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Sample records for insulin receptors mediate

  1. Receptor-Mediated Transport of Insulin across Endothelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, George L.; Johnson, Sandra M.

    1985-03-01

    Hormones such as insulin are transported from the interior to the exterior of blood vessels. Whether endothelial cells, which line the inner walls of blood vessels have a role in this transport of hormones is not clear, but it is known that endothelial cells can internalize and release insulin rapidly with little degradation. The transport of iodine-125-labeled insulin was measured directly through the use of dual chambers separated by a horizontal monolayer of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. In this setting, endothelial cells took up and released the labeled insulin, thereby transporting it across the cells. The transport of insulin across the endothelial cells was temperature sensitive and was inhibited by unlabeled insulin and by antibody to insulin receptor in proportion to the ability of these substances to inhibit insulin binding to its receptor. More than 80 percent of the transported insulin was intact. These data suggest that insulin is rapidly transported across endothelial cells by a receptor-mediated process.

  2. Grb10 mediates insulin-stimulated degradation of the insulin receptor: a mechanism of negative regulation.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Fresnida J; Langlais, Paul R; Hu, Derong; Dong, Lily Q; Liu, Feng

    2006-06-01

    Growth factor receptor-bound protein 10 (Grb10) is an adapter protein that interacts with a number of tyrosine-phosphorylated growth factor receptors, including the insulin receptor (IR). To investigate the role of Grb10 in insulin signaling, we generated cell lines in which the expression levels of Grb10 are either overexpressed by stable transfection or suppressed by RNA interference. We found that suppressing endogenous Grb10 expression led to increased IR protein levels, whereas overexpression of Grb10 led to reduced IR protein levels. Altering Grb10 expression levels had no effect on the mRNA levels of IR, suggesting that the modulation occurs at the protein level. Reduced IR levels were also observed in cells with prolonged insulin treatment, and this reduction was inhibited in Grb10-deficient cells. The insulin-induced IR reduction was greatly reversed by MG-132, a proteasomal inhibitor, but not by chloroquine, a lysosomal inhibitor. IR underwent insulin-stimulated ubiquitination in cells, and this ubiquitination was inhibited in the Grb10-suppressed cell line. Together, our results suggest that, in addition to inhibiting IR kinase activity by directly binding to the IR, Grb10 also negatively regulates insulin signaling by mediating insulin-stimulated degradation of the receptor.

  3. Insulin receptor Thr1160 phosphorylation mediates lipid-induced hepatic insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Max C.; Madiraju, Anila K.; Gassaway, Brandon M.; Marcel, Michael; Nasiri, Ali R.; Butrico, Gina; Marcucci, Melissa J.; Zhang, Dongyan; Abulizi, Abudukadier; Zhang, Xian-Man; Philbrick, William; Hubbard, Stevan R.; Samuel, Varman T.; Rinehart, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but whether NAFLD plays a causal role in the pathogenesis of T2D is uncertain. One proposed mechanism linking NAFLD to hepatic insulin resistance involves diacylglycerol-mediated (DAG-mediated) activation of protein kinase C-ε (PKCε) and the consequent inhibition of insulin receptor (INSR) kinase activity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying PKCε inhibition of INSR kinase activity is unknown. Here, we used mass spectrometry to identify the phosphorylation site Thr1160 as a PKCε substrate in the functionally critical INSR kinase activation loop. We hypothesized that Thr1160 phosphorylation impairs INSR kinase activity by destabilizing the active configuration of the INSR kinase, and our results confirmed this prediction by demonstrating severely impaired INSR kinase activity in phosphomimetic T1160E mutants. Conversely, the INSR T1160A mutant was not inhibited by PKCε in vitro. Furthermore, mice with a threonine-to-alanine mutation at the homologous residue Thr1150 (InsrT1150A mice) were protected from high fat diet–induced hepatic insulin resistance. InsrT1150A mice also displayed increased insulin signaling, suppression of hepatic glucose production, and increased hepatic glycogen synthesis compared with WT controls during hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. These data reveal a critical pathophysiological role for INSR Thr1160 phosphorylation and provide further mechanistic links between PKCε and INSR in mediating NAFLD-induced hepatic insulin resistance. PMID:27760050

  4. Insulin receptor substrate 1 is required for insulin-mediated mitogenic signal transduction.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, D W; Saltiel, A R; Majumdar, M; Decker, S J; Olefsky, J M

    1994-01-01

    Insulin treatment of mammalian cells immediately stimulates the tyrosine phosphorylation of a cellular protein of 185 kDa referred to as pp185 or IRS-1 (insulin receptor substrate 1). The potential role of the IRS-1 protein in insulin signaling has been examined by microinjecting affinity-purified antibodies into living cells. Stably transfected Rat-1 fibroblasts, which overexpress the human insulin receptor, were microinjected and subsequently stimulated with insulin or other growth factors. Progression through the cell cycle was monitored by using a single-cell assay, which employs bromodeoxyuridine labeling of DNA and analysis with immunofluorescence microscopy. Microinjection of anti-IRS-1 antibody completely inhibited incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine into the nuclei of cells stimulated with insulin or insulin-like growth factor I but did not affect cells stimulated with serum or a variety of purified growth factors. These studies indicate that IRS-1 is a critical component of the insulin and insulin-like growth factor I signaling pathways, which lead to DNA synthesis and cell growth. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8290602

  5. Novel method demonstrates differential ligand activation and phosphatase-mediated deactivation of insulin receptor tyrosine-specific phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Cieniewicz, Anne M; Cooper, Philip R; McGehee, Jennifer; Lingham, Russell B; Kihm, Anthony J

    2016-08-01

    Insulin receptor signaling is a complex cascade leading to a multitude of intracellular functional responses. Three natural ligands, insulin, IGF1 and IGF2, are each capable of binding with different affinities to the insulin receptor, and result in variable biological responses. However, it is likely these affinity differences alone cannot completely explain the myriad of diverse cellular outcomes. Ligand binding initiates activation of a signaling cascade resulting in phosphorylation of the IR itself and other intracellular proteins. The direct catalytic activity along with the temporally coordinated assembly of signaling proteins is critical for insulin receptor signaling. We hypothesized that determining differential phosphorylation among individual tyrosine sites activated by ligand binding or dephosphorylation by phosphatases could provide valuable insight into insulin receptor signaling. Here, we present a sensitive, novel immunoassay adapted from Meso Scale Discovery technology to quantitatively measure changes in site-specific phosphorylation levels on endogenous insulin receptors from HuH7 cells. We identified insulin receptor phosphorylation patterns generated upon differential ligand activation and phosphatase-mediated deactivation. The data demonstrate that insulin, IGF1 and IGF2 elicit different insulin receptor phosphorylation kinetics and potencies that translate to downstream signaling. Furthermore, we show that insulin receptor deactivation, regulated by tyrosine phosphatases, occurs distinctively across specific tyrosine residues. In summary, we present a novel, quantitative and high-throughput assay that has uncovered differential ligand activation and site-specific deactivation of the insulin receptor. These results may help elucidate some of the insulin signaling mechanisms, discriminate ligand activity and contribute to a better understanding of insulin receptor signaling. We propose this methodology as a powerful approach to characterize

  6. Clarification of signaling pathways mediated by insulin and insulin-like growth factor I receptors in fibroblasts from patients with specific defect in insulin receptor.

    PubMed

    Sasaoka, T; Kobayashi, M; Takata, Y; Ishibashi, O; Iwasaki, M; Shigeta, Y; Goji, K; Hisatomi, A

    1988-11-01

    Receptor binding and biological action of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) were studied in fibroblasts from a patient with leprechaunism and a patient with type A syndrome of insulin resistance. Insulin binding was reduced to 18.8 and 27.7% of control value, respectively. In contrast, IGF-I binding was normal in both patients. In competitive binding studies, IGF-I had 0.2% of the ability of insulin to compete with 125I-labeled insulin binding, and insulin had 0.1% of the ability of IGF-I to compete with 125I-labeled IGF-I binding in control subjects and patient fibroblasts. The dose-response curves of insulin stimulation assessed by glucose incorporation and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid uptake showed normal responsiveness, and ED50 was significantly shifted to the right in fibroblasts from both patients. However, normal responsiveness and sensitivity were observed in thymidine incorporation studies. For IGF-I, dose-response curves of glucose incorporation, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid uptake, and thymidine incorporation were all normal in both patients. These results indicate that 1) the defect is specific to the insulin-receptor binding in these patients, 2) insulin and IGF-I activate glucose incorporation and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid uptake mainly through their own specific receptors, but 3) the IGF-I receptor appears to have a more important role in stimulating thymidine incorporation than the insulin receptor in physiological condition or, alternatively, an unknown postreceptor process with cascade signal transmission may overcome the decreased insulin-receptor binding to produce a normal dose-response curve.

  7. mTOR partly mediates insulin resistance by phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 on serine(307) residues after burn.

    PubMed

    Xin-Long, Chen; Zhao-Fan, Xia; Dao-Feng, Ben; Wei, Duo

    2011-02-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an important mediator for cross talk between nutritional signals and metabolic signals of insulin by downregulating insulin receptor substrate proteins. Therefore, mTOR inhibition could become a therapeutic strategy in insulin-resistant states, including insulin resistance induced by burn. We tested this hypothesis in the rat model of 30% TBSA full thickness burn, using the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. Rapamycin (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected 2 h before euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic glucose clamps at 4 days after burn. IRS-1, phospho-serine³⁰⁷, phospho-tyrosine of IRS-1 and phospho-mTOR in muscle tissue were determined by immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis or immunohistochemistry. Plasma TNF-α, insulin and C-peptide were determined before and after euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic glucose clamps. Our data showed that TNF-α, insulin and C-peptide significantly increased in the early stage after burn (P < 0.01). The infused rates of total 10% glucose (GIR, mg/kg min) significantly decreased at 4 days after burn. The level of IRS-1 serine³⁰⁷ phosphorylation in muscle in vivo significantly increased after burn (P < 0.01), while insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin inhibited the phosphorylation of mTOR, reduced serine³⁰⁷ phosphorylation, elevated tyrosine phosphorylation and partly prevented the decrease of GIR after burn. However, TNF-α, insulin and C-peptide were not decreased by rapamycin treatment postburn. Taken together, these results indicate that the mTOR pathway is an important modulator of the signals involved in the acute regulation of insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism, and at least, partly contributes to burn-induced insulin resistance. mTOR inhibition may become a therapeutic strategy in insulin-resistant states after burn. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Blockade of cannabinoid 1 receptor improves GLP-1R mediated insulin secretion in mice.

    PubMed

    González-Mariscal, Isabel; Krzysik-Walker, Susan M; Kim, Wook; Rouse, Michael; Egan, Josephine M

    2016-03-05

    The cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1) is an important regulator of energy metabolism. Reports of in vivo and in vitro studies give conflicting results regarding its role in insulin secretion, possibly due to circulatory factors, such as incretins. We hypothesized that this receptor may be a regulator of the entero-insular axis. We found that despite lower food consumption and lower body weight postprandial GLP-1 plasma concentrations were increased in CB1(-/-) mice compared to CB1(+/+) mice administered a standard diet or high fat/sugar diet. Upon exogenous GLP-1 treatment, CB1(-/-) mice had increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In mouse insulinoma cells, cannabinoids reduced GLP-1R-mediated intracellular cAMP accumulation and subsequent insulin secretion. Importantly, such effects were also evident in human islets, and were prevented by pharmacologic blockade of CB1. Collectively, these findings suggest a novel mechanism in which endocannabinoids are negative modulators of incretin-mediated insulin secretion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibition of insulin/IGF-1 receptor signaling protects from mitochondria-mediated kidney failure.

    PubMed

    Ising, Christina; Koehler, Sybille; Brähler, Sebastian; Merkwirth, Carsten; Höhne, Martin; Baris, Olivier R; Hagmann, Henning; Kann, Martin; Fabretti, Francesca; Dafinger, Claudia; Bloch, Wilhelm; Schermer, Bernhard; Linkermann, Andreas; Brüning, Jens C; Kurschat, Christine E; Müller, Roman-Ulrich; Wiesner, Rudolf J; Langer, Thomas; Benzing, Thomas; Brinkkoetter, Paul Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and alterations in energy metabolism have been implicated in a variety of human diseases. Mitochondrial fusion is essential for maintenance of mitochondrial function and requires the prohibitin ring complex subunit prohibitin-2 (PHB2) at the mitochondrial inner membrane. Here, we provide a link between PHB2 deficiency and hyperactive insulin/IGF-1 signaling. Deletion of PHB2 in podocytes of mice, terminally differentiated cells at the kidney filtration barrier, caused progressive proteinuria, kidney failure, and death of the animals and resulted in hyperphosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP), a known mediator of the mTOR signaling pathway. Inhibition of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling system through genetic deletion of the insulin receptor alone or in combination with the IGF-1 receptor or treatment with rapamycin prevented hyperphosphorylation of S6RP without affecting the mitochondrial structural defect, alleviated renal disease, and delayed the onset of kidney failure in PHB2-deficient animals. Evidently, perturbation of insulin/IGF-1 receptor signaling contributes to tissue damage in mitochondrial disease, which may allow therapeutic intervention against a wide spectrum of diseases. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  10. Inflammatory Mediators and Insulin Resistance in Obesity: Role of Nuclear Receptor Signaling in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Lucía; Rőszer, Tamás; Ricote, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    Visceral obesity is coupled to a general low-grade chronic inflammatory state characterized by macrophage activation and inflammatory cytokine production, leading to insulin resistance (IR). The balance between proinflammatory M1 and antiinflammatory M2 macrophage phenotypes within visceral adipose tissue appears to be crucially involved in the development of obesity-associated IR and consequent metabolic abnormalities. The ligand-dependent transcription factors peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) have recently been implicated in the determination of the M1/M2 phenotype. Liver X receptors (LXRs), which form another subgroup of the nuclear receptor superfamily, are also important regulators of proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. Disregulation of macrophage-mediated inflammation by PPARs and LXRs therefore underlies the development of IR. This review summarizes the role of PPAR and LXR signaling in macrophages and current knowledge about the impact of these actions in the manifestation of IR and obesity comorbidities such as liver steatosis and diabetic osteopenia. PMID:20508742

  11. Inflammatory mediators and insulin resistance in obesity: role of nuclear receptor signaling in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Lucía; Roszer, Tamás; Ricote, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    Visceral obesity is coupled to a general low-grade chronic inflammatory state characterized by macrophage activation and inflammatory cytokine production, leading to insulin resistance (IR). The balance between proinflammatory M1 and antiinflammatory M2 macrophage phenotypes within visceral adipose tissue appears to be crucially involved in the development of obesity-associated IR and consequent metabolic abnormalities. The ligand-dependent transcription factors peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) have recently been implicated in the determination of the M1/M2 phenotype. Liver X receptors (LXRs), which form another subgroup of the nuclear receptor superfamily, are also important regulators of proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. Disregulation of macrophage-mediated inflammation by PPARs and LXRs therefore underlies the development of IR. This review summarizes the role of PPAR and LXR signaling in macrophages and current knowledge about the impact of these actions in the manifestation of IR and obesity comorbidities such as liver steatosis and diabetic osteopenia.

  12. Insulin and IGF-1 receptors regulate FoxO-mediated signaling in muscle proteostasis

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Brian T.; Lee, Kevin Y.; Klaus, Katherine; Softic, Samir; Krumpoch, Megan T.; Stanford, Kristin I.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Cai, Weikang; Kleinridders, Andre; Pereira, Renata O.; Hirshman, Michael F.; Accili, Domenico; Goodyear, Laurie J.; Nair, K. Sreekumaran

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes strongly impacts protein metabolism, particularly in skeletal muscle. Insulin and IGF-1 enhance muscle protein synthesis through their receptors, but the relative roles of each in muscle proteostasis have not been fully elucidated. Using mice with muscle-specific deletion of the insulin receptor (M-IR–/– mice), the IGF-1 receptor (M-IGF1R–/– mice), or both (MIGIRKO mice), we assessed the relative contributions of IR and IGF1R signaling to muscle proteostasis. In differentiated muscle, IR expression predominated over IGF1R expression, and correspondingly, M-IR–/– mice displayed a moderate reduction in muscle mass whereas M-IGF1R–/– mice did not. However, these receptors serve complementary roles, such that double-knockout MIGIRKO mice displayed a marked reduction in muscle mass that was linked to increases in proteasomal and autophagy-lysosomal degradation, accompanied by a high-protein-turnover state. Combined muscle-specific deletion of FoxO1, FoxO3, and FoxO4 in MIGIRKO mice reversed increased autophagy and completely rescued muscle mass without changing proteasomal activity. These data indicate that signaling via IR is more important than IGF1R in controlling proteostasis in differentiated muscle. Nonetheless, the overlap of IR and IGF1R signaling is critical to the regulation of muscle protein turnover, and this regulation depends on suppression of FoxO-regulated, autophagy-mediated protein degradation. PMID:27525440

  13. Reduced insulin-receptor mediated modulation of striatal dopamine release by basal insulin as a possible contributing factor to hyperdopaminergia in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Hahn, Margaret; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Gerretsen, Philip; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe and chronic neuropsychiatric disorder which affects 1% of the world population. Using the brain imaging technique positron emission tomography (PET) it has been demonstrated that persons with schizophrenia have greater dopamine transmission in the striatum compared to healthy controls. However, little progress has been made as to elucidating other biological mechanisms which may account for this hyperdopaminergic state in this disease. Studies in animals have demonstrated that insulin receptors are expressed on midbrain dopamine neurons, and that insulin from the periphery acts on these receptors to modify dopamine transmission in the striatum. This is pertinent given that several lines of evidence suggest that insulin receptor functioning may be abnormal in the brains of persons with schizophrenia. Post-mortem studies have shown that persons with schizophrenia have less than half the number of cortical insulin receptors compared to healthy persons. Moreover, these post-mortem findings are unlikely due to the effects of antipsychotic treatment; studies in cell lines and animals suggest antipsychotics enhance insulin receptor functioning. Further, hyperinsulinemia - even prior to antipsychotic use - seems to be related to less psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Collectively, these data suggest that midbrain insulin receptor functioning may be abnormal in persons with schizophrenia, resulting in reduced insulin-mediated regulation of dopamine transmission in the striatum. Such a deficit may account for the hyperdopaminergic state observed in these patients and would help guide the development of novel treatment strategies. We hypothesize that, (i) insulin receptor expression and/or function is reduced in midbrain dopamine neurons in persons with schizophrenia, (ii) basal insulin should reduce dopaminergic transmission in the striatum via these receptors, and (iii) this modulation of dopaminergic transmission by basal insulin

  14. A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway mediates and PTEN antagonizes tumor necrosis factor inhibition of insulin signaling through insulin receptor substrate-1

    PubMed Central

    Ozes, Osman Nidai; Akca, Hakan; Mayo, Lindsey D.; Gustin, Jason A.; Maehama, Tomohiko; Dixon, Jack E.; Donner, David B.

    2001-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) by the insulin receptor permits this docking protein to interact with signaling proteins that promote insulin action. Serine phosphorylation uncouples IRS-1 from the insulin receptor, thereby inhibiting its tyrosine phosphorylation and insulin signaling. For this reason, there is great interest in identifying serine/threonine kinases for which IRS-1 is a substrate. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibited insulin-promoted tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and activated the Akt/protein kinase B serine-threonine kinase, a downstream target for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). The effect of TNF on insulin-promoted tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 was blocked by inhibition of PI 3-kinase and the PTEN tumor suppessor, which dephosphorylates the lipids that mediate PI 3-kinase functions, whereas constitutively active Akt impaired insulin-promoted IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Conversely, TNF inhibition of IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation was blocked by kinase dead Akt. Inhibition of IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation by TNF was blocked by rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a downstream target of Akt. mTOR induced the serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 (Ser-636/639), and such phosphorylation was inhibited by rapamycin. These results suggest that TNF impairs insulin signaling through IRS-1 by activation of a PI 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway, which is antagonized by PTEN. PMID:11287630

  15. Dopamine D2-like receptors are expressed in pancreatic beta cells and mediate inhibition of insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Rubí, Blanca; Ljubicic, Sanda; Pournourmohammadi, Shirin; Carobbio, Stefania; Armanet, Mathieu; Bartley, Clarissa; Maechler, Pierre

    2005-11-04

    Dopamine signaling is mediated by five cloned receptors, grouped into D1-like (D1 and D5) and D2-like (D2, D3 and D4) families. We identified by reverse transcription-PCR the presence of dopamine receptors from both families in INS-1E insulin-secreting cells as well as in rodent and human isolated islets. D2 receptor expression was confirmed by immunodetection revealing localization on insulin secretory granules of INS-1E and primary rodent and human beta cells. We then tested potential effects mediated by the identified receptors on beta cell function. Dopamine (10 microM) and the D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole (5 microM) inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion tested in several models, i.e. INS-1E beta cells, fluorescence-activated cell-sorted primary rat beta cells, and pancreatic islets of rat, mouse, and human origin. Insulin exocytosis is controlled by metabolism coupled to cytosolic calcium changes. Measurements of glucose-induced mitochondrial hyperpolarization and ATP generation showed that dopamine and D2-like agonists did not inhibit glucose metabolism. On the other hand, dopamine decreased cell membrane depolarization as well as cytosolic calcium increases evoked by glucose stimulation in INS-1E beta cells. These results show for the first time that dopamine receptors are expressed in pancreatic beta cells. Dopamine inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, an effect that could be ascribed to D2-like receptors. Regarding the molecular mechanisms implicated in dopamine-mediated inhibition of insulin release, our results point to distal steps in metabolism-secretion coupling. Thus, the role played by dopamine in glucose homeostasis might involve dopamine receptors, expressed in pancreatic beta cells, modulating insulin release.

  16. Ultrastructural evidence for the accumulation of insulin in nuclei of intact 3T3-L1 adipocytes by an insulin-receptor mediated process

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.M.; Jarett, L.

    1987-01-01

    Monomeric ferritin-labeled insulin (F/sub m/-Ins), a biologically active, electron-dense marker of occupied insulin receptors, was used to characterize the internalization of insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. F/sub m/-Ins bound specifically to insulin receptors and was internalized in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. In the nucleus, several F/sub m/-Ins particles usually were found in the same general location-near nuclear pores, associated with the periphery of the condensed chromatin. Addition of a 250-fold excess of unlabeled insulin or incubation at 15/sup 0/C reduced the number of F/sub m/-Ins particles found in nuclei after 90 min by 99% or 92%, respectively. Nuclear accumulation of unlabeled ferritin was only 2% of that found with F/sub m/-Ins after 90 min at 37/sup 0/C. Biochemical experiments utilizing /sup 125/I-labeled insulin and subcellular fractionation indicated that intact 3T3-L1 adipocytes internalized insulin rapidly and that approx. = 3% of the internalized ligand accumulated in nuclei after 1 hr. These data provide biochemical and high-resolution ultrastructural evidence that 3T3-L1 adipocytes accumulate potentially significant amounts of insulin in nuclei by an insulin receptor-mediated process. The transport of insulin or the insulin-receptor complex to nuclei in this cell or in others may be directly involved in the long-term biological effects of insulin - in particular, in the control of DNA and RNA synthesis.

  17. Adenosine receptors mediate synergistic stimulation of glucose uptake and transport by insulin and by contractions in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Vergauwen, L; Hespel, P; Richter, E A

    1994-01-01

    The role of adenosine receptors in the regulation of muscle glucose uptake by insulin and contractions was studied in isolated rat hindquarters that were perfused with a standard medium containing no insulin or a submaximal concentration of 100 microU/ml. Adenosine receptor antagonism was induced by caffeine or 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxantine (CPDPX). Glucose uptake and transport were measured before and during 30 min of electrically induced muscle contractions. Caffeine nor CPDPX affected glucose uptake in resting hindquarters. In contrast, the contraction-induced increase in muscle glucose uptake was inhibited by 30-50% by caffeine, as well as by CPDPX, resulting in a 20-25% decrease in the absolute rate of glucose uptake during contractions, compared with control values. This inhibition was independent of the rate of perfusate flow and only occurred in hindquarters perfused with insulin added to the medium. Thus, adenosine receptor antagonism inhibited glucose uptake during simultaneous exposure to insulin and contractions only. Accordingly, caffeine inhibited 3-O-methylglucose uptake during contractions only in oxidative muscle fibers that are characterized by a high sensitivity to insulin. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate A1 receptors to regulate insulin-mediated glucose transport in contracting skeletal muscle. The findings provide evidence that stimulation of sarcolemmic adenosine receptors during contractions is involved in the synergistic stimulation of muscle glucose transport by insulin and by contractions. PMID:8132783

  18. Pinitol Supplementation Does Not Affect Insulin-Mediated Glucose Metabolism and Muscle Insulin Receptor Content and Phosphorylation in Older Humans12

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Wayne W.; Haub, Mark D.; Fluckey, James D.; Ostlund, Richard E.; Thyfault, John P.; Morse-Carrithers, Hannah; Hulver, Matthew W.; Birge, Zonda K.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of oral pinitol supplementation on oral and intravenous glucose tolerances and on skeletal muscle insulin receptor content and phosphorylation in older people. Fifteen people (6 men, 9 women; age 66 ± 8 y; BMI 27.9 ± 3.3 kg/m2; hemoglobin A1c 5.39 ± 0.46%, mean ± SD) completed a 7-wk protocol. Subjects were randomly assigned to groups that during wk 2−7 consumed twice daily either a non-nutritive beverage (Placebo group, n = 8) or the same beverage with 1000 mg pinitol dissolved into it (Pinitol group, n = 7, total dose = 2000 mg pinitol/d). Testing was done at wk 1 and wk 7. In the Pinitol group with supplementation, 24-h urinary pinitol excretion increased 17-fold. The fasting concentrations of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide, and the 180-min area under the curve for these compounds, in response to oral (75 g) and intravenous (300 mg/kg) glucose tolerance challenges, were unchanged from wk 1 to wk 7 and were not influenced by pinitol. Also, pinitol did not affect indices of hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity from the oral glucose tolerance test and indices of insulin sensitivity, acute insulin response to glucose, and glucose effectiveness from the intravenous glucose tolerance test, estimated using minimal modeling. Pinitol did not differentially affect total insulin receptor content and insulin receptor phosphotyrosine 1158 and insulin receptor phosphotyrosine 1162/1163 activation in vastus lateralis samples taken during an oral-glucose–induced hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic state. These data suggest that pinitol supplementation does not influence whole-body insulin-mediated glucose metabolism and muscle insulin receptor content and phosphorylation in nondiabetic, older people. PMID:15514265

  19. The type I interferon receptor mediates tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 2.

    PubMed

    Platanias, L C; Uddin, S; Yetter, A; Sun, X J; White, M F

    1996-01-05

    Binding of interferon alpha (IFN alpha) to its receptor induces activation of the Tyk-2 and Jak-1 tyrosine kinases and tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple downstream signaling elements, including the Stat components of the interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF-3). IFN alpha also induces tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1, the principle substrate of the insulin receptor. In this study we demonstrate that various Type I IFNs rapidly stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-2. This is significant since IRS-2 is the major IRS protein found in hematopoietic cells. The IFN alpha-induced phosphorylated form of IRS-2 associates with the p85 regulatory subunit of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase, suggesting that this kinase participates in an IFN alpha-signaling cascade downstream of IRS-2. We also provide evidence for an interaction of IRS-2 with Tyk-2, suggesting that Tyk-2 is the kinase that phosphorylates this protein during IFN alpha stimulation. A conserved region in the pleckstrin homology domain of IRS-2 may be required for the interaction of IRS-2 with Tyk-2, as shown by the selective binding of glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins containing the IRS-2-IH1PH or IRS-1-IH1PH domains to Tyk-2 but not other Janus kinases in vitro.

  20. Activation of oncogenic tyrosine kinase signaling promotes insulin receptor-mediated cone photoreceptor survival

    PubMed Central

    Rajala, Ammaji; Wang, Yuhong; Rajala, Raju V.S.

    2016-01-01

    In humans, daylight vision is primarily mediated by cone photoreceptors. These cells die in age-related retinal degenerations. Prolonging the life of cones for even one decade would have an enormous beneficial effect on usable vision in an aging population. Photoreceptors are postmitotic, but shed 10% of their outer segments daily, and must synthesize the membrane and protein equivalent of a proliferating cell each day. Although activation of oncogenic tyrosine kinase and inhibition of tyrosine phosphatase signaling is known to be essential for tumor progression, the cellular regulation of this signaling in postmitotic photoreceptor cells has not been studied. In the present study, we report that a novel G-protein coupled receptor–mediated insulin receptor (IR) signaling pathway is regulated by non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src through the inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase IB (PTP1B). We demonstrated the functional significance of this pathway through conditional deletion of IR and PTP1B in cones, in addition to delaying the death of cones in a mouse model of cone degeneration by activating the Src. This is the first study demonstrating the molecular mechanism of a novel signaling pathway in photoreceptor cells, which provides a window of opportunity to save the dying cones in retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:27391439

  1. Monoclonal antibody to the type I insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) receptor blocks IGF-I receptor-mediated DNA synthesis: clarification of the mitogenic mechanisms of IGF-I and insulin in human skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Flier, J.S.; Usher, P.; Moses, A.C.

    1986-02-01

    Insulin and insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-I) stimulate an overlapping spectrum of biological responses in human skin fibroblasts. Although insulin and IGF-I are known to stimulate the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine into DNA in these cells, the identify of the receptor(s) that mediates this effect has not been fully clarified. The mouse anti-human IGF-I receptor antibody ..cap alpha..IR-3 binds with specificity to IGF-I but not to insulin receptors in human placental membranes; it also specifically inhibits the binding of /sup 125/I-labeled IGF-I but not /sup 125/I-labeled insulin to suspensions of human skin fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. ..cap alpha..IR-3 competitively inhibits IGF-I-mediated stimulation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into DNA. This inhibition is dependent on the concentration of ..cap alpha..IR-3 and in the presence of a fixed antibody concentration can be partially overcome by high concentrations of IGF-I. In contrast, at concentrations of < 1 ..mu..g/ml, the effect of insulin to stimulate (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation is not inhibited by ..cap alpha..IR-3. However, the incremental effects of higher concentrations (> 1 ..mu..g/ml) of insulin on (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation are inhibited by ..cap alpha..IR-3. ..cap alpha..IR-3 is a highly specific antagonist of IGF-I receptor-mediated mitogenesis in human skin fibroblasts. By using this antibody, it is shown directly that insulin can act through the IGF-I receptor to stimulate DNA synthesis but can also activate this effect through the insulin receptor itself.

  2. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 mediates melanocyte transformation via transactivation of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Teh, Jessica L F; Shah, Raj; Shin, Seung-Shick; Wen, Yu; Mehnert, Janice M; Goydos, James; Chen, Suzie

    2014-07-01

    Our laboratory previously described the oncogenic properties of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) in melanocytes. mGluR1 transformed immortalized mouse melanocytes in vitro and induced vigorous tumor formation in vivo. Subsequently, we observed the activation of PI3K/AKT in mGluR1-mediated melanocytic tumorigenesis in vivo. In particular, we identified AKT2 being the predominant isoform contributing to the activation of AKT. Suppression of Grm1 or AKT2 using an inducible Tet-R siRNA system resulted in a 60 or 30% reduction, respectively, in in vivo tumorigenesis. We show that simultaneous downregulation of Grm1 plus AKT2 results in a reduction of approximately 80% in tumor volumes, suggesting that both mGluR1 and AKT2 contribute to the tumorigenic phenotype in vivo. The discrepancy between the mild in vitro transformation characteristics and the aggressive in vivo tumorigenic phenotypes of these stable mGluR1-melanocytic clones led us to investigate the possible involvement of other growth factors. Here, we highlight a potential crosstalk network between mGluR1 and tyrosine kinase, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Neuronal androgen receptor regulates insulin sensitivity via suppression of hypothalamic NF-κB-mediated PTP1B expression.

    PubMed

    Yu, I-Chen; Lin, Hung-Yun; Liu, Ning-Chun; Sparks, Janet D; Yeh, Shuyuan; Fang, Lei-Ya; Chen, Lumin; Chang, Chawnshang

    2013-02-01

    Clinical investigations highlight the increased incidence of metabolic syndrome in prostate cancer (PCa) patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Studies using global androgen receptor (AR) knockout mice demonstrate that AR deficiency results in the development of insulin resistance in males. However, mechanisms by which AR in individual organs coordinately regulates insulin sensitivity remain unexplored. Here we tested the hypothesis that functional AR in the brain contributes to whole-body insulin sensitivity regulation and to the metabolic abnormalities developed in AR-deficient male mice. The mouse model selectively lacking AR in the central nervous system and AR-expressing GT1-7 neuronal cells were established and used to delineate molecular mechanisms in insulin signaling modulated by AR. Neuronal AR deficiency leads to reduced insulin sensitivity in middle-aged mice. Neuronal AR regulates hypothalamic insulin signaling by repressing nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-mediated induction of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). Hypothalamic insulin resistance leads to hepatic insulin resistance, lipid accumulation, and visceral obesity. The functional deficiency of AR in the hypothalamus leads to male mice being more susceptible to the effects of high-fat diet consumption on PTP1B expression and NF-κB activation. These findings suggest that in men with PCa undergoing ADT, reduction of AR function in the brain may contribute to insulin resistance and visceral obesity. Pharmacotherapies targeting neuronal AR and NF-κB may be developed to combat the metabolic syndrome in men receiving ADT and in elderly men with age-associated hypogonadism.

  4. Neuronal Androgen Receptor Regulates Insulin Sensitivity via Suppression of Hypothalamic NF-κB–Mediated PTP1B Expression

    PubMed Central

    Yu, I-Chen; Lin, Hung-Yun; Liu, Ning-Chun; Sparks, Janet D.; Yeh, Shuyuan; Fang, Lei-Ya; Chen, Lumin; Chang, Chawnshang

    2013-01-01

    Clinical investigations highlight the increased incidence of metabolic syndrome in prostate cancer (PCa) patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Studies using global androgen receptor (AR) knockout mice demonstrate that AR deficiency results in the development of insulin resistance in males. However, mechanisms by which AR in individual organs coordinately regulates insulin sensitivity remain unexplored. Here we tested the hypothesis that functional AR in the brain contributes to whole-body insulin sensitivity regulation and to the metabolic abnormalities developed in AR-deficient male mice. The mouse model selectively lacking AR in the central nervous system and AR-expressing GT1-7 neuronal cells were established and used to delineate molecular mechanisms in insulin signaling modulated by AR. Neuronal AR deficiency leads to reduced insulin sensitivity in middle-aged mice. Neuronal AR regulates hypothalamic insulin signaling by repressing nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)–mediated induction of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). Hypothalamic insulin resistance leads to hepatic insulin resistance, lipid accumulation, and visceral obesity. The functional deficiency of AR in the hypothalamus leads to male mice being more susceptible to the effects of high-fat diet consumption on PTP1B expression and NF-κB activation. These findings suggest that in men with PCa undergoing ADT, reduction of AR function in the brain may contribute to insulin resistance and visceral obesity. Pharmacotherapies targeting neuronal AR and NF-κB may be developed to combat the metabolic syndrome in men receiving ADT and in elderly men with age-associated hypogonadism. PMID:23139353

  5. Inhibition of insulin/IGF-1 receptor signaling protects from mitochondria-mediated kidney failure

    PubMed Central

    Ising, Christina; Koehler, Sybille; Brähler, Sebastian; Merkwirth, Carsten; Höhne, Martin; Baris, Olivier R; Hagmann, Henning; Kann, Martin; Fabretti, Francesca; Dafinger, Claudia; Bloch, Wilhelm; Schermer, Bernhard; Linkermann, Andreas; Brüning, Jens C; Kurschat, Christine E; Müller, Roman-Ulrich; Wiesner, Rudolf J; Langer, Thomas; Benzing, Thomas; Brinkkoetter, Paul Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and alterations in energy metabolism have been implicated in a variety of human diseases. Mitochondrial fusion is essential for maintenance of mitochondrial function and requires the prohibitin ring complex subunit prohibitin-2 (PHB2) at the mitochondrial inner membrane. Here, we provide a link between PHB2 deficiency and hyperactive insulin/IGF-1 signaling. Deletion of PHB2 in podocytes of mice, terminally differentiated cells at the kidney filtration barrier, caused progressive proteinuria, kidney failure, and death of the animals and resulted in hyperphosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP), a known mediator of the mTOR signaling pathway. Inhibition of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling system through genetic deletion of the insulin receptor alone or in combination with the IGF-1 receptor or treatment with rapamycin prevented hyperphosphorylation of S6RP without affecting the mitochondrial structural defect, alleviated renal disease, and delayed the onset of kidney failure in PHB2-deficient animals. Evidently, perturbation of insulin/IGF-1 receptor signaling contributes to tissue damage in mitochondrial disease, which may allow therapeutic intervention against a wide spectrum of diseases. PMID:25643582

  6. Metabolic syndrome and colorectal cancer: is hyperinsulinemia/insulin receptor-mediated angiogenesis a critical process?

    PubMed

    Liu, Jane Jijun; Druta, Mihaela; Shibata, David; Coppola, Domenico; Boler, Ivette; Elahi, Abul; Reich, Richard R; Siegel, Erin; Extermann, Martine

    2014-01-01

    Components of metabolic syndrome (MS) have been individually linked to colorectal cancer risk and prognosis; however, an understanding of the dominant mechanisms is lacking. Twenty-one patients (10 MS; 11 non-MS) with resectable colorectal cancer were prospectively enrolled. Patients were classified for MS by the World Health Organization criteria and tested for circulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), fasting insulin, and tumor expression of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), insulin-receptor (IR) and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE). Circulating markers were re-tested 6 months after surgery. The MS group had significantly higher baseline and post-operative fasting insulin levels (p < 0.001 and 0.003). No differences were observed in circulating IL-6, VEGF, IGF-1 and free IGF-1. By immunohistochemistry (IHC), IGF-1R expression was significantly higher in tumor vs. normal tissues (p < 0.001) while IR expression showed no difference. Interestingly, 64% of tumors demonstrated high IR positivity in the vessels within or surrounding the tumor stroma, but not in the vessels away from the tumor. By reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), tumor IGF-1R over-expression (80%) was confirmed, but there was no difference between MS and non-MS patients. Tumor RAGE over-expression was found in 67% of patients and was equally distributed between the two groups. Hyperinsulinemia was the only significant factor distinguishing patients with colorectal cancer who have MS. The preferential over-expression of IR in the peri-tumoral microvessels suggests that hyperinsulinemia might contribute to colorectal cancer growth by enhancing angiogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Membrane receptor cross talk in gonadotropin-, IGF-I-, and insulin-mediated steroidogenesis in fish ovary: An overview.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Dilip; Majumder, Suravi; Roy Moulik, Sujata; Pal, Puja; Gupta, Shreyasi; Guha, Payel; Kumar, Dhynendra

    2017-01-01

    Gonadal steroidogenesis is critical for survival and reproduction of all animals. The pathways that regulate gonadal steroidogenesis are therefore conserved among animals from the steroidogenic enzymes to the intracellular signaling molecules and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate the activity of these enzymes. Regulation of fish ovarian steroidogenesis in vitro by gonadotropin (GtH) and GPCRs revealed interaction between adenylate cyclase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) and also MAP kinase pathway. Recent studies revealed another important pathway in GtH-induced fish ovarian steroidogenesis: cross talk between GPCRs and membrane receptor tyrosine kinases. Gonadotropin binding to Gαs-coupled membrane receptor in fish ovary leads to production of cAMP which in turn trans-activate the membrane-bound epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This is followed by activation of ERK1/2 signaling that promotes steroid production. Interestingly, GtH-induced trans-activation of EGFR in the fish ovary uniquely requires matrix-metalloproteinase-mediated release of EGF. Inhibition of these proteases blocks GtH-induced steroidogenesis. Increased cAMP production in fish ovarian follicle upregulate follicular cyp19a1a mRNA expression and aromatase activity leading to increased biosynthesis of 17β-estradiol (E2). Evidence for involvement of SF-1 protein in inducing cyp19a1a mRNA and aromatase activity has also been demonstrated. In addition to GtH, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and bovine insulin can alone induced steroidogenesis in fish ovary. In intact follicles and isolated theca cells, IGF-I and insulin had no effect on GtH-induced testosterone and 17a,hydroxysprogeaterone production. GtH-stimulated E2 and 17,20bdihydroxy-4-pregnane 3-one production in granulosa cells however, was significantly increased by IGF-I and insulin. Both IGF-I and insulin mediates their signaling via receptor tyrosine kinases leading to activation of PI3

  8. The Novel Functions of High-Molecular-Mass Complexes Containing Insulin Receptor Substrates in Mediation and Modulation of Insulin-Like Activities: Emerging Concept of Diverse Functions by IRS-Associated Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hakuno, Fumihiko; Fukushima, Toshiaki; Yoneyama, Yosuke; Kamei, Hiroyasu; Ozoe, Atsufumi; Yoshihara, Hidehito; Yamanaka, Daisuke; Shibano, Takashi; Sone-Yonezawa, Meri; Yu, Bu-Chin; Chida, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-like peptides, such as insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and insulin, induce a variety of bioactivities, such as growth, differentiation, survival, increased anabolism, and decreased catabolism in many cell types and in vivo. In general, IGFs or insulin bind to IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) or insulin receptor (IR), activating the receptor tyrosine kinase. Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) are known to be major substrates of receptor kinases, mediating IGF/insulin signals to direct bioactivities. Recently, we discovered that IRSs form high-molecular-mass complexes (referred to here as IRSomes) even without IGF/insulin stimulation. These complexes contain proteins (referred to here as IRSAPs; IRS-associated proteins), which modulate tyrosine phosphorylation of IRSs by receptor kinases, control IRS stability, and determine intracellular localization of IRSs. In addition, in these complexes, we found not only proteins that are involved in RNA metabolism but also RNAs themselves. Thus, IRSAPs possibly contribute to modulation of IGF/insulin bioactivities. Since it is established that disorder of modulation of insulin-like activities causes various age-related diseases including cancer, we could propose that the IRSome is an important target for treatment of these diseases. PMID:26074875

  9. Modulatory effect of insulin on T cell receptor mediated calcium signaling is blunted in long lasting type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Demkow, Urszula; Winklewski, Paweł; Ciepiela, Olga; Popko, Katarzyna; Lipińska, Anna; Kucharska, Anna; Michalska, Beata; Wąsik, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Insulin significantly influences Ca(2+) signals evoked by various stimulants. In type 1 recent onset diabetes mellitus the proliferative response of T cells is significantly decreased. The number of clinical trials exploring the role of anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) as a therapeutic agent in recent onset diabetes mellitus type 1 is increasing last years. Therefore, a better understanding of the interplay between T cell receptor (TCR) dependent Ca(2+) increase, and insulin is of vital clinical significance. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of insulin on TCR evoked Ca(2+) responses in T lymphocytes obtained from healthy volunteers and patients suffering from long lasting diabetes mellitus type 1. Analysis was performed with use of the flow cytometer. We demonstrated that T cells ability to mobilize Ca(2+) was significantly reduced in long lasting diabetes mellitus type 1. Ca(2+) decrease achieved by the long term incubation with anti-CD3 mAb in T cells from healthy volunteers was restored by insulin. Strong interrelationship between baseline Ca(2+) level and plateau phase response to TCR stimulation was observed in the cytoplasm of cells pre-incubated with insulin from both healthy subjects and diabetic patients (r = 0.95, p < 0.0001 and r = 0.94, p < 0.0001, respectively). We postulate the existence of the interplay between TCR mediated activation and insulin. The TCR-insulin interplay is blunted in long lasting diabetes mellitus type 1. These observations may have an important implication for future therapeutic options in diabetes.

  10. Insulin-Independent GABAA Receptor-Mediated Response in the Barrel Cortex of Mice with Impaired Met Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Fu-Sun; Erzurumlu, Reha S.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by genetic variants, susceptibility alleles, and environmental perturbations. The autism associated gene MET tyrosine kinase has been implicated in many behavioral domains and endophenotypes of autism, including abnormal neural signaling in human sensory cortex. We investigated somatosensory thalamocortical synaptic communication in mice deficient in Met activity in cortical excitatory neurons to gain insights into aberrant somatosensation characteristic of ASD. The ratio of excitation to inhibition is dramatically increased due to decreased postsynaptic GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition in the trigeminal thalamocortical pathway of mice lacking active Met in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, in contrast to wild-type mice, insulin failed to increase GABAA receptor-mediated response in the barrel cortex of mice with compromised Met signaling. Thus, lacking insulin effects may be a risk factor in ASD pathogenesis. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A proposed common cause of neurodevelopmental disorders is an imbalance in excitatory neural transmission, provided by the glutamatergic neurons, and the inhibitory signals from the GABAergic interneurons. Many genes associated with autism spectrum disorders impair synaptic transmission in the expected cell type. Previously, inactivation of the autism-associated Met tyrosine kinase receptor in GABAergic interneurons led to decreased inhibition. In thus report, decreased Met signaling in glutamatergic neurons had no effect on excitation, but decimated inhibition. Further experiments indicate that loss of Met activity downregulates GABAA receptors on glutamatergic neurons in an insulin independent manner. These data provide a new mechanism for the loss of inhibition and subsequent abnormal excitation/inhibition balance and potential molecular candidates for treatment or prevention. PMID:27030755

  11. Monoclonal Antibodies to the Human Insulin Receptor that Activate Glucose Transport but not Insulin Receptor Kinase Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsayeth, John R.; Caro, Jose F.; Sinha, Madhur K.; Maddux, Betty A.; Goldfine, Ira D.

    1987-05-01

    Three mouse monoclonal antibodies were produced that reacted with the α subunit of the human insulin receptor. All three both immunoprecipitated 125I-labeled insulin receptors from IM-9 lymphocytes and competitively inhibited 125I-labeled insulin binding to its receptor. Unlike insulin, the antibodies failed to stimulate receptor autophosphorylation in both intact IM-9 lymphocytes and purified human placental insulin receptors. Moreover, unlike insulin, the antibodies failed to stimulate receptor-mediated phosphorylation of exogenous substrates. However, like insulin, two of the three antibodies stimulated glucose transport in isolated human adipocytes. One antibody, on a molar basis, was as potent as insulin. These studies indicate, therefore, that monoclonal antibodies to the insulin receptor can mimic a major function of insulin without activating receptor kinase activity. They also raise the possibility that certain actions of insulin such as stimulation of glucose transport may not require the activation of receptor kinase activity.

  12. CK2 acts as a potent negative regulator of receptor-mediated insulin release in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Mario; Ruiz de Azua, Inigo; Barella, Luiz F.; Sakamoto, Wataru; Zhu, Lu; Cui, Yinghong; Lu, Huiyan; Rebholz, Heike; Matschinsky, Franz M.; Doliba, Nicolai M.; Butcher, Adrian J.; Tobin, Andrew B.; Wess, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate virtually all physiological functions including the release of insulin from pancreatic β-cells. β-Cell M3 muscarinic receptors (M3Rs) are known to play an essential role in facilitating insulin release and maintaining proper whole-body glucose homeostasis. As is the case with other GPCRs, M3R activity is regulated by phosphorylation by various kinases, including GPCR kinases and casein kinase 2 (CK2). At present, it remains unknown which of these various kinases are physiologically relevant for the regulation of β-cell activity. In the present study, we demonstrate that inhibition of CK2 in pancreatic β-cells, knockdown of CK2α expression, or genetic deletion of CK2α in β-cells of mutant mice selectively augmented M3R-stimulated insulin release in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies showed that this effect was associated with an M3R-mediated increase in intracellular calcium levels. Treatment of mouse pancreatic islets with CX4945, a highly selective CK2 inhibitor, greatly reduced agonist-induced phosphorylation of β-cell M3Rs, indicative of CK2-mediated M3R phosphorylation. We also showed that inhibition of CK2 greatly enhanced M3R-stimulated insulin secretion in human islets. Finally, CX4945 treatment protected mice against diet-induced hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in an M3R-dependent fashion. Our data demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, the physiological relevance of CK2 phosphorylation of a GPCR and suggest the novel concept that kinases acting on β-cell GPCRs may represent novel therapeutic targets. PMID:26598688

  13. Effect of Selective Mineralocorticoid Receptor Blockade on Flow-Mediated Dilation and Insulin Resistance in Older Adults with Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Luttrell, Meredith; Meade, Thomas H; English, Mark; Christou, Demetra D

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is especially high in older adults. Metabolic syndrome is associated with impaired vascular endothelial function, insulin resistance, and increased risk for cardiovascular disease but the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Plasma aldosterone is independently associated with metabolic syndrome and is linked to endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance. Thus, we hypothesized that mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blockade would improve flow-mediated dilation and insulin resistance in older adults with metabolic syndrome. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a balanced, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study using selective MR blockade (eplerenone; 100 mg/day) for 1 month with 1 month washout in older adults with metabolic syndrome (62.6 ± 3.2 yrs; mean ± standard error). We evaluated brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (ultrasonography), oxidative stress (oxidized low-density lipoproteins and F2-isoprostanes) and insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment). In response to MR blockade, flow-mediated dilation (5.37 ± 0.85 vs. 5.98 ± 1.29%; placebo vs. eplerenone; P = 0.4), oxidized low-density lipoproteins (51.6 ± 11.5 vs. 56.1 ± 10.9 U/L; P = 0.6), and F2-isoprostanes (0.07 ± 0.02 vs. 0.06 ± 0.01 pg/mL; P = 0.3) did not improve. Insulin resistance also did not change following MR blockade (1.04 ± 0.26 vs. 1.38 ± 0.50; P = 0.6). However, MR blockade resulted in a large reduction (10 mmHg) in systolic blood pressure (140 ± 6 vs. 130 ± 6 mmHg; P = 0.02), with no significant change in diastolic blood pressure (81 ± 3 vs. 75 ± 2 mmHg; P = 0.2). Our data do not support a contributing role for MRs in endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance in older adults with metabolic syndrome. However, our findings suggest MR activation is an important contributor to systolic hypertension in

  14. Protein kinase activity of the insulin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Gammeltoft, S; Van Obberghen, E

    1986-01-01

    The insulin receptor is an integral membrane glycoprotein (Mr approximately 300,000) composed of two alpha-subunits (Mr approximately 130,000) and two beta-subunits (Mr approximately 95,000) linked by disulphide bonds. This oligomeric structure divides the receptor into two functional domains such that alpha-subunits bind insulin and beta-subunits possess tyrosine kinase activity. The amino acid sequence deduced from cDNA of the single polypeptide chain precursor of human placental insulin receptor revealed that alpha- and beta-subunits consist of 735 and 620 residues, respectively. The alpha-subunit is hydrophilic, disulphide-bonded, glycosylated and probably extracellular. The beta-subunit consists of a short extracellular region which links the alpha-subunit through disulphide bridges, a hydrophobic transmembrane region and a longer cytoplasmic region which is structurally homologous with other tyrosine kinases like the src oncogene product and EGF receptor kinases. The cellular function of insulin receptors is dual: transmembrane signalling and endocytosis of hormone. The binding of insulin to its receptor on the cell membrane induces transfer of signal from extracellular to cytoplasmic receptor domains leading to activation of cell metabolism and growth. In addition, hormone-receptor complexes are internalized leading to intracellular proteolysis of insulin, whereas receptors are recycled to the membrane. These phenomena are kinetically well-characterized, but their molecular mechanisms remain obscure. Insulin receptor in different tissues and animal species are homologous in their structure and function, but show also significant differences regarding size of alpha-subunits, binding kinetics, insulin specificity and receptor-mediated degradation. We suggest that this heterogeneity of receptors may be linked to the diversity in insulin effects on metabolism and growth in various cell types. The purified insulin receptor phosphorylates its own beta-subunit and

  15. Signal transduction cross talk mediated by Jun N-terminal kinase-interacting protein and insulin receptor substrate scaffold protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Standen, Claire L; Kennedy, Norman J; Flavell, Richard A; Davis, Roger J

    2009-09-01

    Scaffold proteins have been established as important mediators of signal transduction specificity. The insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins represent a critical group of scaffold proteins that are required for signal transduction by the insulin receptor, including the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase. The c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK)-interacting proteins (JIPs) represent a different group of scaffold molecules that are implicated in the regulation of the JNK. These two signaling pathways are functionally linked because JNK can phosphorylate IRS1 on the negative regulatory site Ser-307. Here we demonstrate the physical association of these signaling pathways using a proteomic approach that identified insulin-regulated complexes of JIPs together with IRS scaffold proteins. Studies using mice with JIP scaffold protein defects confirm that the JIP1 and JIP2 proteins are required for normal glucose homeostasis. Together, these observations demonstrate that JIP proteins can influence insulin-stimulated signal transduction mediated by IRS proteins.

  16. Tetramethylpyrazine reduces glucose and insulin-induced activation of hepatic stellate cells by inhibiting insulin receptor-mediated PI3K/AKT and ERK pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Zili; Kong, Desong; Zhang, Xiaoping; Chen, Li; Zhu, Xiaojing; Lu, Yin; Zheng, Shizhong

    2014-01-25

    Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation is the central event during liver fibrogenesis. Metabolic syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia contributes to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-associated liver fibrosis. This study was to investigate the effects of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) on HSC activation induced by glucose and insulin (Glu/Ins) and the underlying mechanisms. Results showed that Glu/Ins significantly stimulated proliferation, invasion, adhesion, and extracellular matrix (ECM) production in HSCs. TMP inhibited HSC proliferation, invasion and adhesion, and reduced the expression of marker genes related to HSC activation in Glu/Ins-activated HSCs. Mechanistic evidence revealed that TMP reduced insulin receptor (InsR) expression and blocked the downstream phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascades, which was required for TMP attenuation of HSC activation. Moreover, TMP modulated the genes relevant to ECM homeostasis favoring ECM degradation. It could be concluded that TMP inhibited Glu/Ins-stimulated HSC activation and ECM production by inhibiting InsR-mediated PI3K/AKT and ERK pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quercetin ameliorates chronic unpredicted stress-mediated memory dysfunction in male Swiss albino mice by attenuating insulin resistance and elevating hippocampal GLUT4 levels independent of insulin receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vineet; Parashar, Arun; Sharma, Arun; Singh, Tiratha Raj; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2017-03-01

    Chronic stress is associated with impaired neuronal functioning, altered insulin signaling, and behavioral dysfunction. Quercetin has shown neuroprotective and antidiabetic effects, besides modulating cognition and insulin signaling. Therefore, in the present study, we explored whether or not quercetin ameliorates stress-mediated cognitive dysfunction and explored the underlying mechanism. Swiss albino male mice were subjected to an array of unpredicted stressors for 21days, during which 30mg/kg quercetin treatment was given orally. The effect of chronic unpredicted stress (CUS) and quercetin treatment on cognition were evaluated using novel object recognition (NOR) and Morris water maze (MWM) tests. Hippocampal neuronal integrity was observed by histopathological examination. Blood glucose, serum corticosterone, and insulin levels were measured by commercial kits and insulin resistance was evaluated in terms of HOMA-IR index. Hippocampal insulin signaling was determined by immunofluorescence staining. CUS induced significant cognitive dysfunction (NOR and MWM) and severely damaged hippocampal neurons, especially in the CA3 region. Quercetin treatment alleviated memory dysfunction and rescued neurons from CUS-mediated damage. Fasting blood glucose, serum corticosterone, and serum insulin were significantly elevated in stressed animals, besides, having significantly higher HOMA-IR index, suggesting the development of insulin resistance. Quercetin treatment alleviated insulin resistance and attenuated altered biochemical parameters. CUS markedly down-regulated insulin signaling in CA3 region and quercetin treatment improved neuronal GLUT4 expression, which seemed to be independent of insulin and insulin receptor levels. These results suggest that intact insulin functioning in the hippocampus is essential for cognitive functions and quercetin improves CUS-mediated cognitive dysfunction by modulating hippocampal insulin signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  18. The gut microbiota suppresses insulin-mediated fat accumulation via the short-chain fatty acid receptor GPR43.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Ikuo; Ozawa, Kentaro; Inoue, Daisuke; Imamura, Takeshi; Kimura, Kumi; Maeda, Takeshi; Terasawa, Kazuya; Kashihara, Daiji; Hirano, Kanako; Tani, Taeko; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Miyauchi, Satoshi; Shioi, Go; Inoue, Hiroshi; Tsujimoto, Gozoh

    2013-01-01

    The gut microbiota affects nutrient acquisition and energy regulation of the host, and can influence the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. During feeding, gut microbes produce short-chain fatty acids, which are important energy sources for the host. Here we show that the short-chain fatty acid receptor GPR43 links the metabolic activity of the gut microbiota with host body energy homoeostasis. We demonstrate that GPR43-deficient mice are obese on a normal diet, whereas mice overexpressing GPR43 specifically in adipose tissue remain lean even when fed a high-fat diet. Raised under germ-free conditions or after treatment with antibiotics, both types of mice have a normal phenotype. We further show that short-chain fatty acid-mediated activation of GPR43 suppresses insulin signalling in adipocytes, which inhibits fat accumulation in adipose tissue and promotes the metabolism of unincorporated lipids and glucose in other tissues. These findings establish GPR43 as a sensor for excessive dietary energy, thereby controlling body energy utilization while maintaining metabolic homoeostasis.

  19. C-Reactive Protein Causes Insulin Resistance in Mice Through Fcγ Receptor IIB–Mediated Inhibition of Skeletal Muscle Glucose Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Tanigaki, Keiji; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Barrera, Jose A.; Atochin, Dmitriy N.; Huang, Paul L.; Bonvini, Ezio; Shaul, Philip W.; Mineo, Chieko

    2013-01-01

    Elevations in C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance. Whether CRP plays a causal role is unknown. Here we show that CRP transgenic mice and wild-type mice administered recombinant CRP are insulin resistant. Mice lacking the inhibitory Fcγ receptor IIB (FcγRIIB) are protected from CRP-induced insulin resistance, and immunohistochemistry reveals that FcγRIIB is expressed in skeletal muscle microvascular endothelium and is absent in skeletal muscle myocytes, adipocytes, and hepatocytes. The primary mechanism in glucose homeostasis disrupted by CRP is skeletal muscle glucose delivery, and CRP attenuates insulin-induced skeletal muscle blood flow. CRP does not impair skeletal muscle glucose delivery in FcγRIIB−/− mice or in endothelial nitric oxide synthase knock-in mice with phosphomimetic modification of Ser1176, which is normally phosphorylated by insulin signaling to stimulate nitric oxide–mediated skeletal muscle blood flow and glucose delivery and is dephosphorylated by CRP/FcγRIIB. Thus, CRP causes insulin resistance in mice through FcγRIIB-mediated inhibition of skeletal muscle glucose delivery. PMID:23069625

  20. Diabetes reduces basal retinal insulin receptor signaling: reversal with systemic and local insulin.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Chad E N; Wu, Xiaohua; Sandirasegarane, Lakshman; Nakamura, Makoto; Gilbert, Kirk A; Singh, Ravi S J; Fort, Patrice E; Antonetti, David A; Gardner, Thomas W

    2006-04-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by early onset of neuronal cell death. We previously showed that insulin mediates a prosurvival pathway in retinal neurons and that normal retina expresses a highly active basal insulin receptor/Akt signaling pathway that is stable throughout feeding and fasting. Using the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model, we tested the hypothesis that diabetes diminishes basal retinal insulin receptor signaling concomitantly with increased diabetes-induced retinal apoptosis. The expression, phosphorylation status, and/or kinase activity of the insulin receptor and downstream signaling proteins were investigated in retinas of age-matched control, diabetic, and insulin-treated diabetic rats. Four weeks of diabetes reduced basal insulin receptor kinase, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1/2-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and Akt kinase activity without altering insulin receptor or IRS-1/2 expression or tyrosine phosphorylation. After 12 weeks of diabetes, constitutive insulin receptor autophosphorylation and IRS-2 expression were reduced, without changes in p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase or IRS-1. Sustained systemic insulin treatment of diabetic rats prevented loss of insulin receptor and Akt kinase activity, and acute intravitreal insulin administration restored insulin receptor kinase activity. Insulin treatment restored insulin receptor-beta autophosphorylation in rat retinas maintained ex vivo, demonstrating functional receptors and suggesting loss of ligand as a cause for reduced retinal insulin receptor/Akt pathway activity. These results demonstrate that diabetes progressively impairs the constitutive retinal insulin receptor signaling pathway through Akt and suggests that loss of this survival pathway may contribute to the initial stages of diabetic retinopathy.

  1. Cathepsin Inhibition Prevents Autophagic Protein Turnover and Downregulates Insulin Growth Factor-1 Receptor-Mediated Signaling in Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Soori, Mehrnoosh; Lu, Guizhen; Mason, Robert W

    2016-02-01

    Inhibition of the major lysosomal proteases, cathepsins B, D, and L, impairs growth of several cell types but leads to apoptosis in neuroblastoma. The goal of this study was to examine the mechanisms by which enzyme inhibition could cause cell death. Cathepsin inhibition caused cellular accumulation of fragments of the insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor. The fragments were located in dense organelles that were characterized as autophagosomes. This novel discovery provides the first clear link between lysosomal function, autophagy, and IGF-1- mediated cell proliferation. A more in-depth analysis of the IGF1 signaling pathway revealed that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cell-proliferation pathway was impaired in inhibitor treated cells, whereas the Akt cell survival pathway remained functional. Shc, an adapter protein that transmits IGF-1 signaling through the MAPK pathway, was sequestered in autophagosomes; whereas IRS-2, an adapter protein that transmits IGF-1 signaling through the Akt pathway, was unaffected by cathepsin inhibition. Furthermore, Shc was sequestered in autophagosomes as its active form, indicating that autophagy is a key mechanism for downregulating IGF-1-induced cell proliferation. Cathepsin inhibition had a greater effect on autophagic sequestration of the neuronal specific adapter protein, Shc-C, than ubiquitously expressed Shc-A, providing mechanistic support for the enhanced sensitivity of neuronally derived tumor cells. We also observed impaired activation of MAPK by epidermal growth factor treatment in inhibitor-treated cells. The Shc adapter proteins are central to transducing proliferation signaling by a range of receptor tyrosine kinases; consequently, cathepsin inhibition may become an important therapeutic approach for treating neuroblastoma and other tumors of neuronal origin.

  2. Insulin receptor in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Petruzzelli, L.; Herrera, R.; Rosen, O.

    1986-05-01

    A specific, high affinity insulin receptor is present in both adult Drosophila and in Drosophila embryos. Wheat germ lectin-enriched extracts of detergent-solubilized membranes from embryos and adults bind insulin with a K/sub d/ of 15 nM. Binding is specific for insulin; micromolar concentrations of proinsulin, IGFI, and IGFII are required to displace bound /sup 125/I-insulin. Insulin-dependent protein tyrosine kinase activity appears during embryogenesis. It is evident between 6 and 12 hours of development, peaks between 12 and 18 hours and falls in the adult. During 0-6 hours of embryogenesis, and in the adult, a specific protein band (Mr = 135,000) is crosslinked to /sup 125/I-insulin. During 6-12 and 12-18 hours of embryogenesis stages in which insulin-dependent protein tyrosine kinase is high, an additional band (Mr = 100,000) becomes crosslinked to /sup 125/I-insulin. Isolation and DNA sequence analysis of genomic clones encoding the Drosophila insulin receptor will be presented as will the characterization of insulin receptor mRNA's during development.

  3. Evidence for a glutamate receptor of the AMPA subtype which mediates insulin release from rat perfused pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, G.; Gross, R.; Puech, R.; Loubatières-Mariani, M. M.; Bockaert, J.

    1992-01-01

    1. The effect of L-glutamate has been studied on insulin secretion by the isolated perfused pancreas of the rat. The glutamate receptor subtype involved has been characterized. 2. In the presence of a slightly stimulating glucose concentration (8.3 mM), L-glutamate (5 x 10(-5)-4 x 10(-3) M) induced an immediate, transient and concentration-dependent insulin response. On the other hand, in the presence of a non stimulating glucose concentration (2.8 mM), L-glutamate (10(-3) M) did not modify the basal insulin secretion. 3. The three non-NMDA receptor agonists, kainate (10(-4)-10(-3) M), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA, 5 x 10(-5)-10(-4) M) and quisqualate (5 x 10(-6)-5 x 10(-5) M) all provoked a transient and concentration-dependent insulin response from pancreas perfused with 8.3 mM glucose. Compared with glutamate, kainate exhibited a similar efficacy, whereas AMPA and quisqualate elicited only a 3 fold lower maximal insulin response. In contrast, NMDA (10(-4)-10(-3) M) was ineffective. 4. An antagonist of non-NMDA receptors, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX; 5 x 10(-5) M) totally prevented the stimulatory effect of L-glutamate (4 x 10(-4) M) and kainate (2 x 10(-4) M). In contrast, the NMDA receptor antagonist, (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine ((+) MK801) was without effect. 5. The insulin secretory effect of glutamate (4 x 10(-4) M) was not affected by atropine (3 x 10(-7) M) or tetrodotoxin (3 x 10(-6) M). 6. Quisqualate at a high maximally effective concentration (4 x 10(-4) M) inhibited glutamate (10(-3) M) or kainate (4 x 10(-4) M)-induced insulin release. 7. This study shows that L-glutamate stimulates insulin secretion in rat pancreas, by acting on an excitatory amino acid receptor of the AMPA subtype. PMID:1382779

  4. Insulin receptor substrate 1 rescues insulin action in CHO cells expressing mutant insulin receptors that lack a juxtamembrane NPXY motif.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, D; Van Horn, D J; White, M F; Backer, J M

    1995-01-01

    Insulin signals are mediated through tyrosine phosphorylation of specific proteins such as insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and Shc by the activated insulin receptor (IR). Phosphorylation of both proteins is nearly abolished by an alanine substitution at Tyr-960 (A960) in the beta-subunit of the receptor. However, overexpression of IRS-1 in CHO cells expressing the mutant receptor (A960 cells) restored sufficient tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 to rescue IRS-1/Grb-2 binding and phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase activation during insulin stimulation. Shc tyrosine phosphorylation and its binding to Grb-2 were impaired in the A960 cells and were unaffected by overexpression of IRS-1. Although overexpression of IRS-1 increased IRS-1 binding to Grb-2, ERK-1/ERK-2 activation was not rescued. These data suggest that signaling molecules other than IRS-1, perhaps including Shc, are critical for insulin stimulation of p21ras. Interestingly, overexpression of IRS-1 in the A960 cells restored insulin-stimulated mitogenesis and partially restored insulin stimulation of glycogen synthesis. Thus, IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation is sufficient to increase the mitogenic response to insulin, whereas insulin stimulation of glycogen synthesis appears to involve other factors. Moreover, IRS-1 phosphorylation is either not sufficient or not involved in insulin stimulation of ERK. PMID:7651388

  5. Natural anti-diabetic compound 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-D-glucopyranose binds to insulin receptor and activates insulin-mediated glucose transport signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunsheng; Kim, Jaekyung; Li, Jing; Liu, Fang; Liu, Xueqing; Himmeldirk, Klaus; Ren, Yulin; Wagner, Thomas E; Chen, Xiaozhuo

    2005-10-21

    Insulin mimetics from natural sources are potential therapeutics that can act alone or supplement insulin and other anti-diabetic drugs in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. We recently reported the insulin-like glucose transport stimulatory activity of tannic acid (TA) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In this study, we find that chemically synthesized 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (beta-PGG), one of the components of TA, as well as its natural anomer alpha-PGG possess activity. Mechanistic studies in adipocytes with alpha-PGG, the more potent of the two anomers, reveal that inhibitors that block the insulin-mediated glucose transport, including one that inhibits the insulin receptor (IR), also completely abolish the glucose transport activated by alpha-PGG. In addition, alpha-PGG induces phosphorylation of the IR and Akt, activates PI 3-kinase, and stimulates membrane translocation of GLUT 4. Receptor binding studies indicate that alpha-PGG binds to the IR and affects the binding between insulin and IR by reducing the maximum binding of insulin to IR without significantly altering the binding affinity of insulin to IR. Western blotting analysis of the products of a cross-linking reaction suggests that alpha-PGG may bind to IR at a site located on the alpha-subunit of the receptor. Animal studies demonstrate that PGG reduces blood glucose levels and improves glucose tolerance in diabetic and obese animals. Our results suggest that PGG may serve as a model for the development of new types of anti-diabetic and anti-metabolic syndrome therapeutics.

  6. Nuclear hormone receptor DHR96 mediates the resistance to xenobiotics but not the increased lifespan of insulin-mutant Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Afschar, Sonita; Toivonen, Janne M.; Tain, Luke Stephen; Wieser, Daniela; Finlayson, Andrew John; Driege, Yasmine; Alic, Nazif; Emran, Sahar; Stinn, Julia; Froehlich, Jenny; Piper, Matthew D.; Partridge, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Lifespan of laboratory animals can be increased by genetic, pharmacological, and dietary interventions. Increased expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, together with resistance to xenobiotics, are frequent correlates of lifespan extension in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila, and mice. The Green Theory of Aging suggests that this association is causal, with the ability of cells to rid themselves of lipophilic toxins limiting normal lifespan. To test this idea, we experimentally increased resistance of Drosophila to the xenobiotic dichlordiphenyltrichlorethan (DDT), by artificial selection or by transgenic expression of a gene encoding a cytochrome P450. Although both interventions increased DDT resistance, neither increased lifespan. Furthermore, dietary restriction increased lifespan without increasing xenobiotic resistance, confirming that the two traits can be uncoupled. Reduced activity of the insulin/Igf signaling (IIS) pathway increases resistance to xenobiotics and extends lifespan in Drosophila, and can also increase longevity in C. elegans, mice, and possibly humans. We identified a nuclear hormone receptor, DHR96, as an essential mediator of the increased xenobiotic resistance of IIS mutant flies. However, the IIS mutants remained long-lived in the absence of DHR96 and the xenobiotic resistance that it conferred. Thus, in Drosophila IIS mutants, increased xenobiotic resistance and enhanced longevity are not causally connected. The frequent co-occurrence of the two traits may instead have evolved because, in nature, lowered IIS can signal the presence of pathogens. It will be important to determine whether enhanced xenobiotic metabolism is also a correlated, rather than a causal, trait in long-lived mice. PMID:26787908

  7. Nuclear hormone receptor DHR96 mediates the resistance to xenobiotics but not the increased lifespan of insulin-mutant Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Afschar, Sonita; Toivonen, Janne M; Hoffmann, Julia Marianne; Tain, Luke Stephen; Wieser, Daniela; Finlayson, Andrew John; Driege, Yasmine; Alic, Nazif; Emran, Sahar; Stinn, Julia; Froehlich, Jenny; Piper, Matthew D; Partridge, Linda

    2016-02-02

    Lifespan of laboratory animals can be increased by genetic, pharmacological, and dietary interventions. Increased expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, together with resistance to xenobiotics, are frequent correlates of lifespan extension in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila, and mice. The Green Theory of Aging suggests that this association is causal, with the ability of cells to rid themselves of lipophilic toxins limiting normal lifespan. To test this idea, we experimentally increased resistance of Drosophila to the xenobiotic dichlordiphenyltrichlorethan (DDT), by artificial selection or by transgenic expression of a gene encoding a cytochrome P450. Although both interventions increased DDT resistance, neither increased lifespan. Furthermore, dietary restriction increased lifespan without increasing xenobiotic resistance, confirming that the two traits can be uncoupled. Reduced activity of the insulin/Igf signaling (IIS) pathway increases resistance to xenobiotics and extends lifespan in Drosophila, and can also increase longevity in C. elegans, mice, and possibly humans. We identified a nuclear hormone receptor, DHR96, as an essential mediator of the increased xenobiotic resistance of IIS mutant flies. However, the IIS mutants remained long-lived in the absence of DHR96 and the xenobiotic resistance that it conferred. Thus, in Drosophila IIS mutants, increased xenobiotic resistance and enhanced longevity are not causally connected. The frequent co-occurrence of the two traits may instead have evolved because, in nature, lowered IIS can signal the presence of pathogens. It will be important to determine whether enhanced xenobiotic metabolism is also a correlated, rather than a causal, trait in long-lived mice.

  8. Simulation model of defective insulin receptors as byproducts of receptor recycling.

    PubMed

    Kurbel, B; Kurbel, S; Kristek, Z; Jakić, M; Jurić, M; Sulava, D

    1997-08-01

    Our simulation model assumes that the defective insulin-binding receptors in non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) patients result from functional receptor recycling. The model is a short program written in MS DOS 5.0 Qbasic. MODEL DESIGN: Receptors with intracellular portions damaged in the process of recycling are considered defective since they bind insulin but do mediate insulin effects, or recycle. Their occurrence depends on the average activation rate of functional receptors. The insulin-binding receptors (defective and functional) are objects of slow and time-dependent turnover defined by the turnover rate. Recycled receptors rejoin functional receptors or enter the pool of defective receptors. The waste in the functional receptors' pool is covered by a limited amount of newly synthesized receptors. The defective receptors often accumulate in cases of increased activation of functional receptors. SIMULATION RESULTS: The insulin-binding receptor quantity is determined, in the model, only by the number of newly synthesized receptors, reflecting the intensity of insulin stimulation. Synthesis is increased following variable insulin stimulations and decreased after sustained, intensive insulin stimulation. The number of functional receptors inversely reflects the average activation rate of functional receptors compared with the insulin-binding receptors turnover rate. High activation rates can diminish the proportion of functional receptors to less than 5% of that of all insulin-binding receptors. The model predicts that cells bearing only functional receptors show progressively shortened half-lives of receptors, reflecting the receptor activation intensity. On the other hand, cells bearing both defective and functional receptors show stable receptors' half-lives (20-36% of the defective receptors' half-life). Simulation results suggest that reduced functional receptor proportions in NIDDM patients might reflect the imbalance between the activation of

  9. Insulin Receptor Signaling in Cones*

    PubMed Central

    Rajala, Ammaji; Dighe, Radhika; Agbaga, Martin-Paul; Anderson, Robert E.; Rajala, Raju V.S.

    2013-01-01

    In humans, age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy are the most common disorders affecting cones. In retinitis pigmentosa (RP), cone cell death precedes rod cell death. Systemic administration of insulin delays the death of cones in RP mouse models lacking rods. To date there are no studies on the insulin receptor signaling in cones; however, mRNA levels of IR signaling proteins are significantly higher in cone-dominant neural retina leucine zipper (Nrl) knock-out mouse retinas compared with wild type rod-dominant retinas. We previously reported that conditional deletion of the p85α subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in cones resulted in age-related cone degeneration, and the phenotype was not rescued by healthy rods, raising the question of why cones are not protected by the rod-derived cone survival factors. Interestingly, systemic administration of insulin has been shown to delay the death of cones in mouse models of RP lacking rods. These observations led to the hypothesis that cones may have their own endogenous neuroprotective pathway, or rod-derived cone survival factors may be signaled through cone PI3K. To test this hypothesis we generated p85α−/−/Nrl−/− double knock-out mice and also rhodopsin mutant mice lacking p85α and examined the effect of the p85α subunit of PI3K on cone survival. We found that the rate of cone degeneration is significantly faster in both of these models compared with respective mice with competent p85α. These studies suggest that cones may have their own endogenous PI3K-mediated neuroprotective pathway in addition to the cone viability survival signals derived from rods. PMID:23673657

  10. Insulin receptor-mediated nutritional signalling regulates juvenile hormone biosynthesis and vitellogenin production in the German cockroach.

    PubMed

    Abrisqueta, Marc; Süren-Castillo, Songül; Maestro, José L

    2014-06-01

    Female reproductive processes, which comprise, amongst others, the synthesis of yolk proteins and the endocrine mechanisms which regulate this synthesis, need a considerable amount of energy and resources. The role of communicating that the required nutritional status has been attained is carried out by nutritional signalling pathways and, in particular, by the insulin receptor (InR) pathway. In the present study, using the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, as a model, we analysed the role of InR in different processes, but mainly those related to juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis and vitellogenin production. We first cloned the InR cDNA from B. germanica (BgInR) and then determined that its expression levels were constant in corpora allata and fat body during the first female gonadotrophic cycle. Results showed that the observed increase in BgInR mRNA in fat body from starved compared to fed females was abolished in those females treated with systemic RNAi in vivo against the transcription factor BgFoxO. RNAi-mediated BgInR knockdown during the final two nymphal stages produced significant delays in the moults, together with smaller adult females which could not spread the fore- and hindwings properly. In addition, BgInR knockdown led to a severe inhibition of juvenile hormone synthesis in adult female corpora allata, with a concomitant reduction of mRNA levels corresponding to 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) synthase-1, HMG-CoA synthase-2, HMG-CoA reductase and methyl farnesoate epoxidase. BgInR RNAi treatment also reduced fat body vitellogenin mRNA and oocyte growth. Our results show that BgInR knockdown produces similar phenotypes to those obtained in starved females in terms of corpora allata activity and vitellogenin synthesis, and indicate that the InR pathway mediates the activation of JH biosynthesis and vitellogenin production elicited by nutrition signalling.

  11. Conjugated Linoleic Acids Mediate Insulin Release through Islet G Protein-coupled Receptor FFA1/GPR40*

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Johannes; Liebscher, Kathrin; Merten, Nicole; Grundmann, Manuel; Mielenz, Manfred; Sauerwein, Helga; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Due-Hansen, Maria E.; Ulven, Trond; Ullrich, Susanne; Gomeza, Jesús; Drewke, Christel; Kostenis, Evi

    2011-01-01

    Among dietary components, conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) have attracted considerable attention as weight loss supplements in the Western world because they reduce fat stores and increase muscle mass. However, a number of adverse effects are also ascribed to the intake of CLAs such as aggravation of insulin resistance and the risk of developing diabetes. However, the mechanisms accounting for the effects of CLAs on glucose homeostasis are incompletely understood. Herein we provide evidence that CLAs specifically activate the cell surface receptor FFA1, an emerging therapeutic target to treat type 2 diabetes. Using different recombinant cellular systems engineered to stably express FFA1 and a set of diverse functional assays including the novel, label-free non-invasive dynamic mass redistribution technology (Corning® Epic® biosensor), both CLA isomers cis-9, trans-11-CLA and trans-10, cis-12-CLA were found to activate FFA1 in vitro at concentrations sufficient to also account for FFA1 activation in vivo. Each CLA isomer markedly increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in insulin-producing INS-1E cells that endogenously express FFA1 and in primary pancreatic β-cells of wild type but not FFA1−/− knock-out mice. Our findings establish a clear mechanistic link between CLAs and insulin production and identify the cell surface receptor FFA1 as a molecular target for CLAs, explaining their acute stimulatory effects on insulin secretion in vivo. CLAs are also revealed as insulinotropic components in widely used nutraceuticals, a finding with significant implication for development of FFA1 modulators to treat type 2 diabetes. PMID:21339298

  12. Insulin-Dependent Regulation of Insulin Receptor Concentrations: A Direct Demonstration in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, James R.; Roth, Jesse; Neville, David M.; De Meyts, Pierre; Buell, Donald N.

    1974-01-01

    Chronic (5-16 hr) exposure of cultured human lymphocytes to 10-8 M insulin at 37° in vitro produced a decrease in insulin receptor concentrations unaccounted for by simple occupancy of sites; acute exposure (0-2 hr) was without effect. These results reproduced observations in vivo where chronic hyperinsulinemia (e.g., 10-8 M insulin in the circulation of obese insulinresistant hyperglycemic mice) is associated with a substantial reduction in the concentration of insulin receptors per cell, while acute hyperinsulinemia in vivo has no effect on receptor concentration. These data suggest a reciprocal relationship between insulin in the extracellular fluid and the concentration of insulin receptors per cell, which is mediated at the target cell itself by intracellular insulin-sensitive regulatory processes and directly affects target-cell sensitivity to hormone. PMID:4359334

  13. Therapeutic potential of the dual peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)α/γ agonist aleglitazar in attenuating TNF-α-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Massaro, Marika; Scoditti, Egeria; Pellegrino, Mariangela; Carluccio, Maria Annunziata; Calabriso, Nadia; Wabitsch, Martin; Storelli, Carlo; Wright, Matthew; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2016-05-01

    Adipose tissue inflammation is a mechanistic link between obesity and its related sequelae, including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Dual ligands of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)α and γ, combining in a single molecule the metabolic and inflammatory-regulatory properties of α and γ agonists, have been proposed as a promising therapeutic strategy to antagonize adipose tissue inflammation. Here we investigated the effects of the dual PPARα/γ agonist aleglitazar on human adipocytes challenged with inflammatory stimuli. Human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes were treated with aleglitazar or - for comparison - the selective agonists for PPARα or γ fenofibrate or rosiglitazone, respectively, for 24h before stimulation with TNF-α. Aleglitazar, at concentrations as low as 10nmol/L, providing the half-maximal transcriptional activation of both PPARα and PPARγ, reduced the stimulated expression of several pro-inflammatory mediators including interleukin (IL)-6, the chemokine CXC-L10, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. Correspondingly, media from adipocytes treated with aleglitazar reduced monocyte migration, consistent with suppression of MCP-1 secretion. Under the same conditions, aleglitazar also reversed the TNF-α-mediated suppression of insulin-stimulated ser473 Akt phosphorylation and decreased the TNF-α-induced ser312 IRS1 phosphorylation, two major switches in insulin-mediated metabolic activities, restoring glucose uptake in insulin-resistant adipocytes. Such effects were similar to those obtainable with a combination of single PPARα and γ agonists. In conclusion, aleglitazar reduces inflammatory activation and dysfunction in insulin signaling in activated adipocytes, properties that may benefit diabetic and obese patients. The effect of aleglitazar was consistent with dual PPARα and γ agonism, but with no evidence of synergism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. α6-Containing GABAA Receptors Are the Principal Mediators of Inhibitory Synapse Strengthening by Insulin in Cerebellar Granule Cells.

    PubMed

    Accardi, Michael V; Brown, Patricia M G E; Miraucourt, Loïs S; Orser, Beverley A; Bowie, Derek

    2015-07-01

    Activity-dependent strengthening of central synapses is a key factor driving neuronal circuit behavior in the vertebrate CNS. At fast inhibitory synapses, strengthening is thought to occur by increasing the number of GABAA receptors (GABARs) of the same subunit composition to preexisting synapses. Here, we show that strengthening of mouse cerebellar granule cell GABAergic synapses occurs by a different mechanism. Specifically, we show that the neuropeptide hormone, insulin, strengthens inhibitory synapses by recruiting α6-containing GABARs rather than accumulating more α1-containing receptors that are resident to the synapse. Because α6-receptors are targeted to functionally distinct postsynaptic sites from α1-receptors, we conclude that only a subset of all inhibitory synapses are strengthened. Together with our recent findings on stellate cells, we propose a general mechanism by which mature inhibitory synapses are strengthened. In this scenario, α1-GABARs resident to inhibitory synapses form the hardwiring of neuronal circuits with receptors of a different composition fulfilling a fundamental, but unappreciated, role in synapse strengthening. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/359676-13$15.00/0.

  15. Human glycated albumin affects glucose metabolism in L6 skeletal muscle cells by impairing insulin-induced insulin receptor substrate (IRS) signaling through a protein kinase C alpha-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Miele, Claudia; Riboulet, Audrey; Maitan, Maria Alessandra; Oriente, Francesco; Romano, Chiara; Formisano, Pietro; Giudicelli, Jean; Beguinot, Francesco; Van Obberghen, Emmanuel

    2003-11-28

    Nonenzymatic glycation is increased in diabetes and leads to increased levels of glycated proteins. Most studies have focused on the role of glycation products in vascular complications. Here, we have investigated the action of human glycated albumin (HGA) on insulin signaling in L6 skeletal muscle cells. Exposure of these cells to HGA inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and glycogen synthase activity by 95 and 80%, respectively. These effects were time- and dose-dependent, reaching a maximum after 12 h incubation with 0.1 mg/ml HGA. In contrast, exposure of the cells to HGA had no effect on thymidine incorporation. Further, HGA reduced insulin-stimulated serine phosphorylation of PKB and GSK3, but did not alter ERK1/2 activation. HGA did not affect either insulin receptor kinase activity or insulin-induced Shc phosphorylation on tyrosine. In contrast, insulin-dependent IRS-1 and IRS-2 tyrosine phosphorylation was severely reduced in cells preincubated with HGA for 24 h. Insulin-stimulated association of PI3K with IRS-1 and IRS-2, and PI3K activity were reduced by HGA in parallel with the changes in IRS tyrosine phosphorylation, while Grb2-IRS association was unchanged. In L6 myotubes, exposure to HGA increased PKC activity by 2-fold resulting in a similar increase in Ser/Thr phosphorylation of IRS-1 and IRS-2. These phosphorylations were blocked by the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide (BDM). BDM also blocked the action of HGA on insulin-stimulated PKB and GSK3 alpha. Simultaneously, BDM rescued insulin-stimulation of glucose uptake and glycogen synthase activity in cells exposed to HGA. The use of antibodies specific to PKC isoforms shows that this effect appears to be mediated by activated PKC alpha, independent of reactive oxygen species production. In summary, in L6 skeletal muscle cells, exposure to HGA leads to insulin resistance selectively in glucose metabolism with no effect on growth-related pathways regulated by the hormone.

  16. Characterization of the chicken muscle insulin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Adamo, M.; Simon, J.; Rosebrough, R.W.; McMurtry, J.P.; Steele, N.C.; LeRoith, D.

    1987-12-01

    Insulin receptors are present in chicken skeletal muscle. Crude membrane preparations demonstrated specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding. The nonspecific binding was high (36-55% of total binding) and slightly lower affinity receptors were found than are typically observed for crude membrane insulin binding in other chicken tissues. Affinity crosslinking of /sup 125/I-insulin to crude membranes revealed insulin receptor alpha-subunits of Mr 128K, intermediate between those of liver (134K) and brain (124K). When solubilized and partially purified on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) affinity columns, chicken muscle insulin receptors exhibited typical high affinity binding, with approximately 10(-10) M unlabeled insulin producing 50% inhibition of the specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding. WGA purified chicken muscle insulin receptors also exhibited insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of the beta-subunit, which appeared as phosphorylated bands of 92- and 81K. Both bands were immunoprecipitated by anti-receptor antiserum (B10). WGA purified membranes also demonstrated dose-dependent insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the exogenous substrate poly(Glu,Tyr)4:1. However, unlike chicken liver, chicken muscle insulin receptor number and tyrosine kinase activity were unaltered by 48 hr of fasting or 48 hr of fasting and 24 hr of refeeding. Thus, despite the presence of insulin receptors in chicken muscle showing normal coupling to receptor tyrosine kinase activity, nutritional alterations modulate these parameters in a tissue-specific manner in chickens.

  17. Myostatin induces insulin resistance via Casitas B-lineage lymphoma b (Cblb)-mediated degradation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) protein in response to high calorie diet intake.

    PubMed

    Bonala, Sabeera; Lokireddy, Sudarsanareddy; McFarlane, Craig; Patnam, Sreekanth; Sharma, Mridula; Kambadur, Ravi

    2014-03-14

    To date a plethora of evidence has clearly demonstrated that continued high calorie intake leads to insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes with or without obesity. However, the necessary signals that initiate insulin resistance during high calorie intake remain largely unknown. Our results here show that in response to a regimen of high fat or high glucose diets, Mstn levels were induced in muscle and liver of mice. High glucose- or fat-mediated induction of Mstn was controlled at the level of transcription, as highly conserved carbohydrate response and sterol-responsive (E-box) elements were present in the Mstn promoter and were revealed to be critical for ChREBP (carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein) or SREBP1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c) regulation of Mstn expression. Further molecular analysis suggested that the increased Mstn levels (due to high glucose or fatty acid loading) resulted in increased expression of Cblb in a Smad3-dependent manner. Casitas B-lineage lymphoma b (Cblb) is an ubiquitin E3 ligase that has been shown to specifically degrade insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) protein. Consistent with this, our results revealed that elevated Mstn levels specifically up-regulated Cblb, resulting in enhanced ubiquitin proteasome-mediated degradation of IRS1. In addition, over expression or knock down of Cblb had a major impact on IRS1 and pAkt levels in the presence or absence of insulin. Collectively, these observations strongly suggest that increased glucose levels and high fat diet, both, result in increased circulatory Mstn levels. The increased Mstn in turn is a potent inducer of insulin resistance by degrading IRS1 protein via the E3 ligase, Cblb, in a Smad3-dependent manner.

  18. The insulin receptor substrate-1-related 4PS substrate but not the interleukin-2R gamma chain is involved in interleukin-13-mediated signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, L M; Michieli, P; Lie, W R; Liu, F; Lee, C C; Minty, A; Sun, X J; Levine, A; White, M F; Pierce, J H

    1995-12-01

    Interleukin-13 (IL-13) induced a potent mitogenic response in IL-3-dependent TF-1 cells and DNA synthesis to a lesser extent in MO7E and FDC-P1 cells. IL-13 stimulation of these lines, like IL-4 and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of a 170-kD substrate. The tyrosine-phosphorylated 170-kD substrate strongly associated with the 85-kD subunit of phosphoinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase and with Grb-2. Anti-4PS serum readily detected the 170-kD substrate in lysates from both TF-1 and FDC-P1 cells stimulated with IL-13 or IL-4. These data provide evidence that IL-13 induces tyrosine phosphorylation of the 4PS substrate, providing an essential interface between the IL-13 receptor and signaling molecules containing SH2 domains. IL-13 and IL-4 stimulation of murine L cell fibroblasts, which endogenously express the IL-4 receptor (IL-4R alpha) and lack expression of the IL-2 receptor gamma subunit (IL-2R gamma), resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1)/4PS. Enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1/4PS was observed in response to IL-4, but not IL-13 treatment of L cells transfected with the IL-2R gamma chain. These results indicate that IL-13 does not use the IL-2R gamma subunit in its receptor complex and that expression of IL-2R gamma enhances, but is not absolutely required for mediating IL-4-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1/4PS.

  19. A minimized human insulin-receptor-binding motif revealed in a Conus geographus venom insulin.

    PubMed

    Menting, John G; Gajewiak, Joanna; MacRaild, Christopher A; Chou, Danny Hung-Chieh; Disotuar, Maria M; Smith, Nicholas A; Miller, Charleen; Erchegyi, Judit; Rivier, Jean E; Olivera, Baldomero M; Forbes, Briony E; Smith, Brian J; Norton, Raymond S; Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Lawrence, Michael C

    2016-10-01

    Insulins in the venom of certain fish-hunting cone snails facilitate prey capture by rapidly inducing hypoglycemic shock. One such insulin, Conus geographus G1 (Con-Ins G1), is the smallest known insulin found in nature and lacks the C-terminal segment of the B chain that, in human insulin, mediates engagement of the insulin receptor and assembly of the hormone's hexameric storage form. Removal of this segment (residues B23-B30) in human insulin results in substantial loss of receptor affinity. Here, we found that Con-Ins G1 is monomeric, strongly binds the human insulin receptor and activates receptor signaling. Con-Ins G1 thus is a naturally occurring B-chain-minimized mimetic of human insulin. Our crystal structure of Con-Ins G1 reveals a tertiary structure highly similar to that of human insulin and indicates how Con-Ins G1's lack of an equivalent to the key receptor-engaging residue Phe(B24) is mitigated. These findings may facilitate efforts to design ultrarapid-acting therapeutic insulins.

  20. Effects of CaMKII-Mediated Phosphorylation of Ryanodine Receptor Type 2 on Islet Calcium Handling, Insulin Secretion, and Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Sayali S.; Wang, Tiannan; Manzano, Eiffel John Q.; Yoo, Shin; Lee, Jeongkyung; Chiang, David Y.; Ryan, Nicole; Respress, Jonathan L.; Yechoor, Vijay K.; Wehrens, Xander H. T.

    2013-01-01

    Altered insulin secretion contributes to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. This alteration is correlated with altered intracellular Ca2+-handling in pancreatic β cells. Insulin secretion is triggered by elevation in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) of β cells. This elevation in [Ca2+]cyt leads to activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII), which, in turn, controls multiple aspects of insulin secretion. CaMKII is known to phosphorylate ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2), an intracellular Ca2+-release channel implicated in Ca2+-dependent steps of insulin secretion. Our data show that RyR2 is CaMKII phosphorylated in a pancreatic β-cell line in a glucose-sensitive manner. However, it is not clear whether any change in CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation underlies abnormal RyR2 function in β cells and whether such a change contributes to alterations in insulin secretion. Therefore, knock-in mice with a mutation in RyR2 that mimics its constitutive CaMKII phosphorylation, RyR2-S2814D, were studied. This mutation led to a gain-of-function defect in RyR2 indicated by increased basal RyR2-mediated Ca2+ leak in islets of these mice. This chronic in vivo defect in RyR2 resulted in basal hyperinsulinemia. In addition, S2814D mice also developed glucose intolerance, impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and lowered [Ca2+]cyt transients, which are hallmarks of pre-diabetes. The glucose-sensitive Ca2+ pool in islets from S2814D mice was also reduced. These observations were supported by immunohistochemical analyses of islets in diabetic human and mouse pancreata that revealed significantly enhanced CaMKII phosphorylation of RyR2 in type 2 diabetes. Together, these studies implicate that the chronic gain-of-function defect in RyR2 due to CaMKII hyperphosphorylation is a novel mechanism that contributes to pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23516528

  1. High fructose-mediated attenuation of insulin receptor signaling does not affect PDGF-induced proliferative signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Osman, Islam; Poulose, Ninu; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Segar, Lakshman

    2016-11-15

    Insulin resistance is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. Although high fructose is known to induce insulin resistance, it remains unclear as to how fructose regulates insulin receptor signaling and proliferative phenotype in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which play a major role in atherosclerosis. Using human aortic VSMCs, we investigated the effects of high fructose treatment on insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) serine phosphorylation, insulin versus platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced phosphorylation of Akt, S6 ribosomal protein, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and cell cycle proteins. In comparison with PDGF (a potent mitogen), neither fructose nor insulin enhanced VSMC proliferation and cyclin D1 expression. d-[(14)C(U)]fructose uptake studies revealed a progressive increase in fructose uptake in a time-dependent manner. Concentration-dependent studies with high fructose (5-25mM) showed marked increases in IRS-1 serine phosphorylation, a key adapter protein in insulin receptor signaling. Accordingly, high fructose treatment led to significant diminutions in insulin-induced phosphorylation of downstream signaling components including Akt and S6. In addition, high fructose significantly diminished insulin-induced ERK phosphorylation. Nevertheless, high fructose did not affect PDGF-induced key proliferative signaling events including phosphorylation of Akt, S6, and ERK and expression of cyclin D1 protein. Together, high fructose dysregulates IRS-1 phosphorylation state and proximal insulin receptor signaling in VSMCs, but does not affect PDGF-induced proliferative signaling. These findings suggest that systemic insulin resistance rather than VSMC-specific dysregulation of insulin receptor signaling by high fructose may play a major role in enhancing atherosclerosis and neointimal hyperplasia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antagonistic effects of a covalently dimerized insulin derivative on insulin receptors in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, M.; Joost, H.G. ); Brandenburg, C.; Brandenburg, D. )

    1990-02-01

    In the present study the authors describe the antagonistic effects of the covalently dimerized insulin derivative B29,B29{prime}-suberoyl-insulin on insulin receptors in 3T3-L1 mouse cells. In differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, the derivative fully inhibits binding of {sup 125}I-labeled insulin to its receptor with about the same affinity as unlabeled insulin. In contrast, the dimerized derivative only partially (approximately 20%) mimics insulin's effects on glucose transport and DNA synthesis in the absence of insulin. In the presence of insulin, the agent competitively inhibits insulin-stimulated DNA synthesis (({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation into total DNA), glucose transport activity (2-deoxyglucose uptake rate), and insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity. In rat adipocytes, in contrast, the dimerized derivative stimulates glucose transport (initial 3-O-methylglucose as well as 2-deoxyglucose uptake rates) to the same extent as insulin does, and it fails to inhibit the effect of insulin. The data indicate that the dimerized insulin derivative B29,B29{prime}-suberoyl-insulin is an insulin receptor antagonist (partial agonist) which retains a moderate intrinsic activity. The effects of this agent reveal a striking difference in insulin receptor-mediated stimulation of glucose transport between 3T3-L1 fatty fibroblasts and the mature rat adipocyte.

  3. Redox Signal-mediated Enhancement of the Temperature Sensitivity of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) Elevates Glucose-induced Insulin Secretion from Pancreatic Islets.

    PubMed

    Kashio, Makiko; Tominaga, Makoto

    2015-05-08

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a thermosensitive Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel expressed by pancreatic β cells where channel function is constantly affected by body temperature. We focused on the physiological functions of redox signal-mediated TRPM2 activity at body temperature. H2O2, an important molecule in redox signaling, reduced the temperature threshold for TRPM2 activation in pancreatic β cells of WT mice but not in TRPM2KO cells. TRPM2-mediated [Ca(2+)]i increases were likely caused by Ca(2+) influx through the plasma membrane because the responses were abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). In addition, TRPM2 activation downstream from the redox signal plus glucose stimulation enhanced glucose-induced insulin secretion. H2O2 application at 37 °C induced [Ca(2+)]i increases not only in WT but also in TRPM2KO β cells. This was likely due to the effect of H2O2 on KATP channel activity. However, the N-acetylcysteine-sensitive fraction of insulin secretion by WT islets was increased by temperature elevation, and this temperature-dependent enhancement was diminished significantly in TRPM2KO islets. These data suggest that endogenous redox signals in pancreatic β cells elevate insulin secretion via TRPM2 sensitization and activity at body temperature. The results in this study could provide new therapeutic approaches for the regulation of diabetic conditions by focusing on the physiological function of TRPM2 and redox signals. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Cannabinoid receptor type 1 mediates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance by increasing forkhead box O1 activity in a mouse model of obesity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Chang; Lee, Tzung-Yan; Kwok, Ching-Fai; Hsu, Yung-Pei; Shih, Kuang-Chung; Lin, Yan-Jie; Ho, Low-Tone

    2016-03-01

    Hepatic glucose production is promoted by forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) under conditions of insulin resistance. The overactivity of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) partly causes increased liver fat deposits and metabolic dysfunction in obese rodents by decreasing mitochondrial function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of FoxO1 in CB1R-mediated insulin resistance through the dysregulation of mitochondrial function in the livers of mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. For this purpose, male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to groups and either fed a standard diet (STD), a HFD, or a HFD with 1-week treatment of the CB1R inverse agonist, AM251, at 1 or 5 mg/kg. For in vitro experiments, AML12 hepatocytes were incubated with FoxO1 siRNA prior to challenge with arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA) or a high concentration of free fatty acids (HFFA). Plasma parameters were analyzed using colorimetric methods. Liver histopathology and hepatic status markers were examined. The HFD-fed mice exhibited an increase in CB1R levels in the liver. Moreover, in response to increased hepatic oxidative stress, the HFD-fed mice also displayed hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction, as indicated by the decreased mRNA levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) and citrate synthase. On the contrary, these effects in the HFD-fed mice were reversed by treatment with 5 mg/kg AM251. The administration of AM251 suppressed the induction of FoxO1, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase) expression in the livers of the mice fed a HFD by enhancing the phosphorylation of insulin signaling cascades thus, further lowering the high level of the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA‑IR) index. In our in vitro experiments, transfection with FoxO1 siRNA prevented the HFFA- and ACEA-induced decrease in the gene expression of

  5. Toll-like receptor 2 mediates high-fat diet-induced impairment of vasodilator actions of insulin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rationale - Obesity is characterized by a chronic pro-inflammatory state that promotes insulin resistance in liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle as well as impairing insulin action in vascular endothelium that contributes to endothelial dysfunction. Cadiovascular complications of obesity are ...

  6. Phenobarbital and Insulin Reciprocate Activation of the Nuclear Receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor through the Insulin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yasujima, Tomoya; Saito, Kosuke; Moore, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Phenobarbital (PB) antagonized insulin to inactivate the insulin receptor and attenuated the insulin receptor downstream protein kinase B (AKT)–forkhead box protein O1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signals in mouse primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Hepatic AKT began dephosphorylation in an early stage of PB treatment, and blood glucose levels transiently increased in both wild-type and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) knockout (KO) mice. On the other hand, blood glucose levels increased in wild-type mice, but not KO mice, in later stages of PB treatment. As a result, PB, acting as an insulin receptor antagonist, elicited CAR-independent increases and CAR-dependent decreases of blood glucose levels at these different stages of treatment, respectively. Reciprocally, insulin activation of the insulin receptor repressed CAR activation and induction of its target CYP2B6 gene in HepG2 cells. Thus, PB and insulin cross-talk through the insulin receptor to regulate glucose and drug metabolism reciprocally. PMID:26994072

  7. Phenobarbital and Insulin Reciprocate Activation of the Nuclear Receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor through the Insulin Receptor.

    PubMed

    Yasujima, Tomoya; Saito, Kosuke; Moore, Rick; Negishi, Masahiko

    2016-05-01

    Phenobarbital (PB) antagonized insulin to inactivate the insulin receptor and attenuated the insulin receptor downstream protein kinase B (AKT)-forkhead box protein O1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signals in mouse primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Hepatic AKT began dephosphorylation in an early stage of PB treatment, and blood glucose levels transiently increased in both wild-type and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) knockout (KO) mice. On the other hand, blood glucose levels increased in wild-type mice, but not KO mice, in later stages of PB treatment. As a result, PB, acting as an insulin receptor antagonist, elicited CAR-independent increases and CAR-dependent decreases of blood glucose levels at these different stages of treatment, respectively. Reciprocally, insulin activation of the insulin receptor repressed CAR activation and induction of its target CYP2B6 gene in HepG2 cells. Thus, PB and insulin cross-talk through the insulin receptor to regulate glucose and drug metabolism reciprocally. Copyright © 2016 by U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

  8. Insulin receptors in the mammary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    Insulin binding studies were conducted using mammary membrane preparations to further the authors understanding of insulin's role in regulating mammary metabolism, particularly ruminant mammary metabolism. Specific objectives were to: (1) characterize insulin binding to bovine mammary microsomes and determine if the specificity and kinetics of binding indicate the presence of insulin receptors in bovine mammary gland; (2) examine and compare insulin binding by liver and mammary microsomes of the pig and dairy cow; (3) examine insulin binding to bovine milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) and evaluate this model's usefulness in assessing insulin receptor regulation in the mammary gland of the cow; (4) examine the effect of dietary fat in insulin binding by rat mammary and liver microsomes. The specificity and kinetics of /sup 125/I-insulin binding of bovine mammary microsomes indicated the presence of insulin receptors in bovine mammary gland. Bovine liver and mammary microsomes specifically bound less /sup 125/I-insulin than did the corresponding porcine microsomes, and mammary microsomes, regardless of species, specifically bound less /sup 125/I-insulin than did liver microsomes. These differences in binding suggest differences in insulin responsiveness between pigs and cattle, as well as between the liver and mammary glands.

  9. Angiotensin receptor-mediated oxidative stress is associated with impaired cardiac redox signaling and mitochondrial function in insulin-resistant rats

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Popovich, Irina; Thorwald, Max A.; Viscarra, Jose A.; Rodriguez, Ruben; Sonanez-Organis, Jose G.; Lam, Lisa; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Nakano, Daisuke; Nishiyama, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Activation of angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1) contributes to NADPH oxidase (Nox)-derived oxidative stress during metabolic syndrome. However, the specific role of AT1 in modulating redox signaling, mitochondrial function, and oxidative stress in the heart remains more elusive. To test the hypothesis that AT1 activation increases oxidative stress while impairing redox signaling and mitochondrial function in the heart during diet-induced insulin resistance in obese animals, Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats (n = 8/group) were treated with the AT1 blocker (ARB) olmesartan for 6 wk. Cardiac Nox2 protein expression increased 40% in OLETF compared with age-matched, lean, strain-control Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats, while mRNA and protein expression of the H2O2-producing Nox4 increased 40–100%. ARB treatment prevented the increase in Nox2 without altering Nox4. ARB treatment also normalized the increased levels of protein and lipid oxidation (nitrotyrosine, 4-hydroxynonenal) and increased the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 by 30% and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, catalase, GPx) by 50–70%. Citrate synthase (CS) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activities decreased 60–70%, whereas cardiac succinate levels decreased 35% in OLETF compared with LETO, suggesting that mitochondrial function in the heart is impaired during obesity-induced insulin resistance. ARB treatment normalized CS and SDH activities, as well as succinate levels, while increasing AMPK and normalizing Akt, suggesting that AT1 activation also impairs cellular metabolism in the diabetic heart. These data suggest that the cardiovascular complications associated with metabolic syndrome may result from AT1 receptor-mediated Nox2 activation leading to impaired redox signaling, mitochondrial activity, and dysregulation of cellular metabolism in the heart. PMID:23771688

  10. Angiotensin receptor-mediated oxidative stress is associated with impaired cardiac redox signaling and mitochondrial function in insulin-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Popovich, Irina; Thorwald, Max A; Viscarra, Jose A; Rodriguez, Ruben; Sonanez-Organis, Jose G; Lam, Lisa; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Nakano, Daisuke; Nishiyama, Akira; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2013-08-15

    Activation of angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1) contributes to NADPH oxidase (Nox)-derived oxidative stress during metabolic syndrome. However, the specific role of AT1 in modulating redox signaling, mitochondrial function, and oxidative stress in the heart remains more elusive. To test the hypothesis that AT1 activation increases oxidative stress while impairing redox signaling and mitochondrial function in the heart during diet-induced insulin resistance in obese animals, Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats (n = 8/group) were treated with the AT1 blocker (ARB) olmesartan for 6 wk. Cardiac Nox2 protein expression increased 40% in OLETF compared with age-matched, lean, strain-control Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats, while mRNA and protein expression of the H₂O₂-producing Nox4 increased 40-100%. ARB treatment prevented the increase in Nox2 without altering Nox4. ARB treatment also normalized the increased levels of protein and lipid oxidation (nitrotyrosine, 4-hydroxynonenal) and increased the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 by 30% and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, catalase, GPx) by 50-70%. Citrate synthase (CS) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activities decreased 60-70%, whereas cardiac succinate levels decreased 35% in OLETF compared with LETO, suggesting that mitochondrial function in the heart is impaired during obesity-induced insulin resistance. ARB treatment normalized CS and SDH activities, as well as succinate levels, while increasing AMPK and normalizing Akt, suggesting that AT1 activation also impairs cellular metabolism in the diabetic heart. These data suggest that the cardiovascular complications associated with metabolic syndrome may result from AT1 receptor-mediated Nox2 activation leading to impaired redox signaling, mitochondrial activity, and dysregulation of cellular metabolism in the heart.

  11. Mitogenic insulin receptor-A is overexpressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma due to EGFR-mediated dysregulation of RNA splicing factors.

    PubMed

    Chettouh, Hamza; Fartoux, Laetitia; Aoudjehane, Lynda; Wendum, Dominique; Clapéron, Audrey; Chrétien, Yves; Rey, Colette; Scatton, Olivier; Soubrane, Olivier; Conti, Filomena; Praz, Françoise; Housset, Chantal; Rosmorduc, Olivier; Desbois-Mouthon, Christèle

    2013-07-01

    Insulin receptor (IR) exists as two isoforms resulting from the alternative splicing of IR pre-mRNA. IR-B promotes the metabolic effects of insulin, whereas IR-A rather signals proliferative effects. IR-B is predominantly expressed in the adult liver. Here, we show that the alternative splicing of IR pre-mRNA is dysregulated in a panel of 85 human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) while being normal in adjacent nontumor liver tissue. An IR-B to IR-A switch is frequently observed in HCC tumors regardless of tumor etiology. Using pharmacologic and siRNA approaches, we show that the autocrine or paracrine activation of the EGF receptor (EGFR)/mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway increases the IR-A:IR-B ratio in HCC cell lines, but not in normal hepatocytes, by upregulating the expression of the splicing factors CUGBP1, hnRNPH, hnRNPA1, hnRNPA2B1, and SF2/ASF. In HCC tumors, there is a significant correlation between the expression of IR-A and that of splicing factors. Dysregulation of IR pre-mRNA splicing was confirmed in a chemically induced model of HCC in rat but not in regenerating livers after partial hepatectomy. This study identifies a mechanism responsible for the generation of mitogenic IR-A and provides a novel interplay between IR and EGFR pathways in HCC. Increased expression of IR-A during neoplastic transformation of hepatocytes could mediate some of the adverse effects of hyperinsulinemia on HCC.

  12. Direct Demonstration of Separate Receptors for Growth and Metabolic Activities of Insulin and Multiplication-stimulating Activity (an Insulinlike Growth Factor) Using Antibodies to the Insulin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    King, George L.; Kahn, C. Ronald; Rechler, Matthew M.; Nissley, S. Peter

    1980-01-01

    Insulin and such insulinlike growth factors as multiplication stimulating activity (MSA) are related polypeptides that have common biological activities. Both insulin and MSA produce acute metabolic responses (stimulation of glucose oxidation in isolated fat cells) as well as growth effects (stimulation of [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA in cultured fibroblasts). In addition, most cells have separate receptors for insulin and insulinlike growth factors, and both peptides have weaker affinity for each other's specific receptors than for their own. To determine, therefore, whether these effects are mediated by receptors for insulin, insulinlike growth factors, or both, we have selectively blocked insulin receptors with a specific antagonist, namely Fab fragments derived from naturally occurring antibodies to the insulin receptor. In rat adipocytes, 10 μg/ml of antireceptor Fab inhibited insulin binding by 90%, whereas it inhibited MSA binding <5%. The anti-insulin receptor Fab is without intrinsic biological activity, but acts as a competitive inhibitor of insulin receptors. Blockade of insulin receptors with Fab fragments produced a 30-fold rightward shift in the dose response for stimulation of glucose oxidation by both insulin and MSA. The dose-response curves for stimulation of oxidation by vitamin K5 and spermine, agents that stimulate glucose oxidation through noninsulin receptor pathways, were not affected by the blockade of insulin receptors with Fab antibody fragments. These data suggest that this acute metabolic effect of both insulin and MSA is mediated via the insulin receptor. In cultured human fibroblasts, 10 μg/ml of Fab inhibited insulin binding by 90% and MSA binding by 15%. In fibroblasts, however, blockade of the insulin receptor did not alter the dose response for stimulation of thymidine incorporation into DNA by either insulin or MSA. Furthermore, intact antireceptor antibody immunoglobulin (Ig)G, which produces multiple other insulinlike

  13. Leptin down-regulates insulin action through phosphorylation of serine-318 in insulin receptor substrate 1.

    PubMed

    Hennige, Anita M; Stefan, Norbert; Kapp, Katja; Lehmann, Rainer; Weigert, Cora; Beck, Alexander; Moeschel, Klaus; Mushack, Joanne; Schleicher, Erwin; Häring, Hans-Ulrich

    2006-06-01

    Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is found in obesity and type 2 diabetes. A mechanism for impaired insulin signaling in peripheral tissues is the inhibition of insulin action through serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (Irs) proteins that abolish the coupling of Irs proteins to the activated insulin receptor. Recently, we described serine-318 as a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation site in Irs1 (Ser-318) activated by hyperinsulinemia. Here we show in various cell models that the adipose hormone leptin, a putative mediator in obesity-related insulin resistance, promotes phosphorylation of Ser-318 in Irs1 by a janus kinase 2, Irs2, and PKC-dependent pathway. Mutation of Ser-318 to alanine abrogates the inhibitory effect of leptin on insulin-induced Irs1 tyrosine phosphorylation and glucose uptake in L6 myoblasts. In C57Bl/6 mice, Ser-318 phosphorylation levels in muscle tissue were enhanced by leptin and insulin administration in lean animals while in diet-induced obesity Ser-318 phosphorylation levels were already up-regulated in the basal state, and further stimulation was diminished. In analogy, in lymphocytes of obese hyperleptinemic human subjects basal Ser-318 phosphorylation levels were increased compared to lean individuals. During a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, the increment in Ser-318 phosphorylation observed in lean individuals was absent in obese. In summary, these data suggest that phosphorylation of Ser-318 in Irs1 mediates the inhibitory signal of leptin on the insulin-signaling cascade in obese subjects.

  14. High-Fat Diet Augments VPAC1 Receptor-Mediated PACAP Action on the Liver, Inducing LAR Expression and Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Masanori; Zhang, Boyang; Yang, Yifei; Okada, Takashi; Shintani, Norihito; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) acts on multiple processes of glucose and energy metabolism. PACAP potentiates insulin action in adipocytes and insulin release from pancreatic β-cells, thereby enhancing glucose tolerance. Contrary to these effects at organ levels, PACAP null mice exhibit hypersensitivity to insulin. However, this apparent discrepancy remains to be solved. We aimed to clarify the mechanism underlying the antidiabetic phenotype of PACAP null mice. Feeding with high-fat diet (HFD) impaired insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in wild type mice, whereas these changes were prevented in PACAP null mice. HFD also impaired insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in the liver in wild type mice, but not in PACAP null mice. Using GeneFishing method, HFD increased the leukocyte common antigen-related (LAR) protein tyrosine phosphatase in the liver in wild type mice. Silencing of LAR restored the insulin signaling in the liver of HFD mice. Moreover, the increased LAR expression by HFD was prevented in PACAP null mice. HFD increased the expression of VPAC1 receptor (VPAC1-R), one of three PACAP receptors, in the liver of wild type mice. These data indicate that PACAP-VPAC1-R signaling induces LAR expression and insulin resistance in the liver of HFD mice. Antagonism of VPAC1-R may prevent progression of HFD-induced insulin resistance in the liver, providing a novel antidiabetic strategy.

  15. High-Fat Diet Augments VPAC1 Receptor-Mediated PACAP Action on the Liver, Inducing LAR Expression and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Masanori; Zhang, Boyang; Yang, Yifei; Okada, Takashi; Shintani, Norihito; Hashimoto, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) acts on multiple processes of glucose and energy metabolism. PACAP potentiates insulin action in adipocytes and insulin release from pancreatic β-cells, thereby enhancing glucose tolerance. Contrary to these effects at organ levels, PACAP null mice exhibit hypersensitivity to insulin. However, this apparent discrepancy remains to be solved. We aimed to clarify the mechanism underlying the antidiabetic phenotype of PACAP null mice. Feeding with high-fat diet (HFD) impaired insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in wild type mice, whereas these changes were prevented in PACAP null mice. HFD also impaired insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in the liver in wild type mice, but not in PACAP null mice. Using GeneFishing method, HFD increased the leukocyte common antigen-related (LAR) protein tyrosine phosphatase in the liver in wild type mice. Silencing of LAR restored the insulin signaling in the liver of HFD mice. Moreover, the increased LAR expression by HFD was prevented in PACAP null mice. HFD increased the expression of VPAC1 receptor (VPAC1-R), one of three PACAP receptors, in the liver of wild type mice. These data indicate that PACAP-VPAC1-R signaling induces LAR expression and insulin resistance in the liver of HFD mice. Antagonism of VPAC1-R may prevent progression of HFD-induced insulin resistance in the liver, providing a novel antidiabetic strategy. PMID:28044141

  16. Role of insulin and insulin receptor in learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Zhao, W Q; Alkon, D L

    2001-05-25

    As one of the most extensively studied protein hormones, insulin and its receptor have been known to play key roles in a variety of important biological functions. Until recent years, the functions of insulin and insulin receptor (IR) in the central nervous system (CNS) have largely remained unclear. IR is abundantly expressed in several specific brain regions that govern fundamental behaviors such as food intake, reproduction and high cognition. The IR from the periphery and CNS exhibit differences in both structure and function. In addition to that from the peripheral system, locally synthesized insulin in the brain has also been identified. Accumulated evidence has demonstrated that insulin/IR plays important roles in associative learning, as suggested by results from both interventive and correlative studies. Interruption of insulin production and IR activity causes deficits in learning and memory formation. Abnormal insulin/IR levels and activities are seen in Alzheimer's dementia, whereas administration of insulin significantly improves the cognitive performance of these patients. The synaptic bases for the action of insulin/IR include modifying neurotransmitter release processes at various types of presynaptic terminals and modulating the activities of both excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic receptors such as NMDA and GABA receptors, respectively. At the molecular level, insulin/IR participates in regulation of learning and memory via activation of specific signaling pathways, one of which is shown to be associated with the formation of long-term memory and is composed of intracellular molecules including the shc, Grb-r/SOS, Ras/Raf, and MEK/MAP kinases. Cross-talk with another IR pathway involving IRS1, PI3 kinase, and protein kinase C, as well as with the non-receptor tyrosine kinase pp60c-src, may also be associated with memory processing.

  17. Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gang; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Hosomi, Naohisa; Lei, Bai; Nakano, Daisuke; Deguchi, Kazushi; Mori, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu; Ma, Hong; Griendling, Kathy K.; Nishiyama, Akira

    2011-10-15

    Insulin resistance and hypertension have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease; however, little is known about the roles of insulin and mechanical force in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) remodeling. We investigated the contribution of mechanical stretch to insulin-induced VSMC proliferation. Thymidine incorporation was stimulated by insulin in stretched VSMCs, but not in un-stretched VSMCs. Insulin increased 2-deoxy-glucose incorporation in both stretched and un-stretched VSMCs. Mechanical stretch augmented insulin-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt phosphorylation. Inhibitors of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor tyrosine kinase and Src attenuated insulin-induced ERK and Akt phosphorylation, as well as thymidine incorporation, whereas 2-deoxy-glucose incorporation was not affected by these inhibitors. Moreover, stretch augmented insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor expression, although it did not alter the expression of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1. Insulin-induced ERK and Akt activation, and thymidine incorporation were inhibited by siRNA for the IGF-1 receptor. Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced VSMC proliferation via upregulation of IGF-1 receptor, and downstream Src/EGF receptor-mediated ERK and Akt activation. Similar to in vitro experiment, IGF-1 receptor expression was also augmented in hypertensive rats. These results provide a basis for clarifying the molecular mechanisms of vascular remodeling in hypertensive patients with hyperinsulinemia. -- Highlights: {yields} Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced VSMC proliferation via IGF-1 receptor. {yields} Src/EGFR-mediated ERK and Akt phosphorylation are augmented in stretched VSMCs. {yields} Similar to in vitro experiment, IGF-1 receptor is increased in hypertensive rats. {yields} Results provide possible mechanisms of vascular remodeling in hypertension with DM.

  18. Tie-2Cre mediated deletion of the vitamin D receptor gene leads to improved skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wei; Glenn, Denis J; Gardner, David G

    2016-11-01

    A variety of studies have suggested that vitamin D may play a palliative role in improving insulin secretion and glucose tolerance. Endothelial cells of the microcirculation are thought to play an important role in regulating both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in target tissues. We have selectively deleted the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene in endothelial cells of the murine vasculature. These mice demonstrate improved glucose tolerance, improved insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle, but not in liver, and a reduction in expression and secretion of insulin in the pancreatic islets. Collectively, these data, taken within the context of recent publications in this field, suggest that the endothelial cell VDR plays a tonic inhibitory role in regulating glucose disposal and could prove to be a factor in controlling glucose homeostasis in the intact organism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Insulin Action is Blocked by a Monoclonal Antibody That Inhibits the Insulin Receptor Kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, David O.; Ho, Lisa; Korn, Laurence J.; Roth, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-six monoclonal antibodies to the human insulin receptor were produced. Thirty-four bound the intracellular domain of the receptor β subunit, the domain containing the tyrosine-specific kinase activity. Of these 34 antibodies, 33 recognized the rat receptor and 1 was shown to precipitate the receptors from mice, chickens, and frogs with high affinity. Another of the antibodies inhibited the kinase activities of the human and frog receptors with equal potencies. This antibody inhibited the kinase activities of these receptors by more than 90%, whereas others had no effect on either kinase activity. Microinjection of the inhibiting antibody into Xenopus oocytes blocked the ability of insulin to stimulate oocyte maturation. In contrast, this inhibiting antibody did not block the ability of progesterone to stimulate the same response. Furthermore, control immunoglobulin and a noninhibiting antibody to the receptor β subunit did not block this response to insulin. These results strongly support a role for the tyrosine-specific kinase activity of the insulin receptor in mediating this biological effect of insulin.

  20. Insulin action is blocked by a monoclonal antibody that inhibits insulin receptor kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, D.O.; Ho, L.; Korn, L.J.; Roth, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-six monoclonal antibodies to the human insulin receptor were produced. Thirty-four bound the intracellular domain of the receptor ..beta.. subunit, the domain containing the tyrosine-specific kinase activity. Of these 34 antibodies, 33 recognized the rat receptor and 1 was shown to precipitate the receptors from mice, chickens and frogs with high affinity. Another of the antibodies inhibited the kinase activities of the human and frog receptors with equal potencies. This antibody inhibited the kinase activities of these receptors by more than 90%, whereas others had no effect on either kinase activity. Microinjection of the inhibiting antibody into Xenopus oocytes blocked the ability of insulin to stimulate oocyte maturation. In contrast, this inhibiting antibody did not block the ability of progesterone to stimulate the same response. Furthermore, control immunoglobulin and a noninhibiting antibody to the receptor ..beta.. subunit did not block this response to insulin. These results strongly support a role for the tyrosine-specific kinase activity of the insulin receptor in mediating this biological effect of insulin.

  1. Hepatocyte insulin receptor is a calmodulin binding protein and is functionally inhibited by calmidazolium

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, T.P.; Pollet, R.J.

    1986-05-01

    Insulin-induced autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor and changes in intracellular Ca/sup + +/ have been proposed as possible mediators of insulin action in target tissues. The authors have investigated the association of the 17kD calcium binding protein calmodulin with the insulin receptor solubilized from rat liver plasma membranes. Insulin receptors solubilized in 0.1% Triton X-100 exhibited strong binding to calmodulin-agarose affinity columns in the presence of 100..mu..M calcium and could be eluded with 100..mu..M ethelene glycol-bis (amino ethel ether) Tetra Acetic Acid (EGTA) with an 80% yield in insulin binding activity. In addition, /sup 125/I-Calmodulin was shown to bind to wheat germ agglutinin purified solubilized receptors, was specifically inhibited by EGTA (100 ..mu..M) and/or calmidazolium (10 ..mu..M) and was found to be insulin-dependent (max 10/sup -10/ M insulin). SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis data suggests that /sup 125/I-calmodulin may be associated with the 92 kD beta-subunit of the insulin receptor, consistent with the cytoplasmic domain of this subunit. While they have confirmed previous reports that the addition of calcium and calmodulin to solubilized insulin receptors preparations produces no demonstrable change in receptor phosphorylation, the addition of the calmodulin inhibitor calmidazolium did show more than 50% inhibition of insulin stimulated receptor phosphorylation, suggesting that a domain of the calmodulin molecule may be very tightly associated with the insulin receptor. These results indicate that calmodulin binds tightly and specifically to the insulin receptor of the hepatocyte and is insulin dependent. The findings also suggest that this interaction may be functionally significant in mediating insulin-induced receptor phosphorylation as well as other insulin actions. Thus, calmodulin may play a major role as an intracellular contributor to insulin action.

  2. Insulin receptors in normal and disease states.

    PubMed

    Grunberger, G; Taylor, S I; Dons, R F; Gorden, P

    1983-03-01

    The binding of insulin to its receptor has been studied under various physiological and pathological conditions. Quantitative studies have involved human circulating cells such as monocytes and erythrocytes, adipocytes, placental cells, and cultured cells such as fibroblasts and transformed lymphocytes. In animals, other target tissues such as liver and muscle have been studied and correlated with the human studies. Various physiological conditions such as diurnal rhythm, diet, age, exercise and the menstrual cycle affect insulin binding; in addition, many drugs perturb the receptor interaction. Disease affecting the insulin receptor can be divided into five general categories: (1) Receptor regulation--this involves diseases characterized by hyper- or hypoinsulinaemia. Hyperinsulinaemia in the basal state usually leads to receptor 'down' regulation as seen in obesity, type II diabetes, acromegaly and islet cell tumours. Hypoinsulinaemia such as seen in anorexia nervosa or type I diabetes may lead to elevated binding. (2) Antireceptor antibodies--these immunoglobulins bind to the receptor and competitively inhibit insulin binding. They may act as agonists, antagonists or partial agonists. (3) Genetic diseases which produce fixed alterations in both freshly isolated and cultured cells. (4) Diseases of receptor specificity where insulin may bind with different affinity to its own receptor or related receptors such as receptors for insulin-like growth factors. (5) Disease of affinity modulation where physical factors such as pH, temperature, ions, etc. may modify binding. In this review, we have considered primarily abnormality in insulin receptor binding. There are numerous other functions of the receptor such as coupling and transmission of the biological signal. These mechanisms are frequently referred to as postreceptor events, but more properly should be referred to as postbinding events since the receptor subserves other functions in addition to recognition and

  3. Intracellular insulin-receptor dissociation and segregation in a rat fibroblast cell line transfected with a human insulin receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, J.R.; Olefsky, J.M.

    1988-05-05

    The cellular processing of insulin and insulin receptors was studied using a rat fibroblast cell line that had been transfected with a normal human insulin receptor gene, expressing approximately 500 times the normal number of native fibroblasts insulin receptors. These cells bind and internalize insulin normally. Biochemically assays based on the selective precipitation by polyethylene glycol of intact insulin-receptor complexes but not of free intracellular insulin were developed to study the time course of intracellular insulin-receptor dissociation. Fibroblasts were incubated with radiolabeled insulin at 4/sup 0/C, and internalization of insulin-receptor complexes was initiated by warming the cells to 37/sup 0/C. Within 2 min, 90% of the internalized radioactivity was composed of intact insulin-receptor complexes. The dissociation of insulin from internalized insulin-receptor complexes was markedly inhibited by monensin and chloroquine. Furthermore, chloroquine markedly increased the number of cross-linkable intracellular insulin-receptor complexes, as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis autoradiography. These findings suggest that acidification of intracellular vesicles is responsible for insulin-receptor dissociation. Physical segregation of dissociated intracellular insulin from its receptor was monitored. The results are consistent with the view that segregation of insulin and receptor occurs 5-10 min after initiation of dissociation. These studies demonstrate the intracellular itinerary of insulin-receptor complexes, including internalization, dissociation of insulin from the internalized receptor within an acidified compartment, segregation of insulin from the receptor, and subsequent ligand degradation.

  4. Insulin receptors mediate growth effects in cultured fetal neurons. II. Activation of a protein kinase that phosphorylates ribosomal protein S6

    SciTech Connect

    Heidenreich, K.A.; Toledo, S.P. )

    1989-09-01

    As an initial attempt to identify early steps in insulin action that may be involved in the growth responses of neurons to insulin, we investigated whether insulin receptor activation increases the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in cultured fetal neurons and whether activation of a protein kinase is involved in this process. When neurons were incubated for 2 h with 32Pi, the addition of insulin (100 ng/ml) for the final 30 min increased the incorporation of 32Pi into a 32K microsomal protein. The incorporation of 32Pi into the majority of other neuronal proteins was unaltered by the 30-min exposure to insulin. Cytosolic extracts from insulin-treated neurons incubated in the presence of exogenous rat liver 40S ribosomes and (gamma-32P)ATP displayed a 3- to 8-fold increase in the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 compared to extracts from untreated cells. Inclusion of cycloheximide during exposure of the neurons to insulin did not inhibit the increased cytosolic kinase activity. Activation of S6 kinase activity by insulin was dose dependent (seen at insulin concentration as low as 0.1 ng/ml) and reached a maximum after 20 min of incubation. Addition of phosphatidylserine, diolein, and Ca2+ to the in vitro kinase reaction had no effect on the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6. Likewise, treatment of neurons with (Bu)2cAMP did not alter the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 by neuronal cytosolic extracts. We conclude that insulin activates a cytosolic protein kinase that phosphorylates ribosomal S6 in neurons and is distinct from protein kinase-C and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Stimulation of this kinase may play a role in insulin signal transduction in neurons.

  5. D1-like receptors inhibit insulin-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via down-regulation of insulin receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Chunyu; Han, Yu; Huang, Hefei; Yu, Changqing; Ren, Hongmei; Shi, Weibin; He, Duofen; Huang, Lan; Yang, Chengming; Wang, Xukai; Zhou, Lin; Jose, Pedro A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is central to the development of vascular diseases, including hypertension, which is regulated by numerous hormones and humoral factors. Our previous study showed that the stimulatory effect of norepinephrine on VSMC proliferation is inhibited by D1-like receptors and the D3 dopamine receptor, a member of the D2-like receptor family. Insulin is a proliferative hormone but it is not known if there is any interaction between insulin and D1-like receptors. We hypothesized that Dl-like receptors may have an inhibitory effect on the insulin-induced VSMC proliferation; aberrant insulin and Dl-like receptor functions could be involved in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. Methods VSMC proliferation was determined by [3H]-thymidine incorporation; insulin receptor mRNA and protein expressions were determined by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. Results Insulin increased VSMC proliferation in immortalized aortic A10 cells, determined by [3H]-thymidine incorporation. Although the D1-like receptor, by itself, had no effect on VSMC proliferation, stimulation with fenoldopam, a D1-like receptor agonist, inhibited the stimulatory effect of insulin. The inhibitory effect of fenoldopam on insulin-mediated VSMC proliferation was receptor specific, because its effect could be blocked by SCH23390, a D1-like receptor antagonist. Fenoldopam also inhibited insulin receptor mRNA and protein expression, which was time dependent and concentration dependent. A PKC or MAP kinase inhibitor blocked the inhibitory effect of fenoldopam on insulin receptor expression, indicating that PKC and MAP kinase were involved in the signaling pathway. Conclusion The inhibitory effect of D1-like receptors on insulin-mediated VSMC proliferation may play an important role in the regulation of blood pressure. PMID:19293728

  6. Lipid-mediated muscle insulin resistance: different fat, different pathways?

    PubMed

    Ritter, Olesja; Jelenik, Tomas; Roden, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Increased dietary fat intake and lipolysis result in excessive lipid availability, which relates to impaired insulin sensitivity. Over the last years, several mechanisms possibly underlying lipid-mediated insulin resistance evolved. Lipid intermediates such as diacylglycerols (DAG) associate with changes in insulin sensitivity in many models. DAG activate novel protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms followed by inhibitory serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1). Activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) raises another lipid class, ceramides (CER), which induce pro-inflammatory pathways and lead to inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. Inhibition of glucosylceramide and ganglioside synthesis results in improved insulin sensitivity and increased activatory tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS1 in the muscle. Incomplete fat oxidation can increase acylcarnitines (ACC), which in turn stimulate pro-inflammatory pathways. This review analyzed the effects of lipid metabolites on insulin action in skeletal muscle of humans and rodents. Despite the evidence for the association of both DAG and CER with insulin resistance, its causal relevance may differ depending on the subcellular localization and the tested cohorts, e.g., athletes. Nevertheless, recent data indicate that individual lipid species and their degree of fatty acid saturation, particularly membrane and cytosolic C18:2 DAG, specifically activate PKCθ and induce both acute lipid-induced and chronic insulin resistance in humans.

  7. Nature and regulation of the receptors for insulin-like growth factors

    SciTech Connect

    Rechler, M.M.; Nissley, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    Two subtypes of IGF receptors have been identified. Type I IGF receptors have a Mr greater than 300,000 and are composed of disulfide-linked 130,000-dalton (alpha) and approximately 90,000-dalton (beta) subunits. Type I receptors preferentially bind IGF-I but also bind IGF-II and, more weakly, insulin. Type II IGF receptors consist of a 250,000-dalton protein that contains internal disulfide bonds but is not linked to other membrane components. Type II receptors bind IGF-II with higher affinity than IGF-I. They do not interact with even very high concentrations of insulin. Type I IGF receptors and insulin receptors are homologous structures. Type II IGF receptors do not appear to be homologous to type I receptors. Type II receptors do not appear to be downregulated. Insulin acutely upregulates type II IGF receptors in intact rat adipose cells by effecting a redistribution of receptors cycling between a large intracellular pool and the plasma membrane. Insulin and the IGFs elicit the same biological responses, either by cross-reacting with one of the receptors for the heterologous ligand or by concurrent activation of convergent effector pathways by binding to the homologous receptor. Which mechanism is utilized appears to depend more on the tissue than on the biological response. Insulin desensitizes rat hepatoma cells to the actions of insulin and IGFs, mediated by both insulin and IGF receptors, by mechanisms distal to hormone binding and possibly common to IGF and insulin effector pathways.

  8. Lentivirus-mediated RNAi knockdown of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor inhibits the growth and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma via down-regulating midkine expression

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qiu Yan; Tang, Hui Jun; Wang, Min; Cao, Guo Li; Yi, Ting Zhuang; Wu, Sheng Lan; Xu, Wei Jie; Tang, Shao Hui

    2016-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) overexpression contributes to the development of a variety of cancers. The present study explored the role of IGF-1R in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the possibility of IGF-1R silencing by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) as a therapeutic target for HCC. We showed that IGF-1R mRNA was up-regulated in Huh7 and Hep3B cells and human HCC tissues, and that IGF-1R knockdown by RNAi led to decreased proliferation, apoptosis induction, and decreased migration and invasion of Huh7 and Hep3B cells. Further, the in vivo study indicated that IGF-1R knockdown markedly diminished the tumorigenesis and metastasis of Huh7 xenograft. Moreover, the intratumoral administration of lentivirus-IGF-1R siRNA led to significant tumor growth inhibition in an established Huh7 xenograft model. Mechanistic investigations showed that midkine was found to be the most significantly down-regulated protein in Huh7 cells with IGF-1R knockdown, and ectopic overexpression of midkine significantly rescued inhibition of Huh7 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion caused by IGF-1R suppression. Collectively, these data suggest that IGF-1R inhibition by RNAi can significantly suppress HCC growth and invasion at least partially through down-regulating midkine expression, and IGF-1R is a potential target for HCC gene therapy. PMID:27813495

  9. Autoantibodies to Insulin Receptor Spontaneously Develop as Anti-Idiotypes in Mice Immunized with Insulin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shechter, Yoram; Maron, Ruth; Elias, Dana; Cohen, Irun R.

    1982-04-01

    Mice immunized with insulin developed antibodies to both insulin and the insulin receptor. The antibodies to insulin receptor displaced labeled insulin from insulin receptors and mimicked the actions of insulin in stimulating the oxidation of glucose and its incorporation into lipids, and in inhibiting lipolysis. The antibodies to insulin receptor could be blocked by or bound to the antibodies to insulin, and therefore were identified as anti-idiotypes. Thus, immunization against a hormone may activate spontaneously an idiotype-anti-idiotype network resulting in antibodies to the hormone receptor.

  10. Lipid mediators of insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Holland, William L; Knotts, Trina A; Chavez, Jose A; Wang, Li-Ping; Hoehn, Kyle L; Summers, Scott A

    2007-06-01

    Lipid abnormalities such as obesity, increased circulating free fatty acid levels, and excess intramyocellular lipid accumulation are frequently associated with insulin resistance. These observations have prompted investigators to speculate that the accumulation of lipids in tissues not suited for fat storage (e.g., skeletal muscle and liver) is an underlying component of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. We review the metabolic fates of lipids in insulin-responsive tissues and discuss the roles of specific lipid metabolites (e.g., ceramides, GM3 ganglioside, and diacylglycerol) as antagonists of insulin signaling and action.

  11. Human diabetes associated with defects in nuclear regulatory proteins for the insulin receptor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti, A; Brunetti, L; Foti, D; Accili, D; Goldfine, I D

    1996-01-01

    The control of gene transcription is mediated by sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins (trans-acting factors) that bind to upstream regulatory elements (cis elements). We have previously identified two DNA-binding proteins that specifically interact with two unique AT-rich sequences of the 5' regulatory region of the insulin receptor gene which have in vivo promoter activity. Herein we have investigated the expression of these DNA-binding proteins in cells from two unrelated patients with insulin resistance and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In these patients, the insulin receptor gene was normal. In EBV-transformed lymphoblasts from both patients, insulin receptor mRNA levels and insulin receptor expression were decreased. The expression of nuclear-binding proteins for the 5' regulatory region of the insulin receptor gene was markedly reduced, and this defect paralleled the decrease in insulin receptor protein expression. These studies indicate that DNA-binding proteins to the regulatory region of the insulin receptor gene are important for expression of the insulin receptor. Further, they suggest that in affected individuals, defects in the expression of these proteins may cause decreased insulin receptor expression and insulin resistance. PMID:8550844

  12. Role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator in K{sub ATP} channel-mediated insulin secretion in INS-1 insulinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji-Seon; Zheng Haifeng; Kim, Sung Joon; Ho, Won-Kyung; Chun, Yang-Sook

    2009-02-20

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) has been known to participate in cellular responses to xenobiotic and hypoxic stresses, as a common partner of aryl hydrocarbon receptor and hypoxia inducible factor-1/2{alpha}. Recently, it was reported that ARNT is essential for adequate insulin secretion in response to glucose input and that its expression is downregulated in the pancreatic islets of diabetic patients. In the present study, the authors addressed the mechanism by which ARNT regulates insulin secretion in the INS-1 insulinoma cell line. In ARNT knock-down cells, basal insulin release was elevated, but insulin secretion was not further stimulated by a high-glucose challenge. Electrophysiological analyses revealed that glucose-dependent membrane depolarization was impaired in these cells. Furthermore, K{sub ATP} channel activity and expression were reduced. Of two K{sub ATP} channel subunits, Kir6.2 was found to be positively regulated by ARNT at the mRNA and protein levels. Based on these results, the authors suggest that ARNT expresses K{sub ATP} channel and by so doing regulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion.

  13. Hypoglycemic effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 in mice lacking insulin receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Di Cola, G; Cool, M H; Accili, D

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the metabolic actions of recombinant human IGF-1 in mice genetically deficient of insulin receptors (IR-/-). After intraperitoneal administration, IGF-1 caused a prompt and sustained decrease of plasma glucose levels in IR-/- mice. Plasma free fatty acid concentrations were unaffected. Interestingly, the effects of IGF-1 were identical in normal mice (IR+/+) and in IR-/- mice. Despite decreased glucose levels, IR-/- mice treated with IGF-1 died within 2-3 d of birth, like sham-treated IR-/- controls. In skeletal muscle, IGF-1 treatment caused phosphorylation of IGF-1 receptors and increased the levels of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase p85 subunit detected in antiphosphotyrosine immunoprecipitates, consistent with the possibility that IGF-1 stimulates glucose uptake in a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent manner. IGF-1 receptor phosphorylation and coimmunoprecipitation of phosphatidylinositol3-kinase by antiphosphotyrosine antibodies was also observed in liver, and was associated with a decrease in mRNA levels of the key gluconeogenetic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Thus, the effect of IGF-1 on plasma glucose levels may be accounted for by increased peripheral glucose use and by inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis. These data indicate that IGF-1 can mimic insulin's effects on glucose metabolism by acting through its own receptor. The failure of IGF-1 to rescue the lethal phenotype due to lack of insulin receptors suggests that IGF-1 receptors cannot effectively mediate all the metabolic actions of insulin receptors. PMID:9153298

  14. G(q/11) is involved in insulin-stimulated inositol phosphoglycan putative mediator generation in rat liver membranes: co-localization of G(q/11) with the insulin receptor in membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Sleight, S; Wilson, B A; Heimark, D B; Larner, J

    2002-07-12

    Insulin signaling to generate inositol phosphoglycans (IPGs) was demonstrated to occur via the participation of the heterotrimeric G-proteins G(q/11). IPGs were measured as two specific inositol markers, myo-inositol and chiro-inositol after strong acid hydrolysis. Insulin and Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) generated both myo-inositol and chiro-inositol IPGs in a dose-dependent manner. PMT has been shown to activate G(q) specifically. Insulin action was abrogated by pre-treatment with anti G(q/11) antibody. Western blotting demonstrated the enrichment of both insulin receptor beta subunit and G(q/11) in the liver membrane vesicles. Vesicles also contained clathrin, caveolin PLC beta 1 and PLC Delta. Immunogold staining revealed the co-localization of both insulin receptor beta subunit and G(q/11) in an approximate stochiometric ratio of 1:3. No vesicles were detected with either component alone. The present and considerable published data provide strong evidence for insulin signaling both via a tyrosine kinase cascade mechanism and via heterotrimeric G-protein interactions.

  15. Insulin receptor internalization defect in an insulin-resistant mouse melanoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Androlewicz, M.J.; Straus, D.S. ); Brandenburg, D.F. )

    1989-12-12

    Previous studies from this laboratory demonstrated that the PG19 mouse melanoma cell line does not exhibit a biological response to insulin, whereas melanoma x mouse embryo fibroblast hybrids do respond to insulin. To investigate the molecular basis of the insulin resistance of the PG19 melanoma cells, insulin receptors from the insulin-resistant melanoma cells and insulin-sensitive fibroblast x melanoma hybrid cells were analyzed by the technique of photoaffinity labeling using the photoprobe {sup 125}I-NAPA-DP-insulin. Photolabeled insulin receptors from the two cell types have identical molecular weights as determined by SDS gel electrophoresis under reducing and nonreducing conditions, indicating that the receptors on the two cell lines are structurally similar. Insulin receptor internalization studies revealed that the hybrid cells internalize receptors to a high degree at 37{degree}C, whereas the melanoma cells internalize receptors to a very low degree or not at all. The correlation between ability to internalize insulin receptors and sensitivity to insulin action in this system suggests that uptake of the insulin-receptor complex may be required for insulin action in these cells. Insulin receptors from the two cell lines autophosphorylate in a similar insulin-dependent manner both in vitro and in intact cells, indicating that insulin receptors on the melanoma and hybrid cells have functional tyrosine protein kinase activity. Therefore, the block in insulin action in the PG19 melanoma cells appears to reside at a step beyond insulin-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation.

  16. Differential hepatic distribution of insulin receptor substrates causes selective insulin resistance in diabetes and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Naoto; Kubota, Tetsuya; Kajiwara, Eiji; Iwamura, Tomokatsu; Kumagai, Hiroki; Watanabe, Taku; Inoue, Mariko; Takamoto, Iseki; Sasako, Takayoshi; Kumagai, Katsuyoshi; Kohjima, Motoyuki; Nakamuta, Makoto; Moroi, Masao; Sugi, Kaoru; Noda, Tetsuo; Terauchi, Yasuo; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic insulin signalling involves insulin receptor substrates (Irs) 1/2, and is normally associated with the inhibition of gluconeogenesis and activation of lipogenesis. In diabetes and obesity, insulin no longer suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis, while continuing to activate lipogenesis, a state referred to as ‘selective insulin resistance'. Here, we show that ‘selective insulin resistance' is caused by the differential expression of Irs1 and Irs2 in different zones of the liver. We demonstrate that hepatic Irs2-knockout mice develop ‘selective insulin resistance', whereas mice lacking in Irs1, or both Irs1 and Irs2, develop ‘total insulin resistance'. In obese diabetic mice, Irs1/2-mediated insulin signalling is impaired in the periportal zone, which is the primary site of gluconeogenesis, but enhanced in the perivenous zone, which is the primary site of lipogenesis. While hyperinsulinaemia reduces Irs2 expression in both the periportal and perivenous zones, Irs1 expression, which is predominantly in the perivenous zone, remains mostly unaffected. These data suggest that ‘selective insulin resistance' is induced by the differential distribution, and alterations of hepatic Irs1 and Irs2 expression. PMID:27708333

  17. Differential hepatic distribution of insulin receptor substrates causes selective insulin resistance in diabetes and obesity.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Naoto; Kubota, Tetsuya; Kajiwara, Eiji; Iwamura, Tomokatsu; Kumagai, Hiroki; Watanabe, Taku; Inoue, Mariko; Takamoto, Iseki; Sasako, Takayoshi; Kumagai, Katsuyoshi; Kohjima, Motoyuki; Nakamuta, Makoto; Moroi, Masao; Sugi, Kaoru; Noda, Tetsuo; Terauchi, Yasuo; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2016-10-06

    Hepatic insulin signalling involves insulin receptor substrates (Irs) 1/2, and is normally associated with the inhibition of gluconeogenesis and activation of lipogenesis. In diabetes and obesity, insulin no longer suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis, while continuing to activate lipogenesis, a state referred to as 'selective insulin resistance'. Here, we show that 'selective insulin resistance' is caused by the differential expression of Irs1 and Irs2 in different zones of the liver. We demonstrate that hepatic Irs2-knockout mice develop 'selective insulin resistance', whereas mice lacking in Irs1, or both Irs1 and Irs2, develop 'total insulin resistance'. In obese diabetic mice, Irs1/2-mediated insulin signalling is impaired in the periportal zone, which is the primary site of gluconeogenesis, but enhanced in the perivenous zone, which is the primary site of lipogenesis. While hyperinsulinaemia reduces Irs2 expression in both the periportal and perivenous zones, Irs1 expression, which is predominantly in the perivenous zone, remains mostly unaffected. These data suggest that 'selective insulin resistance' is induced by the differential distribution, and alterations of hepatic Irs1 and Irs2 expression.

  18. Signal transduction through the IL-4 and insulin receptor families.

    PubMed

    Wang, L M; Keegan, A; Frankel, M; Paul, W E; Pierce, J H

    1995-07-01

    Activation of tyrosine kinase-containing receptors and intracellular tyrosine kinases by ligand stimulation is known to be crucial for mediating initial and subsequent events involved in mitogenic signal transduction. Receptors for insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) contain cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domains that undergo autophosphorylation upon ligand stimulation. Activation of these receptors also leads to pronounced and rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) in cells of connective tissue origin. A related substrate, designated 4PS, is similarly phosphorylated by insulin and IGF-1 stimulation in many hematopoietic cell types. IRS-1 and 4PS possess a number of tyrosine phosphorylation sites that are within motifs that bind specific SH2-containing molecules known to be involved in mitogenic signaling such as PI-3 kinase, SHPTP-2 (Syp) and Grb-2. Thus, they appear to act as docking substrates for a variety of signaling molecules. The majority of hematopoietic cytokines bind to receptors that do not possess intrinsic kinase activity, and these receptors have been collectively termed as members of the hematopoietin receptor superfamily. Despite their lack of tyrosine kinase domains, stimulation of these receptors has been demonstrated to activate intracellular kinases leading to tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple substrates. Recent evidence has demonstrated that activation of different members of the Janus family of tyrosine kinases is involved in mediating tyrosine phosphorylation events by specific cytokines. Stimulation of the interleukin 4 (IL-4) receptor, a member of the hematopoietin receptor superfamily, is thought to result in activation of Jak1, Jak3, and/or Fes tyrosine kinases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Binding characteristics of swine erythrocyte insulin receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Dieberg, G.; Bryan, G.S.; Sartin, J.L.; Williams, J.C.; Prince, T.J.; Kemppainen, R.J.

    1985-09-01

    Crossbred gilts had 8.8 +/- 1.1% maximum binding of ( SVI)insulin to insulin receptors on erythrocytes. The number of insulin-binding sites per cell was 137 +/- 19, with a binding affinity ranging from 7.4 X 10(7)M-1 to 11.2 X 10(7)M-1 and mean of 8.8 X 10(7)M-1. Pregnant sows had a significant increase in maximum binding due to an increase in number of receptor sites per cell. Lactating sows fed a high-fiber diet and a low-fiber diet did not develop a significant difference in maximum binding of insulin. Sows fed the low-fiber diet had a significantly higher number of binding sites and a significantly lower binding affinity than did sows fed a high-fiber diet. Receptor-binding affinity was lower in the low-fiber diet group than in cycling gilts, whereas data from sows fed the high-fiber diet did not differ from data for cycling gilts. Data from this study indicated that insulin receptors of swine erythrocytes have binding characteristics similar to those in other species. Pregnancy and diet will alter insulin receptor binding in swine.

  20. Phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 by glycogen synthase kinase 3 impairs insulin action

    PubMed Central

    Eldar-Finkelman, Hagit; Krebs, Edwin G.

    1997-01-01

    The phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) on tyrosine residues by the insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase is involved in most of the biological responses of insulin. IRS-1 mediates insulin signaling by recruiting SH2 proteins through its multiple tyrosine phosphorylation sites. The phosphorylation of IRS-1 on serine/threonine residues also occurs in cells; however, the particular protein kinase(s) promoting this type of phosphorylation are unknown. Here we report that glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is capable of phosphorylating IRS-1 and that this modification converts IRS-1 into an inhibitor of IR tyrosine kinase activity in vitro. Expression of wild-type GSK-3 or an “unregulated” mutant of the kinase (S9A) in CHO cells overexpressing IRS-1 and IR, resulted in increased serine phosphorylation levels of IRS-1, suggesting that IRS-1 is a cellular target of GSK-3. Furthermore, insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and IR was markedly suppressed in cells expressing wild-type or the S9A mutant, indicating that expression of GSK-3 impairs IR tyrosine kinase activity. Taken together, our studies suggest a new role for GSK-3 in attenuating insulin signaling via its phosphorylation of IRS-1 and may provide new insight into mechanisms important in insulin resistance. PMID:9275179

  1. Endothelin A (ET(A)) receptors are involved in augmented adrenergic vasoconstriction and blunted nitric oxide-mediated relaxation of penile arteries from insulin-resistant obese zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ana; Contreras, Cristina; Martínez, Pilar; Muñoz, Mercedes; Martínez, Ana Cristina; García-Sacristán, Albino; Hernández, Medardo; Prieto, Dolores

    2014-06-01

    Endothelin 1 (ET-1) levels and receptors are up-regulated in the erectile tissue of diabetic patients and animal models of erectile dysfunction (ED). The present study assessed the role of ET-1 receptors in the impaired adrenergic vasoconstriction and nitrergic relaxation of penile arteries from a rat model of insulin resistance. The effect of ET receptor antagonists was evaluated on the contractile responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS) of penile arteries from obese Zucker rats (OZRs) compared with lean Zucker rats (LZRs). ET receptor expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Changes in neural nitrergic relaxation and adrenergic vasoconstriction and the expression of ET receptors in perivascular nerves were assessed. ET-1 (10(-10)  M) enhanced EFS-induced vasoconstriction, and treatment with the adrenergic neurotoxin guanethidine reduced the contractions induced by ET-1 in penile arteries from both LZRs and OZRs, thus supporting the hypothesis that ET-1 releases noradrenaline from adrenergic nerves. ET-1 antagonized neural nitric oxide (NO)-mediated relaxant responses in LZR arteries, antagonizing relaxations induced by the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine to a larger extent in arteries from OZRs. ET(A) and ET(B) receptors were expressed in perivascular fibers colocalized with the neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 in penile arteries from OZRs. The ET(A) receptor antagonist BQ-123 reversed the enhancing effect of ET-1 on the vasoconstriction elicited by EFS and the ET-1-induced inhibition of nitrergic relaxations in LZRs, restoring them to control levels in penile arteries of OZRs. ET-1 enhances adrenergic vasoconstriction through presynaptic ET(A) receptors and antagonizes neural NO-mediated relaxation through postsynaptic smooth muscle ET(A) receptors in penile arteries from OZRs, which likely contributes to the augmented vasoconstriction and blunted nitrergic relaxation of erectile tissue under conditions of insulin resistance

  2. Substitution of isoleucine for methionine at position 1153 in the beta-subunit of the human insulin receptor. A mutation that impairs receptor tyrosine kinase activity, receptor endocytosis, and insulin action.

    PubMed

    Cama, A; Quon, M J; de la Luz Sierra, M; Taylor, S I

    1992-04-25

    The intracellular domain of the insulin receptor possesses activity as a tyrosine-specific protein kinase. The receptor tyrosine kinase is stimulated by insulin binding to the extracellular domain of the receptor. Previously, we have identified a patient with a genetic form of insulin resistance who is heterozygous for a mutation substituting Ile for Met1153 in the tyrosine kinase domain of the receptor near the cluster of the three major autophosphorylation sites (Tyr1158, Tyr1162, and Tyr1163). In this investigation, the Ile1153 mutant receptor was expressed by transfection of mutant cDNA into NIH-3T3 cells. The mutation impairs receptor tyrosine kinase activity and also inhibits the ability of insulin to stimulate 2-deoxyglucose uptake and thymidine incorporation. These data support the hypothesis that the receptor tyrosine activity plays a necessary role in the ability of the receptor to mediate insulin action in vivo. Furthermore, expression of the Ile1153 mutant receptor exerted a dominant negative effect to inhibit the ability of endogenous murine receptors for insulin and insulin-like growth factor I to mediate their actions upon the cell. This observation is consistent with previous suggestions that mutant receptors dimerize with wild type receptors, thereby creating hybrid molecules which lack biological activity. The dominant negative effect of the mutant receptor may explain the dominant mode of inheritance of insulin resistance caused by the Ile1153 mutation. Finally, the mutation inhibits the ability of insulin to stimulate receptor endocytosis. This may explain the normal number of insulin receptors on the surface of the patient's cells in vivo. Despite the presence of markedly elevated levels of insulin in the patient's plasma, the receptors were resistant to down-regulation.

  3. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor is not required for receptor internalization: studies in 2,4-dinitrophenol-treated cells

    SciTech Connect

    Backer, J.M.; Kahn, C.R.; White, M.F.

    1989-05-01

    The relation between insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor and internalization of the receptor was studied in Fao rat hepatoma cells. Treatment of Fao cells with 2,4-dinitrophenol for 45 min depleted cellular ATP by 80% and equally inhibited insulin-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation, as determined by immunoprecipitation of surface-iodinated or (/sup 32/P)phosphate-labeled cells with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. In contrast, internalization of the insulin receptor and internalization and degradation of /sup 125/I-labeled insulin by 2,4-dinitrophenol-treated cells were normal. These data show that autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor is not required for the receptor-mediated internalization of insulin in Fao cells and suggest that insulin receptor recycling is independent of autophosphorylation.

  4. Human blood-brain barrier insulin receptor.

    PubMed

    Pardridge, W M; Eisenberg, J; Yang, J

    1985-06-01

    A new model system for characterizing the human brain capillary, which makes up the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vivo, is described in these studies and is applied initially to the investigation of the human BBB insulin receptor. Autopsy brains were obtained from the pathologist between 22-36 h postmortem and were used to isolate human brain microvessels which appeared intact on both light and phase microscopy. The microvessels were positive for human factor 8 and for a BBB-specific enzyme marker, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. The microvessels avidly bound insulin with a high-affinity dissociation constant, KD = 1.2 +/- 0.5 nM. The human brain microvessels internalized insulin based on acid-wash assay, and 75% of insulin was internalized at 37 degrees C. The microvessels transported insulin to the medium at 37 degrees C with a t1/2 = approximately 70 min. Little of the 125I-insulin was metabolized by the microvessels under these conditions based on the elution profile of the medium extract over a Sephadex G-50 column. Plasma membranes were obtained from the human brain microvessels and these membranes were enriched in membrane markers such as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase or alkaline phosphatase. The plasma membranes bound 125I-insulin with and ED50 = 10 ng/ml, which was identical to the 50% binding point in intact microvessels. The human BBB plasma membranes were solubilized in Triton X-100 and were adsorbed to a wheat germ agglutinin Sepharose affinity column, indicating the BBB insulin receptor is a glycoprotein. Affinity cross-linking of insulin to the plasma membranes revealed a 127K protein that specifically binds insulin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. The neuronal insulin receptor in its environment.

    PubMed

    Gralle, Matthias

    2017-02-01

    Insulin is known mainly for its effects in peripheral tissues, such as the liver, skeletal muscles and adipose tissue, where the activation of the insulin receptor (IR) has both short-term and long-term effects. Insulin and the IR are also present in the brain, and since there is evidence that neuronal insulin signaling regulates synaptic plasticity and that it is impaired in disease, this pathway might be the key to protection or reversal of symptoms, especially in Alzheimer's disease. However, there are controversies about the importance of the neuronal IR, partly because biophysical data on its activation and signaling are much less complete than for the peripheral IR. This review briefly summarizes the neuronal IR signaling in health and disease, and then focuses on known differences between the neuronal and peripheral IR with regard to alternative splicing and glycosylation, and lack of data with respect to phosphorylation and membrane subdomain localization. Particularities in the neuronal IR itself and its environment may have consequences for downstream signaling and impact synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, establishing the relative importance of insulin signaling through IR or through hybrids with its homolog, the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, is crucial for evaluating the consequences of brain IR activation. An improved biophysical understanding of the neuronal IR may help predict the consequences of insulin-targeted interventions.

  6. Insulin response sequence-dependent and -independent mechanisms mediate effects of insulin on glucocorticoid-stimulated insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lixia; Pan, Haiyun; Unterman, Terry G

    2005-10-01

    IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) gene expression is stimulated by glucocorticoids and suppressed by insulin in the liver. Insulin response sequences (IRSs) mediate effects of insulin on basal promoter function, whereas glucocorticoids stimulate promoter activity through a contiguous glucocorticoid response element. Here we examined the role of IRS-dependent and -independent mechanisms in mediating insulin and glucocorticoids effects on IGFBP-1 promoter activity. Dexamethasone (Dex) stimulates IGFBP-1 promoter activity in HepG2 cells, and mutation of IRSs reduces this effect, indicating that IRS-associated factors enhance glucocorticoid effects on promoter function. Conversely, insulin inhibits basal promoter activity by 40% and Dex-stimulated promoter activity by 65%, indicating that glucocorticoids enhance the ability of insulin to suppress promoter activity. Mutation of IRSs completely disrupts the insulin effect on basal promoter activity and reduces but does not abolish inhibition of Dex-stimulated promoter activity, indicating that insulin suppresses glucocorticoid-stimulated promoter activity through both IRS-dependent and -independent mechanisms. IRS-independent effects of insulin are context dependent because insulin does not suppress glucocorticoid-stimulated activity of a promoter containing multiple glucocorticoid response elements. Cotransfection studies indicate that suppression of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha, an insulin-regulated coactivator of the glucocorticoid receptor, is not required for this effect of insulin. Studies with pharmacological inhibitors indicate that both phosphatidylinositol-3' kinase and mitogen-activated kinase kinase pathways contribute to IRS-independent effects. These studies indicate that glucocorticoids and IRS-associated factors function together to mediate effects of insulin and glucocorticoids on promoter activity and that glucocorticoid treatment creates a complex environment in

  7. Engineering of Insulin Receptor Isoform-Selective Insulin Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Glendorf, Tine; Stidsen, Carsten E.; Norrman, Mathias; Nishimura, Erica; Sørensen, Anders R.; Kjeldsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background The insulin receptor (IR) exists in two isoforms, A and B, and the isoform expression pattern is tissue-specific. The C-terminus of the insulin B chain is important for receptor binding and has been shown to contact the IR just adjacent to the region where the A and B isoforms differ. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of the C-terminus of the B chain in IR isoform binding in order to explore the possibility of engineering tissue-specific/liver-specific insulin analogues. Methodology/Principal Findings Insulin analogue libraries were constructed by total amino acid scanning mutagenesis. The relative binding affinities for the A and B isoform of the IR were determined by competition assays using scintillation proximity assay technology. Structural information was obtained by X-ray crystallography. Introduction of B25A or B25N mutations resulted in analogues with a 2-fold preference for the B compared to the A isoform, whereas the opposite was observed with a B25Y substitution. An acidic amino acid residue at position B27 caused an additional 2-fold selective increase in affinity for the receptor B isoform for analogues bearing a B25N mutation. Furthermore, the combination of B25H with either B27D or B27E also resulted in B isoform-preferential analogues (2-fold preference) even though the corresponding single mutation analogues displayed no differences in relative isoform binding affinity. Conclusions/Significance We have discovered a new class of IR isoform-selective insulin analogues with 2–4-fold differences in relative binding affinities for either the A or the B isoform of the IR compared to human insulin. Our results demonstrate that a mutation at position B25 alone or in combination with a mutation at position B27 in the insulin molecule confers IR isoform selectivity. Isoform-preferential analogues may provide new opportunities for developing insulin analogues with improved clinical benefits. PMID:21625452

  8. Peroxynitrite mediates muscle insulin resistance in mice via nitration of IRbeta/IRS-1 and Akt

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Jun; Huang Kaixun

    2009-11-15

    Accumulating evidence suggests that peroxynitrite (ONOO{sup -}) is involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. In the current study, we investigated whether insulin resistance in vivo could be mediated by nitration of proteins involved in the early steps of the insulin signal transduction pathway. Exogenous peroxynitrite donated by 3-morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1) induced in vivo nitration of the insulin receptor beta subunit (IRbeta), insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, and protein kinase B/Akt (Akt) in skeletal muscle of mice and dramatically reduced whole-body insulin sensitivity and muscle insulin signaling. Moreover, in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed insulin-resistant mice, we observed enhanced nitration of IRbeta and IRS-1 in skeletal muscle, in parallel with impaired whole-body insulin sensitivity and muscle insulin signaling. Reversal of nitration of these proteins by treatment with the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst FeTPPS yielded an improvement in whole-body insulin sensitivity and muscle insulin signaling in HFD-fed mice. Taken together, these findings provide new mechanistic insights for the involvement of peroxynitrite in the development of insulin resistance and suggest that nitration of proteins involved in the early steps of insulin signal transduction is a novel molecular mechanism of HFD-induced muscle insulin resistance.

  9. Cellular insulin resistance disrupts leptin-mediated control of neuronal signaling and transcription.

    PubMed

    Nazarians-Armavil, Anaies; Menchella, Jonathan A; Belsham, Denise D

    2013-06-01

    Central resistance to the actions of insulin and leptin is associated with the onset of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas leptin and insulin signaling is essential for both glucose and energy homeostasis. Although it is known that leptin resistance can lead to attenuated insulin signaling, whether insulin resistance can lead to or exacerbate leptin resistance is unknown. To investigate the molecular events underlying crosstalk between these signaling pathways, immortalized hypothalamic neuronal models, rHypoE-19 and mHypoA-2/10, were used. Prolonged insulin exposure was used to induce cellular insulin resistance, and thereafter leptin-mediated regulation of signal transduction and gene expression was assessed. Leptin directly repressed agouti-related peptide mRNA levels but induced urocortin-2, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, IRS2, and IR transcription, through leptin-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt activation. Neuronal insulin resistance, as assessed by attenuated Akt phosphorylation, blocked leptin-mediated signal transduction and agouti-related peptide, urocortin-2, IRS1, IRS2, and insulin receptor synthesis. Insulin resistance caused a substantial decrease in insulin receptor protein levels, forkhead box protein 1 phosphorylation, and an increase in suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 protein levels. Cellular insulin resistance may cause or exacerbate neuronal leptin resistance and, by extension, obesity. It is essential to unravel the effects of neuronal insulin resistance given that both peripheral, as well as the less widely studied central insulin resistance, may contribute to the development of metabolic, reproductive, and cardiovascular disorders. This study provides improved understanding of the complex cellular crosstalk between insulin-leptin signal transduction that is disrupted during neuronal insulin resistance.

  10. S961, an insulin receptor antagonist causes hyperinsulinemia, insulin-resistance and depletion of energy stores in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vikram, Ajit; Jena, Gopabandhu

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields}Insulin receptor antagonist S961 causes hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in rats. {yields}Peroxysome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma agonist pioglitazone improves S961 induced hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance. {yields}Long term treatment with insulin receptor antagonist S961 results in the decreased adiposity and hepatic glycogen content. {yields}Improvement in the hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance by pioglitazone clearly demonstrates that S961 treated rats can be successfully used to screen the novel therapeutic interventions having potential to improve glucose disposal through receptor independent mechanisms. -- Abstract: Impairment in the insulin receptor signaling and insulin mediated effects are the key features of type 2 diabetes. Here we report that S961, a peptide insulin receptor antagonist induces hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia ({approx}18-fold), glucose intolerance and impairment in the insulin mediated glucose disposal in the Sprague-Dawley rats. Further, long-term S961 treatment (15 day, 10 nM/kg/day) depletes energy storage as evident from decrease in the adiposity and hepatic glycogen content. However, peroxysome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma (PPAR{gamma}) agonist pioglitazone significantly (P < 0.001) restored S961 induced hyperglycemia (196.73 {+-} 16.32 vs. 126.37 {+-} 27.07 mg/dl) and glucose intolerance ({approx}78%). Improvement in the hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance by pioglitazone clearly demonstrates that S961 treated rats can be successfully used to screen the novel therapeutic interventions having potential to improve glucose disposal through receptor independent mechanisms. Further, results of the present study reconfirms and provide direct evidence to the crucial role of insulin receptor signaling in the glucose homeostasis and fuel metabolism.

  11. Transgenic silkworms expressing human insulin receptors for evaluation of therapeutically active insulin receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Masaki; Ishii, Kenichi; Miyaguchi, Wataru; Horie, Ryo; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Tatematsu, Ken-ichiro; Uchino, Keiro; Tamura, Toshiki; Sezutsu, Hideki; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2014-12-12

    We established a transgenic silkworm strain expressing the human insulin receptor (hIR) using the GAL4/UAS system. Administration of human insulin to transgenic silkworms expressing hIR decreased hemolymph sugar levels and facilitated Akt phosphorylation in the fat body. The decrease in hemolymph sugar levels induced by injection of human insulin in the transgenic silkworms expressing hIR was blocked by co-injection of wortmannin, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor. Administration of bovine insulin, an hIR ligand, also effectively decreased sugar levels in the transgenic silkworms. These findings indicate that functional hIRs that respond to human insulin were successfully induced in the transgenic silkworms. We propose that the humanized silkworm expressing hIR is useful for in vivo evaluation of the therapeutic activities of insulin receptor agonists.

  12. Toll-like receptor 2 deficiency improves insulin sensitivity and hepatic insulin signalling in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Kuo, L-H; Tsai, P-J; Jiang, M-J; Chuang, Y-L; Yu, L; Lai, K-T A; Tsai, Y-S

    2011-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests a link between elevated inflammation and development of insulin resistance. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) recognises a large number of lipid-containing molecules and transduces inflammatory signalling in a variety of cell types, including insulin-responsive cells. Considering the contribution of the fatty acid composition in TLR2-depedent signalling, we hypothesised that the inflammatory signals transduced by TLR2 contribute to insulin resistance. Mice deficient in TLR2 were used to investigate the in vivo roles of TLR2 in initiating and maintaining inflammation-associated insulin resistance and energy homeostasis. We first recapitulated the observation with elevated expression of TLR2 and inflammatory cytokines in white adipose tissue and liver of ob/ob mice. Aged or high-fat-fed TLR2-deficient mice were protected from obesity and adipocyte hypertrophy compared with wild-type mice. Moreover, mice lacking TLR2 exhibited improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity regardless of feeding them regular chow or a high-fat diet. This is accompanied by reductions in expression of inflammatory cytokines and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in a liver-specific manner. The attenuated hepatic inflammatory cytokine expression and related signalling are correlated with increased insulin action specifically in the liver in TLR2-deficient mice, reflected by increased insulin-stimulated protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation and IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation and increased insulin-suppressed hepatocyte glucose production. The absence of TLR2 attenuates local inflammatory cytokine expression and related signalling and increases insulin action specifically in the liver. Thus, our work has identified TLR2 as a key mediator of hepatic inflammation-related signalling and insulin resistance.

  13. Changing the insulin receptor to possess insulin-like growth factor I ligand specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, A.S.; Kjeldsen, T.; Wiberg, F.C.; Christensen, P.M.; Rasmussen, J.S.; Norris, K.; Moeller, K.B.; Moeller, N.P.H. )

    1990-08-14

    To examine the role of the N-terminal part of the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor and insulin receptor in determining ligand specificity, the authors prepared an expression vector encoding a hybrid receptor where exon 1 (encoding the signal peptide and seven amino acids of the {alpha}-subunit), exon 2, and exon 3 of the insulin receptor were replaced with the corresponding IGF-I receptor cDNA (938 nucleotides). To allow direct quantitative comparison of the binding capabilities of this hybrid receptor with those of the human IGF-I receptor and the insulin receptor, all three receptors were expressed in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells as soluble molecules and partially purified before characterization. The hybrid IGF-I/insulin receptor bound IGF-I with an affinity comparable to that of the wild-type IGF-I receptor. In contrast, the hybrid receptor no longer displayed high-affinity binding of insulin. These results directly demonstrate that it is possible to change the specificity of the insulin receptor to that of the IGF-I receptor and, furthermore, that the binding specificity for IGF-I is encoded within the nucleotide sequence from 135 to 938 of the IGF-I receptor cDNA. Since the hybrid receptor only bound insulin with low affinity, the insulin binding region is likely to be located within exons 2 and 3 of the insulin receptor.

  14. Role of insulin receptor phosphorylation in the insulinomimetic effects of hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, G.R.; Lockwood, D.H.

    1987-11-01

    The oxidant H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ has many insulin-like effects in rat adipocytes. To determine whether these effects could be mediated by the tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor, the ability of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ to stimulate receptor phosphorylation in intact adipocytes and partially purified insulin receptors has been examined. Phosphorylation of the ..beta.. subunit of the insulin receptor was increased. Stimulation of receptor phosphorylation was rapid, reaching maximal levels within 5 min, and preceded activation of glucose transport. Phosphoamino acid analysis of insulin receptors from H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-treated adipocytes showed that /sup 32/P incorporation into phosphotyrosine and phosphoserine residues of the ..beta.. subunit was enhanced. Furthermore, partially purified receptors from H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-treated cells exhibit increased tyrosine kinase activity, as measured by phosphorylation of the peptide Glu/sub 80/Tyr/sub 20/. To define the factors involved in H/sub 2/O/sub 2/'s effect, the authors have examined receptor phosphorylation in fat cell homogenates and purified plasma membranes. Although insulin stimulated receptor phosphorylation in both of these systems, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ was only effective in the cell homogenates. These data demonstrate that, under certain conditions, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ stimulates insulin receptor phosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity, suggesting that the insulin-like effects of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ may be mediated by stimulation of insulin receptor phosphorylation. This does not appear to be a direct effect of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ on the insulin receptor and requires nonplasma membrane cellular constituents.

  15. Insulin-receptor phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatases.

    PubMed Central

    King, M J; Sale, G J

    1988-01-01

    Calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase has been proposed to be an important phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase. The ability of the enzyme to attack autophosphorylated insulin receptor was examined and compared with the known ability of the enzyme to act on autophosphorylated epidermal-growth-factor (EGF) receptor. Purified calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase was shown to catalyse the complete dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosyl-(insulin receptor). When compared at similar concentrations, 32P-labelled EGF receptor was dephosphorylated at greater than 3 times the rate of 32P-labelled insulin receptor; both dephosphorylations exhibited similar dependence on metal ions and calmodulin. Native phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatases in cell extracts were also characterized. With rat liver, heart or brain, most (75%) of the native phosphatase activity against both 32P-labelled insulin and EGF receptors was recovered in the particulate fraction of the cell, with only 25% in the soluble fraction. This subcellular distribution contrasts with results of previous studies using artificial substrates, which found most of the phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase activity in the soluble fraction of the cell. Properties of particulate and soluble phosphatase activity against 32P-labelled insulin and EGF receptors are reported. The contribution of calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase activity to phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase activity in cell fractions was determined by utilizing the unique metal-ion dependence of calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase. Whereas Ni2+ (1 mM) markedly activated the calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, it was found to inhibit potently both particulate and soluble phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase activity. In fractions from rat liver, brain and heart, total phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase activity against both 32P-labelled receptors was inhibited by 99.5 +/- 6% (mean +/- S.E.M., 30 observations) by Ni2+. Results of Ni2+ inhibition

  16. How insulin engages its primary binding site on the insulin receptor

    PubMed Central

    Menting, John G.; Whittaker, Jonathan; Margetts, Mai B.; Whittaker, Linda J.; Kong, Geoffrey K.-W.; Smith, Brian J.; Watson, Christopher J.; Žáková, Lenka; Kletvíková, Emília; Jiráček, Jiří; Chan, Shu Jin; Steiner, Donald F.; Dodson, Guy G.; Brzozowski, Andrzej M.; Weiss, Michael A.; Ward, Colin W.; Lawrence, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin receptor signalling has a central role in mammalian biology, regulating cellular metabolism, growth, division, differentiation and survival1,2. Insulin resistance contributes to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and the onset of Alzheimer’s disease3; aberrant signalling occurs in diverse cancers, exacerbated by crosstalk with the homologous type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R)4. Despite more than three decades of investigation, the three-dimensional structure of the insulin–insulin receptor complex has proved elusive, confounded by the complexity of producing the receptor protein. Here we present the first view, to our knowledge, of the interaction of insulin with its primary binding site on the insulin receptor, on the basis of four crystal structures of insulin bound to truncated insulin receptor constructs. The direct interaction of insulin with the first leucine-rich-repeat domain (L1) of insulin receptor is seen to be sparse, the hormone instead engaging the insulin receptor carboxy-terminal α-chain (αCT) segment, which is itself remodelled on the face of L1 upon insulin binding. Contact between insulin and L1 is restricted to insulin B-chain residues. The αCT segment displaces the B-chain C-terminal β-strand away from the hormone core, revealing the mechanism of a long-proposed conformational switch in insulin upon receptor engagement. This mode of hormone–receptor recognition is novel within the broader family of receptor tyrosine kinases5. We support these findings by photo-crosslinking data that place the suggested interactions into the context of the holoreceptor and by isothermal titration calorimetry data that dissect the hormone–insulin receptor interface. Together, our findings provide an explanation for a wealth of biochemical data from the insulin receptor and IGF1R systems relevant to the design of therapeutic insulin analogues. PMID:23302862

  17. Targeted deletion of growth hormone (GH) receptor in macrophage reveals novel osteopontin-mediated effects of GH on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chunxia; Kumar, P Anil; Sun, Jinhong; Aggarwal, Anjali; Fan, Yong; Sperling, Mark A; Lumeng, Carey N; Menon, Ram K

    2013-05-31

    We investigated GH action on macrophage (MΦ) by creating a MΦ-specific GH receptor-null mouse model (MacGHR KO). On a normal diet (10% fat), MacGHR KO and littermate controls exhibited similar growth profiles and glucose excursions on intraperitoneal glucose (ipGTT) and insulin tolerance (ITT) tests. However, when challenged with high fat diet (HFD, 45% fat) for 18 weeks, MacGHR KO mice exhibited impaired ipGTT and ITT compared with controls. In MacGHR KO, adipose-tissue (AT) MΦ abundance was increased with skewing toward M1 polarization. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL1β, TNF-α, IL6, and osteopontin (OPN)) were increased in MacGHR KO AT stromal vascular fraction (SVF). In MacGHR KO AT, crown-like-structures were increased with decreased insulin-dependent Akt phosphorylation. The abundance of phosphorylated NF-κB and of OPN was increased in SVF and bone-marrow-derived MΦ in MacGHR KO. GH, acting via an NF-κB site in the distal OPN promoter, inhibited the OPN promoter. Thus in diet-induced obesity (DIO), lack of GH action on the MΦ exerts an unexpected deleterious effect on glucose homeostasis by accentuating AT inflammation and NF-κB-dependent activation of OPN expression. These novel results in mice support the possibility that administration of GH could have salutary effects on DIO-associated chronic inflammation and insulin resistance in humans.

  18. Insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) stimulation abrogates an association between a deubiquitinating enzyme USP7 and insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) followed by proteasomal degradation of IRSs.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Hidehito; Fukushima, Toshiaki; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Saeki, Yasushi; Tanaka, Keiji; Ito, Akihiro; Yoshida, Minoru; Iemura, Shun-ichiro; Natsume, Tohru; Asano, Tomoichiro; Chida, Kazuhiro; Girnita, Leonard; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro

    2012-06-22

    Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) play central roles in insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling and mediate a variety of their bioactivities. IRSs are tyrosine-phosphorylated by activated insulin receptor/IGF-I receptor tyrosine kinase in response to insulin/IGF, and are recognized by signaling molecules possessing the SH2 domain such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), leading to the activation of downstream pathways. Recent studies have suggested that degradation of IRSs by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway leads to impaired insulin/IGF signaling, but the precise mechanism underlying the process is still unclear. In this study, we identified deubiquitinating enzyme ubiquitin specific protease 7 (USP7) as an IRS-2-interacting protein and demonstrated that deubiquitinase activity of USP7 plays important roles in IRS-2 stabilization through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In addition, insulin treatment dissociated USP7 from IRS-2, leading to degradation of IRS-2. This dissociation was prevented by treatment with LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, indicating that insulin activation of the PI3K pathway leads to dissociation of IRS-2 from USP7 and IRS-2 degradation. We obtained similar results for IRS-1 in cells treated with insulin and for IRS-2 in cells treated with IGF-I. Taken together, this is the first report demonstrating that USP7 is an IRS-1/2 deubiquitinating enzyme forming a negative feedback loop in insulin/IGF signaling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dual pathways for the intracellular processing of insulin. Relationship between retroendocytosis of intact hormone and the recycling of insulin receptors.

    PubMed

    Marshall, S

    1985-11-05

    Adipocytes process insulin through either of two pathways: a retroendocytotic pathway that culminates in the release of intact insulin, and a degradative pathway that terminates in the intracellular catabolism and release of degraded ligand. Mechanistically, these pathways were found to differ in several ways. First, temporal differences were found in the rate at which intact and degraded products were extruded. After 125I-insulin was preloaded into the cell interior, intact ligand was completely released during the first 10 min (t 1/2 = 2 min), whereas degraded insulin was released at a much slower rate over 1 h (t 1/2 greater than 8 min). Secondly, it was found that chloroquine profoundly inhibited the insulin degradative pathway, resulting in the intracellular accumulation of intact ligand and a reduction in the release of degraded products. In contrast, however, chloroquine was without effect on the retroendocytotic processing of insulin. Based on the known actions of chloroquine, it appears that retroendocytosis of insulin does not involve vesicular acidification or dissociation of the insulin-receptor complex and that insulin is most likely carried to the cell exterior in the same vesicles (either receptor-bound or free) as those mediating recycling receptors. Interestingly, accumulation of undergraded insulin within chloroquine-treated cells did not result in the release of additional intact ligand, suggesting that once insulin enters the degradative compartment it is committed to catabolism and cannot exit the cell through the retroendocytotic pathway. A third difference was revealed by the finding that extracellular unlabeled insulin (100 ng/ml) markedly accelerated the rate at which preloaded 125I-insulin was released from adipocytes (t 1/2 of 3 min versus 7 min in controls cells). Analysis of the composition of the released products revealed that extracellular insulin rapidly augmented (over 10 min) in a dose-dependent manner (5-200 ng/ml) the amount of

  20. SRC Homology 2 Domain Binding Sites in Insulin, IGF-1 and FGF receptor mediated signaling networks reveal an extensive potential interactome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Specific peptide ligand recognition by modular interaction domains is essential for the fidelity of information flow through the signal transduction networks that control cell behavior in response to extrinsic and intrinsic stimuli. Src homology 2 (SH2) domains recognize distinct phosphotyrosine peptide motifs, but the specific sites that are phosphorylated and the complement of available SH2 domains varies considerably in individual cell types. Such differences are the basis for a wide range of available protein interaction microstates from which signaling can evolve in highly divergent ways. This underlying complexity suggests the need to broadly map the signaling potential of systems as a prerequisite for understanding signaling in specific cell types as well as various pathologies that involve signal transduction such as cancer, developmental defects and metabolic disorders. This report describes interactions between SH2 domains and potential binding partners that comprise initial signaling downstream of activated fibroblast growth factor (FGF), insulin (Ins), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptors. A panel of 50 SH2 domains screened against a set of 192 phosphotyrosine peptides defines an extensive potential interactome while demonstrating the selectivity of individual SH2 domains. The interactions described confirm virtually all previously reported associations while describing a large set of potential novel interactions that imply additional complexity in the signaling networks initiated from activated receptors. This study of pTyr ligand binding by SH2 domains provides valuable insight into the selectivity that underpins complex signaling networks that are assembled using modular protein interaction domains. PMID:22974441

  1. p75 neurotrophin receptor regulates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Baeza-Raja, Bernat; Li, Pingping; Le Moan, Natacha; Sachs, Benjamin D.; Schachtrup, Christian; Davalos, Dimitrios; Vagena, Eirini; Bridges, Dave; Kim, Choel; Saltiel, Alan R.; Olefsky, Jerrold M.; Akassoglou, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a key factor in the etiology of type 2 diabetes. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is mediated by the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), which is expressed mainly in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Insulin-stimulated translocation of GLUT4 from its intracellular compartment to the plasma membrane is regulated by small guanosine triphosphate hydrolases (GTPases) and is essential for the maintenance of normal glucose homeostasis. Here we show that the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) is a regulator of glucose uptake and insulin resistance. p75NTR knockout mice show increased insulin sensitivity on normal chow diet, independent of changes in body weight. Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp studies demonstrate that deletion of the p75NTR gene increases the insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rate and suppression of hepatic glucose production. Genetic depletion or shRNA knockdown of p75NTR in adipocytes or myoblasts increases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation. Conversely, overexpression of p75NTR in adipocytes decreases insulin-stimulated glucose transport. In adipocytes, p75NTR forms a complex with the Rab5 family GTPases Rab5 and Rab31 that regulate GLUT4 trafficking. Rab5 and Rab31 directly interact with p75NTR primarily via helix 4 of the p75NTR death domain. Adipocytes from p75NTR knockout mice show increased Rab5 and decreased Rab31 activities, and dominant negative Rab5 rescues the increase in glucose uptake seen in p75NTR knockout adipocytes. Our results identify p75NTR as a unique player in glucose metabolism and suggest that signaling from p75NTR to Rab5 family GTPases may represent a unique therapeutic target for insulin resistance and diabetes. PMID:22460790

  2. Insulin receptor substrate signaling suppresses neonatal autophagy in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Riehle, Christian; Wende, Adam R.; Sena, Sandra; Pires, Karla Maria; Pereira, Renata Oliveira; Zhu, Yi; Bugger, Heiko; Frank, Deborah; Bevins, Jack; Chen, Dong; Perry, Cynthia N.; Dong, Xiaocheng C.; Valdez, Steven; Rech, Monika; Sheng, Xiaoming; Weimer, Bart C.; Gottlieb, Roberta A.; White, Morris F.; Abel, E. Dale

    2013-01-01

    The induction of autophagy in the mammalian heart during the perinatal period is an essential adaptation required to survive early neonatal starvation; however, the mechanisms that mediate autophagy suppression once feeding is established are not known. Insulin signaling in the heart is transduced via insulin and IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1Rs). We disrupted insulin and IGF-1R signaling by generating mice with combined cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Irs1 and Irs2. Here we show that loss of IRS signaling prevented the physiological suppression of autophagy that normally parallels the postnatal increase in circulating insulin. This resulted in unrestrained autophagy in cardiomyocytes, which contributed to myocyte loss, heart failure, and premature death. This process was ameliorated either by activation of mTOR with aa supplementation or by genetic suppression of autophagic activation. Loss of IRS1 and IRS2 signaling also increased apoptosis and precipitated mitochondrial dysfunction, which were not reduced when autophagic flux was normalized. Together, these data indicate that in addition to prosurvival signaling, insulin action in early life mediates the physiological postnatal suppression of autophagy, thereby linking nutrient sensing to postnatal cardiac development. PMID:24177427

  3. Hepatocyte Toll-like receptor 4 regulates obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chronic low-grade inflammation is a hallmark of obesity and thought to contribute to the development of obesity-related insulin resistance. Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) is a key mediator of pro-inflammatory responses. Mice lacking Tlr4s are protected from diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammat...

  4. Dual pathways for the intracellular processing of insulin. Relationship between retroendocytosis of intact hormone and the recycling of insulin receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, S.

    1985-11-05

    Adipocytes process insulin through either of two pathways: a retroendocytotic pathway that culminates in the release of intact insulin, and a degradative pathway that terminates in the intracellular catabolism and release of degraded ligand. Mechanistically, these pathways were found to differ in several ways. First, temporal differences were found in the rate at which intact and degraded products were extruded. After SVI-insulin was preloaded into the cell interior, intact ligand was completely released during the first 10 min (t 1/2 = 2 min), whereas degraded insulin was released at a much slower rate over 1 h (t 1/2 greater than 8 min). Secondly, it was found that chloroquine profoundly inhibited the insulin degradative pathway, resulting in the intracellular accumulation of intact ligand and a reduction in the release of degraded products. In contrast, however, chloroquine was without effect on the retroendocytotic processing of insulin. Based on the known actions of chloroquine, it appears that retroendocytosis of insulin does not involve vesicular acidification or dissociation of the insulin-receptor complex and that insulin is most likely carried to the cell exterior in the same vesicles (either receptor-bound or free) as those mediating recycling receptors. Interestingly, accumulation of undergraded insulin within chloroquine-treated cells did not result in the release of additional intact ligand, suggesting that once insulin enters the degradative compartment it is committed to catabolism and cannot exit the cell through the retroendocytotic pathway. A third difference was revealed by the finding that extracellular unlabeled insulin (100 ng/ml) markedly accelerated the rate at which preloaded SVI-insulin was released from adipocytes (t 1/2 of 3 min versus 7 min in controls cells).

  5. Agonism and Antagonism at the Insulin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Louise; Hansen, Bo Falck; Jensen, Pia; Pedersen, Thomas Åskov; Vestergaard, Kirsten; Schäffer, Lauge; Blagoev, Blagoy; Oleksiewicz, Martin B.; Kiselyov, Vladislav V.; De Meyts, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Insulin can trigger metabolic as well as mitogenic effects, the latter being pharmaceutically undesirable. An understanding of the structure/function relationships between insulin receptor (IR) binding and mitogenic/metabolic signalling would greatly facilitate the preclinical development of new insulin analogues. The occurrence of ligand agonism and antagonism is well described for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and other receptors but in general, with the exception of antibodies, not for receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). In the case of the IR, no natural ligand or insulin analogue has been shown to exhibit antagonistic properties, with the exception of a crosslinked insulin dimer (B29-B’29). However, synthetic monomeric or dimeric peptides targeting sites 1 or 2 of the IR were shown to be either agonists or antagonists. We found here that the S961 peptide, previously described to be an IR antagonist, exhibited partial agonistic effects in the 1–10 nM range, showing altogether a bell-shaped dose-response curve. Intriguingly, the agonistic effects of S961 were seen only on mitogenic endpoints (3H-thymidine incorporation), and not on metabolic endpoints (14C-glucose incorporation in adipocytes and muscle cells). The agonistic effects of S961 were observed in 3 independent cell lines, with complete concordance between mitogenicity (3H-thymidine incorporation) and phosphorylation of the IR and Akt. Together with the B29-B’29 crosslinked dimer, S961 is a rare example of a mixed agonist/antagonist for the human IR. A plausible mechanistic explanation based on the bivalent crosslinking model of IR activation is proposed. PMID:23300584

  6. Dissociation of insulin receptor phosphorylation and stimulation of glucose transport in BC3H-1 myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Mojsilovic, L.P.; Standaert, M.L.; Rosic, N.K.; Pollet, R.J.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have investigated insulin receptor phosphorylation in differentiated cultured BC3H-1 myocytes. As for other insulin-responsive cell systems in partially purified wheat germ agglutinin receptor preparations, insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of its own receptor (95K ..beta..-subunits) in a dose dependent manner (0-400 nM), as identified by immunoprecipitation with antiinsulin receptor antibodies and SDS-PAGE. In the same preparations they show that 12-0-tetradecanyl phorbol acetate (TPA), which in many respect ..beta..-subunits in the same dose dependent manner (0-5 ..mu..M). In addition, antiinsulin receptor antibodies (B-10) also induced phosphorylation of mimics insulin action, also induced phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and HPLC tryptic maps of the /sup 32/P-labeled ..beta..-subunit were identical to those for insulin-induced receptor phosphorylation. However, while insulin and TPA are potent stimulators of glucose transport in these muscle cells, the antireceptor antibodies alone failed to provoke glucose transport at any concentration. The specificity and activity of these antibodies were confirmed in their system by their ability to inhibit insulin binding and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in a concentration-dependent manner. Their results indicate that phosphorylation of insulin receptor is not a crucial event in mediating insulin action, at least with respect to glucose transport. While the effects of the B-10 antibody in the BC3H-1 myocyte differ from those in the adipocyte, their results provide independent confirmation of their essential conclusion that phosphorylation of the insulin receptor may not be necessary nor sufficient for its acute action in promoting glucose transport.

  7. Phosphorylation of insulin-like growth factor I receptor by insulin receptor tyrosine kinase in intact cultured skeletal muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Beguinot, F.; Smith, R.J.; Kahn, C.R.; Maron, R.; Moses, A.C.; White, M.F.

    1988-05-03

    The interaction between insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I) receptors was examined by determining the ability of each receptor type to phosphorylate tyrosine residues on the other receptor in intact L6 skeletal muscle cells. This was made possible through a sequential immunoprecipitation method with two different antibodies that effectively separated the phosphorylated insulin and IGF I receptors. After incubation of intact L6 cells with various concentrations of insulin or IGF I in the presence of (/sup 32/P)-orthophosphate, insulin receptors were precipitated with one of two human polyclonal anti-insulin receptor antibodies (B2 or B9). Phosphorylated IGF I receptors remained in solution and were subsequently precipitated by anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies. The identifies of the insulin and IGF I receptor ..beta..-subunits in the two immunoprecipitates were confirmed by binding affinity, by phosphopeptide mapping after trypsin digestion, and by the distinct patterns of expression of the two receptors during differentiation. Stimulated phosphorylation of the ..beta..-subunit of the insulin receptor correlated with the occupancy of the ..beta..-subunit of the insulin receptor by either insulin or IGF I as determined by affinity cross-linking. Similarly, stimulation of phosphorylation of the ..beta..-subunit of the IGF I receptor by IGF I correlated with IGF I receptor occupancy. In contrast, insulin stimulated phosphorylation of the ..beta..-subunit of the IGF I receptor at hormone concentrations that were associated with significant occupancy of the insulin receptor but negligible IGF I receptor occupancy. These findings indicate that the IGF I receptor can be a substrate for the hormone-activated insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity in intact L6 skeletal muscle cells.

  8. Glucose-induced phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. Functional effects and characterization of phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, T S; Xiao, S; Olefsky, J M

    1996-01-01

    Elevated glucose concentrations have been reported to inhibit insulin receptor kinase activity. We studied the effects of high glucose on insulin action in Rat1 fibroblasts transfected with wild-type human insulin receptor (HIRcB) and a truncated receptor lacking the COOH-terminal 43 amino acids (delta CT). In both cell lines, 25 mM glucose impaired receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation by 34%, but IGF-1 receptor phosphorylation was unaffected. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity and bromodeoxyuridine uptake were decreased by 85 and 35%, respectively. This was reversed by coincubation with a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor or microinjection of a PKC inhibitor peptide. Phosphopeptide mapping revealed that high glucose or PMA led to serine/threonine phosphorylation of similar peptides. Inhibition of the microtubule-associated protein (MAP) kinase cascade by the MAP kinase kinase inhibitor PD98059 did not reverse the impaired phosphorylation. We conclude that high glucose inhibits insulin action by inducing serine phosphorylation through a PKC-mediated mechanism at the level of the receptor at sites proximal to the COOH-terminal 43 amino acids. This effect is independent of activation of the MAP kinase cascade. Proportionately, the impairment of insulin receptor substrate-1 tyrosine phosphorylation is greater than that of the insulin receptor resulting in attenuated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation and mitogenic signaling. PMID:8609215

  9. [Severe type A insulin resistance syndrome due to a mutation in the insulin receptor gene].

    PubMed

    Ros, P; Colino-Alcol, E; Grasso, V; Barbetti, F; Argente, J

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance syndromes without lipodystrophy are an infrequent and heterogeneous group of disorders with variable clinical phenotypes, associated with hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. The three conditions related to mutations in the insulin receptor gene are leprechaunism or Donohue syndrome, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, and Type A syndrome. A case is presented on a patient diagnosed with type A insulin resistance, defined by the triad of extreme insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, and hyperandrogenism, carrying a heterozygous mutation in exon 19 of the insulin receptor gene coding for its tyrosine kinase domain that is crucial for the catalytic activity of the receptor. The molecular basis of the syndrome is reviewed, focusing on the structure-function relationships of the insulin receptor, knowing that the criteria for survival are linked to residual insulin receptor function. It is also pointed out that, although type A insulin resistance appears to represent a somewhat less severe condition, these patients have a high morbidity and their treatment is still unsatisfactory.

  10. Insulin receptors: binding kinetics and structure-function relationship of insulin

    SciTech Connect

    Gammeltoft, S.

    1984-10-01

    Morphological and biochemical work suggests that internalization of the receptor-insulin complex from the plasma membrane transfers insulin to intracellular organelles like the lysosomes, the Golgi apparatus, or nucleus, where degradation by insulin protease takes place, whereas the receptor is recycled back to the membrane. Recent advances in the studies of biosynthesis and cellular dynamics of receptors indicate that intracellular processing and redistribution of binding sites may play a role in the mechanism of insulin action. Insulin receptors are widely distributed in all cell types, but evidence has accumulated that receptors show tissue and species variations in their functional properties regarding binding affinity, insulin specificity, cooperativity, and insulin degradation and in structural properties such as antigenic determinants and glycosidic composition. Perhaps these differences reflect cellular adaptations and variations in the physiological role of insulin.

  11. Is insulin binding followed by disulfide interchange between insulin and the receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, P.E.; Lipkin, E.W.; Teller, D.C.; de Haeen, C.

    1986-05-01

    The kinetics of insulin binding to rat adipocytes at 15/sup 0/C can best be described by a 2-step model. Insulin, I, first binds to the receptor, R. Occupied receptors, RI, then convert reversibly to another form, R'I, from which insulin cannot dissociate directly. At equilibrium, the R'I:RI ratio is approx.3:2. To elucidate the nature of R'I, the effects of 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoate) (DTNB) on the kinetics of insulin binding were investigated. DTNB (2.5 mM) added with 1 nM /sup 125/I-iodoinsulin doubled insulin binding relative to cells without DTNB. When labeled insulin prebound to cells was dissociated with excess unlabeled insulin, DTNB added with the unlabeled insulin reduced the amount of dissociating label. Treatment of adipocytes with DTNB prior to insulin exposure did not alter the subsequent response of insulin binding to DTNB. These data suggest that the receptor exists in at least two conformational states: R, the unoccupied receptor, with a cryptic sulfhydryl group, and the occupied receptors RI and R'I, in which a sulfhydryl group is sensitive to DTNB. The authors propose that R'I formation is the result of disulfide exchange between the receptor and insulin, in accordance with the kinetics evidence that insulin cannot directly dissociate from R'I. The disulfide exchange generates a free sulfhydryl on insulin, with which DTNB reacts to trap insulin covalently bound in the R'I form.

  12. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor Signaling is Necessary for Epidermal Growth Factor Mediated Proliferation of SVZ Neural Precursors in vitro Following Neonatal Hypoxia–Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Alagappan, Dhivyaa; Ziegler, Amber N.; Chidambaram, Shravanthi; Min, Jungsoo; Wood, Teresa L.; Levison, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the importance of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor co-signaling for rat neural precursor (NP) cell proliferation and self-renewal in the context of a developmental brain injury that is associated with cerebral palsy. Consistent with previous studies, we found that there is an increase in the in vitro growth of subventricular zone NPs isolated acutely after cerebral hypoxia–ischemia; however, when cultured in medium that is insufficient to stimulate the IGF type 1 receptor, neurosphere formation and the proliferative capacity of those NPs was severely curtailed. This reduced growth capacity could not be attributed simply to failure to survive. The growth and self-renewal of the NPs could be restored by addition of both IGF-I and IGF-II. Since the size of the neurosphere is predominantly due to cell proliferation we hypothesized that the IGFs were regulating progression through the cell cycle. Analyses of cell cycle progression revealed that IGF-1R activation together with EGFR co-signaling decreased the percentage of cells in G1 and enhanced cell progression into S and G2. This was accompanied by increases in expression of cyclin D1, phosphorylated histone 3, and phosphorylated Rb. Based on these data, we conclude that coordinate signaling between the EGF receptor and the IGF type 1 receptor is necessary for the normal proliferation of NPs as well as for their reactive expansion after injury. These data indicate that manipulations that maintain or amplify IGF signaling in the brain during recovery from developmental brain injuries will enhance the production of new brain cells to improve neurological function in children who are at risk for developing cerebral palsy. PMID:24904523

  13. Sustained βAR Stimulation Mediates Cardiac Insulin Resistance in a PKA-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Denkaew, Tananat; Phosri, Sarawuth; Pinthong, Darawan; Parichatikanond, Warisara; Shimauchi, Tsukasa; Nishida, Motohiro

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a condition in which cells are defective in response to the actions of insulin in tissue glucose uptake. Overstimulation of β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) leads to the development of heart failure and is associated with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in the heart. However, the mechanisms by which sustained βAR stimulation affects insulin resistance in the heart are incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate that sustained βAR stimulation resulted in the inhibition of insulin-induced glucose uptake, and a reduction of insulin induced glucose transporter (GLUT)4 expression that were mediated by the β2AR subtype in cardiomyocytes and heart tissue. Overstimulation of β2AR inhibited the insulin-induced translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane of cardiomyocytes. Additionally, βAR mediated cardiac insulin resistance by reducing glucose uptake and GLUT4 expression via the cAMP-dependent and protein kinase A-dependent pathways. Treatment with β-blockers, including propranolol and metoprolol antagonized isoproterenol-mediated insulin resistance in the heart. The data in this present study confirm a critical role for protein kinase A in βAR-mediated insulin resistance. PMID:26652903

  14. Immunological demonstration of the accumulation of insulin, but not insulin receptors, in nuclei of insulin-treated cells

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, A.P.; Thompson, K.A.; Smith, R.M.; Jarett, L. )

    1989-09-01

    Although insulin is known to regulate nuclear-related processes, such as cell growth and gene transcription, the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Previous studies suggested that translocation of insulin or its receptor to cell nuclei might be involved in some of these processes. The present investigation demonstrated that intact insulin, but not the insulin receptor, accumulated in nuclei of insulin-treated cells. Cell fractionation studies demonstrated that the nuclear accumulation of {sup 125}I-labeled insulin was time-, temperature-, and insulin-concentration-dependent. Electron microscopic immunocytochemistry demonstrated that the insulin that accumulated in the nucleus was immunologically intact and associated with the heterochromatin. Only 1% of the {sup 125}I-labeled insulin extracted from isolated nuclei was eluted from a Sephadex G-50 column as {sup 125}I-labeled tyrosine. Plasma membrane insulin receptors were not detected in the nucleus by immuno electron microscopy or when wheat germ agglutinin-purified extracts of the nuclei were subjected to PAGE, electrotransfer, and immunoblotting with anti-insulin receptor antibodies. These results suggested that internalized insulin dissociated from its receptor and accumulated in the nucleus without its membrane receptor. The authors propose that some of insulin's effects on nuclear function may be caused by the translocation of the intact and biologically active hormone to the nucleus and its binding to nuclear components in the heterochromatin.

  15. Adiponectin inhibits insulin function in primary trophoblasts by PPARα-mediated ceramide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Aye, Irving L M H; Gao, Xiaoli; Weintraub, Susan T; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2014-04-01

    Maternal adiponectin (ADN) levels are inversely correlated with birth weight, and ADN infusion in pregnant mice down-regulates placental nutrient transporters and decreases fetal growth. In contrast to the insulin-sensitizing effects in adipose tissue and muscle, ADN inhibits insulin signaling in the placenta. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are unknown. We hypothesized that ADN inhibits insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα)-mediated ceramide synthesis. Primary human term trophoblast cells were treated with ADN and/or insulin. ADN increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and PPARα. ADN inhibited insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated amino acid transport. This effect was dependent on PPARα, because activation of PPARα with an agonist (GW7647) inhibited insulin signaling and function, whereas PPARα-small interfering RNA reversed the effects of ADN on the insulin response. ADN increased ceramide synthase expression and stimulated ceramide production. C2-ceramide inhibited insulin signaling and function, whereas inhibition of ceramide synthase (with Fumonisin B1) reversed the effects of ADN on insulin signaling and amino acid transport. These findings are consistent with the model that maternal ADN limits fetal growth mediated by activation of placental PPARα and ceramide synthesis, which inhibits placental insulin signaling and amino acid transport, resulting in reduced fetal nutrient availability.

  16. Quercetin suppresses insulin receptor signaling through inhibition of the insulin ligand–receptor binding and therefore impairs cancer cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Feng; Yang, Yong

    2014-10-03

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Quercetin inhibits insulin ligand–receptor interactions. • Quercetin reduces downstream insulin receptor signaling. • Quercetin blocks insulin induced glucose uptake. • Quercetin suppresses insulin stimulated cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. - Abstract: Although the flavonoid quercetin is known to inhibit activation of insulin receptor signaling, the inhibitory mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that quercetin suppresses insulin induced dimerization of the insulin receptor (IR) through interfering with ligand–receptor interactions, which reduces the phosphorylation of IR and Akt. This inhibitory effect further inhibits insulin stimulated glucose uptake due to decreased cell membrane translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), resulting in impaired cancer cell proliferation. The effect of quercetin in inhibiting tumor growth was also evident in an in vivo model, indicating a potential future application for quercetin in the treatment of cancers.

  17. Human insulin prepared by recombinant DNA techniques and native human insulin interact identically with insulin receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Keefer, L M; Piron, M A; De Meyts, P

    1981-01-01

    Human insulin synthesized from A and B chains separately produced in Escherichia coli from cloned synthetic genes (prepared by the Eli Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN) was characterized by examining its interaction with human cultured lymphocytes, human circulating erythrocytes in vitro, and isolated rat fat cells. The binding behavior of the biosynthetic insulin with human cells was indistinguishable from that of native human or porcine insulins, with respect to affinity, association and dissociation kinetics, negative cooperativity, and the down-regulation of lymphocyte receptors. Similarly, the biosynthetic insulin was as potent as the native insulins in stimulating lipogenesis in isolated rat fat cells. We also examined the receptor binding characteristics of 125I-labeled human and porcine insulins monoiodinated solely at Tyr-A14, which were obtained by means of high-performance liquid chromatography of the iodination reaction mixture (this material was prepared by B. Frank, Eli Lilly Research Laboratories). In all aspects studied, the pure [TyrA14-125I]iodoinsulins were superior as tracers to the monoiodoinsulin purified by the more conventional method of gel filtration. PMID:7015337

  18. Central Resistin Overexposure Induces Insulin Resistance Through Toll-Like Receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Benomar, Yacir; Gertler, Arieh; De Lacy, Pamela; Crépin, Delphine; Ould Hamouda, Hassina; Riffault, Laure; Taouis, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Resistin promotes both inflammation and insulin resistance associated with energy homeostasis impairment. However, the resistin receptor and the molecular mechanisms mediating its effects in the hypothalamus, crucial for energy homeostasis control, and key insulin-sensitive tissues are still unknown. In the current study, we report that chronic resistin infusion in the lateral cerebral ventricle of normal rats markedly affects both hypothalamic and peripheral insulin responsiveness. Central resistin treatment inhibited insulin-dependent phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR), AKT, and extracellular signal–related kinase 1/2 associated with reduced IR expression and with upregulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 and phosphotyrosine phosphatase 1B, two negative regulators of insulin signaling. Additionally, central resistin promotes the activation of the serine kinases Jun NH2-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, enhances the serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1, and increases the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in the hypothalamus and key peripheral insulin-sensitive tissues. Interestingly, we also report for the first time, to our knowledge, the direct binding of resistin to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 receptors in the hypothalamus, leading to the activation of the associated proinflammatory pathways. Taken together, our findings clearly identify TLR4 as the binding site for resistin in the hypothalamus and bring new insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in resistin-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in the whole animal. PMID:22961082

  19. Axons guided by insulin receptor in Drosophila visual system.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianbo; Wu, Lingling; Chen, Zun; Kohanski, Ronald A; Pick, Leslie

    2003-04-18

    Insulin receptors are abundant in the central nervous system, but their roles remain elusive. Here we show that the insulin receptor functions in axon guidance. The Drosophila insulin receptor (DInR) is required for photoreceptor-cell (R-cell) axons to find their way from the retina to the brain during development of the visual system. DInR functions as a guidance receptor for the adapter protein Dock/Nck. This function is independent of Chico, the Drosophila insulin receptor substrate (IRS) homolog.

  20. Hepatitis B virus inhibits insulin receptor signaling and impairs liver regeneration via intracellular retention of the insulin receptor.

    PubMed

    Barthel, Sebastian Robert; Medvedev, Regina; Heinrich, Thekla; Büchner, Sarah Manon; Kettern, Nadja; Hildt, Eberhard

    2016-11-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes severe liver disease but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. During chronic HBV infection, the liver is recurrently injured by immune cells in the quest for viral elimination. To compensate tissue injury, liver regeneration represents a vital process which requires proliferative insulin receptor signaling. This study aims to investigate the impact of HBV on liver regeneration and hepatic insulin receptor signaling. After carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury, liver regeneration is delayed in HBV transgenic mice. These mice show diminished hepatocyte proliferation and increased expression of fibrosis markers. This is in accordance with a reduced activation of the insulin receptor although HBV induces expression of the insulin receptor via activation of NF-E2-related factor 2. This leads to increased intracellular amounts of insulin receptor in HBV expressing hepatocytes. However, intracellular retention of the receptor simultaneously reduces the amount of functional insulin receptors on the cell surface and thereby attenuates insulin binding in vitro and in vivo. Intracellular retention of the insulin receptor is caused by elevated amounts of α-taxilin, a free syntaxin binding protein, in HBV expressing hepatocytes preventing proper targeting of the insulin receptor to the cell surface. Consequently, functional analyses of insulin responsiveness revealed that HBV expressing hepatocytes are less sensitive to insulin stimulation leading to delayed liver regeneration. This study describes a novel pathomechanism that uncouples HBV expressing hepatocytes from proliferative signals and thereby impedes compensatory liver regeneration after liver injury.

  1. Insulin Regulation of the Glucagon Gene is Mediated by an Insulin- Responsive DNA Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippe, Jacques

    1991-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin deficiency and high plasma glucagon levels, which can be normalized by insulin replacement. It has previously been reported that glucagon gene expression is negatively regulated by insulin at the transcriptional level. By transfection studies, I have now localized a DNA control element that mediates insulin effects on glucagon gene transcription. This element also confers insulin responsiveness to a heterologous promoter. DNA-binding proteins that specifically interact with this insulin-responsive element are found in both glucagon- and non-glucagon-producing cells; and the pattern of binding, as assessed by the gel retardation assay, is not modified by prior insulin treatment.

  2. Evading apoptosis by calcitriol-differentiated human leukemic HL-60 cells is not mediated by changes in CD95 receptor system but by increased sensitivity of these cells to insulin.

    PubMed

    Marcinkowska, E; Chrobak, A; Wiedłocha, A

    2001-10-15

    Previous studies revealed that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (calcitriol)-induced differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia cells leads to an increased resistance of the cells to apoptosis-inducing agents. However many attempts were made to explain it, the mechanism underlying this effect still remains unclear. Our results suggest that the acquired resistance to apoptosis-inducing agents in HL-60 cells is not mediated by the CD95 receptor/ligand system. The expression of CD95 on the surface of HL-60 cells is very low and does not change during the calcitriol-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells. Studies presented here provide a strong indication that this receptor is unable to transmit the death signal in either differentiated or undifferentiated HL-60 cells. We therefore asked if evading apoptosis by differentiated human leukemia HL-60 cells may be caused by their increased sensitivity to growth factors contained in fetal calf serum. This study demonstrates that HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells, differentiated by exposure to calcitriol, undergo apoptosis in serum-free conditions. As low as 1% of fetal calf serum is enough to prevent cell death of differentiated HL-60 cells. The ability of 1% fetal calf serum to prevent apoptosis can be blocked by the specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, LY294002. We then tried to find out which component of fetal calf serum may be able to prevent serum-free cell death of differentiated cells. It appeared that serum-free cell death of differentiated HL-60 cells is reversed by addition of 10 microM insulin to the culture medium. The antiapoptotic activity of insulin can be inhibited by LY294002. Moreover, insulin increases the viability of differentiated, but not of undifferentiated, HL-60 cells. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  3. Homozygous nonsense mutation in the insulin receptor gene of a patient with severe congenital insulin resistance: leprechaunism and the role of the insulin-like growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Jospe, N; Kaplowitz, P B; Furlanetto, R W

    1996-08-01

    Severe congenital insulin resistance in the syndrome of leprechaunism is caused by mutations in the insulin receptor gene. We report a patient with leprechaunism who was homozygous for a mutation resulting in the absence of cell surface insulin receptors. To determine whether the receptor for Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is involved in the phenotype of leprechaunism, we studied the effect of insulin and of IGF-I on cells from this patient. The patient had a homozygous C-->T substitution at base pair 8212 in exon 12 of the insulin receptor gene, creating a premature stop codon. This nonsense mutation is in the extracellular portion of the receptor and truncates the insulin receptor proximal to its transmembrane anchor, resulting in the absence of cell surface insulin receptors. This finding indicates that complete absence of the insulin receptor is compatible with life. Secondly, DNA synthesis was studied in skin derived fibroblasts in response to increasing concentrations of either insulin or Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and was assessed by 3H-thymidine incorporation. In this patient's cells, both of these hormones increased 3H-thymidine incorporation, and the effect was blocked by alpha-IR3, a monoclonal antibody that blocks activation of the IGF-I receptor. These findings confirmed the absence of the insulin receptor and indicated that insulin acts here through activation of the IGF-I receptor. These data support the contention that the phenotypic and metabolic abnormalities of leprechaunism result from the combination of lack of insulin receptor action and over-activation by insulin of the type 1 IGF receptor.

  4. Involvement of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-mediated inhibition of breast cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Pon, Cindy K; Firth, Sue M; Baxter, Robert C

    2015-01-05

    We have previously reported that insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), a protein with dichotomous effects on both cell proliferation and cell survival, interacts with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and inhibits adipogenic PPARγ signaling. We now show that IGFBP-3 and PPARγ interact in breast cancer cells, through amino- and carboxyl-terminal residues of IGFBP-3. IGFBP-3 and the PPARγ ligands, rosiglitazone or 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J2, separately inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells. However, growth inhibition by IGFBP-3 and PPARγ ligand combined was greater than by either alone. Two IGFBP-3 mutants with reduced PPARγ binding caused no growth inhibition when used alone and abolished the inhibitory effect of rosiglitazone when used in combination with PPARγ ligand. Cell growth inhibition by PPARγ ligands was substantially blocked by IGFBP-3 siRNA and restored by exogenous IGFBP-3. We conclude that the interaction between IGFBP-3 and PPARγ is important for the growth-inhibitory effect of PPARγ ligands in human breast cancer cells, suggesting that IGFBP-3 expression by breast tumors may regulate their sensitivity toward PPARγ ligands. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Insulin-induced myosin light-chain phosphorylation during receptor capping in IM-9 human B-lymphoblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Majercik, M H; Bourguignon, L Y

    1988-01-01

    We have examined further the interaction between insulin surface receptors and the cytoskeleton of IM-9 human lymphoblasts. Using immunocytochemical techniques, we determined that actin, myosin, calmodulin and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) are all accumulated directly underneath insulin-receptor caps. In addition, we have now established that the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ (as measured by fura-2 fluorescence) increases just before insulin-induced receptor capping. Most importantly, we found that the binding of insulin to its receptor induces phosphorylation of myosin light chain in vivo. Furthermore, a number of drugs known to abolish the activation properties of calmodulin, such as trifluoperazine (TFP) or W-7, strongly inhibit insulin-receptor capping and myosin light-chain phosphorylation. These data imply that an actomyosin cytoskeletal contraction, regulated by Ca2+/calmodulin and MLCK, is involved in insulin-receptor capping. Biochemical analysis in vitro has revealed that IM-9 insulin receptors are physically associated with actin and myosin; and most interestingly, the binding of insulin-receptor/cytoskeletal complex significantly enhances the phosphorylation of the 20 kDa myosin light chain. This insulin-induced phosphorylation is inhibited by calmodulin antagonists (e.g. TFP and W-7), suggesting that the phosphorylation is catalysed by MLCK. Together, these results strongly suggest that MLCK-mediated myosin light-chain phosphorylation plays an important role in regulating the membrane-associated actomyosin contraction required for the collection of insulin receptors into caps. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. PMID:3048249

  6. Insulin-induced surface redistribution regulates internalization of the insulin receptor and requires its autophosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Carpentier, J.L.; Paccaud, J.P.; Orci, L. ); Gorden, P. ); Rutter, W.J. )

    1992-01-01

    The role of insulin-induced receptor autophosphorylation in its internalization was analyzed by comparing {sup 125}I-labeled insulin ({sup 125}I-insulin) internalization in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines transfected with normal (CHO.T) or mutated insulin receptors. In four cell lines with a defect of insulin-induced autophosphorylation, {sup 125}I-insulin internalization was impaired. By contrast, in CHO.T cells and in two other CHO cell lines with amino acid deletions or insertions that do not perturb autophosphorylation, {sup 125}I-insulin internalization was not affected. A morphological analysis showed that the inhibition is linked to the ligand-specific surface redistribution in which the insulin-receptor complexes leave microvilli and concentrate on nonvillous segments of the membrane where endocytosis occurs.

  7. Changes of insulin effect on lipogenesis and insulin binding receptors during hypokinesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho, L.; Fickova, M.; Zorad, S.

    The effect of hypokinesia on insulin action and insulin binding to specific receptors in fat cells was studied. Male Wistar rats were exposed to hypokinesia in special adjustable plastic cages for 1, 7, 21 and 60 days, and the stimulatory effect of insulin (10 and 100 mU) on the incorporation of radiocarbon labelled glucose into lipids of fat tissue and the binding of insulin to receptors of isolated adipocytes was estimated. The stimulation of lipogenesis by insulin was slightly diminished after hypokinesia for 1 day, however, an important increase of insulin action was found in rats exposed to hypokinesia for 60 days. The decrease of insulin binding capacity of the number of binding sites per cell and of the insulin receptor density was found after 1 day of hypokinesia. In rats exposed to hypokinesia for 60 days, in agreement with the higher stimulatory affect of insulin, an increase of insulin receptor density was observed. These results showed that hypokinesia has an important influence on stimulatory action of insulin and on insulin receptors in adipocytes.

  8. Molecular Basis of Signaling Specificity of Insulin and IGF Receptors: Neglected Corners and Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Siddle, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptors utilize common phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways to mediate a broad spectrum of “metabolic” and “mitogenic” responses. Specificity of insulin and IGF action in vivo must in part reflect expression of receptors and responsive pathways in different tissues but it is widely assumed that it is also determined by the ligand binding and signaling mechanisms of the receptors. This review focuses on receptor-proximal events in insulin/IGF signaling and examines their contribution to specificity of downstream responses. Insulin and IGF receptors may differ subtly in the efficiency with which they recruit their major substrates (IRS-1 and IRS-2 and Shc) and this could influence effectiveness of signaling to “metabolic” and “mitogenic” responses. Other substrates (Grb2-associated binder, downstream of kinases, SH2Bs, Crk), scaffolds (RACK1, β-arrestins, cytohesins), and pathways (non-receptor tyrosine kinases, phosphoinositide kinases, reactive oxygen species) have been less widely studied. Some of these components appear to be specifically involved in “metabolic” or “mitogenic” signaling but it has not been shown that this reflects receptor-preferential interaction. Very few receptor-specific interactions have been characterized, and their roles in signaling are unclear. Signaling specificity might also be imparted by differences in intracellular trafficking or feedback regulation of receptors, but few studies have directly addressed this possibility. Although published data are not wholly conclusive, no evidence has yet emerged for signaling mechanisms that are specifically engaged by insulin receptors but not IGF receptors or vice versa, and there is only limited evidence for differential activation of signaling mechanisms that are common to both receptors. Cellular context, rather than intrinsic receptor activity, therefore appears

  9. The effects of digestive enzymes on characteristics of placental insulin receptor. Comparison of particulate and soluble receptor preparations.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, S; DeLuise, M; Larkins, R G; Melick, R A; Harrison, L C

    1978-01-01

    The role of the surrounding membrane structure on the binding characteristics of the insulin receptor was studied by using several digestive enzymes. The effects observed with particulate membrane preparations are compared with those from soluble receptor preparations. beta-Galactosidase and neuraminidase had no effect on insulin binding to either particulate or soluble receptors from human placentae. Exposure to 2 units of phospholipase C/ml increased insulin binding to particulate membranes, but was without effect on the soluble receptor preparation. The increase in binding to particulate membranes was shown to be due to an increase in apparent receptor number. After 5 min exposure to 500 microgram of trypsin/ml there was an increase in insulin binding to the particulate membrane fraction, owing to an increase in receptor affinity. After 15 min exposure to this amount of trypsin, binding decreased, owing to a progressive decrease in receptor availability. In contrast, this concentration of trypsin had no effect on the solubilized receptor preparation. Because of the differential effects of phospholipase C and trypsin on the particulate compared with the solubilized receptor preparations, it is concluded that the effects of these enzymes were due to an effect on the surrounding membrane structure. Changes in receptor configuration due to alterations within the adjoining membrane provide a potential mechanism for mediating short-term alterations in receptor function. PMID:100106

  10. Insulin receptor-related receptor as an extracellular alkali sensor.

    PubMed

    Deyev, Igor E; Sohet, Fabien; Vassilenko, Konstantin P; Serova, Oxana V; Popova, Nadezhda V; Zozulya, Sergey A; Burova, Elena B; Houillier, Pascal; Rzhevsky, Dmitry I; Berchatova, Anastasiya A; Murashev, Arkady N; Chugunov, Anton O; Efremov, Roman G; Nikol'sky, Nikolai N; Bertelli, Eugenio; Eladari, Dominique; Petrenko, Alexander G

    2011-06-08

    The insulin receptor-related receptor (IRR), an orphan receptor tyrosine kinase of the insulin receptor family, can be activated by alkaline media both in vitro and in vivo at pH >7.9. The alkali-sensing property of IRR is conserved in frog, mouse, and human. IRR activation is specific, dose-dependent and quickly reversible and demonstrates positive cooperativity. It also triggers receptor conformational changes and elicits intracellular signaling. The pH sensitivity of IRR is primarily defined by its L1F extracellular domains. IRR is predominantly expressed in organs that come in contact with mildly alkaline media. In particular, IRR is expressed in the cell subsets of the kidney that secrete bicarbonate into urine. Disruption of IRR in mice impairs the renal response to alkali loading attested by development of metabolic alkalosis and decreased urinary bicarbonate excretion in response to this challenge. We therefore postulate that IRR is an alkali sensor that functions in the kidney to manage metabolic bicarbonate excess. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Insulin receptor-related receptor as an extracellular alkali sensor

    PubMed Central

    Deyev, Igor E.; Sohet, Fabien; Vassilenko, Konstantin P.; Serova, Oxana V.; Popova, Nadezhda V.; Zozulya, Sergey A.; Burova, Elena B.; Houillier, Pascal; Rzhevsky, Dmitry I.; Berchatova, Anastasiya A.; Murashev, Arkady N.; Chugunov, Anton O.; Efremov, Roman G.; Nikol’sky, Nikolai N.; Bertelli, Eugenio; Eladari, Dominique; Petrenko, Alexander G.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The insulin receptor-related receptor (IRR), an orphan receptor tyrosine kinase of the insulin receptor family, can be activated by alkaline media both in vitro and in vivo at pH>7.9. The alkali-sensing property of IRR is conserved in frog, mouse and human. IRR activation is specific, dose-dependent, quickly reversible and demonstrates positive cooperativity. It also triggers receptor conformational changes and elicits intracellular signaling. The pH sensitivity of IRR is primarily defined by its L1F extracellular domains. IRR is predominantly expressed in organs that come in contact with mildly alkaline media. In particular, IRR is expressed in the cell subsets of the kidney that secrete bicarbonate into urine. Disruption of IRR in mice impairs the renal response to alkali loading attested by development of metabolic alkalosis and decreased urinary bicarbonate excretion in response to this challenge. We therefore postulate that IRR is an alkali sensor that functions in the kidney to manage metabolic bicarbonate excess. PMID:21641549

  12. Replacement of insulin receptor tyrosine residues 1162 and 1163 does not alter the mitogenic effect of the hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Debant, A.; Clauser, E.; Ponzio, G.; Filloux, C.; Auzan, C.; Contreres, J.O.; Rossi, B. )

    1988-11-01

    Chinese hamster ovary transfectants that express insulin receptors in which tyrosine residues 1162 and 1163 were replaced by phenylalanine exhibit a total inhibition of the insulin-mediated tyrosine kinase activity toward exogenous substrates; this latter activity is associated with total inhibition of the hypersensitivity reported for insulin in promoting 2-deoxyglucose uptake. The authors now present evidence that the twin tyrosines also control the insulin-mediated stimulation of glycogen synthesis. Surprisingly, this type of Chinese hamster ovary transfectant is as hypersensitive to insulin for its mitogenic effect as are Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing many intact insulin receptors. Such data suggest that (i) the insulin mitogenic effect routes through a different pathway than insulin uses to activate the transport and metabolism of glucose and (ii) the mitogenic effect of insulin is not controlled by the twin tyrosines. At the molecular level, the solubilized mutated receptor has not insulin-dependent tyrosine kinase activity, whereas this receptor displays measurable insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of its {beta} subunit in {sup 32}P-labeled cells. The authors therefore propose that the autocatalytic phosphorylating activity of the receptor reports a cryptic tyrosine kinase activity that cannot be visualized by the use of classical exogenous substrates.

  13. Activation of insulin signal transduction pathway and anti-diabetic activity of small molecule insulin receptor activators.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, S A; Ding, V; Li, Z; Szalkowski, D; Biazzo-Ashnault, D E; Xie, D; Saperstein, R; Brady, E; Huskey, S; Shen, X; Liu, K; Xu, L; Salituro, G M; Heck, J V; Moller, D E; Jones, A B; Zhang, B B

    2000-11-24

    We recently described the identification of a non-peptidyl fungal metabolite (l-783,281, compound 1), which induced activation of human insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase and mediated insulin-like effects in cells, as well as decreased blood glucose levels in murine models of Type 2 diabetes (Zhang, B., Salituro, G., Szalkowski, D., Li, Z., Zhang, Y., Royo, I., Vilella, D., Diez, M. T. , Pelaez, F., Ruby, C., Kendall, R. L., Mao, X., Griffin, P., Calaycay, J., Zierath, J. R., Heck, J. V., Smith, R. G. & Moller, D. E. (1999) Science 284, 974-977). Here we report the characterization of an active analog (compound 2) with enhanced IR kinase activation potency and selectivity over related receptors (insulin-like growth factor I receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor). The IR activators stimulated tyrosine kinase activity of partially purified native IR and recombinant IR tyrosine kinase domain. Administration of the IR activators to mice was associated with increased IR tyrosine kinase activity in liver. In vivo oral treatment with compound 2 resulted in significant glucose lowering in several rodent models of diabetes. In db/db mice, oral administration of compound 2 elicited significant correction of hyperglycemia. In a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model, compound 2 potentiated the glucose-lowering effect of insulin. In normal rats, compound 2 improved oral glucose tolerance with significant reduction in insulin release following glucose challenge. A structurally related inactive analog (compound 3) was not effective on insulin receptor activation or glucose lowering in db/db mice. Thus, small molecule IR activators exert insulin mimetic and sensitizing effects in cells and in animal models of diabetes. These results have implications for the future development of new therapies for diabetes mellitus.

  14. The Macrophage A2b Adenosine Receptor Regulates Tissue Insulin Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Koupenova, Milka; Carroll, Shannon; Ravid, Katya

    2014-01-01

    High fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes continues to be an epidemic with significant risk for various pathologies. Previously, we identified the A2b adenosine receptor (A2bAR), an established regulator of inflammation, as a regulator of HFD-induced insulin resistance. In particular, HFD was associated with vast upregulation of liver A2bAR in control mice, and while mice lacking this receptor showed augmented liver inflammation and tissue insulin resistance. As the A2bAR is expressed in different tissues, here, we provide the first lead to cellular mechanism by demonstrating that the receptor's influence on tissue insulin sensitivity is mediated via its expression in macrophages. This was shown using a newly generated transgenic mouse model expressing the A2bAR gene in the macrophage lineage on an otherwise A2bAR null background. Reinstatement of macrophage A2bAR expression in A2bAR null mice fed HFD restored insulin tolerance and tissue insulin signaling to the level of control mice. The molecular mechanism for this effect involves A2bAR-mediated changes in cyclic adenosine monophosphate in macrophages, reducing the expression and release of inflammatory cytokines, which downregulate insulin receptor-2. Thus, our results illustrate that macrophage A2bAR signaling is needed and sufficient for relaying the protective effect of the A2bAR against HFD-induced tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in mice. PMID:24892847

  15. Mutations at the dimer, hexamer, and receptor-binding surfaces of insulin independently affect insulin-insulin and insulin-receptor interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Shoelson, S.E.; Zixian Lu; Parlautan, L.; Lynch, C.S.; Weiss, M.A. )

    1992-02-18

    Mutagenesis of the dimer- and hexamer-forming surfaces of insulin yields analogues with reduced tendencies to aggregate and dramatically altered pharmacokinetic properties. The authors recently showed that one such analogue, HisB1- {yields} Asp, ProB28 {yields} Lys, LysB29 {yields} Pro human insulin (DKP-insulin), has enhanced affinity for the insulin receptor and is useful for studying the structure of the insulin monomer under physiologic solvent conditions. DKP-insulin retains native secondary and tertiary structure in solution and may therefore provide an appropriate baseline for further studies of related analogues containing additional substitutions within the receptor-binding surface of insulin. To test this, they prepared a family of DKP analogues having potency-altering substitutions at the B24 and B25 positions using a streamlined approach to enzymatic semisynthesis which negates the need for amino-group protection. For comparison, similar analogues of native human insulin were prepared by standard semisynthetic methods. The DKP analogues show a reduced tendency to self-associate, as indicated by {sup 1}H-NMR resonance line widths. Such 'template independence' reflects an absence of functional interactions between the B24 and B25 sites and additional substitutions in DKP-insulin and demonstrates that mutations in discrete surfaces of insulin have independent effects on protein structure and function. In particular, the respective receptor-recognition (PheB24, PheB25), hexamer-forming (HisB10), and dimer-forming (ProB28, LysB29) surfaces of insulin may be regarding as independent targets for protein design. DKP-insulin provides an appropriate biophysical model for defining structure-function relationships in a monomeric template.

  16. Fatty acylated caveolin-2 is a substrate of insulin receptor tyrosine kinase for insulin receptor substrate-1-directed signaling activation.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hayeong; Lee, Jaewoong; Jeong, Kyuho; Jang, Donghwan; Pak, Yunbae

    2015-05-01

    Here, we demonstrate that insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase catalyzes Tyr-19 and Tyr-27 phosphorylation of caveolin-2 (cav-2), leading to stimulation of signaling proteins downstream of IR, and that the catalysis is dependent on fatty acylation status of cav-2, promoting its interaction with IR. Cav-2 is myristoylated at Gly-2 and palmitoylated at Cys-109, Cys-122, and Cys-145. The fatty acylation deficient mutants are unable to localize in the plasma membrane and not phosphorylated by IR tyrosine kinase. IR interacts with the C-terminal domain of cav-2 containing the cysteines for palmitoylation. IR mutants, Y999F and K1057A, but not W1220S, fail interaction with cav-2. Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) is recruited to interact with the IR-catalyzed phospho-tyrosine cav-2, which facilitates IRS-1 association with and activation by IR to initiate IRS-1-mediated downstream signaling. Cav-2 fatty acylation and tyrosine phosphorylation are necessary for the IRS-1-dependent PI3K-Akt and ERK activations responsible for glucose uptake and cell survival and proliferation. In conclusion, fatty acylated cav-2 is a new substrate of IR tyrosine kinase, and the fatty acylation and phosphorylation of cav-2 present novel mechanisms by which insulin signaling is activated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of nuclear hormone receptor pathways causing insulin resistance by transcriptional and epigenomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sona; Tsai, Linus T.; Zhou, Yiming; Evertts, Adam; Xu, Su; Griffin, Michael J.; Issner, Robbyn; Whitton, Holly J.; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Epstein, Charles B.; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S.; Rosen, Evan D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Insulin resistance is a sine qua non of Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and a frequent complication of multiple clinical conditions, including obesity, aging, and steroid use, among others. How such a panoply of insults can result in a common phenotype is incompletely understood. Furthermore, very little is known about the transcriptional and epigenetic basis of this disorder, despite evidence that such pathways are likely to play a fundamental role. Here, we compare cell autonomous models of insulin resistance induced by the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) or by the steroid dexamethasone (Dex) to construct detailed transcriptional and epigenomic maps associated with cellular insulin resistance. These data predict that the glucocorticoid receptor and vitamin D receptor are common mediators of insulin resistance, which we validate using gain- and loss-of-function studies. These studies define a common transcriptional and epigenomic signature in cellular insulin resistance enabling the identification of pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25503565

  18. Insulin phosphorylates calmodulin in preparations of solubilized rat hepatocyte insulin receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Sacks, D.B.; McDonald, J.M.

    1987-05-01

    It has previously been shown that insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of calmodulin in adipocyte insulin receptor preparations. Here they demonstrate that insulin also stimulates the phosphorylation of calmodulin in wheat germ lectin-enriched insulin receptor preparations obtained from rat hepatocytes. Standard phosphorylation assays were performed at 30C in the presence of 50mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5), 0.1% (v/v) Triton X-100, 1mM EGTA, 50 M (el-TSP)ATP, 5mM MgCl2, 0.25 M polylysine, 1.2 M calmodulin and various CaS and insulin concentrations. The phosphorylation of calmodulin was determined by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. Phosphorylation of calmodulin had an absolute requirement for insulin receptors, insulin and certain basic proteins. Phosphorylation was maximal above 13 nM insulin and at submicromolar CaS concentrations, whereas supramicromolar CaS concentrations were inhibitory. As was observed in the adipocyte insulin receptor system, calmodulin phosphorylation was dependent upon the presence of co-factors, such as polylysine, histone H/sub f/2b and protamine sulfate. The role played by these co-factors has not yet been established. These data suggest that both CaS and calmodulin participate in post receptor insulin events in hepatocytes.

  19. Effect of H1- and H2-histamine receptor blockade on postexercise insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Pellinger, Thomas K; Dumke, Breanna R; Halliwill, John R

    2013-01-01

    Following a bout of dynamic exercise, humans experience sustained postexercise vasodilatation in the previously exercised skeletal muscle which is mediated by activation of histamine (H1 and H2) receptors. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake is also enhanced following dynamic exercise. Our aim was to determine if blunting the vasodilatation during recovery from exercise would have an adverse effect on blood glucose regulation. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that insulin sensitivity following exercise would be reduced with H1- and H2-receptor blockade versus control (no blockade). We studied 20 healthy young subjects (12 exercise; eight nonexercise sham) on randomized control and H1- and H2-receptor blockade (fexofenadine and ranitidine) days. Following 60 min of upright cycling at 60% VO2 peak or nonexercise sham, subjects consumed an oral glucose tolerance beverage (1.0 g/kg). Blood glucose was determined from “arterialized” blood samples (heated hand vein). Postexercise whole-body insulin sensitivity (Matsuda insulin sensitivity index) was reduced 25% with H1- and H2-receptor blockade (P < 0.05), whereas insulin sensitivity was not affected by histamine receptor blockade in the sham trials. These results indicate that insulin sensitivity following exercise is blunted by H1- and H2-receptor blockade and suggest that postexercise H1- and H2-receptor–mediated skeletal muscle vasodilatation benefits glucose regulation in healthy humans. PMID:24303118

  20. Equine insulin receptor and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor expression in digital lamellar tissue and insulin target tissues.

    PubMed

    Kullmann, A; Weber, P S; Bishop, J B; Roux, T M; Norby, B; Burns, T A; McCutcheon, L J; Belknap, J K; Geor, R J

    2016-09-01

    Hyperinsulinaemia is implicated in the pathogenesis of endocrinopathic laminitis. Insulin can bind to different receptors: two insulin receptor isoforms (InsR-A and InsR-B), insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and InsR/IGF-1R hybrid receptor (Hybrid). Currently, mRNA expression of these receptors in equine tissues and the influence of body type and dietary carbohydrate intake on expression of these receptors is not known. The study objectives were to characterise InsR-A, InsR-B, IGF-1R and Hybrid expression in lamellar tissue (LT) and insulin responsive tissues from horses and examine the effect of dietary nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) on mRNA expression of these receptors in LT, skeletal muscle, liver and two adipose tissue (AT) depots of lean and obese ponies. In vivo experiment. Lamellar tissue samples were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for receptor mRNA expression (n = 8) and immunoblotting for protein expression (n = 3). Archived LT, skeletal muscle, liver and AT from lean and obese mixed-breed ponies fed either a low (~7% NSC as dry matter; 5 lean, 5 obese) or high NSC diet (~42% NSC as dry matter; 6 lean, 6 obese) for 7 days were evaluated by RT-qPCR to determine the effect of body condition and diet on expression of the receptors in different tissues. Significance was set at P≤0.05. Lamellar tissue expresses both InsR isoforms, IGF-1R and Hybrid. LT IGF-1R gene expression was greater than either InsR isoform and InsR-A expression was greater than InsR-B (P≤0.05). Obesity significantly lowered IGF-1R, InsR-A and InsR-B mRNA expression in LT and InsR-A in tailhead AT. High NSC diet lowered expression of all three receptor types in liver; IGF-1R and InsR-A in LT and InsR-A in tailhead AT. Lamellar tissue expresses IGF-1R, InsR isoforms and Hybrids. The functional characteristics of these receptors and their role in endocrinopathic laminitis warrants further investigation. © 2015 EVJ

  1. Structural Basis for Inhibition of the Insulin Receptor by the Adaptor Protein Grb14

    SciTech Connect

    Depetris,R.; Hu, J.; Gimpelevich, I.; Holt, L.; Daly, R.; Hubbard, S.

    2005-01-01

    Grb14, a member of the Grb7 adaptor protein family, possesses a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, a C-terminal Src homology-2 (SH2) domain, and an intervening stretch of {approx}45 residues known as the BPS region, which is unique to this adaptor family. Previous studies have demonstrated that Grb14 is a tissue-specific negative regulator of insulin receptor signaling and that inhibition is mediated by the BPS region. We have determined the crystal structure of the Grb14 BPS region in complex with the tyrosine kinase domain of the insulin receptor. The structure reveals that the N-terminal portion of the BPS region binds as a pseudosubstrate inhibitor in the substrate peptide binding groove of the kinase. Together with the crystal structure of the SH2 domain, we present a model for the interaction of Grb14 with the insulin receptor, which indicates how Grb14 functions as a selective protein inhibitor of insulin signaling.

  2. Insulin receptor: Interaction with nonreceptor glycoprotein from liver cell membranes

    PubMed Central

    Maturo, Joseph M.; Hollenberg, Morley D.

    1978-01-01

    In crude receptor preparations (either particulate or soluble) of rat liver membranes, the insulin receptor exhibits complicated binding kinetics (two binding plateaus, half-saturated at approximately 60 pM and 700 pM insulin) and an apparent chromatographic heterogeneity, suggested by the presence of two detectable, soluble insulin-binding components with apparent Stokes radii of 72 Å and 38 Å. In contrast, the insulin receptor isolated by affinity chromatography exhibits a simple binding isotherm (half-maximal saturation of binding at 700 pM insulin) without evidence for negative cooperativity and behaves as a single component (apparent Stokes radius of 38 Å) upon chromatography on Sepharose 6B. The apparent discrepancies between the properties of the unpurified insulin receptor and the affinity-purified receptor can be attributed to the presence in crude preparations of a nonreceptor constituent(s) having properties consistent with those of a membrane glycoprotein. A glycoprotein fraction from such crude soluble membrane preparations, freed from insulin receptor and subsequently partially purified using concanavalin-A-agarose, when combined with affinity-purified insulin receptor, causes both a reappearance of the complicated binding kinetics and an increase in the receptor's apparent Stokes radius from 38 Å to 72 Å. Similar results are observed for a glycoprotein fraction obtained from rat adipocyte membranes but are not observed for an identical fraction isolated from human erythrocyte membranes. We conclude that the insulin receptor in rat liver membranes can interact with another nonreceptor membrane glycoprotein that may represent either a nonrecognition moiety of the receptor oligomer or an effector molecule to the biological action of insulin. PMID:277909

  3. The association of phosphoinositide 3-kinase enhancer A with hepatic insulin receptor enhances its kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chi Bun; Liu, Xia; He, Kunyan; Qi, Qi; Jung, Dae Y; Kim, Jason K; Ye, Keqiang

    2011-07-01

    Dysfunction of hepatic insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (IRTK) causes the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanism regulating IRTK activity in the liver remains poorly understood. Here, we show that phosphoinositide 3-kinase enhancer A (PIKE-A) is a new insulin-dependent enhancer of hepatic IRTK. Liver-specific Pike-knockout (LPKO) mice display glucose intolerance with impaired hepatic insulin sensitivity. Specifically, insulin-provoked phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signalling is diminished in the liver of LPKO mice, leading to the failure of insulin-suppressed gluconeogenesis and hyperglycaemia. Thus, hepatic PIKE-A has a key role in mediating insulin signal transduction and regulating glucose homeostasis in the liver.

  4. [A case of leprechaunism with extreme insulin resistance due to a primary defect in insulin receptors].

    PubMed

    Goji, K; Takata, Y; Kobayashi, M

    1985-09-20

    This report describes a 3-month-old female infant with the typical physical features of leprechaunism. The patient demonstrated glucose intolerance and marked hyperinsulinemia (4600 microU/ml). Since an intravenous insulin injection (actrapid insulin: 0.15 U/kg) caused no significant decrease in the blood glucose level, the presence of insulin resistance was suggested. Neither insulin antibodies nor insulin receptor antibodies were were found in the patient's plasma, and other circulating insulin antagonists such as glucagon, growth hormone, and cortisol were within normal limits. [125I]Insulin binding to the erythrocytes from the patient was as low as 1.02% (control infants: 4.89 +/- 1.08% [mean +/- SD]). [125I]Insulin binding to the cultured transformed lymphocytes from the patient was similarly reduced to 3.58% (control: 20.9 +/- 2.71% [mean +/- SD]). From these findings we concluded that the insulin resistance was due to a primary defect in insulin receptors. Interestingly, transient remissions of the patient's glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia were observed during a year of follow-up study. The insulin tolerance test which was performed at the remission period showed an improvement in insulin resistance. However, the insulin binding defect to erythrocytes remained unchanged even at the remission period. The exact cause of these remissions was not clear and remained to be elucidated.

  5. Central insulin-mediated regulation of hepatic glucose production [Review].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Insulin controls hepatic glucose production (HGP) and maintains glucose homeostasis through the direct action of hepatic insulin receptors, as well as the indirect action of insulin receptors in the central nervous system. Insulin acts on insulin receptors in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, activates ATP-sensitive potassium channels in a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent manner, induces hyperpolarization of the hypothalamic neurons, and regulates HGP via the vagus nerve. In the liver, central insulin action augments IL-6 expression in Kupffer cells and activates STAT3 transcription factors in hepatocytes. Activated STAT3 suppresses the gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes, thereby reducing HGP. It has become evident that nutrients such as glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids act upon the hypothalamus together with insulin, affecting HGP. On the other hand, HGP control by central insulin action is impeded in obesity and impeded by insulin resistance due to disturbance of PI3K signaling and inflammation in the hypothalamus or inhibition of STAT3 signaling in the liver. Although the mechanism of control of hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression by central insulin action is conserved across species, its importance in human glucose metabolism has not been made entirely clear and its elucidation is anticipated in the future.

  6. Estradiol Binds to Insulin and Insulin Receptor Decreasing Insulin Binding in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Root-Bernstein, Robert; Podufaly, Abigail; Dillon, Patrick F.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Insulin (INS) resistance associated with hyperestrogenemias occurs in gestational diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, estrogen therapies, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. The mechanism by which INS and estrogen interact is unknown. We hypothesize that estrogen binds directly to INS and the insulin receptor (IR) producing INS resistance. Objectives: To determine the binding constants of steroid hormones to INS, the IR, and INS-like peptides derived from the IR; and to investigate the effect of estrogens on the binding of INS to its receptor. Methods: Ultraviolet spectroscopy, capillary electrophoresis, and NMR demonstrated estrogen binding to INS and its receptor. Horse-radish peroxidase-linked INS was used in an ELISA-like procedure to measure the effect of estradiol on binding of INS to its receptor. Measurements: Binding constants for estrogens to INS and the IR were determined by concentration-dependent spectral shifts. The effect of estradiol on INS binding to its receptor was determined by shifts in the INS binding curve. Main Results: Estradiol bound to INS with a Kd of 12 × 10−9 M and to the IR with a Kd of 24 × 10−9 M, while other hormones had significantly less affinity. Twenty-two nanomolars of estradiol shifted the binding curve of INS to its receptor 0.8 log units to the right. Conclusion: Estradiol concentrations in hyperestrogenemic syndromes may interfere with INS binding to its receptor producing significant INS resistance. PMID:25101056

  7. Analysis of insulin receptor substrate signaling dynamics on microstructured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Yoneyama, Yosuke; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Müller, Ulrike; Höglinger, Otmar; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Weghuber, Julian

    2015-03-01

    Insulin receptor substrates (IRS) are phosphorylated by activated insulin/insulin-like growth factor I receptor tyrosine kinases, with this comprising an initial key event for downstream signaling and bioactivities. Despite the structural similarities, increasing evidence shows that IRS family proteins have nonredundant functions. Although the specificity of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling and biological responses partly reflects which IRS proteins are dominantly phosphorylated by the receptors, the precise properties of the respective IRS interaction with the receptors remain elusive. In the present study, we utilized a technique that combines micropatterned surfaces and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy for the quantitative analysis of the interaction between IRS proteins and insulin/insulin-like growth factor in living cells. Our experimental set-up enabled the measurement of equilibrium associations and interaction dynamics of these molecules with high specificity. We revealed that several domains of IRS including pleckstrin homology and phosphotyrosine binding domains critically determine the turnover rate of the receptors. Furthermore, we found significant differences among IRS proteins in the strength and kinetic stability of the interaction with the receptors, suggesting that these interaction properties could account for the diverse functions of IRS. In addition, our analyses using fluorescent recovery after photobleaching revealed that kinases such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase and IκB kinase β, which phosphorylate serine/threonine residues of IRS and contribute to insulin resistance, altered the interaction kinetics of IRS with insulin receptor. Collectively, our experimental set-up is a valuable system for quantitifying the physiological interaction of IRS with the receptors in insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling. © 2015 FEBS.

  8. Insulin Mimetic Peptide Disrupts the Primary Binding Site of the Insulin Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Callum F.; Margetts, Mai B.; Menting, John G.; Smith, Nicholas A.; Smith, Brian J.; Ward, Colin W.; Lawrence, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Sets of synthetic peptides that interact with the insulin receptor ectodomain have been discovered by phage display and reported in the literature. These peptides were grouped into three classes termed Site 1, Site 2, and Site 3 based on their mutual competition of binding to the receptor. Further refinement has yielded, in particular, a 36-residue Site 2-Site 1 fusion peptide, S519, that binds the insulin receptor with subnanomolar affinity and exhibits agonist activity in both lipogenesis and glucose uptake assays. Here, we report three-dimensional crystallographic detail of the interaction of the C-terminal, 16-residue Site 1 component (S519C16) of S519 with the first leucine-rich repeat domain (L1) of the insulin receptor. Our structure shows that S519C16 binds to the same site on the L1 surface as that occupied by a critical component of the primary binding site, namely the helical C-terminal segment of the insulin receptor α-chain (termed αCT). In particular, the two phenylalanine residues within the FYXWF motif of S519C16 are seen to engage the insulin receptor L1 domain surface in a fashion almost identical to the respective αCT residues Phe701 and Phe705. The structure provides a platform for the further development of peptidic and/or small molecule agents directed toward the insulin receptor and/or the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor. PMID:27281820

  9. [Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) and insulin sensitivity: experimental studies].

    PubMed

    Haluzík, M M; Haluzík, M

    2006-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily, which act as transcription factors. PPARs affect expression of many genes, which products are involved in lipid and carbohydrates metabolism, cell proliferation and differentiation and numerous other processes. Three different subtypes (isoforms) of PPARs have been identified: PPAR-alpha, PPAR-gamma, PPAR-delta. PPAR-alpha receptors play an important role in the regulation of lipid metabolism: they decrease circulating fatty acids and triglyceride levels. Recently, the ability of PPAR-alpha receptors to improve insulin sensitivity in rodent model of insulin resistance have been documented and numerous studies have focused on this topic. One of the possible mechanisms of its action on the insulin sensitivity is lowering of ectopic lipids in liver and muscle tissues with subsequent heightening of insulin signalling cascade. Here we summarize the experimental studies focusing on the role of PPAR-alpha in the regulation of insulin sensitivity and discuss possible mechanisms involved.

  10. Insulin receptor substrate signaling controls cardiac energy metabolism and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Guo, Cathy A; Guo, Shaodong

    2017-06-01

    The heart is an insulin-dependent and energy-consuming organ in which insulin and nutritional signaling integrates to the regulation of cardiac metabolism, growth and survival. Heart failure is highly associated with insulin resistance, and heart failure patients suffer from the cardiac energy deficiency and structural and functional dysfunction. Chronic pathological conditions, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, involve various mechanisms in promoting heart failure by remodeling metabolic pathways, modulating cardiac energetics and impairing cardiac contractility. Recent studies demonstrated that insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 (IRS-1,-2) are major mediators of both insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling responsible for myocardial energetics, structure, function and organismal survival. Importantly, the insulin receptor substrates (IRS) play an important role in the activation of the phosphatidylinositide-3-dependent kinase (PI-3K) that controls Akt and Foxo1 signaling cascade, regulating the mitochondrial function, cardiac energy metabolism and the renin-angiotensin system. Dysregulation of this branch in signaling cascades by insulin resistance in the heart through the endocrine system promotes heart failure, providing a novel mechanism for diabetic cardiomyopathy. Therefore, targeting this branch of IRS→PI-3K→Foxo1 signaling cascade and associated pathways may provide a fundamental strategy for the therapeutic and nutritional development in control of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we focus on insulin signaling and resistance in the heart and the role energetics play in cardiac metabolism, structure and function. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. Insulin and Insulin-like Growth Factor II Differentially Regulate Endocytic Sorting and Stability of Insulin Receptor Isoform A*

    PubMed Central

    Morcavallo, Alaide; Genua, Marco; Palummo, Angela; Kletvikova, Emilia; Jiracek, Jiri; Brzozowski, Andrzej M.; Iozzo, Renato V.; Belfiore, Antonino; Morrione, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The insulin receptor isoform A (IR-A) binds both insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II, although the affinity for IGF-II is 3–10-fold lower than insulin depending on a cell and tissue context. Notably, in mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking the IGF-IR and expressing solely the IR-A (R−/IR-A), IGF-II is a more potent mitogen than insulin. As receptor endocytosis and degradation provide spatial and temporal regulation of signaling events, we hypothesized that insulin and IGF-II could affect IR-A biological responses by differentially regulating IR-A trafficking. Using R−/IR-A cells, we discovered that insulin evoked significant IR-A internalization, a process modestly affected by IGF-II. However, the differential internalization was not due to IR-A ubiquitination. Notably, prolonged stimulation of R−/IR-A cells with insulin, but not with IGF-II, targeted the receptor to a degradative pathway. Similarly, the docking protein insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) was down-regulated after prolonged insulin but not IGF-II exposure. Similar results were also obtained in experiments using [NMeTyrB26]-insulin, an insulin analog with IR-A binding affinity similar to IGF-II. Finally, we discovered that IR-A was internalized through clathrin-dependent and -independent pathways, which differentially regulated the activation of downstream effectors. Collectively, our results suggest that a lower affinity of IGF-II for the IR-A promotes lower IR-A phosphorylation and activation of early downstream effectors vis à vis insulin but may protect IR-A and IRS-1 from down-regulation thereby evoking sustained and robust mitogenic stimuli. PMID:22318726

  12. Lipid-induced insulin resistance mediated by the proinflammatory receptor TLR4 requires saturated fatty acid-induced ceramide biosynthesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Holland, William L; Bikman, Benjamin T; Wang, Li-Ping; Yuguang, Guan; Sargent, Katherine M; Bulchand, Sarada; Knotts, Trina A; Shui, Guanghou; Clegg, Deborah J; Wenk, Markus R; Pagliassotti, Michael J; Scherer, Philipp E; Summers, Scott A

    2011-05-01

    Obesity is associated with an enhanced inflammatory response that exacerbates insulin resistance and contributes to diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. One mechanism accounting for the increased inflammation associated with obesity is activation of the innate immune signaling pathway triggered by TLR4 recognition of saturated fatty acids, an event that is essential for lipid-induced insulin resistance. Using in vitro and in vivo systems to model lipid induction of TLR4-dependent inflammatory events in rodents, we show here that TLR4 is an upstream signaling component required for saturated fatty acid-induced ceramide biosynthesis. This increase in ceramide production was associated with the upregulation of genes driving ceramide biosynthesis, an event dependent of the activity of the proinflammatory kinase IKKβ. Importantly, increased ceramide production was not required for TLR4-dependent induction of inflammatory cytokines, but it was essential for TLR4-dependent insulin resistance. These findings suggest that sphingolipids such as ceramide might be key components of the signaling networks that link lipid-induced inflammatory pathways to the antagonism of insulin action that contributes to diabetes.

  13. Lipid-induced insulin resistance mediated by the proinflammatory receptor TLR4 requires saturated fatty acid–induced ceramide biosynthesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Holland, William L.; Bikman, Benjamin T.; Wang, Li-Ping; Yuguang, Guan; Sargent, Katherine M.; Bulchand, Sarada; Knotts, Trina A.; Shui, Guanghou; Clegg, Deborah J.; Wenk, Markus R.; Pagliassotti, Michael J.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Summers, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an enhanced inflammatory response that exacerbates insulin resistance and contributes to diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. One mechanism accounting for the increased inflammation associated with obesity is activation of the innate immune signaling pathway triggered by TLR4 recognition of saturated fatty acids, an event that is essential for lipid-induced insulin resistance. Using in vitro and in vivo systems to model lipid induction of TLR4-dependent inflammatory events in rodents, we show here that TLR4 is an upstream signaling component required for saturated fatty acid–induced ceramide biosynthesis. This increase in ceramide production was associated with the upregulation of genes driving ceramide biosynthesis, an event dependent of the activity of the proinflammatory kinase IKKβ. Importantly, increased ceramide production was not required for TLR4-dependent induction of inflammatory cytokines, but it was essential for TLR4-dependent insulin resistance. These findings suggest that sphingolipids such as ceramide might be key components of the signaling networks that link lipid-induced inflammatory pathways to the antagonism of insulin action that contributes to diabetes. PMID:21490391

  14. Insulin stimulates the biosynthesis of chiro-inositol-containing phospholipids in a rat fibroblast line expressing the human insulin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Y; Paule, C R; Bao, Y D; Huang, L C; Larner, J

    1993-01-01

    HIRc-B cells (rat fibroblasts expressing the human insulin receptor) were incubated with myo-[3H]inositol for 48 hr, and the biosynthesis of chiro-[3H]inositol was investigated in the absence and presence of insulin following a time course up to 60 min. After phase separation, treatment with insulin for 15 min caused a 2.2-fold increase in the specific radioactivity of chiro-[3H]inositol-containing phospholipids in contrast to a 1.2-fold increase in the specific radioactivity of myo-[3H]inositol-containing phospholipids. No insulin-mediated change in the specific radioactivity was observed in the inositol phosphates or free inositols. Further detailed analysis of individual [3H]inositol-containing phospholipids demonstrated marked increases in specific activity of the chiro-[3H]inositol phospholipids after 15 min of incubation with insulin: phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and 4,5-bisphosphate, 4.2-fold; lysophosphatidylinositol, 1.5-fold; phosphatidylinositol, 3.2-fold. In contrast, myo-[3H]inositol-containing phospholipids demonstrated relatively small increases (1.1- to 1.4-fold) after 5 min of incubation with insulin. These findings indicate that insulin stimulates de novo synthesis of chiro-inositol-containing phospholipids at the inositol phospholipid level. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8356081

  15. Role of insulin receptor and insulin signaling on αPS2CβPS integrins' lateral diffusion.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Dipak; Syed, Aleem; Arora, Neha; Smith, Emily A

    2014-12-01

    Integrins are ubiquitous transmembrane receptors with adhesion and signaling properties. The influence of insulin receptor and insulin signaling on αPS2CβPS integrins' lateral diffusion was studied using single particle tracking in S2 cells before and after reducing the insulin receptor expression or insulin stimulation. Insulin signaling was monitored by Western blotting for phospho-Akt expression. The expression of the insulin receptor was reduced using RNA interference (RNAi). After insulin receptor RNAi, four significant changes were measured in integrin diffusion properties: (1) there was a 24% increase in the mobile integrin population, (2) 14% of the increase was represented by integrins with Brownian diffusion, (3) for integrins that reside in confined zones of diffusion, there was a 45% increase in the diameter of the confined zone, and (4) there was a 29% increase in the duration integrins spend in confined zones of diffusion. In contrast to reduced expression of the insulin receptor, which alters integrin diffusion properties, insulin stimulation alone or insulin stimulation under conditions of reduced insulin receptor expression have minimal effects on altering the measured integrin diffusion properties. The differences in integrin diffusion measured after insulin receptor RNAi in the presence or absence of insulin stimulation may be the result of other insulin signaling pathways that are activated at reduced insulin receptor conditions. No change in the average integrin diffusion coefficient was measured for any conditions included in this study.

  16. Metabolic, anabolic, and mitogenic insulin responses: A tissue-specific perspective for insulin receptor activators.

    PubMed

    Bedinger, Daniel H; Adams, Sean H

    2015-11-05

    Insulin acts as the major regulator of the fasting-to-fed metabolic transition by altering substrate metabolism, promoting energy storage, and helping activate protein synthesis. In addition to its glucoregulatory and other metabolic properties, insulin can also act as a growth factor. The metabolic and mitogenic responses to insulin are regulated by divergent post-receptor signaling mechanisms downstream from the activated insulin receptor (IR). However, the anabolic and growth-promoting properties of insulin require tissue-specific inter-relationships between the two pathways, and the nature and scope of insulin-regulated processes vary greatly across tissues. Understanding the nuances of this interplay between metabolic and growth-regulating properties of insulin would have important implications for development of novel insulin and IR modulator therapies that stimulate insulin receptor activation in both pathway- and tissue-specific manners. This review will provide a unique perspective focusing on the roles of "metabolic" and "mitogenic" actions of insulin signaling in various tissues, and how these networks should be considered when evaluating selective pharmacologic approaches to prevent or treat metabolic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. G Protein–Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Plays a Relevant Role in Insulin Resistance and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Guerra, Lucia; Nieto-Vazquez, Iria; Vila-Bedmar, Rocio; Jurado-Pueyo, María; Zalba, Guillermo; Díez, Javier; Murga, Cristina; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia; Mayor, Federico; Lorenzo, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Insulin resistance is associated with the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders as type 2 diabetes and obesity. Given the emerging role of signal transduction in these syndromes, we set out to explore the possible role that G protein–coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), first identified as a G protein–coupled receptor regulator, could have as a modulator of insulin responses. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed the influence of GRK2 levels in insulin signaling in myoblasts and adipocytes with experimentally increased or silenced levels of GRK2, as well as in GRK2 hemizygous animals expressing 50% lower levels of this kinase in three different models of insulin resistance: tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) infusion, aging, and high-fat diet (HFD). Glucose transport, whole-body glucose and insulin tolerance, the activation status of insulin pathway components, and the circulating levels of important mediators were measured. The development of obesity and adipocyte size with age and HFD was analyzed. RESULTS Altering GRK2 levels markedly modifies insulin-mediated signaling in cultured adipocytes and myocytes. GRK2 levels are increased by ∼2-fold in muscle and adipose tissue in the animal models tested, as well as in lymphocytes from metabolic syndrome patients. In contrast, hemizygous GRK2 mice show enhanced insulin sensitivity and do not develop insulin resistance by TNF-α, aging, or HFD. Furthermore, reduced GRK2 levels induce a lean phenotype and decrease age-related adiposity. CONCLUSIONS Overall, our data identify GRK2 as an important negative regulator of insulin effects, key to the etiopathogenesis of insulin resistance and obesity, which uncovers this protein as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of these disorders. PMID:20627936

  18. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 plays a relevant role in insulin resistance and obesity.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Guerra, Lucia; Nieto-Vazquez, Iria; Vila-Bedmar, Rocio; Jurado-Pueyo, María; Zalba, Guillermo; Díez, Javier; Murga, Cristina; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia; Mayor, Federico; Lorenzo, Margarita

    2010-10-01

    Insulin resistance is associated with the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders as type 2 diabetes and obesity. Given the emerging role of signal transduction in these syndromes, we set out to explore the possible role that G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), first identified as a G protein-coupled receptor regulator, could have as a modulator of insulin responses. We analyzed the influence of GRK2 levels in insulin signaling in myoblasts and adipocytes with experimentally increased or silenced levels of GRK2, as well as in GRK2 hemizygous animals expressing 50% lower levels of this kinase in three different models of insulin resistance: tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) infusion, aging, and high-fat diet (HFD). Glucose transport, whole-body glucose and insulin tolerance, the activation status of insulin pathway components, and the circulating levels of important mediators were measured. The development of obesity and adipocyte size with age and HFD was analyzed. Altering GRK2 levels markedly modifies insulin-mediated signaling in cultured adipocytes and myocytes. GRK2 levels are increased by ∼2-fold in muscle and adipose tissue in the animal models tested, as well as in lymphocytes from metabolic syndrome patients. In contrast, hemizygous GRK2 mice show enhanced insulin sensitivity and do not develop insulin resistance by TNF-α, aging, or HFD. Furthermore, reduced GRK2 levels induce a lean phenotype and decrease age-related adiposity. Overall, our data identify GRK2 as an important negative regulator of insulin effects, key to the etiopathogenesis of insulin resistance and obesity, which uncovers this protein as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of these disorders.

  19. Interleukin-1β mediates macrophage-induced impairment of insulin signaling in human primary adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dan; Madi, Mohamed; Ding, Cherlyn; Fok, Matthew; Steele, Thomas; Ford, Christopher; Hunter, Leif; Bing, Chen

    2014-08-01

    Adipose tissue expansion during obesity is associated with increased macrophage infiltration. Macrophage-derived factors significantly alter adipocyte function, inducing inflammatory responses and decreasing insulin sensitivity. Identification of the major factors that mediate detrimental effects of macrophages on adipocytes may offer potential therapeutic targets. IL-1β, a proinflammatory cytokine, is suggested to be involved in the development of insulin resistance. This study investigated the role of IL-1β in macrophage-adipocyte cross-talk, which affects insulin signaling in human adipocytes. Using macrophage-conditioned (MC) medium and human primary adipocytes, we examined the effect of IL-1β antagonism on the insulin signaling pathway. Gene expression profile and protein abundance of insulin signaling molecules were determined, as was the production of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokines. We also examined whether IL-1β mediates MC medium-induced alteration in adipocyte lipid storage. MC medium and IL-1β significantly reduced gene expression and protein abundance of insulin signaling molecules, including insulin receptor substrate-1, phosphoinositide 3-kinase p85α, and glucose transporter 4 and phosphorylation of Akt. In contrast, the expression and release of the proinflammatory markers, including IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 by adipocytes were markedly increased. These changes were significantly reduced by blocking IL-1β activity, its receptor binding, or its production by macrophages. MC medium-inhibited expression of the adipogenic factors and -stimulated lipolysis was also blunted with IL-1β neutralization. We conclude that IL-1β mediates, at least in part, the effect of macrophages on insulin signaling and proinflammatory response in human adipocytes. Blocking IL-1β could be beneficial for preventing obesity-associated insulin resistance and inflammation in human adipose tissue. Copyright

  20. Insulin suppresses ischemic preconditioning-mediated cardioprotection through Akt-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Fullmer, Tanner M; Pei, Shaobo; Zhu, Yi; Sloan, Crystal; Manzanares, Robert; Henrie, Brandon; Pires, Karla M; Cox, James E; Abel, E Dale; Boudina, Sihem

    2013-11-01

    It is believed that the diabetic myocardium is refractory to cardioprotection by ischemic preconditioning (IPC) mainly because of impaired insulin signaling to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB or Akt). However, human as well as animal studies have clearly showed that the hearts of type 2 diabetic humans and animals may exhibit increased signaling through PI3K-Akt but yet are resistant to cardioprotection by IPC or ischemic post-conditioning. Therefore, this study was designed to determine whether activation of insulin signaling prior to IPC is detrimental for cardioprotection and to assess the role of insulin receptors (IRs) and Akt in mediating this effect. Wild-type (WT) hearts, hearts lacking IRs or hearts expressing an active form of Akt (myrAkt1) were perfused ex vivo using a Langendorff preparation and were subjected to IPC (3cycles of 5min ischemia followed by 5min reflow before 30min no flow ischemia and then by 45min reperfusion) in the presence or absence of 1nmol/L insulin. Interestingly, whereas insulin was protective against I/R (30min no flow ischemia and 45min reperfusion), it completely abolished cardioprotection by IPC in WT hearts but not in mice lacking insulin receptors (IRs) in cardiomyocytes (CIRKO) or in all cardiac cells (TIRKO). The suppression of IPC-mediated cardioprotection was mediated through downstream signaling to Akt and Gsk3β. In addition, transgenic induction of Akt in the heart was sufficient to abrogate IPC even when insulin was absent, further confirming the involvement of Akt in insulin's suppression of cardioprotection by IPC. These data provide evidence that excessive insulin signaling to Akt is detrimental for cardioprotection by IPC and could explain the failure of the diabetic myocardium to precondition.

  1. Interleukin-1β mediates macrophage-induced impairment of insulin signaling in human primary adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Dan; Madi, Mohamed; Ding, Cherlyn; Fok, Matthew; Steele, Thomas; Ford, Christopher; Hunter, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue expansion during obesity is associated with increased macrophage infiltration. Macrophage-derived factors significantly alter adipocyte function, inducing inflammatory responses and decreasing insulin sensitivity. Identification of the major factors that mediate detrimental effects of macrophages on adipocytes may offer potential therapeutic targets. IL-1β, a proinflammatory cytokine, is suggested to be involved in the development of insulin resistance. This study investigated the role of IL-1β in macrophage-adipocyte cross-talk, which affects insulin signaling in human adipocytes. Using macrophage-conditioned (MC) medium and human primary adipocytes, we examined the effect of IL-1β antagonism on the insulin signaling pathway. Gene expression profile and protein abundance of insulin signaling molecules were determined, as was the production of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokines. We also examined whether IL-1β mediates MC medium-induced alteration in adipocyte lipid storage. MC medium and IL-1β significantly reduced gene expression and protein abundance of insulin signaling molecules, including insulin receptor substrate-1, phosphoinositide 3-kinase p85α, and glucose transporter 4 and phosphorylation of Akt. In contrast, the expression and release of the proinflammatory markers, including IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 by adipocytes were markedly increased. These changes were significantly reduced by blocking IL-1β activity, its receptor binding, or its production by macrophages. MC medium-inhibited expression of the adipogenic factors and -stimulated lipolysis was also blunted with IL-1β neutralization. We conclude that IL-1β mediates, at least in part, the effect of macrophages on insulin signaling and proinflammatory response in human adipocytes. Blocking IL-1β could be beneficial for preventing obesity-associated insulin resistance and inflammation in human adipose tissue. PMID:24918199

  2. Identification of Host Insulin Binding Sites on Schistosoma japonicum Insulin Receptors.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rachel J; Toth, Istvan; Liang, Jiening; Mangat, Amanjot; McManus, Donald P; You, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Schistosoma japonicum insulin receptors (SjIRs) have been identified as encouraging vaccine candidates. Interrupting or blocking the binding between host insulin and the schistosome insulin receptors (IRs) may result in reduced glucose uptake leading to starvation and stunting of worms with a reduction in egg output. To further understand how schistosomes are able to exploit host insulin for development and growth, and whether these parasites and their mammalian hosts compete for the same insulin source, we identified insulin binding sites on the SjIRs. Based on sequence analysis and the predicted antigenic structure of the primary sequences of the SjIRs, we designed nine and eleven peptide analogues from SjIR-1 and SjIR-2, respectively. Using the Octet RED system, we identified analogues derived from SjIR-1 (10) and SjIR-2 (20, 21 and 22) with insulin-binding sequences specific for S. japonicum. Nevertheless, the human insulin receptor (HIR) may compete with the SjIRs in binding human insulin in other positions which are important for HIR binding to insulin. However, no binding occurred between insulin and parasite analogues derived from SjIR-1 (2, 7 and 8) and SjIR-2 (14, 16 and 18) at the same locations as HIR sequences which have been shown to have strong insulin binding affinities. Importantly, we found two analogues (1 and 3), derived from SjIR-1, and two analogues (13 and 15) derived from SjIR-2, were responsible for the major insulin binding affinity in S. japonicum. These peptide analogues were shown to have more than 10 times (in KD value) stronger binding capacity for human insulin compared with peptides derived from the HIR in the same sequence positions. Paradoxically, analogues 1, 3, 13 and 15 do not appear to contain major antigenic determinants which resulted in poor antibody responses to native S. japonicum protein. This argues against their future development as peptide-vaccine candidates.

  3. Genetic Loss of Insulin Receptors Worsens Cardiac Efficiency in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bugger, Heiko; Riehle, Christian; Jaishy, Bharat; Wende, Adam R.; Tuinei, Joseph; Chen, Dong; Soto, Jamie; Pires, Karla M.; Boudina, Sihem; Theobald, Heather A.; Luptak, Ivan; Wayment, Benjamin; Wang, Xiaohui; Litwin, Sheldon E.; Weimer, Bart C.; Abel, E. Dale

    2012-01-01

    Aims To determine the contribution of insulin signaling versus systemic metabolism to metabolic and mitochondrial alterations in type 1 diabetic hearts and test the hypothesis that antecedent mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to impaired cardiac efficiency (CE) in diabetes. Methods and Results Control mice (WT) and mice with cardiomyocyte-restricted deletion of insulin receptors (CIRKO) were rendered diabetic with streptozotocin (WT-STZ and CIRKO-STZ, respectively), non-diabetic controls received vehicle (citrate buffer). Cardiac function was determined by echocardiography; myocardial metabolism, oxygen consumption (MVO2) and CE were determined in isolated perfused hearts; mitochondrial function was determined in permeabilized cardiac fibers and mitochondrial proteomics by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Pyruvate supported respiration and ATP synthesis were equivalently reduced by diabetes and genotype, with synergistic impairment in ATP synthesis in CIRKO-STZ. In contrast, fatty acid delivery and utilization was increased by diabetes irrespective of genotype, but not in non-diabetic CIRKO. Diabetes and genotype synergistically increased MVO2 in CIRKO-STZ, leading to reduced CE. Irrespective of diabetes, genotype impaired ATP/O ratios in mitochondria exposed to palmitoyl carnitine, consistent with mitochondrial uncoupling. Proteomics revealed reduced content of fatty acid oxidation proteins in CIRKO mitochondria, which were induced by diabetes, whereas tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation proteins were reduced both in CIRKO mitochondria and by diabetes. Conclusions Deficient insulin signaling and diabetes mediate distinct effects on cardiac mitochondria. Antecedent loss of insulin signaling markedly impairs CE when diabetes is induced, via mechanisms that may be secondary to mitochondrial uncoupling and increased FA utilization. PMID:22342406

  4. The insulin receptor concept and its relation to the treatment of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ward, G M

    1987-02-01

    The initial step in insulin action is binding to specific receptors. Two covalent receptor modifications possibly involved in producing pharmacodynamic effects as a result of insulin receptor binding are autophosphorylation and disulphide insulin binding. Insulin receptor numbers are 'down regulated' by insulin, but this effect may be minimised by pulsatile insulin secretion. Insulin receptor affinity is modulated rapidly by fasting, exercise and dietary composition. In non-insulin-dependent diabetes coupling of receptor binding to bioeffects is impaired. Binding is also reduced in those subjects with hyperinsulinaemia and non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Insulin-dependent diabetics have reduced insulin sensitivity, which is only partially reversed by conventional insulin therapy. 'Post-binding defects' in some diabetics could be related to defective covalent receptor modifications resulting from genetic receptor defects. High carbohydrate diets improve diabetes control through effects on the binding and coupling defects. In addition to stimulating insulin secretion, oral hypoglycaemics stimulate post-binding insulin action in vivo and in vitro. Insulin therapy in diabetes also tends to reverse post-binding defects. Pulsatile insulin delivery is more effective in lowering blood sugar than continuous administration, and produces less 'down regulation' of receptors. Combined insulin and sulphonylurea drugs reduce insulin requirements only in insulin-dependent diabetics with some endogenous insulin secretion, whereas metformin reduces insulin requirement in C-peptide negative insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

  5. Insulin Receptor Signaling in Normal and Insulin-Resistant States

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Jérémie; Kleinridders, André; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of the worldwide increase in type-2 diabetes, a major focus of research is understanding the signaling pathways impacting this disease. Insulin signaling regulates glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis, predominantly via action on liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. Precise modulation of this pathway is vital for adaption as the individual moves from the fed to the fasted state. The positive and negative modulators acting on different steps of the signaling pathway, as well as the diversity of protein isoform interaction, ensure a proper and coordinated biological response to insulin in different tissues. Whereas genetic mutations are causes of rare and severe insulin resistance, obesity can lead to insulin resistance through a variety of mechanisms. Understanding these pathways is essential for development of new drugs to treat diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and their complications. PMID:24384568

  6. Defect in cooperativity in insulin receptors from a patient with a congenital form of extreme insulin resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, S I; Leventhal, S

    1983-01-01

    Previously, we have described a novel qualitative defect in insulin receptors from a patient with a genetic form of extreme insulin resistance (leprechaunism). Receptors from this insulin-resistant child are characterized by two abnormalities: (a) an abnormally high binding affinity for insulin, and (b) a markedly reduced sensitivity of 125I-insulin binding to alterations in pH and temperature. In this paper, we have investigated the kinetic mechanism of this abnormality in steady-state binding. The increased binding affinity for 125I-insulin results from a decrease in the dissociation rate of the hormone-receptor complex. In addition, the cooperative interactions among insulin binding sites are defective with insulin receptors from this child with leprechaunism. With insulin receptors on cultured lymphocytes from normal subjects, both negative and positive cooperativity may be observed. Porcine insulin accelerates the dissociation of the hormone-receptor complex (negative cooperativity). In contrast, certain insulin analogs such as desoctapeptide-insulin and desalanine-desasparagine-insulin retard the dissociation of the hormone-receptor complex (positive cooperativity). With insulin receptors from the leprechaun child, positive cooperativity could not be demonstrated, although negative cooperativity appeared to be normal. It seems likely that the same genetic defect may be responsible for the abnormalities in both insulin sensitivity and positive cooperativity. PMID:6345588

  7. Acute insulin resistance mediated by advanced glycation endproducts in severely burned rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xing; Xu, Jie; Cai, Xiaoqing; Ji, Lele; Li, Jia; Cao, Bing; Li, Jun; Hu, Dahai; Li, Yan; Wang, Haichang; Xiong, Lize; Xiao, Ruiping; Gao, Feng

    2014-06-01

    Hyperglycemia often occurs in severe burns; however, the underlying mechanisms and importance of managing postburn hyperglycemia are not well recognized. This study was designed to investigate the dynamic changes of postburn hyperglycemia and the underlying mechanisms and to evaluate whether early glycemic control is beneficial in severe burns. Prospective, randomized experimental study. Animal research laboratory. Sprague-Dawley rats. Anesthetized rats were subjected to a full-thickness burn injury comprising 40% of the total body surface area and were randomized to receive vehicle, insulin, and a soluble form of receptor for advanced glycation endproducts treatments. An in vitro study was performed on cultured H9C2 cells subjected to vehicle or carboxymethyllysine treatment. We found that blood glucose change presented a distinct pattern with two occurrences of hyperglycemia at 0.5- and 3-hour postburn, respectively. Acute insulin resistance evidenced by impaired insulin signaling and glucose uptake occurred at 3-hour postburn, which was associated with the second hyperglycemia and positively correlated with mortality. Mechanistically, we found that serum carboxymethyllysine, a dominant species of advanced glycation endproducts, increased within 1-hour postburn, preceding the occurrence of insulin resistance. More importantly, treatment of animals with soluble form of receptor for advanced glycation endproducts, blockade of advanced glycation endproducts signaling, alleviated severe burn-induced insulin resistance. In addition, early hyperglycemic control with insulin not only reduced serum carboxymethyllysine but also blunted postburn insulin resistance and reduced mortality. These findings suggest that severe burn-induced insulin resistance is partly at least mediated by serum advanced glycation endproducts and positively correlated with mortality. Early glycemic control with insulin or inhibition of advanced glycation endproducts with soluble form of receptor

  8. Defective insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells lacking type 1 IGF receptor

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Shouhong; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Nakae, Jun; Politi, Katerina; Kido, Yoshiaki; Fisher, Peter E.; Morroni, Manrico; Cinti, Saverio; White, Morris F.; Herrera, Pedro L.; Accili, Domenico; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    2002-01-01

    Defective insulin secretion is a feature of type 2 diabetes that results from inadequate compensatory increase of β cell mass and impaired glucose-dependent insulin release. β cell proliferation and secretion are thought to be regulated by signaling through receptor tyrosine kinases. In this regard, we sought to examine the potential proliferative and/or antiapoptotic role of IGFs in β cells by tissue-specific conditional mutagenesis ablating type 1 IGF receptor (IGF1R) signaling. Unexpectedly, lack of functional IGF1R did not affect β cell mass, but resulted in age-dependent impairment of glucose tolerance, associated with a decrease of glucose- and arginine-dependent insulin release. These observations reveal a requirement of IGF1R-mediated signaling for insulin secretion. PMID:12370279

  9. LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Isl-1 mediates kisspeptin's effect on insulin secretion in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Fu, Rui; Cui, Yan; Pan, Jirong; Li, Yushan; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Evans, Sylvia M; Cui, Sheng; Liu, Jiali

    2014-08-01

    Kisspeptin and the G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) are highly abundant in the pancreas. In addition, circulating kisspeptin directly influences insulin secretion through GPR54. However, the mechanisms by which kisspeptin affects insulin release are unclear. The LIM-homeodomain transcription factor, Isl-1, is expressed in all pancreatic islet cells and is involved in regulating both islet development and insulin secretion. We therefore investigated potential interactions between kisspeptin and Isl-1. Our results demonstrate that Isl-1 and GPR54 are coexpressed in mouse pancreatic islet β-cells and NIT cells. Both in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that kisspeptin-54 (KISS-54) inhibits Isl-1 expression and insulin secretion and both the in vivo and in vitro effects of KISS-54 on insulin gene expression and secretion are abolished when an Isl-1-inducible knockout model is used. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the direct action of KISS-54 on insulin secretion is mediated by Isl-1. Our results further show that KISS-54 influences Isl-1 expression and insulin secretion through the protein kinase C-ERK1/2 pathway. Conversely, insulin has a feedback loop via the Janus kinase-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway regulating kisspeptin expression and secretion. These findings are important in understanding mechanisms of insulin secretion and metabolism in diabetes.

  10. Biological effects of insulin and its analogs on cancer cells with different insulin family receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Sciacca, Laura; Cassarino, Maria Francesca; Genua, Marco; Vigneri, Paolo; Giovanna Pennisi, Maria; Malandrino, Pasqualino; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Pezzino, Vincenzo; Vigneri, Riccardo

    2014-11-01

    Hyperinsulinemia is a likely cause of the increased cancer incidence and mortality in diabetic patients, but its role is difficult to define in vivo. Previous in vitro studies testing the mitogenic potential of insulin and its analogs provided incomplete and sometimes contradictory results. To better evaluate cancer cell responsiveness to insulin, to its analogs and to IGF-I, we measured under identical experimental conditions cell proliferation, invasiveness, and foci formation in six cancer cell lines with different insulin receptor family expression levels. The cancer cells studied have a different expression of insulin receptor (IR), its isoforms (IR-A and IR-B), and of the IGF-I receptor. The data indicate that insulin stimulates proliferation in all cancer cell lines, invasiveness in some, and foci formation in none. Cancer cell responses to insulin (and IGF-I) are not related to receptor expression levels; moreover, hormone-stimulated proliferation and invasiveness are not correlated. IGF-I is a more potent stimulator than insulin in most but not all cancer cell lines. Insulin analogs including M1 and M2 Glargine metabolites stimulate cancer cells similar to insulin. However, exceptions occur for specific analogs in particular cancer cells. In conclusion, in vitro insulin is an effective growth factor for all cancer cells but the biological response to insulin cannot be predicted on the basis of receptor expression levels. In the clinical setting, these observations should be taken in account when deciding treatment for diabetic patients who are at risk of undiscovered cancer or survivors of oncological diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. β-Adrenergic Receptor and Insulin Resistance in the Heart.

    PubMed

    Mangmool, Supachoke; Denkaew, Tananat; Parichatikanond, Warisara; Kurose, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance is characterized by the reduced ability of insulin to stimulate tissue uptake and disposal of glucose including cardiac muscle. These conditions accelerate the progression of heart failure and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiovascular diseases. It is noteworthy that some conditions of insulin resistance are characterized by up-regulation of the sympathetic nervous system, resulting in enhanced stimulation of β-adrenergic receptor (βAR). Overstimulation of βARs leads to the development of heart failure and is associated with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in the heart. However, pathological consequences of the cross-talk between the βAR and the insulin sensitivity and the mechanism by which βAR overstimulation promotes insulin resistance remain unclear. This review article examines the hypothesis that βARs overstimulation leads to induction of insulin resistance in the heart.

  12. β-Adrenergic Receptor and Insulin Resistance in the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Mangmool, Supachoke; Denkaew, Tananat; Parichatikanond, Warisara; Kurose, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance is characterized by the reduced ability of insulin to stimulate tissue uptake and disposal of glucose including cardiac muscle. These conditions accelerate the progression of heart failure and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiovascular diseases. It is noteworthy that some conditions of insulin resistance are characterized by up-regulation of the sympathetic nervous system, resulting in enhanced stimulation of β-adrenergic receptor (βAR). Over-stimulation of βARs leads to the development of heart failure and is associated with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in the heart. However, pathological consequences of the cross-talk between the βAR and the insulin sensitivity and the mechanism by which βAR over-stimulation promotes insulin resistance remain unclear. This review article examines the hypothesis that βARs over-stimulation leads to induction of insulin resistance in the heart. PMID:28035081

  13. Insulin Directly Regulates Steroidogenesis via Induction of the Orphan Nuclear Receptor DAX-1 in Testicular Leydig Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Seung Won; Gang, Gil-Tae; Kim, Yong Deuk; Ahn, Ryun-Sup; Harris, Robert A.; Lee, Chul-Ho; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone level is low in insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes. Whether this is due to negative effects of high level of insulin on the testes caused by insulin resistance has not been studied in detail. In this study, we found that insulin directly binds to insulin receptors in Leydig cell membranes and activates phospho-insulin receptor-β (phospho-IR-β), phospho-IRS1, and phospho-AKT, leading to up-regulation of DAX-1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region, on chromosome X, gene 1) gene expression in the MA-10 mouse Leydig cell line. Insulin also inhibits cAMP-induced and liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1)-induced steroidogenic enzyme gene expression and steroidogenesis. In contrast, knockdown of DAX-1 reversed insulin-mediated inhibition of steroidogenesis. Whether insulin directly represses steroidogenesis through regulation of steroidogenic enzyme gene expression was assessed in insulin-injected mouse models and high fat diet-induced obesity. In insulin-injected mouse models, insulin receptor signal pathway was activated and subsequently inhibited steroidogenesis via induction of DAX-1 without significant change of luteinizing hormone or FSH levels. Likewise, the levels of steroidogenic enzyme gene expression and steroidogenesis were low, but interestingly, the level of DAX-1 was high in the testes of high fat diet-fed mice. These results represent a novel regulatory mechanism of steroidogenesis in Leydig cells. Insulin-mediated induction of DAX-1 in Leydig cells of testis may be a key regulatory step of serum sex hormone level in insulin-resistant states. PMID:23589295

  14. Insulin directly regulates steroidogenesis via induction of the orphan nuclear receptor DAX-1 in testicular Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Seung Won; Gang, Gil-Tae; Kim, Yong Deuk; Ahn, Ryun-Sup; Harris, Robert A; Lee, Chul-Ho; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2013-05-31

    Testosterone level is low in insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes. Whether this is due to negative effects of high level of insulin on the testes caused by insulin resistance has not been studied in detail. In this study, we found that insulin directly binds to insulin receptors in Leydig cell membranes and activates phospho-insulin receptor-β (phospho-IR-β), phospho-IRS1, and phospho-AKT, leading to up-regulation of DAX-1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region, on chromosome X, gene 1) gene expression in the MA-10 mouse Leydig cell line. Insulin also inhibits cAMP-induced and liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1)-induced steroidogenic enzyme gene expression and steroidogenesis. In contrast, knockdown of DAX-1 reversed insulin-mediated inhibition of steroidogenesis. Whether insulin directly represses steroidogenesis through regulation of steroidogenic enzyme gene expression was assessed in insulin-injected mouse models and high fat diet-induced obesity. In insulin-injected mouse models, insulin receptor signal pathway was activated and subsequently inhibited steroidogenesis via induction of DAX-1 without significant change of luteinizing hormone or FSH levels. Likewise, the levels of steroidogenic enzyme gene expression and steroidogenesis were low, but interestingly, the level of DAX-1 was high in the testes of high fat diet-fed mice. These results represent a novel regulatory mechanism of steroidogenesis in Leydig cells. Insulin-mediated induction of DAX-1 in Leydig cells of testis may be a key regulatory step of serum sex hormone level in insulin-resistant states.

  15. Insulin Receptor Signaling in POMC, but Not AgRP, Neurons Controls Adipose Tissue Insulin Action.

    PubMed

    Shin, Andrew C; Filatova, Nika; Lindtner, Claudia; Chi, Tiffany; Degann, Seta; Oberlin, Douglas; Buettner, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    Insulin is a key regulator of adipose tissue lipolysis, and impaired adipose tissue insulin action results in unrestrained lipolysis and lipotoxicity, which are hallmarks of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Insulin regulates adipose tissue metabolism through direct effects on adipocytes and through signaling in the central nervous system by dampening sympathetic outflow to the adipose tissue. Here we examined the role of insulin signaling in agouti-related protein (AgRP) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in regulating hepatic and adipose tissue insulin action. Mice lacking the insulin receptor in AgRP neurons (AgRP IR KO) exhibited impaired hepatic insulin action because the ability of insulin to suppress hepatic glucose production (hGP) was reduced, but the ability of insulin to suppress lipolysis was unaltered. To the contrary, in POMC IR KO mice, insulin lowered hGP but failed to suppress adipose tissue lipolysis. High-fat diet equally worsened glucose tolerance in AgRP and POMC IR KO mice and their respective controls but increased hepatic triglyceride levels only in POMC IR KO mice, consistent with impaired lipolytic regulation resulting in fatty liver. These data suggest that although insulin signaling in AgRP neurons is important in regulating glucose metabolism, insulin signaling in POMC neurons controls adipose tissue lipolysis and prevents high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  16. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of the KRLB Region in Insulin Receptor Substrate-2

    SciTech Connect

    Wu,J.; Tseng, Y.; Xu, C.; Neubert, T.; White, M.; Hubbard, S.

    2008-01-01

    Insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 (IRS1 and -2) are crucial adaptor proteins in mediating the metabolic and mitogenic effects of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1. These proteins consist of a pleckstrin homology domain, a phosphotyrosine binding domain and a C-terminal region containing numerous sites of tyrosine, serine and threonine phosphorylation. Previous yeast two-hybrid studies identified a region unique to IRS2, termed the kinase regulatory-loop binding (KRLB) region, which interacts with the tyrosine kinase domain of the insulin receptor. Here we present the crystal structure of the insulin receptor kinase in complex with a 15-residue peptide from the KRLB region. In the structure, this segment of IRS2 is bound in the kinase active site with Tyr628 positioned for phosphorylation. Although Tyr628 was phosphorylated by the insulin receptor, its catalytic turnover was poor, resulting in kinase inhibition. Our studies indicate that the KRLB region functions to limit tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS2.

  17. Human Y-79 Retinoblastoma Cells Exhibit Specific Insulin Receptors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    receptor. The Scatchard plot of, inulin competition data was curvilinear and was resolved in a high affinity Kd M) - low capacity ( ~ 3,000 sites/cell...containing insulin receptor antibodies (Flier et al 1977) was a gift of Dr. Philip Gorden, Diabetes Branch, NIADDK, NIH. Eagle’s minimum essential medium...Houten, M., Posner, B.I., White, R.J., Ohgaku, S., Horvat, A., and Hemmelgarn, E. (1983) Binding of insulin by monkey and pig hypothalamus. Diabetes 32

  18. Recycling of photoaffinity-labeled insulin receptors in rat adipocytes. Dissociation of insulin-receptor complexes is not required for receptor recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Huecksteadt, T.; Olefsky, J.M.; Brandenberg, D.; Heidenreich, K.A.

    1986-07-05

    We have used an iodinated, photoreactive analog of insulin, /sup 125/I-B2(2-nitro-4-azidophenylacetyl)-des-PheB1-insulin, to covalently label insulin receptors on the cell surface of isolated rat adipocytes. Following internalization of the labeled insulin-receptor complexes at 37/sup 0/C, we measured the rate and extent of recycling of these complexes using trypsin to distinguish receptors on the cell surface from those inside the cell. The return of internalized photoaffinity-labeled receptors to the cell surface was very rapid at 37/sup 0/C proceeding with an apparent t 1/2 of 6 min. About 95% of the labeled receptors present in the cell 20 min after the initiation of endocytosis returned to the cell surface by 40 min. Recycling was slower at 25 and 16/sup 0/C compared to 37/sup 0/C and essentially negligible at 12/sup 0/C or in the presence of energy depleters. Addition of excess unlabeled insulin had no effect on the recycling of photoaffinity-labeled insulin receptor complexes, whereas monensin, chloroquine, and Tris partially inhibited this process. These data indicate that dissociation of insulin from internalized receptors is not necessary for insulin receptor recycling. Furthermore, agents which have been shown to prevent vesicular acidification inhibit the recycling of insulin receptors by a mechanism other than prevention of ligand dissociation.

  19. MG53-IRS-1 (Mitsugumin 53-Insulin Receptor Substrate-1) Interaction Disruptor Sensitizes Insulin Signaling in Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun; Park, Jung-Jin; Nguyen, Nga; Park, Jun Sub; Hong, Jin; Kim, Seung-Hyeob; Song, Woon Young; Kim, Hak Joong; Choi, Kwangman; Cho, Sungchan; Lee, Jae-Seon; Kim, Bong-Woo; Ko, Young-Gyu

    2016-12-23

    Mitsugumin 53 (MG53) is an E3 ligase that interacts with and ubiquitinates insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) in skeletal muscle; thus, an MG53-IRS-1 interaction disruptor (MID), which potentially sensitizes insulin signaling with an elevated level of IRS-1 in skeletal muscle, is an excellent candidate for treating insulin resistance. To screen for an MID, we developed a bimolecular luminescence complementation system using an N-terminal luciferase fragment fused with IRS-1 and a C-terminal luciferase fragment fused with an MG53 C14A mutant that binds to IRS-1 but does not have E3 ligase activity. An MID, which was discovered using the bimolecular luminescence complementation system, disrupted the molecular association of MG53 with IRS-1, thus abolishing MG53-mediated IRS-1 ubiquitination and degradation. Thus, the MID sensitized insulin signaling and increased insulin-elicited glucose uptake with an elevated level of IRS-1 in C2C12 myotubes. These data indicate that this MID holds promise as a drug candidate for treating insulin resistance. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Insulin-like Receptor and Insulin-like Peptide Are Localized at Neuromuscular Junctions in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Gorczyca, Michael; Augart, Carolyn; Budnik, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptors are members of the tyrosine kinase family of receptors, and are thought to play an important role in the development and differentiation of neurons. Here we report the presence of an insulin-like peptide and an insulin receptor (dlnsR) at the body wall neuromuscular junction of developing Drosophila larvae. dlnsR-like immunoreactivity was found in all body wall muscles at the motor nerve branching regions, where it surrounded synaptic boutons. The identity of this immunoreactivity as a dlnsR was confirmed by two additional schemes, in vivo binding of labeled insulin and immunolocalization of phosphotyrosine. Both methods produced staining patterns markedly similar to dlnsR-like immunoreactivity. The presence of a dlnsR in whole larvae was also shown by receptor binding assays. This receptor was more specific for insulin (>25-fold) than for IGF II, and did not appear to bind IGF I. Among the 30 muscle fibers per hemisegment, insulin-like immunoreactivity was found only on one fiber, and was localized to a subset of morphologically distinct synaptic boutons. Staining in the CNS was limited to several cell bodies in the brain lobes and in a segmental pattern throughout most of the abdominal ganglia, as well as in varicosities along the neuropil areas of the ventral ganglion and brain lobes. Insulin-like peptide and dlnsR were first detected by early larval development, well after neuromuscular transmission begins. The developmental significance of an insulin-like peptide and its receptor at the neuromuscular junction is discussed. PMID:8366341

  1. Glucose Induces Mouse β-Cell Proliferation via IRS2, MTOR, and Cyclin D2 but Not the Insulin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Stamateris, Rachel E.; Sharma, Rohit B.; Kong, Yahui; Ebrahimpour, Pantea; Panday, Deepika; Ranganath, Pavana; Zou, Baobo; Levitt, Helena; Parambil, Nisha Abraham; O’Donnell, Christopher P.; García-Ocaña, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    An important goal in diabetes research is to understand the processes that trigger endogenous β-cell proliferation. Hyperglycemia induces β-cell replication, but the mechanism remains debated. A prime candidate is insulin, which acts locally through the insulin receptor. Having previously developed an in vivo mouse hyperglycemia model, we tested whether glucose induces β-cell proliferation through insulin signaling. By using mice lacking insulin signaling intermediate insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), we confirmed that hyperglycemia-induced β-cell proliferation requires IRS2 both in vivo and ex vivo. Of note, insulin receptor activation was not required for glucose-induced proliferation, and insulin itself was not sufficient to drive replication. Glucose and insulin caused similar acute signaling in mouse islets, but chronic signaling differed markedly, with mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR) and extracellular signal–related kinase (ERK) activation by glucose and AKT activation by insulin. MTOR but not ERK activation was required for glucose-induced proliferation. Cyclin D2 was necessary for glucose-induced β-cell proliferation. Cyclin D2 expression was reduced when either IRS2 or MTOR signaling was lost, and restoring cyclin D2 expression rescued the proliferation defect. Human islets shared many of these regulatory pathways. Taken together, these results support a model in which IRS2, MTOR, and cyclin D2, but not the insulin receptor, mediate glucose-induced proliferation. PMID:26740601

  2. Opposite effects of genistein on the regulation of insulin-mediated glucose homeostasis in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Gao, X J; Zhao, W W; Zhao, W J; Jiang, C H; Huang, F; Kou, J P; Liu, B L; Liu, K

    2013-09-01

    Genistein is an isoflavone phytoestrogen found in a number of plants such as soybeans and there is accumulating evidence that it has beneficial effects on the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In this study we evaluated the effect of genistein on glucose homeostasis and its underlying mechanisms in normal and insulin-resistant conditions. To induce insulin resistance, mice or differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with macrophage-derived conditioned medium. A glucose tolerance test was used to investigate the effect of genistein. Insulin signalling activation, glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) translocation and AMP-activated PK (AMPK) activation were detected by Western blot analysis or elisa. Genistein impaired glucose tolerance and attenuated insulin sensitivity in normal mice by inhibiting the insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) at tyrosine residues, leading to inhibition of insulin-mediated GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes. Mac-CM, an inflammatory stimulus induced glucose intolerance accompanied by impaired insulin sensitivity; genistein reversed these changes by restoring the disturbed IRS1 function, leading to an improvement in GLUT4 translocation. In addition, genistein increased AMPK activity under both normal and inflammatory conditions; this was shown to contribute to the anti-inflammatory effect of genistein, which leads to an improvement in insulin signalling and the amelioration of insulin resistance. Genistein showed opposite effects on insulin sensitivity under normal and inflammatory conditions in adipose tissue and this action was derived from its negative or positive regulation of IRS1 function. Its up-regulation of AMPK activity contributes to the inhibition of inflammation implicated in insulin resistance. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Opposite effects of genistein on the regulation of insulin-mediated glucose homeostasis in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, M; Gao, X J; Zhao, W W; Zhao, W J; Jiang, C H; Huang, F; Kou, J P; Liu, B L; Liu, K

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Genistein is an isoflavone phytoestrogen found in a number of plants such as soybeans and there is accumulating evidence that it has beneficial effects on the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In this study we evaluated the effect of genistein on glucose homeostasis and its underlying mechanisms in normal and insulin-resistant conditions. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH To induce insulin resistance, mice or differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with macrophage-derived conditioned medium. A glucose tolerance test was used to investigate the effect of genistein. Insulin signalling activation, glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) translocation and AMP-activated PK (AMPK) activation were detected by Western blot analysis or elisa. KEY RESULTS Genistein impaired glucose tolerance and attenuated insulin sensitivity in normal mice by inhibiting the insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) at tyrosine residues, leading to inhibition of insulin-mediated GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes. Mac-CM, an inflammatory stimulus induced glucose intolerance accompanied by impaired insulin sensitivity; genistein reversed these changes by restoring the disturbed IRS1 function, leading to an improvement in GLUT4 translocation. In addition, genistein increased AMPK activity under both normal and inflammatory conditions; this was shown to contribute to the anti-inflammatory effect of genistein, which leads to an improvement in insulin signalling and the amelioration of insulin resistance. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Genistein showed opposite effects on insulin sensitivity under normal and inflammatory conditions in adipose tissue and this action was derived from its negative or positive regulation of IRS1 function. Its up-regulation of AMPK activity contributes to the inhibition of inflammation implicated in insulin resistance. PMID:23763311

  4. Correlation between insulin-induced estrogen receptor methylation and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Min, Jia; Weitian, Zhong; Peng, Cai; Yan, Peng; Bo, Zhang; Yan, Wang; Yun, Bai; Xukai, Wang

    2016-11-10

    Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance have been recently recognized as an important cause of atherosclerosis. Clinical studies have also found that expression of the estrogen receptor is closely related to the incidence of atherosclerosis. This study investigate the effects of insulin and estrogen receptor α (ER-α) in atherosclerosis. Double knockout ApoE/Lepr mice were given intraperitoneal injections of insulin, and their aortae were harvested for hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical analysis. In addition, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were treated with insulin or infected with a lentivirus encoding exogenous ER-α, and changes in gene expression were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The methylation levels of the ER-α gene were tested using bisulfite sequencing PCR, and flow cytometry and EdU assay were used to measure VSMCs proliferation. Our results showed that insulin can induce the formation of atherosclerosis. Gene expression analysis revealed that insulin promotes the expression of DNA methyltransferases and inhibits ER-α expression, while 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine can inhibit this effect of insulin. Bisulfite sequencing PCR analysis showed that methylation of the ER-α second exon region increased in VSMCs treated with insulin. The results also showed that ER-α can inhibit VSMCs proliferation. Our data suggest that insulin promotes the expression of DNA methyltransferases, induces methylation of ER-α second exon region and decreases the expression of ER-α, thereby interfering with estrogen regulation of VSMCs proliferation, resulting in atherosclerosis.

  5. Particulate Air pollution mediated effects on insulin resistance in mice are independent of CCR2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuiqing; Xu, Xiaohua; Bai, Yuntao; Zhong, Jixin; Wang, Aixia; Sun, Lixian; Kong, Liya; Ying, Zhekang; Sun, Qinghua; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2017-03-03

    Chronic exposure to fine ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) induces insulin resistance. CC-chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) appears to be essential in diet-induced insulin resistance implicating an important role for systemic cellular inflammation in the process. We have previously suggested that CCR2 is important in PM2.5 exposure-mediated inflammation leading to insulin resistance under high fat diet situation. The present study assessed the importance of CCR2 in PM2.5 exposure-induced insulin resistance in the context of normal diet. C57BL/6 and CCR2(-/-) mice were subjected to exposure to concentrated ambient PM2.5 or filtered air for 6 months. In C57BL/6 mice, concentrated ambient PM2.5 exposure induced whole-body insulin resistance, macrophage infiltration into the adipose tissue, and upregulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the liver. While CCR2 deficiency reduced adipose macrophage content in the PM2.5-exposed animals, it did not improve systemic insulin resistance. This lack of improvement in insulin resistance was paralleled by increased hepatic expression of genes in PEPCK and inflammation. CCR2 deletion failed to attenuate PM2.5 exposure-induced insulin resistance in mice fed on normal diet. The present study indicates that PM2.5 may dysregulate glucose metabolism directly without exerting proinflammatory effects.

  6. Insulin Mimetic Peptide Disrupts the Primary Binding Site of the Insulin Receptor.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Callum F; Margetts, Mai B; Menting, John G; Smith, Nicholas A; Smith, Brian J; Ward, Colin W; Lawrence, Michael C

    2016-07-22

    Sets of synthetic peptides that interact with the insulin receptor ectodomain have been discovered by phage display and reported in the literature. These peptides were grouped into three classes termed Site 1, Site 2, and Site 3 based on their mutual competition of binding to the receptor. Further refinement has yielded, in particular, a 36-residue Site 2-Site 1 fusion peptide, S519, that binds the insulin receptor with subnanomolar affinity and exhibits agonist activity in both lipogenesis and glucose uptake assays. Here, we report three-dimensional crystallographic detail of the interaction of the C-terminal, 16-residue Site 1 component (S519C16) of S519 with the first leucine-rich repeat domain (L1) of the insulin receptor. Our structure shows that S519C16 binds to the same site on the L1 surface as that occupied by a critical component of the primary binding site, namely the helical C-terminal segment of the insulin receptor α-chain (termed αCT). In particular, the two phenylalanine residues within the FYXWF motif of S519C16 are seen to engage the insulin receptor L1 domain surface in a fashion almost identical to the respective αCT residues Phe(701) and Phe(705) The structure provides a platform for the further development of peptidic and/or small molecule agents directed toward the insulin receptor and/or the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Insulin-Insulin-like Growth Factors Hybrids as Molecular Probes of Hormone:Receptor Binding Specificity.

    PubMed

    Křížková, Květoslava; Chrudinová, Martina; Povalová, Anna; Selicharová, Irena; Collinsová, Michaela; Vaněk, Václav; Brzozowski, Andrzej M; Jiráček, Jiří; Žáková, Lenka

    2016-05-31

    Insulin, insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1 and -2, respectively), and their receptors (IR and IGF-1R) are the key elements of a complex hormonal system that is essential for the development and functioning of humans. The C and D domains of IGFs (absent in insulin) likely play important roles in the differential binding of IGF-1 and -2 to IGF-1R and to the isoforms of IR (IR-A and IR-B) and specific activation of these receptors. Here, we attempted to probe the impact of IGF-1 and IGF-2 D domains (DI and DII, respectively) and the IGF-2 C domain (CII) on the receptor specificity of these hormones. For this, we made two types of insulin hybrid analogues: (i) with the C-terminus of the insulin A chain extended by the amino acids from the DI and DII domains and (ii) with the C-terminus of the insulin B chain extended by some amino acids derived from the CII domain. The receptor binding affinities of these analogues and their receptor autophosphorylation potentials were characterized. Our results indicate that the DI domain has a more negative impact than the DII domain does on binding to IR, and that the DI domain Pro-Leu-Lys residues are important factors for a different IR-A versus IR-B binding affinity of IGF-1. We also showed that the additions of amino acids that partially "mimic" the CII domain, to the C-terminus of the insulin B chain, change the binding and autophosphorylation specificity of insulin in favor of the "metabolic" IR-B isoform. This opens new venues for rational enhancement of insulin IR-B specificity by modifications beyond the C-terminus of its B chain.

  8. Neuronal overexpression of insulin receptor substrate 2 leads to increased fat mass, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance during aging.

    PubMed

    Zemva, J; Udelhoven, M; Moll, L; Freude, S; Stöhr, O; Brönneke, H S; Drake, R B; Krone, W; Schubert, M

    2013-10-01

    The insulin receptor substrates (IRS) are adapter proteins mediating insulin's and IGF1's intracellular effects. Recent data suggest that IRS2 in the central nervous system (CNS) is involved in regulating fuel metabolism as well as memory formation. The present study aims to specifically define the role of chronically increased IRS2-mediated signal transduction in the CNS. We generated transgenic mice overexpressing IRS2 specifically in neurons (nIRS2 (tg)) and analyzed these in respect to energy metabolism, learning, and memory. Western blot (WB) analysis of nIRS2 (tg) brain lysates revealed increased IRS2 downstream signaling. Histopathological investigation of nIRS2 (tg) mice proved unaltered brain development and structure. Interestingly, nIRS2 (tg) mice showed decreased voluntary locomotoric activity during dark phase accompanied with decreased energy expenditure (EE) leading to increased fat mass. Accordingly, nIRS2 (tg) mice develop insulin resistance and glucose intolerance during aging. Exploratory behavior, motor function as well as food and water intake were unchanged in nIRS2 (tg) mice. Surprisingly, increased IRS2-mediated signals did not change spatial working memory in the T-maze task. Since FoxO1 is a key mediator of IRS2-transmitted signals, we additionally generated mice expressing a dominant negative mutant of FoxO1 (FoxO1DN) specifically in neurons. This mutant mimics the effect of increased IRS2 signaling on FoxO-mediated transcription. Interestingly, the phenotype observed in nIRS2 (tg) mice was not present in FoxO1DN mice. Therefore, increased neuronal IRS2 signaling causes decreased locomotoric activity in the presence of unaltered exploratory behavior and motor coordination that might lead to increased fat mass, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance during aging independent of FoxO1-mediated transcription.

  9. Regulation of gonadotropin receptors, gonadotropin responsiveness, and cell multiplication by somatomedin-C and insulin in cultured pig Leydig cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bernier, M.; Chatelain, P.; Mather, J.P.; Saez, J.M.

    1986-11-01

    The author have investigated the effects of insulin and somatomedin-C/insulin like growth factor I(Sm-C) in purified porcine Leydig cells in vitro on gonadotrophins (hCG) receptor number, hCG responsiveness (cAMP and testosterone production), and thymidine incorporation into DNA. Leydig cells cultured in a serum-free medium containing transferrin, vitamin E, and insulin (5 ..mu..g/ml) maintained fairly constant both hCG receptors and hCG responsiveness. When they were cultured for 3 days in the same medium without insulin, there was a dramatic decline (more than 80%) in both hCG receptor number and hCG responsiveness. However the cAMP but not the testosterone response to forskolin was normal. Both insulin and Sm-C at nanomolar concentrations prevent the decline of both hCG receptors and hCG-induced cAMP production. At nanomolar concentrations, Sm-C and insulin enhanced hCG-induced testosterone production but the effect of Sm-C was significantly higher than that of insulin. However, the effect of insulin at higher concentrations (5 ..mu..g/ml) was significantly higher than that of Sm-C at 50 ng/ml. In contrast, at nanomolar concentrations only Sm-C stimulated (/sup 3/H)-thymidine incorporation into DNA and cell multiplication, the stimulatory effect of insulin on these parameters, was seen only at micromolar concentrations. These results indicate that both Sm-C and insulin acting through the receptors increase Leydig cell steroidogenic responsiveness to hCG by increasing hCG receptor number and improving some step beyond cAMP formation. In contrast, the mitogenic effects of insulin are mediated only through Sm-C receptors.

  10. Cell-mediated immunity to insulin: a new criterion for differentiation of diabetes mellitus?

    PubMed

    Asfandiyarova, Nailya S

    2012-03-01

    Any classification is a step forward and it should help to determine the reason, the course, the prognosis, the treatment of a disease. The current classification of diabetes mellitus (DM) is really very convenient for work, but it has some drawbacks, and the absence of differentiation of type 2 diabetes is the main. The problem is the absence of an adequate criterion, based on pathogenesis for differentiation. We suppose that cell mediated immunity (CMI) to insulin plays the central role in the diabetes genesis. Autoimmune process may be triggered by viruses family Paramyxoviridae, in 10-20% of type 1 diabetes patients the disease is a consequence of direct cytotoxic effect of other viruses to the islet cells of pancreas. In acute phase of viral infection (measles, mumps, parainfluenza) CMI against viruses is developed, in some patients CMI to insulin appeared. We suppose that autoimmune reactions in these cases are the result of cross reaction between viral antigens and insulin. The majorities of patients suppress these reactions and recover from acute infection diseases with the antiviral immunity development and without any complications. Other patients are not able to suppress autoimmune reactions to insulin and pathological process is triggered. Type 1A diabetes is a result of direct CMI to insulin, and this process is responsible for beta-cells destruction; may be type 1B DM is due to the direct cytotoxic effect of other viruses or toxins to them. Some patients with acute viral infection cannot destroy the aggressive clone and they suppress autoimmune reaction to insulin by prostaglandin synthesizing cells (PGSC) or сells with histamine receptors (CHR). As a result of this process the insulin resistance is developed, because these cells or their cytokines form a block to the insulin receptors not only on immunocompetent cells, but in insulin sensitive tissues too. Patients with different reactions to insulin have different courses and outcomes of DM. We

  11. Prediction of a novel internal rearrangement of the insulin receptor.

    PubMed

    Sit, Kei C; van Lonkhuyzen, Derek; Walsh, Terry; Croll, Tristan

    2017-03-01

    The insulin receptor (IR) plays critical roles in metabolism and growth, directed by the binding of insulin. Decades of research to understand the mechanism of insulin binding and activation of the IR have identified a region of the receptor, the C-terminal (CT) peptide, to be crucial for insulin binding. In particular, a truncated IR consisting of the first three domains fused to the CT peptide was found to bind insulin with nanomolar affinity, with undetectable binding in the absence of fused or soluble CT peptide. Problematically, all current crystal structures of the IR indicate the fusion point of the CT peptide to the three domains is located far from the position of the CT peptide as resolved in such structures. We have attempted to address this problem using molecular modelling and dynamics simulations. The results led to the identification of a potential inter-domain interaction between the L2 domain and the CT peptide that is not observed in any of the crystal structures of the IR. Investigations into this new interaction found a conformational change that could potentially be in response to insulin binding. Additionally, further simulation work with the new conformation demonstrated its compatibility with the position and orientation of insulin from the latest insulin-bound IR crystal structure.

  12. Amyloid beta oligomers induce impairment of neuronal insulin receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-Qin; De Felice, Fernanda G; Fernandez, Sara; Chen, Hui; Lambert, Mary P; Quon, Michael J; Krafft, Grant A; Klein, William L

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated an association between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and central nervous system (CNS) insulin resistance. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the link between these two pathologies have not been elucidated. Here we show that signal transduction by neuronal insulin receptors (IR) is strikingly sensitive to disruption by soluble Abeta oligomers (also known as ADDLs). ADDLs are known to accumulate in AD brain and have recently been implicated as primary candidates for initiating deterioration of synapse function, composition, and structure. Using mature cultures of hippocampal neurons, a preferred model for studies of synaptic cell biology, we found that ADDLs caused a rapid and substantial loss of neuronal surface IRs specifically on dendrites bound by ADDLs. Removal of dendritic IRs was associated with increased receptor immunoreactivity in the cell body, indicating redistribution of the receptors. The neuronal response to insulin, measured by evoked IR tyrosine autophosphorylation, was greatly inhibited by ADDLs. Inhibition also was seen with added glutamate or potassium-induced depolarization. The effects on IR function were completely blocked by NMDA receptor antagonists, tetrodotoxin, and calcium chelator BAPTA-AM. Downstream from the IR, ADDLs induced a phosphorylation of Akt at serine473, a modification associated with neurodegenerative and insulin resistance diseases. These results identify novel factors that affect neuronal IR signaling and suggest that insulin resistance in AD brain is a response to ADDLs, which disrupt insulin signaling and may cause a brain-specific form of diabetes as part of an overall pathogenic impact on CNS synapses.

  13. Recombinant canine single chain insulin analogues: insulin receptor binding capacity and ability to stimulate glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jamie P; Holder, Angela L; Catchpole, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Virtually all diabetic dogs require exogenous insulin therapy to control their hyperglycaemia. In the UK, the only licensed insulin product currently available is a purified porcine insulin preparation. Recombinant insulin is somewhat problematic in terms of its manufacture, since the gene product (preproinsulin) undergoes substantial post-translational modification in pancreatic β cells before it becomes biologically active. The aim of the present study was to develop recombinant canine single chain insulin (SCI) analogues that could be produced in a prokaryotic expression system and which would require minimal processing. Three recombinant SCI constructs were developed in a prokaryotic expression vector, by replacing the insulin C-peptide sequence with one encoding a synthetic peptide (GGGPGKR), or with one of two insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-2 C-peptide coding sequences (human: SRVSRRSR; canine: SRVTRRSSR). Recombinant proteins were expressed in the periplasmic fraction of Escherichia coli and assessed for their ability to bind to the insulin and IGF-1 receptors, and to stimulate glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. All three recombinant SCI analogues demonstrated preferential binding to the insulin receptor compared to the IGF-1 receptor, with increased binding compared to recombinant canine proinsulin. The recombinant SCI analogues stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared to negligible uptake using recombinant canine proinsulin, with the canine insulin/cIGF-2 chimaeric SCI analogue demonstrating the greatest effect. Thus, biologically-active recombinant canine SCI analogues can be produced relatively easily in bacteria, which could potentially be used for treatment of diabetic dogs.

  14. Signal regulatory protein-α interacts with the insulin receptor contributing to muscle wasting in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sandhya S; Dong, Yanjun; Zhang, Liping; Mitch, William E

    2013-08-01

    Insulin resistance from chronic kidney disease (CKD) stimulates muscle protein wasting but mechanisms causing this resistance are controversial. To help resolve this, we used microarray analyses to identify initiators of insulin resistance in the muscles of mice with CKD, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. CKD raised mRNAs of inflammatory cytokines in muscles and there was a 5.2-fold increase in signal regulatory protein-α (SIRP-α), a transmembrane glycoprotein principally present in muscle membranes. By immunoprecipitation we found it interacts with the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). Treatment of myotubes with a mixture of inflammatory cytokines showed that SIRP-α expression was increased by a NF-κB-dependent pathway. Blockade of NF-κB using a small-molecule chemical inhibitor or a dominant-negative IKKβ reduced cytokine-induced SIRP-α expression. The overexpression of SIRP-α in myotubes impaired insulin signaling and raised proteolysis while SIRP-α knockdown with siRNAs in skeletal muscle cells increased tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and IRS-1 despite inclusion of cytokines. This led to increased p-Akt and suppression of protein degradation. Thus, SIRP-α is part of a novel mechanism for inflammation-mediated insulin resistance in muscle. In catabolic conditions with impaired insulin signaling, targeting SIRP-α may improve insulin sensitivity and prevent muscle atrophy.

  15. Protein kinases: mechanisms and downstream targets in inflammation-mediated obesity and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Nandipati, Kalyana C; Subramanian, Saravanan; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2017-02-01

    Obesity-induced low-grade inflammation (metaflammation) impairs insulin receptor signaling. This has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance. Insulin signaling in the target tissues is mediated by stress kinases such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, inhibitor of NF-kB kinase complex β (IKKβ), AMP-activated protein kinase, protein kinase C, Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase, and RNA-activated protein kinase. Most of these kinases phosphorylate several key regulators in glucose homeostasis. The phosphorylation of serine residues in the insulin receptor and IRS-1 molecule results in diminished enzymatic activity in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. This has been one of the key mechanisms observed in the tissues that are implicated in insulin resistance especially in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2-DM). Identifying the specific protein kinases involved in obesity-induced chronic inflammation may help in developing the targeted drug therapies to minimize the insulin resistance. This review is focused on the protein kinases involved in the inflammatory cascade and molecular mechanisms and their downstream targets with special reference to obesity-induced T2-DM.

  16. Advanced glycation end-products: modifiable environmental factors profoundly mediate insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ottum, Mona S.; Mistry, Anahita M.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products are toxic by-products of metabolism and are also acquired from high-temperature processed foods. They promote oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and nucleotides. Aging and chronic diseases are strongly associated with markers for oxidative stress, especially advanced glycation end-products, and resistance to peripheral insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Modifiable environmental factors including high levels of refined and simple carbohydrate diets, hypercaloric diets and sedentary lifestyles drive endogenous formation of advanced glycation end-products via accumulation of highly reactive glycolysis intermediates and activation of the polyol/aldose reductase pathway producing high intracellular fructose. High advanced glycation end-products overwhelm innate defenses of enzymes and receptor-mediated endocytosis and promote cell damage via the pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant receptor for advanced glycation end-products. Oxidative stress disturbs cell signal transduction, especially insulin-mediated metabolic responses. Here we review emerging evidence that restriction of dietary advanced glycation end-products significantly reduces total systemic load and insulin resistance in animals and humans in diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, healthy populations and dementia. Of clinical importance, this insulin sensitizing effect is independent of physical activity, caloric intake and adiposity level. PMID:26236094

  17. Identification of insulin as a novel retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor α target gene.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Jiangying; Hou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jinlong; Chen, Yulong; Su, Zhiguang

    2014-03-18

    Insulin plays an important role in regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor α (RORα) modulates physiopathological processes such as dyslipidemia and diabetes. In this study, we found overexpression of RORα in INS1 cells resulted in increased expression and secretion of insulin. Suppression of endogenous RORα caused a decrease of insulin expression. Luciferase and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) assays demonstrated that RORα activated insulin transcription via direct binding to its promoter. RORα was also observed to regulate BETA2 expression, which is one of the insulin active transfactors. In vivo analyses showed that the insulin transcription is increased by the synthetic RORα agonist SR1078. These findings identify RORα as a transcriptional activator of insulin and suggest novel therapeutic opportunities for management of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. LTB4 causes macrophage–mediated inflammation and directly induces insulin resistance in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Gautam; Lagakos, William S.; Talukdar, Saswata; Osborn, Olivia; Johnson, Andrew; Chung, Heekyung; Maris, Michael; Ofrecio, Jachelle M.; Taguchi, Sayaka; Lu, Min; Olefsky, Jerrold M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is a key component of obesity–induced insulin resistance and plays a central role in metabolic disease. In this study, we found that the major insulin target tissues, liver, muscle and adipose tissue exhibit increased levels of the chemotactic eicosanoid LTB4 in obese high fat diet (HFD) mice compared to lean chow fed mice. Inhibition of the LTB4 receptor, Ltb4r1, through either genetic or pharmacologic loss of function results in an anti–inflammatory phenotype with protection from systemic insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in the setting of both HFD–induced and genetic obesity. Importantly, in vitro treatment with LTB4 directly enhanced macrophage chemotaxis, stimulated inflammatory pathways in macrophages, promoted de novo hepatic lipogenesis, decreased insulin stimulated glucose uptake in L6 myocytes, increased gluconeogenesis, and impaired insulin–mediated suppression of hepatic glucose output (HGO) in primary mouse hepatocytes. This was accompanied by decreased insulin stimulated Akt phosphorylation and increased Irs1 and Irs2 serine phosphorylation and all of these events were Gαi and Jnk dependent. Taken together, these observations elucidate a novel role of LTB4/Ltb4r1 in the etiology of insulin resistance in hepatocytes and myocytes, and shows that in vivo inhibition of Ltb4r1 leads to robust insulin sensitizing effects. PMID:25706874

  19. Insulin receptor changes in type 2 diabetes after short term insulin treatment.

    PubMed

    Rizkalla, S W; Weissbrodt, P; Tchobroutsky, G; Slama, G

    1985-10-01

    We have studied erythrocyte insulin receptor changes before and after 8 days of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion by a pump in 11 uncontrolled obese non-insulin-dependent diabetics (type 2), diet and drug resistant for at least three months previously. All the patients were hospitalized. On day 1 of the study, their oral hypoglycemic agents were stopped and hypocaloric diet (1000 Kcal/day) was maintained (strictly reinforced). This period of reinforced treatment was not accompanied by correction of hyperglycemia. On day 9 patients were placed for 12 hours on artificial pancreas in order to bring their fasting blood glucose levels down to normal values. Then they were submitted to a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) for the following 8 days. There was a significant decrease in mean fasting plasma glucose (P less than 0.001) and a rise in insulin (P less than 0.05) levels after insulin treatment. Mean specific insulin binding was also significantly increased (P less than 0.01). The increase in binding (with insulin therapy) correlated with the fall in fasting hyperglycemia (r = 0.786, P less than 0.01). In addition, the increase in binding correlated negatively with changes in fasting plasma insulin levels (r = -0.867, P less than 0.01), under treatment, on one hand and with the dose of exogenous insulin administered (r = -0.681, P less than 0.05) on the other hand. There was no correlation between binding and fasting plasma insulin levels (before and after insulin therapy), or between diabetes duration and any of the previous parameters.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Degradation of pro-insulin-receptor proteins by proteasomes.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Miguel; Velasco, Eduardo; Kumate, Jesús

    2004-01-01

    Type-2 diabetes is characterized by hyperinsulinemia, peripheral insulin resistance, and diminished tyrosine phosphorylation activity. It has been recently shown that proteasomes are implicated in the degradation of the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) but not in that of the insulin receptor (IR). However, it is unknown whether proteasomes are involved in pro-IR degradation. We used CHO-IR and the 3T3-L1 cells treated with insulin at different concentrations and compared the proteasome activity of IRS-1, IR, and pro-IR degradation either in presence or in absence of lactacystin. A total of 100 nM of insulin allowed degradation of IRS-1 after 6 h of incubation. At 1,000 nM of insulin, pro-IR degradation began at 1 h of incubation, similar to IRS-1 degradation. Surprisingly, at a higher concentration (10 microM) of insulin, a drastic decrease of proteins was observed from the first minute of incubation. This activity was blocked by lactacystin, a specific proteasome inhibitor. According to these results, we propose that pro-IR is degraded by proteasomes.

  1. Involvement of mTOR in Type 2 CRF Receptor Inhibition of Insulin Signaling in Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hongxia; Li, Haochen; Grande, Rebecca; Lira, Vitor; Yan, Zhen; Harris, Thurl E; Li, Chien

    2015-06-01

    Type 2 corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRFR2) is expressed in skeletal muscle and stimulation of the receptor has been shown to inhibit the effect of insulin on glucose uptake in muscle cells. Currently, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this process. In this study, we first showed that both in vivo and in vitro CRFR2 expression in muscle was closely correlated with insulin sensitivity, with elevated receptor levels observed in insulin resistant muscle cells. Stimulation of CRFR2 by urocortin 2 (Ucn 2), a CRFR2-selective ligand, in C2C12 myotubes greatly attenuated insulin-induced glucose uptake. The inhibitory effect of CRFR2 signaling required cAMP production and is involved the mammalian target of rapamycine pathway, as rapamycin reversed the inhibitory effect of CRFR2 stimulation on insulin-induced glucose uptake. Moreover, stimulation of CRFR2 failed to inhibit glucose uptake in muscle cells induced by platelet-derived growth factor, which, similar to insulin, signals through Akt-mediated pathway but is independently of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins to promote glucose uptake. This result argues that CRFR2 signaling modulates insulin's action likely at the levels of IRS. Consistent with this notion, Ucn 2 reduced insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1, and treatment with rapamycin reversed the inhibitory effect of Ucn 2 on IRS-1 and Akt phosphorylation. In conclusion, the inhibitory effect of CRFR2 signaling on insulin action is mediated by cAMP in a mammalian target of rapamycine-dependent manner, and IRS-1 is a key nodal point where CRFR2 signaling modulates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle cells.

  2. Insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 but not Shc can activate the insulin receptor independent of insulin and induce proliferation in CHO-IR cells

    SciTech Connect

    Niessen, Markus . E-mail: markus.niessen@usz.ch; Jaschinski, Frank; Item, Flurin; McNamara, Morgan P.; Spinas, Giatgen A.; Trueb, Thomas

    2007-02-15

    Ligand-activated insulin receptor (IR) attracts and phosphorylates various substrates such as insulin receptor substrates 1-4 (IRS) and Shc. To investigate how binding affinity for substrate affects signalling we generated chimeric receptors with the {beta}-chain of the insulin receptor containing NPXY motives with different affinities for receptor substrates. We found that the extent of receptor tyrosine phosphorylation positively correlates with binding affinity towards IRS1/2 but not towards Shc. Moreover, overexpression of IRS1 or IRS2 but not of Shc increased IR tyrosine phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, also independent of insulin. Molecular truncations of IRS1 revealed that neither the isolated PH and PTB domains nor the C-terminus with the tyrosine phosphorylation sites alone are sufficient for substrate-dependent receptor activation. Overexpression of IRS1 and IRS2 impaired insulin-induced internalization of the IR in a dose-dependent manner suggesting that IRS proteins prevent endosome-associated receptor dephosphorylation/inactivation. IRS1 and IRS2 could therefore target the activated IR to different cellular compartments. Overexpression of IRS1 and IRS2 inhibited insulin-stimulated activation of the MAP kinases Erk1/2 while it increased/induced activation of Akt/PKB. Finally, overexpression of IRS1 and IRS2 but not of Shc induced DNA synthesis in starved CHO-IR cells independent of exogenous growth factors. Our results demonstrate that variations in cellular IRS1 and IRS2 concentration affect insulin signalling both upstream and downstream and that IRS proteins could play instructive rather than just permissive roles in signal transmission.

  3. Sam68 Mediates the Activation of Insulin and Leptin Signalling in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Pérez, Antonio; Sánchez-Jiménez, Flora; Vilariño-García, Teresa; de la Cruz, Luis; Virizuela, Juan A.; Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a well-known risk factor for breast cancer development in postmenopausal women. High insulin and leptin levels seem to have a role modulating the growth of these tumours. Sam68 is an RNA-binding protein with signalling functions that has been found to be overexpressed in breast cancer. Moreover, Sam68 may be recruited to insulin and leptin signalling pathways, mediating its effects on survival, growth and proliferation in different cellular types. We aimed to study the expression of Sam68 and its phosphorylation level upon insulin and leptin stimulation, and the role of Sam68 in the proliferative effect and signalling pathways that are activated by insulin or leptin in human breast adenocarcinoma cells. In the human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines MCF7, MDA-MB-231 and BT-474, Sam68 protein quantity and gene expression were increased upon leptin or insulin stimulation, as it was checked by qPCR and immunoblot. Moreover, both insulin and leptin stimulation promoted an increase in Sam68 tyrosine phosphorylation and negatively regulated its RNA binding capacity. siRNA was used to downregulate Sam68 expression, which resulted in lower proliferative effects of both insulin and leptin, as well as a lower activation of MAPK and PI3K pathways promoted by both hormones. These effects may be partly explained by the decrease in IRS-1 expression by down-regulation of Sam68. These results suggest the participation of Sam68 in both leptin and insulin receptor signaling in human breast cancer cells, mediating the trophic effects of these hormones in proliferation and cellular growth. PMID:27415018

  4. Saturated fatty acids inhibit hepatic insulin action by modulating insulin receptor expression and post-receptor signalling.

    PubMed

    Ruddock, Mark W; Stein, Andrew; Landaker, Edwin; Park, Jun; Cooksey, Robert C; McClain, Donald; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

    2008-11-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) are proposed to play a pathogenic role in both peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance. We have examined the effect of saturated FFA on insulin signalling (100 nM) in two hepatocyte cell lines. Fao hepatoma cells were treated with physiological concentrations of sodium palmitate (0.25 mM) (16:0) for 0.25-48 h. Palmitate decreased insulin receptor (IR) protein and mRNA expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner (35% decrease at 12 h). Palmitate also reduced insulin-stimulated IR and IRS-2 tyrosine phosphorylation, IRS-2-associated PI 3-kinase activity, and phosphorylation of Akt, p70 S6 kinase, GSK-3 and FOXO1A. Palmitate also inhibited insulin action in hepatocytes derived from wild-type IR (+/+) mice, but was ineffective in IR-deficient (-/-) cells. The effects of palmitate were reversed by triacsin C, an inhibitor of fatty acyl CoA synthases, indicating that palmitoyl CoA ester formation is critical. Neither the non-metabolized bromopalmitate alone nor the medium chain fatty acid octanoate (8:0) produced similar effects. However, the CPT-1 inhibitor (+/-)-etomoxir and bromopalmitate (in molar excess) reversed the effects of palmitate. Thus, the inhibition of insulin signalling by palmitate in hepatoma cells is dependent upon oxidation of fatty acyl-CoA species and requires intact insulin receptor expression.

  5. Insulin Receptor Substrate 2 Is a Negative Regulator of Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Elaine E.; Drinkwater, Laura; Radwanska, Kasia; Al-Qassab, Hind; Smith, Mark A.; O'Brien, Melissa; Kielar, Catherine; Choudhury, Agharul I.; Krauss, Stefan; Cooper, Jonathan D.; Withers, Dominic J.; Giese, Karl Peter

    2011-01-01

    Insulin has been shown to impact on learning and memory in both humans and animals, but the downstream signaling mechanisms involved are poorly characterized. Insulin receptor substrate-2 (Irs2) is an adaptor protein that couples activation of insulin- and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors to downstream signaling pathways. Here, we have…

  6. Insulin Receptor Substrate 2 Is a Negative Regulator of Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Elaine E.; Drinkwater, Laura; Radwanska, Kasia; Al-Qassab, Hind; Smith, Mark A.; O'Brien, Melissa; Kielar, Catherine; Choudhury, Agharul I.; Krauss, Stefan; Cooper, Jonathan D.; Withers, Dominic J.; Giese, Karl Peter

    2011-01-01

    Insulin has been shown to impact on learning and memory in both humans and animals, but the downstream signaling mechanisms involved are poorly characterized. Insulin receptor substrate-2 (Irs2) is an adaptor protein that couples activation of insulin- and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors to downstream signaling pathways. Here, we have…

  7. The Interactions of Proinsulin with Insulin Receptors on the Plasma Membrane of the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Freychet, Pierre

    1974-01-01

    The interactions of proinsulin with the insulin-specific receptors were investigated in purified rat liver plasma membranes. These studies were designed to characterize the binding of proinsulin to the insulin receptors, to search for proinsulin-specific receptor sites, and to examine the possibility of proinsulin conversion at the insulin receptor site. Proinsulin was only 3-5% as potent as insulin in binding to insulin receptors. Proinsulin reacted with all of the insulin-specific receptors, and direct binding studies of [125I]porcine proinsulin and [125I]rat proinsulin did not reveal proinsulin-specific receptor sites other than the insulin receptors in rat liver membranes. Quantitative data derived from steady-state and transient-state comparative binding studies of both [125I]proinsulin and [125I]insulin indicated that a 20-fold lower association rate constant essentially accounts for the reduced affinity of proinsulin for the insulin receptors. The possibility of proinsulin conversion at the insulin receptor sites was investigated. Material recovered from the membranes upon dissociation of the proinsulin-receptor complex was intact proinsulin and did not exhibit any conversion by a variety of analytical methods. These results indicate that the lower affinity of proinsulin for the insulin receptor in the liver is an intrinsic property of the proinsulin molecule. The lower uptake of proinsulin by the insulin receptor represents, in addition to a slower degradation of the prohormone, a further mechanism by which proinsulin exerts prolonged, albeit reduced, action in vivo. PMID:4421396

  8. Obesity, Insulin Resistance and Diabetes: Sex Differences and Role of Estrogen Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Matthias R.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Prossnitz, Eric R.; Barton, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of coronary artery disease through insulin resistance, diabetes, arterial hypertension, and dyslipidemia. The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide and is particularly high among middle-aged women and men. After menopause, women are at an increased risk to develop visceral obesity due to the loss of endogenous ovarian hormone production. Effects of estrogens are classically mediated by the two nuclear estrogen receptors (ERs) α and β. In addition, more recent research has shown that the intracellular transmembrane G protein-coupled estrogen receptor, GPER, originally designated as GPR30, also mediates some of the actions attributed to estrogens. Estrogen and its receptors are important regulators of body weight and insulin sensitivity not only in women, but also in men as demonstrated by ER mutations in rodents and humans. This article reviews the role of sex hormones and estrogen receptors in the context of obesity, insulin sensitivity and diabetes as well as the related clinical issues in females and males. PMID:21281456

  9. Receptor-Mediated Tobacco Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo, Juan; Chernyavsky, Alexander I.; Marubio, Lisa M.; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Jolkovsky, David L.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Grando, Sergei A.

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco is a known cause of oral disease but the mechanism remains elusive. Nicotine (Nic) is a likely culprit of pathobiological effects because it displaces the local cytotransmitter acetylcholine from the nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) expressed by oral keratinocytes (KCs). To gain a mechanistic insight into tobacco-induced morbidity in the oral cavity, we studied effects of exposures to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) versus equivalent concentration of pure Nic on human and murine KCs. Both ETS and Nic up-regulated expression of cell cycle and apoptosis regulators, differentiation marker filaggrin, and signal transduction factors at both the mRNA and protein levels. These changes could be abolished in cultured human oral KCs transfected with anti-α3 small interfering RNA or treated with the α3β2-preferring antagonist α-conotoxin MII. Functional inactivation of α3-mediated signaling in α3−/− mutant KCs prevented most of the ETS/Nic-dependent changes in gene expression. To determine relevance of the in vitro findings to the in vivo situation, we studied gene expression in oral mucosa of neonatal α3+/+ and α3−/− littermates delivered by heterozygous mice soon after their exposures to ETS or equivalent concentration of pure Nic in drinking water. In addition to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, the ETS/Nic-dependent alterations in gene expression were also detected by semiquantitative immunofluorescence assay directly in KCs comprising murine oral mucosa. Only wild-type mice consistently developed significant (P < 0.05) changes in the gene expression. These results identified α3β2 nAChR as a major receptor mediating effects of tobacco products on KC gene expression. Real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that in all three model systems the common genes targeted by α3β2-mediated ETS/Nic toxicity were p21, Bcl-2, NF-κB, and STAT-1. The expression of the nAChR subunits α5 and β2 and the muscarinic

  10. PSM, a mediator of PDGF-BB-, IGF-I-, and insulin-stimulated mitogenesis.

    PubMed

    Riedel, H; Yousaf, N; Zhao, Y; Dai, H; Deng, Y; Wang, J

    2000-01-06

    PSM/SH2-B has been described as a cellular partner of the FcepsilonRI receptor, insulin receptor (IR), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor (IGF-IR), and nerve growth factor receptor (TrkA). A function has been proposed in neuronal differentiation and development but its role in other signaling pathways is still unclear. To further elucidate the physiologic role of PSM we have identified additional mitogenic receptor tyrosine kinases as putative PSM partners including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor (PDGFR) beta, hepatocyte growth factor receptor (Met), and fibroblast growth factor receptor. We have mapped Y740 as a site of PDGFR beta that is involved in the association with PSM. We have further investigated the putative role of PSM in mitogenesis with three independent experimental strategies and found that all consistently suggested a role as a positive, stimulatory signaling adapter in normal NIH3T3 and baby hamster kidney fibroblasts. (1) PSM expression from cDNA using an ecdysone-regulated transient expression system stimulated PDGF-BB-, IGF-I-, and insulin- but not EGF-induced DNA synthesis in an ecdysone dose-responsive fashion; (2) Microinjection of the (dominant negative) PSM SH2 domain interfered with PDGF-BB- and insulin-induced DNA synthesis; and (3) A peptide mimetic of the PSM Pro-rich putative SH3 domain-binding region interfered with PDGF-BB-, IGF-I-, and insulin- but not with EGF-induced DNA synthesis in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. This experiment was based on cell-permeable fusion peptides with the Drosophila antennapedia homeodomain which effectively traverse the plasma membrane of cultured cells. These experimental strategies independently suggest that PSM functions as a positive, stimulatory, mitogenic signaling mediator in PDGF-BB, IGF-I, and insulin but not in EGF action. This function appears to involve the PSM SH2 domain as well as the Pro-rich putative SH3 domain binding region. Our findings support the model that PSM

  11. The Novel Endocrine Disruptor Tolylfluanid Impairs Insulin Signaling in Primary Rodent and Human Adipocytes through a Reduction in Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Sargis, Robert M.; Neel, Brian A.; Brock, Clifton O.; Lin, Yuxi; Hickey, Allison T.; Carlton, Daniel A.; Brady, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging data suggest that environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may contribute to the pathophysiology of obesity and diabetes. In prior work, the phenylsulfamide fungicide tolylfluanid (TF) was shown to augment adipocyte differentiation, yet its effects on mature adipocyte metabolism remain unknown. Because of the central role of adipose tissue in global energy regulation, the present study tested the hypothesis that TF modulates insulin action in primary rodent and human adipocytes. Alterations in insulin signaling in primary mammalian adipocytes were determined by the phosphorylation of Akt, a critical insulin signaling intermediate. Treatment of primary murine adipose tissue in vitro with 100 nM TF for 48 h markedly attenuated acute insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in a strain- and species-independent fashion. Perigonadal, perirenal, and mesenteric fat were all sensitive to TF-induced insulin resistance. A similar TF-induced reduction in insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation was observed in primary human subcutaneous adipose tissue. TF-treatment led to a potent and specific reduction in insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) mRNA and protein levels, a key upstream mediator of insulin’s diverse metabolic effects. In contrast, insulin receptor-β, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and Akt expression were unchanged, indicating a specific abrogation of insulin signaling. Additionally, TF-treated adipocytes exhibited altered endocrine function with a reduction in both basal and insulin-stimulated leptin secretion. These studies demonstrate that TF induces cellular insulin resistance in primary murine and human adipocytes through a reduction of IRS-1 expression and protein stability, raising concern about the potential for this fungicide to disrupt metabolism and thereby contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:22387882

  12. Cloning and Characterisation of Schistosoma japonicum Insulin Receptors

    PubMed Central

    You, Hong; Zhang, Wenbao; Jones, Malcolm K.; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Mulvenna, Jason; Rees, Glynn; Spanevello, Mark; Blair, David; Duke, Mary; Brehm, Klaus; McManus, Donald P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Schistosomes depend for growth and development on host hormonal signals, which may include the insulin signalling pathway. We cloned and assessed the function of two insulin receptors from Schistosoma japonicum in order to shed light on their role in schistosome biology. Methodology/Principal Findings We isolated, from S. japonicum, insulin receptors 1 (SjIR-1) and 2 (SjIR-2) sharing close sequence identity to their S. mansoni homologues (SmIR-1 and SmIR-2). SjIR-1 is located on the tegument basal membrane and the internal epithelium of adult worms, whereas SjIR-2 is located in the parenchyma of males and the vitelline tissue of females. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SjIR-2 and SmIR-2 are close to Echinococcus multilocularis insulin receptor (EmIR), suggesting that SjIR-2, SmIR-2 and EmIR share similar roles in growth and development in the three taxa. Structure homology modelling recovered the conserved structure between the SjIRs and Homo sapiens IR (HIR) implying a common predicted binding mechanism in the ligand domain and the same downstream signal transduction processing in the tyrosine kinase domain as in HIR. Two-hybrid analysis was used to confirm that the ligand domains of SjIR-1 and SjIR-2 contain the insulin binding site. Incubation of adult worms in vitro, both with a specific insulin receptor inhibitor and anti-SjIRs antibodies, resulted in a significant decrease in worm glucose levels, suggesting again the same function for SjIRs in regulating glucose uptake as described for mammalian cells. Conclusions Adult worms of S. japonicum possess insulin receptors that can specifically bind to insulin, indicating that the parasite can utilize host insulin for development and growth by sharing the same pathway as mammalian cells in regulating glucose uptake. A complete understanding of the role of SjIRs in the biology of S. japonicum may result in their use as new targets for drug and vaccine development against schistosomiasis. PMID:20352052

  13. Hyperinsulinemia: effect on cardiac mass/function, angiotensin II receptor expression, and insulin signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Anne-Maj; Bollano, Entela; Mobini, Reza; Larsson, Britt-Mari; Omerovic, Elmir; Fu, Michael; Waagstein, Finn; Holmäng, Agneta

    2006-08-01

    To investigate the association between hyperinsulinemia and cardiac hypertrophy, we treated rats with insulin for 7 wk and assessed effects on myocardial growth, vascularization, and fibrosis in relation to the expression of angiotensin II receptors (AT-R). We also characterized insulin signaling pathways believed to promote myocyte growth and interact with proliferative responses mediated by G protein-coupled receptors, and we assessed myocardial insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and p110 alpha catalytic and p85 regulatory subunits of phospatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), Akt, MEK, ERK1/2, and S6 kinase-1 (S6K1). Left ventricular (LV) geometry and performance were evaluated echocardiographically. Insulin decreased AT1a-R mRNA expression but increased protein levels and increased AT2-R mRNA and protein levels and phosphorylation of IRS-1 (Ser374/Tyr989), MEK1/2 (Ser218/Ser222), ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204), S6K1 (Thr421/Ser424/Thr389), Akt (Thr308/Thr308), and PI3K p110 alpha but not of p85 (Tyr508). Insulin increased LV mass and relative wall thickness and reduced stroke volume and cardiac output. Histochemical examination demonstrated myocyte hypertrophy and increases in interstitial fibrosis. Metoprolol plus insulin prevented the increase in relative wall thickness, decreased fibrosis, increased LV mass, and improved function seen with insulin alone. Thus our data demonstrate that chronic hyperinsulinemia decreases AT1a-to-AT2 ratio and increases MEK-ERK1/2 and S6K1 pathway activity related to hypertrophy. These changes might be crucial for increased cardiovascular growth and fibrosis and signs of impaired LV function.

  14. Heparanase Enhances the Insulin Receptor Signaling Pathway to Activate Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase in Multiple Myeloma*

    PubMed Central

    Purushothaman, Anurag; Babitz, Stephen K.; Sanderson, Ralph D.

    2012-01-01

    ERK signaling regulates proliferation, survival, drug resistance, and angiogenesis in cancer. Although the mechanisms regulating ERK activation are not fully understood, we previously demonstrated that ERK phosphorylation is elevated by heparanase, an enzyme associated with aggressive behavior of many cancers. In the present study, myeloma cell lines expressing either high or low levels of heparanase were utilized to determine how heparanase stimulates ERK signaling. We discovered that the insulin receptor was abundant on cells expressing either high or low levels of heparanase, but the receptor was highly phosphorylated in heparanase-high cells compared with heparanase-low cells. In addition, protein kinase C activity was elevated in heparanase-high cells, and this enhanced expression of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), the principle intracellular substrate for phosphorylation by the insulin receptor. Blocking insulin receptor function with antibody or a small molecule inhibitor or knockdown of IRS-1 expression using shRNA diminished heparanase-mediated ERK activation in the tumor cells. In addition, up-regulation of the insulin signaling pathway by heparanase and the resulting ERK activation were dependent on heparanase retaining its enzyme activity. These results reveal a novel mechanism whereby heparanase enhances activation of the insulin receptor signaling pathway leading to ERK activation and modulation of myeloma behavior. PMID:23048032

  15. Functional characterization of insulin receptor gene mutations contributing to Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome - phenotypic heterogeneity of insulin receptor gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Fang, Qichen; Zhang, Feng; Wan, Hui; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Congrong; Bao, Yuqian; Zhang, Lei; Ma, Xiaojing; Lu, Junxi; Gao, Fei; Xiang, Kunsan; Jia, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome (RMS) is a rare disorder that presents as severe insulin resistance as a result of mutations present in the insulin receptor (INSR). A Chinese girl with RMS presented with profound diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, acanthosis nigricans, hirsutism, and abnormalities of teeth and nails. Direct sequencing of the patient's INSR detected heterozygote mutations at Arg83Gln (R83Q) and Ala1028Val (A1028V), with the former representing a novel mutation. Functional studies of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with wild-type (WT) and mutant forms of INSR were performed to evaluate the effects of these mutations on receptor expression and activation. Receptor expression, insulin binding activity, and phosphorylation of the R83Q variant were comparable to WT. In contrast, expression of the A1028V receptor was much lower than that of WT INSR, and impairment of insulin binding and autophosphorylation were nearly commensurate with the decrease in expression detected. Reductions in the phosphorylation of IRS-1, Akt, and Erk1/2 (60%, 40%, and 50% of WT, respectively) indicate that the A1028V receptor contributes to impaired signal transduction. In conclusion, INSR mutations associated with RMS were identified. Moreover, the A1028V mutation associated with a decrease in expression of INSR potentially accounts for loss of function of the INSR.

  16. Insulin-regulated expression of adiponectin receptors in muscle and fat cells.

    PubMed

    Sattar, Akm A; Sattar, Rifat

    2012-01-01

    Adp (adiponectin), an adipocyte-secreted hormone, exerts its effect via its specific receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 (adiponectin receptors 1 and 2), on insulin-sensitive cells in muscle, liver and adipose tissues, and plays an important role in lipid and glucose metabolisms. The study has investigated the effect of insulin on AdipoRs expression in muscle and fat cells. Differentiated fat [3T3-L1 (mouse adipocytes)], L6 (skeletal muscle) and vascular smooth muscle (PAC1) cells were serum starved and exposed to 100 nM insulin for 1-24 h. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNAs expression was monitored by real-time PCR. The results demonstrate that insulin down-regulates both AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNAs levels in a biphasic manner in L6 and PAC1 cells. Insulin had little or no effect in the regulation of AdipoR1 expression in 3T3-L1 cells, but significantly up-regulated AdipoR2 mRNA level in a biphasic manner. The fact that insulin differentially regulates the expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in muscle and fat cells suggests this is also dependent on the availability of the endogenous ligand, such as Adp for AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in fat cells. The effects of globular Adp were also tested on insulin-regulated expression of AdipoRs in L6 cells, and found to up-regulate and counter insulin-mediated suppression of AdipoRs expression in L6 cells.

  17. Insulin Resistance Induced by Hyperinsulinemia Coincides with a Persistent Alteration at the Insulin Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Domain

    PubMed Central

    Catalano, Karyn J.; Maddux, Betty A.; Szary, Jaroslaw; Youngren, Jack F.; Goldfine, Ira D.; Schaufele, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance, the diminished response of target tissues to insulin, is associated with the metabolic syndrome and a predisposition towards diabetes in a growing proportion of the worldwide population. Under insulin resistant states, the cellular response of the insulin signaling pathway is diminished and the body typically responds by increasing serum insulin concentrations to maintain insulin signaling. Some evidence indicates that the increased insulin concentration may itself further dampen insulin response. If so, insulin resistance would worsen as the level of circulating insulin increases during compensation, which could contribute to the transition of insulin resistance to more severe disease. Here, we investigated the consequences of excess insulin exposure to insulin receptor (IR) activity. Cells chronically exposed to insulin show a diminished the level of IR tyrosine and serine autophosphorylation below that observed after short-term insulin exposure. The diminished IR response did not originate with IR internalization since IR amounts at the cell membrane were similar after short- and long-term insulin incubation. Förster resonance energy transfer between fluorophores attached to the IR tyrosine kinase (TK) domain showed that a change in the TK domain occurred upon prolonged, but not short-term, insulin exposure. Even though the altered ‘insulin refractory’ IR TK FRET and IR autophosphorylation levels returned to baseline (non-stimulated) levels after wash-out of the original insulin stimulus, subsequent short-term exposure to insulin caused immediate re-establishment of the insulin-refractory levels. This suggests that some cell-based ‘memory’ of chronic hyperinsulinemic exposure acts directly at the IR. An improved understanding of that memory may help define interventions to reset the IR to full insulin responsiveness and impede the progression of insulin resistance to more severe disease states. PMID:25259572

  18. SORLA facilitates insulin receptor signaling in adipocytes and exacerbates obesity

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Vanessa; Schulz, Nadja; Yan, Xin; Schürmann, Annette; Kempa, Stefan; Kern, Matthias; Blüher, Matthias; Poy, Matthew N.

    2016-01-01

    In humans, genetic variation of sortilin-related receptor, L(DLR class) A repeats containing (SORL1), which encodes the intracellular sorting receptor SORLA, is a major genetic risk factor for familial and sporadic forms of Alzheimer’s disease. Recent GWAS analysis has also associated SORL1 with obesity in humans and in mouse models, suggesting that this receptor may play a role in regulating metabolism. Here, using mouse models with genetic loss or tissue-specific overexpression of SORLA as well as data from obese human subjects, we observed a gene-dosage effect that links SORLA expression to obesity and glucose tolerance. Overexpression of human SORLA in murine adipose tissue blocked hydrolysis of triacylglycerides and caused excessive adiposity. In contrast, Sorl1 gene inactivation in mice accelerated breakdown of triacylglycerides in adipocytes and protected animals from diet-induced obesity. We then identified the underlying molecular mechanism whereby SORLA promotes insulin-induced suppression of lipolysis in adipocytes. Specifically, we determined that SORLA acts as a sorting factor for the insulin receptor (IR) that redirects internalized receptor molecules from endosomes to the plasma membrane, thereby enhancing IR surface expression and strengthening insulin signal reception in target cells. Our findings provide a molecular mechanism for the association of SORL1 with human obesity and confirm a genetic link between neurodegeneration and metabolism that converges on the receptor SORLA. PMID:27322061

  19. Protective hinge in insulin opens to enable its receptor engagement.

    PubMed

    Menting, John G; Yang, Yanwu; Chan, Shu Jin; Phillips, Nelson B; Smith, Brian J; Whittaker, Jonathan; Wickramasinghe, Nalinda P; Whittaker, Linda J; Pandyarajan, Vijay; Wan, Zhu-li; Yadav, Satya P; Carroll, Julie M; Strokes, Natalie; Roberts, Charles T; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Milewski, Wieslawa; Steiner, Donald F; Chauhan, Virander S; Ward, Colin W; Weiss, Michael A; Lawrence, Michael C

    2014-08-19

    Insulin provides a classical model of a globular protein, yet how the hormone changes conformation to engage its receptor has long been enigmatic. Interest has focused on the C-terminal B-chain segment, critical for protective self-assembly in β cells and receptor binding at target tissues. Insight may be obtained from truncated "microreceptors" that reconstitute the primary hormone-binding site (α-subunit domains L1 and αCT). We demonstrate that, on microreceptor binding, this segment undergoes concerted hinge-like rotation at its B20-B23 β-turn, coupling reorientation of Phe(B24) to a 60° rotation of the B25-B28 β-strand away from the hormone core to lie antiparallel to the receptor's L1-β2 sheet. Opening of this hinge enables conserved nonpolar side chains (Ile(A2), Val(A3), Val(B12), Phe(B24), and Phe(B25)) to engage the receptor. Restraining the hinge by nonstandard mutagenesis preserves native folding but blocks receptor binding, whereas its engineered opening maintains activity at the price of protein instability and nonnative aggregation. Our findings rationalize properties of clinical mutations in the insulin family and provide a previously unidentified foundation for designing therapeutic analogs. We envisage that a switch between free and receptor-bound conformations of insulin evolved as a solution to conflicting structural determinants of biosynthesis and function.

  20. Protective hinge in insulin opens to enable its receptor engagement

    PubMed Central

    Menting, John G.; Yang, Yanwu; Chan, Shu Jin; Phillips, Nelson B.; Smith, Brian J.; Whittaker, Jonathan; Wickramasinghe, Nalinda P.; Whittaker, Linda J.; Pandyarajan, Vijay; Wan, Zhu-li; Yadav, Satya P.; Carroll, Julie M.; Strokes, Natalie; Roberts, Charles T.; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Milewski, Wieslawa; Steiner, Donald F.; Chauhan, Virander S.; Ward, Colin W.; Weiss, Michael A.; Lawrence, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin provides a classical model of a globular protein, yet how the hormone changes conformation to engage its receptor has long been enigmatic. Interest has focused on the C-terminal B-chain segment, critical for protective self-assembly in β cells and receptor binding at target tissues. Insight may be obtained from truncated “microreceptors” that reconstitute the primary hormone-binding site (α-subunit domains L1 and αCT). We demonstrate that, on microreceptor binding, this segment undergoes concerted hinge-like rotation at its B20-B23 β-turn, coupling reorientation of PheB24 to a 60° rotation of the B25-B28 β-strand away from the hormone core to lie antiparallel to the receptor's L1–β2 sheet. Opening of this hinge enables conserved nonpolar side chains (IleA2, ValA3, ValB12, PheB24, and PheB25) to engage the receptor. Restraining the hinge by nonstandard mutagenesis preserves native folding but blocks receptor binding, whereas its engineered opening maintains activity at the price of protein instability and nonnative aggregation. Our findings rationalize properties of clinical mutations in the insulin family and provide a previously unidentified foundation for designing therapeutic analogs. We envisage that a switch between free and receptor-bound conformations of insulin evolved as a solution to conflicting structural determinants of biosynthesis and function. PMID:25092300

  1. SORLA facilitates insulin receptor signaling in adipocytes and exacerbates obesity.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Vanessa; Schulz, Nadja; Yan, Xin; Schürmann, Annette; Kempa, Stefan; Kern, Matthias; Blüher, Matthias; Poy, Matthew N; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Willnow, Thomas E

    2016-07-01

    In humans, genetic variation of sortilin-related receptor, L(DLR class) A repeats containing (SORL1), which encodes the intracellular sorting receptor SORLA, is a major genetic risk factor for familial and sporadic forms of Alzheimer's disease. Recent GWAS analysis has also associated SORL1 with obesity in humans and in mouse models, suggesting that this receptor may play a role in regulating metabolism. Here, using mouse models with genetic loss or tissue-specific overexpression of SORLA as well as data from obese human subjects, we observed a gene-dosage effect that links SORLA expression to obesity and glucose tolerance. Overexpression of human SORLA in murine adipose tissue blocked hydrolysis of triacylglycerides and caused excessive adiposity. In contrast, Sorl1 gene inactivation in mice accelerated breakdown of triacylglycerides in adipocytes and protected animals from diet-induced obesity. We then identified the underlying molecular mechanism whereby SORLA promotes insulin-induced suppression of lipolysis in adipocytes. Specifically, we determined that SORLA acts as a sorting factor for the insulin receptor (IR) that redirects internalized receptor molecules from endosomes to the plasma membrane, thereby enhancing IR surface expression and strengthening insulin signal reception in target cells. Our findings provide a molecular mechanism for the association of SORL1 with human obesity and confirm a genetic link between neurodegeneration and metabolism that converges on the receptor SORLA.

  2. MARCH1 regulates insulin sensitivity by controlling cell surface insulin receptor levels

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Arvindhan; Petersen, Max C.; Nasiri, Ali R.; Butrico, Gina; Fung, Annie; Ruan, Hai-Bin; Kursawe, Romy; Caprio, Sonia; Thibodeau, Jacques; Bourgeois-Daigneault, Marie-Claude; Sun, Lisha; Gao, Guangping; Bhanot, Sanjay; Jurczak, Michael J.; Green, Michael R.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Wajapeyee, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a key driver of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and is characterized by defective insulin receptor (INSR) signalling. Although surface INSR downregulation is a well-established contributor to insulin resistance, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure. Here we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH1 impairs cellular insulin action by degrading cell surface INSR. Using a large-scale RNA interference screen, we identify MARCH1 as a negative regulator of INSR signalling. March1 loss-of-function enhances, and March1 overexpression impairs, hepatic insulin sensitivity in mice. MARCH1 ubiquitinates INSR to decrease cell surface INSR levels, but unlike other INSR ubiquitin ligases, MARCH1 acts in the basal state rather than after insulin stimulation. Thus, MARCH1 may help set the basal gain of insulin signalling. MARCH1 expression is increased in white adipose tissue of obese humans, suggesting that MARCH1 contributes to the pathophysiology of T2D and could be a new therapeutic target. PMID:27577745

  3. A novel method for simulating insulin mediated GLUT4 translocation.

    PubMed

    Jezewski, Andrew J; Larson, Joshua J; Wysocki, Beata; Davis, Paul H; Wysocki, Tadeusz

    2014-12-01

    Glucose transport in humans is a vital process which is tightly regulated by the endocrine system. Specifically, the insulin hormone triggers a cascade of intracellular signals in target cells mediating the uptake of glucose. Insulin signaling triggers cellular relocalization of the glucose transporter protein GLUT4 to the cell surface, which is primarily responsible for regulated glucose import. Pathology associated with the disruption of this pathway can lead to metabolic disorders, such as type II diabetes mellitus, characterized by the failure of cells to appropriately uptake glucose from the blood. We describe a novel simulation tool of the insulin intracellular response, incorporating the latest findings regarding As160 and GEF interactions. The simulation tool differs from previous computational approaches which employ algebraic or differential equations; instead, the tool incorporates statistical variations of kinetic constants and initial molecular concentrations which more accurately mimic the intracellular environment. Using this approach, we successfully recapitulate observed in vitro insulin responses, plus the effects of Wortmannin-like inhibition of the pathway. The developed tool provides insight into transient changes in molecule concentrations throughout the insulin signaling pathway, and may be employed to identify or evaluate potentially critical components of this pathway, including those associated with insulin resistance. In the future, this highly tractable platform may be useful for simulating other complex cell signaling pathways. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 2454-2465. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. In vivo stimulation of oestrogen receptor α increases insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Gorres, Brittany K; Bomhoff, Gregory L; Morris, Jill K; Geiger, Paige C

    2011-04-15

    Previous studies suggest oestrogen receptor α (ERα) is involved in oestrogen-mediated regulation of glucose metabolism and is critical for maintenance of whole body insulin action. Despite this, the effect of direct ERα modulation in insulin-responsive tissues is unknown. The purpose of the current study was to determine the impact of ERα activation, using the ER subtype-selective ligand propylpyrazoletriyl (PPT), on skeletal muscle glucose uptake. Two-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats, ovariectomized for 1 week, were given subcutaneous injections of PPT (10 mg kg⁻¹), oestradiol benzoate (EB; 20 μg kg⁻¹), the ERβ agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN, 10 mg kg⁻¹) or vehicle every 24 h for 3 days. On the fourth day, insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake was measured in vitro and insulin signalling intermediates were assessed via Western blotting.Activation of ERα with PPT resulted in increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into the slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL)muscles, activation of insulin signalling intermediates (as measured by phospho-Akt (pAkt) and pAkt substrate (PAS)) and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). GLUT4 protein was increased only in the EDL muscle. Rats treated with EB or DPN for 3 days did not show an increase in insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake compared to vehicle-treated animals. These new findings reveal that direct activation of ERα positively mediates glucose uptake and insulin action in skeletal muscle. Evidence that oestrogens and ERα stimulate glucose uptake has important implications for understanding mechanisms of glucose homeostasis, particularly in postmenopausal women.

  5. [Insulin signaling and insulin resistance].

    PubMed

    Ferré, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    Insulin controls carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Among other things, it stimulates glucose storage as glycogen and lipid storage as triglycerides. Insulin acts through a membrane receptor which is a tyrosine kinase. When activated by insulin binding, the tyrosine kinase will recruit and phosphorylate intracellular substrates called IRS (insulin receptor substrate). Phosphorylated IRS will be used as docking sites for proteins which will transmit the insulin signal through several systems (e.g. PI3-kinase). The insulin resistance which is concomitant with type 2 diabetes and obesity is linked to an increased intracellular availability of fatty acids which are precursors of lipid mediators inducing a decreased efficiency of insulin signal transmission. Therapies aimed at improving insulin sensitivity could then target proteins involved in the regulation of intacellular fatty acid availibility.

  6. The ligand specificities of the insulin receptor and the insulin-like growth factor I receptor reside in different regions of a common binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Kjeldsen, T.; Andersen, A.S.; Wiberg, F.C.; Rasmussen, J.S.; Schaeffer, L.; Balschmidt, P.; Moller, K.B.; Moller, N.P.H. )

    1991-05-15

    To identify the region(s) of the insulin receptor and the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor responsible for ligand specificity (high-affinity binding), expression vectors encoding soluble chimeric insulin/IGF-I receptors were prepared. The chimeric receptors were expressed in mammalian cells and partially purified. Binding studies revealed that a construct comprising an IGF-I receptor in which the 68 N-terminal amino acids of the insulin receptor {alpha}-subunit had replaced the equivalent IGF-I receptor segment displayed a markedly increased affinity for insulin. In contrast, the corresponding IGF-I receptor sequence is not critical for high-affinity IGF-I binding. It is shown that part of the cysteine-rich domain determines IGF-I specificity. The authors have previously shown that exchanging exons 1, 2, and 3 of the insulin receptor with the corresponding IGF-I receptor sequence results in loss of high affinity for insulin and gain of high affinity for IGF-I. Consequently, it is suggested that the ligand specificities of the two receptors (i.e., the sequences that discriminate between insulin and IGF-I) reside in different regions of a binding site with common features present in both receptors.

  7. Oleoylethanolamide, a natural ligand for PPAR-alpha, inhibits insulin receptor signalling in HTC rat hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Martínez de Ubago, María; García-Oya, Inmaculada; Pérez-Pérez, Antonio; Canfrán-Duque, Alberto; Quintana-Portillo, Rocio; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; González-Yanes, Carmen; Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor

    2009-08-01

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a lipid mediator belonging to the fatty acid ethanolamides family. It is produced by intestine and adipose tissue. It inhibits food intake and body weight gain, and has hypolipemiant action in vivo, as well as a lipolytic effect in vitro. OEA is a PPAR-alpha agonist, and recently it has been found that OEA is an endogenous ligand of an orphan receptor. Previously, we have shown that OEA inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in isolated adipocytes, and produces glucose intolerance in rats. In the present work, we have studied another insulin target cell, the hepatocyte using a rat hepatoma cell line (HTC), and we have studied the cross-talk of OEA signalling with metabolic and mitotic signal transduction of insulin receptor. OEA dose-dependently activates JNK and p38 MAPK, and inhibits insulin receptor phosphorylation. OEA inhibits insulin receptor activation, blunting insulin signalling in the downstream PI3K pathway, decreasing phosphorylation of PKB and its target GSK-3. OEA also inhibits insulin-dependent MAPK pathway, as assessed by immunoblot of phosphorylated MEK and MAPK. These effects were reversed by blocking JNK or p38 MAPK using pharmacological inhibitors (SP 600125, and SB 203580). Since OEA is an endogenous PPAR-alpha agonist, we investigated whether a pharmacologic agonist (WY 14643) may mimic the OEA effect on insulin receptor signalling. Activation of PPAR-alpha by the pharmacological agonist WY14643 in HTC hepatoma cells is sufficient to inhibit insulin signalling and this effect is also dependent on p38 MAPK but not JNK kinase. In summary, OEA inhibits insulin metabolic and mitogenic signalling by activation of JNK and p38 MAPK via PPAR-alpha.

  8. Signaling-competent receptor chimeras allow mapping of major insulin receptor binding domain determinants.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, R; Soos, M A; Schlessinger, J; Brandenburg, D; Siddle, K; Ullrich, A

    1993-01-15

    Chimeric receptors were generated in which structurally defined subdomains of the insulin receptor (IR) and insulin growth factor-I receptor (IGF-1R) alpha-subunits were exchanged between their respective receptor backbone structures. Upon expression in human fibroblasts, nine IR/IGF-1R chimeras were transported to the cell surface, where they formed binding sites with differential properties. One IGF-1R/IR chimera (C3') exhibited to some extent high insulin specificity, demonstrating the presence of major insulin binding determinants within the amino acid 325-524 region of the IR alpha-subunit. Complementation of this region with subdomain 1 (amino acids 1-137) reconstituted full insulin binding potential within an IGF-1R framework. In addition, both the IGF-1R/IR C3' chimera and another chimera (C13') displayed high affinity binding properties for IGF-1, which suggests distinct locations for major insulin and IGF-1 binding determinants in their respective receptors, in agreement with our previous findings (Schumacher, R., Mosthaf, L., Schlessinger, J., Brandenburg, D., and Ullrich, A. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 19288-19295). The binding characteristics of all receptor chimeras correlated directly with the ability of the ligands to regulate their tyrosine kinase activity in intact cells. These results demonstrate direct coupling of ligand binding affinity and capacity for tyrosine kinase activation.

  9. A mutation in the insulin receptor gene that impairs transport of the receptor to the plasma membrane and causes insulin-resistant diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Accili, D; Frapier, C; Mosthaf, L; McKeon, C; Elbein, S C; Permutt, M A; Ramos, E; Lander, E; Ullrich, A; Taylor, S I

    1989-01-01

    Insulin binds to a receptor on the cell surface, thereby triggering a biological response within the target cell. Mutations in the insulin receptor gene can render the cell resistant to the biological action of insulin. We have studied a family in which two sisters have a genetic form of insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus. The technique of homozygosity mapping has been used to demonstrate that the mutation causing diabetes in this consanguineous family is genetically linked to the insulin receptor gene. The two insulin-resistant sisters are homozygous for a mutation encoding substitution of valine for phenylalanine at position 382 in the alpha-subunit of the insulin receptor. Transfection of mutant insulin receptor cDNA into NIH3T3 cells demonstrated that the Val382 mutation impaired post-translational processing and retarded transport of the insulin receptor to the plasma membrane. Thus, the mutation causes insulin resistance by decreasing the number of insulin receptors on the surface of the patients' cells. Images PMID:2573522

  10. Differential subcellular localization of insulin receptor substrates depends on C-terminal regions and importin {beta}

    SciTech Connect

    Kabuta, Tomohiro; Take, Kazumi; Kabuta, Chihana; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro

    2008-12-19

    Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) play essential roles in signal transduction of insulin and insulin-like growth factors. Previously, we showed that IRS-3 is localized to the nucleus as well as the cytosol, while IRS-1 and 2 are mainly localized to the cytoplasm. In the present study, we found that importin {beta} directly interacts with IRS-3 and is able to mediate nuclear transport of IRS-3. Importin {beta} interacted with the pleckstrin homology domain, the phosphotyrosine binding domain and the C-terminal region of IRS-3; indeed all of these fragments exhibited predominant nuclear localization. By contrast, almost no interaction of importin {beta} with IRS-1 and -2 was observed, and their C-terminal regions displayed discrete spotty images in the cytosol. In addition, using chimeric proteins between IRS-1 and IRS-3, we revealed that the C-terminal regions are the main determinants of the differing subcellular localizations of IRS-1 and IRS-3.

  11. Direct method for detection and characterization of cell surface receptors for insulin by means of 125I-labeled autoantibodies against the insulin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, D B; Roth, J; Kahn, C R; Flier, J S

    1976-01-01

    Autoantibodies directed against the cell surface receptors for insulin are found in some patients with extreme insulin resistance. These antibodies specifically inhibit the binding of insulin to its receptor. A purified IgG fraction from one patient's plasma was labeled with 125I. The 125I-labeled antireceptor antibody, which initially represented about 0.3% of the total 125I-IgG, was enriched by selective adsorption and subsequent elution from cells rich in insulin receptors. The 125I-antireceptor antibody bound to cells and the binding was inhibited by whole plasma and purified IgG from this patient, as well as whole plasma from another patient with autoantibodies to the insulin receptor. Insulins that differed 300-fold in biological potency and affinity inhibited binding of 125I-antireceptor antibody in direct proportion to their ability to bind to the insulin receptor. The binding of 125I-antireceptor antibody was closely correlated with the binding of 125I-insulin over a wide range of receptor concentrations on different cell types. Experimentally induced reduction of the insulin receptor concentration was associated with parallel decreases in the binding of 125I-antireceptor antibody and 125I-insulin. The preparation of 125I-antireceptor antibody with a high specific activity by cytoadsorption and elution has provided a sensitive method for the detection of receptors and autoantibodies to cell surface components. PMID:1069300

  12. Vitamin D3 restores altered cholinergic and insulin receptor expression in the cerebral cortex and muscarinic M3 receptor expression in pancreatic islets of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Peeyush T; Antony, Sherin; Nandhu, Mohan S; Sadanandan, Jayanarayanan; Naijil, George; Paulose, Chiramadathikudiyil S

    2011-05-01

    Nutritional therapy is a challenging but necessary dimension in the management of diabetes and neurodegenerative changes associated with it. The study evaluates the effect of vitamin D(3) in preventing the altered function of cholinergic, insulin receptors and GLUT3 in the cerebral cortex of diabetic rats. Muscarinic M3 acetylcholine receptors in pancreas control insulin secretion. Vitamin D(3) treatment in M3 receptor regulation in the pancreatic islets was also studied. Radioreceptor binding assays and gene expression was done in the cerebral cortex of male Wistar rats. Immunocytochemistry of muscarinic M3 receptor was studied in the pancreatic islets using specific antibodies. Y-maze was used to evaluate the exploratory and spatial memory. Diabetes induced a decrease in muscarinic M1, insulin and vitamin D receptor expression and an increase in muscarinic M3, α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, acetylcholine esterase and GLUT3 expression. Vitamin D(3) and insulin treatment reversed diabetes-induced alterations to near control. Diabetic rats showed a decreased Y-maze performance while vitamin D(3) supplementation improved the behavioural deficit. In conclusion, vitamin D(3) shows a potential therapeutic effect in normalizing diabetes-induced alterations in cholinergic, insulin and vitamin D receptor and maintains a normal glucose transport and utilisation in the cortex. In addition vitamin D(3) modulated muscarinic M3 receptors activity in pancreas and plays a pivotal role in controlling insulin secretion. Hence our findings proved, vitamin D(3) supplementation as a potential nutritional therapy in ameliorating diabetes mediated cortical dysfunctions and suggest an interaction between vitamin D(3) and muscarinic M3 receptors in regulating insulin secretion from pancreas.

  13. Investigations of receptor-mediated phagocytosis by hormone-induced (imprinted) Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    PubMed

    Kovács, P; Sundermann, C A; Csaba, G

    1996-08-15

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis by Tetrahvmena pyriformis was studied using tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate-labeled concanavalin A (TRITC-Con A) with fluorescence and confocal microscopy. In the presence of insulin, or 24 h after insulin pretreatment (hormonal imprinting), the binding and uptake of TRITC-Con A increased when compared to controls, owing to the binding of TRITC-Con A to sugar oligomers of insulin receptors. Mannose inhibited the binding of Con A, thus demonstrating the specificity of binding. Histamine, a phagocytosis-promoting factor in mammals and Tetrahymena, and galactose, did not influence the uptake of TRITC-Con A.

  14. Type I insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling in skeletal muscle regeneration and hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Philippou, A; Halapas, A; Maridaki, M; Koutsilieris, M

    2007-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is able not only to increase its mass as an adaptation to mechanical loading generated by and imposed upon muscle but also to regenerate after damage, via its intrinsic regulation of gene transcription. Both cellular processes, muscle regeneration and hypertrophy, are mediated by the activation, proliferation and differentiation of muscle satellite cells and appear to be modulated by the mitotic and myogenic activity of locally produced insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which functions in an autocrine/paracrine mode. Differentiation of satellite cells into myoblasts involves the regulation of skeletal muscle-specific proteins belonging to the family of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). The endocrine, autocrine and paracrine functions of IGF-1 are mediated through binding to the type I IGF receptor (IGF-1.R), which is a ligand-activated receptor tyrosine kinase. The binding of IGF-1 to IGF-1.R induces its autophosphorylation, which recruits specific cytoplasmic molecules containing the Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins (IRS). The recruitment of IRS proteins by IGF-1/IGF-1.R binding is a critical level at which the proliferative and differentiative actions of IGF-1 diverge. Specific signaling pathways downstream of IGF-1, potentially involved in the mitogenic and myogenic responses and mediating skeletal muscle protein synthesis and hypertrophy following exercise-induced muscle overloading and damage, are discussed. A potential alternative activation of different signaling pathway(s) via a different receptor remains to be demonstrated.

  15. Agonistic aptamer to the insulin receptor leads to biased signaling and functional selectivity through allosteric modulation

    PubMed Central

    Yunn, Na-Oh; Koh, Ara; Han, Seungmin; Lim, Jong Hun; Park, Sehoon; Lee, Jiyoun; Kim, Eui; Jang, Sung Key; Berggren, Per-Olof; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Due to their high affinity and specificity, aptamers have been widely used as effective inhibitors in clinical applications. However, the ability to activate protein function through aptamer-protein interaction has not been well-elucidated. To investigate their potential as target-specific agonists, we used SELEX to generate aptamers to the insulin receptor (IR) and identified an agonistic aptamer named IR-A48 that specifically binds to IR, but not to IGF-1 receptor. Despite its capacity to stimulate IR autophosphorylation, similar to insulin, we found that IR-A48 not only binds to an allosteric site distinct from the insulin binding site, but also preferentially induces Y1150 phosphorylation in the IR kinase domain. Moreover, Y1150-biased phosphorylation induced by IR-A48 selectively activates specific signaling pathways downstream of IR. In contrast to insulin-mediated activation of IR, IR-A48 binding has little effect on the MAPK pathway and proliferation of cancer cells. Instead, AKT S473 phosphorylation is highly stimulated by IR-A48, resulting in increased glucose uptake both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we present IR-A48 as a biased agonist able to selectively induce the metabolic activity of IR through allosteric binding. Furthermore, our study also suggests that aptamers can be a promising tool for developing artificial biased agonists to targeted receptors. PMID:26245346

  16. Structural Dynamics of Insulin Receptor and Transmembrane Signaling.

    PubMed

    Tatulian, Suren A

    2015-09-15

    The insulin receptor (IR) is a (αβ)2-type transmembrane tyrosine kinase that plays a central role in cell metabolism. Each αβ heterodimer consists of an extracellular ligand-binding α-subunit and a membrane-spanning β-subunit that comprises the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase (TK) domain and the phosphorylation sites. The α- and β-subunits are linked via a single disulfide bridge, and the (αβ)2 tetramer is formed by disulfide bonds between the α-chains. Insulin binding induces conformational changes in IR that reach the intracellular β-subunit followed by a protein phosphorylation and activation cascade. Defects in this signaling process, including IR dysfunction caused by mutations, result in type 2 diabetes. Rational drug design aimed at treatment of diabetes relies on knowledge of the detailed structure of IR and the dynamic structural transformations during transmembrane signaling. Recent X-ray crystallographic studies have provided important clues about the mode of binding of insulin to IR, the resulting structural changes and their transmission to the TK domain, but a complete understanding of the structural basis underlying insulin signaling has not been achieved. This review presents a critical analysis of the current status of the structure-function relationship of IR, with a comparative assessment of the other IR family receptors, and discusses potential advancements that may provide insight into the molecular mechanism of insulin signaling.

  17. Dysregulation of Insulin Secretion in Children With Congenital Hyperinsulinism due to Sulfonylurea Receptor Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Grimberg, A.; Ferry, R.J.; Kelly, A.; Koo-McCoy, S.; Polonsky, K.; Glaser, B.; Permutt, M.A.; Aguilar-Bryan, L.; Stafford, D.; Thornton, P.S.; Baker, L.; Stanley, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the high-affinity sulfonylurea receptor (SUR)-1 cause one of the severe recessively inherited diffuse forms of congenital hyperinsulinism or, when associated with loss of heterozygosity, focal adenomatosis. We hypothesized that SUR1 mutations would render the β-cell insensitive to sulfonylureas and to glucose. Stimulated insulin responses were compared among eight patients with diffuse hyperinsulinism (two mutations), six carrier parents, and ten normal adults. In the patients with diffuse hyperinsulinism, the acute insulin response to intravenous tolbutamide was absent and did not overlap with the responses seen in either adult group. There was positive, albeit significantly blunted, acute insulin response to intravenous dextrose in the patients with diffuse hyperinsulinism. Graded infusions of glucose, to raise and then lower plasma glucose concentrations over 4 h, caused similar rises in blood glucose but lower peak insulin levels in the hyperinsulinemic patients. Loss of acute insulin response to tolbutamide can identify children with diffuse SUR1 defects. The greater response to glucose than to tolbutamide indicates that ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel–independent pathways are involved in glucose-mediated insulin release in patients with diffuse SUR1 defects. The diminished glucose responsiveness suggests that SUR1 mutations and lack of KATP channel activity may contribute to the late development of diabetes in patients with hyperinsulinism independently of subtotal pancreatectomy. PMID:11272143

  18. Involvement of PRMT1 in hnRNPQ activation and internalization of insulin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasaki, Hiroaki

    2008-07-25

    Insulin signaling in skeletal L6 myotubes is known to be affected by arginine methylation catalyzed by protein N-arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1), however, the mechanism by which this occurs has not yet been defined. This study aimed to determine the exact substrate involved in the methylation and regulating insulin signaling in cells. Insulin enhanced arginine methylation of a 66-kDa protein (p66) concomitant with translocation of PRMT1 to the membrane fraction. Peptide mass fingerprinting identified p66 as a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein, hnRNPQ that was bound to and methylated by PRMT1. Pharmacological inhibition of methylation (MTA) and small interfering RNA against PRMT1 (PRMT1-siRNA) attenuated insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of hnRNPQ and insulin receptor (IR), and the interaction between hnRNPQ and IR. MTA, PRMT1-siRNA, and hnRNPQ-siRNA inhibited internalization of IR in the same manner. These data suggest that the PRMT1-mediated methylation of hnRNPQ is implicated in IR trafficking and insulin signaling in skeletal L6 myotubes.

  19. FOXO1 Mediates Vitamin D Deficiency-Induced Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Songcang; Villalta, S Armando; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-03-01

    Prospective epidemiological studies have consistently shown a relationship between vitamin D deficiency, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). This is supported by recent trials showing that vitamin D supplementation in prediabetic or insulin-resistant patients with inadequate vitamin D levels improves insulin sensitivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying vitamin D deficiency-induced insulin resistance and DM2 remain unknown. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is a primary defect in the majority of patients with DM2. Although sustained activation of forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) in skeletal muscle causes insulin resistance, a relationship between vitamin D deficiency and FOXO1 activation in muscle is unknown. We generated skeletal muscle-specific vitamin D receptor (VDR)-null mice and discovered that these mice developed insulin resistance and glucose intolerance accompanied by increased expression and activity of FOXO1. We also found sustained FOXO1 activation in the skeletal muscle of global VDR-null mice. Treatment of C2C12 muscle cells with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (VD3) reduced FOXO1 expression, nuclear translocation, and activity. The VD3-dependent suppression of FOXO1 activation disappeared by knockdown of VDR, indicating that it is VDR-dependent. Taken together, these results suggest that FOXO1 is a critical target mediating VDR-null signaling in skeletal muscle. The novel findings provide the conceptual support that persistent FOXO1 activation may be responsible for insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism in vitamin D signaling-deficient mice, as well as evidence for the utility of vitamin D supplementation for intervention in DM2.

  20. FOXO1 Mediates Vitamin D Deficiency-induced Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Songcang; Villalta, Armando; Agrawal, Devendra K.

    2015-01-01

    Prospective epidemiological studies have consistently shown a relationship between vitamin D deficiency, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). This is supported by recent trials showing that vitamin D supplementation in prediabetic or insulin-resistant patients with inadequate vitamin D levels improves insulin sensitivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying vitamin D deficiency-induced insulin resistance and DM2 remain unknown. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is a primary defect in the majority of patients with DM2. While sustained activation of forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) in skeletal muscle causes insulin resistance, a relationship between vitamin D deficiency and FOXO1 activation in muscle is unknown. We generated skeletal muscle-specific vitamin D receptor (VDR)-null mice and discovered that these mice developed insulin resistance and glucose intolerance accompanied by increased expression and activity of FOXO1. We also found sustained FOXO1 activation in the skeletal muscle of global VDR-null mice. Treatment of C2C12 muscle cells with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (VD3) reduced FOXO1 expression, nuclear translocation, and activity. The VD3-dependent suppression of FOXO1 activation disappeared by knockdown of VDR, indicating that it is VDR-dependent. Taken together, these results suggest that FOXO1 is a critical target mediating VDR-null signaling in skeletal muscle. The novel findings provide the conceptual support that persistent FOXO1 activation may be responsible for insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism in vitamin D signaling-deficient mice, as well as evidence for the utility of vitamin D supplementation for intervention in DM2. PMID:26462119

  1. Thrombin stimulates insulin secretion via protease-activated receptor-3.

    PubMed

    Hänzelmann, Sonja; Wang, Jinling; Güney, Emre; Tang, Yunzhao; Zhang, Enming; Axelsson, Annika S; Nenonen, Hannah; Salehi, Albert S; Wollheim, Claes B; Zetterberg, Eva; Berntorp, Erik; Costa, Ivan G; Castelo, Robert; Rosengren, Anders H

    2015-01-01

    The disease mechanisms underlying type 2 diabetes (T2D) remain poorly defined. Here we aimed to explore the pathophysiology of T2D by analyzing gene co-expression networks in human islets. Using partial correlation networks we identified a group of co-expressed genes ('module') including F2RL2 that was associated with glycated hemoglobin. F2Rl2 is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that encodes protease-activated receptor-3 (PAR3). PAR3 is cleaved by thrombin, which exposes a 6-amino acid sequence that acts as a 'tethered ligand' to regulate cellular signaling. We have characterized the effect of PAR3 activation on insulin secretion by static insulin secretion measurements, capacitance measurements, studies of diabetic animal models and patient samples. We demonstrate that thrombin stimulates insulin secretion, an effect that was prevented by an antibody that blocks the thrombin cleavage site of PAR3. Treatment with a peptide corresponding to the PAR3 tethered ligand stimulated islet insulin secretion and single β-cell exocytosis by a mechanism that involves activation of phospholipase C and Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores. Moreover, we observed that the expression of tissue factor, which regulates thrombin generation, was increased in human islets from T2D donors and associated with enhanced β-cell exocytosis. Finally, we demonstrate that thrombin generation potential in patients with T2D was associated with increased fasting insulin and insulinogenic index. The findings provide a previously unrecognized link between hypercoagulability and hyperinsulinemia and suggest that reducing thrombin activity or blocking PAR3 cleavage could potentially counteract the exaggerated insulin secretion that drives insulin resistance and β-cell exhaustion in T2D.

  2. Insulin/glucose induces natriuretic peptide clearance receptor in human adipocytes: a metabolic link with the cardiac natriuretic pathway.

    PubMed

    Bordicchia, M; Ceresiani, M; Pavani, M; Minardi, D; Polito, M; Wabitsch, M; Cannone, V; Burnett, J C; Dessì-Fulgheri, P; Sarzani, R

    2016-07-01

    Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NP) are involved in cardiorenal regulation and in lipolysis. The NP activity is largely dependent on the ratio between the signaling receptor NPRA and the clearance receptor NPRC. Lipolysis increases when NPRC is reduced by starving or very-low-calorie diet. On the contrary, insulin is an antilipolytic hormone that increases sodium retention, suggesting a possible functional link with NP. We examined the insulin-mediated regulation of NP receptors in differentiated human adipocytes and tested the association of NP receptor expression in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with metabolic profiles of patients undergoing renal surgery. Differentiated human adipocytes from VAT and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome (SGBS) adipocyte cell line were treated with insulin in the presence of high-glucose or low-glucose media to study NP receptors and insulin/glucose-regulated pathways. Fasting blood samples and VAT samples were taken from patients on the day of renal surgery. We observed a potent insulin-mediated and glucose-dependent upregulation of NPRC, through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway, associated with lower lipolysis in differentiated adipocytes. No effect was observed on NPRA. Low-glucose medium, used to simulate in vivo starving conditions, hampered the insulin effect on NPRC through modulation of insulin/glucose-regulated pathways, allowing atrial natriuretic peptide to induce lipolysis and thermogenic genes. An expression ratio in favor of NPRC in adipose tissue was associated with higher fasting insulinemia, HOMA-IR, and atherogenic lipid levels. Insulin/glucose-dependent NPRC induction in adipocytes might be a key factor linking hyperinsulinemia, metabolic syndrome, and higher blood pressure by reducing NP effects on adipocytes. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Cannabinoids Inhibit Insulin Receptor Signaling in Pancreatic β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wook; Doyle, Máire E.; Liu, Zhuo; Lao, Qizong; Shin, Yu-Kyong; Carlson, Olga D.; Kim, Hee Seung; Thomas, Sam; Napora, Joshua K.; Lee, Eun Kyung; Moaddel, Ruin; Wang, Yan; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen; Kulkarni, Rohit N.; Egan, Josephine M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Optimal glucose homeostasis requires exquisitely precise adaptation of the number of insulin-secreting β-cells in the islets of Langerhans. Insulin itself positively regulates β-cell proliferation in an autocrine manner through the insulin receptor (IR) signaling pathway. It is now coming to light that cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) agonism/antagonism influences insulin action in insulin-sensitive tissues. However, the cells on which the CB1Rs are expressed and their function in islets have not been firmly established. We undertook the current study to investigate if intraislet endogenous cannabinoids (ECs) regulate β-cell proliferation and if they influence insulin action. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We measured EC production in isolated human and mouse islets and β-cell line in response to glucose and KCl. We evaluated human and mouse islets, several β-cell lines, and CB1R-null (CB1R−/−) mice for the presence of a fully functioning EC system. We investigated if ECs influence β-cell physiology through regulating insulin action and demonstrated the therapeutic potential of manipulation of the EC system in diabetic (db/db) mice. RESULTS ECs are generated within β-cells, which also express CB1Rs that are fully functioning when activated by ligands. Genetic and pharmacologic blockade of CB1R results in enhanced IR signaling through the insulin receptor substrate 2-AKT pathway in β-cells and leads to increased β-cell proliferation and mass. CB1R antagonism in db/db mice results in reduced blood glucose and increased β-cell proliferation and mass, coupled with enhanced IR signaling in β-cells. Furthermore, CB1R activation impedes insulin-stimulated IR autophosphorylation on β-cells in a Gαi-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS These findings provide direct evidence for a functional interaction between CB1R and IR signaling involved in the regulation of β-cell proliferation and will serve as a basis for developing new therapeutic interventions to

  4. Insulin receptor-insulin interaction kinetics using multiplex surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Kannan; Fee, Conan J; Fredericks, Rayleen; Stubbs, Richard S; Hayes, Mark T

    2013-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes affects millions of people worldwide, and measuring the kinetics of insulin receptor-insulin interactions is critical to improving our understanding of this disease. In this paper, we describe, for the first time, a rapid, real-time, multiplex surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay for studying the interaction between insulin and the insulin receptor ectodomain, isoform A (eIR-A). We used a scaffold approach in which anti-insulin receptor monoclonal antibody 83-7 (Abcam, Cambridge, UK) was first immobilized on the SPR sensorchip by amine coupling, followed by eIR-A capture. The multiplex SPR system (ProteOn XPR36™, Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) enabled measurement of replicate interactions with a single, parallel set of analyte injections, whereas repeated regeneration of the scaffold between measurements caused variable loss of antibody activity. Interactions between recombinant human insulin followed a two-site binding pattern, consistent with the literature, with a high-affinity site (dissociation constant K(D1)  = 38.1 ± 0.9 nM) and a low-affinity site (K(D2)  = 166.3 ± 7.3 nM). The predominantly monomeric insulin analogue Lispro had corresponding dissociation constants K(D1)  = 73.2 ± 1.8 nM and K(D2)  = 148.9 ± 6.1 nM, but the fit to kinetic data was improved when we included a conformational change factor in which the high-affinity site was converted to the low-affinity site. The new SPR assay enables insulin-eIR-A interactions to be followed in real time and could potentially be extended to study the effects of humoral factors on the interaction, without the need for insulin labeling. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Transmembrane signaling by a chimera of the Escherichia coli aspartate receptor and the human insulin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Moe, G R; Bollag, G E; Koshland, D E

    1989-01-01

    Since many receptors apparently contain only one or two membrane-spanning segments, their transmembrane topology should be similar. This feature suggests that these receptors share common mechanisms of transmembrane signaling. To test the degree of conservation of signaling properties, a chimeric receptor containing the ligand-binding extracellular domain of the Escherichia coli aspartate chemoreceptor and the cytosolic portion of the human insulin receptor was constructed. This chimeric receptor is active as a tyrosine kinase, and aspartate stimulates its activity. Some interesting differences are noted in the target proteins phosphorylated by the chimera compared to the wild-type insulin receptor. These results indicate that features of the signaling mechanisms used by these diverse receptors are conserved, but that interesting changes in the protein properties are caused by differences in the neighboring domains. Images PMID:2548185

  6. Adipose proteome analysis: focus on mediators of insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoli; Hess, Sonja

    2009-01-01

    As is well known, adipose tissue is an important site for lipid metabolism and insulin-responsive glucose uptake. The recent discovery of the endocrine function of adipose tissue and the association of obesity with chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue has reinforced the concept of the central role of adipose tissue in mediating obesity-linked insulin resistance and metabolic dysregulation. The study of adipose cells has provided new insights into the mechanism underlying insulin resistance as well as the therapeutic strategies for diabetes. Numerous efforts have been made in identifying key molecular regulators of insulin action and metabolism, including the utilization of advanced proteomics technology. Various proteomic approaches have been applied to identify the adipose secretome, protein-expression profiling and post-translational modifications in adipose cells in the pathological state. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the proteomics of adipose tissue, and discuss the identified proteins that potentially play important roles in insulin resistance and diabetes. PMID:19086862

  7. Monoclonal antibodies to insulin and to the insulin receptor (anti-ID) modify the morphologies of insulin crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markman, Ofer; Elias, Dana; Addadi, Lia; Cohen, Irun R.; Berkovitch-Yellin, Ziva

    1992-08-01

    Crystallization of bovine and porcine insulin in the presence of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) yielded crystals of morphologies which differed from that of insulin crystals grown without the antibodies in solution. The anti-insulin monoclonal antibody ID 7 induced the formation of square plates. The anti-receptor antibodies 312 and A-40 induced deposition of crystals with totally different habit, polar prisms. Four other control mAbs did not have any morphological effect. Systematic work on the growth of crystals of organic and inorganic molecules has shown that morphological modifications, induced when crystals are grown in the presence of selected additives, originate from stereoselective interactions of the additives with the growing crystal faces. The induced morphological modifications can serve as a sensitive tool for the study of these interactions.

  8. Design and synthesis of inositolphosphoglycan putative insulin mediators.

    PubMed

    López-Prados, Javier; Cuevas, Félix; Reichardt, Niels-Christian; de Paz, José-Luis; Morales, Ezequiel Q; Martín-Lomas, Manuel

    2005-03-07

    The binding modes of a series of molecules, containing the glucosamine (1-->6) myo-inositol structural motif, into the ATP binding site of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) have been analysed using molecular docking. These calculations predict that the presence of a phosphate group at the non-reducing end in pseudodisaccharide and pseudotrisaccharide structures properly orientate the molecule into the binding site and that pseudotrisaccharide structures present the best shape complementarity. Therefore, pseudodisaccharides and pseudotrisaccharides have been synthesised from common intermediates using effective synthetic strategies. On the basis of this synthetic chemistry, the feasibility of constructing small pseudotrisaccharide libraries on solid-phase using the same intermediates has been explored. The results from the biological evaluation of these molecules provide additional support to an insulin-mediated signalling system which involves the intermediacy of inositolphosphoglycans as putative insulin mediators.

  9. Targeting Insulin Receptor with a Novel Internalizing Aptamer

    PubMed Central

    Iaboni, Margherita; Fontanella, Raffaela; Rienzo, Anna; Capuozzo, Maria; Nuzzo, Silvia; Santamaria, Gianluca; Catuogno, Silvia; Condorelli, Gerolama; de Franciscis, Vittorio; Esposito, Carla Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based aptamers are emerging as therapeutic antagonists of disease-associated proteins such as receptor tyrosine kinases. They are selected by an in vitro combinatorial chemistry approach, named Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment (SELEX), and thanks to their small size and unique chemical characteristics, they possess several advantages over antibodies as diagnostics and therapeutics. In addition, aptamers that rapidly internalize into target cells hold as well great potential for their in vivo use as delivery tools of secondary therapeutic agents. Here, we describe a nuclease resistant RNA aptamer, named GL56, which specifically recognizes the insulin receptor (IR). Isolated by a cell-based SELEX method that allows enrichment for internalizing aptamers, GL56 rapidly internalizes into target cells and is able to discriminate IR from the highly homologous insulin-like growth factor receptor 1. Notably, when applied to IR expressing cancer cells, the aptamer inhibits IR dependent signaling. Given the growing interest in the insulin receptor as target for cancer treatment, GL56 reveals a novel molecule with great translational potential as inhibitor and delivery tool for IR-dependent cancers. PMID:27648925

  10. Systematic modeling for the insulin signaling network mediated by IRS(1) and IRS(2).

    PubMed

    Huang, Can; Wu, Ming; Du, Jun; Liu, Di; Chan, Christina

    2014-08-21

    The hepatic insulin signaling mediated by insulin receptor substrates IRS1 and IRS2 plays a central role in maintaining glucose homeostasis under different physiological conditions. Although functions of individual components in the signaling network have been extensively studied, our knowledge is still limited with regard to how the signals are integrated and coordinated in the complex network to render their functional roles. In this study, we construct systematic models for the insulin signaling network mediated by IRS1 and IRS2, through the integration of current knowledge in the literature into mathematical models of insulin signaling pathways. We hypothesize that the specificity of the IRS signaling mechanisms emerges from the wiring and kinetics of the entire network. A discrete dynamic model is first constructed to account for the numerous dynamic features in the system, i.e., complex feedback circuits, different regulatory time-scales and cross-talks between pathways. Our simulation shows that the wiring of the network determines different functions of IRS1 and IRS2. We further collate and reconstruct a kinetic model of the network as a system of ordinary differential equations to provide an informative model for predicting phenotypes. A sensitivity analysis is applied to identify essential regulators for the signaling process.

  11. Transformed Drosophila Cells Evade Diet-Mediated Insulin Resistance Through Wingless Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hirabayashi, Susumu; Baranski, Thomas J.; Cagan, Ross L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Risk of specific cancers increases in patients with metabolic dysfunction including obesity and diabetes. Here we use Drosophila as a model to explore the effects of diet on tumor progression. Feeding Drosophila a diet high in carbohydrates was previously demonstrated to direct metabolic dysfunction including hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin-resistance. We demonstrate that high dietary sugar also converts Ras/Src transformed tissue from localized growths to aggressive tumors with emergent metastases. While most tissues displayed insulin resistance, Ras/Src tumors retained insulin pathway sensitivity, increased the ability to import glucose, and resisted apoptosis. High dietary sugar increased canonical Wingless/Wnt pathway activity, which upregulated Insulin Receptor gene expression to promote insulin sensitivity. The result is a feed-forward circuit that amplified diet-mediated malignant phenotypes within Ras/Src transformed tumors. By targeting multiple steps in this circuit with rationally applied drug combinations, we demonstrate the potential of combinatorial drug intervention to treat diet-enhanced malignant tumors. PMID:23911328

  12. Blocking CXCR7-mediated adipose tissue macrophages chemotaxis attenuates insulin resistance and inflammation in obesity.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hongxia; Zhang, Hu; Zhu, Honglei

    2016-10-28

    Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) have been considered to have a pivotal role in the chronic inflammation development during obesity. Although chemokine-chemokine receptor interaction has been studied in ATMs infiltration, most chemokine receptors remain incompletely understood and little is known about their mechanism of actions that lead to ATMs chemotaxis and pathogenesis of insulin resistance during obesity. In this study, we reported that CXCR7 expression is upregulated in adipose tissue, and specifically in ATMs during obesity. In addition, CXCL11 or CXCL12-induced ATMs chemotaxis is mediated by CXCR7 in obesity but not leanness, whereas CXCR3 and CXCR4 are not involved. Additional mechanism study shows that NF-κB activation is essential in ATMs chemotaxis, and manipulates chemotaxis of ATMs via CXCR7 expression regulation in obesity. Most importantly, CXCR7 neutralizing therapy dose dependently leads to less infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue and thus reduces inflammation and improves insulin sensitivity in obesity. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that blocking CXCR7-mediated ATMs chemotaxis ameliorates insulin resistance and inflammation in obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Vitamin D3 supplementation increases insulin level by regulating altered IP3 and AMPA receptor expression in the pancreatic islets of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Jayanarayanan, Sadanandan; Anju, Thoppil R; Smijin, Soman; Paulose, Cheramadathikudiyil Skaria

    2015-10-01

    Pancreatic islets, particularly insulin-secreting β cells, share common characteristics with neurons. Glutamate is one of the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and pancreas, and its action is mediated through glutamate receptors. In the present work, we analysed the role of vitamin D3 in the modulation of AMPA receptor subunit and their functional role in insulin release. Radio receptor binding study in diabetic rats showed a significant increase in AMPA receptor density. Insulin AMPA colabelling study showed an altered AMPA GluR2 and GluR4 subunit expression in the pancreatic beta cells. We also found lowered IP3 content and decreased IP3 receptor in pancreas of diabetic rats. The alterations in AMPA and IP3 receptor resulted in reduced cytosolic calcium level concentration, which further blocks Ca(2+)-mediated insulin release. Vitamin D3 supplementation restored the alteration in vitamin D receptor expression, AMPA receptor density and AMPA and IP3 receptor expression in the pancreatic islets that helps to restore the calcium-mediated insulin secretion. Our study reveals the antidiabetic property of vitamin D3 that is suggested to have therapeutic role through regulating glutamatergic function in diabetic rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Metformin (Glucophage) inhibits tyrosine phosphatase activity to stimulate the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Holland, William; Morrison, Thomas; Chang, Ying; Wiernsperger, Nicholas; Stith, Bradley J

    2004-06-01

    Metformin is a commonly used anti-diabetic but whether its mechanism involves action on the insulin receptor or on downstream events is still controversial. With a time course that was slow compared with insulin action, metformin increased tyrosine phosphorylation of the regulatory domain of the insulin receptor (specifically, tyrosine residues 1150 and 1151). In a direct action, therapeutic levels of metformin stimulated the tyrosine kinase activity of the soluble intracellular portion of the beta subunit of the human insulin receptor toward a substrate derived from the insulin receptor regulatory domain. However, metformin did not alter the order of substrate phosphorylation by the insulin receptor kinase. Using a Xenopus oocyte preparation, we simultaneously recorded tyrosine kinase and phosphatase activities that regulate the insulin receptor by measuring the tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of peptides derived from the regulatory domain of the human insulin receptor. In an indirect stimulation of the insulin receptor, metformin inhibited endogenous tyrosine phosphatases and purified human protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B that dephosphorylate and inhibit the insulin receptor kinase. Thus, there was evidence that metformin acted directly upon the insulin receptor and indirectly through inhibition of tyrosine phosphatases.

  15. Expression of two insulin receptor subtypes, insra and insrb, in zebrafish (Danio rerio) ovary and involvement of insulin action in ovarian function.

    PubMed

    Das, Debabrata; Nath, Poulomi; Pal, Soumojit; Hajra, Sudip; Ghosh, Pritha; Maitra, Sudipta

    2016-12-01

    Present study reports differential expression of the two insulin receptor (IR) subtypes in zebrafish ovary at various stages of follicular growth and potential involvement of IR in insulin-induced oocyte maturation. The results showed that mRNA expression for IR subtypes, insra and insrb, exhibited higher levels in mid-vitellogenic (MV) and full-grown (FG) rather than pre-vitellogenic (PV) oocytes. Interestingly, compared to the levels in denuded oocytes, mRNAs for both insra and insrb were expressed at much higher level in the follicle layer harvested from FG oocytes. Immunoprecipitation using IRβ antibody could detect a protein band of desired size (∼95kDa) in FG oocyte lysates. Further, IRβ immunoreactivity was detected in ovarian tissue sections, especially at the follicle layer and oocyte membrane of MV and FG, but not PV stage oocytes. While hCG (10IU/ml) stimulation was without effect, priming with insulin (5μM) could promote oocyte maturation of MV oocytes in a manner sensitive to de novo protein and steroid biosynthesis. Compared to hCG, in insulin pre-incubated MV oocytes, stimulation with maturation inducing steroid (MIS), 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) elicited higher maturational response. Potential involvement of insulin-mediated action on acquisition of maturational competence and regulation of oocyte maturation was further manifested through up regulation of 20β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20β-hsd), MIS receptor (mPRα), insulin-like growth factor 3 (igf3) and IGF1 receptor (igf1rb), but not cyp19a expression in MV oocytes. Moreover, priming with anti-IRβ attenuated insulin action on meiotic G2-M1 transition indicating the specificity of insulin action and physiological relevance of IR in zebrafish ovary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Corticosterone-induced insulin resistance is not associated with alterations of insulin receptor number and kinase activity in chicken kidney.

    PubMed

    Bisbis, S; Taouis, M; Derouet, M; Chevalier, B; Simon, J

    1994-12-01

    Chicken renal insulin receptors have been recently characterized; their number and kinase activities vary in response to altered nutritional status. In the present study, the effect of chronic corticosterone treatment was examined in 5-week-old chickens. The development of an insulin resistance following corticosterone was suggested after 1 and 2 weeks of treatment by a significant increases in plasma insulin levels (1.63 +/- 0.13 vs 0.56 +/- 0.14 ng insulin/ml in controls) and in renal cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity (17.2 +/- 0.8 vs 13.7 +/- 0.7 nm/mn/mg tissue in controls). No significant changes were present at the level of insulin receptor number and kinase activity. Therefore, in kidney and, as previously observed, in muscles, corticosterone can induce insulin resistance at postreceptor steps in the cascade of events leading to insulin action.

  17. Adipocyte insulin receptor activity maintains adipose tissue mass and lifespan.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Max; Hudak, Carolyn S; Warren, Curtis R; Xia, Fang; Cowan, Chad A

    2016-08-05

    Type 2 diabetes follows a well-defined progressive pathogenesis, beginning with insulin resistance in metabolic tissues such as the adipose. Intracellular signaling downstream of insulin receptor activation regulates critical metabolic functions of adipose tissue, including glucose uptake, lipogenesis, lipolysis and adipokine secretion. Previous studies have used the aP2 promoter to drive Cre recombinase expression in adipose tissue. Insulin receptor (IR) knockout mice created using this aP2-Cre strategy (FIRKO mice) were protected from obesity and glucose intolerance. Later studies demonstrated the promiscuity of the aP2 promoter, casting doubts upon the tissue specificity of aP2-Cre models. It is our goal to use the increased precision of the Adipoq promoter to investigate adipocyte-specific IR function. Towards this end we generated an adipocyte-specific IR knockout (AIRKO) mouse using an Adipoq-driven Cre recombinase. Here we report AIRKO mice are less insulin sensitive throughout life, and less glucose tolerant than wild-type (WT) littermates at the age of 16 weeks. In contrast to WT littermates, the insulin sensitivity of AIRKO mice is unaffected by age or dietary regimen. At any age, AIRKO mice are comparably insulin resistant to old or obese WT mice and have a significantly reduced lifespan. Similar results were obtained when these phenotypes were re-examined in FIRKO mice. We also found that the AIRKO mouse is protected from high-fat diet-induced weight gain, corresponding with a 90% reduction in tissue weight of major adipose depots compared to WT littermates. Adipose tissue mass reduction is accompanied by hepatomegaly and increased hepatic steatosis. These data indicate that adipocyte IR function is crucial to systemic energy metabolism and has profound effects on adiposity, hepatic homeostasis and lifespan. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Altered Interleukin-10 Signaling in Skeletal Muscle Regulates Obesity-Mediated Inflammation and Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Dagdeviren, Sezin; Jung, Dae Young; Lee, Eunjung; Friedline, Randall H; Noh, Hye Lim; Kim, Jong Hun; Patel, Payal R; Tsitsilianos, Nicholas; Tsitsilianos, Andrew V; Tran, Duy A; Tsougranis, George H; Kearns, Caitlyn C; Uong, Cecilia P; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Muller, Werner; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Jason K

    2016-12-01

    Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is a major characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Although obesity-mediated inflammation is causally associated with insulin resistance, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we examined the effects of chronic obesity in mice with muscle-specific overexpression of interleukin-10 (M(IL10)). After 16 weeks of a high-fat diet (HFD), M(IL10) mice became markedly obese but showed improved insulin action compared to that of wild-type mice, which was largely due to increased glucose metabolism and reduced inflammation in skeletal muscle. Since leptin regulates inflammation, the beneficial effects of interleukin-10 (IL-10) were further examined in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Muscle-specific overexpression of IL-10 in ob/ob mice (MCK-IL10(ob/ob)) did not affect spontaneous obesity, but MCK-IL10(ob/ob) mice showed increased glucose turnover compared to that in ob/ob mice. Last, mice with muscle-specific ablation of IL-10 receptor (M-IL10R(-/-)) were generated to determine whether IL-10 signaling in skeletal muscle is involved in IL-10 effects on glucose metabolism. After an HFD, M-IL10R(-/-) mice developed insulin resistance with reduced glucose metabolism compared to that in wild-type mice. Overall, these results demonstrate IL-10 effects to attenuate obesity-mediated inflammation and improve insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle, and our findings implicate a potential therapeutic role of anti-inflammatory cytokines in treating insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Divergent Regulation of Energy Expenditure and Hepatic Glucose Production by Insulin Receptor in Agouti-Related Protein and POMC Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hua V.; Plum, Leona; Ono, Hiraku; Gutiérrez-Juárez, Roger; Shanabrough, Marya; Borok, Erzsebet; Horvath, Tamas L.; Rossetti, Luciano; Accili, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The sites of insulin action in the central nervous system that regulate glucose metabolism and energy expenditure are incompletely characterized. We have shown that mice with hypothalamic deficiency (L1) of insulin receptors (InsRs) fail to regulate hepatic glucose production (HGP) in response to insulin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS To distinguish neurons that mediate insulin's effects on HGP from those that regulate energy homeostasis, we used targeted knock-ins to express InsRs in agouti-related protein (AgRP) or proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons of L1 mice. RESULTS Restoration of insulin action in AgRP neurons normalized insulin suppression of HGP. Surprisingly, POMC-specific InsR knock-in increased energy expenditure and locomotor activity, exacerbated insulin resistance and increased HGP, associated with decreased expression of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP channel) sulfonylurea receptor 1 subunit, and decreased inhibitory synaptic contacts on POMC neurons. CONCLUSIONS The contrasting phenotypes of InsR knock-ins in POMC and AgRP neurons suggest a branched-pathway model of hypothalamic insulin signaling in which InsR signaling in AgRP neurons decreases HGP, whereas InsR activation in POMC neurons promotes HGP and activates the melanocortinergic energy expenditure program. PMID:19933998

  20. Proteomic analysis of the palmitate-induced myotube secretome reveals involvement of the annexin A1-formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) pathway in insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Dayea; Jang, Jin-Hyeok; Ghim, Jaewang; Park, Soyeon; Song, Parkyong; Kwon, Yonghoon; Kim, Jaeyoon; Hwang, Daehee; Bae, Yoe-Sik; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Berggren, Per-Olof; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2015-04-01

    Elevated levels of the free fatty acid palmitate are found in the plasma of obese patients and induce insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle secretes myokines as extracellular signaling mediators in response to pathophysiological conditions. Here, we identified and characterized the skeletal muscle secretome in response to palmitate-induced insulin resistance. Using a quantitative proteomic approach, we identified 36 secretory proteins modulated by palmitate-induced insulin resistance. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that palmitate-induced insulin resistance induced cellular stress and modulated secretory events. We found that the decrease in the level of annexin A1, a secretory protein, depended on palmitate, and that annexin A1 and its receptor, formyl peptide receptor 2 agonist, played a protective role in the palmitate-induced insulin resistance of L6 myotubes through PKC-θ modulation. In mice fed with a high-fat diet, treatment with the formyl peptide receptor 2 agonist improved systemic insulin sensitivity. Thus, we identified myokine candidates modulated by palmitate-induced insulin resistance and found that the annexin A1- formyl peptide receptor 2 pathway mediated the insulin resistance of skeletal muscle, as well as systemic insulin sensitivity.

  1. Proteomic Analysis of the Palmitate-induced Myotube Secretome Reveals Involvement of the Annexin A1-Formyl Peptide Receptor 2 (FPR2) Pathway in Insulin Resistance*

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Dayea; Jang, Jin-Hyeok; Ghim, Jaewang; Park, Soyeon; Song, Parkyong; Kwon, Yonghoon; Kim, Jaeyoon; Hwang, Daehee; Bae, Yoe-Sik; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Berggren, Per-Olof; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of the free fatty acid palmitate are found in the plasma of obese patients and induce insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle secretes myokines as extracellular signaling mediators in response to pathophysiological conditions. Here, we identified and characterized the skeletal muscle secretome in response to palmitate-induced insulin resistance. Using a quantitative proteomic approach, we identified 36 secretory proteins modulated by palmitate-induced insulin resistance. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that palmitate-induced insulin resistance induced cellular stress and modulated secretory events. We found that the decrease in the level of annexin A1, a secretory protein, depended on palmitate, and that annexin A1 and its receptor, formyl peptide receptor 2 agonist, played a protective role in the palmitate-induced insulin resistance of L6 myotubes through PKC-θ modulation. In mice fed with a high-fat diet, treatment with the formyl peptide receptor 2 agonist improved systemic insulin sensitivity. Thus, we identified myokine candidates modulated by palmitate-induced insulin resistance and found that the annexin A1- formyl peptide receptor 2 pathway mediated the insulin resistance of skeletal muscle, as well as systemic insulin sensitivity. PMID:25616869

  2. Insulin Receptor Isoform Variations in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Perks, Claire M.; Zielinska, H. A.; Wang, Jing; Jarrett, Caroline; Frankow, A.; Ladomery, Michael R.; Bahl, Amit; Rhodes, Anthony; Oxley, Jon; Holly, Jeff M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Men who develop prostate cancer (PCa) increasingly have one of the co-morbidities associated with a Western lifestyle that are characterized by hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and increased expression of insulin-like growth factors-I (IGF-I) and IGF-II. Each have been associated with poor prognosis and more aggressive cancers that exhibit increased metabolism and increased glucose uptake. The insulin receptor (IR) has two splice isoforms IR-A and IR-B: IR-A has a higher affinity for IGF-II comparable to that for insulin, whereas the IR-B isoform predominantly just binds to insulin. In this study, we assessed alterations in the IR-A and IR-B isoform ratio and associated changes in cell proliferation and migration of PCa cell lines following exposure to altered concentrations of glucose and treatment with IGF-II and insulin. We observed that where IR-B predominated insulin had a greater effect on migration than IGF-II and IGF-II was more effective when IR-A was the main isoform. With regard to proliferation IGF-II was more effective than insulin regardless of which isoform was dominant. We assessed the abundance of the IR isoforms both in vivo and in vitro and observed that the majority of the tissue samples and cell lines expressed more IR-A than IR-B. Alterations in the isoforms in response to changes in their hormonal milieu could have a profound impact on how malignant cells behave and play a role in promoting carcinogenesis. A greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying changes in alternative splicing of the IR may provide additional targets for future cancer therapies. PMID:27733843

  3. Molecular Recognition of Insulin by a Synthetic Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Chinai, Jordan M.; Taylor, Alexander B.; Ryno, Lisa M.; Hargreaves, Nicholas D.; Morris, Christopher A.; Hart, P. John; Urbach, Adam R.

    2011-08-29

    The discovery of molecules that bind tightly and selectively to desired proteins continues to drive innovation at the interface of chemistry and biology. This paper describes the binding of human insulin by the synthetic receptor cucurbit[7]uril (Q7) in vitro. Isothermal titration calorimetry and fluorescence spectroscopy experiments show that Q7 binds to insulin with an equilibrium association constant of 1.5 x 10{sup 6} M{sup -1} and with 50-100-fold selectivity versus proteins that are much larger but lack an N-terminal aromatic residue, and with >1000-fold selectivity versus an insulin variant lacking the N-terminal phenylalanine (Phe) residue. The crystal structure of the Q7{center_dot}insulin complex shows that binding occurs at the N-terminal Phe residue and that the N-terminus unfolds to enable binding. These findings suggest that site-selective recognition is based on the properties inherent to a protein terminus, including the unique chemical epitope presented by the terminal residue and the greater freedom of the terminus to unfold, like the end of a ball of string, to accommodate binding. Insulin recognition was predicted accurately from studies on short peptides and exemplifies an approach to protein recognition by targeting the terminus.

  4. Insulin inhibits IL-10-mediated regulatory T cell function: implications for obesity.

    PubMed

    Han, Jonathan M; Patterson, Scott J; Speck, Madeleine; Ehses, Jan A; Levings, Megan K

    2014-01-15

    Chronic inflammation is known to promote metabolic dysregulation in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Although the precise origin of the unchecked inflammatory response in obesity is unclear, it is known that overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines by innate immune cells affects metabolism. For example, TNF-α contributes to the inability of cells to respond to insulin and to the increase in levels of insulin. Whether this hyperinsulinemia itself is part of a feedback loop that affects the progression of chronic adipose inflammation is unknown. In this article, we show that regulatory T cells (Tregs) express the insulin receptor, and that high levels of insulin impair the ability of Tregs to suppress inflammatory responses via effects on the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Insulin activated AKT signaling in Tregs, leading to inhibition of both IL-10 production and the ability of Tregs to suppress the production of TNF-α by macrophages in a contact-independent manner. The effect of insulin on Treg suppression was limited to IL-10 production and it did not alter the expression of other proteins associated with Treg function, including CTLA-4, CD39, and TGF-β. In a model of diet-induced obesity, Tregs from the visceral adipose tissue of hyperinsulinemic, obese mice showed a similar specific decrease in IL-10 production, as well as a parallel increase in production of IFN-γ. These data suggest that hyperinsulinemia may contribute to the development of obesity-associated inflammation via a previously unknown effect of insulin on the IL-10-mediated function of Tregs.

  5. Insulin-like growth factor 1: common mediator of multiple enterotrophic hormones and growth factors

    PubMed Central

    Bortvedt, Sarah F.; Lund, P. Kay

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize recent evidence that IGF1 mediates growth effects of multiple trophic factors and discuss clinical relevance. Recent findings Recent reviews and original reports indicate benefits of growth hormone (GH) and long-acting glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2) analogues in short bowel syndrome and Crohn’s disease. This review highlights evidence that biomarkers of sustained small intestinal growth or mucosal healing and evaluation of intestinal epithelial stem cell biomarkers may improve clinical measures of intestinal growth or response to trophic hormones. Compelling evidence that IGF1 mediates growth effects of GH and GLP2 on intestine or linear growth in preclinical models of resection or Crohn’s disease is presented, along with a concept that these hormones or IGF1 may enhance sustained growth if given early after bowel resection. Evidence that SOCS protein induction by GH or GLP2 in normal or inflamed intestine, may limit IGF1-induced growth, but protect against risk of dysplasia or fibrosis is reviewed. Whether IGF1 receptor mediates IGF1 action and potential roles of insulin receptors are addressed. Summary IGF1 has a central role in mediating trophic hormone action in small intestine. Better understanding of benefits and risks of IGF1, receptors that mediate IGF1 action, and factors that limit undesirable growth are needed. PMID:22241077

  6. RETRACTED: Quercetin suppresses insulin receptor signaling through inhibition of the insulin ligand-receptor binding and therefore impairs cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Yang, Yong

    2014-10-03

    Although the flavonoid quercetin is known to inhibit activation of insulin receptor signaling, the inhibitory mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that quercetin suppresses insulin induced dimerization of the insulin receptor (IR) through interfering with ligand-receptor interactions, which reduces the phosphorylation of IR and Akt. This inhibitory effect further inhibits insulin stimulated glucose uptake due to decreased cell membrane translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), resulting in impaired cancer cell proliferation. The effect of quercetin in inhibiting tumor growth was also evident in an in vivo model, indicating a potential future application for quercetin in the treatment of cancers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Insulin receptor binding and protein kinase activity in muscles of trained rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dohm, G.L.; Sinha, M.K.; Caro, J.F.

    1987-02-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity, and muscle is quantitatively the most important tissue of insulin action. Since the first step in insulin action is the binding to a membrane receptor, the authors postulated that exercise training would change insulin receptors in muscle and in this study they have investigated this hypothesis. Female rats initially weighing approx. 100 g were trained by treadmill running for 2 h/day, 6 days/wk for 4 wk at 25 m/min (0 grade). Insulin receptors from vastus intermedius muscles were solubilized by homogenizing in a buffer containing 1% Triton X-100 and then partially purified by passing the soluble extract over a wheat germ agglutinin column. The 4 wk training regimen resulted in a 65% increase in citrate synthase activity in red vastus lateralis muscle, indicating an adaptation to exercise ( SVI). Insulin binding by the partially purified receptor preparations was approximately doubled in muscle of trained rats at all insulin concentrations, suggesting an increase in the number of receptors. Training did not alter insulin receptor structure as evidenced by electrophoretic mobility under reducing and nonreducing conditions. Basal insulin receptor protein kinase activity was higher in trained than untrained animals and this was likely due to the greater number of receptors. However, insulin stimulation of the protein kinase activity was depressed by training. These results demonstrate that endurance training does alter receptor number and function in muscle and these changes may be important in increasing insulin sensitivity after exercise training.

  8. Insulin receptor phosphorylation, insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity are decreased in intact skeletal muscle strips from obese subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Goodyear, L J; Giorgino, F; Sherman, L A; Carey, J; Smith, R J; Dohm, G L

    1995-01-01

    To determine whether the impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in obese individuals is associated with altered insulin receptor signaling, we measured both glucose uptake and early steps in the insulin action pathway in intact strips of human skeletal muscle. Biopsies of rectus abdominus muscle were taken from eight obese and eight control subjects undergoing elective surgery (body mass index 52.9 +/- 3.6 vs 25.7 +/- 0.9). Insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake was 53% lower in muscle strips from obese subjects. Additional muscle strips were incubated in the basal state or with 10(-7) M insulin for 2, 15, or 30 min. In the lean subjects, tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), measured by immunoblotting with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, was significantly increased by insulin at all time points. In the skeletal muscle from the obese subjects, insulin was less effective in stimulating tyrosine phosphorylation (maximum receptor and IRS-1 phosphorylation decreased by 35 and 38%, respectively). Insulin stimulation of IRS-1 immunoprecipitable phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity also was markedly lower in obese subjects compared with controls (10- vs 35-fold above basal, respectively). In addition, the obese subjects had a lower abundance of the insulin receptor, IRS-1, and the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase (55, 54, and 64% of nonobese, respectively). We conclude that impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle from severely obese subjects is accompanied by a deficiency in insulin receptor signaling, which may contribute to decreased insulin action. Images PMID:7537758

  9. Deletion of exon 3 of the insulin receptor gene in a kindred with a familial form of insulin resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Wertheimer, E.; Barbetti, F.; Accili, D.; Taylor, S.I.; Litvin, Y.; Ebstein, R.P.; Bennet, E.R.

    1994-05-01

    Molecular scanning techniques, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), greatly facilitate screening candidate genes for mutations. The authors have used DGGE to screen for mutations in the insulin receptor gene in a family in which four of five daughters were affected by type A insulin resistance in association with acanthosis nigricans and hyperandrogenism. DGGE did not detect mutations in any of the 22 exons of the insulin receptor gene. Nevertheless, Southern blot analysis suggested that there was a deletion of exon 3 in the other paternal allele of the insulin receptor gene. Analysis of the father`s cDNA confirmed that exon 3 was deleted from mRNA molecules derived from one of his two alleles of the insulin receptor gene. Furthermore, the father was found to be hemizygous for a polymorphic sequence (GAC{sup Asp} at codon 234) in exon 3 that was not inherited by any of the five daughters. Instead, all five daughters inherited the paternal allele with the deletion mutation. They did not detect mutations in the mother`s insulin receptor gene. Furthermore, the clinical syndrome did not segregate with either of the mother`s two alleles of the insulin receptor gene. Although the youngest daughter inherited the mutant allele from her father, she was not clinically affected. The explanation for the incomplete penetrance is not known. These results emphasize the importance of specifically searching for deletion mutations when screening candidate genes for mutations. Furthermore, the existence of apparently asymptomatic carriers of mutations in the insulin receptor gene, such as the father in the present study, suggests that the prevalence of mutations in the insulin receptor gene may be higher than would be predicted on the basis of the observed prevalence of patients with extreme insulin resistance. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Toll-like receptor 4-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to impairment of vasodilator action of insulin

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyun-Ju; Hwang, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    Impairment of vasodilator action of insulin is associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance. Activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) induces proinflammatory response and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) activate TLR4, which induces ER stress and endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, we determined whether TLR4-mediated ER stress is an obligatory step mediating SFA-induced endothelial dysfunction. Palmitate stimulated proinflammatory responses and ER stress, and this was suppressed by knockdown of TLR4 in primary human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). Next, we examined the role of TLR4 in vasodilatory responses in intact vessels isolated from wild-type (WT, C57BL/6) and TLR4-KO mice after feeding high-fat (HFD) or normal chow diet (NCD) for 12 wk. Arterioles isolated from HFD WT mice exhibited impaired insulin-stimulated vasodilation compared with arterioles isolated from NCD WT mice. Deficiency of TLR4 was protective from HFD-induced impairment of insulin-stimulated vasodilation. There were no differences in acetylcholine (Ach)- or sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-stimulated vasodilation between the two groups. Furthermore, we examined whether ER stress is involved in SFA-induced impairment of vasodilator actions of insulin. Infusion of palmitate showed the impairment of vasodilatory response to insulin, which was ameliorated by coinfusion with tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), an ER stress suppressor. Taken together, the results suggest that TLR4-induced ER stress may be an obligatory step mediating the SFA-mediated endothelial dysfunction. PMID:26522062

  11. Toll-like receptor 4-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to impairment of vasodilator action of insulin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-A; Jang, Hyun-Ju; Hwang, Daniel H

    2015-11-01

    Impairment of vasodilator action of insulin is associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance. Activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) induces proinflammatory response and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) activate TLR4, which induces ER stress and endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, we determined whether TLR4-mediated ER stress is an obligatory step mediating SFA-induced endothelial dysfunction. Palmitate stimulated proinflammatory responses and ER stress, and this was suppressed by knockdown of TLR4 in primary human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). Next, we examined the role of TLR4 in vasodilatory responses in intact vessels isolated from wild-type (WT, C57BL/6) and TLR4-KO mice after feeding high-fat (HFD) or normal chow diet (NCD) for 12 wk. Arterioles isolated from HFD WT mice exhibited impaired insulin-stimulated vasodilation compared with arterioles isolated from NCD WT mice. Deficiency of TLR4 was protective from HFD-induced impairment of insulin-stimulated vasodilation. There were no differences in acetylcholine (Ach)- or sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-stimulated vasodilation between the two groups. Furthermore, we examined whether ER stress is involved in SFA-induced impairment of vasodilator actions of insulin. Infusion of palmitate showed the impairment of vasodilatory response to insulin, which was ameliorated by coinfusion with tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), an ER stress suppressor. Taken together, the results suggest that TLR4-induced ER stress may be an obligatory step mediating the SFA-mediated endothelial dysfunction.

  12. Lipodystrophy and severe metabolic dysfunction in mice with adipose tissue-specific insulin receptor ablation.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Guifen; Whang Kong, Hyerim; Xu, Shanshan; Pham, Hoai An; Parlee, Sebastian D; Burr, Aaron A; Gil, Victoria; Pang, Jingbo; Hughes, Amy; Gu, Xuejiang; Fantuzzi, Giamila; MacDougald, Ormond A; Liew, Chong Wee

    2016-07-01

    Insulin signaling plays pivotal roles in the development and metabolism of many tissues and cell types. A previous study demonstrated that ablation of insulin receptor (IR) with aP2-Cre markedly reduced adipose tissues mass and protected mice from obesity. However, multiple studies have demonstrated widespread non-adipocyte recombination of floxed alleles in aP2-Cre mice. These findings underscore the need to re-evaluate the role of IR in adipocyte and systemic metabolism with a more adipose tissue-specific Cre mouse line. We generated and phenotyped a new adipose tissue-specific IR mouse model using the adipose tissue-specific Adipoq-Cre line. Here we show that the Adipoq-Cre-mediated IR KO in mice leads to lipodystrophy and metabolic dysfunction, which is in stark contrast to the previous study. In contrast to white adipocytes, absence of insulin signaling does not affect development of marrow and brown adipocytes, but instead is required for lipid accumulation particularly for the marrow adipocytes. Lipodystrophic IR KO mice have profound insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, organomegaly, and impaired adipokine secretion. Our results demonstrate differential roles for insulin signaling for white, brown, and marrow adipocyte development and metabolic regulation.

  13. Inhibition of D4 Dopamine Receptors on Insulin Receptor Expression and Effect in Renal Proximal Tubule Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Ren, Hongmei; Lu, Xi; He, Duofen; Han, Yu; Wang, Hongyong; Zeng, Chunyu; Shi, Weibin

    2016-04-22

    Ion transport in the renal proximal tubule (RPT), which is increased in essential hypertension, is regulated by numerous hormones and humoral factors, including insulin and dopamine. Activation of dopamine receptor inhibits sodium reabsorption, whereas activation of insulin receptor increases sodium reabsorption in RPTs, and hyperinsulinemic animals and patients have defective renal dopaminergic system. We presume that there is an inhibition of D4 receptor on insulin receptor expression and effect, and the regulation is lost in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Insulin receptor expression was determined by immunoblotting, and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity was detected in both Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and SHR RPT cells. Stimulation of D4 receptor with PD168077 decreased expression of insulin receptors, which was blocked in the presence of the calcium-channel blocker, nicardipine (10(-6) mol/L per 24 hours), in cell culture medium without calcium or in the presence of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor blocker (2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate [2-ADB]; 10(-6) mol/L per 24 hours), indicating that extracellular calcium entry and calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum were involved in the signal pathway. Stimulation of the insulin receptor stimulated Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, whereas pretreatment with PD168077 for 24 hours decreased the inhibitory effects of insulin receptor on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in WKY cells. However, in SHR cells, inhibition of D4 receptor on insulin receptor expression and effect were lost. Activation of D4 receptor inhibits insulin receptor expression in RPT cells from WKY rats. The aberrant inhibition of D4 receptor on insulin receptor expression and effect might be involved in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  14. Fluidity of insulin action.

    PubMed

    Elmendorf, Jeffrey S

    2004-06-01

    Unlike the intensive research in pursuit of understanding the molecular mechanisms of insulin signaling and resistance to its biological action associated most significantly with obesity and type 2 diabetes, the influence of the plasma membrane on insulin sensitivity has been intermittently studied over the years-mainly because it was thought that mediators of insulin action, such as the insulin receptor and the insulin-responsive glucose transporter GLUT4, localize more or less uniformly in the lipids that form cell membranes. Recent insights into membrane physiology suggest that the plasma membrane impacts the function of membrane proteins mediating insulin action. Furthermore, membrane disturbances may be the basis of insulin resistance. Relevant insulin signal transduction data in terms of plasma membrane and insulin resistance are the focus of this review. The discussion visits the cell membrane hypothesis of insulin resistance that suggests insulin action could be related to changes in cell membrane properties.

  15. Sweet taste receptors regulate basal insulin secretion and contribute to compensatory insulin hypersecretion during the development of diabetes in male mice.

    PubMed

    Kyriazis, George A; Smith, Kathleen R; Tyrberg, Björn; Hussain, Tania; Pratley, Richard E

    2014-06-01

    β-Cells rapidly secrete insulin in response to acute increases in plasma glucose but, upon further continuous exposure to glucose, insulin secretion progressively decreases. Although the mechanisms are unclear, this mode of regulation suggests the presence of a time-dependent glucosensory system that temporarily attenuates insulin secretion. Interestingly, early-stage β-cell dysfunction is often characterized by basal (ie, fasting) insulin hypersecretion, suggesting a disruption of these related mechanisms. Because sweet taste receptors (STRs) on β-cells are implicated in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose is a bona fide STR ligand, we tested whether STRs mediate this sensory mechanism and participate in the regulation of basal insulin secretion. We used mice lacking STR signaling (T1R2(-/-) knockout) and pharmacologic inhibition of STRs in human islets. Mouse and human islets deprived of STR signaling hypersecrete insulin at short-term fasting glucose concentrations. Accordingly, 5-hour fasted T1R2(-/-) mice have increased plasma insulin and lower glucose. Exposure of isolated wild-type islets to elevated glucose levels reduced STR expression, whereas islets from diabetic (db/db) or diet-induced obese mouse models show similar down-regulation. This transcriptional reprogramming in response to hyperglycemia correlates with reduced STR function in these mouse models, leading to insulin hypersecretion. These findings reveal a novel mechanism by which insulin secretion is physiologically regulated by STRs and also suggest that, during the development of diabetes, STR function is compromised by hyperglycemia leading to hyperinsulinemia. These observations further suggest that STRs might be a promising therapeutic target to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes.

  16. Sweet Taste Receptors Regulate Basal Insulin Secretion and Contribute to Compensatory Insulin Hypersecretion During the Development of Diabetes in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kathleen R.; Tyrberg, Björn; Hussain, Tania; Pratley, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    β-Cells rapidly secrete insulin in response to acute increases in plasma glucose but, upon further continuous exposure to glucose, insulin secretion progressively decreases. Although the mechanisms are unclear, this mode of regulation suggests the presence of a time-dependent glucosensory system that temporarily attenuates insulin secretion. Interestingly, early-stage β-cell dysfunction is often characterized by basal (ie, fasting) insulin hypersecretion, suggesting a disruption of these related mechanisms. Because sweet taste receptors (STRs) on β-cells are implicated in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose is a bona fide STR ligand, we tested whether STRs mediate this sensory mechanism and participate in the regulation of basal insulin secretion. We used mice lacking STR signaling (T1R2−/− knockout) and pharmacologic inhibition of STRs in human islets. Mouse and human islets deprived of STR signaling hypersecrete insulin at short-term fasting glucose concentrations. Accordingly, 5-hour fasted T1R2−/− mice have increased plasma insulin and lower glucose. Exposure of isolated wild-type islets to elevated glucose levels reduced STR expression, whereas islets from diabetic (db/db) or diet-induced obese mouse models show similar down-regulation. This transcriptional reprogramming in response to hyperglycemia correlates with reduced STR function in these mouse models, leading to insulin hypersecretion. These findings reveal a novel mechanism by which insulin secretion is physiologically regulated by STRs and also suggest that, during the development of diabetes, STR function is compromised by hyperglycemia leading to hyperinsulinemia. These observations further suggest that STRs might be a promising therapeutic target to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes. PMID:24712876

  17. A novel insulin receptor-signaling platform and its link to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Farah; Guo, Merry; Abdulkhalek, Samar; Crawford, Nicola; Amith, Schammim Ray; Szewczuk, Myron R

    2014-06-01

    Insulin-induced insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase activation and insulin cell survival responses have been reported to be under the regulation of a membrane associated mammalian neuraminidase-1 (Neu1). The molecular mechanism(s) behind this process is unknown. Here, we uncover a novel Neu1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) cross-talk in alliance with neuromedin B G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), which is essential for insulin-induced IR activation and cellular signaling. Neu1, MMP-9 and neuromedin B GPCR form a complex with IRβ subunit on the cell surface. Oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu®), anti-Neu1 antibodies, broad range MMP inhibitors piperazine and galardin (GM6001), MMP-9 specific inhibitor (MMP-9i), and GPCR neuromedin B specific antagonist BIM-23127 dose-dependently inhibited Neu1 activity associated with insulin stimulated rat hepatoma cells (HTCs) that overly express human IRs (HTC-IR). Tamiflu, anti-Neu1 antibodies and MMP-9i attenuated phosphorylation of IRβ and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) associated with insulin-stimulated cells. Olanzapine, an antipsychotic agent associated with insulin resistance, induced Neu3 sialidase activity in WG544 or 1140F01 human sialidosis fibroblast cells genetically defective in Neu1. Neu3 antagonist 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid (DANA) and anti-Neu3 antibodies inhibited sialidase activity associated with olanzapine treated murine Neu4 knockout macrophage cells. Olanzapine attenuated phosphorylation of IGF-R and IRS1 associated with insulin-stimulated human wild-type fibroblast cells. Our findings identify a novel insulin receptor-signaling platform that is critically essential for insulin-induced IRβ tyrosine kinase activation and cellular signaling. Olanzapine-induced Neu3 sialidase activity attenuated insulin-induced IGF-R and IRS1 phosphorylation contributing to insulin resistance. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Insulin and 20-hydroxyecdysone action in Bombyx mori: Glycogen content and expression pattern of insulin and ecdysone receptors in fat body.

    PubMed

    Keshan, Bela; Thounaojam, Bembem; Kh, Sanathoibi D

    2017-01-15

    Insulin and ecdysone signaling play a critical role on the growth and development of insects including Bombyx mori. Our previous study showed that Bombyx larvae reached critical weight for metamorphosis between day 3.5 and 4 of the fifth larval instar. The present study showed that the effect of insulin on the accumulation of glycogen in fat body of Bombyx larvae depends on the critical growth period. When larvae are in active growth period (before reaching critical weight), insulin caused increased accumulation of glycogen, while its treatment in larvae at terminal growth period (after critical period) resulted in an increased mobilization of glycogen. During terminal growth period, insulin and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) showed an antagonistic effect on the accumulation of fat body glycogen in fed, food deprived and decapitated larvae as well as in isolated abdomens. Insulin treatment decreased the glycogen content, whereas, 20E increased it. Food deprivation and decapitation caused an increase in the transcript levels of insulin receptor (InR) and this increase in InR expression might be attributed to a decrease in synthesis/secretion of insulin-like peptides, as insulin treatment in these larvae showed a down-regulation in InR expression. However, insulin showed an up-regulation in InR in isolated abdomens and it suggests that in food deprived and decapitated larvae, the exogenous insulin may interact with some head and/or thoracic factors in modulating the expression of InR. Moreover, in fed larvae, insulin-mediated increase in InR expression indicates that its regulation by insulin-like peptides also depends on the nutritional status of the larvae. The treatment of 20E in fed larvae showed an antagonistic effect on the transcript levels since a down-regulation in InR expression was observed. 20E treatment also led to a decreased expression of InR in food deprived and decapitated larvae as well as in isolated abdomens. Insulin and 20E also modulated the

  19. Linking Functional Domains of the Human Insulin Receptor with the Bacterial Aspartate Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Leland; Morgan, David O.; Koshland, Daniel E.; Clauser, Eric; Moe, Gregory R.; Bollag, Gideon; Roth, Richard A.; Rutter, William J.

    1986-11-01

    A hybrid receptor has been constructed that is composed of the extracellular domain of the human insulin receptor fused to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the bacterial aspartate chemoreceptor. This hybrid protein can be expressed in rodent (CHO) cells and displays several functional features comparable to wild-type insulin receptor. It is localized to the cell surface, binds insulin with high affinity, forms oligomers, and is recognized by conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies. Although most of the expressed protein accumulates as a 180-kDa proreceptor, some processed 135-kDa receptor can be detected on the cell surface by covalent cross-linking. Expression of the hybrid receptor inhibits the insulin-activated uptake of 2-deoxyglucose by CHO cells. Thus, this hybrid is partially functional and can be processed; however, it is incapable of native transmembrane signaling. The results indicate that the intact domains of different types of receptors can retain some of the native features in a hybrid molecule but specific requirements will need to be satisfied for transmembrane signaling.

  20. Essential role of PSM/SH2-B variants in insulin receptor catalytic activation and the resulting cellular responses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Manchao; Deng, Youping; Tandon, Ruchi; Bai, Cheng; Riedel, Heimo

    2008-01-01

    The positive regulatory role of PSM/SH2-B downstream of various mitogenic receptor tyrosine kinases or gene disruption experiments in mice support a role of PSM in the regulation of insulin action. Here, four alternative PSM splice variants and individual functional domains were compared for their role in the regulation of specific metabolic insulin responses. We found that individual PSM variants in 3T3-L1 adipocytes potentiated insulin-mediated glucose and amino acid transport, glycogenesis, lipogenesis, and key components in the metabolic insulin response including p70 S6 kinase, glycogen synthase, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), Akt, Cbl, and IRS-1. Highest activity was consistently observed for PSM alpha, followed by beta, delta, and gamma with decreasing activity. In contrast, dominant-negative peptide mimetics of the PSM Pro-rich, pleckstrin homology (PH), or src homology 2 (SH2) domains inhibited any tested insulin response. Potentiation of the insulin response originated at the insulin receptor (IR) kinase level by PSM variant-specific regulation of the Km (ATP) whereas the Vmax remained unaffected. IR catalytic activation was inhibited by peptide mimetics of the PSM SH2 or dimerization domain (DD). Either peptide should disrupt the complex of a PSM dimer linked to IR via SH2 domains as proposed for PSM activation of tyrosine kinase JAK2. Either peptide abolished downstream insulin responses indistinguishable from PSM siRNA knockdown. Our results implicate an essential role of the PSM variants in the activation of the IR kinase and the resulting metabolic insulin response. PSM variants act as internal IR ligands that in addition to potentiating the insulin response stimulate IR catalytic activation even in the absence of insulin.

  1. L-Citrulline increases hepatic sensitivity to insulin by reducing the phosphorylation of serine 1101 in insulin receptor substrate-1.

    PubMed

    Yoshitomi, Hisae; Momoo, Maki; Ma, Xiao; Huang, Yewei; Suguro, Shiori; Yamagishi, Yoshie; Gao, Ming

    2015-06-18

    Insulin resistance is characterized by deficient responses to insulin in its target tissues. In the present study, we examined the effects of L-Citrulline (L-Cit) on insulin sensitivity and signaling cascades in rat hepatoma H4IIE cells and SHRSP.Z-Leprfa/IzmDmcr rats. H4IIE cells were pretreated in the presence or absence of 250 μM L-Cit in serum-free medium and then incubated in the presence or absence of 0.1 nM insulin. Rats were allocated into 2 groups; a control group (not treated) and L-Cit group (2 g/kg/day, L-Cit) and treated for 8 weeks. L-Cit enhanced the insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt in H4IIE cells. Moreover, the inhibited expression of Dex/cAMP-induced PEPCK mRNA by insulin was enhanced by the L-Cit treatment. The phosphorylation of tyrosine, which is upstream of Akt, in insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) was increased by the L-Cit treatment. The L-Cit-induced enhancement in insulin signaling was not related to the binding affinity of insulin to the insulin receptor or to the expression of the insulin receptor, but to a decrease in the phosphorylation of serine 1101 in IRS-1. These results were also confirmed in animal experiments. In the livers of L-Cit-treated rats, PI3K/Akt signaling was improved by decreases in the phosphorylation of serine 1101. We herein demonstrated for the first time the beneficial effects of L-Cit on improved insulin resistance associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity. These results may have clinical applications for insulin resistance and the treatment of type-2 diabetes.

  2. A novel insulin receptor-binding protein from Momordica charantia enhances glucose uptake and glucose clearance in vitro and in vivo through triggering insulin receptor signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lo, Hsin-Yi; Ho, Tin-Yun; Li, Chia-Cheng; Chen, Jaw-Chyun; Liu, Jau-Jin; Hsiang, Chien-Yun

    2014-09-10

    Diabetes, a common metabolic disorder, is characterized by hyperglycemia. Insulin is the principal mediator of glucose homeostasis. In a previous study, we identified a trypsin inhibitor, named Momordica charantia insulin receptor (IR)-binding protein (mcIRBP) in this study, that might interact with IR. The physical and functional interactions between mcIRBP and IR were clearly analyzed in the present study. Photo-cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry showed that three regions (17-21, 34-40, and 59-66 residues) located on mcIRBP physically interacted with leucine-rich repeat domain and cysteine-rich region of IR. IR-binding assay showed that the binding behavior of mcIRBP and insulin displayed a cooperative manner. After binding to IR, mcIRBP activated the kinase activity of IR by (5.87 ± 0.45)-fold, increased the amount of phospho-IR protein by (1.31 ± 0.03)-fold, affected phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathways, and consequently stimulated the uptake of glucose in 3T3-L1 cells by (1.36 ± 0.12)-fold. Intraperitoneal injection of 2.5 nmol/kg mcIRBP significantly decreased the blood glucose levels by 20.9 ± 3.2% and 10.8 ± 3.6% in normal and diabetic mice, respectively. Microarray analysis showed that mcIRBP affected genes involved in insulin signaling transduction pathway in mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that mcIRBP is a novel IRBP that binds to sites different from the insulin-binding sites on IR and stimulates both the glucose uptake in cells and the glucose clearance in mice.

  3. Amplification and analysis of promoter region of insulin receptor gene in a patient with leprechaunism associated with severe insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Haruta, T; Imamura, T; Iwanishi, M; Egawa, K; Goji, K; Kobayashi, M

    1995-04-01

    A patient with leprechaunism associated with severe insulin resistance was studied to identify the molecular and genetic basis for insulin resistance. Insulin binding and surface labeling of transformed lymphocytes prepared from the patient showed a significantly decreased insulin receptor number on the cell surface. Southern blot analysis of the insulin receptor gene showed no evidence of large insertions or deletions. Furthermore, direct sequencing of all 22 exons and exon-intron junctions of the insulin receptor gene failed to show any missense mutations, nonsense mutations, or mutations at exon-intron junctions. However, Northern blot analysis indicated significantly decreased insulin receptor mRNA expression in the patient's cells. Moreover, restriction endonuclease digestion of the amplified cDNA suggested that the expression levels of one allele were less efficient than the other. These findings suggested that the regulatory region of the insulin receptor gene might have abnormalities. Therefore, we examined the 5' flanking region of the insulin receptor gene. Southern blot analysis showed no major deletions or insertions between positions -1,823 and -2 relative to the translation initiation site. A 5' flanking region of the insulin receptor gene spanning positions -881 approximately +7 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and introduced into a reporter plasmid carrying the human growth hormone (hGH) gene. The nucleotide sequence of the amplified fragment showed two polymorphic sites at positions -603 and -500 in the patient, as well as in normal subjects. No other abnormal sequence was found in the patient. Promoter activity measured by hGH expression in transfected mouse L cells was not influenced by the polymorphism at position -603 located in a cluster of GC boxes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. APPL1 potentiates insulin sensitivity by facilitating the binding of IRS1/2 to the insulin receptor.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jiyoon; Galan, Amanda K; Xin, Xiaoban; Dong, Feng; Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A; Zhou, Lijun; Wang, Changhua; Li, Cuiling; Holmes, Bekke M; Sloane, Lauren B; Austad, Steven N; Guo, Shaodong; Musi, Nicolas; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Deng, Chuxia; White, Morris F; Liu, Feng; Dong, Lily Q

    2014-05-22

    Binding of insulin receptor substrate proteins 1 and 2 (IRS1/2) to the insulin receptor (IR) is essential for the regulation of insulin sensitivity and energy homeostasis. However, the mechanism of IRS1/2 recruitment to the IR remains elusive. Here, we identify adaptor protein APPL1 as a critical molecule that promotes IRS1/2-IR interaction. APPL1 forms a complex with IRS1/2 under basal conditions, and this complex is then recruited to the IR in response to insulin or adiponectin stimulation. The interaction between APPL1 and IR depends on insulin- or adiponectin-stimulated APPL1 phosphorylation, which is greatly reduced in insulin target tissues in obese mice. appl1 deletion in mice consistently leads to systemic insulin resistance and a significant reduction in insulin-stimulated IRS1/2, but not IR, tyrosine phosphorylation, indicating that APPL1 sensitizes insulin signaling by acting at a site downstream of the IR. Our study uncovers a mechanism regulating insulin signaling and crosstalk between the insulin and adiponectin pathways.

  5. High-affinity insulin binding to an atypical insulin-like growth factor-I receptor in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Milazzo, G; Yip, C C; Maddux, B A; Vigneri, R; Goldfine, I D

    1992-01-01

    We studied the nature of insulin receptor binding in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In both intact cells and solubilized receptor preparations, high-affinity insulin binding was seen. However, unlabeled insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) was five-fold more potent in inhibiting 125I-insulin binding than insulin itself. With monoclonal antibodies to the insulin receptor, 30% of 125I-insulin binding was inhibited. In contrast when alpha-IR3, a monoclonal antibody that recognizes typical IGF-I receptor, was employed over 60% of 125I-insulin binding was inhibited. The B29-MAB-125I-insulin photoprobe was then cross-linked to MCF-7 membranes. Cross-linking was inhibited by both unlabeled insulin and IGF-I. Further, the B29-MAB-125I-insulin photoprobe cross-linked to MCF-7 membranes was strongly immunoprecipitated by alpha-IR3. Employing sequential affinity chromatography with insulin-Affi-gel followed by insulin receptor monoclonal antibody agarose, atypical insulin binding activity was separated from insulin receptor binding activity. This atypical receptor had intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. Both insulin and IGF-I stimulated the phosphorylation of the receptor's beta subunit. In MCF-7 cells both IGF-I and insulin stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation; alpha-IR3 blocked all of the IGF-I effect but only 50-60% of the insulin effect. This study demonstrates in MCF-7 cells that, in addition to typical insulin and IGF-I receptors, there is another receptor that binds both insulin and IGF-I with high affinity. Images PMID:1311720

  6. Insulin Receptor and GPCR Crosstalk Stimulates YAP via PI3K and PKD in Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Hao, Fang; Xu, Qinhong; Zhao, Yinglan; Stevens, Jan V; Young, Steven H; Sinnett-Smith, James; Rozengurt, Enrique

    2017-07-01

    We examined the impact of crosstalk between the insulin receptor and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathways on the regulation of Yes-associated protein (YAP) localization, phosphorylation, and transcriptional activity in the context of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Stimulation of PANC-1 or MiaPaCa-2 cells with insulin and neurotensin, a potent mitogenic combination of agonists for these cells, promoted striking YAP nuclear localization and decreased YAP phosphorylation at Ser(127) and Ser(397) Challenging PDAC cells with either insulin or neurotensin alone modestly induced the expression of YAP/TEAD-regulated genes, including connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CYR61), and CXCL5, whereas the combination of neurotensin and insulin induced a marked increase in the level of expression of these genes. In addition, siRNA-mediated knockdown of YAP/TAZ prevented the increase in the expression of these genes. A small-molecule inhibitor (A66), selective for the p110α subunit of PI3K, abrogated the increase in phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate production and the expression of CTGF, CYR61, and CXCL5 induced by neurotensin and insulin. Furthermore, treatment of PDAC cells with protein kinase D (PKD) family inhibitors (CRT0066101 or kb NB 142-70) or with siRNAs targeting the PKD family prevented the increase of CTGF, CYR61, and CXCL5 mRNA levels in response to insulin and neurotensin stimulation. Thus, PI3K and PKD mediate YAP activation in response to insulin and neurotensin in pancreatic cancer cells.Implications: Inhibitors of PI3K or PKD disrupt crosstalk between insulin receptor and GPCR signaling systems by blocking YAP/TEAD-regulated gene expression in pancreatic cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res; 15(7); 929-41. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Clove and Its Active Compound Attenuate Free Fatty Acid-Mediated Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle Cells and in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ghaffar, Safina; Afridi, Shabbir Khan; Aftab, Meha Fatima; Murtaza, Munazza; Hafizur, Rahman M; Sara, Sara; Begum, Sabira; Waraich, Rizwana Sanaullah

    2017-04-01

    Several reports indicate anti-hyperglycemic effects of Syzygium aromaticum. In the present study, we report for the first time that clove extract (SAM) and its compound nigricin (NGC) decreases free fatty acid-mediated insulin resistance in mouse myoblasts. In addition, NGC was able to diminish insulin resistance in a diabetic mouse model. We observed that SAM and its compound NGC exhibited significant antioxidant activity in murine skeletal muscle cells. They also modulated stress signaling by reducing p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation. NGC and SAM treatments enhanced proximal insulin signaling by decreasing serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and increasing its tyrosine phosphorylation. SAM and NGC treatments also modified distal insulin signaling by enhancing protein kinase B (PKB) and glycogen synthase kinase-3-beta (GSK-3 beta) phosphorylation in muscle cells. Glucose uptake was enhanced in muscle cells after treatment with SAM and NGC. We observed increased glucose tolerance, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, decreased insulin resistance, and increased beta cell function in diabetic mice treated with NGC. The results of our study demonstrate that clove extract and its active agent NGC can be potential therapeutic agents for alleviating insulin resistance.

  8. Domain-dependent effects of insulin and IGF-1 receptors on signalling and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Weikang; Sakaguchi, Masaji; Kleinridders, Andre; Gonzalez-Del Pino, Gonzalo; Dreyfuss, Jonathan M.; O'Neill, Brian T.; Ramirez, Alfred K.; Pan, Hui; Winnay, Jonathon N.; Boucher, Jeremie; Eck, Michael J.; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Despite a high degree of homology, insulin receptor (IR) and IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R) mediate distinct cellular and physiological functions. Here, we demonstrate how domain differences between IR and IGF1R contribute to the distinct functions of these receptors using chimeric and site-mutated receptors. Receptors with the intracellular domain of IGF1R show increased activation of Shc and Gab-1 and more potent regulation of genes involved in proliferation, corresponding to their higher mitogenic activity. Conversely, receptors with the intracellular domain of IR display higher IRS-1 phosphorylation, stronger regulation of genes in metabolic pathways and more dramatic glycolytic responses to hormonal stimulation. Strikingly, replacement of leucine973 in the juxtamembrane region of IR to phenylalanine, which is present in IGF1R, mimics many of these signalling and gene expression responses. Overall, we show that the distinct activities of the closely related IR and IGF1R are mediated by their intracellular juxtamembrane region and substrate binding to this region. PMID:28345670

  9. Mechanisms of insulin resistance in human obesity: evidence for receptor and postreceptor defects.

    PubMed Central

    Kolterman, O G; Insel, J; Saekow, M; Olefsky, J M

    1980-01-01

    To assess the mechanisms of the insulin resistance in human obesity, we have determined, using a modification of the euglycemic glucose clamp technique, the shape of the in vivo insulin-glucose disposal dose-response curves in 7 control and 13 obese human subjects. Each subject had at least three euglycemic studies performed at insulin infusion rates of 15, 40, 120, 240, or 1,200 mU/M2/min. The glucose disposal rate was decreased in all obese subjects compared with controls (101 +/- 16 vs. 186 +/- 16 mg/M2/min) during the 40 mU/M2/min insulin infusion. The mean dose-response curve for the obese subjects was displaced to the right, i.e., the half-maximally effective insulin concentration was 270 +/- 27 microU/ml for the obese compared with 130 +/- 10 microU/ml for controls. In nine of the obese subjects, the dose-response curves were shifted to the right, and maximal glucose disposal rates (at a maximally effective insulin concentration) were markedly decreased, indicating both a receptor and a postreceptor defect. On the other hand, four obese patients had right-shifted dose-response curves but reached normal maximal glucose disposal rates, consistent with decreased insulin receptors as the only abnormality. When the individual data were analyzed, it was found that the lease hyperinsulinemic, least insulin-resistant patients displayed only the receptor defect, whereas those with the greatest hyperinsulinemia exhibited the largest post-receptor defect, suggesting a continuous spectrum of defects as one advances from mild to severe insulin resistance. When insulin's ability to suppress hepatic glucose output was assessed, hyperinsulinemia produced total suppresssion in all subjects. The dose-response curve for the obese subjects was shifted to the right, indicating a defect in insulin receptors. Insulin binding to isolated adipocytes obtained from the obese subjects was decreased, and a highly significant inverse linear relationship was demonstrated between insulin

  10. Insulin induces IRS2-dependent and GRK2-mediated β2AR internalization to attenuate βAR signaling in cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qin; Xu, Bing; Prakh, Dippal; Cervantes, David; Xiang, Yang K.

    2014-01-01

    The counter-regulatory effects of insulin and catecholamines on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism are well studied, whereas the details of insulin regulation of β adrenergic receptor (βAR) signaling pathway in heart remain unknown. Here, we characterize a novel signaling pathway of insulin receptor (IR) to G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) in the heart. Insulin stimulates the recruitment of GRK2 to β2AR, which induces β2AR phosphorylation at the GRK sites of serine 355/356 and subsequently β2AR internalization. Insulin thereby suppresses βAR-induced cAMP-PKA activities and contractile response in neonatal and adult mouse cardiomyocytes. Deletion of Insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) disrupts the complex of IR and GRK2, which attenuates insulin-mediated β2AR phosphorylation at GRK sites and β2AR internalization, and the counter-regulation effects of insulin on βAR signaling. These data indicates the requirements of IRS2 and GRK2 for insulin to stimulate counter-regulation of βAR via β2AR phosphorylation and internalization in cardiomyocytes. PMID:25460042

  11. Insulin induces IRS2-dependent and GRK2-mediated β2AR internalization to attenuate βAR signaling in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qin; Xu, Bing; Parikh, Dippal; Cervantes, David; Xiang, Yang K

    2015-03-01

    The counter-regulatory effects of insulin and catecholamines on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism are well studied, whereas the details of insulin regulation of β adrenergic receptor (βAR) signaling pathway in heart remain unknown. Here, we characterize a novel signaling pathway of insulin receptor (IR) to G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) in the heart. Insulin stimulates recruitment of GRK2 to β2AR, which induces β2AR phosphorylation at the GRK sites of serine 355/356 and subsequently β2AR internalization. Insulin thereby suppresses βAR-induced cAMP-PKA activities and contractile response in neonatal and adult mouse cardiomyocytes. Deletion of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) disrupts the complex of IR and GRK2, which attenuates insulin-mediated β2AR phosphorylation at the GRK sites and β2AR internalization, and the counter-regulation effects of insulin on βAR signaling. These data indicate the requirements of IRS2 and GRK2 for insulin to stimulate counter-regulation of βAR via β2AR phosphorylation and internalization in cardiomyocytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Interplay and Effects of Temporal Changes in the Phosphorylation State of Serine-302, -307, and -318 of Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 on Insulin Action in Skeletal Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Weigert, Cora; Kron, Matthias; Kalbacher, Hubert; Pohl, Ann Kathrin; Runge, Heike; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Schleicher, Erwin; Lehmann, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    Transduction of the insulin signal is mediated by multisite Tyr and Ser/Thr phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrates (IRSs). Previous studies on the function of single-site phosphorylation, particularly phosphorylation of Ser-302, -307, and -318 of IRS-1, showed attenuating as well as enhancing effects on insulin action. In this study we investigated a possible cross talk of these opposedly acting serine residues in insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle cells by monitoring phosphorylation kinetics, and applying loss of function, gain of function, and combination mutants of IRS-1. The phosphorylation at Ser-302 was rapid and transient, followed first by Ser-318 phosphorylation and later by phosphorylation of Ser-307, which remained elevated for 120 min. Mutation of Ser-302 to alanine clearly reduced the subsequent protein kinase C-ζ-mediated Ser-318 phosphorylation. The Ser-307 phosphorylation was independent of Ser-302 and/or Ser-318 phosphorylation status. The functional consequences of these phosphorylation patterns were studied by the expression of IRS-1 mutants. The E302A307E318 mutant simulating the early phosphorylation pattern resulted in a significant increase in Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, glucose uptake was enhanced. Because the down-regulation of the insulin signal was not affected, this phosphorylation pattern seems to be involved in the enhancement but not in the termination of the insulin signal. This enhancing effect was completely absent when Ser-302 was unphosphorylated and Ser-307 was phosphorylated as simulated by the A302E307E318 mutant. Phospho-Ser-318, sequentially phosphorylated at least by protein kinase C-ζ and a mammalian target of rapamycin/raptor-dependent kinase, was part of the positive as well as of the subsequent negative phosphorylation pattern. Thus we conclude that insulin stimulation temporally generates different phosphorylation statuses of the same residues that exert different

  13. Insulin-stimulated Na/sup +/ transport in a model renal epithelium: protein synthesis dependence and receptor interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Blazer-Yost, B.L.; Cox, M.

    1987-05-01

    The urinary bladder of the toad, Bufo marinus, is a well characterized model of the mammalian distal nephron. Porcine insulin (approx. 0.5-5.0 ..mu..M) stimulates net mucosal to serosal Na/sup +/ flux within 10 minutes of hormone addition. The response is maintained for at least 5 hr and is completely abolished by low doses (10..mu..M) of the epithelial Na/sup +/ channel blocker amiloride. Insulin-stimulated Na/sup +/ transport does not require new protein synthesis since it is actinomycin-D (10..mu..g/ml) insensitive. Also in 3 separate experiments in which epithelial cell proteins were examined by /sup 35/S-methionine labeling, 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/autoradiography, no insulin induced proteins were observed. Equimolar concentrations of purified porcine proinsulin and insulin (0.64..mu..M) stimulate Na/sup +/ transport to the same extent. Thus, the putative toad insulin receptor may have different affinity characteristics than those demonstrated for insulin and proinsulin in mammalian tissues. Alternatively, the natriferic action of insulin in toad urinary bladders may be mediated by occupancy of another receptor. Preliminary experiments indicating that nanomolar concentrations of IGF/sub 1/ stimulate Na/sup +/ transport in this tissue support the latter contention.

  14. The Anti-angiogenic Peptide, Loop 6, Binds Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Cecilia A.; Roy, Roopali; Lee, Sunyoung; Yang, Jiang; Panigrahy, Dipak; Van Vliet, Krystyn J.; Moses, Marsha A.

    2010-01-01

    Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), the endogenous inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases, have been shown to possess biological functions that are independent of their ability to inhibit matrix metalloproteinases. We have previously shown that the C-terminal domain of TIMP-2 and, in particular, Loop 6 inhibit capillary endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. To elucidate the mechanism by which Loop 6 inhibits angiogenesis, we sought to determine whether its biological effects were the result of a known TIMP-2 protein-protein interaction or of a receptor-mediated event. In this study, we identify insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor as a binding partner of Loop 6/TIMP-2 and characterize this interaction on the endothelial cell surface and the consequences of this interaction on downstream receptor signaling. PMID:20940305

  15. Novel Small Molecule Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist Stimulates Insulin Secretion in Rodents and From Human Islets

    PubMed Central

    Sloop, Kyle W.; Willard, Francis S.; Brenner, Martin B.; Ficorilli, James; Valasek, Kathleen; Showalter, Aaron D.; Farb, Thomas B.; Cao, Julia X.C.; Cox, Amy L.; Michael, M. Dodson; Gutierrez Sanfeliciano, Sonia Maria; Tebbe, Mark J.; Coghlan, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The clinical effectiveness of parenterally-administered glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetics to improve glucose control in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes strongly supports discovery pursuits aimed at identifying and developing orally active, small molecule GLP-1 receptor agonists. The purpose of these studies was to identify and characterize novel nonpeptide agonists of the GLP-1 receptor. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Screening using cells expressing the GLP-1 receptor and insulin secretion assays with rodent and human islets were used to identify novel molecules. The intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and hyperglycemic clamp characterized the insulinotropic effects of compounds in vivo. RESULTS Novel low molecular weight pyrimidine-based compounds that activate the GLP-1 receptor and stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion are described. These molecules induce GLP-1 receptor-mediated cAMP signaling in HEK293 cells expressing the GLP-1 receptor and increase insulin secretion from rodent islets in a dose-dependent manner. The compounds activate GLP-1 receptor signaling, both alone or in an additive fashion when combined with the endogenous GLP-1 peptide; however, these agonists do not compete with radiolabeled GLP-1 in receptor-binding assays. In vivo studies using the IVGTT and the hyperglycemic clamp in Sprague Dawley rats demonstrate increased insulin secretion in compound-treated animals. Further, perifusion assays with human islets isolated from a donor with type 2 diabetes show near-normalization of insulin secretion upon compound treatment. CONCLUSIONS These studies characterize the insulinotropic effects of an early-stage, small molecule GLP-1 receptor agonist and provide compelling evidence to support pharmaceutical optimization. PMID:20823098

  16. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor phosphorylation in µ-calpain knockout mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Numerous cellular processes are controlled by insulin and IGF-I signaling pathways. Due to previous work in our laboratories, we hypothesized that insulin (IR) and type 1 IGF-I (IGF-IR) receptor signaling is decreased due to increased protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) activity. C57BL/6J mice...

  17. Central Insulin Action Activates Kupffer Cells by Suppressing Hepatic Vagal Activation via the Nicotinic Alpha 7 Acetylcholine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kumi; Tanida, Mamoru; Nagata, Naoto; Inaba, Yuka; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Nagashimada, Mayumi; Ota, Tsuguhito; Asahara, Shun-ichiro; Kido, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Michihiro; Toshinai, Koji; Nakazato, Masamitsu; Shibamoto, Toshishige; Kaneko, Shuichi; Kasuga, Masato; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2016-03-15

    Central insulin action activates hepatic IL-6/STAT3 signaling, which suppresses the gene expression of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes. The vagus nerve plays an important role in this centrally mediated hepatic response; however, the precise mechanism underlying this brain-liver interaction is unclear. Here, we present our findings that the vagus nerve suppresses hepatic IL-6/STAT3 signaling via α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAchR) on Kupffer cells, and that central insulin action activates hepatic IL-6/STAT3 signaling by suppressing vagal activity. Indeed, central insulin-mediated hepatic IL-6/STAT3 activation and gluconeogenic gene suppression were impeded in mice with hepatic vagotomy, pharmacological cholinergic blockade, or α7-nAchR deficiency. In high-fat diet-induced obese and insulin-resistant mice, control of the vagus nerve by central insulin action was disturbed, inducing a persistent increase of inflammatory cytokines. These findings suggest that dysregulation of the α7-nAchR-mediated control of Kupffer cells by central insulin action may affect the pathogenesis of chronic hepatic inflammation in obesity.

  18. Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols prevent palmitate-induced renal epithelial mesenchymal transition by alleviating dipeptidyl peptidase-4-mediated insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Ning; Wang, Chau-Jong; Yang, Yi-Sun; Lin, Chih-Li; Peng, Chiung-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy has a significant socioeconomic impact, but its mechanism is unclear and needs to be examined. Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols (HPE) inhibited high glucose-induced angiotensin II receptor-1 (AT-1), thus attenuating renal epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Recently, we reported HPE inhibited dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4, the enzyme degrades type 1 glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1)), which mediated insulin resistance signals leading to EMT. Since free fatty acids can realistically bring about insulin resistance, using the palmitate-stimulated cell model in contrast with type 2 diabetic rats, in this study we examined if insulin resistance causes renal EMT, and the preventive effect of HPE. Our findings reveal that palmitate hindered 30% of glucose uptake. Treatment with 1 mg mL(-1) of HPE and the DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin completely recovered insulin sensitivity and palmitate-induced signal cascades. HPE inhibited DPP-4 activity without altering the levels of DPP-4 and the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). HPE decreased palmitate-induced phosphorylation of Ser307 of insulin receptor substrate-1 (pIRS-1 (S307)), AT-1 and vimentin, while increasing phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (pPI3K). IRS-1 knockdown revealed its essential role in mediating downstream AT-1 and EMT. In type 2 diabetic rats, it suggests that HPE concomitantly decreased the protein levels of DPP-4, AT-1, vimentin, and fibronectin, but reversed the in vivo compensation of GLP-1R. In conclusion, HPE improves insulin sensitivity by attenuating DPP-4 and the downstream signals, thus decreasing AT-1-mediated tubular-interstitial EMT. HPE could be an adjuvant to prevent diabetic nephropathy.

  19. Basal Insulin Use With GLP-1 Receptor Agonists.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sarah L; Trujillo, Jennifer M

    2016-08-01

    IN BRIEF The combination of basal insulin and a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist is becoming increasingly common and offers several potential benefits to patients with type 2 diabetes. Clinical studies have demonstrated improved glycemic control and low risks of hypoglycemia and weight gain with the combination, which provides a safe and effective alternative to basal-bolus insulin with less treatment burden. Fixed-ratio combination products that administer both agents in a single injection are in the pipeline and will offer additional options for clinicians and patients. This review focuses on the rationale for, clinical evidence on, and implications of using this combination of therapies in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  20. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids mediate insulin-mediated augmentation in skeletal muscle perfusion and blood volume

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Chi Young; Kim, Sajeevani; Chadderdon, Scott; Wu, Melinda; Qi, Yue; Xie, Aris; Alkayed, Nabil J.; Davidson, Brian P.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle microvascular blood flow (MBF) increases in response to physiological hyperinsulinemia. This vascular action of insulin may facilitate glucose uptake. We hypothesized that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), a family of arachadonic, acid-derived, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors, are mediators of insulin's microvascular effects. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) was performed to quantify skeletal muscle capillary blood volume (CBV) and MBF in wild-type and obese insulin-resistant (db/db) mice after administration of vehicle or trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido)cyclohexyloxy]benzoic acid (t-AUCB), an inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase that converts EETs to less active dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids. Similar studies were performed in rats pretreated with l-NAME. CEU was also performed in rats undergoing a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, half of which were pretreated with the epoxygenase inhibitor MS-PPOH to inhibit EET synthesis. In both wild-type and db/db mice, intravenous t-AUCB produced an increase in CBV (65–100% increase at 30 min, P < 0.05) and in MBF. In db/db mice, t-AUCB also reduced plasma glucose by ∼15%. In rats pretreated with l-NAME, t-AUCB after produced a significant ≈20% increase in CBV, indicating a component of vascular response independent of nitric oxide (NO) production. Hyperinsulinemic clamp produced a time-dependent increase in MBF (19 ± 36 and 76 ± 49% at 90 min, P = 0.026) that was mediated in part by an increase in CBV. Insulin-mediated changes in both CBV and MBF during the clamp were blocked entirely by MS-PPOH. We conclude that EETs are a mediator of insulin-mediated augmentation in skeletal muscle perfusion and are involved in regulating changes in CBV during hyperinsulinemia. PMID:25336524

  1. Prostaglandin A2 Enhances Cellular Insulin Sensitivity via a Mechanism that Involves the Orphan Nuclear Receptor NR4A3

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, X.; Walton, R. G.; Tian, L.; Luo, N.; Ho, S-R.; Fu, Y.; Garvey, W. T.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously reported that members of the NR4A family of orphan nuclear receptors can augment insulin’s ability to stimulate glucose transport in adipocytes. In the current study, we endeavored to test for an insulin-sensitizing effect in muscle cells and to identify a potential transactivator. Lentiviral constructs were used to engineer both hyperexpression and shRNA silencing of NR4A3 in C2C12 myocytes. The NR4A3 hyper-expression construct led to a significant increase in glucose transport rates in the presence of maximal insulin while the NR4A3 knock-down exhibited a significant reduction in insulin-stimulated glucose transport rates. Consistently, insulin-mediated AKT phosphorylation was increased by NR4A3 hyperexpression and decreased following shRNA NR4A3 suppression. Then, we examined effects of prostaglandin A2 (PGA2) on insulin action and NR4A3 transactivation. PGA2 augmented insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in C2C12 myocytes and AKT phosphorylation after 12-h treatment, without significant effects on basal transport or basal AKT phosphorylation. More importantly, we demonstrated that PGA2 led to a greater improvement in insulin-stimulated glucose rates in NR4A3 overexpressing C2C12 myocytes, when compared with Lac-Z controls stimulated with insulin and PGA2. Moreover, the sensitizing effect of PGA2 was significantly diminished in NR4A3 knockdown myocytes compared to scramble controls. These results show for the first time that: (i) PGA2 augments insulin action in myocytes as manifested by enhanced stimulation of glucose transport and AKT phosphorylation; and (ii) the insulin sensitizing effect is dependent upon the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A3. PMID:23104421

  2. Characterization of insulin receptors in chicken kidneys: effect of nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Bisbis, S; Derouet, M; Simon, J

    1994-10-01

    In chickens, the kidneys actively contribute to gluconeogenesis. A cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is present in this tissue but is absent in liver. Cytosolic renal PEPCK is nutritionally and hormonally controlled which indicates a likely contribution of insulin in the control of this enzyme (and other renal functions). The present studies characterize renal insulin receptors in the chicken. The effects of the following nutritional conditions were examined: fed, 48 hr fasted, and 24 hr refed following a 48-hr fast. PEPCK activity was increased by the 48-hr fast and returned to normal after refeeding. Specific binding of 125I-insulin to renal membranes was time-, temperature-, and protein-dependent. Unlabeled insulin was more potent than IGF-1 in inhibiting 125I-insulin binding; the ratio of potencies for insulin and IGF-1, however, was dependent upon the nutritional state. Insulin binding was significantly higher (P < 0.05) following 48 hr fasting and lower (P < 0.05) following refeeding compared to ad libitum feeding. Receptor affinity was similar irrespective of the nutritional state. Solubilized and wheat germ agglutinin purified renal insulin receptors were devoid of ATPase activity in contrast to hepatic receptors. The sizes of alpha- and beta-subunits of renal receptors were similar to those of hepatic receptors: 135 and 95 kDa, respectively. Insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of the beta-subunit was decreased, although not significantly, by prolonged fasting. Phosphorylation of artificial substrate: poly(Glu-Tyr) 4:1 was significantly decreased by the 48-hr fast at high insulin concentrations (10 and 100 nM). Kinase activities of renal insulin receptors from fed or refed chickens were very similar. In conclusion, typical insulin receptors are present in chicken kidneys. These receptors exhibit a regulation at the level of their number and kinase activity in a fashion similar to that found for hepatic receptors. The present

  3. Pharmacologic inhibition of ghrelin receptor signaling is insulin sparing and promotes insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Longo, Kenneth A; Govek, Elizabeth K; Nolan, Anna; McDonagh, Thomas; Charoenthongtrakul, Soratree; Giuliana, Derek J; Morgan, Kristen; Hixon, Jeffrey; Zhou, Chaoseng; Kelder, Bruce; Kopchick, John J; Saunders, Jeffrey O; Navia, Manuel A; Curtis, Rory; DiStefano, Peter S; Geddes, Brad J

    2011-10-01

    Ghrelin influences a variety of metabolic functions through a direct action at its receptor, the GhrR (GhrR-1a). Ghrelin knockout (KO) and GhrR KO mice are resistant to the negative effects of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. We have generated several classes of small-molecule GhrR antagonists and evaluated whether pharmacologic blockade of ghrelin signaling can recapitulate the phenotype of ghrelin/GhrR KO mice. Antagonist treatment blocked ghrelin-induced and spontaneous food intake; however, the effects on spontaneous feeding were absent in GhrR KO mice, suggesting target-specific effects of the antagonists. Oral administration of antagonists to HFD-fed mice improved insulin sensitivity in both glucose tolerance and glycemic clamp tests. The insulin sensitivity observed was characterized by improved glucose disposal with dramatically decreased insulin secretion. It is noteworthy that these results mimic those obtained in similar tests of HFD-fed GhrR KO mice. HFD-fed mice treated for 56 days with antagonist experienced a transient decrease in food intake but a sustained body weight decrease resulting from decreased white adipose, but not lean tissue. They also had improved glucose disposal and a striking reduction in the amount of insulin needed to achieve this. These mice had reduced hepatic steatosis, improved liver function, and no evidence of systemic toxicity relative to controls. Furthermore, GhrR KO mice placed on low- or high-fat diets had lifespans similar to the wild type, emphasizing the long-term safety of ghrelin receptor blockade. We have therefore demonstrated that chronic pharmacologic blockade of the GhrR is an effective and safe strategy for treating metabolic syndrome.

  4. Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 Associates with Small Nucleolar RNA Which Contributes to Ribosome Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ozoe, Atsufumi; Sone, Meri; Fukushima, Toshiaki; Kataoka, Naoyuki; Chida, Kazuhiro; Asano, Tomoichiro; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) are well known to play crucial roles in mediating intracellular signals of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)/insulin. Previously, we showed that IRS-1 forms high molecular mass complexes containing RNAs. To identify RNAs in IRS-1 complexes, we performed ultraviolet (UV) cross-linking and immunoprecipitation analysis using HEK293 cells expressing FLAG–IRS-1 and FLAG–IRS-2. We detected the radioactive signals in the immunoprecipitates of FLAG–IRS-1 proportional to the UV irradiation, but not in the immunoprecipitates of FLAG–IRS-2, suggesting the direct contact of RNAs with IRS-1. RNAs cross-linked to IRS-1 were then amplified by RT-PCR, followed by sequence analysis. We isolated sequence tags attributed to 25 messenger RNAs and 8 non-coding RNAs, including small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs). We focused on the interaction of IRS-1 with U96A snoRNA (U96A) and its host Rack1 (receptor for activated C kinase 1) pre-mRNA. We confirmed the interaction of IRS-1 with U96A, and with RACK1 pre-mRNA by immunoprecipitation with IRS-1 followed by Northern blotting or RT-PCR analyses. Mature U96A in IRS-1−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts was quantitatively less than WT. We also found that a part of nuclear IRS-1 is localized in the Cajal body, a nuclear subcompartment where snoRNA mature. The unanticipated function of IRS-1 in snoRNA biogenesis highlights the potential of RNA-associated IRS-1 complex to open a new line of investigation to dissect the novel mechanisms regulating IGFs/insulin-mediated biological events. PMID:24624118

  5. Does Inflammation Mediate the Association Between Obesity and Insulin Resistance?

    PubMed

    Adabimohazab, Razieh; Garfinkel, Amanda; Milam, Emily C; Frosch, Olivia; Mangone, Alexander; Convit, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    In adult obesity, low-grade systemic inflammation is considered an important step in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance (IR). The association between obesity and inflammation is less well established in adolescents. Here, we ascertain the importance of inflammation in IR among obese adolescents by utilizing either random forest (RF) classification or mediation analysis approaches. The inflammation balance score, composed of eight pro- and anti-inflammatory makers, as well as most of the individual inflammatory markers differed significantly between lean and overweight/obese. In contrast, adiponectin was the only individual marker selected as a predictor of IR by RF, and the balance score only revealed a medium-to-low importance score. Neither adiponectin nor the inflammation balance score was found to mediate the relationship between obesity and IR. These findings do not support the premise that low-grade systemic inflammation is a key for the expression of IR in the human. Prospective longitudinal studies should confirm these findings.

  6. [Differences in dynamics of insulin and insulin-like growth I (IGF-I) receptors internalization in isolated rat hepatocytes].

    PubMed

    Kolychev, A P; Ternovskaya, E E; Arsenieva, A V; Shapkina, E V

    2013-01-01

    Insulin and IGF-I are two related peptides performing in the mammalian body functionally different roles of the metabolic and growth hormones, respectively. Internalization of the insulin-receptor complex (IRC) is the most important chain of mechanism of the action of hormone. To elucidate differences in the main stages of internalization of the two related hormones, the internalization dynamics of 125I-insulin and 125I-IGF-I was traced in isolated rat hepatocytes at 37 and 12 degrees C. There were established marked differences in the process of internalization of labeled hormones, which is stimulated by insulin and IGF-I. At 37 degrees C the insulin-stimulated internalization, unlike the process initiated by IGF-I, did not reach the maximal level for 1 h of incubation. However, essential differences in the internalization course of these two related peptide were obvious at the temperature of 12 degrees C. The internalization level of insulin receptors at 12 degrees C decreased by one third in spite of a significant increase of the insulin receptor binding on the hepatocytes plasma membrane. At 12 degrees C a slight decrease of the proportion of intracellular 125I-IGF-I correlated with a decrease in the 125I-IGF-I binding to receptors on the cell membrane. Internalization of IGF-I receptors was not affected by low temperature, as neither its level, nor the rate changed at 12 degrees C. The paradoxical decrease of the insulin-stimulated internalization at low temperature seems to represent a peculiar "inhibition mechanism" of immersion of IRC into the cell, which leads to accumulation of the complexes on the cell surface and possibly to a readjustment of the insulin biological activity. The resistance of internalization of the IGF-I receptor to cold seems to be related to the more ancient origin of this mechanism in the poikilothermal vertebrates.

  7. Apoptosis induced by an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody in a human colorectal carcinoma cell line and its delay by insulin.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, X; Fan, Z; Masui, H; Rosen, N; Mendelsohn, J

    1995-01-01

    Both EGF and insulin, or IGF, stimulate the growth of many cell types by activating receptors that contain tyrosine kinase activities. A monoclonal antibody (mAb 225) against the EGF receptor produced in this laboratory has been shown to competitively inhibit EGF binding and block activation of receptor tyrosine kinase. Here we report that a human colorectal carcinoma cell line, DiFi, which expresses high levels of EGF receptors on plasma membranes, can be induced to undergo G1 cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death (apoptosis) when cultured with mAb 225 at concentrations that saturate EGF receptors. Addition of IGF-1 or high concentrations of insulin can delay apoptosis induced by mAb 225, while the G1 arrest cannot be reversed by either IGF-1 or insulin. Insulin/IGF-1 cannot activate EGF receptor tyrosine kinase that has been inhibited by mAb 225. Moreover, an mAb against the IGF-1 receptor, which has little direct effect on DiFi cell growth, can block the capacity of insulin/IGF-1 to delay apoptosis induced by mAb 225, suggesting that the insulin/IGF-1-mediated delay of apoptosis is acting through the IGF-1 receptor. In contrast, insulin/IGF-1 cannot delay the apoptosis caused by the DNA damaging agent, cisplatin. The results indicate that EGF receptor activation is required both for cell cycle progression and for prevention of apoptosis in DiFi cells, and that a signal transduction pathway shared by receptors for insulin/IGF-1 and EGF may be involved in regulating apoptosis triggered by blockade of the EGF receptor. Images PMID:7706497

  8. Characterization of the growth of murine fibroblasts that express human insulin receptors. II. Interaction of insulin with other growth factors

    SciTech Connect

    Randazzo, P.A.; Jarett, L. )

    1990-09-01

    The effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and insulin on DNA synthesis were studied in murine fibroblasts transfected with an expression vector containing human insulin receptor cDNA (NIH 3T3/HIR) and the parental NIH 3T3 cells. In NIH 3T3/HIR cells, individual growth factors in serum-free medium stimulated DNA synthesis with the following relative efficacies: insulin greater than or equal to 10% fetal calf serum greater than PDGF greater than IGF-1 much greater than EGF. In comparison, the relative efficacies of these factors in stimulating DNA synthesis by NIH 3T3 cells were 10% fetal calf serum greater than PDGF greater than EGF much greater than IGF-1 = insulin. In NIH 3T3/HIR cells, EGF was synergistic with 1-10 ng/ml insulin but not with 100 ng/ml insulin or more. Synergy of PDGF or IGF-1 with insulin was not detected. In the parental NIH 3T3 cells, insulin and IGF-1 were found to be synergistic with EGF (1 ng/ml), PDGF (100 ng/ml), and PDGF plus EGF. In NIH 3T3/HIR cells, the lack of interaction of insulin with other growth factors was also observed when the percentage of cells synthesizing DNA was examined. Despite insulin's inducing only 60% of NIH 3T3/HIR cells to incorporate thymidine, addition of PDGF, EGF, or PDGF plus EGF had no further effect. In contrast, combinations of growth factors resulted in 95% of the parental NIH 3T3 cells synthesizing DNA. The independence of insulin-stimulated DNA synthesis from other mitogens in the NIH 3T3/HIR cells is atypical for progression factor-stimulated DNA synthesis and is thought to be partly the result of insulin receptor expression in an inappropriate context or quantity.

  9. The effects of a soluble activin type IIB receptor on obesity and insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Akpan, Imo; Goncalves, Marcus D.; Dhir, Ravindra; Yin, Xiaoyan; Pistilli, Emidio; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Khurana, Tejvir; Ucran, Jeffrey; Lachey, Jennifer; Ahima, Rexford S.

    2009-01-01

    Myostatin, also known as Growth and Differentiation Factor 8, is a secreted protein that inhibits muscle growth. Disruption of myostatin signaling increases muscle mass and decreases glucose, but it is unclear whether these changes are related. We treated mice on chow and high-fat diets with a soluble activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB.Fc) which is a putative endogenous signaling receptor for myostatin and other ligands of the TGF-β superfamily. After 4 weeks, RAP-031 increased lean and muscle mass, grip strength, and contractile force. RAP-031 enhanced the ability of insulin to suppress glucose production under clamp conditions in high-fat fed mice, but did not significantly change insulin-mediated glucose disposal. The hepatic insulin sensitizing effect of RAP-031 treatment was associated with increased adiponectin levels. RAP-031 treatment for 10 weeks further increased muscle mass and drastically reduced fat content in mice on either chow or high-fat diet. RAP-031 suppressed hepatic glucose production and increased peripheral glucose uptake in chow fed mice. In contrast, RAP-031 suppressed glucose production with no apparent change in glucose disposal in high-fat diet mice. Our findings demonstrate that disruption of ActRIIB signaling is a viable pharmacological approach for treating obesity and diabetes. PMID:19668253

  10. Association between GRB2/Sos and insulin receptor substrate 1 is not sufficient for activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases by interleukin-4: implications for Ras activation by insulin.

    PubMed

    Pruett, W; Yuan, Y; Rose, E; Batzer, A G; Harada, N; Skolnik, E Y

    1995-03-01

    Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) mediates the activation of a variety of signaling pathways by the insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptors by serving as a docking protein for signaling molecules with SH2 domains. We and others have shown that in response to insulin stimulation IRS-1 binds GRB2/Sos and have proposed that this interaction is important in mediating Ras activation by the insulin receptor. Recently, it has been shown that the interleukin (IL)-4 receptor also phosphorylates IRS-1 and an IRS-1-related molecule, 4PS. Unlike insulin, however, IL-4 fails to activate Ras, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), or mitogen-activated protein kinases. We have reconstituted the IL-4 receptor into an insulin-responsive L6 myoblast cell line and have shown that IRS-1 is tyrosine phosphorylated to similar degrees in response to insulin and IL-4 stimulation in this cell line. In agreement with previous findings, IL-4 failed to activate the ERKs in this cell line or to stimulate DNA synthesis, whereas the same responses were activated by insulin. Surprisingly, IL-4's failure to activate ERKs was not due to a failure to stimulate the association of tyrosine-phosphorylated IRS-1 with GRB2/Sos; the amounts of GRB2/Sos associated with IRS-1 were similar in insulin- and IL-4-stimulated cells. Moreover, the amounts of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity associated with IRS-1 were similar in insulin- and IL-4-stimulated cells. In contrast to insulin, however, IL-4 failed to induce tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc or association of Shc with GRB2. Thus, ERK activation correlates with Shc tyrosine phosphorylation and formation of an Shc/GRB2 complex. Thus, ERK activation correlates with Shc tyrosine phosphorylation and formation of an Shc/GRB2 complex. Previous studies have indicated that activation of ERks in this cell line is dependent upon Ras since a dominant-negative Ras (Asn-17) blocks ERK activation by insulin. Our findings, taken in the context

  11. Comparison of solubilized and purified plasma membrane and nuclear insulin receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, K.Y.; Hawley, D.; Vigneri, R.; Goldfine, I.D.

    1988-01-12

    Prior studies have detected biochemical and immunological differences between insulin receptors in plasma membranes and isolated nuclei. To further investigate these receptors, they were solubilized in Triton X-100 partially purified by wheat germ agglutinin-agarose chromatography. In these preparations, the nuclear and plasma membrane receptors had very similar pH optima (pH 8.0) and reactivities to a group of polyclonal antireceptor antibodies. Further, both membrane preparations had identical binding activities when labeled insulin was competed for by unlabeled insulin (50% inhibition at 800 pM). Next, nuclear and plasma membranes were solubilized and purified to homogeneity by wheat germ agglutinin-agarose and insulin-agarose chromatography. In both receptors, labeled insulin was covalently cross-linked to a protein of 130 kilodaltons representing the insulin receptor ..cap alpha.. subunit. When preparations of both receptors were incubated with insulin and then adenosine 5'-(..gamma..-/sup 32/P)triphosphate, a protein of 95 kilodaltons representing the insulin receptor ..beta.. subunit was phosphorylated in a dose-dependent manner. These studies indicate, therefore, that solubilized plasma membrane and nuclear insulin receptors have similar structures and biochemical properties, and they suggest that they are the same (or very similar) proteins.

  12. Inhibition of insulin receptor gene expression and insulin signaling by fatty acid: interplay of PKC isoforms therein.

    PubMed

    Dey, Debleena; Mukherjee, Mohua; Basu, Dipanjan; Datta, Malabika; Roy, Sib Sankar; Bandyopadhyay, Arun; Bhattacharya, Samir

    2005-01-01

    Fatty acids are known to play a key role in promoting the loss of insulin sensitivity causing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, underlying mechanism involved here is still unclear. Incubation of rat skeletal muscle cells with palmitate followed by I(125)- insulin binding to the plasma membrane receptor preparation demonstrated a two-fold decrease in receptor occupation. In searching the cause for this reduction, we found that palmitate inhibition of insulin receptor (IR) gene expression effecting reduced amount of IR protein in skeletal muscle cells. This was followed by the inhibition of insulin-stimulated IRbeta tyrosine phosphorylation that consequently resulted inhibition of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS 1) and IRS 1 associated phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3 Kinase), phosphoinositide dependent kinase-1 (PDK 1) phosphorylation. PDK 1 dependent phosphorylation of PKCzeta and Akt/PKB were also inhibited by palmitate. Surprisingly, although PKCepsilon phosphorylation is PDK1 dependent, palmitate effected its constitutive phosphorylation independent of PDK1. Time kinetics study showed translocation of palmitate induced phosphorylated PKCepsilon from cell membrane to nuclear region and its possible association with the inhibition of IR gene transcription. Our study suggests one of the pathways through which fatty acid can induce insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cell.

  13. Targeting non-small cell lung cancer cells by dual inhibition of the insulin receptor and the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Emma E; Elder, Douglas J E; Curwen, Jon; Kilgour, Elaine; Hers, Ingeborg; Tavaré, Jeremy M

    2013-01-01

    Phase III trials of the anti-insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) antibody figitumumab in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients have been discontinued owing to lack of survival benefit. We investigated whether inhibition of the highly homologous insulin receptor (IR) in addition to the IGF1R would be more effective than inhibition of the IGF1R alone at preventing the proliferation of NSCLC cells. Signalling through IGF1R and IR in the NSCLC cell lines A549 and Hcc193 was stimulated by a combination of IGF1, IGF2 and insulin. It was inhibited by antibodies that block ligand binding, αIR3 (IGF1R) and IR47-9 (IR), and by the ATP-competitive small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors AZ12253801 and NVPAWD742 which inhibit both IGF1R and IR tyrosine kinases. The effect of inhibitors was determined by an anchorage-independent proliferation assay and by analysis of Akt phosphorylation. In Hcc193 cells the reduction in cell proliferation and Akt phosphorylation due to anti-IGF1R antibody was enhanced by antibody-mediated inhibition of the IR whereas in A549 cells, with a relatively low IR:IGF1R expression ratio, it was not. In each cell line proliferation and Akt phosphorylation were more effectively inhibited by AZ12253801 and NVPAWD742 than by combined αIR3 and IR47-9. When the IGF1R alone is inhibited, unencumbered signalling through the IR can contribute to continued NSCLC cell proliferation. We conclude that small molecule inhibitors targeting both the IR and IGF1R more effectively reduce NSCLC cell proliferation in a manner independent of the IR:IGF1R expression ratio, providing a therapeutic rationale for the treatment of this disease.

  14. Toll-like receptor 7 mediates pruritus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Park, Chul-Kyu; Berta, Temugin; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2010-12-01

    Toll-like receptors are typically expressed in immune cells to regulate innate immunity. We found that functional Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) was expressed in C-fiber primary sensory neurons and was important for inducing itch (pruritus), but was not necessary for eliciting mechanical, thermal, inflammatory and neuropathic pain in mice. Our results indicate that TLR7 mediates itching and is a potential therapeutic target for anti-itch treatment in skin disease conditions.

  15. Insulin Receptor Signaling in Long-Term Memory Consolidation Following Spatial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dou, Jing-Tao; Chen, Min; Dufour, Franck; Alkon, Daniel L.; Zhao, Wei-Qin

    2005-01-01

    Evidence has shown that the insulin and insulin receptor (IR) play a role in cognitive function. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying insulin's action on learning and memory are not yet understood. Here we investigated changes in long-term memory-associated expression of the IR and downstream molecules in the rat hippocampus. After…

  16. [Insulin and glucocorticoid binding by blood cell receptors after hydrocortisone administration in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, N E; Tatarinova, G Sh

    1989-07-01

    Repeated i.v. administration of hydrocortisone (10 mg/kg) revealed an increase in the resistance against insulin although endogenous corticosterone was decreased in 33 male rabbits. The insulin- and dexamethasone-binding receptors of erythrocytes and mononuclear leucocytes. changed after 3-7 hydrocortisone injections, the binding increasing for insulin and diminishing for dexamethasone.

  17. Insulin Receptor Signaling in Long-Term Memory Consolidation Following Spatial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dou, Jing-Tao; Chen, Min; Dufour, Franck; Alkon, Daniel L.; Zhao, Wei-Qin

    2005-01-01

    Evidence has shown that the insulin and insulin receptor (IR) play a role in cognitive function. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying insulin's action on learning and memory are not yet understood. Here we investigated changes in long-term memory-associated expression of the IR and downstream molecules in the rat hippocampus. After…

  18. Cellular mechanisms of insulin resistance: role of stress-regulated serine kinases and insulin receptor substrates (IRS) serine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Tanti, Jean-François; Jager, Jennifer

    2009-12-01

    Insulin receptor substrates (IRS) serine phosphorylation is a time-controlled physiological feedback mechanism in insulin signaling that is hijacked by metabolic and inflammatory stresses to promote insulin resistance. Kinases, including IKKbeta, JNK, ERK, mTOR, and S6K, activated by the inducers of insulin resistance induce uncontrolled IRS serine phosphorylation. Studies with genetically modified mice reveal that these kinases integrate signals from metabolic and inflammatory stresses in adipose tissue, liver, and hypothalamus leading to peripheral and central insulin resistance. Moreover, IKKbeta/NF-kappaB and JNK1 pathways in myeloid cells represent a core mechanism involved in inflammation linked to obesity. These kinases are thus potential drug targets against insulin resistance and the targeting of the IKKbeta/NF-kappaB or the JNK pathway may evolve into future diabetes medication.

  19. Hyperinsulinemia is Associated with Increased Soluble Insulin Receptors Release from Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hiriart, Marcia; Sanchez-Soto, Carmen; Diaz-Garcia, Carlos Manlio; Castanares, Diana T; Avitia, Morena; Velasco, Myrian; Mas-Oliva, Jaime; Macias-Silva, Marina; González-Villalpando, Clicerio; Delgado-Coello, Blanca; Sosa-Garrocho, Marcela; Vidaltamayo, Román; Fuentes-Silva, Deyanira

    2014-01-01

    It has been generally assumed that insulin circulates freely in blood. However it can also interact with plasma proteins. Insulin receptors are located in the membrane of target cells and consist of an alpha and beta subunits with a tyrosine kinase cytoplasmic domain. The ectodomain, called soluble insulin receptor (SIR) has been found elevated in patients with diabetes mellitus. We explored if insulin binds to SIRs in circulation under physiological conditions and hypothesize that this SIR may be released by hepatocytes in response to high insulin concentrations. The presence of SIR in rat and human plasmas and the culture medium of hepatocytes was explored using Western blot analysis. A purification protocol was performed to isolated SIR using affinity, gel filtration, and ion exchange chromatographies. A modified reverse hemolytic plaque assay was used to measure SIR release from cultured hepatocytes. Incubation with 1 nmol l(-1) insulin induces the release of the insulin receptor ectodomains from normal rat hepatocytes. This effect can be partially prevented by blocking protease activity. Furthermore, plasma levels of SIR were higher in a model of metabolic syndrome, where rats are hyperinsulinemic. We also found increased SIR levels in hyperinsulinemic humans. SIR may be an important regulator of the amount of free insulin in circulation. In hyperinsulinemia, the amount of this soluble receptor increases and this could lead to higher amounts of insulin bound to this receptor, rather than free insulin, which is the biologically active form of the hormone. This observation could enlighten the mechanisms of insulin resistance.

  20. Hyperinsulinemia is Associated with Increased Soluble Insulin Receptors Release from Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hiriart, Marcia; Sanchez-Soto, Carmen; Diaz-Garcia, Carlos Manlio; Castanares, Diana T.; Avitia, Morena; Velasco, Myrian; Mas-Oliva, Jaime; Macias-Silva, Marina; González-Villalpando, Clicerio; Delgado-Coello, Blanca; Sosa-Garrocho, Marcela; Vidaltamayo, Román; Fuentes-Silva, Deyanira

    2014-01-01

    It has been generally assumed that insulin circulates freely in blood. However it can also interact with plasma proteins. Insulin receptors are located in the membrane of target cells and consist of an alpha and beta subunits with a tyrosine kinase cytoplasmic domain. The ectodomain, called soluble insulin receptor (SIR) has been found elevated in patients with diabetes mellitus. We explored if insulin binds to SIRs in circulation under physiological conditions and hypothesize that this SIR may be released by hepatocytes in response to high insulin concentrations. The presence of SIR in rat and human plasmas and the culture medium of hepatocytes was explored using Western blot analysis. A purification protocol was performed to isolated SIR using affinity, gel filtration, and ion exchange chromatographies. A modified reverse hemolytic plaque assay was used to measure SIR release from cultured hepatocytes. Incubation with 1 nmol l−1 insulin induces the release of the insulin receptor ectodomains from normal rat hepatocytes. This effect can be partially prevented by blocking protease activity. Furthermore, plasma levels of SIR were higher in a model of metabolic syndrome, where rats are hyperinsulinemic. We also found increased SIR levels in hyperinsulinemic humans. SIR may be an important regulator of the amount of free insulin in circulation. In hyperinsulinemia, the amount of this soluble receptor increases and this could lead to higher amounts of insulin bound to this receptor, rather than free insulin, which is the biologically active form of the hormone. This observation could enlighten the mechanisms of insulin resistance. PMID:24995000

  1. Receptor-mediated DNA-targeted photoimmunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Karagiannis, Tom C; Lobachevsky, Pavel N; Leung, Brenda K Y; White, Jonathan M; Martin, Roger F

    2006-11-01

    We show the efficacy of a therapeutic strategy that combines the potency of a DNA-binding photosensitizer, UV(A)Sens, with the tumor-targeting potential of receptor-mediated endocytosis. The photosensitizer is an iodinated bibenzimidazole, which, when bound in the minor groove of DNA and excited by UV(A) irradiation, induces cytotoxic lesions attributed to a radical species resulting from photodehalogenation. Although reminiscent of photochemotherapy using psoralens and UV(A) irradiation, an established treatment modality in dermatology particularly for the treatment of psoriasis and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, a critical difference is the extreme photopotency of the iodinated bibenzimidazole, approximately 1,000-fold that of psoralens. This feature prompted consideration of combination with the specificity of receptor-mediated targeting. Using two in vitro model systems, we show the UV(A) cytotoxicity of iodo ligand/protein conjugates, implying binding of the conjugate to cell receptors, internalization, and degradation of the conjugate-receptor complex, with release and translocation of the ligand to nuclear DNA. For ligand-transferrin conjugates, phototoxicity was inhibited by coincubation with excess native transferrin. Receptor-mediated UV(A)-induced cytotoxicity was also shown with the iodo ligand conjugate of an anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody, exemplifying the potential application of the strategy to other cancer-specific targets to thus improve the specificity of phototherapy of superficial lesions and for extracorporeal treatments.

  2. Role of endosomal trafficking dynamics on the regulation of hepatic insulin receptor activity: models for Fao cells.

    PubMed

    Hori, Sharon S; Kurland, Irwin J; DiStefano, Joseph J

    2006-05-01

    Evidence indicates that endosomal insulin receptor (IR) trafficking plays a role in regulating insulin signal transduction. To evaluate its importance, we developed a series of biokinetic models for quantifying activated surface and endosomal IR dynamics from published experimental data. Starting with a published two-compartment Fao hepatoma model, a four-pool model was formulated that depicts IR autophosphorylation after receptor binding, IR endosomal internalization/trafficking, insulin dissociation from and dephosphorylation of internalized IR, and recycling of unliganded, dephosphorylated IR to the plasma membrane. Quantification required three additional data sets, two measured, but unmodeled by the same group. A five-pool model created to include endosomal trafficking of the nonphosphorylated insulin-IR complex was fitted using the same data sets, augmented with another published data set. Creation of a six-pool model added the physiologically relevant dissociation of insulin ligand from the activated endosomal IR. More importantly, all three models, validated against additional data not used in model fitting, predict that, mechanistically, internalization of activated IR is a rate-limiting step, at least under the receptor saturating conditions of the fitting data. This rate includes the transit time to a site where insulin dissociation from and/or dephosphorylation of the IR occurs by docking with protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases), or where a sufficient conformational change occurs in the IR, perhaps due to insulin-IR dissociation, where associated PTPases may complete IR dephosphorylation. Our new models indicate that key events in endosomal IR trafficking have significance in mediating IR activity, possibly serving to regulate insulin signal transduction.

  3. Increased abundance of insulin/insulin-like growth factor-I hybrid receptors in skeletal muscle of obese subjects is correlated with in vivo insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Federici, M; Porzio, O; Lauro, D; Borboni, P; Giovannone, B; Zucaro, L; Hribal, M L; Sesti, G

    1998-08-01

    We reported that in noninsulin-dependent diabetes melitus (NIDDM) patients expression of insulin/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) hybrid receptors is increased in insulin target tissues. Whether this is a defect associated with NIDDM or represents a generalized abnormality associated with insulin resistant states is still unsettled. To address this, we applied a microwell-based immunoassay to measure abundance of insulin receptors, type 1 IGF receptors, and hybrid receptors in muscle of eight normal and eight obese subjects. Maximal insulin binding to insulin receptors was lower in obese than in control subjects (B/T = 1.8 +/- 0.20 and 2.6 +/- 0.30; P < 0.03, respectively) and was negatively correlated with insulinemia (r = -0.60; P < 0.01). Maximal IGF-I binding to type 1 IGF receptors was higher in obese than in controls (B/T = 1.9 +/- 0.20 and 0.86 +/- 0.10; P < 0.0001, respectively) and was negatively correlated with plasma IGF-I levels (r = -0.69; P < 0.003). Hybrid receptor abundance was higher in obese than in normal subjects (B/T = 1.21 +/- 0.14 and 0.44 +/- 0.06; P < 0.0003, respectively) and was negatively correlated with insulin binding (r = -0.60; P < 0.01) and positively correlated with IGF-I binding (r = 0.92; P < 0.0001). Increased abundance of hybrids was correlated with insulinemia (r = 0.70; P < 0.002) and body mass index (r = 0.71; P < 0.0019), whereas it was negatively correlated with in vivo insulin sensitivity measured by ITT (r = -0.67; P < 0.016). These results indicate that downregulation of insulin receptors or upregulation of type 1 IGF receptors because of changes in plasma insulin and IGF-I levels may result in modifications in hybrid receptor abundance.

  4. Ligand-dependent intersubunit association with the insulin receptor complex activates its intrinsic kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Boeni-Schnetzler, M.; Kaligian, A.; DelVecchio, R.; Pilch, P.F.

    1988-05-15

    Insulin receptor halves (..cap alpha beta..) were obtained upon selective reduction of the holoreceptor (..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/) and were isolated in concentrated form. Autophosphorylation of concentrated ..cap alpha beta.. receptor halves can be stimulated by insulin an average of 4.0-fold, whereas nonreduced holoreceptor can be stimulated 5.4-fold. If ..cap alpha beta.. half-receptors are immobilized on wheat germ agglutinin-agarose, no insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation is observed, whereas immobilized holoreceptor retains insulin responsiveness. Treatment of ..cap alpha beta.. half-receptors with glutathione in the presence of insulin results in reoxidation to the holoreceptor form (..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/) with an efficiency of 60-70% as visualized by immunoblotting, thus providing evidence that two ..cap alpha beta.. halves are in close physical proximity. This reoxidation reaction, which is evident prior to autophosphorylation, is rapid and strictly dependent on the presence of insulin, consistent with the hypothesis that insulin promotes the association of two ..cap alpha beta.. halves. Furthermore, the insulin-induced reoxidation reaction and the insulin-induced autophosphorylation show the same dose dependence suggesting that the noncovalent association of ..cap alpha beta.. half-receptors upon insulin binding is a prerequisite for insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation in concentrated ..gamma beta.. half-receptor preparations. If the ..cap alpha beta.. half-receptor forms are phosphorylated in the presence of an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody and separated from nonphosphorylated ..cap alpha beta.. receptors, we observe that the phosphorylated ..cap alpha beta.. receptor halves contain bound insulin.

  5. Decreased insulin sensitivity during dietary sodium restriction is not mediated by effects of angiotensin II on insulin action.

    PubMed

    Perry, Colin G; Palmer, Tim; Cleland, Steven J; Morton, Ian J; Salt, Ian P; Petrie, John R; Gould, Gwyn W; Connell, John M C

    2003-08-01

    We have previously reported that modest dietary sodium restriction, as advocated in management guidelines for diabetes, may reduce insulin sensitivity. It has since been suggested that this effect may be mediated via cross-talk between insulin and angiotensin II (AII)-stimulated intracellular second messengers. In order to assess the effect of 5 days of modest sodium restriction (to <80 mmol/day target sodium intake) on insulin sensitivity, 15 healthy males underwent a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, cross-over euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp study. One phase was supplemented with sodium tablets and the other with matched placebo. Insulin sensitivity (M) was reduced during dietary sodium restriction [median M value, 10.2 mg/kg per min (interquartile range 9.50-13.85) versus 12.8 mg/kg per min (interquartile range 9.60-14.30), P <0.05]. To elucidate potential mechanisms that may explain this observation, we investigated the effect of AII on insulin action in isolated adipocytes obtained from healthy females. No effect of AII on insulin-mediated glucose transport or suppression of lipolysis was observed. In conclusion, despite the observation that dietary sodium restriction was associated with a median 15% reduction in insulin sensitivity, we found no evidence of a direct effect of AII on insulin action in human adipocytes.

  6. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide confers early phase insulin release to oral glucose in rats: demonstration by a receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J T; Dayanandan, B; Habener, J F; Kieffer, T J

    2000-10-01

    A novel GIP receptor antagonist was developed to evaluate the acute role of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in the insulin response to oral glucose in rats. Antisera to an extracellular epitope of the GIP receptor (GIPR) detected immunoreactive GIPR on rat pancreatic beta-cells. Purified GIPR antibody (GIPR Ab) specifically displaced GIP binding to the receptor and blocked GIP-mediated increases in intracellular cAMP. When delivered to rats by ip injection, GIPR Ab had a half-life of approximately 4 days. Treatment with GIPR Ab (1 microg/g BW) blocked the potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by GIP (60 pmol) but not glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, 60 pmol) in anesthetized rats. The insulin response to oral glucose was delayed in conscious unrestrained rats that were pretreated with GIPR Ab. Plasma insulin levels were approximately 35% lower at 10 min in GIPR Ab treated animals compared with controls. As a result, the glucose excursion was greater in the GIPR Ab treated group. Fasting plasma glucose levels were not altered by GIPR Ab. We conclude that release of GIP following oral glucose may act as an anticipatory signal to pancreatic beta-cells to promote rapid release of insulin for glucose disposal.

  7. Comparative effects of several simple carbohydrates on erythrocyte insulin receptors in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Rizkalla, S W; Baigts, F; Fumeron, F; Rabillon, B; Bayn, P; Ktorza, A; Spielmann, D; Apfelbaum, M

    1986-09-01

    The effects of simple carbohydrates on erythrocyte insulin receptors, plasma insulin and plasma glucose were studied during four hypocaloric, hyperproteic, diets. One diet contained no carbohydrate; the other three contained 36 g of either glucose, galactose or fructose. These diets were given for a 14-day period to groups of moderately obese subjects. The hypocaloric carbohydrate-free diet produced a decrease in plasma insulin and glucose concentrations concomitant with an increase in the number of insulin receptors. A similar increase in insulin receptor number was found when the diet was supplemented with glucose or galactose, but not with fructose. The presence of fructose in the diet prevented any increase in insulin receptor number.

  8. Cannabinoids induce pancreatic β-cell death by directly inhibiting insulin receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wook; Lao, Qizong; Shin, Yu-Kyong; Carlson, Olga D; Lee, Eun Kyung; Gorospe, Myriam; Kulkarni, Rohit N; Egan, Josephine M

    2012-03-20

    Cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors have been previously detected in pancreatic β cells, where they attenuate insulin action. We now report that CB1 receptors form a heteromeric complex with insulin receptors and the heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate-binding protein α subunit Gα(i). Gα(i) inhibited the kinase activity of the insulin receptor in β cells by directly binding to the activation loop in the tyrosine kinase domain of the receptor. Consequently, phosphorylation of proapoptotic protein Bad was reduced and its apoptotic activity was stimulated, leading to β-cell death. Pharmacological blockade or genetic deficiency of CB1 receptors enhanced insulin receptor signaling after injury, leading to reduced blood glucose concentrations and activation of Bad, which increased β-cell survival. These findings provide direct evidence of physical and functional interactions between CB1 and insulin receptors and suggest a mechanism whereby peripherally acting CB1 receptor antagonists improve insulin action in insulin-sensitive tissues independent of the other metabolic effects of CB1 receptors.

  9. Changes in erythrocyte insulin receptors in normal dogs and keeshond dogs with inheritable, early onset, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

    SciTech Connect

    Klaassen, J.K.

    1986-01-01

    Validation of a procedure to evaluate insulin receptors on erythrocytes (RBC-IR) in dogs is described. The specific binding of (/sup 125/I)iodoinsulin to RBC-IR of normal dogs is significantly greater than binding in keeshonds with an inheritable form of early onset diabetes mellitus. This decreased binding was due to a significant decrease in RBC-IR affinity in the diabetic keeshonds. To determine the effect on RBC-IR, normal dogs were treated with either dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg) or prednisone (0.3 mg/kg) for 10 days: concentrations of plasma cortisol, glucose, and insulin, plus binding characteristics of RBC-IR were determined. In the dexamethasone treated group, plasma glucose concentrations were elevated significantly by day 6 and continued through day 10. Insulin concentrations were elevated significantly by day 3 and remained elevated through day 10. In the prednisone treated group, glucose concentrations were elevated significantly by day 3, while insulin concentrations were elevated significantly by day 8. Maximum binding of RBC-IR was unaffected by prednisone and neither affinities nor receptor numbers were significantly different from day 1. No changes in plasma cortisol concentration were seen. Diabetic keeshonds on daily insulin treatment were removed from exogenous insulin therapy for 48 hours. Significant increases in glucose concentrations were observed, but no significant changes in cortisol, insulin, average receptor binding affinity, or RBC-IR number per cell occurred.

  10. Genomic organization and expression of insulin receptors in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenjing; Liang, Xu-fang; Yuan, Xiaochen; Li, Aixuan; He, Yuhui; He, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Insulin receptors have been demonstrated to be involved in embryogenesis, food intake regulation and glucose metabolism in several fish, while more researchis needed for further understanding. In this study, the complete coding sequence (CDS) of insulin receptor a (insra) gene and insulin receptor b (insrb) gene in grass carp were obtained, the CDS were 4068 bp and 4514 bp in length, encoding 1355 aa protein and 1351 aa protein. Both of insra and insrb in grass carp showed high amino acid identities with other fish. Insra and insrb genes were widely expressed in all tested tissues with an overlapping but distinct expressions. The high levels of insra mRNA were distributed in hindgut and heart tissues. The insrb gene showed the highest expression levels in liver and hindgut. We also proved that two forms of grass carp insulin receptors participate in the regulation of blood glucose and might act differently. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that different isoforms of fish insulin receptors are derived from two distinct genes, which was inconsistent with the generation of mammalian insulin receptors. Synteny analyses of insulin receptor genes showed that genes surrounding the insulin receptor genes were conserved in fish. Arhgef18, PEX11G, humanC19orf45 genes were highly conserved among mammal species. However, no conserved synteny was observed among fish, mammals, avians and amphibians.

  11. Insulin receptors and downstream substrates associate with membrane microdomains after treatment with insulin or chromium(III) picolinate.

    PubMed

    Al-Qatati, Abeer; Winter, Peter W; Wolf-Ringwall, Amber L; Chatterjee, Pabitra B; Van Orden, Alan K; Crans, Debbie C; Roess, Deborah A; Barisas, B George

    2012-04-01

    We have examined the association of insulin receptors (IR) and downstream signaling molecules with membrane microdomains in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells following treatment with insulin or tris(2-pyridinecarbxylato)chromium(III) (Cr(pic)(3)). Single-particle tracking demonstrated that individual IR on these cells exhibited reduced lateral diffusion and increased confinement within 100 nm-scale membrane compartments after treatment with either 200 nM insulin or 10 μM Cr(pic)(3). These treatments also increased the association of native IR, phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 and phosphorylated AKT with detergent-resistant membrane microdomains of characteristically high buoyancy. Confocal fluorescence microscopic imaging of Di-4-ANEPPDHQ labeled RBL-2H3 cells also showed that plasma membrane lipid order decreased following treatment with Cr(pic)(3) but was not altered by insulin treatment. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy demonstrated that Cr(pic)(3) did not affect IR cell-surface density or compete with insulin for available binding sites. Finally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that Cr(pic)(3) likely associates with the lipid interface in reverse-micelle model membranes. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of IR signaling in a cellular model system by both insulin and Cr(pic)(3) involves retention of IR in specialized nanometer-scale membrane microdomains but that the insulin-like effects of Cr(pic)(3) are due to changes in membrane lipid order rather than to direct interactions with IR.

  12. Receptor-mediated signaling in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Grice, C. M.; Bertuzzi, M.; Bignell, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most pathogenic species among the Aspergilli, and the major fungal agent of human pulmonary infection. To prosper in diverse ecological niches, Aspergilli have evolved numerous mechanisms for adaptive gene regulation, some of which are also crucial for mammalian infection. Among the molecules which govern such responses, integral membrane receptors are thought to be the most amenable to therapeutic modulation. This is due to the localization of these molecular sensors at the periphery of the fungal cell, and to the prevalence of small molecules and licensed drugs which target receptor-mediated signaling in higher eukaryotic cells. In this review we highlight the progress made in characterizing receptor-mediated environmental adaptation in A. fumigatus and its relevance for pathogenicity in mammals. By presenting a first genomic survey of integral membrane proteins in this organism, we highlight an abundance of putative seven transmembrane domain (7TMD) receptors, the majority of which remain uncharacterized. Given the dependency of A. fumigatus upon stress adaptation for colonization and infection of mammalian hosts, and the merits of targeting receptor-mediated signaling as an antifungal strategy, a closer scrutiny of sensory perception and signal transduction in this organism is warranted. PMID:23430083

  13. Activation of islet 5-HT4 receptor regulates glycemic control through promoting insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Hong, Feng; Chen, Ye; Li, Ji; Yao, Yuan-Sheng; Zhang, Yue; Zheng, Li-Fei; Zhu, Jin-Xia

    2016-10-15

    Mosapride, a gastrointestinal prokinetic drug, is an agonist of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor 4 that also reduces blood glucose. Whether 5-HT4 receptor is distributed in pancreatic islets and whether mosapride can directly stimulate insulin secretion is unclear. In the present study, the protein expression and cellular location of 5-HT4 receptor in pancreas was detected through western blotting and immunofluorescence. The acute effects of 5-HT4 receptor agonists, mosapride and prucalopride, on insulin secretion were investigated in vivo and in vitro in normal and alloxan-induced diabetes rats. The results indicated that 5-HT4 receptor immunoreactivity was co-existed in the islets insulin-immunoreactive cells of rat, mouse, pig and human. However the immunoreactive cells of insulin and 5-HT4 receptor and the protein expression of 5-HT4 receptor were significantly decreased in the pancreas of alloxan-induced diabetes rats. In normal rats, mosapride and prucalopride decreased blood glucose and increased insulin secretion during glucose tolerance test, in association with an increase in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, which was abolished by the 5-HT4 receptor antagonist GR113808. In diabetes rats, mosapride and prucalopride failed to improve blood glucose and insulin levels in the group of 180mg/kg alloxan, but increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the group of 120mg/kg alloxan in vitro. We conclude that 5-HT4 receptor is distributed in the islet β cell. Activation of 5-HT4 receptor is able to stimulate insulin secretion directly, thereby reduce blood glucose. The study provides important experimental evidences for the 5-HT4 receptor regulating insulin secretion and acting as a potential drug target in diabetes treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Caenorhabditis elegans developmental decision requires insulin signaling-mediated neuron-intestine communication

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Wesley L.; Wang, Ying; Chitturi, Jyothsna; Zhen, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Adverse environmental conditions trigger C. elegans larvae to activate an alternative developmental program, termed dauer diapause, which renders them stress resistant. High-level insulin signaling prevents constitutive dauer formation. However, it is not fully understood how animals assess conditions to choose the optimal developmental program. Here, we show that insulin-like peptide (ILP)-mediated neuron-intestine communication plays a role in this developmental decision. Consistent with, and extending, previous findings, we show that the simultaneous removal of INS-4, INS-6 and DAF-28 leads to fully penetrant constitutive dauer formation, whereas the removal of INS-1 and INS-18 significantly inhibits constitutive dauer formation. These ligands are processed by the proprotein convertases PC1/KPC-1 and/or PC2/EGL-3. The agonistic and antagonistic ligands are expressed by, and function in, neurons to prevent or promote dauer formation. By contrast, the insulin receptor DAF-2 and its effector, the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16, function solely in the intestine to regulate the decision to enter diapause. These results suggest that the nervous system normally establishes an agonistic ILP-dominant paradigm to inhibit intestinal DAF-16 activation and allow reproductive development. Under adverse conditions, a switch in the agonistic-antagonistic ILP balance activates intestinal DAF-16, which commits animals to diapause. PMID:24671950

  15. Coffee, glucose homeostasis, and insulin resistance: physiological mechanisms and mediators.

    PubMed

    Tunnicliffe, Jasmine M; Shearer, Jane

    2008-12-01

    Epidemiological studies show coffee consumption to be correlated to large risk reductions in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Such correlations are seen with decaffeinated and caffeinated coffee, and occur regardless of gender, method of brewing, or geography. They also exist despite clear evidence showing that caffeine causes acute postprandial hyperglycemia and lower whole-body insulin sensitivity. As the beneficial effects of coffee consumption exist for both decaffeinated and caffeinated coffee, a component of coffee other than caffeine must be responsible. This review examines the specific coffee compounds responsible for coffee's effects on T2D, and their potential physiological mechanisms of action. Being plant-derived, coffee contains many beneficial compounds found in fruits and vegetables, including antioxidants. In fact, coffee is the largest source of dietary antioxidants in industrialized nations. When green coffee is roasted at high temperatures, Maillard reactions create a number of unique compounds. Roasting causes a portion of the antioxidant, chlorogenic acid, to be transformed into quinides, compounds known to alter blood glucose levels. Coffee consumption may also mediate levels of gut peptides (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1), hormones intimately involved in the regulation of satiety and insulin secretion. Finally, coffee may have prebiotic-like properties, altering gut flora and ultimately digestion. In summary, it is evident that a better understanding of the role of coffee in the development and prevention of T2D has the potential to uncover novel therapeutic targets and nutraceutical formulations for the disease.

  16. Insulin receptor downregulation in isolated hepatocytes of river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Leibush, B N; Lappova, Y L

    1995-10-01

    Insulin receptor downregulation in the isolated hepatocytes of lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) was studied at the ambient temperature for this species. Preincubation of hepatocytes with 10(-9)-10(-8) M unlabeled insulin decreased insulin binding capacity to 43, 37, and 34% at 4, 15, and 25 degrees, respectively. Preincubation of hepatocytes in the presence of 10(-10) M unlabeled insulin had no effect on the 125I-insulin binding. The maximal decrease in the 125I-insulin binding was reached after 10 min of preincubation and was then maintained at a constant level for 2 hr. Competitive binding assays demonstrated that preincubation with unlabeled insulin resulted in a 45% decline in the number of binding sites. In rat adipocytes and frog hepatocytes used for the comparison, preincubation with insulin caused a 65% decrease in cell-surface receptors, while intracellular (internalized receptors) increased proportionally. In contrast, in the lamprey hepatocytes both cell-surface and intracellular receptors decreased. We conclude that insulin receptors of the lamprey hepatocytes could be down-regulated at the ambient temperature for the species and at the physiological concentrations of insulin (10(-9)-10(-8) M).

  17. Tachykinin receptors mediating airway marcomolecular secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, S.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Three tachykinin receptor types, termed NK1, NK2, and NK3, can be distinguished by the relative potency of various peptides in eliciting tissue responses. Airway macromolecular secretion is stimulated by the tachykinin substance P (SP). The purposes of this study were to determine the tachykinin receptor subtype responsible for this stimulation, and to examine the possible involvement of other neurotransmitters in mediating this effect. Ferret tracheal explants maintained in organ culture were labeled with {sup 3}H-glucosamine, a precursor of high molecular weight glycoconjugates (HMWG) which are released by airway secretory cells. Secretion of labeled HMWG then was determined in the absence and presence of the tachykinins SP, neurokinin A (NKA), neurokinin B (NKB), physalaemin (PHY), and eledoisin (ELE). To evaluate the possible contribution of other mediators, tachykinin stimulation was examined in the presence of several receptor blockers.

  18. Impaired endothelin calcium signaling coupled to endothelin type B receptors in penile arteries from insulin-resistant obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Cristina; Sánchez, Ana; Martínez, Pilar; Climent, Belén; Benedito, Sara; García-Sacristán, Albino; Hernández, Medardo; Prieto, Dolores

    2013-09-01

    Erectile dysfunction is considered as an early sign of subclinical vascular disease and endothelial dysfunction and a highly prevalent condition in diabetic patients. The current study assessed whether impaired vascular effects of endothelin (ET)-1 may contribute to the vascular dysfunction of penile arteries from a rat model of insulin resistance. The effect of ETA and ETB receptor antagonists was assessed on the intracellular Ca(2+) [Ca(2+) ]i and contractile responses to ET-1 in penile arteries from obese Zucker rats (OZR) and lean Zucker rats (LZR), and ET receptor expression in the arterial wall was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Changes in ET-1 [Ca(2+) ]i and vasoconstriction and ET receptor expression were evaluated in penile arteries from insulin-resistant rats. ET-1-induced vasoconstriction was associated with a higher increase in smooth muscle [Ca(2+) ]i in penile arteries from OZR compared with LZR. Removal of the endothelium inhibited and enhanced contractions to the lowest and highest doses of ET-1, respectively, mainly in OZR. The selective ETA receptor antagonist BQ-123 inhibited ET-1 vasoconstriction and [Ca(2+) ]i response in both LZR and OZR. The ETB receptor antagonist BQ-788 had little effect in healthy arteries but markedly inhibited ET-1-induced increases in [Ca(2+) ]i and vasoconstriction in arteries from OZR. ETA receptors were located on the smooth muscle and endothelium of penile arteries, whereas ETB receptors were found on the arterial endothelium in LZR and OZR, and also on the smooth muscle in OZR, immunostaining for both receptors being higher in OZR. Penile arteries from OZR exhibit an impaired ET-1 Ca(2+) signaling along with changes in the ET receptor profile. Thus, whereas ET-1 contraction and the associated [Ca(2+) ]i increase are mediated by smooth muscle ETA receptors in healthy arteries, ETB receptors contribute to contraction and are coupled to the augmented ET-1 [Ca(2+) ]i response under conditions of insulin resistance

  19. Tyrosine phosphorylation of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 by the insulin receptor is necessary for insulin metabolic signaling.

    PubMed

    Fiory, Francesca; Alberobello, Anna Teresa; Miele, Claudia; Oriente, Francesco; Esposito, Iolanda; Corbo, Vincenzo; Ruvo, Menotti; Tizzano, Barbara; Rasmussen, Thomas E; Gammeltoft, Steen; Formisano, Pietro; Beguinot, Francesco

    2005-12-01

    In L6 myoblasts, insulin receptors with deletion of the C-terminal 43 amino acids (IR(Delta43)) exhibited normal autophosphorylation and IRS-1/2 tyrosine phosphorylation. The L6 cells expressing IR(Delta43) (L6(IRDelta43)) also showed no insulin effect on glucose uptake and glycogen synthase, accompanied by a >80% decrease in insulin induction of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK-1) activity and tyrosine phosphorylation and of protein kinase B (PKB) phosphorylation at Thr(308). Insulin induced the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-dependent coprecipitation of PDK-1 with wild-type IR (IR(WT)), but not IR(Delta43). Based on overlay blotting, PDK-1 directly bound IR(WT), but not IR(Delta43). Insulin-activated IR(WT), and not IR(Delta43), phosphorylated PDK-1 at tyrosines 9, 373, and 376. The IR C-terminal 43-amino-acid peptide (C-terminal peptide) inhibited in vitro PDK-1 tyrosine phosphorylation by the IR. Tyr-->Phe substitution prevented this inhibitory action. In the L6(hIR) cells, the C-terminal peptide coprecipitated with PDK-1 in an insulin-stimulated fashion. This peptide simultaneously impaired the insulin effect on PDK-1 coprecipitation with IR(WT), on PDK-1 tyrosine phosphorylation, on PKB phosphorylation at Thr(308), and on glucose uptake. Upon insulin exposure, PDK-1 membrane persistence was significantly reduced in L6(IRDelta43) compared to control cells. In L6 cells expressing IR(WT), the C-terminal peptide also impaired insulin-dependent PDK-1 membrane persistence. Thus, PDK-1 directly binds to the insulin receptor, followed by PDK-1 activation and insulin metabolic effects.

  20. Insulin-independent role of adiponectin receptor signaling in Drosophila germline stem cell maintenance.

    PubMed

    Laws, Kaitlin M; Sampson, Leesa L; Drummond-Barbosa, Daniela

    2015-03-15

    Adipocytes have key endocrine roles, mediated in large part by secreted protein hormones termed adipokines. The adipokine adiponectin is well known for its role in sensitizing peripheral tissues to insulin, and several lines of evidence suggest that adiponectin might also modulate stem cells/precursors. It remains unclear, however, how adiponectin signaling controls stem cells and whether this role is secondary to its insulin-sensitizing effects or distinct. Drosophila adipocytes also function as an endocrine organ and, although no obvious adiponectin homolog has been identified, Drosophila AdipoR encodes a well-conserved homolog of mammalian adiponectin receptors. Here, we generate a null AdipoR allele and use clonal analysis to demonstrate an intrinsic requirement for AdipoR in germline stem cell (GSC) maintenance in the Drosophila ovary. AdipoR null GSCs are not fully responsive to bone morphogenetic protein ligands from the niche and have a slight reduction in E-cadherin levels at the GSC-niche junction. Conversely, germline-specific overexpression of AdipoR inhibits natural GSC loss, suggesting that reduction in adiponectin signaling might contribute to the normal decline in GSC numbers observed over time in wild-type females. Surprisingly, AdipoR is not required for insulin sensitization of the germline, leading us to speculate that insulin sensitization is a more recently acquired function than stem cell regulation in the evolutionary history of adiponectin signaling. Our findings establish Drosophila female GSCs as a new system for future studies addressing the molecular mechanisms whereby adiponectin receptor signaling modulates stem cell fate.

  1. Receptor-mediated signaling at plasmodesmata.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) generate continuity between plant cells via the cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and plasma membrane (PM), allowing movement of different classes of molecules between cells. Proteomic data indicates that the PD PM hosts many receptors and receptor kinases, as well as lipid raft and tetraspanin enriched microdomain associated proteins, suggesting the hypothesis that the PD PM is specialized with respect to both composition and function. PD-located receptor proteins and receptor kinases are responsible for perception of microbe associated molecular patterns at PD and initiate signaling that mediates changes to PD flux. In addition, developmentally relevant receptor kinases have different interactions dependent upon whether located at the PD PM or the cellular PM. The implications of these findings are that receptor-mediated signaling in PD membranes differs from that in the cellular PM and, in light the identification of PD-located proteins associated with membrane microdomains and the role of membrane microdomains in analogous signaling processes in animals, suggests that the PD PM contains specialized signaling platforms.

  2. Ethanolic extract of Allium cepa stimulates glucose transporter typ 4-mediated glucose uptake by the activation of insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Sudeep; Pal, Savita; Maurya, Rakesh; Srivastava, Arvind K

    2015-02-01

    The present work was undertaken to investigate the effects and the molecular mechanism of the standardized ethanolic extract of Allium cepa (onion) on the glucose transport for controlling diabetes mellitus. A. cepa stimulates glucose uptake by the rat skeletal muscle cells (L6 myotubes) in both time- and dose-dependent manners. This effect was shown to be mediated by the increased translocation of glucose transporter typ 4 protein from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane as well as the synthesis of glucose transporter typ 4 protein. The effect of A. cepa extract on glucose transport was stymied by wortmannin, genistein, and AI½. In vitro phosphorylation analysis revealed that, like insulin, A. cepa extract also enhances the tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor-β, insulin receptor substrate-1, and the serine phosphorylation of Akt under both basal and insulin-stimulated conditions without affecting the total amount of these proteins. Furthermore, it is also shown that the activation of Akt is indispensable for the A. cepa-induced glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. Taken together, these findings provide ample evidence that the ethanolic extract of A. cepa stimulates glucose transporter typ 4 translocation-mediated glucose uptake by the activation of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase/Akt dependent pathway.

  3. Myeloid cell-restricted insulin receptor deficiency protects against obesity-induced inflammation and systemic insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Mauer, Jan; Chaurasia, Bhagirath; Plum, Leona; Quast, Thomas; Hampel, Brigitte; Blüher, Matthias; Kolanus, Waldemar; Kahn, C Ronald; Brüning, Jens C

    2010-05-06

    A major component of obesity-related insulin resistance is the establishment of a chronic inflammatory state with invasion of white adipose tissue by mononuclear cells. This results in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which in turn leads to insulin resistance in target tissues such as skeletal muscle and liver. To determine the role of insulin action in macrophages and monocytes in obesity-associated insulin resistance, we conditionally inactivated the insulin receptor (IR) gene in myeloid lineage cells in mice (IR(Deltamyel)-mice). While these animals exhibit unaltered glucose metabolism on a normal diet, they are protected from the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance upon high fat feeding. Euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp studies demonstrate that this results from decreased basal hepatic glucose production and from increased insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, IR(Deltamyel)-mice exhibit decreased concentrations of circulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and thus reduced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity in skeletal muscle upon high fat feeding, reflecting a dramatic reduction of the chronic and systemic low-grade inflammatory state associated with obesity. This is paralleled by a reduced accumulation of macrophages in white adipose tissue due to a pronounced impairment of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 expression and activity in these cells. These data indicate that insulin action in myeloid cells plays an unexpected, critical role in the regulation of macrophage invasion into white adipose tissue and in the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance.

  4. Berberine reduces insulin resistance through protein kinase C-dependent up-regulation of insulin receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wei-Jia; Zhang, Hao; Song, Dan-Qing; Xue, Rong; Zhao, Wei; Wei, Jing; Wang, Yue-Ming; Shan, Ning; Zhou, Zhen-Xian; Yang, Peng; You, Xue-Fu; Li, Zhuo-Rong; Si, Shu-Yi; Zhao, Li-Xun; Pan, Huai-Ning; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Natural product berberine (BBR) has been reported to have hypoglycemic and insulin-sensitizing activities; however, its mechanism remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanism of BBR against insulin resistance. Here, we identify insulin receptor (InsR) as a target of BBR to increase insulin sensitivity. In cultured human liver cells, BBR increased InsR messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Berberine increased InsR expression in the L6 rat skeletal muscle cells as well. Berberine-enhanced InsR expression improved cellular glucose consumption only in the presence of insulin. Silencing InsR gene with small interfering RNA or blocking the phosphoinositol-3-kinase diminished this effect. Berberine induced InsR gene expression through a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent activation of its promoter. Inhibition of PKC abolished BBR-caused InsR promoter activation and InsR mRNA transcription. In animal models, treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus rats with BBR lowered fasting blood glucose and fasting serum insulin, increased insulin sensitivity, and elevated InsR mRNA as well as PKC activity in the liver. In addition, BBR lowered blood glucose in KK-Ay type 2 but not in NOD/LtJ type 1 diabetes mellitus mice that were insulin deficient. Our results suggest that BBR is a unique natural medicine against insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome.

  5. Phorbol ester-induced serine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor decreases its tyrosine kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Takayama, S; White, M F; Kahn, C R

    1988-03-05

    The effect of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on the function of the insulin receptor was examined in intact hepatoma cells (Fao) and in solubilized extracts purified by wheat germ agglutinin chromatography. Incubation of ortho[32P]phosphate-labeled Fao cells with TPA increased the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor 2-fold after 30 min. Analysis of tryptic phosphopeptides from the beta-subunit of the receptor by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and determination of their phosphoamino acid composition suggested that TPA predominantly stimulated phosphorylation of serine residues in a single tryptic peptide. Incubation of the Fao cells with insulin (100 nM) for 1 min stimulated 4-fold the phosphorylation of the beta-subunit of the insulin receptor. Prior treatment of the cells with TPA inhibited the insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation by 50%. The receptors extracted with Triton X-100 from TPA-treated Fao cells and purified on immobilized wheat germ agglutinin retained the alteration in kinase activity and exhibited a 50% decrease in insulin-stimulated tyrosine autophosphorylation and phosphotransferase activity toward exogenous substrates. This was due primarily to a decrease in the Vmax for these reactions. TPA treatment also decreased the Km of the insulin receptor for ATP. Incubation of the insulin receptor purified from TPA-treated cells with alkaline phosphatase decreased the phosphate content of the beta-subunit to the control level and reversed the inhibition, suggesting that the serine phosphorylation of the beta-subunit was responsible for the decreased tyrosine kinase activity. Our results support the notion that the insulin receptor is a substrate for protein kinase C in the Fao cell and that the increase in serine phosphorylation of the beta-subunit of the receptor produced by TPA treatment inhibited tyrosine kinase activity in vivo and in vitro. These data suggest that protein kinase C may regulate the function

  6. Combining a GLP-1 receptor agonist and basal insulin: study evidence and practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Carris, Nicholas W; Taylor, James R; Gums, John G

    2014-12-01

    Most patients with diabetes mellitus require multiple medications to achieve glycemic goals. Considering this and the increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes worldwide, the need for effective combination therapy is pressing. Basal insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are frequently used to treat type 2 diabetes. Though both classes of medication are exclusively injectable, which may cause initial hesitation from providers, evidence for their combined use is substantial. This review summarizes the theoretical benefit, supporting evidence, and implementation of a combined basal insulin-GLP-1 receptor agonist regimen. Basal insulin added to a GLP-1 receptor agonist reduces hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) without weight gain or significantly increased hypoglycemia. A GLP-1 receptor agonist added to basal insulin reduces HbA1c and body weight. Compared with the addition of meal-time insulin to basal insulin, a GLP-1 receptor agonist produces similar or greater reduction in HbA1c, weight loss instead of weight gain, and less hypoglycemia. Gastrointestinal adverse events are common with GLP-1 receptor agonists, especially during initiation and titration. However, combination with basal insulin is not expected to augment expected adverse events that come with using a GLP-1 receptor agonist. Basal insulin can be added to a GLP-1 receptor agonist with a slow titration to target goal fasting plasma glucose. In patients starting a GLP-1 receptor agonist, the dose of basal insulin should be decreased by 20 % in patients with an HbA1c ≤8 %. The evidence from 15 randomized prospective studies supports the combined use of a GLP-1 receptor agonist with basal insulin in a broad range of patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes.

  7. A chronic physical activity treatment in obese rats normalizes the contributions of ET-1 and NO to insulin-mediated posterior cerebral artery vasodilation.

    PubMed

    Olver, T Dylan; McDonald, Matthew W; Klakotskaia, Diana; Richardson, Rachel A; Jasperse, Jeffrey L; Melling, C W James; Schachtman, Todd R; Yang, Hsiao T; Emter, Craig A; Laughlin, M Harold

    2017-04-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that obesity-induced decrements in insulin-stimulated cerebrovascular vasodilation would be normalized with acute endothelin-1a receptor antagonism and that treatment with a physical activity intervention restores vasoreactivity to insulin through augmented nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent dilation. Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were divided into the following groups: 20 wk old food controlled (CON-20); 20 wk old free food access (model of obesity, OB-20); 40 wk old food controlled (CON-40); 40 wk old free food access (OB-40); and 40 wk old free food access+RUN (RUN-40; wheel-running access from 20 to 40 wk). Rats underwent Barnes maze testing and a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC). In the 40-wk cohort, cerebellum and hippocampus blood flow (BF) were examined (microsphere infusion). Vasomotor responses (pressurized myography) to insulin were assessed in untreated, endothelin-1a receptor antagonism, and NOS inhibition conditions in posterior cerebral arteries. Insulin-stimulated vasodilation was attenuated in the OB vs. CON and RUN groups (P ≤ 0.04). Dilation to insulin was normalized with endothelin-1a receptor antagonism in the OB groups (between groups, P ≥ 0.56), and insulin-stimulated NOS-mediated dilation was greater in the RUN-40 vs. OB-40 group (P < 0.01). At 40 wk of age, cerebellum BF decreased during EHC in the OB-40 group (P = 0.02) but not CON or RUN groups (P ≥ 0.36). Barnes maze testing revealed increased entry errors and latencies in the RUN-40 vs. CON and OB groups (P < 0.01). These findings indicate that obesity-induced impairments in vasoreactivity to insulin involve increased endothelin-1 and decreased nitric oxide signaling. Chronic spontaneous physical activity, initiated after disease onset, reversed impaired vasodilation to insulin and decreased Barnes maze performance, possibly because of increased exploratory behavior.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The new and noteworthy findings are that 1) in

  8. Lipopolysaccharides-mediated increase in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion: involvement of the GLP-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh Thoai; Mandard, Stéphane; Dray, Cédric; Deckert, Valérie; Valet, Philippe; Besnard, Philippe; Drucker, Daniel J; Lagrost, Laurent; Grober, Jacques

    2014-02-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria trigger inflammation, which is associated with marked changes in glucose metabolism. Hyperglycemia is frequently observed during bacterial infection and it is a marker of a poor clinical outcome in critically ill patients. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of an acute injection or continuous infusion of LPS on experimentally induced hyperglycemia in wild-type and genetically engineered mice. The acute injection of a single dose of LPS produced an increase in glucose disposal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Continuous infusion of LPS through mini-osmotic pumps was also associated with increased GSIS. Finally, manipulation of LPS detoxification by knocking out the plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) led to increased glucose disposal and GSIS. Overall, glucose tolerance and GSIS tests supported the hypothesis that mice treated with LPS develop glucose-induced hyperinsulinemia. The effects of LPS on glucose metabolism were significantly altered as a result of either the accumulation or antagonism of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Complementary studies in wild-type and GLP-1 receptor knockout mice further implicated the GLP-1 receptor-dependent pathway in mediating the LPS-mediated changes in glucose metabolism. Hence, enhanced GLP-1 secretion and action underlies the development of glucose-mediated hyperinsulinemia associated with endotoxemia.

  9. CCR2 knockout exacerbates cerulein-induced chronic pancreatitis with hyperglycemia via decreased GLP-1 receptor expression and insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuji; Kanai, Takanori; Saeki, Keita; Takabe, Miho; Irie, Junichiro; Miyoshi, Jun; Mikami, Yohei; Teratani, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Takahiro; Miyata, Naoteru; Hisamatsu, Tadakazu; Nakamoto, Nobuhiro; Yamagishi, Yoshiyuki; Higuchi, Hajime; Ebinuma, Hirotoshi; Hozawa, Shigenari; Saito, Hidetsugu; Itoh, Hiroshi; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2013-04-15

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) promotes insulin release; however, the relationship between the GLP-1 signal and chronic pancreatitis is not well understood. Here we focus on chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and its receptor (CCR2) axis, which regulates various immune cells, including macrophages, to clarify the mechanism of GLP-1-mediated insulin secretion in chronic pancreatitis in mice. One and multiple series of repetitive cerulein administrations were used to induce acute and chronic cerulein pancreatitis, respectively. Acute cerulein-administered CCR2-knockout (KO) mice showed suppressed infiltration of CD11b(+)Gr-1(low) macrophages and pancreatic inflammation and significantly upregulated insulin secretion compared with paired wild-type (WT) mice. However, chronic cerulein-administered CCR2-KO mice showed significantly increased infiltration of CD11b(+)/Gr-1(-) and CD11b(+)/Gr-1(high) cells, but not CD11b(+)/Gr-1(low) cells, in pancreas with severe inflammation and significantly decreased insulin secretion compared with their WT counterparts. Furthermore, although serum GLP-1 levels in chronic cerulein-administered WT and CCR2-KO mice were comparably upregulated after cerulein administrations, GLP-1 receptor levels in pancreases of chronic cerulein-administered CCR2-KO mice were significantly lower than in paired WT mice. Nevertheless, a significantly higher hyperglycemia level in chronic cerulein-administered CCR2-KO mice was markedly restored by treatment with a GLP-1 analog to a level comparable to the paired WT mice. Collectively, the CCR2/CCL2 axis-mediated CD11b(+)-cell migration to the pancreas is critically involved in chronic pancreatitis-mediated hyperglycemia through the modulation of GLP-1 receptor expression and insulin secretion.

  10. Tissue localization of Drosophila melanogaster insulin receptor transcripts during development.

    PubMed Central

    Garofalo, R S; Rosen, O M

    1988-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster insulin receptor (Drosophila insulin receptor homolog [dIRH]) is similar to its mammalian counterpart in deduced amino acid sequence, subunit structure, and ligand-stimulated protein tyrosine kinase activity. The function of this receptor in D. melanogaster is not yet known. However, a role in development is suggested by the observations that levels of insulin-stimulated kinase activity and expression of dIRH mRNA are maximal during Drosophila midembryogenesis. In this study, a 2.9-kilobase (kb) cDNA clone corresponding to both the dIRH tyrosine kinase domain and some of the 3' untranslated sequence was used to determine the tissue distribution of dIRH mRNA during development. Two principal mRNAs of 11 and 8.6 kb hybridized with the dIRH cDNA in Northern (RNA) blot analysis. The abundance of the 8.6-kb mRNA increased transiently in early embryos, whereas the 11-kb species was most abundant during midembryogenesis. A similar pattern of expression was previously determined by Northern analysis, using a dIRH genomic clone (L. Petruzzelli, R. Herrera, R. Arenas-Garcia, R. Fernandez, M. J. Birnbaum, and O. M. Rosen, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:4710-4714, 1986). In situ hybridization revealed dIRH transcripts in the ovaries of adult flies, in which the transcripts appeared to be synthesized by nurse cells for eventual storage as maternal RNA in the mature oocyte. Throughout embryogenesis, dIRH transcripts were ubiquitously expressed, although after midembryogenesis, higher levels were detected in the developing nervous system. Nervous system expression remained elevated throughout the larval stages and persisted in the adult, in which the cortex of the brain and ganglion cells were among the most prominently labeled tissues. In larvae, the imaginal disk cells exhibited comparatively high levels of dIRH mRNA expression. The broad distribution of dIRH mRNA in embryos and imaginal disks is compatible with a role for dIRH in anabolic processes

  11. Identification and transcriptional modulation of the largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, vitellogenin receptor during oocyte development by insulin and sex steroids.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Gustavo A; Quattro, Joseph M; Denslow, Nancy D; Kroll, Kevin J; Prucha, Melinda S; Porak, Wesley F; Grier, Harry J; Sabo-Attwood, Tara L

    2012-09-01

    Fish vitellogenin synthesized and released from the liver of oviparous animals is taken up into oocytes by the vitellogenin receptor. This is an essential process in providing nutrient yolk to developing embryos to ensure successful reproduction. Here we disclose the full length vtgr cDNA sequence for largemouth bass (LMB) that reveals greater than 90% sequence homology with other fish vtgr sequences. We classify LMB Vtgr as a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor superfamily based on conserved domains and categorize as the short variant that is devoid of the O-glycan segment. Phylogenetic analysis places LMB Vtgr sequence into a well-supported monophyletic group of fish Vtgr. Real-time PCR showed that the greatest levels of LMB vtgr mRNA expression occurred in previtellogenic ovarian tissues. In addition, we reveal the effects of insulin, 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) in modulation of vtgr, esr, and ar mRNAs in previtellogenic oocytes. Insulin increased vtgr expression levels in follicles ex vivo while exposure to E(2) or 11-KT did not result in modulation of expression. However, both steroids were able to repress insulin-induced vtgr transcript levels. Coexposure with insulin and E(2) or of insulin and 11-KT increased ovarian esr2b and ar mRNA levels, respectively, which suggest a role for these nuclear receptors in insulin-mediated signaling pathways. These data provide the first evidence for the ordered stage-specific expression of LMB vtgr during the normal reproductive process and the hormonal influence of insulin and sex steroids on controlling vtgr transcript levels in ovarian tissues.

  12. Insulin restores L-arginine transport requiring adenosine receptors activation in umbilical vein endothelium from late-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Salsoso, R; Guzmán-Gutiérrez, E; Sáez, T; Bugueño, K; Ramírez, M A; Farías, M; Pardo, F; Leiva, A; Sanhueza, C; Mate, A; Vázquez, C; Sobrevia, L

    2015-03-01

    Preeclampsia is associated with impaired placental vasodilation and reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity in the foetoplacental circulation. Adenosine and insulin stimulate vasodilation in endothelial cells, and this activity is mediated by adenosine receptor activation in uncomplicated pregnancies; however, this activity has yet to be examined in preeclampsia. Early onset preeclampsia is associated with severe placental vasculature alterations that lead to altered foetus growth and development, but whether late-onset preeclampsia (LOPE) alters foetoplacental vascular function is unknown. Vascular reactivity to insulin (0.1-1000 nmol/L, 5 min) and adenosine (1 mmol/L, 5 min) was measured in KCl-preconstricted human umbilical vein rings from normal and LOPE pregnancies using a wire myograph. The protein levels of human cationic amino acid transporter 1 (hCAT-1), adenosine receptor subtypes, total and Ser¹¹⁷⁷- or Thr⁴⁹⁵-phosphorylated eNOS were detected via Western blot, and L-arginine transport (0-1000 μmol/L L-arginine, 3 μCi/mL L-[³H]arginine, 20 s, 37 °C) was measured in the presence or absence of insulin and adenosine receptor agonists or antagonists in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from normal and LOPE pregnancies. LOPE increased the maximal L-arginine transport capacity and hCAT-1 and eNOS expression and activity compared with normal conditions. The A(2A) adenosine receptor (A(2A)AR) antagonist ZM-241385 blocked these effects of LOPE. Insulin-mediated umbilical vein ring relaxation was lower in LOPE pregnancies than in normal pregnancies and was restored using the A(2A)AR antagonist. The reduced foetoplacental vascular response to insulin may result from A(2A)AR activation in LOPE pregnancies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intranasal insulin enhances brain functional connectivity mediating the relationship between adiposity and subjective feeling of hunger.

    PubMed

    Kullmann, Stephanie; Heni, Martin; Veit, Ralf; Scheffler, Klaus; Machann, Jürgen; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert

    2017-05-09

    Brain insulin sensitivity is an important link between metabolism and cognitive dysfunction. Intranasal insulin is a promising tool to investigate central insulin action in humans. We evaluated the acute effects of 160 U intranasal insulin on resting-state brain functional connectivity in healthy young adults. Twenty-five lean and twenty-two overweight and obese participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging, on two separate days, before and after intranasal insulin or placebo application. Insulin compared to placebo administration resulted in increased functional connectivity between the prefrontal regions of the default-mode network and the hippocampus as well as the hypothalamus. The change in hippocampal functional connectivity significantly correlated with visceral adipose tissue and the change in subjective feeling of hunger after intranasal insulin. Mediation analysis revealed that the intranasal insulin induced hippocampal functional connectivity increase served as a mediator, suppressing the relationship between visceral adipose tissue and hunger. The insulin-induced hypothalamic functional connectivity change showed a significant interaction with peripheral insulin sensitivity. Only participants with high peripheral insulin sensitivity showed a boost in hypothalamic functional connectivity. Hence, brain insulin action may regulate eating behavior and facilitate weight loss by modifying brain functional connectivity within and between cognitive and homeostatic brain regions.

  14. Oligomers of grape-seed procyanidin extract activate the insulin receptor and key targets of the insulin signaling pathway differently from insulin.

    PubMed

    Montagut, Gemma; Onnockx, Sheela; Vaqué, Montserrat; Bladé, Cinta; Blay, Mayte; Fernández-Larrea, Juan; Pujadas, Gerard; Salvadó, M Josepa; Arola, Lluís; Pirson, Isabelle; Ardévol, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat

    2010-06-01

    Procyanidins are bioactive flavonoid compounds from fruits and vegetables that possess insulinomimetic properties, decreasing hyperglycaemia in streptozotocin-diabetic rats and stimulating glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive cell lines. Here we show that the oligomeric structures of a grape-seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) interact and induce the autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor in order to stimulate the uptake of glucose. However, their activation differs from insulin activation and results in differences in the downstream signaling. Oligomers of GSPE phosphorylate protein kinase B at Thr308 lower than insulin does, according to the lower insulin receptor activation by procyanidins. On the other hand, they phosphorylate Akt at Ser473 to the same extent as insulin. Moreover, we found that procyanidins phosphorylate p44/p42 and p38 MAPKs much more than insulin does. These results provide further insight into the molecular signaling mechanisms used by procyanidins, pointing to Akt and MAPK proteins as key points for GSPE-activated signaling pathways. Moreover, the differences between GSPE and insulin might help us to understand the wide range of biological effects that procyanidins have. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Biphasic modulation of insulin receptor substrate-1 during goitrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Grozovsky, R; Morales, M M; Carvalho, D P

    2007-05-01

    Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) is the main intracellular substrate for both insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptors and is critical for cell mitogenesis. Thyrotropin is able to induce thyroid cell proliferation through the cyclic AMP intracellular cascade; however, the presence of either insulin or IGF-I is required for the mitogenic effect of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) to occur. The aim of the present study was to determine whether thyroid IRS-1 content is modulated by TSH in vivo. Strikingly, hypothyroid goitrous rats, which have chronically high serum TSH levels (control, C = 2.31 +/- 0.28; methimazole (MMI) 21d = 51.02 +/- 6.02 ng/mL, N = 12 rats), when treated with 0.03% MMI in drinking water for 21 days, showed significantly reduced thyroid IRS-1 mRNA content. Since goiter was already established in these animals by MMI for 21 days, we also evaluated IRS-1 expression during goitrogenesis. Animals treated with MMI for different periods of time showed a progressive increase in thyroid weight (C = 22.18 +/- 1.21; MMI 5d = 32.83 +/- 1.48; MMI 7d = 31.1 +/- 3.25; MMI 10d = 33.8 +/- 1.25; MMI 14d = 45.5 +/- 2.56; MMI 18d = 53.0 +/- 3.01; MMI 21d = 61.9 +/- 3.92 mg, N = 9-15 animals per group) and serum TSH levels (C = 1.57 +/- 0.2; MMI 5d = 9.95 +/- 0.74; MMI 7d = 10.38 +/- 0.84; MMI 10d = 17.72 +/- 1.47; MMI 14d = 25.65 +/- 1.23; MMI 18d = 35.38 +/- 3.69; MMI 21d = 31.3 +/- 2.7 ng/mL, N = 9-15 animals per group). Thyroid IRS-1 mRNA expression increased progressively during goitrogenesis, being significantly higher by the 14th day of MMI treatment, and then started to decline, reaching the lowest values by the 21st day, when a significant reduction was detected. In the liver of these animals, however, a significant decrease of IRS-1 mRNA was detected after 14 days of MMI treatment, a mechanism probably involved in the insulin resistance that occurs in hypothyroidism. The increase in IRS-1 expression during goitrogenesis may represent

  16. Insulin Protects Cardiac Myocytes from Doxorubicin Toxicity by Sp1-Mediated Transactivation of Survivin

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Beom Seob; Oh, Jaewon; Kang, Sung Ku; Park, Sungha; Lee, Sang-Hak; Choi, Donghoon; Chung, Ji Hyung; Chung, Youn Wook; Kang, Seok-Min

    2015-01-01

    Insulin inhibits ischemia/reperfusion-induced myocardial apoptosis through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Survivin is a key regulator of anti-apoptosis against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Insulin increases survivin expression in cardiac myocytes to mediate cytoprotection. However, the mechanism by which survivin mediates the protective effect of insulin against doxorubicin-associated injury remains to be determined. In this study, we demonstrated that pretreatment of H9c2 cardiac myocytes with insulin resulted in a significant decrease in doxorubicin-induced apoptotic cell death by reducing cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. Doxorubicin-induced reduction of survivin mRNA and protein levels was also significantly perturbed by insulin pretreatment. Reducing survivin expression with survivin siRNA abrogated insulin-mediated inhibition of caspase-3 activation, suggesting that insulin signals to survivin inhibited caspase-3 activation. Interestingly, pretreatment of H9c2 cells with insulin or MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, inhibited doxorubicin-induced degradation of the transcription factor Sp1. ChIP assay showed that pretreatment with insulin inhibited doxorubicin-stimulated Sp1 dissociation from the survivin promoter. Finally using pharmacological inhibitors of the PI3K pathway, we showed that insulin-mediated activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 pathway prevented doxorubicin-induced proteasome-mediated degradation of Sp1. Taken together, insulin pretreatment confers a protective effect against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by promoting Sp1-mediated transactivation of survivin to inhibit apoptosis. Our study is the first to define a role for survivin in cellular protection by insulin against doxorubicin-associated injury and show that Sp1 is a critical factor in the transcriptional regulation of survivin. PMID:26271039

  17. Insulin resistance and hypertension: new insights.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Manoocher

    2015-03-01

    Insulin resistance is associated with hypertension. Nakamura et al. demonstrate in rodents and humans with insulin resistance that while the stimulatory effect of insulin on glucose uptake in adipocytes, mediated via insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), was severely diminished, its effect on salt reabsorption in the kidney proximal tubule, mediated via IRS2, was preserved. Compensatory hyperinsulinemia in individuals with insulin resistance may enhance salt absorption in the proximal tubule, resulting in a state of salt overload and hypertension.

  18. Endothelial Fcγ Receptor IIB Activation Blunts Insulin Delivery to Skeletal Muscle to Cause Insulin Resistance in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tanigaki, Keiji; Chambliss, Ken L; Yuhanna, Ivan S; Sacharidou, Anastasia; Ahmed, Mohamed; Atochin, Dmitriy N; Huang, Paul L; Shaul, Philip W; Mineo, Chieko

    2016-07-01

    Modest elevations in C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with type 2 diabetes. We previously revealed in mice that increased CRP causes insulin resistance and mice globally deficient in the CRP receptor Fcγ receptor IIB (FcγRIIB) were protected from the disorder. FcγRIIB is expressed in numerous cell types including endothelium and B lymphocytes. Here we investigated how endothelial FcγRIIB influences glucose homeostasis, using mice with elevated CRP expressing or lacking endothelial FcγRIIB. Whereas increased CRP caused insulin resistance in mice expressing endothelial FcγRIIB, mice deficient in the endothelial receptor were protected. The insulin resistance with endothelial FcγRIIB activation was due to impaired skeletal muscle glucose uptake caused by attenuated insulin delivery, and it was associated with blunted endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation in skeletal muscle. In culture, CRP suppressed endothelial cell insulin transcytosis via FcγRIIB activation and eNOS antagonism. Furthermore, in knock-in mice harboring constitutively active eNOS, elevated CRP did not invoke insulin resistance. Collectively these findings reveal that by inhibiting eNOS, endothelial FcγRIIB activation by CRP blunts insulin delivery to skeletal muscle to cause insulin resistance. Thus, a series of mechanisms in endothelium that impairs insulin movement has been identified that may contribute to type 2 diabetes pathogenesis. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  19. Short-term in vivo inhibition of insulin receptor substrate-1 expression leads to insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and increased adiposity.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Eliana P; De Souza, Cláudio T; Gasparetti, Alessandra L; Ueno, Mirian; Boschero, Antonio C; Saad, Mário J A; Velloso, Lício A

    2005-03-01

    Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) has an important role as an early intermediary between the insulin and IGF receptors and downstream molecules that participate in insulin and IGF-I signal transduction. Here we employed an antisense oligonucleotide (IRS-1AS) to inhibit whole-body expression of IRS-1 in vivo and evaluate the consequences of short-term inhibition of IRS-1 in Wistar rats. Four days of treatment with IRS-1AS reduced the expression of IRS-1 by 80, 75, and 65% (P < 0.05) in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue, respectively. This was accompanied by a 40% (P < 0.05) reduction in the constant of glucose decay during an insulin tolerance test, a 78% (P < 0.05) reduction in glucose consumption during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and a 90% (P < 0.05) increase in basal plasma insulin level. The metabolic effects produced by IRS-1AS were accompanied by a significant reduction in insulin-induced [Ser (473)] Akt phosphorylation in liver (85%, P < 0.05), skeletal muscle (40%, P < 0.05), and adipose tissue (85%, P < 0.05) and a significant reduction in insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of ERK in liver (20%, P < 0.05) and skeletal muscle (30%, P < 0.05). However, insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of ERK was significantly increased (60%, P < 0.05) in adipose tissue of IRS-1AS-treated rats. In rats treated with IRS-1AS for 8 d, a 100% increase (P < 0.05) in relative epididymal fat weight and a 120% (P < 0.05) increase in nuclear expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma were observed. Thus, acute inhibition of IRS-1 expression in rats leads to insulin resistance accompanied by activation of a growth-related pathway exclusively in white adipose tissue.

  20. The Impact of Low-Dose Insulin on Peripheral Nerve Insulin Receptor Signaling in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Kazuhiro; Baba, Masayuki; Suzuki, Susumu; Yagihashi, Soroku

    2013-01-01

    Background The precise mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects of insulin in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic animals remain unknown, but altered peripheral nerve insulin receptor signaling due to insulin deficiency might be one cause. Methodology and Principal Findings Diabetes was induced in 10-week-old, male Wistar rats by injecting them with STZ (45 mg/kg). They were assigned to one group that received half of an insulin implant (∼1 U/day; I-group, n = 11) or another that remained untreated (U-group, n = 10) for 6 weeks. The controls were age- and sex-matched, non-diabetic Wistar rats (C-group, n = 12). Low-dose insulin did not change haemoglobin A1c, which increased by 136% in the U-group compared with the C-group. Thermal hypoalgesia and mechanical hyperalgesia developed in the U-group, but not in the I-group. Sensory and motor nerve conduction velocities decreased in the U-group, whereas sensory nerve conduction velocity increased by 7% (p = 0.0351) in the I-group compared with the U-group. Western blots showed unaltered total insulin receptor (IR), but a 31% decrease and 3.1- and 4.0-fold increases in phosphorylated IR, p44, and p42 MAPK protein levels, respectively, in sciatic nerves from the U-group compared with the C-group. Phosphorylated p44/42 MAPK protein decreased to control levels in the I-group (p<0.0001). Conclusions and Significance Low-dose insulin deactivated p44/42 MAPK and ameliorated peripheral sensory nerve dysfunction in rats with STZ-induced diabetes. These findings support the notion that insulin deficiency per se introduces impaired insulin receptor signaling in type 1 diabetic neuropathy. PMID:24023699

  1. 4PS/insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2 is the alternative substrate of the insulin receptor in IRS-1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Patti, M E; Sun, X J; Bruening, J C; Araki, E; Lipes, M A; White, M F; Kahn, C R

    1995-10-20

    Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) is the major cytoplasmic substrate of the insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptors. Transgenic mice lacking IRS-1 are resistant to insulin and IGF-1, but exhibit significant residual insulin action which corresponds to the presence of an alternative high molecular weight substrate in liver and muscle. Recently, Sun et al. (Sun, X.-J., Wang, L.-M., Zhang, Y., Yenush, L. P., Myers, M. G., Jr., Glasheen, E., Lane, W.S., Pierce, J. H., and White, M. F. (1995) Nature 377, 173-177) purified and cloned 4PS, the major substrate of the IL-4 receptor-associated tyrosine kinase in myeloid cells, which has significant structural similarity to IRS-1. To determine if 4PS is the alternative substrate of the insulin receptor in IRS-1-deficient mice, we performed immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase assays using specific antibodies to 4PS. Following insulin stimulation, 4PS is rapidly phosphorylated in liver and muscle, binds to the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase, and activates the enzyme. Insulin stimulation also results in the association of 4PS with Grb 2 in both liver and muscle. In IRS-1-deficient mice, both the phosphorylation of 4PS and associated PI 3-kinase activity are enhanced, without an increase in protein expression. Immunodepletion of 4PS from liver and muscle homogenates removes most of the phosphotyrosine-associated PI 3-kinase activity in IRS-1-deficient mice. Thus, 4PS is the primary alternative substrate, i.e. IRS-2, which plays a major role in physiologic insulin signal transduction via both PI 3-kinase activation and Grb 2/Sos association. In IRS-1-deficient mice, 4PS/IRS-2 provides signal transduction to these two major pathways of insulin signaling.

  2. In skeletal muscle advanced glycation end products (AGEs) inhibit insulin action and induce the formation of multimolecular complexes including the receptor for AGEs.

    PubMed

    Cassese, Angela; Esposito, Iolanda; Fiory, Francesca; Barbagallo, Alessia P M; Paturzo, Flora; Mirra, Paola; Ulianich, Luca; Giacco, Ferdinando; Iadicicco, Claudia; Lombardi, Angela; Oriente, Francesco; Van Obberghen, Emmanuel; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro; Miele, Claudia

    2008-12-26

    Chronic hyperglycemia promotes insulin resistance at least in part by increasing the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We have previously shown that in L6 myotubes human glycated albumin (HGA) induces insulin resistance by activating protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha). Here we show that HGA-induced PKCalpha activation is mediated by Src. Coprecipitation experiments showed that Src interacts with both the receptor for AGE (RAGE) and PKCalpha in HGA-treated L6 cells. A direct interaction of PKCalpha with Src and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) has also been detected. In addition, silencing of IRS-1 expression abolished HGA-induced RAGE-PKCalpha co-precipitation. AGEs were able to induce insulin resistance also in vivo, as insulin tolerance tests revealed a significant impairment of insulin sensitivity in C57/BL6 mice fed a high AGEs diet (HAD). In tibialis muscle of HAD-fed mice, insulin-induced glucose uptake and protein kinase B phosphorylation were reduced. This was paralleled by a 2.5-fold increase in PKCalpha activity. Similarly to in vitro observations, Src phosphorylation was increased in tibialis muscle of HAD-fed mice, and co-precipitation experiments showed that Src interacts with both RAGE and PKCalpha. These results indicate that AGEs impairment of insulin action in the muscle might be mediated by the formation of a multimolecular complex including RAGE/IRS-1/Src and PKCalpha.

  3. Understanding the Mechanism of Insulin and Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF) Receptor Activation by IGF-II

    PubMed Central

    Alvino, Clair L.; Ong, Shee Chee; McNeil, Kerrie A.; Delaine, Carlie; Booker, Grant W.; Wallace, John C.; Forbes, Briony E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) promotes cell proliferation and survival and plays an important role in normal fetal development and placental function. IGF-II binds both the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) and insulin receptor isoform A (IR-A) with high affinity. Interestingly both IGF-II and the IR-A are often upregulated in cancer and IGF-II acts via both receptors to promote cancer proliferation. There is relatively little known about the mechanism of ligand induced activation of the insulin (IR) and IGF-1R. The recently solved IR structure reveals a folded over dimer with two potential ligand binding pockets arising from residues on each receptor half. Site-directed mutagenesis has mapped receptor residues important for ligand binding to two separate sites within the ligand binding pocket and we have recently shown that the IGFs have two separate binding surfaces which interact with the receptor sites 1 and 2. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we describe a series of partial IGF-1R and IR agonists generated by mutating Glu12 of IGF-II. By comparing receptor binding affinities, abilities to induce negative cooperativity and potencies in receptor activation, we provide evidence that residue Glu12 bridges the two receptor halves leading to receptor activation. Conclusions/Significance This study provides novel insight into the mechanism of receptor binding and activation by IGF-II, which may be important for the future development of inhibitors of its action for the treatment of cancer. PMID:22140443

  4. Decreased autophosphorylation of EGF receptor in insulin-deficient diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, M.; Kahn, C.R.; Maron, R.; White, M.F. )

    1988-04-01

    The authors have previously reported that despite an increase in receptor concentration, there is a decrease in autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor in insulin-deficient diabetic rats. To determine if other tyrosine kinases might be altered, they have studied the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor kinase in wheat germ agglutinin-purified, Triton X-100-solubilized liver membranes from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and the insulin-deficient BB rat. They find that autophosphorylation of EGF receptor is decreased in proportion to the severity of the diabetic state in STZ rats with a maximal decrease of 67%. A similar decrease in autophosphorylation was observed in diabetic BB rats that was partially normalized by insulin treatment. Separation of tryptic phosphopeptides by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed a decrease in labeling at all sites of autophosphorylation. A parallel decrease in EGF receptor phosphorylation was also found by immunoblotting with an antiphosphotyrosine antibody. EGF receptor concentration, determined by Scatchard analysis of {sup 125}I-labeled EGF binding, was decreased by 39% in the STZ rat and 27% in the diabetic BB rat. Thus autophosphorylation of EGF receptor, like that of the insulin receptor, is decreased in insulin-deficient rat liver. In the case of EGF receptor, this is due in part to a decrease in receptor number and in part to a decrease in the specific activity of the kinase.

  5. Synaptic NMDA Receptors Mediate Hypoxic Excitotoxic Death

    PubMed Central

    Wroge, Christine M.; Hogins, Joshua; Eisenman, Larry; Mennerick, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Excessive NMDA receptor activation and excitotoxicity underlies pathology in many neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders, including hypoxia/ischemia. Thus, the development of effective therapeutics for these disorders demands a complete understanding of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation during excitotoxic insults. The extrasynaptic NMDAR hypothesis posits that synaptic NMDARs are neurotrophic/neuroprotective and extrasynaptic NMDARs are neurotoxic. In part, the extrasynaptic hypothesis is built on observed selectivity for extrasynaptic receptors of a neuroprotective use-dependent NMDAR channel blocker, memantine. In rat hippocampal neurons we found that a neuroprotective concentration of memantine shows little selectivity for extrasynaptic NMDARs when all receptors are tonically activated by exogenous glutamate. This led us to test the extrasynaptic NMDAR hypothesis using metabolic challenge, where the source of excitotoxic glutamate buildup may be largely synaptic. Three independent approaches suggest strongly that synaptic receptors participate prominently in hypoxic excitotoxicity. First, block of glutamate transporters with a non-substrate antagonist exacerbated rather than prevented damage, consistent with a primarily synaptic source of glutamate. Second, selective, preblock of synaptic NMDARs with a slowly reversible, use-dependent antagonist protected nearly fully against prolonged hypoxic insult. Third, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), which degrades ambient but not synaptic glutamate, did not protect against hypoxia but protected against exogenous glutamate damage. Together, these results suggest that synaptic NMDARs can mediate excitotoxicity, particularly when the glutamate source is synaptic and when synaptic receptor contributions are rigorously defined. Moreover, the results suggest that in some situations therapeutically targeting extrasynaptic receptors may be inappropriate. PMID:22573696

  6. Solubilized placental membrane protein inhibits insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Strout, H.V. Jr.; Slater, E.E.

    1987-05-01

    Regulation of insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase (TK) activity may be important in modulating insulin action. Utilizing an assay which measures IR phosphorylation of angiotensin II (AII), the authors investigated whether fractions of TX-100 solubilized human placental membranes inhibited IR dependent AII phosphorylation. Autophosphorylated IR was incubated with membrane fractions before the addition of AII, and kinase inhibition measured by the loss of TSP incorporated in AII. An inhibitory activity was detected which was dose, time, and temperature dependent. The inhibitor was purified 200-fold by sequential chromatography on wheat germ agglutinin, DEAE, and hydroxyapatite. This inhibitory activity was found to correlate with an 80 KD protein which was electroeluted from preparative slab gels and rabbit antiserum raised. Incubation of membrane fractions with antiserum before the IRTK assay immunoprecipitated the inhibitor. Protein immunoblots of crude or purified fractions revealed only the 80 KD protein. Since IR autophosphorylation is crucial to IRTK activity, the authors investigated the state of IR autophosphorylation after treatment with inhibitor; no change was detected by phosphoamino acid analysis.

  7. Differences in the sites of phosphorylation of the insulin receptor in vivo and in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.F.; Takayama, S.; Kahn, C.R.

    1985-08-05

    Phosphorylation of the insulin receptor was studied in intact well differentiated hepatoma cells (Fao) and in a solubilized and partially purified receptor preparation obtained from these cells by affinity chromatography on wheat germ agglutinin agarose. Tryptic peptides containing the phosphorylation sites of the beta-subunit of the insulin receptor were analyzed by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Phosphoamino acid content of these peptides was determined by acid hydrolysis and high voltage electrophoresis. Separation of the phosphopeptides from unstimulated Fao cells revealed one major and two minor phosphoserine-containing peptides and a single minor phosphothreonine-containing peptide. Insulin (10(-7) M) increased the phosphorylation of the beta-subunit of the insulin receptor 3- to 4-fold in the intact Fao cell. After insulin stimulation, two phosphotyrosine-containing peptides were identified. Tyrosine phosphorylation reached a steady state within 20 s after the addition of insulin and remained nearly constant for 1 h. Under our experimental conditions, no significant change in the amount of (TSP)phosphoserine or (TSP)phosphothreonine associated with the beta-subunit was found during the initial response of cells to insulin. When the insulin receptor was extracted from the Fao cells and incubated in vitro with (gamma-TSP)ATP and MnS , very little phosphorylation occurred in the absence of insulin.

  8. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin gallate inhibits insulin stimulation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte mitogenesis via the 67-kDa laminin receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Ku, Hui-Chen; Chang, Hsin-Huei; Liu, Hsien-Chun; Hsiao, Chiao-Hsin; Lee, Meng-Jung; Hu, Yu-Jung; Hung, Pei-Fang; Liu, Chi-Wei; Kao, Yung-Hsi

    2009-07-01

    Insulin and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) have been reported to regulate fat cell mitogenesis and adipogenesis, respectively. This study investigated the pathways involved in EGCG modulation of insulin-stimulated mitogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. EGCG inhibited insulin stimulation of preadipocyte proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. EGCG also suppressed insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the insulin receptor-beta, insulin receptor (IR) substrates 1 and 2 (IRS1 and IRS2), and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway proteins, RAF1, MEK1/2, and ERK1/2, but not JNK. Furthermore, EGCG inhibited the association of IR with the IRS1 and IRS2 proteins, but not with the IRS4 protein. These data suggest that EGCG selectively affects particular types of IRS and MAPK family members. Generally, EGCG was more effective than epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin in modulating insulin-stimulated mitogenic signaling. We identified the EGCG receptor [also known as the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR)] in fat cells and found that its expression was sensitive to growth phase, tissue type, and differentiation state. Pretreatment of preadipocytes with 67LR antiserum prevented the effects of EGCG on insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS2, RAF1, and ERK1/2 and insulin-stimulated preadipocyte proliferation (cell number and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation). Moreover, EGCG tended to increase insulin-stimulated associations between the 67LR and IR, IRS1, IRS2, and IRS4 proteins. These data suggest that EGCG mediates anti-insulin signaling in preadipocyte mitogenesis via the 67LR pathway.

  9. Heterologous transmembrane signaling by a human insulin receptor-v-ros hybrid in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, L.; Morgan, D.O.; Jong, S.M.; Wang, L.H.; Roth, R.A.; Rutter, W.J.

    1987-08-01

    A hybrid receptor molecule composed of the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the human insulin receptor and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic (protein-tyrosine kinase) domains of the chicken sarcoma virus UR2 transforming protein p68/sup gag-ros/ has been constructed and expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The hybrid is processed normally into ..cap alpha.. and hybrid ..beta.. subunits, is expressed on the cell surface at high levels, and binds insulin with near-wild-type affinity. Furthermore, insulin stimulates the phosphorylation on tyrosine resides of the hybrid ..beta..-subunit in vivo and the phosphorylation of an exogeneous substrate (poly(Glu,Tyr)) in vitro. Thus the hybrid is capable of heterologous transmembrane signaling. However, the hybrid mediates neither the insulin-activated uptake of 2-deoxyglucose nor the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine into DNA, suggesting that the physiological response(s) mediated by ligand-activated protein-tyrosine kinases may utilize distinct intracellular mechanisms for postreceptor signaling

  10. Insulin stimulates transport of organic anion compounds mediated by organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1 in the human intestinal cell line Caco-2.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Taku; Koizumi, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Masaki; Ogura, Jiro; Horiuchi, Yuichi; Kimura, Yuki; Kondo, Ayuko; Furugen, Ayako; Narumi, Katsuya; Takahashi, Natsuko; Iseki, Ken

    2017-04-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1 (OATP2B1) is the major uptake transporter in the intestine, and transports various clinic