followed by sensible heat and the soil heat flux; (ii) When compared to standard environmental forcings, the amount of green plant matter, which due to three cuts varied considerably during the vegetation period, explained similar, and partially larger, fractions of the variability in energy partitioning; (iii) There were little, if any, indications of water stress effects on energy partitioning, despite reductions in soil water availability in combination with high evaporative demand, e.g. during the summer drought of 2003.

  11. A National Assessment of Promising Areas for Switchgrass, Hybrid Poplar, or Willow Energy Crop Production

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Walsh, M.E.

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to systematically assess the cropland acreage that could support energy crops and the expected farm gate and delivered prices of energy crops. The assessment is based on output from two modeling approaches: (1) the Oak Ridge County-Level Energy Crop (ORECCL) database (1996 version) and (2) the Oak Ridge Integrated Bioenergy Analysis System (ORIBAS). The former provides county-level estimates of suitable acres, yields, and farmgate prices of energy crops (switchgrass, hybrid poplar, willow) for all fifty states. The latter estimates delivered feedstock prices and quantities within a state at a fine resolution (1 km2) and considers the interplay between transportation costs, farmgate prices, cropland density, and facility demand. It can be used to look at any type of feedstock given the appropriate input parameters. For the purposes of this assessment, ORIBAS has been used to estimate farmgate and delivered switchgrass prices in 11 states (AL, FL, GA, IA, M N, MO, ND, NE, SC, SD, and TN). Because the potential for energy crop production can be considered from several perspectives, and is evolving as policies, economics and our basic understanding of energy crop yields and production costs change, this assessment should be viewed as a snapshot in time.

  12. Physical factors determining the fraction of stored energy recoverable from hydrothermal convection systems and conduction-dominated areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, Manuel

    1975-01-01

    This report contains background analyses for the estimates of Nathenson and Muffler (1975) of geothermal resources in hydrothermal convection systems and conduction-dominated areas. The first section discusses heat and fluid recharge potential of geothermal reservoirs. The second section analyzes the physical factors that determine the fraction of stored energy obtainable at the surface from a geothermal reservoir. Conversion of heat to electricity and the use of geothermal energy for direct-heating applications are discussed in the last two sections. Nathenson, Manuel, and Muffler, L.J.P., 1975, Geothermal resources in hydrothermal convection systems and conduction dominated areas, in White, D.E., and Williams, D.L., eds., Assessment of the Geothermal Resources of the United States--1975: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 726, p. 104-121, available at http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/cir/cir726

  13. Distortion of time interval reproduction in an epileptic patient with a focal lesion in the right anterior insular/inferior frontal cortices.

    PubMed

    Monfort, Vincent; Pfeuty, Micha; Klein, Madelyne; Collé, Steffie; Brissart, Hélène; Jonas, Jacques; Maillard, Louis

    2014-11-01

    This case report on an epileptic patient suffering from a focal lesion at the junction of the right anterior insular cortex (AIC) and the adjacent inferior frontal cortex (IFC) provides the first evidence that damage to this brain region impairs temporal performance in a visual time reproduction task in which participants had to reproduce the presentation duration (3, 5 and 7s) of emotionally-neutral and -negative pictures. Strikingly, as compared to a group of healthy subjects, the AIC/IFC case considerably overestimated reproduction times despite normal variability. The effect was obtained in all duration and emotion conditions. Such a distortion in time reproduction was not observed in four other epileptic patients without insular or inferior frontal damage. Importantly, the absolute extent of temporal over-reproduction increased in proportion to the magnitude of the target durations, which concurs with the scalar property of interval timing, and points to an impairment of time-specific rather than of non temporal (such as motor) mechanisms. Our data suggest that the disability in temporal reproduction of the AIC/IFC case would result from a distorted memory representation of the encoded duration, occurring during the process of storage and/or of recovery from memory and leading to a deviation of the temporal judgment during the reproduction task. These findings support the recent proposal that the anterior insular/inferior frontal cortices would be involved in time interval representation. PMID:25223467

  14. Involvement of the serotonergic type 1A (5-HT1A) receptor in the agranular insular cortex in the consolidation of memory for inhibitory avoidance in rats.

    PubMed

    Mello e Souza, T; Rodrigues, C; Souza, M M; Vinadé, E; Coitinho, A; Choi, H; Izquierdo, I

    2001-09-01

    Adult male Wistar rats were bilaterally implanted with indwelling cannulae in the agranular insular cortex of the prefrontal cortex. After recovery, animals were trained in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task (3.0-s, 0.4-mA footshock) and received, immediately after training, a 0.5-microl infusion of the serotonergic type 1A (5-HT1A) receptor agonist dipropylamino-8-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) or of the 5- HT1A receptor antagonist 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4-[4-(2-phthalimido)butyl] piperazine hydrobromide (NAN-190), or of vehicle alone (20% DMSO). Retention testing was carried out 24 h after training. 8-OH-DPAT (1.25 and 6.25 microg but not 0.0125 or 0.125 microg) was amnesic. NAN-190 was not effective at 0.125 or 1.25 microg any dose but reversed amnesia when given at 1.250 microg simultaneously with both effective doses of 8-OH-DPAT. These results show that an overactivation of 5-HT1A receptors in the agranular insular cortex impairs memory consolidation of inhibitory avoidance, in rats, immediately after training. This suggests that these receptors of the insular cortex may modulate memory consolidation.

  15. An energy-based model accounting for snow accumulation and snowmelt in a coniferous forest and in an open area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matějka, Ondřej; Jeníček, Michal

    2016-04-01

    An energy balance approach was used to simulate snow water equivalent (SWE) evolution in an open area, forest clearing and coniferous forest during winter seasons 2011/12 and 2012/13 in the Bystřice River basin (Krušné Mountains, Czech Republic). The aim was to describe the impact of vegetation on snow accumulation and snowmelt under different forest canopy structure and trees density. Hemispherical photographs were used to describe the forest canopy structure. Energy balance model of snow accumulation and melt was set up. The snow model was adjusted to account the effects of forest canopy on driving meteorological variables. Leaf area index derived from 32 hemispherical photographs of vegetation and sky was used to implement the forest influence in the snow model. The model was evaluated using snow depth and SWE data measured at 16 localities in winter seasons from 2011 to 2013. The model was able to reproduce the SWE evolution in both winter seasons beneath the forest canopy, forest clearing and open area. The SWE maximum in forest sites was by 18% lower than in open areas and forest clearings. The portion of shortwave radiation on snowmelt rate was by 50% lower in forest areas than in open areas due to shading effect. The importance of turbulent fluxes was by 30% lower in forest sites compared to openings because of wind speed reduction up to 10% of values at corresponding open areas. Indirect estimation of interception rates was derived. Between 14 and 60% of snowfall was intercept and sublimated in the forest canopy in both winter seasons. Based on model results, the underestimation of solid precipitation (heated precipitation gauge used for measurement) at the weather station Hřebečná was revealed. The snowfall was underestimated by 40% in winter season 2011/12 and by 13% in winter season 2012/13. Although, the model formulation appeared sufficient for both analysed winter seasons, canopy effects on the longwave radiation and ground heat flux were not

  16. Atmospheric boundary layer characteristics and land-atmosphere energy transfer in the Third Pole area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y.; Zhu, Z.; Amatya, P. M.; Chen, X.; Hu, Z.; Zhang, L.; Li, M.; Ma, W.

    2015-05-01

    The Tibetan Plateau and nearby surrounding area (the Third Pole area) dramatically impacts the world's environment and especially controls climatic and environmental changes in China, Asia and even in the Northern Hemisphere. Supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and some international organizations, the Third Pole Environment (TPE) Programme is now under way. First, the background of the establishment of the TPE, the establishment and monitoring plans on long-term for the TPE and six comprehensive observation and study stations are introduced. Then the preliminary observational analysis results on atmosphere-land interaction are presented. The study on the regional distribution of land surface heat fluxes is of paramount importance over the heterogeneous landscape of the Third Pole area. A parameterization methodology based on satellite and in situ data is described and tested for deriving the regional surface heat fluxes (net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux) over the heterogeneous landscape. As a case study, the methodology was applied to the whole Tibetan Plateau area. Eight images of MODIS data and four images of AVHRR data were used for the comparison among winter, spring, summer and autumn, and the annual variation analyses. The derived results were also validated by using the ``ground truth'' measured in the stations of the TPE. The results show that the derived surface heat fluxes in the four different seasons over the Tibetan Plateau area are in good agreement with the ground measurements. The results from AVHRR were also in agreement with MODIS. It is therefore concluded that the proposed methodology is successful for the retrieval of surface heat fluxes using the MODIS data, AVHRR data and in situ data over the Tibetan Plateau area.

  17. Social and Economic Effects of Large-Scale Energy Development in Rural Areas: An Assessment Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Steve H.; Leistritz, F. Larry

    General development, structure, and uses of a computerized impact projection model, the North Dakota Regional Environmental Assessment Program (REAP) Economic-Demographic Assessment Model, were studied not only to describe a model developed to meet informational needs of local decision makers (especially in a rural area undergoing development),…

  18. Energy Drinks: Topical Domain in the Emerging Literature and Neglected Areas of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence statistics indicate that consumption of Energy drinks (EDs), often in combination with alcohol, is quite popular in the younger generation and particularly with college students. As literature on this topic is advancing at a rapid pace, it seemed instructive to examine which topics are emphasized in emerging EDs research. To that end, a…

  19. Summary of the mineral- and energy-resource endowment, BLM roswell resource area, east-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Sutphin, D.M.; Ball, M.M.; Korzeb, S.L.; Kness, R.F.; Dutchover, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    In this summary of two comprehensive resource reports produced by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, we discuss the mineral- and energyresource endowment of the 14-millon-acre Roswell Resource Area, New Mexico, managed by the Bureau of Land Management. The Bureau and Survey reports result from separate studies that are compilations of published and unpublished data and integrate new findings on the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral, industrial, and energy commodities, and resources for the seven-county area. The reports have been used by the Bureau of Land Management in preparation of the Roswell Resource Area Resource Management Plan, and will have future use in nationwide mineral- and energy-resource inventories and assessments, as reference and training documents, and as public-information tools. In the Roswell Resource Area, many metals, industrial mineral commodities, and energy resources are being, or have been, produced or prospected. These include metals and high-technology materials, such as copper, gold, silver, thorium, uranium and/or vanadium, rare-earth element minerals, iron, manganese, tungsten, lead, zinc, and molybdenum; industrial mineral resources, including barite, limestone/dolomite, caliche, clay, fluorspar, gypsum, scoria, aggregate, and sand and gravel; and fuels and associated resources, such as oil, gas, tar sand and heavy oil, coal, and gases associated with hydrocarbons. Other commodities that have yet to be identified in economic concentrations include potash, halite, polyhalite, anhydrite, sulfur, feldspar, building stone and decorative rock, brines, various gases associated with oil and gas exploration, and carbon dioxide. ?? 1993 Oxford University Press.

  20. Tidal elevation, current, and energy flux in the area between the South China Sea and Java Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zexun; Fang, Guohong; Dwi Susanto, R.; Rameyo Adi, Tukul; Fan, Bin; Setiawan, Agus; Li, Shujiang; Wang, Yonggang; Gao, Xiumin

    2016-04-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) and the Java Sea (JS) are connected through the Karimata Strait, Gaspar Strait, and the southern Natuna Sea, where the tides are often used as open boundary condition for tidal simulation in the SCS or Indonesian seas. Tides, tidal currents, and tidal energy fluxes of the principle constituents K1, O1, Q1, M2, S2, and N2 at five stations in this area have been analyzed using in situ observational data. The results show that the diurnal tides are the dominant constituents in the entire study area. The constituent K1 has the largest amplitude, exceeding 50 cm, whereas the amplitudes of M2 are smaller than 5 cm at all stations. The amplitudes of S2 may exceed M2 in the Karimata and Gaspar straits. Tidal currents are mostly of rectilinear type in this area. The semi-major axes lengths of the diurnal tidal current ellipses are about 10 cm s-1, and those of the semidiurnal tidal currents are smaller than 5 cm s-1. The diurnal tidal energy flows from the SCS to the JS. The semidiurnal tidal energy flows from the SCS to the JS through the Karimata Strait and the eastern part of the southern Natuna Sea but flows in the opposite direction in the Gaspar Strait and the western part of the southern Natuna Sea. Harmonic analysis of sea level and current observation also suggest that the study area is located in the antinodal band of the diurnal tidal waves, and in the nodal band of the semidiurnal tidal waves. Comparisons show that the existing models are basically consistent with the observational results, but further improvements are necessary.

  1. Lithography-free large-area metamaterials for stable thermophotovoltaic energy conversion

    DOE PAGES

    Coppens, Zachary J.; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Valentine, Jason G.

    2016-02-08

    A large-area metamaterial thermal emitter is fabricated using facile, lithography-free techniques. The device is composed of conductive oxides, refractory ceramics, and noble metals and shows stable, selective emission after exposure to 1173 K for 22 h in oxidizing and inert atmospheres. Lastly, the results indicate that the metamaterial can be used to achieve high-performance thermophotovoltaic devices for applications such as portable power generation.

  2. The Department of Energy Nevada Test Site Remote Area Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, L.D.; Hart, O.F.

    1993-06-09

    The Remote Area Monitoring System was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for DOE test directors at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to verify radiological conditions are safe after a nuclear test. In the unlikely event of a venting as a result of a nuclear test, this system provides radiological and meteorological data to Weather Service Nuclear Support Office (WSNSO) computers where mesoscale models are used to predict downwind exposure rates. The system uses a combination of hardwired radiation sensors and satellite based data acquisition units with their own radiation sensors to measure exposure rates in remote areas of the NTS. The satellite based data acquisition units are available as small, Portable Remote Area Monitors (RAMs) for rapid deployment, and larger, Semipermanent RAMs that can have meteorological towers. The satellite based stations measure exposure rates and transmit measurements to the GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) where they are relayed to Direct Readout Ground Stations (DRGS) at the NTS and Los Alamos. Computers process the data and display results in the NTS Operations Coordination Center. Los Alamos computers and NTS computers are linked together through a wide area network, providing remote redundant system capability. Recently, LANL, expanded the system to take radiological and meteorological measurements in communities in the western United States. The system was also expanded to acquire data from Remote Automatic Weather Stations (RAWS) that transmit through GOES. The addition of Portable and Semipermanent RAMs to the system has vastly expanded monitoring capabilities at NTS and can be used to take measurements anywhere in this hemisphere.

  3. [Effect of taurine on the functional status of the insular apparatus and adrenal cortex of the rat with experimental diabetes].

    PubMed

    Mizina, T Iu; Dokshina, G A

    1987-01-01

    The effect of taurine on the regulation of function of the insular apparatus and adrenal cortex of rats with experimental alloxan diabetes was studied. The assessment of the state of the endocrine glands was based on the determination of the content of immunoreactive insulin, total, free and protein-bound 11-oxycorticosteroids (11-OCS) in the blood of rats and a study of the secretory ability of the adrenals and pancreatic fragments in vitro. A single administration of taurine (300 mg/kg per os) to the rats with experimental alloxan diabetes was accompanied by the reduction of the content of immunoreactive insulin, total and free 11-OCS in the blood, a secretory ability of the adrenal cortex and insulin excretory function of the pancreas. The ability of the pancreatic islet tissue to produce insulin in vitro in response to the natural stimulator glucose was disturbed in the rats with experimental diabetes. Taurine (12 mumol/ml) added to the incubation medium containing isolated adrenals and fragments of the pancreas from the diabetic animals, caused a decrease in a high secretory ability of the cortical substance of the adrenal glands and a partial reduction of the insulin secretory ability of the pancreatic tissue.

  4. Plasticity-Related PKMζ Signaling in the Insular Cortex Is Involved in the Modulation of Neuropathic Pain after Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jeongsoo; Kwon, Minjee; Cha, Myeounghoon; Tanioka, Motomasa; Hong, Seong-Karp; Bai, Sun Joon; Lee, Bae Hwan

    2015-01-01

    The insular cortex (IC) is associated with important functions linked with pain and emotions. According to recent reports, neural plasticity in the brain including the IC can be induced by nerve injury and may contribute to chronic pain. Continuous active kinase, protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ), has been known to maintain the long-term potentiation. This study was conducted to determine the role of PKMζ in the IC, which may be involved in the modulation of neuropathic pain. Mechanical allodynia test and immunohistochemistry (IHC) of zif268, an activity-dependent transcription factor required for neuronal plasticity, were performed after nerve injury. After ζ-pseudosubstrate inhibitory peptide (ZIP, a selective inhibitor of PKMζ) injection, mechanical allodynia test and immunoblotting of PKMζ, phospho-PKMζ (p-PKMζ), and GluR1 and GluR2 were observed. IHC demonstrated that zif268 expression significantly increased in the IC after nerve injury. Mechanical allodynia was significantly decreased by ZIP microinjection into the IC. The analgesic effect lasted for 12 hours. Moreover, the levels of GluR1, GluR2, and p-PKMζ were decreased after ZIP microinjection. These results suggest that peripheral nerve injury induces neural plasticity related to PKMζ and that ZIP has potential applications for relieving chronic pain. PMID:26457205

  5. Histaminergic modulation of cholinergic release from the nucleus basalis magnocellularis into insular cortex during taste aversive memory formation.

    PubMed

    Purón-Sierra, Liliana; Miranda, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The ability of acetylcholine (ACh) to alter specific functional properties of the cortex endows the cholinergic system with an important modulatory role in memory formation. For example, an increase in ACh release occurs during novel stimulus processing, indicating that ACh activity is critical during early stages of memory processing. During novel taste presentation, there is an increase in ACh release in the insular cortex (IC), a major structure for taste memory recognition. There is extensive evidence implicating the cholinergic efferents of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) in cortical activity changes during learning processes, and new evidence suggests that the histaminergic system may interact with the cholinergic system in important ways. However, there is little information as to whether changes in cholinergic activity in the IC are modulated during taste memory formation. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the influence of two histamine receptor subtypes, H1 in the NBM and H3 in the IC, on ACh release in the IC during conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Injection of the H3 receptor agonist R-α-methylhistamine (RAMH) into the IC or of the H1 receptor antagonist pyrilamine into the NBM during CTA training impaired subsequent CTA memory, and simultaneously resulted in a reduction of ACh release in the IC. This study demonstrated that basal and cortical cholinergic pathways are finely tuned by histaminergic activity during CTA, since dual actions of histamine receptor subtypes on ACh modulation release each have a significant impact during taste memory formation.

  6. Endocannabinoid regulation of nausea is mediated by 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the rat visceral insular cortex.

    PubMed

    Sticht, Martin A; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Rafla, Benjamin R; Abdullah, Rehab A; Poklis, Justin L; Ho, Winnie; Niphakis, Micah J; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Sharkey, Keith A; Lichtman, Aron H; Parker, Linda A

    2016-03-01

    Cannabinoid (CB) agonists suppress nausea in humans and animal models; yet, their underlying neural substrates remain largely unknown. Evidence suggests that the visceral insular cortex (VIC) plays a critical role in nausea. Given the expression of CB1 receptors and the presence of endocannabinoids in this brain region, we hypothesized that the VIC endocannabinoid system regulates nausea. In the present study, we assessed whether inhibiting the primary endocannabinoid hydrolytic enzymes in the VIC reduces acute lithium chloride (LiCl)-induced conditioned gaping, a rat model of nausea. We also quantified endocannabinoid levels during an episode of nausea, and assessed VIC neuronal activation using the marker, c-Fos. Local inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the main hydrolytic enzyme of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), reduced acute nausea through a CB1 receptor mechanism, whereas inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the primary catabolic enzyme of anandamide (AEA), was without effect. Levels of 2-AG were also selectively elevated in the VIC during an episode of nausea. Inhibition of MAGL robustly increased 2-AG in the VIC, while FAAH inhibition had no effect on AEA. Finally, we demonstrated that inhibition of MAGL reduced VIC Fos immunoreactivity in response to LiCl treatment. Taken together, these findings provide compelling evidence that acute nausea selectively increases 2-AG in the VIC, and suggests that 2-AG signaling within the VIC regulates nausea by reducing neuronal activity in this forebrain region.

  7. Reproducibility of Neurochemical Profile Quantification in Pregenual Cingulate, Anterior Midcingulate, and Bilateral Posterior Insular Subdivisions Measured at 3 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    de Matos, Nuno M. P.; Meier, Lukas; Wyss, Michael; Meier, Dieter; Gutzeit, Andreas; Ettlin, Dominik A.; Brügger, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The current report assessed measurement reproducibility of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 Tesla in the left and right posterior insular, pregenual anterior cingulate, and anterior midcingulate cortices. Ten healthy male volunteers aged 21–30 years were tested at four different days, of which nine were included in the data analysis. Intra- and inter-subject variability of myo-inositol, creatine, glutamate, total-choline, total-N-acetylaspartate, and combined glutamine–glutamate were calculated considering the influence of movement parameters, age, daytime of measurements, and tissue composition. Overall mean intra-/inter-subject variability for all neurochemicals combined revealed small mean coefficients of variation across the four regions: 5.3/9.05% in anterior midcingulate, 6.6/8.84% in pregenual anterior cingulate, 7.3/10.00% in left posterior and 8.2/10.55% in right posterior insula. Head movement, tissue composition and day time revealed no significant explanatory variance contribution suggesting a negligible influence on the data. A strong correlation between Cramer–Rao Lower Bounds (a measure of fitting errors) and the mean intra-subject coefficients of variation (r = 0.799, p < 0.001) outlined the importance of low fitting errors in order to obtain robust and finally meaningful measurements. The present findings confirm proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a reliable tool to measure brain neurochemistry in small subregions of the human brain. PMID:27445745

  8. Reproducibility of Neurochemical Profile Quantification in Pregenual Cingulate, Anterior Midcingulate, and Bilateral Posterior Insular Subdivisions Measured at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    de Matos, Nuno M P; Meier, Lukas; Wyss, Michael; Meier, Dieter; Gutzeit, Andreas; Ettlin, Dominik A; Brügger, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The current report assessed measurement reproducibility of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 Tesla in the left and right posterior insular, pregenual anterior cingulate, and anterior midcingulate cortices. Ten healthy male volunteers aged 21-30 years were tested at four different days, of which nine were included in the data analysis. Intra- and inter-subject variability of myo-inositol, creatine, glutamate, total-choline, total-N-acetylaspartate, and combined glutamine-glutamate were calculated considering the influence of movement parameters, age, daytime of measurements, and tissue composition. Overall mean intra-/inter-subject variability for all neurochemicals combined revealed small mean coefficients of variation across the four regions: 5.3/9.05% in anterior midcingulate, 6.6/8.84% in pregenual anterior cingulate, 7.3/10.00% in left posterior and 8.2/10.55% in right posterior insula. Head movement, tissue composition and day time revealed no significant explanatory variance contribution suggesting a negligible influence on the data. A strong correlation between Cramer-Rao Lower Bounds (a measure of fitting errors) and the mean intra-subject coefficients of variation (r = 0.799, p < 0.001) outlined the importance of low fitting errors in order to obtain robust and finally meaningful measurements. The present findings confirm proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a reliable tool to measure brain neurochemistry in small subregions of the human brain. PMID:27445745

  9. Nocifensive behavior-related laser heat-evoked component in the rostral agranular insular cortex revealed using morphine analgesia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Yi; Liu, Chan-Ying; Tsai, Meng-Li; Yen, Chen-Tung

    2016-02-01

    The rostral agranular insular cortex (RAIC), an opioid-responsive site, is essential for modulating nociception in rats. Our previous studies have shown that morphine suppressed long latency laser heat-evoked nociceptive responses in the primary somatosensory cortex (SmI). By contrast, morphine significantly attenuated both short and long latency responses in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). The present study assessed the effect of morphine on laser heat-evoked responses in the RAIC. Laser heat irradiation applied to the rat forepaws at graded levels was used as a specific noxious stimulus. In the RAIC, the first part of the long latency component (140-250ms) of the laser heat-evoked response was enhanced by intraperitoneal morphine (5mg/kg). When the laser heat-evoked cortical responses were examined for trials showing strong nocifensive movement (paw licking), moderate nocifensive movement (paw lifting), and no nocifensive movement, a 140-250ms period enhancement was observed in the RAIC only for the paw lifting movement. This enhancement was absent in the SmI. Thus, our data suggest that the RAIC has a pain-related behavior-dependent neuronal component. Furthermore, the RAIC, ACC, and SmI are differentially modulated by morphine analgesia.

  10. Histaminergic Modulation of Cholinergic Release from the Nucleus Basalis Magnocellularis into Insular Cortex during Taste Aversive Memory Formation

    PubMed Central

    Purón-Sierra, Liliana; Miranda, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The ability of acetylcholine (ACh) to alter specific functional properties of the cortex endows the cholinergic system with an important modulatory role in memory formation. For example, an increase in ACh release occurs during novel stimulus processing, indicating that ACh activity is critical during early stages of memory processing. During novel taste presentation, there is an increase in ACh release in the insular cortex (IC), a major structure for taste memory recognition. There is extensive evidence implicating the cholinergic efferents of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) in cortical activity changes during learning processes, and new evidence suggests that the histaminergic system may interact with the cholinergic system in important ways. However, there is little information as to whether changes in cholinergic activity in the IC are modulated during taste memory formation. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the influence of two histamine receptor subtypes, H1 in the NBM and H3 in the IC, on ACh release in the IC during conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Injection of the H3 receptor agonist R-α-methylhistamine (RAMH) into the IC or of the H1 receptor antagonist pyrilamine into the NBM during CTA training impaired subsequent CTA memory, and simultaneously resulted in a reduction of ACh release in the IC. This study demonstrated that basal and cortical cholinergic pathways are finely tuned by histaminergic activity during CTA, since dual actions of histamine receptor subtypes on ACh modulation release each have a significant impact during taste memory formation. PMID:24625748

  11. A low-rank matrix recovery approach for energy efficient EEG acquisition for a wireless body area network.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Angshul; Gogna, Anupriya; Ward, Rabab

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of acquiring and transmitting EEG signals in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) in an energy efficient fashion. In WBANs, the energy is consumed by three operations: sensing (sampling), processing and transmission. Previous studies only addressed the problem of reducing the transmission energy. For the first time, in this work, we propose a technique to reduce sensing and processing energy as well: this is achieved by randomly under-sampling the EEG signal. We depart from previous Compressed Sensing based approaches and formulate signal recovery (from under-sampled measurements) as a matrix completion problem. A new algorithm to solve the matrix completion problem is derived here. We test our proposed method and find that the reconstruction accuracy of our method is significantly better than state-of-the-art techniques; and we achieve this while saving sensing, processing and transmission energy. Simple power analysis shows that our proposed methodology consumes considerably less power compared to previous CS based techniques. PMID:25157551

  12. A Low-Rank Matrix Recovery Approach for Energy Efficient EEG Acquisition for a Wireless Body Area Network

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Angshul; Gogna, Anupriya; Ward, Rabab

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of acquiring and transmitting EEG signals in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) in an energy efficient fashion. In WBANs, the energy is consumed by three operations: sensing (sampling), processing and transmission. Previous studies only addressed the problem of reducing the transmission energy. For the first time, in this work, we propose a technique to reduce sensing and processing energy as well: this is achieved by randomly under-sampling the EEG signal. We depart from previous Compressed Sensing based approaches and formulate signal recovery (from under-sampled measurements) as a matrix completion problem. A new algorithm to solve the matrix completion problem is derived here. We test our proposed method and find that the reconstruction accuracy of our method is significantly better than state-of-the-art techniques; and we achieve this while saving sensing, processing and transmission energy. Simple power analysis shows that our proposed methodology consumes considerably less power compared to previous CS based techniques. PMID:25157551

  13. Non-Economic Determinants of Energy Use in Rural Areas of South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Annecke, W.

    1999-03-29

    This project will begin to determine the forces and dimensions in rural energy-use patterns and begin to address policy and implementation needs for the future. This entails: Forecasting the social and economic benefits that electrification is assumed to deliver regarding education and women's lives; Assessing negative perceptions of users, which have been established through the slow uptake of electricity; Making recommendations as to how these perceptions could be addressed in policy development and in the continuing electrification program; Making recommendations to policy makers on how to support and make optimal use of current energy-use practices where these are socio-economically sound; Identifying misinformation and wasteful practices; and Other recommendations, which will significantly improve the success of the rural electrification program in a socio-economically sound manner, as identified in the course of the work.

  14. SBIR Phase II Final Report - Multi-Protocol Energy Management Gateway for Home-Area Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, Jason

    2015-02-06

    Significant amounts of electricity, natural gas, and heating oil are wasted by homeowners due to inefficient operation and inadequate maintenance of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment. Coincident’s work under this award reduces energy waste, saves consumers money, and reduces carbon emissions. It does so in three ways: First, Coincident’s approach replaces the traditional thermostat with a wireless network of sensors and controllers that measure temperature, humidity and occupancy in multiple rooms in the house. The “Internet of Things” is a technology trend holding the promise of ubiquitous inexpensive sensors. The reality, however, is that energy and HVAC monitoring and management is a patchwork of incompatible protocols and expensive proprietary technologies. Coincident’s multi-protocol architecture, developed in part under this award tackles this problem and brings low cost interoperable sensor and control devices to market. Second, the Coincident system eliminates hard-to-program and rigid thermostat schedules and instead provides automatic operation of heating and cooling by combining individual temperature and comfort preferences with energy-saving targets, real-time utility use information, weather data, and room utilization patterns. Energy efficiency technology must be appealing to consumers otherwise it will not be used. The Coincident user interface has engaging features such as remote control from any smart phone or web browser and per-room performance breakdowns. Expected energy savings resulting from more efficient operation of heating and air conditioning equipment are in the range of 10-20%. Third, the Coincident system provides heating and air-conditioning contractors with fine-grained performance data for every residence they support (subject to customer privacy controls). This data is integrated from diverse networks within the residence and includes HVAC performance and fuel use data. This information allows

  15. Bio-nanotextured high aspect ratio micropillar arrays for high surface area energy storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, S.; Gerasopoulos, K.; Ghodssi, R.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents fabrication and characterization of bio-nanotextured hierarchical nickel oxide (NiO) supercapacitor electrodes. The hierarchical electrode structure is created through self-assembly of Tobacco mosaic viruses (TMVs) on high aspect-ratio micropillar arrays. Enhanced assembly of the bio-nanoparticles was achieved by increasing TMV solution accessibility into the deep microcavities of the pillar arrays. Electrochemical characterization of the hierarchical NiO supercapacitor electrodes revealed a 25-fold increase in charge capacity compared to a planar NiO, and demonstrated excellent cycle stability over 1500 charge/discharge cycles at 2 mA/cm2. This study leverages the unique bio-nanoscaffolds for small scale energy storage devices through further optimization of the hierarchical structures and wetting techniques for significant improvements in micro/nano scale energy storage devices.

  16. Cooling energy savings potential of light-colored roofs for residential and commercial buildings in 11 US metropolitan areas

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.; Gartland, L.

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored this project to estimate potential energy and monetary savings resulting from the implementation of light-colored roofs on residential and commercial buildings in major U.S. metropolitan areas. Light-colored roofs reflect more sunlight than dark roofs, so they keep buildings cooler and reduce air-conditioning demand. Typically, rooftops in the United States are dark, and thus there is a potential for saving energy and money by changing to reflective roofs. Naturally, the expected savings are higher in southern, sunny, and cloudless climates. In this study, we make quantitative estimates of reduction in peak power demand and annual cooling electricity use that would result from increasing the reflectivity of the roofs. Since light-colored roofs also reflect heat in the winter, the estimates of annual electricity savings are a net value corrected for the increased wintertime energy use. Savings estimates only include direct reduction in building energy use and do not account for the indirect benefit that would also occur from the reduction in ambient temperature, i.e. a reduction in the heat island effect. This analysis is based on simulations of building energy use, using the DOE-2 building energy simulation program. Our methodology starts with specifying 11 prototypical buildings: single-family residential (old and new), office (old and new), retail store (old and new), school (primary and secondary), health (hospital and nursing home), and grocery store. Most prototypes are simulated with two heating systems: gas furnace and heat pumps. We then perform DOE-2 simulations of the prototypical buildings, with light and dark roofs, in a variety of climates and obtain estimates of the energy use for air conditioning and heating.

  17. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart B of... - Grant Agreement-Growth Management and Housing Planning for Approved Designated Energy Impacted Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... plan for assistance to approved designated area(s) impacted by increased coal or uranium production... Grantor to determine the need for and complete any necessary Environmental Impact Statements. 5. To... Planning for Approved Designated Energy Impacted Areas A Exhibit A to Subpart B of Part 1948...

  18. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart B of... - Grant Agreement-Growth Management and Housing Planning for Approved Designated Energy Impacted Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... plan for assistance to approved designated area(s) impacted by increased coal or uranium production... Grantor to determine the need for and complete any necessary Environmental Impact Statements. 5. To... Planning for Approved Designated Energy Impacted Areas A Exhibit A to Subpart B of Part 1948...

  19. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart B of... - Grant Agreement-Growth Management and Housing Planning for Approved Designated Energy Impacted Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... plan for assistance to approved designated area(s) impacted by increased coal or uranium production... Grantor to determine the need for and complete any necessary Environmental Impact Statements. 5. To... for Approved Designated Energy Impacted Areas A Exhibit A to Subpart B of Part 1948...

  20. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart B of... - Grant Agreement-Growth Management and Housing Planning for Approved Designated Energy Impacted Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... plan for assistance to approved designated area(s) impacted by increased coal or uranium production... Grantor to determine the need for and complete any necessary Environmental Impact Statements. 5. To... for Approved Designated Energy Impacted Areas A Exhibit A to Subpart B of Part 1948...

  1. Differential effects of hunger and satiety on insular cortex and hypothalamic functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Wright, Hazel; Li, Xiaoyun; Fallon, Nicholas B; Crookall, Rebecca; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Halford, Jason C G; Harrold, Joanne; Stancak, Andrej

    2016-05-01

    The insula cortex and hypothalamus are implicated in eating behaviour, and contain receptor sites for peptides and hormones controlling energy balance. The insula encompasses multi-functional subregions, which display differential anatomical and functional connectivities with the rest of the brain. This study aimed to analyse the effect of fasting and satiation on the functional connectivity profiles of left and right anterior, middle, and posterior insula, and left and right hypothalamus. It was hypothesized that the profiles would be altered alongside changes in homeostatic energy balance. Nineteen healthy participants underwent two 7-min resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans, one when fasted and one when satiated. Functional connectivity between the left posterior insula and cerebellum/superior frontal gyrus, and between left hypothalamus and inferior frontal gyrus was stronger during fasting. Functional connectivity between the right middle insula and default mode structures (left and right posterior parietal cortex, cingulate cortex), and between right hypothalamus and superior parietal cortex was stronger during satiation. Differences in blood glucose levels between the scans accounted for several of the altered functional connectivities. The insula and hypothalamus appear to form a homeostatic energy balance network related to cognitive control of eating; prompting eating and preventing overeating when energy is depleted, and ending feeding or transferring attention away from food upon satiation. This study provides evidence of a lateralized dissociation of neural responses to energy modulations. PMID:26790868

  2. Differential effects of hunger and satiety on insular cortex and hypothalamic functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Wright, Hazel; Li, Xiaoyun; Fallon, Nicholas B; Crookall, Rebecca; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Halford, Jason C G; Harrold, Joanne; Stancak, Andrej

    2016-05-01

    The insula cortex and hypothalamus are implicated in eating behaviour, and contain receptor sites for peptides and hormones controlling energy balance. The insula encompasses multi-functional subregions, which display differential anatomical and functional connectivities with the rest of the brain. This study aimed to analyse the effect of fasting and satiation on the functional connectivity profiles of left and right anterior, middle, and posterior insula, and left and right hypothalamus. It was hypothesized that the profiles would be altered alongside changes in homeostatic energy balance. Nineteen healthy participants underwent two 7-min resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans, one when fasted and one when satiated. Functional connectivity between the left posterior insula and cerebellum/superior frontal gyrus, and between left hypothalamus and inferior frontal gyrus was stronger during fasting. Functional connectivity between the right middle insula and default mode structures (left and right posterior parietal cortex, cingulate cortex), and between right hypothalamus and superior parietal cortex was stronger during satiation. Differences in blood glucose levels between the scans accounted for several of the altered functional connectivities. The insula and hypothalamus appear to form a homeostatic energy balance network related to cognitive control of eating; prompting eating and preventing overeating when energy is depleted, and ending feeding or transferring attention away from food upon satiation. This study provides evidence of a lateralized dissociation of neural responses to energy modulations.

  3. Neurotensin in the lateral hypothalamic area: origin and function.

    PubMed

    Allen, G V; Cechetto, D F

    1995-11-01

    The origin of neurotensin in the lateral hypothalamus was investigated by means of fluorescent retrograde tract tracing and neurotensin-like immunoreactivity. Following fluorescent retrograde tract tracing with FluoroGold combined with neurotensin immunohistochemistry in the rat brain, numerous neurotensin-immunoreactive neurons with projections to the posterior lateral hypothalamic area were identified in the central nucleus of the amygdala, perifornical area and the parabrachial nucleus. Fewer numbers of neurotensin-positive neurons with projections to the lateral hypothalamic area were observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, lateral septal nucleus, medial preoptic area, peri- and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, anterior lateral hypothalamic area and dorsal raphe nucleus. In addition, the role of neurotensin in the modulation of autonomic regulatory input from the insula was investigated. The lateral hypothalamic area was surveyed for single units responding to electrical stimulation (500-900 microA, 0.5 Hz) of sites in the insular cortex from which cardiovascular pressor or depressor responses could be elicited. These units were tested for the influence of neurotensin on responses to stimulation of the insular cortex. Of 60 spontaneously firing neurons, 27 units responded to electrical stimulation of cardiovascular sites in the insula. Of the units responding to stimulation of cardiovascular sites in the insula, 14 units showed excitation only, 10 units showed excitation followed by inhibition and three units showed inhibition. Iontophoresis of 0.1-1.0 mM neurotensin (25-100 nA, pH 5.0-6.0) potentiated six of the excitatory responses and showed no effect on the inhibitory responses. In addition, nine neurons showed an increase in spontaneous activity with iontophoresis of neurotensin. Of these neurons, three were excited by insular stimulation and six did not respond. These findings indicate the likely origin of neurotensin in the

  4. Benefits from flywheel energy storage for area regulation in California - demonstration results : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program.

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, James M.

    2009-10-01

    This report documents a high-level analysis of the benefit and cost for flywheel energy storage used to provide area regulation for the electricity supply and transmission system in California. Area regulation is an 'ancillary service' needed for a reliable and stable regional electricity grid. The analysis was based on results from a demonstration, in California, of flywheel energy storage developed by Beacon Power Corporation (the system's manufacturer). Demonstrated was flywheel storage systems ability to provide 'rapid-response' regulation. Flywheel storage output can be varied much more rapidly than the output from conventional regulation sources, making flywheels more attractive than conventional regulation resources. The performance of the flywheel storage system demonstrated was generally consistent with requirements for a possible new class of regulation resources - 'rapid-response' energy-storage-based regulation - in California. In short, it was demonstrated that Beacon Power Corporation's flywheel system follows a rapidly changing control signal (the ACE, which changes every four seconds). Based on the results and on expected plant cost and performance, the Beacon Power flywheel storage system has a good chance of being a financially viable regulation resource. Results indicate a benefit/cost ratio of 1.5 to 1.8 using what may be somewhat conservative assumptions. A benefit/cost ratio of one indicates that, based on the financial assumptions used, the investment's financial returns just meet the investors target.

  5. An overall index of environmental quality in coal mining areas and energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Vatalis, K.I.; Kaliampakos, D.C.

    2006-12-15

    An approach to measuring environmental quality and trends in coal mining and industrial areas was attempted in this work. For this purpose, the establishment of a reference scale characterizing the status of environmental quality is proposed by developing an Environmental Quality Index (EQI). The methodology involves three main components: social research, the opinion of environmental experts, and the combination of new or existing indices. A survey of public opinion was carried out to identify the main environmental problems in the region of interest. Environmental experts carried out a survey, and the weights of specific environmental problems were obtained through a fuzzy Delphi method and pairwise comparison. The weight attributed to each environmental problem was computed, using new or existing indices (subindices) in the relevant literature. The EQI comprises a combination of the subindices with their own weights. The methodology was applied to a heavily industrialized coal basin in northwestern Macedonia, Greece. The results show that the new index may be used as a reliable tool for evaluating environmental quality in different areas. In addition, the study of EQI trends on an interannual basis can provide useful information on the efficiency of environmental policies already implemented by the responsible authorities.

  6. Processing of Hedonic and Chemosensory Features of Taste in Medial Prefrontal and Insular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jezzini, Ahmad; Mazzucato, Luca; La Camera, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    Most of the research on cortical processing of taste has focused on either the primary gustatory cortex (GC) or the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). However, these are not the only areas involved in taste processing. Gustatory information can also reach another frontal region, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), via direct projections from GC. mPFC has been studied extensively in relation to its role in controlling goal-directed action and reward-guided behaviors, yet very little is known about its involvement in taste coding. The experiments presented here address this important point and test whether neurons in mPFC can significantly process the physiochemical and hedonic dimensions of taste. Spiking responses to intraorally delivered tastants were recorded from rats implanted with bundles of electrodes in mPFC and GC. Analysis of single-neuron and ensemble activity revealed similarities and differences between the two areas. Neurons in mPFC can encode the chemosensory identity of gustatory stimuli. However, responses in mPFC are sparser, more narrowly tuned, and have a later onset than in GC. Although taste quality is more robustly represented in GC, taste palatability is coded equally well in the two areas. Additional analysis of responses in neurons processing the hedonic value of taste revealed differences between the two areas in temporal dynamics and sensitivities to palatability. These results add mPFC to the network of areas involved in processing gustatory stimuli and demonstrate significant differences in taste-coding between GC and mPFC. PMID:24285901

  7. Effectiveness of a San Francisco Bay area community education program on reducing home energy use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Ellen M.

    In order to promote the adoption of home energy reduction practices and mitigate the climate impact of the collective greenhouse gas emissions generated by consumers, it is critical to identify an effective educational approach. A community-based educational intervention model that employs norms, information, commitment, feedback, and face-to-face communication strategies was examined for its ability to motivate changes in everyday energy-use behavior in two communities compared to a control group. A follow up study was also conducted to evaluate whether behaviors adopted as a result of the intervention were long lasting, and whether the community-focused features of the intervention were motivating to participants. Results showed that a greater number of individuals participated in the intervention over its five-month duration, reported significantly higher numbers of adopted behaviors, and maintained more adopted behaviors post-intervention than did people in the control group. In addition, intervention participants reported that some of the community-based features of the intervention motivated their behavior changes. These findings lend support to a number of social and community psychology theories about how to design effective interventions by leveraging social awareness and support.

  8. Search for High-energy Gamma-ray Emission from Tidal Disruption Events with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Fang-Kun; Tang, Qing-Wen; Wang, Xiang-Yu

    2016-07-01

    Massive black holes at galaxy center may tear apart a star when the star passes occasionally within the disruption radius, which is the so-called tidal disruption event (TDE). Most TDEs radiate with thermal emission resulting from the acceleration disk, but three TDEs have been detected in bright nonthermal X-ray emission, which is interpreted as arising from the relativistic jets. A search for high-energy gamma-ray emission from one relativistic TDE (Swift J164449.3+573451) with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has yielded nondetection. In this paper, we report the search for high-energy emission from the other two relativistic TDEs (Swift J2058.4+0516 and Swift J1112.2-8238) during the flare period. No significant GeV emission is found, with an upper limit fluence in the LAT energy range being less than 1% of that in X-rays. Compared with gamma-ray bursts and blazars, these TDEs have the lowest flux ratio between GeV emission and X-ray emission. The nondetection of high-energy emission from relativistic TDEs could be due to the fact that the high-energy emission is absorbed by soft photons in the source. Based on this hypothesis, upper limits on the bulk Lorentz factors, {{Γ }}≲ 30, are then obtained for the jets in these TDEs. We also search for high-energy gamma-ray emission from the nearest TDE discovered to date, ASASSN-14li. No significant GeV emission is found, and an upper limit of L(0.1{--}10 {GeV})≤slant 4.4× {10}42 erg s‑1 (at 95% confidence level) is obtained for the first 107 s after the disruption.

  9. U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office quality assurance program document. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    Mission of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) is to protect human health and the environment by opening and operating the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for safe disposal of TRU waste, and establishing an effective system for management of TRU waste from generation to disposal. To help in fulfilling this mission and to ensure that risks and environmental impacts are identified and minimized, and that safety, reliability, and performance are optimized, CAO`s policy is to establish and maintain an effective quality assurance (QA) program that supports compliance with applicable Federal, State, and local regulations, and DOE orders and requirements. This document establishes QA program requirements for all programs, projects, and activities sponsored by CAO.

  10. Hydration sequence of swelling clays: evolutions of specific surface area and hydration energy.

    PubMed

    Salles, Fabrice; Douillard, Jean-Marc; Denoyel, Renaud; Bildstein, Olivier; Jullien, Michel; Beurroies, Isabelle; Van Damme, Henri

    2009-05-15

    In order to identify the key steps and the driving force for the hydration process of swelling clays, the water adsorption isotherms and enthalpies were measured on monoionic montmorillonite samples saturated with alkali or calcium ions, and on bi-ionic samples saturated with a sodium-calcium mixture. The specific surface area evolution along the hydration process was determined using a recent interpretation of the experimental adsorption isotherms of swelling solids. Results are interpreted in structural terms. Compared with additional data from sample-controlled thermal analysis (SCTA), the results confirm experimentally that the hydration of Li- and Na-montmorillonite is mainly a cation-controlled process, in contrast with the hydration of Cs samples in which the cation contribution to hydration is negligible, as we have already demonstrated using electrostatic calculations or conductivity measurements. PMID:19303602

  11. Omnivory of an Insular Lizard: Sources of Variation in the Diet of Podarcis lilfordi (Squamata, Lacertidae).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cembranos, Ana; León, Alicia; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín

    2016-01-01

    Through 17 years and from a sample of 7,790 faecal pellets and 26,346 prey items, we studied the diet of the Balearic lizard Podarcis lilfordi in Aire Island (Menorca, Balearic Islands, Spain). We analysed the diet in terms of prey frequencies, as well as by their volume and biomass contributions. The diet of the Balearic lizard was extremely variable through the years, months and areas under study. The dominance of small clumped prey, particularly ants, was confirmed. However, the main contribution by volume corresponded to beetles, with a relevant role for Diplopoda and terrestrial Isopoda during some months and at particular areas of the island. Several prey items were probably captured at the base of shrubs, under stones or inside rock crevices. Therefore, our estimations of electivity would only be reliable for epigeal and flying prey. The capacity of the Balearic lizard to include marine subsidies in its diet, such as coastal crustaceans, is noteworthy. Also, its consumption of carrion from carcasses of gulls and rabbits and leftovers from human visitors is remarkable. Juvenile conspecifics can also be a sporadic food resource, especially during the second half of summer, whereas the consumption of vegetal matter is constant for each whole year. The shifts of vegetal exploitation among areas of the island and months take place according to availability of different plant species at each area or during a given period. Thus, lizards are able to conduct a thorough monitoring of plant phenology, exploiting a large variety of plant species. Omnivory does not imply the indiscriminate inclusion of any edible food in its diet. Rather, the inclusion of several food items means the adoption of a wide range of foraging behaviours adapted to the exploitation of each food resource. PMID:26871439

  12. Omnivory of an Insular Lizard: Sources of Variation in the Diet of Podarcis lilfordi (Squamata, Lacertidae).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cembranos, Ana; León, Alicia; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín

    2016-01-01

    Through 17 years and from a sample of 7,790 faecal pellets and 26,346 prey items, we studied the diet of the Balearic lizard Podarcis lilfordi in Aire Island (Menorca, Balearic Islands, Spain). We analysed the diet in terms of prey frequencies, as well as by their volume and biomass contributions. The diet of the Balearic lizard was extremely variable through the years, months and areas under study. The dominance of small clumped prey, particularly ants, was confirmed. However, the main contribution by volume corresponded to beetles, with a relevant role for Diplopoda and terrestrial Isopoda during some months and at particular areas of the island. Several prey items were probably captured at the base of shrubs, under stones or inside rock crevices. Therefore, our estimations of electivity would only be reliable for epigeal and flying prey. The capacity of the Balearic lizard to include marine subsidies in its diet, such as coastal crustaceans, is noteworthy. Also, its consumption of carrion from carcasses of gulls and rabbits and leftovers from human visitors is remarkable. Juvenile conspecifics can also be a sporadic food resource, especially during the second half of summer, whereas the consumption of vegetal matter is constant for each whole year. The shifts of vegetal exploitation among areas of the island and months take place according to availability of different plant species at each area or during a given period. Thus, lizards are able to conduct a thorough monitoring of plant phenology, exploiting a large variety of plant species. Omnivory does not imply the indiscriminate inclusion of any edible food in its diet. Rather, the inclusion of several food items means the adoption of a wide range of foraging behaviours adapted to the exploitation of each food resource.

  13. Omnivory of an Insular Lizard: Sources of Variation in the Diet of Podarcis lilfordi (Squamata, Lacertidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Cembranos, Ana; León, Alicia; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín

    2016-01-01

    Through 17 years and from a sample of 7,790 faecal pellets and 26,346 prey items, we studied the diet of the Balearic lizard Podarcis lilfordi in Aire Island (Menorca, Balearic Islands, Spain). We analysed the diet in terms of prey frequencies, as well as by their volume and biomass contributions. The diet of the Balearic lizard was extremely variable through the years, months and areas under study. The dominance of small clumped prey, particularly ants, was confirmed. However, the main contribution by volume corresponded to beetles, with a relevant role for Diplopoda and terrestrial Isopoda during some months and at particular areas of the island. Several prey items were probably captured at the base of shrubs, under stones or inside rock crevices. Therefore, our estimations of electivity would only be reliable for epigeal and flying prey. The capacity of the Balearic lizard to include marine subsidies in its diet, such as coastal crustaceans, is noteworthy. Also, its consumption of carrion from carcasses of gulls and rabbits and leftovers from human visitors is remarkable. Juvenile conspecifics can also be a sporadic food resource, especially during the second half of summer, whereas the consumption of vegetal matter is constant for each whole year. The shifts of vegetal exploitation among areas of the island and months take place according to availability of different plant species at each area or during a given period. Thus, lizards are able to conduct a thorough monitoring of plant phenology, exploiting a large variety of plant species. Omnivory does not imply the indiscriminate inclusion of any edible food in its diet. Rather, the inclusion of several food items means the adoption of a wide range of foraging behaviours adapted to the exploitation of each food resource. PMID:26871439

  14. Time and energy costs of distance in rural life space of Zimbabwe: case study in the Chiduku Communal Area.

    PubMed

    Mehretu, A; Mutambirwa, C

    1992-01-01

    Time cost of distance (TCD) and energy cost of distance (ECD) devoted to routine activities for supporting the basic human requirements of rural households have become a major source of concern because of the high proportion of the daylight TCDs and ECDs expended on such tasks in most rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. The high burden of TCDs and ECDs on members of the rural household has constrained daylight time available for food production and health maintenance. This case study in a Communal Area (CA) of Zimbabwe, examines the total and comparative magnitudes of TCDs and ECDs on trips for domestic chores, social services and tertiary functions (markets, central services, transport and communication), as well as the gender and age differences in the absorption of TCDs and ECDs for these activities. The findings indicate excessive uses of the time and energy budget on walking trips to accomplish basic household necessities in which domestic chores consume by far the largest portion of this budget with the highest burden falling on the female members of the household.

  15. A Review of Protocol Implementations and Energy Efficient Cross-Layer Design for Wireless Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Laurie; Wang, Xinheng; Chen, Tao

    2012-01-01

    The issues inherent in caring for an ever-increasing aged population has been the subject of endless debate and continues to be a hot topic for political discussion. The use of hospital-based facilities for the monitoring of chronic physiological conditions is expensive and ties up key healthcare professionals. The introduction of wireless sensor devices as part of a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) integrated within an overall eHealth solution could bring a step change in the remote management of patient healthcare. Sensor devices small enough to be placed either inside or on the human body can form a vital part of an overall health monitoring network. An effectively designed energy efficient WBAN should have a minimal impact on the mobility and lifestyle of the patient. WBAN technology can be deployed within a hospital, care home environment or in the patient's own home. This study is a review of the existing research in the area of WBAN technology and in particular protocol adaptation and energy efficient cross-layer design. The research reviews the work carried out across various layers of the protocol stack and highlights how the latest research proposes to resolve the various challenges inherent in remote continual healthcare monitoring. PMID:23202185

  16. Regional and local species richness in an insular environment: Serpentine plants in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, S.; Safford, H.D.; Grace, J.B.; Viers, J.H.; Davies, K.F.

    2006-01-01

    We asked how the richness of the specialized (endemic) flora of serpentine rock outcrops in California varies at both the regional and local scales. Our study had two goals: first, to test whether endemic richness is affected by spatial habitat structure (e.g., regional serpentine area, local serpentine outcrop area, regional and local measures of outcrop isolation), and second, to conduct this test in the context of a broader assessment of environmental influences (e.g., climate, soils, vegetation, disturbance) and historical influences (e.g., geologic age, geographic province) on local and regional species richness. We measured endemic and total richness and environmental variables in 109 serpentine sites (1000-m2 paired plots) in 78 serpentine-containing regions of the state. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to simultaneously relate regional richness to regionalscale predictors, and local richness to both local-scale and regional-scale predictors. Our model for serpentine endemics explained 66% of the variation in local endemic richness based on local environment (vegetation, soils, rock cover) and on regional endemic richness. It explained 73% of the variation in regional endemic richness based on regional environment (climate and productivity), historical factors (geologic age and geographic province), and spatial structure (regional total area of serpentine, the only significant spatial variable in our analysis). We did not find a strong influence of spatial structure on species richness. However, we were able to distinguish local vs. regional influences on species richness to a novel extent, despite the existence of correlations between local and regional conditions. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis as presentation of HIV infection in Sardinia, insular Italy.

    PubMed

    Madeddu, Giordano; Fiori, Maria Laura; Ena, Pasquale; Riu, Francesco; Lovigu, Carla; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Bagella, Paola; Maida, Ivana; Babudieri, Sergio; Mura, Maria Stella

    2014-02-01

    Leishmaniasis is endemic in Sardinia but only cutaneous and visceral cases have been reported to date. We report a case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis as presentation of HIV infection in a Sardinian patient who had never visited endemic areas. Serological and clinical diagnosis was cytologically and histopathologically confirmed. The patient had a good response to treatment with liposomal amphotericin combined with highly active antiretroviral therapy without recurrences after four years. Our case report highlights the need to better assess the circulation of species, risk factors and clinical spectrum of Leishmania infection in the Italian Mediterranean islands.

  18. Survival and Hsp70 Gene Expression in Plutella xylostella and Its Larval Parasitoid Diadegma insulare Varied between Slowly Ramping and Abrupt Extreme Temperature Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Bahar, Md Habibullah; Hegedus, Dwayne; Soroka, Juliana; Coutu, Cathy; Bekkaoui, Diana; Dosdall, Lloyd

    2013-01-01

    Background In nature, insects have evolved behavioural and physiological adaptations to cope with short term exposure to extreme temperatures. Extreme heat events may increase as a result of climate change; this in turn will affect insect population dynamics. We examined the effect of abrupt and ecologically relevant gradual exposure to high temperatures on the survival and hsp70 gene expression in diamondback moth (DBM) adults and the parasitoid Diadegmainsulare, as well as in parasitized and non-parasitized DBM larvae. Principal Findings Tolerance to high temperatures in DBM adults was higher than in D. insulare adults. There was no difference in the survival of DBM adults between abrupt and ramped increases from 25 to 38°C; however, at 40°C survival was higher when the temperature increased gradually. In contrast, more D. insulare adults survived when the temperature was ramped rather than shifted abruptly to both 38 and 40°C. There was no heat stress effect of up to 40°C on the survival of either parasitized or non-parasitized DBM larvae. In adults of both species, more hsp70 expression was observed when temperatures increased abruptly to 38°C compared to ramping. In contrast, at 40°C significantly more expression was found in insects exposed to the ramping rather than the abrupt regime. Hsp70 expression level was in agreement with adult survival data and appears to be a good indicator of stress levels. In parasitized and non-parasitized larvae, hsp70 expression was significantly higher after abrupt shifts compared to ramping at both temperatures. Conclusions/Significance Hsp70 gene expression was responsive to extreme temperatures in both DBM and D. insulare, which may underlie the ability of these insects to survive in extreme temperatures. Survival and hsp70 expression upon abrupt changes are distinctly different from those after ramping indicating that experimental protocol must be considered before extrapolating laboratory results to natural field

  19. Insular and submarine ferromanganese mineralization of the Tonga-Lau region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Schulz, M.S.; Jung-Keuk, Kang

    1990-01-01

    Ferromanganese oxides in the Tonga-Lau region are divided into crusts and stratabound deposits. Crusts were collected from the Tonga and Lau Ridges and have Fe/Mn ratios greater than 1, and an average Co content of 0.25%. The crusts average less than 10 mm thick with a maximum of 50 mm, and growth rates of tens of millimeters per million years. The thickest crust is probably less than a million years old. Crusts formed by both hydrogenetic and hydrothermal precipitation, with the hydrothermal input averaging 76%. Stratabound deposits are divided into three types. The source rocks through which the circulating fluids passed controlled the dominant minor element compositions of the stratabound deposits from each area: Valu Fa Ridge, Mo; Tonga Ridge Ti; Tonumea, Sr and Eua, V. -from Authors

  20. What story does geographic separation of insular bats tell? A case study on Sardinian rhinolophids.

    PubMed

    Russo, Danilo; Di Febbraro, Mirko; Rebelo, Hugo; Mucedda, Mauro; Cistrone, Luca; Agnelli, Paolo; De Pasquale, Pier Paolo; Martinoli, Adriano; Scaravelli, Dino; Spilinga, Cristiano; Bosso, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Competition may lead to changes in a species' environmental niche in areas of sympatry and shifts in the niche of weaker competitors to occupy areas where stronger ones are rarer. Although mainland Mediterranean (Rhinolophus euryale) and Mehely's (R. mehelyi) horseshoe bats mitigate competition by habitat partitioning, this may not be true on resource-limited systems such as islands. We hypothesize that Sardinian R. euryale (SAR) have a distinct ecological niche suited to persist in the south of Sardinia where R. mehelyi is rarer. Assuming that SAR originated from other Italian populations (PES)--mostly allopatric with R. mehelyi--once on Sardinia the former may have undergone niche displacement driven by R. mehelyi. Alternatively, its niche could have been inherited from a Maghrebian source population. We: a) generated Maxent Species Distribution Models (SDM) for Sardinian populations; b) calibrated a model with PES occurrences and projected it to Sardinia to see whether PES niche would increase R. euryale's sympatry with R. mehelyi; and c) tested for niche similarity between R. mehelyi and PES, PES and SAR, and R. mehelyi and SAR. Finally we predicted R. euryale's range in Northern Africa both in the present and during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) by calibrating SDMs respectively with SAR and PES occurrences and projecting them to the Maghreb. R. mehelyi and PES showed niche similarity potentially leading to competition. According to PES' niche, R. euryale would show a larger sympatry with R. mehelyi on Sardinia than according to SAR niche. Such niches have null similarity. The current and LGM Maghrebian ranges of R. euryale were predicted to be wide according to SAR's niche, negligible according to PES' niche. SAR's niche allows R. euryale to persist where R. mehelyi is rarer and competition probably mild. Possible explanations may be competition-driven niche displacement or Maghrebian origin. PMID:25340737

  1. What Story Does Geographic Separation of Insular Bats Tell? A Case Study on Sardinian Rhinolophids

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Danilo; Di Febbraro, Mirko; Rebelo, Hugo; Mucedda, Mauro; Cistrone, Luca; Agnelli, Paolo; De Pasquale, Pier Paolo; Martinoli, Adriano; Scaravelli, Dino; Spilinga, Cristiano; Bosso, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Competition may lead to changes in a species’ environmental niche in areas of sympatry and shifts in the niche of weaker competitors to occupy areas where stronger ones are rarer. Although mainland Mediterranean (Rhinolophus euryale) and Mehely’s (R. mehelyi) horseshoe bats mitigate competition by habitat partitioning, this may not be true on resource-limited systems such as islands. We hypothesize that Sardinian R. euryale (SAR) have a distinct ecological niche suited to persist in the south of Sardinia where R. mehelyi is rarer. Assuming that SAR originated from other Italian populations (PES) – mostly allopatric with R. mehelyi – once on Sardinia the former may have undergone niche displacement driven by R. mehelyi. Alternatively, its niche could have been inherited from a Maghrebian source population. We: a) generated Maxent Species Distribution Models (SDM) for Sardinian populations; b) calibrated a model with PES occurrences and projected it to Sardinia to see whether PES niche would increase R. euryale’s sympatry with R. mehelyi; and c) tested for niche similarity between R. mehelyi and PES, PES and SAR, and R. mehelyi and SAR. Finally we predicted R. euryale’s range in Northern Africa both in the present and during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) by calibrating SDMs respectively with SAR and PES occurrences and projecting them to the Maghreb. R. mehelyi and PES showed niche similarity potentially leading to competition. According to PES’ niche, R. euryale would show a larger sympatry with R. mehelyi on Sardinia than according to SAR niche. Such niches have null similarity. The current and LGM Maghrebian ranges of R. euryale were predicted to be wide according to SAR’s niche, negligible according to PES’ niche. SAR’s niche allows R. euryale to persist where R. mehelyi is rarer and competition probably mild. Possible explanations may be competition-driven niche displacement or Maghrebian origin. PMID:25340737

  2. Two decision-support tools for assessing the potential effects of energy development on hydrologic resources as part of the Energy and Environment in the Rocky Mountain Area interactive energy atlas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linard, Joshua I.; Matherne, Anne Marie; Leib, Kenneth J.; Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Latysh, Natalie; Ignizio, Drew A.; Babel, Nils C.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey project—Energy and Environment in the Rocky Mountain Area (EERMA)—has developed a set of virtual tools in the form of an online interactive energy atlas for Colorado and New Mexico to facilitate access to geospatial data related to energy resources, energy infrastructure, and natural resources that may be affected by energy development. The interactive energy atlas currently (2014) consists of three components: (1) a series of interactive maps; (2) downloadable geospatial datasets; and (3) decison-support tools, including two maps related to hydrologic resources discussed in this report. The hydrologic-resource maps can be used to examine the potential effects of energy development on hydrologic resources with respect to (1) groundwater vulnerability, by using the depth to water, recharge, aquifer media, soil media, topography, impact of the vadose zone, and hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer (DRASTIC) model, and (2) landscape erosion potential, by using the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE). The DRASTIC aquifer vulnerability index value for the two-State area ranges from 48 to 199. Higher values, indicating greater relative aquifer vulnerability, are centered in south-central Colorado, areas in southeastern New Mexico, and along riparian corridors in both States—all areas where the water table is relatively close to the land surface and the aquifer is more susceptible to surface influences. As calculated by the RUSLE model, potential mean annual erosion, as soil loss in units of tons per acre per year, ranges from 0 to 12,576 over the two-State area. The RUSLE model calculated low erosion potential over most of Colorado and New Mexico, with predictions of highest erosion potential largely confined to areas of mountains or escarpments. An example is presented of how a fully interactive RUSLE model could be further used as a decision-support tool to evaluate the potential hydrologic effects of energy development on a

  3. Biomass Energy R&D in the San Francisco Bay Area

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R

    2005-12-07

    Biomass is plant matter such as trees, grasses, agricultural crops or other biological material. It can be used as a solid fuel, or converted into liquid or gaseous forms, for the production of electric power, heat, chemicals, or fuels. There are a number of ways of getting energy from biomass, and a number of factors influence the efficiency of the conversion process. All biomass can be easily combusted. The heat of combustion can be used as heat, or can be used to run gas/steam turbines to produce electricity. However, most biomass combustion processes are inefficient and environmentally non-benign. The main pollutants from direct biomass combustion are tars, particulates, and VOCs. Biodiesels can be made from oils obtained from plants/crops such as soybean, peanuts and cotton. The oils from these sources are mainly triglycerides of fatty acids and not directly suitable as diesel substitutes. Transesterification processes convert the triglycerides into simple esters of the corresponding fatty acids (for example, Fatty Acid Methyl Ester or FAME), which can be directly substitutes for diesel fuels. Starches, sugars and cellulose can be fermented to produce ethanol, which can be added to gasoline, or used directly as an engine fuel. Fermentation of starches and sugars is established technology, practiced for thousands of years. Fermentation of cellulose to make ethanol is relatively harder, requiring additional intermediate steps to hydrolyze the cellulose first by adding acids or by raising temperature. Forestry wastes predominantly comprise cellulose and lignin. Lignin cannot be fermented using the current bio-organisms, and, as mentioned above, even cellulose is difficult to ferment directly. In such cases, a suite of alternative technologies can be employed to convert the biomass into liquid fuels. For example, the biomass can be gasified with the use of air/oxygen and steam, the resultant syngas (mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) can be cleaned to remove

  4. Vulnerability to cavitation, hydraulic efficiency, growth and survival in an insular pine (Pinus canariensis)

    PubMed Central

    López, Rosana; López de Heredia, Unai; Collada, Carmen; Cano, Francisco Javier; Emerson, Brent C.; Cochard, Hervé; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims It is widely accepted that hydraulic failure due to xylem embolism is a key factor contributing to drought-induced mortality in trees. In the present study, an attempt is made to disentangle phenotypic plasticity from genetic variation in hydraulic traits across the entire distribution area of a tree species to detect adaptation to local environments. Methods A series of traits related to hydraulics (vulnerability to cavitation and hydraulic conductivity in branches), growth performance and leaf mass per area were assessed in eight Pinus canariensis populations growing in two common gardens under contrasting environments. In addition, the neutral genetic variability (FST) and the genetic differentiation of phenotypic variation (QST) were compared in order to identify the evolutionary forces acting on these traits. Key Results The variability for hydraulic traits was largely due to phenotypic plasticity. Nevertheless, the vulnerability to cavitation displayed a significant genetic variability (approx. 5 % of the explained variation), and a significant genetic × environment interaction (between 5 and 19 % of the explained variation). The strong correlation between vulnerability to cavitation and survival in the xeric common garden (r = –0·81; P < 0·05) suggests a role for the former in the adaptation to xeric environments. Populations from drier sites and higher temperature seasonality were less vulnerable to cavitation than those growing at mesic sites. No trade-off between xylem safety and efficiency was detected. QST of parameters of the vulnerability curve (0·365 for P50 and the slope of the vulnerability curve and 0·452 for P88) differed substantially from FST (0·091), indicating divergent selection. In contrast, genetic drift alone was found to be sufficient to explain patterns of differentiation for xylem efficiency and growth. Conclusions The ability of P. canariensis to inhabit a wide range of ecosystems seemed to be associated

  5. [The island of Mauritius: insularity, tropicality, modernity, a dialogue in the form of a lesson].

    PubMed

    Amat-Roze, J M

    1998-01-01

    Mauritius, a lost volcanic island in the indian ocean situated at the 20th degree of latitude, is a tiny state which got its independence in 1968. The isolation, the tropicality, the demographic boom, the ethnic diversity and the absence of raw materials could funnel this peaceful beauty to become a hot-bed of desperation and violence. This place which is one of the most densely populated areas, is an example of modern democracy and cultural coexistence. Owing to a skillful and pragmatic politic, its leaders have transformed handicaps into trump cards. The allocation of a part of the GNP for social and hygienic investments had been the locomotive pulling the train of improvements and raising the standard of living for the inhabitants. The ageing population, the rapidity of evolution the demographic and health transitions are expression of this skillful politic. In less than twenty years, this island conquered underdevelopment and proved that there is no tropical fatality when a programme of health accompanies development.

  6. Evaluation of genetic variability in a small, insular population of spruce grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, A.F.; Rhymer, J.; Keppie, D.M.; Svenson, K.L.; Paigan, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    Using microsatellite markers we determined genetic variability for two populations of spruce grouse in eastern North America, one on a coastal Maine island where breeding habitat is limited and highly fragmented, the other in central New Brunswick (NB), where suitable breeding habitat is generally contiguous across the region. We examined six markers for both populations and all were polymorphic. Although the number of alleles per locus and the proportion of unique alleles were lower in the island population, and probably a result of small sample.size, heterozygosity and a breeding coefficient (Fis) indicated slightly more variability in the island population. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium also was more evident in loci for the mainland population. Several traits previously documented in the island population: relatively long natal dispersal distances, reproductive success, territoriality, adult survival, and longevity support the maintenance of hetrerzygosity, at least in the short-term. Sample collection from two small (500 ha), separate areas in NB, and the predicted importance of immigration density to supplement this population demonstrate the need for behavioral and ecological information when interpreting genetic variation. We discuss the relevance of these issues with respect to genetic variability and viability.

  7. Measurement of the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the Moon with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Costanza, F.; Cuoco, A.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Harding, A. K.; Hewitt, J. W.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Iafrate, G.; Jóhannesson, G.; Kamae, T.; Kuss, M.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Magill, J.; Maldera, S.; Manfreda, A.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Murgia, S.; Nuss, E.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Petrosian, V.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Vianello, G.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yassine, M.; Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Sala, P. R.; Fermi LAT Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We have measured the gamma-ray emission spectrum of the Moon using the data collected by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi satellite during its first seven years of operation, in the energy range from 30 MeV up to a few GeV. We have also studied the time evolution of the flux, finding a correlation with the solar activity. We have developed a full Monte Carlo simulation describing the interactions of cosmic rays with the lunar surface. The results of the present analysis can be explained in the framework of this model, where the production of gamma rays is due to the interactions of cosmic-ray proton and helium nuclei with the surface of the Moon. Finally, we have used our simulation to derive the cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra near Earth from the Moon gamma-ray data.

  8. Subjective Somatosensory Experiences Disclosed by Focused Attention: Cortical-Hippocampal-Insular and Amygdala Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Clemens C. C.; Barrios, Fernando A.; Díaz, José-Luis

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore the neurobiological foundations of qualitative subjective experiences, the present study was designed to correlate objective third-person brain fMRI measures with subjective first-person identification and scaling of local, subtle, and specific somatosensory sensations, obtained directly after the imaging procedure. Thus, thirty-four volunteers were instructed to focus and sustain their attention to either provoked or spontaneous sensations of each thumb during the fMRI procedure. By means of a Likert scale applied immediately afterwards, the participants recalled and evaluated the intensity of their attention and identified specific somatosensory sensations (e.g. pulsation, vibration, heat). Using the subject's subjective scores as covariates to model both attention intensity and general somatosensory experiences regressors, the whole-brain random effect analyses revealed activations in the frontopolar prefrontal cortex (BA10), primary somatosensory cortex (BA1), premotor cortex (BA 6), precuneus (BA 7), temporopolar cortex (BA 38), inferior parietal lobe (BA 39), hippocampus, insula and amygdala. Furthermore, BA10 showed differential activity, with ventral BA10 correlating exclusively with attention (r(32) = 0.54, p = 0.0013) and dorsal BA10 correlating exclusively with somatosensory sensation (r(32) = 0.46, p = 0.007). All other reported brain areas showed significant positive correlations solely with subjective somatosensory experiences reports. These results provide evidence that the frontopolar prefrontal cortex has dissociable functions depending on specific cognitive demands; i.e. the dorsal portion of the frontopolar prefrontal cortex in conjunction with primary somatosensory cortex, temporopolar cortex, inferior parietal lobe, hippocampus, insula and amygdala are involved in the processing of spontaneous general subjective somatosensory experiences disclosed by focused and sustained attention. PMID:25166875

  9. Global evapotranspiration data sets: An evaluation of vegetation and energy-based methods for irrigated areas (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, T. W.; Marshall, M. T.; Melton, F. S.; Lund, C.; Adhikari, D.

    2013-12-01

    The MOD16 product estimates evapotranspiration (ET) at 1km scales globally from 2000 to present. Validation to date has focused on rainfed ecosystems in North America with less attention to irrigated areas. ET from MOD16, which uses a direct method to estimate ET, is compared with ET estimated by an indirect energy-based algorithm that depends mainly on land surface temperature (SEBAL). Differences in the ET values between the two methods are interpreted using time series of the net difference vegetation index (NDVI), and a land surface water index (LSWI). While soil evaporation is included in MOD16, it occurs only when humidity is high in a global gridded meteorological dataset, resulting in potential underestimation of evaporation from soil and open water, particularly in irrigated areas in semi-arid climates. We test the hypothesis that MOD16 agrees with other methods when vegetation is the dominant source of ET, but underestimates ET under conditions of low vegetation cover but high surface moisture and correspondingly high values of LSWI.

  10. Areas of fat loss in overweight young females following an 8-week period of energy intake reduction.

    PubMed

    Jones, P R; Edwards, D A

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the main areas of fat loss after an 8-week period of energy intake reduction, the distribution of body fat was assessed on 14 females (BMI 27.3+/-0.83 kgm(-2)) (mean +/- SEM), aged 18-22 years. Total body fat was determined by hydrostatic weighing and subcutaneous fat mass and distribution were assessed using ultrasound and waist-hip circumference ratios prior to, and following, an 8-week period during which subjects attempted to reduce their energy intake by about 4.2 MJ day(-1). Subjects lost an average of 2.99+/-0.34 kg (p < 0.001), with greater loss (p < 0.001) of internal fat (1.5+/-0.2 kg) than of subcutaneous fat (0.7+/-0.1). Subjects reduced their waist-hip ratio from 0.771+/-0.01 to 0.762+/-0.01 (p < 0.01), their waist circumference from 807+/-24 to 790+/-23 mm (p < 0.001) and their hip circumference from 1047+/-29 to 1037+/-29 mm (p < 0.001). Those with an android distribution of fat (n = 5) lost more weight than those with gynoid distribution (n = 9) (3.80+/-0.38 kg vs 2.54+/-0.14 kg, p < 0.05); they also showed a greater decrease in waist circumference (27+/-5 vs 14+/-4 mm, p < 0.05) and a greater loss from internal fat stores (2.1+/-0.3 kg vs 1.1+/-0.2 kg, p < 0.05). The findings suggest that individuals are prone to lose internal fat during a short period of reduced energy intake. As the visceral fat store is the largest internal fat depot in the body, this suggests that individuals are indeed losing fat that could predispose to upper body obesity.

  11. Topography of descending projections from anterior insular and medial prefrontal regions to the lateral habenula of the epithalamus in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kim, Uhnoh; Lee, Taehee

    2012-04-01

    The epithalamic lateral nucleus of the habenula (LHb) plays a key role in regulating firing of dopamine and serotonin neurons in the midbrain and is thereby involved in various cognitive and affective behaviors. It is not yet clear, however, from where the LHb receives cognitive and affective information relevant to its regulation of the midbrain monoaminergic systems. The prefrontal cortex would be among the ideal sources. Here, using anterograde and retrograde tracer injections in the rat brain, we characterized the topography of the corticohabenular projections. Following injections of cholera toxin subunit B into the LHb, retrogradely labeled neurons were produced in the anterior insular, cingulate, prelimbic and infralimbic cortices. Consistent with this retrograde tracing, injections of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into these cortical regions labeled robust terminals in the LHb. Our quantification of the BDA-impregnated varicosities revealed that projections from the anterior insula terminated mainly in the intersection regions of the lateral and ventral two-thirds of the LHb, while projections from the cingulate cortex terminated mainly in the lateral two-thirds of the LHb. By comparison, BDA-labeled terminals originating from the medial prefrontal regions were contained mainly in the medial plus ventral one-third of LHb. Based on these data, we hypothesize that LHb provides a link for conveying cognitive and affective information from prefrontal and insular regions to the midbrain monoaminergic centers.

  12. A giant submarine slope failure on the insular slope north of Puerto Rico: A response of Arecibo basin strata to tectonic stress

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, W.C.; Danforth, W.W.; Scanlon, K.M. )

    1990-06-01

    An amphitheater-shaped scarp, approximately 55 km across in water depths from about 3,000 m to 6,700 m was imaged on the northern insular slope of Puerto Rico (southern slope of the Puerto Rico Trench) using the GLORIA side-scan sonar system. This scarp represents the removal of more than 1,500 m{sup 3} of Tertiary Arecibo basin strata. The head of the scarp coincides with the location of a fault zone observed on nearby seismic-reflection profiles. Interpretation of the GLORIA imagery, and a review of available bathymetric, geophysical, and stratigraphic data and tectonic-framework models suggest that the scarp formed as a consequence of slope failure induced by tectonic oversteepening of the insular slope. The oversteepening may be a result of the most recent episode of convergence of the Caribbean and North American plates, which began approximately 4 million years ago. The Arecibo basin strata have been tilted approximately 4{degree} to the north and are apparently gravitationally unstable under the present seismic regime. The volume of material involved in this slope failure is comparable to the material displaced in tsunamogenic submarine landslides along the Peru Trench and Hawaiian Ridge. Therefore, if the slope failure north of Puerto Rico was catastrophic, it was large enough to have generated a tsunami that would have flooded the low ground of northern Puerto Rico.

  13. Joint China-United States Report for Year 1 Insulation Materials and Systems Project Area Clean Energy Research Center Building Energy Efficiency (CERC-BEE)

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, Therese K; Biswas, Kaushik; Song, Bo; Zhang, Sisi

    2012-08-01

    fire safety. A related issue is the degree to which new standards are adopted and enforced. In the U.S., standards are developed using a consensus process, and local government agencies are free to implement these standards or to ignore them. For example, some U.S. states are still using 2003 versions of the building efficiency standards. There is also a great variation in the degree to which the locally adopted standards are enforced in different U.S. cities and states. With a more central process in China, these issues are different, but possible impacts of variable enforcement efficacy may also exist. Therefore, current building codes in China will be compared to the current state of building fire-safety and energy-efficiency codes in the U.S. and areas for possible improvements in both countries will be explored. In particular, the focus of the applications in China will be on green buildings. The terminology of 'green buildings' has different meanings to different audiences. The U.S. research is interested in both new, green buildings, and on retrofitting existing inefficient buildings. An initial effort will be made to clarify the scope of the pertinent wall insulation systems for these applications.

  14. Subsurface geology and potential for geopressured-geothermal energy in the Turtle Bayou field-Kent Bayou field area, Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.R.

    1982-09-01

    A 216 square mile area approximately 65 miles southwest of New Orleans, Louisiana, has been geologically evaluated to determine its potential for geopressured-geothermal energy production. The structural and stratigraphic analyses were made with emphasis upon the Early and Middle Miocene age sediments which lie close to and within the geopressured section. Three geopressured sands, the Robulus (43) sand, Cibicides opima sand, and Cristellaria (I) sand, are evaluated for their potential of producing geothermal energy. Two of these sands, the Robulus (43) sand and the Cibicides opima sand, meet several of the United States Department of Energy's suggested minimum requirements for a prospective geopressured-geothermal energy reservoir.

  15. Review of historiographic aspects of geothermal energy in the Mediterranean and Mesoamerican areas prior to the Modern Age

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldi, R. )

    1993-08-01

    This investigation aims not only to gain greater insight into the ancient uses of natural heat and its by-products, but also to gather elements for comprehending what kind of impact the presence of geothermal manifestations and the occurrence of volcanic eruptions may have produced on the ancient inhabitants of the Mediterranean and Mesoamerican regions. The first part of the paper discusses what may have occurred in the time period from the Lower Paleolithic (10[sup 5]--10[sup 6] years ago) until the end of the Neolithic. Throughout this period, the relationship of man with the various manifestations of terrestrial heat and its associated products was quite close and intense. In addition to the initial development of direct uses, this relationship with geothermal energy also involved man's cultural sphere. The second part of the paper discusses the development of direct uses and the importance that thermal balneology attained in some regions of the Mediterranean area in historical times. The exploitation and processing of hydrothermal products by the Etruscans, the blossoming of balneotherapy and the multiple functions of the spas in Roman times, the decline of all direct uses between the 5th and 6th centuries A.D. following the collapse of the Roman Empire, and the intensive exploitation of the manifestations of Larderello between the 11th and 16th centuries are discussed. The third part of the work refers to the Mesoamerican area (Mexico and neighboring regions) and covers the period extending from several millennia before the Christian era until the time of the voyages of Columbus. The last part of the paper attempts to reconstruct the birth and initial development of scientific thought regarding the various types of geothermal phenomena, starting from the oldest known illustration of a volcanic eruption until the end of the Middle Ages. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Application of remote geologic analysis to gas exploration in Morgantown Energy Technology Center's Study Area 1, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Beaver, D.E.; Mroz, T.H. )

    1989-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system uses a unique, automated pattern-recognition approach to identify potential fracture zones (of any dip from vertical to < 40{degree}) by coplanar analysis of their geomorphic expression in digital models of topography. For its first oil and gas-related field trial, the authors applied the RGA system to the fracture characterization of Morgantown Energy Technology Center's Study Area 1 in the Big Sandy gas field in southwestern West Virginia. They selected this site to blind test their technology because of the characterization data available from well drilling, gas production, and seismic surveys. The Morgantown staff used these data and performed a geologic analysis of the region coincidentally but separately from their fracture analysis to ensure that they did not introduce bias into their interpretations. Their structure and isopach maps show significant trends in the faulting and folding of the producing formations that control production volumes, which correlate well with the principal interpreted fracture sets from their results. Three fracture sets for the Big Creek, West Virginia, 1:24,000 quadrangle parallel major geologic structures that are associated with basement faulting (steep dip, northeast trend) and thrust faulting (60{degree} dip, northwest trend). These structures appear, in combination with anticlinal folding, to enhance gas production. To date, only the most prominent fracture planes from their analyses have been correlated with the large-scale structural features (basement faulting) in the study area. The next step in this field trial will be to determine if lesser planar features from their analyses correlate with the detailed structural geology and regional geomorphology of the rocks exposed at the surface.

  17. To Expand and Make Permanent the Youth Conservation Corps. Hearing Before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs (U.S. Senate, 93rd Congress, 1st Session on S. 1871, July 25, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.

    This document contains statements and correspondence addressed to a Senate hearing on the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs chaired by Senator Henry M. Jackson. This hearing concerned a bill to amend the Youth Conservation Corps Act of 1972 (Public Law 92-597, 86 Stat. 1319) to expand and make permanent the Youth Conservation Corps. The…

  18. Giant cane (Arundo donax L.) can substitute traditional energy crops in producing energy by anaerobic digestion, reducing surface area and costs: A full-scale approach.

    PubMed

    Corno, Luca; Lonati, Samuele; Riva, Carlo; Pilu, Roberto; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-10-01

    Arundo donax L. (Giant cane) was used in a full-scale anaerobic digester (AD) plant (power of 380kWhEE) in partial substitution for corn to produce biogas and electricity. Corn substitution was made on a biomethane potential (BMP) basis so that A. donax L. after substitution accounted for 15.6% of the total mix-BMP (BMPmix) and corn for 66.6% BMPmix. Results obtained indicated that Giant cane was able to substitute for corn, reducing both biomass and electricity production costs, because of both higher biomass productivity (Mg total solid Ha(-1)) and lower biomass cost (€Ha(-1)). Total electricity biogas costs were reduced by 5.5%. The total biomass cost, the total surface area needed to produce the energy crop and the total cost of producing electricity can be reduced by 75.5%, 36.6% and 22%, by substituting corn completely with Giant cane in the mix fed to the full-scale plant. PMID:27428299

  19. Giant cane (Arundo donax L.) can substitute traditional energy crops in producing energy by anaerobic digestion, reducing surface area and costs: A full-scale approach.

    PubMed

    Corno, Luca; Lonati, Samuele; Riva, Carlo; Pilu, Roberto; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-10-01

    Arundo donax L. (Giant cane) was used in a full-scale anaerobic digester (AD) plant (power of 380kWhEE) in partial substitution for corn to produce biogas and electricity. Corn substitution was made on a biomethane potential (BMP) basis so that A. donax L. after substitution accounted for 15.6% of the total mix-BMP (BMPmix) and corn for 66.6% BMPmix. Results obtained indicated that Giant cane was able to substitute for corn, reducing both biomass and electricity production costs, because of both higher biomass productivity (Mg total solid Ha(-1)) and lower biomass cost (€Ha(-1)). Total electricity biogas costs were reduced by 5.5%. The total biomass cost, the total surface area needed to produce the energy crop and the total cost of producing electricity can be reduced by 75.5%, 36.6% and 22%, by substituting corn completely with Giant cane in the mix fed to the full-scale plant.

  20. Single Neurons in the Insular Cortex of a Macaque Monkey Respond to Skin Brushing: Preliminary Data of the Possible Representation of Pleasant Touch.

    PubMed

    Grandi, Laura Clara; Gerbella, Marzio

    2016-01-01

    Pleasant touch may serve as a foundation for affiliative behavior, providing a mechanism for the formation and maintenance of social bonds among conspecifics. In humans, this touch is usually referred to as the caress. Dynamic caressing performed on the hairy skin with a velocity of 1-10 cm/s is perceived as being pleasant and determines positive cardio-physiological effects. Furthermore, imaging human studies show that affiliative touch activates the posterior insular cortex (pIC). Recently, it was demonstrated that pleasant touch in monkeys (i.e., sweeping in a grooming-like manner) is performed with velocities similar to those characteristics of human caress (9.31 cm/s), and causes similarly positive autonomic effects, if performed with velocity of 5 cm/s and 10 cm/s, but not lower or higher. Due to similarities between the human caress and non-human primate sweeping, we investigated for the first time whether single neurons of the perisylvian regions (secondary somatosensory cortex [SII] and pIC) of a rhesus monkey can process sweeping touch differently depending on the stimulus speed. We applied stimulation with two speeds: one that optimally induces positive cardio-physiological effects in the monkey who receives it, and includes the real speed of sweep (5-15 cm/s, sweep fast), and a non-optimal speed (1-5 cm/s, sweep slow). The results show that single neurons of insular cortex differently encode the stimulus speed. In particular, even the majority of recorded somatosensory neurons (82.96%) did not discriminate the two speeds, a small set of neurons (16.59%) were modulated just during the sweep fast. These findings represent the first evidence that single neurons of the non-human primates insular cortex can code affiliative touch, highlighting the similarity between human and non-human primates' social touch systems. This study constitutes an important starting point to carry out deeper investigation on neuronal processing of pleasant sweeping in the central

  1. Single Neurons in the Insular Cortex of a Macaque Monkey Respond to Skin Brushing: Preliminary Data of the Possible Representation of Pleasant Touch

    PubMed Central

    Grandi, Laura Clara; Gerbella, Marzio

    2016-01-01

    Pleasant touch may serve as a foundation for affiliative behavior, providing a mechanism for the formation and maintenance of social bonds among conspecifics. In humans, this touch is usually referred to as the caress. Dynamic caressing performed on the hairy skin with a velocity of 1–10 cm/s is perceived as being pleasant and determines positive cardio-physiological effects. Furthermore, imaging human studies show that affiliative touch activates the posterior insular cortex (pIC). Recently, it was demonstrated that pleasant touch in monkeys (i.e., sweeping in a grooming-like manner) is performed with velocities similar to those characteristics of human caress (9.31 cm/s), and causes similarly positive autonomic effects, if performed with velocity of 5 cm/s and 10 cm/s, but not lower or higher. Due to similarities between the human caress and non-human primate sweeping, we investigated for the first time whether single neurons of the perisylvian regions (secondary somatosensory cortex [SII] and pIC) of a rhesus monkey can process sweeping touch differently depending on the stimulus speed. We applied stimulation with two speeds: one that optimally induces positive cardio-physiological effects in the monkey who receives it, and includes the real speed of sweep (5–15 cm/s, sweep fast), and a non-optimal speed (1–5 cm/s, sweep slow). The results show that single neurons of insular cortex differently encode the stimulus speed. In particular, even the majority of recorded somatosensory neurons (82.96%) did not discriminate the two speeds, a small set of neurons (16.59%) were modulated just during the sweep fast. These findings represent the first evidence that single neurons of the non-human primates insular cortex can code affiliative touch, highlighting the similarity between human and non-human primates’ social touch systems. This study constitutes an important starting point to carry out deeper investigation on neuronal processing of pleasant sweeping in the

  2. Single Neurons in the Insular Cortex of a Macaque Monkey Respond to Skin Brushing: Preliminary Data of the Possible Representation of Pleasant Touch.

    PubMed

    Grandi, Laura Clara; Gerbella, Marzio

    2016-01-01

    Pleasant touch may serve as a foundation for affiliative behavior, providing a mechanism for the formation and maintenance of social bonds among conspecifics. In humans, this touch is usually referred to as the caress. Dynamic caressing performed on the hairy skin with a velocity of 1-10 cm/s is perceived as being pleasant and determines positive cardio-physiological effects. Furthermore, imaging human studies show that affiliative touch activates the posterior insular cortex (pIC). Recently, it was demonstrated that pleasant touch in monkeys (i.e., sweeping in a grooming-like manner) is performed with velocities similar to those characteristics of human caress (9.31 cm/s), and causes similarly positive autonomic effects, if performed with velocity of 5 cm/s and 10 cm/s, but not lower or higher. Due to similarities between the human caress and non-human primate sweeping, we investigated for the first time whether single neurons of the perisylvian regions (secondary somatosensory cortex [SII] and pIC) of a rhesus monkey can process sweeping touch differently depending on the stimulus speed. We applied stimulation with two speeds: one that optimally induces positive cardio-physiological effects in the monkey who receives it, and includes the real speed of sweep (5-15 cm/s, sweep fast), and a non-optimal speed (1-5 cm/s, sweep slow). The results show that single neurons of insular cortex differently encode the stimulus speed. In particular, even the majority of recorded somatosensory neurons (82.96%) did not discriminate the two speeds, a small set of neurons (16.59%) were modulated just during the sweep fast. These findings represent the first evidence that single neurons of the non-human primates insular cortex can code affiliative touch, highlighting the similarity between human and non-human primates' social touch systems. This study constitutes an important starting point to carry out deeper investigation on neuronal processing of pleasant sweeping in the central

  3. Distributions of energy storage rate and microstructural evolution in the area of plastic strain localization during uniaxial tension of austenitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliferuk, W.; Maj, M.

    2015-08-01

    The presented work is devoted to an experimental determination of the energy storage rate in the area of strain localization. The experimental procedure involves two complementary techniques: i.e. infrared thermography (IRT) and visible light imaging. The results of experiments have shown that during the evolution of plastic strain localization the energy storage rate in some areas of the deformed specimen drops to zero. To interpret the decrease of the energy storage rate in terms of micro-mechanisms, microstructural observations using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSC) were performed. On the basis of microstructural studies it is believed that a 0 value of energy storage rate corresponds to the state in which only two dominant components of the texture appear, creating conditions for crystallographic shear banding.

  4. Changes in the size of the apparent surface area and adsorption energy of the rye roots by low pH and the presence of aluminium ions induced

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szatanik-Kloc, Alicja

    2016-07-01

    The plant reactions on Al-stress include i.a. change of the surface area of the roots, which in the physicochemistry of plants characterizes the transport of water and ions through the root. The object of this study is the specific surface area of the roots of plants which are tolerant to aluminium, such as rye. Plants of rye were grown in a nutrient solution for 14 days at pH 4.5 in the presence of Al3+ ions of concentration 10, 20, and 40 mg dm-3. The control plants were grown continuously at pH 7 or pH 4.5 without Al3+. The apparent surface area and adsorption energy of the plants roots were determined from water vapour adsorption - desorption data. The apparent surface area of roots growing in the aluminium was (with respect to control) statistically significantly lower. There were no statistically significant differences in the apparent surface area of the roots which grew in pH 7, pH 4.5 without Al3+. The average water vapour adsorption energy of the root surface, under stress conditions decreased. In the roots grown in the presence of Al+3, there was a slight decrease in high energy adsorption centres and an increase in the amount of low-energy centres.

  5. Designing, building, and testing a solar thermoelectric generation, STEG, for energy delivery to remote residential areas in developing regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moumouni, Yacouba

    New alternatives and inventive renewable energy techniques which encompass both generation and power management solutions are fundamental for meeting remote residential energy supply and demand today, especially if the grid is quasi-inexistent. Solar thermoelectric generators can be a cost-effective alternative to photovoltaics for a remote residential household power supply. A complete solar thermoelectric energy harvesting system is presented for energy delivery to remote residential areas in developing regions. To this end, the entire system was built, modeled, and then validated with LTspice simulator software via thermal-to-electrical analogy schemes. Valuable data in conjunction with two novel LTspice circuits were obtained, showing the achievability of analyzing transient heat transfer with the Spice simulator. Hence, the proposed study begins with a comprehensive method of extracting thermal parameters that appear in thermoelectric modules. A step-by-step procedure was developed and followed to succinctly extract parameters, such as the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, thermal resistance, and thermal conductivity needed to model the system. Data extracted from datasheet, material properties, and geometries were successfully utilized to compute the thermal capacities and resistances necessary to perform the analogy. In addition, temperature variations of the intrinsic internal parameters were accounted for in this process for accuracy purposes. The steps that it takes to simulate any thermo-electrical system with the LTspice simulator are thoroughly explained in this work. As a consequence, an improved Spice model for a thermoelectric generator is proposed. Experimental results were compiled in the form of a lookup table and then fed into the Spice simulator using the piecewise linear (PWL) command in order to validate the model. Experimental results show that a temperature differential of 13.43°C was achievable whereas the simulation indicates

  6. A Study of Mars Dust Environment Simulation at NASA Johnson Space Center Energy Systems Test Area Resource Conversion Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yuan-Liang Albert

    1999-01-01

    The dust environment on Mars is planned to be simulated in a 20 foot thermal-vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center, Energy Systems Test Area Resource Conversion Test Facility in Houston, Texas. This vacuum chamber will be used to perform tests and study the interactions between the dust in Martian air and ISPP hardware. This project is to research, theorize, quantify, and document the Mars dust/wind environment needed for the 20 foot simulation chamber. This simulation work is to support the safety, endurance, and cost reduction of the hardware for the future missions. The Martian dust environment conditions is discussed. Two issues of Martian dust, (1) Dust Contamination related hazards, and (2) Dust Charging caused electrical hazards, are of our interest. The different methods of dust particles measurement are given. The design trade off and feasibility were studied. A glass bell jar system is used to evaluate various concepts for the Mars dust/wind environment simulation. It was observed that the external dust source injection is the best method to introduce the dust into the simulation system. The dust concentration of 30 Mg/M3 should be employed for preparing for the worst possible Martian atmosphere condition in the future. Two approaches thermal-panel shroud for the hardware conditioning are discussed. It is suggested the wind tunnel approach be used to study the dust charging characteristics then to be apply to the close-system cyclone approach. For the operation cost reduction purpose, a dehumidified ambient air could be used to replace the expensive CO2 mixture for some tests.

  7. Effects of Prolonged Exposure to Hypobaric Hypoxia on Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Gluco-Insular Regulation: The Not-So-Sweet Price for Good Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Siervo, Mario; Riley, Heather L.; Fernandez, Bernadette O.; Leckstrom, Carl A.; Martin, Daniel S.; Mitchell, Kay; Levett, Denny Z. H.; Montgomery, Hugh E.; Mythen, Monty G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The mechanisms by which low oxygen availability are associated with the development of insulin resistance remain obscure. We thus investigated the relationship between such gluco-insular derangements in response to sustained (hypobaric) hypoxemia, and changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation and counter-regulatory hormone responses. Methods After baseline testing in London (75 m), 24 subjects ascended from Kathmandu (1,300 m) to Everest Base Camp (EBC;5,300 m) over 13 days. Of these, 14 ascended higher, with 8 reaching the summit (8,848 m). Assessments were conducted at baseline, during ascent to EBC, and 1, 6 and 8 week(s) thereafter. Changes in body weight and indices of gluco-insular control were measured (glucose, insulin, C-Peptide, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) along with biomarkers of oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-HNE), inflammation (Interleukin-6 [IL-6]) and counter-regulatory hormones (glucagon, adrenalin, noradrenalin). In addition, peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and venous blood lactate concentrations were determined. Results SpO2 fell significantly from 98.0% at sea level to 82.0% on arrival at 5,300 m. Whilst glucose levels remained stable, insulin and C-Peptide concentrations increased by >200% during the last 2 weeks. Increases in fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and glucagon correlated with increases in markers of oxidative stress (4-HNE) and inflammation (IL-6). Lactate levels progressively increased during ascent and remained significantly elevated until week 8. Subjects lost on average 7.3 kg in body weight. Conclusions Sustained hypoxemia is associated with insulin resistance, whose magnitude correlates with the degree of oxidative stress and inflammation. The role of 4-HNE and IL-6 as key players in modifying the association between sustained hypoxia and insulin resistance merits further investigation. PMID:24733551

  8. Extinction of conditioned taste aversion is related to the aversion strength and associated with c-fos expression in the insular cortex.

    PubMed

    Hadamitzky, M; Bösche, K; Engler, A; Schedlowski, M; Engler, H

    2015-09-10

    Taste aversion learning is a type of conditioning where animals learn to associate a novel taste (conditioned stimulus; CS) with a stimulus inducing symptoms of poisoning or illness (unconditioned stimulus; US). As a consequence animals later avoid this taste, a reaction known as conditioned taste aversion (CTA). An established CTA extinguishes over time when the CS is repeatedly presented in the absence of the US. However, inter-individual differences in CTA extinction do exist. Using a model of behavioral conditioning with saccharin as CS and the immunosuppressant cyclosporine A as US, the present study aimed at further elucidating the factors underlying individual differences in extinction learning by investigating whether extinction of an established CTA is related to the strength of the initially acquired CS-US association. In addition, we analyzed the expression of the neuronal activation marker c-fos in brain structures relevant for acquisition and retrieval of the CTA, such as the insular cortex and the amygdala. We here show that animals, displaying a strong CS-US association during acquisition, maintained a strong CTA during unreinforced CS re-exposures, in contrast to animals with moderate CS-US association. Moreover, the latter animals showed increased c-fos mRNA expression in the insular cortex. Our data indicate that CTA extinction apparently depends on the strength of the initially learned CS-US association. In addition, these findings provide further evidence that the memory for the initial excitatory conditioning and its subsequent extinction is probably stored in those structures that participate in the processing of the CS and the US.

  9. Contribution of foods consumed away from home to energy intake in Brazilian urban areas: the 2008-9 Nationwide Dietary Survey.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; de Moura Souza, Amanda; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2013-04-14

    The objectives of the present study were to estimate the dietary contribution of away-from-home food consumption, to describe the contribution of away-from-home foods to energy intake, and to investigate the association between eating away from home and total energy intake in Brazilian urban areas. In the first Brazilian Nationwide Dietary Survey, conducted in 2008-9, food records were collected from 25 753 individuals aged 10 years or older, living in urban areas of Brazil. Foods were grouped into thirty-three food groups, and the mean energy intake provided by away-from-home food consumption was estimated. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between away-from-home food consumption and total energy intake. All analyses considered the sample design effect. Of the total population, 43 % consumed at least one food item away from home. The mean energy intake from foods consumed away from home was 1408 kJ (337 kcal), averaging 18 % of total energy intake. Eating away from home was associated with increased total energy intake, except for men in the highest income level. The highest percentage of away-from-home energy sources was for food with a high content of energy, such as alcoholic beverages (59 %), baked and deep-fried snacks (54 %), pizza (42 %), soft drinks (40 %), sandwiches (40 %), and sweets and desserts (30 %). The consumption of foods away from home was related to a greater energy intake. The characterisation of away-from-home food habits is necessary in order to properly design strategies to promote healthy food consumption in the away-from-home environment.

  10. Triboelectric Charging at the Nanostructured Solid/Liquid Interface for Area-Scalable Wave Energy Conversion and Its Use in Corrosion Protection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue Jiao; Zhu, Guang; Fan, You Jun; Li, Hua Yang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-07-28

    We report a flexible and area-scalable energy-harvesting technique for converting kinetic wave energy. Triboelectrification as a result of direct interaction between a dynamic wave and a large-area nanostructured solid surface produces an induced current among an array of electrodes. An integration method ensures that the induced current between any pair of electrodes can be constructively added up, which enables significant enhancement in output power and realizes area-scalable integration of electrode arrays. Internal and external factors that affect the electric output are comprehensively discussed. The produced electricity not only drives small electronics but also achieves effective impressed current cathodic protection. This type of thin-film-based device is a potentially practical solution of on-site sustained power supply at either coastal or off-shore sites wherever a dynamic wave is available. Potential applications include corrosion protection, pollution degradation, water desalination, and wireless sensing for marine surveillance.

  11. Triboelectric Charging at the Nanostructured Solid/Liquid Interface for Area-Scalable Wave Energy Conversion and Its Use in Corrosion Protection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue Jiao; Zhu, Guang; Fan, You Jun; Li, Hua Yang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-07-28

    We report a flexible and area-scalable energy-harvesting technique for converting kinetic wave energy. Triboelectrification as a result of direct interaction between a dynamic wave and a large-area nanostructured solid surface produces an induced current among an array of electrodes. An integration method ensures that the induced current between any pair of electrodes can be constructively added up, which enables significant enhancement in output power and realizes area-scalable integration of electrode arrays. Internal and external factors that affect the electric output are comprehensively discussed. The produced electricity not only drives small electronics but also achieves effective impressed current cathodic protection. This type of thin-film-based device is a potentially practical solution of on-site sustained power supply at either coastal or off-shore sites wherever a dynamic wave is available. Potential applications include corrosion protection, pollution degradation, water desalination, and wireless sensing for marine surveillance. PMID:26154990

  12. Seasonal and interannual variation of radiation and energy fluxes over a rain-fed cropland in the semi-arid area of Loess Plateau, northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xing; Yu, Ye; Chen, Jinbei; Zhang, Tangtang; Li, Zhenchao

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the land-atmosphere interactions over the semi-arid area of Loess Plateau is important due to its special climate and unique underlying surface. In this study, two years' micrometeorological and energy flux observations from the Pingliang Land Surface Process & Severe Weather Research Station, CAS were used to investigate the seasonal and interannual variations of radiation budget and energy fluxes over a rain-fed cropland in the semi-arid area of Loess Plateau, with an emphasis on the influence of rain, soil moisture and agricultural production activities (such as crop type and harvest time) on the energy partitioning as well as the surface energy balance. The results revealed large annual variations in the seasonal distribution of precipitation, which gave rise to significant seasonal and interannual variations in soil moisture. Soil moisture was the main factor affecting radiation budget and energy partitioning. There was a negatively linear relationship between the albedo and the soil moisture. The main consumer of available energy varied among months and years with an apparent water stress threshold value of ca. 0.12 m3 m- 3, and the evapotranspiration was suppressed especially during the growing season. On an annual scale, the largest consumer of midday net radiation was sensible heat flux in 2010-2011, while it was latent heat flux in 2011-2012, which accounted for about 35% and 40% of the net radiation, respectively. The agricultural activity altered the sensitivity and variability of albedo to soil moisture, as well as energy partitioning patterns. The surface energy budget closures during Dec. 2010-Nov. 2011 and Dec. 2011-Nov. 2012 were 77.6% and 73.3%, respectively, after considering the soil heat storage. The closure was comparable to other sites in ChinaFLUX (49% to 81% of 8 sites). The patterns of energy partitioning and the water stress threshold found in the semi-arid cropland could be used to evaluate and improve land surface models.

  13. Flood hazard energy in urban areas: a new integrated method for flood risk analysis in synthesizing interactions with urban boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. Y.; Schmidt, A.

    2015-12-01

    Since urban physical characteristics (such as morphology and land-use/land-cover) are different from those of nature, altered interactions between the surface and atmosphere (especially urban boundary layer, UBL) or surface and subsurface can affect the hydrologic behavior and hence the flood hazards. In this research we focus on three main aspects of the urban surface/atmosphere interactions that affect flood hazard: urban heat island (UHI) effect, increased surface roughness, and accumulated aerosols. These factors, along with the uncertainties in quantifying these components make risk analysis intractable. In order to perform a risk analysis, the impact of these components needs to be mapped to a variable that can be mathematically described in a risk-analysis framework. We propose defining hazard energy as a surrogate for the combined effect of these three components. Perturbations that can change the hazard energy come from diverse sources in the urban areas and these somewhat disconnected things can be combined by the energy concept to characterize the impacts of urban areas in risk assessment. This approach synthesizes across hydrological and hydraulic processes in UBL, land surface, subsurface, and sewer network with scrutinizing energy exchange across places. We can extend our understanding about not only the influence of cities on local climate in rural areas or larger scales but also the interaction of cities and nature affecting each other.

  14. 77 FR 52754 - Draft Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan Within Eight-State Planning Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan Within... coordination with our planning partners, intend to prepare the Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat... include the conservation agencies for the eight states, The Conservation Fund, and the American...

  15. Energy-efficient routing control algorithm in large-scale WSN for water environment monitoring with application to Three Gorges Reservoir area.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yuanchang; Cheng, Lin; Zhang, Liang; Song, Yongduan; Karimi, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The typical application backgrounds of large-scale WSN (wireless sensor networks) for the water environment monitoring in the Three Gorges Reservoir are large coverage area and wide distribution. To maximally prolong lifetime of large-scale WSN, a new energy-saving routing algorithm has been proposed, using the method of maximum energy-welfare optimization clustering. Firstly, temporary clusters are formed based on two main parameters, the remaining energy of nodes and the distance between a node and the base station. Secondly, the algorithm adjusts cluster heads and optimizes the clustering according to the maximum energy-welfare of the cluster by the cluster head shifting mechanism. Finally, in order to save node energy efficiently, cluster heads transmit data to the base station in single-hop and multihop way. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and advanced. It can efficiently save the node energy, balance the energy dissipation of all nodes, and prolong the network lifetime.

  16. Energy-Efficient Routing Control Algorithm in Large-Scale WSN for Water Environment Monitoring with Application to Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yuanchang; Zhang, Liang; Song, Yongduan

    2014-01-01

    The typical application backgrounds of large-scale WSN (wireless sensor networks) for the water environment monitoring in the Three Gorges Reservoir are large coverage area and wide distribution. To maximally prolong lifetime of large-scale WSN, a new energy-saving routing algorithm has been proposed, using the method of maximum energy-welfare optimization clustering. Firstly, temporary clusters are formed based on two main parameters, the remaining energy of nodes and the distance between a node and the base station. Secondly, the algorithm adjusts cluster heads and optimizes the clustering according to the maximum energy-welfare of the cluster by the cluster head shifting mechanism. Finally, in order to save node energy efficiently, cluster heads transmit data to the base station in single-hop and multihop way. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and advanced. It can efficiently save the node energy, balance the energy dissipation of all nodes, and prolong the network lifetime. PMID:24741360

  17. Monitoring the spring-summer surface energy budget transition in the Gobi Desert using AVHRR GAC data. [Global Area Coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Reiter, Elmar R.

    1986-01-01

    A research program has been started in which operationally available weather satellites radiance data are used to reconstruct various properties of the diurnal surface energy budget over sites for which detailed estimates of the complete radiation, heat, and moisture exchange process are available. In this paper, preliminary analysis of the 1985 Gobi Desert summer period results is presented. The findings demonstrate various important relationships concerning the feasibility of retrieving the amplitudes of the diurnal surface energy budget processes for daytime and nighttime conditions.

  18. Annual Site Environmental Report, Department of Energy Operations at the Energy Technology Engineering Center – Area IV, Santa Susana Field Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Frazee, Brad; Hay, Scott; Wondolleck, John; Sorrels, Earl; Rutherford, Phil; Dassler, David; Jones, John

    2015-05-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2014 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the DOE at Area IV of the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The ETEC, a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  19. Cosmic ray charge and energy spectrum measurements using a new large area Cerenkov x dE/dx telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webber, W. R.; Kish, J. C.; Schrier, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    In September, 1981, a new 0.5 square meter ster cosmic ray telescope was flown to study the charge composition and energy spectrum of cosmic ray nuclei between 0.3 and 4 GeV/nuc. A high resolution Cerenkov counter, and three dE/dx measuring scintillation counters, including two position scintillators were contained in the telescope used for the charge and energy spectrum measurements. The analysis procedures did not require any large charge or energy dependent corrections, and absolute fluxes could be obtained to an accuracy approximately 5%. The spectral measurements made in 1981, at a time of extreme solar modulation, could be compared with measurements with a similar telescope made by our group in 1977, at a time of minimum modulation and can be used to derive absolute intensity values for the HEAO measurements made in 1979 to 80. Using both data sets precise energy spectra and abundance ratios can be derived over the entire energy range from 0.3 to greater than 15 GeV/nuc.

  20. Design of very large-mode-area Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber for high-energy pulsed laser output with squared shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Kuo; Zhu, Lianqing; Yan, Guang; Luo, Fei

    2015-05-01

    The rare earth-doped active fibers owning ten thousands of square-micron core-area but also delivering laser with high beam quality have little been reported. In this paper, we have designed a large-mode-area Yb3+-doped photonic crystal fiber in the cladding region with square-array air holes. Simulations demonstrate that only fundamental mode (FM) with mode-field-area (MFA) of ~15500 μm2 can be amplified and propagated at the gain saturation, and the beam quality M2 is less than 1.5. It is predicted that almost 58 mJ per-pulse can be available from such a 1.0 meter-length fiber, and the beam shape of amplified laser is near squared. It will be potential for so huge pulse-energy output from the VLMA LPF to be applied in the remote detecting, high-intensive welding and so on.