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Sample records for insulin-mediated glucose disposal

  1. Caffeine's impairment of insulin-mediated glucose disposal cannot be solely attributed to adrenaline in humans

    PubMed Central

    Battram, D S; Graham, T E; Dela, F

    2007-01-01

    Caffeine (CAF) impedes insulin-mediated glucose disposal (IMGD) and increases plasma adrenaline concentrations ([ADR]; 0.6 nm). While the antagonism of ADR abolishes the CAF effect, infusion of ADR (0.75 nm) has no effect on IMGD. We have now examined CAF and ADR in concert to determine whether or not they elicit an additive response on IMGD. We hypothesized that CAF + ADR would elicit a greater effect than either CAF or ADR alone (i.e. that CAF effects would not be solely attributed to ADR). Subjects (n = 8) completed four trials in a randomized manner. An isoglycaemic–hyperinsulinaemic clamp was performed 30 min after the following treatments were administered: (1) placebo capsules and saline infusion ([ADR]= 0.29 nm) (PL trial), (2) CAF capsules (dose = 5 mg kg−1) and saline infusion ([ADR]= 0.62 nm) (CAF trial), (3) PL capsules and ADR infusion ([ADR]= 1.19 nm) (ADR trial), and (4) CAF capsules (dose = 5 mg kg−1) and ADR infusion ([ADR]= 0.93 nm) (CAF + ADR trial). As expected, CAF, ADR and CAF + ADR decreased (P ≤ 0.05) IMGD compared to PL. CAF + ADR resulted in a more pronounced decrease in IMGD versus PL (42%) compared to CAF (26%) or ADR (24%) alone; however, the effect was not fully additive (P = 0.08). Furthermore, CAF decreased IMGD to a similar magnitude as ADR despite a 50% lower [ADR]. In summary, while ADR contributes to the CAF-induced impairment in IMGD, it is not solely responsible for caffeine's effects. PMID:17656440

  2. Carotid artery intima-media thickness is associated with insulin-mediated glucose disposal in nondiabetic normotensive offspring of type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Cardellini, Marina; Marini, Maria Adelaide; Frontoni, Simona; Hribal, Marta Letizia; Andreozzi, Francesco; Perticone, Francesco; Federici, Massimo; Lauro, Davide; Sesti, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether insulin resistance is independently associated with early manifestations of atherosclerosis. To this end, 176 normotensive offspring of type 2 diabetic patients were subjected to euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp to assess insulin sensitivity. Early atherosclerosis was studied by ultrasonography of the common carotid artery. Of the total 176 subjects, 145 were glucose tolerant, 18 had impaired fasting glucose, and 13 had impaired glucose tolerance. Univariate correlations showed that age, body mass index, waist, blood pressure, 2-h postchallenge glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, interleukin-6, fibrinogen, and white blood cell count were significantly correlated with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), whereas HDL cholesterol and glucose disposal showed a negative correlation. A stepwise multivariate regression analysis including sex, age, waist circumference, smoking status, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, 2-h postchallenge glucose, plasma IL-6, fibrinogen, white blood cell count, insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, and fasting insulin showed that the four variables that remained significantly associated with carotid IMT were waist circumference, insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, white blood cell count, and diastolic blood pressure, accounting for 33.7% of its variation. These findings support the concept that insulin sensitivity, rather than plasma insulin levels, is associated with early atherosclerosis in nondiabetic normotensive offspring of type 2 diabetic patients.

  3. Dietary substitution of medium-chain triglycerides improves insulin-mediated glucose metabolism in NIDDM subjects.

    PubMed

    Eckel, R H; Hanson, A S; Chen, A Y; Berman, J N; Yost, T J; Brass, E P

    1992-05-01

    Dietary medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) may improve insulin-mediated glucose metabolism. To examine this possibility, 10 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients, 4 hypertriglyceridemic, and 6 normotriglyceridemic nondiabetic control subjects were examined with a 5-day cross-over design, in which the short-term metabolic effects of a 40% fat diet containing 77.5% of fat calories as MCT were compared with an isocaloric long-chain triglyceride-containing diet. In diabetic patients, MCT failed to alter fasting serum glucose concentrations but reduced preprandial glycemic excursions by 45% (F = 7.9, P less than 0.01). On MCT, the amount of glucose needed to maintain euglycemia during an intravenous insulin infusion was increased in diabetic subjects by 30%, in hypertriglyceridemic subjects by 30%, and in normotriglyceridemic control subjects by 17%. MCT increased mean +/- SE insulin-mediated glucose disposal (4.52 +/- 0.56 vs. 2.89 +/- 0.21 mg.kg-1.min-1; n = 3, P less than 0.05) but failed to alter basal glucose metabolism or insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose output. Metabolic responses to MCT were observed independent of sulfonylurea therapy or severity of fasting hyperglycemia. No change in fasting serum insulin or triglyceride concentrations were seen with MCT administration. Although MCT increased mean fasting serum beta-hydroxybutyrate levels from 0.10 +/- 0.03 to 0.26 +/- 0.06 mM (P less than 0.05) in normotriglyceridemic nondiabetic subjects, no change was seen in diabetic patients. Thus, MCT-containing diets increased insulin-mediated glucose metabolism in both diabetic patients and nondiabetic subjects. In diabetic subjects, this effect appears to be mediated by increases in insulin-mediated glucose disposal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Insulin-mediated glucose disposal in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic subjects treated by continuous subcutaneous or intraperitoneal insulin fusion.

    PubMed

    Beylot, M; Khalfallah, Y; Laville, M; Sautot, G; Dechaud, H; Serusclat, P; Berthezene, F; Riou, J P; Mornex, R

    1987-01-01

    In order to determine if intraperitoneal insulin infusion could improve the insulin resistance of type 1 diabetic patients we have used the englycaemic insulin clamp technique in order to study the effects of insulin on glucose disposal in four C peptide negative type 1 diabetic patients treated by continuous subcutaneous or intraperitoneal insulin infusion and in five control subjects. Compared to control subjects, the diabetic patients treated by subcutaneous insulin infusion had a decreased maximal capacity of glucose utilization (diabetics: 12.6 +/- 0.3 mg.kg-1.min-1; controls: 15.7 +/- 0.7 mg/kg-1.min-1, p less than 0.01) and a trend towards higher half-maximally effective insulin concentrations (diabetics: 70 +/- 11 mU/l-1, controls: 48 +/- 4 mU/l-1). Treatment of the diabetic patients by intraperitoneal insulin infusion for 2 months decreased their mean peripheral free insulin levels (during subcutaneous infusion: 23.5 +/- 2.2 mU/l-1; during intraperitoneal infusion: 18.4 +/- 1.4 mU/l-1, p less than 0.05). However, mean daily insulin requirements were not decreased (during subcutaneous infusion: 0.59 +/- 0.05 U/kg-1.day-1; during intraperitoneal infusion: 0.57 +/- 0.03 U/kg-1.min-1). Moreover, the diabetic patients had a consistently lower maximal capacity of glucose utilization (12.6 +/- 0.7 mg kg-1.min-1) than control subjects (p less than 0.01) without modification of the half-maximally effective insulin concentration (62 +/- 10 mU.l-1). In conclusion, the only benefit of intraperitoneal insulin infusion was a reduction of peripheral free insulin levels; this decrease of peripheral insulinaemia was not associated with an improvement in the insulin resistance of diabetic patients.

  5. TUSC5 regulates insulin-mediated adipose tissue glucose uptake by modulation of GLUT4 recycling

    PubMed Central

    Beaton, Nigel; Rudigier, Carla; Moest, Hansjörg; Müller, Sebastian; Mrosek, Nadja; Röder, Eva; Rudofsky, Gottfried; Rülicke, Thomas; Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcova, Barbara; Augustin, Robert; Neubauer, Heike; Wolfrum, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Objective Failure to properly dispose of glucose in response to insulin is a serious health problem, occurring during obesity and is associated with type 2 diabetes development. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is facilitated by the translocation and plasma membrane fusion of vesicles containing glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), the rate-limiting step of post-prandial glucose disposal. Methods We analyzed the role of Tusc5 in the regulation of insulin-stimulated Glut4-mediated glucose uptake in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we measured Tusc5 expression in two patient cohorts. Results Herein, we report that TUSC5 controls insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes, in vitro and in vivo. TUSC5 facilitates the proper recycling of GLUT4 and other key trafficking proteins during prolonged insulin stimulation, thereby enabling proper protein localization and complete vesicle formation, processes that ultimately enable insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Tusc5 knockout mice exhibit impaired glucose disposal and TUSC5 expression is predictive of glucose tolerance in obese individuals, independent of body weight. Furthermore, we show that TUSC5 is a PPARγ target and in its absence the anti-diabetic effects of TZDs are significantly blunted. Conclusions Collectively, these findings establish TUSC5 as an adipose tissue-specific protein that enables proper protein recycling, linking the ubiquitous vesicle traffic machinery with tissue-specific insulin-mediated glucose uptake into adipose tissue and the maintenance of a healthy metabolic phenotype in mice and humans. PMID:26629404

  6. Central insulin-mediated regulation of hepatic glucose production [Review].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Insulin controls hepatic glucose production (HGP) and maintains glucose homeostasis through the direct action of hepatic insulin receptors, as well as the indirect action of insulin receptors in the central nervous system. Insulin acts on insulin receptors in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, activates ATP-sensitive potassium channels in a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent manner, induces hyperpolarization of the hypothalamic neurons, and regulates HGP via the vagus nerve. In the liver, central insulin action augments IL-6 expression in Kupffer cells and activates STAT3 transcription factors in hepatocytes. Activated STAT3 suppresses the gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes, thereby reducing HGP. It has become evident that nutrients such as glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids act upon the hypothalamus together with insulin, affecting HGP. On the other hand, HGP control by central insulin action is impeded in obesity and impeded by insulin resistance due to disturbance of PI3K signaling and inflammation in the hypothalamus or inhibition of STAT3 signaling in the liver. Although the mechanism of control of hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression by central insulin action is conserved across species, its importance in human glucose metabolism has not been made entirely clear and its elucidation is anticipated in the future.

  7. Use of a two-stage insulin infusion study to assess the relationship between insulin suppression of lipolysis and insulin-mediated glucose uptake in overweight/obese, nondiabetic women.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Tracey; Yee, Gail; Glassford, Alec; Lamendola, Cindy; Reaven, Gerald

    2011-12-01

    Differences in insulin regulation of free fatty acids (FFAs) are not readily apparent at the same insulin concentrations used to differentiate relative insulin-mediated glucose disposal. Resistance to insulin-mediated glucose disposal and higher daylong FFA concentrations occur more commonly in obese individuals. However, the relationship between the ability of insulin to suppress FFA release from adipose tissue and stimulate glucose disposal in muscle has not been clearly defined in this population. The current study was initiated to test the hypothesis that these 2 facets of insulin action are related, with greater defects in insulin-mediated glucose disposal associated with less effective insulin inhibition of FFA release from adipose tissue. Subjects included 56 healthy nondiabetic overweight/moderately obese women classified as insulin resistant or insulin sensitive based on whole-body glucose disposal. All underwent a modified 240-minute 2-stage insulin infusion with basal (∼15 µU/mL) and physiologically elevated (∼80 µU/mL) steady-state insulin concentrations. Plasma glucose, insulin, FFA, and glycerol were measured throughout. Whereas plasma glucose differed most during physiological hyperinsulinemia in insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive subjects, plasma FFA/glycerol differed most during basal insulin concentrations. The FFA concentrations during the basal insulin steady state correlated highly (r = 0.85, P < .001) with glucose concentrations during the hyperinsulinemic steady state. Overweight/moderately obese women exhibit dramatic differences in the ability of insulin to suppress plasma FFA, which correlate highly with differences in insulin-mediated glucose disposal. Variability in insulin regulation of FFA is most apparent at basal insulin concentrations, whereas differences in glucose disposal are most apparent during physiologic hyperinsulinemia. Both can be quantified using a simple 2-stage insulin infusion study, with first-stage FFA

  8. Relative contribution of glycogen synthesis and glycolysis to insulin-mediated glucose uptake. A dose-response euglycemic clamp study in normal and diabetic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Rossetti, L; Giaccari, A

    1990-01-01

    To examine the relationship between plasma insulin concentration and intracellular glucose metabolism in control and diabetic rats, we measured endogenous glucose production, glucose uptake, whole body glycolysis, muscle and liver glycogen synthesis, and rectus muscle glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) concentration basally and during the infusion of 2, 3, 4, 12, and 18 mU/kg.min of insulin. The contribution of glycolysis decreased and that of muscle glycogen synthesis increased as the insulin levels rose. Insulin-mediated glucose disposal was decreased by 20-30% throughout the insulin dose-response curve in diabetics compared with controls. While at low insulin infusions (2 and 3 mU/kg.min) reductions in both the glycolytic and glycogenic fluxes contributed to the defective tissue glucose uptake in diabetic rats, at the three higher insulin doses the impairment in muscle glycogen repletion accounted for all of the difference between diabetic and control rats. The muscle G-6-P concentration was decreased (208 +/- 11 vs. 267 +/- 18 nmol/g wet wt; P less than 0.01) compared with saline at the lower insulin infusion, but was gradually increased twofold (530 +/- 16; P less than 0.01 vs. basal) as the insulin concentration rose. The G-6-P concentration in diabetic rats was similar to control despite the reduction in glucose uptake. These data suggest that (a) glucose transport is the major determinant of glucose disposal at low insulin concentration, while the rate-limiting step shifts to an intracellular site at high physiological insulin concentration; and (b) prolonged moderate hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia determine two distinct cellular defects in skeletal muscle at the levels of glucose transport/phosphorylation and glycogen synthesis. PMID:2189891

  9. Insulin Mediated 14C-Glucose Incorporation Into Adipose Tissue: An Undergraduate Biochemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landman, A. D.; Eskin, N. A. M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which rat adipose tissue samples are exposed to labeled glucose; insulin is added to one sample. Subsequent scintillation counting demonstrates the ability of insulin to facilitate the entry of glucose into the tissue. (MLH)

  10. The reduced insulin-mediated glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic subjects may be of genetic origin--evidence from cultured myotubes.

    PubMed

    Gaster, Michael; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2004-09-06

    Several defects in response to insulin have been described in vivo and in vitro in type 2 diabetes: a decreased glucose transport, defective glucose oxidation and altered glycogen synthesis. At present, it is unknown whether glucose oxidation is primarily affected or secondarily affected by, e.g. increased free fatty acids (FFA). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects express a primarily or a FFA-induced reduced insulin-mediated glucose oxidation. We have therefore investigated glucose oxidation under basal, physiological conditions and during acute insulin stimulation with/without FFA. We found that myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects express a reduced insulin-stimulated increase in glucose oxidation. Moreover, an acute exposure to FFA reduces insulin-mediated glucose oxidation without alterations in glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis. Thus, we conclude that the diminished increase in insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation seen in type 2 diabetic subjects in vivo may be of genetic origin. Moreover, the glucose-fatty acid cycle seems not to be crucial for the pathophysiology of insulin resistance.

  11. Diabetes, insulin-mediated glucose metabolism and Sertoli/blood-testis barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Marco G.; Martins, Ana D.; Cavaco, José E.; Socorro, Sílvia; Oliveira, Pedro F.

    2013-01-01

    Blood testis barrier (BTB) is one of the tightest blood-barriers controlling the entry of substances into the intratubular fluid. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is an epidemic metabolic disease concurrent with falling fertility rates, which provokes severe detrimental BTB alterations. It induces testicular alterations, disrupting the metabolic cooperation between the cellular constituents of BTB, with dramatic consequences on sperm quality and fertility. As Sertoli cells are involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis, providing nutritional support for germ cells, any metabolic alteration in these cells derived from DM may be responsible for spermatogenesis disruption, playing a crucial role in fertility/subfertility associated with this pathology. These cells have a glucose sensing machinery that reacts to hormonal fluctuations and several mechanisms to counteract hyper/hypoglycemic events. The role of DM on Sertoli/BTB glucose metabolism dynamics and the metabolic molecular mechanisms through which DM and insulin deregulation alter its functioning, affecting male reproductive potential will be discussed. PMID:24665384

  12. Effects of adrenaline on whole-body glucose metabolism and insulin-mediated regulation of glycogen synthase and PKB phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jørgen; Ruge, Toralph; Lai, Yu-Chiang; Svensson, Maria K; Eriksson, Jan W

    2011-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of adrenaline on insulin-mediated regulation of glucose and fat metabolism with focus on regulation of skeletal muscle PKB, GSK-3, and glycogen synthase (GS) phosphorylation. Ten healthy subjects (5 men and 5 women) received a 240-minute intravenous infusion of adrenaline (0.05 μg/[kg min]) or saline; after 120 minutes, a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was added. Adrenaline infusion increased blood glucose concentration by approximately 50%, but the hyperinsulinemic clamp normalized blood glucose within 30 minutes. Glucose infusion rate during the last hour was approximately 60% lower during adrenaline infusion compared with saline (4.3 ± 0.5 vs 11.2 ± 0.6 mg/kg lean body mass per minute). Insulin increased PKB Ser⁴⁷³, PKB Thr³⁰⁸, and GSK-3β Ser⁹ phosphorylation in skeletal muscles; coinfusion of adrenaline did not influence insulin-stimulated PKB and GSK-3 phosphorylation. Adrenaline alone did not influence phosphorylation of PKB and GSK-3β. Insulin increased GS fractional activity and decreased GS Ser⁶⁴¹ and Ser⁶⁴⁵,⁶⁴⁹,⁶⁵³,⁶⁵⁷ phosphorylation. In the presence of adrenaline, insulin did neither activate GS nor dephosphorylate GS Ser⁶⁴¹. Surprisingly, GS Ser⁷ phosphorylation was not influenced by adrenaline. Adrenaline increased plasma lactate concentration; and muscle glycogen content was reduced in skeletal muscle the day after adrenaline infusion, supporting that insulin does not stimulate glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscles when adrenaline is present. In conclusion, adrenaline did not influence basal or insulin-stimulated PKB and GSK-3β phosphorylation in muscles, but completely blocked insulin-mediated GS activation and Ser⁶⁴¹ dephosphorylation. Still, insulin normalized adrenaline-mediated hyperglycemia.

  13. Natural anti-diabetic compound 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-D-glucopyranose binds to insulin receptor and activates insulin-mediated glucose transport signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunsheng; Kim, Jaekyung; Li, Jing; Liu, Fang; Liu, Xueqing; Himmeldirk, Klaus; Ren, Yulin; Wagner, Thomas E; Chen, Xiaozhuo

    2005-10-21

    Insulin mimetics from natural sources are potential therapeutics that can act alone or supplement insulin and other anti-diabetic drugs in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. We recently reported the insulin-like glucose transport stimulatory activity of tannic acid (TA) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In this study, we find that chemically synthesized 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (beta-PGG), one of the components of TA, as well as its natural anomer alpha-PGG possess activity. Mechanistic studies in adipocytes with alpha-PGG, the more potent of the two anomers, reveal that inhibitors that block the insulin-mediated glucose transport, including one that inhibits the insulin receptor (IR), also completely abolish the glucose transport activated by alpha-PGG. In addition, alpha-PGG induces phosphorylation of the IR and Akt, activates PI 3-kinase, and stimulates membrane translocation of GLUT 4. Receptor binding studies indicate that alpha-PGG binds to the IR and affects the binding between insulin and IR by reducing the maximum binding of insulin to IR without significantly altering the binding affinity of insulin to IR. Western blotting analysis of the products of a cross-linking reaction suggests that alpha-PGG may bind to IR at a site located on the alpha-subunit of the receptor. Animal studies demonstrate that PGG reduces blood glucose levels and improves glucose tolerance in diabetic and obese animals. Our results suggest that PGG may serve as a model for the development of new types of anti-diabetic and anti-metabolic syndrome therapeutics.

  14. T-1032, a cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, acutely blocks physiologic insulin-mediated muscle haemodynamic effects and glucose uptake in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Hema; Richards, Stephen M; Rattigan, Stephen; Clark, Michael G

    2003-12-01

    1. Cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors have been shown to alter blood flow in specific tissues by potentiating local NO-dependent vasodilatory mechanisms. Since the haemodynamic effects of physiologic insulin, particularly capillary recruitment, may be critical for muscle glucose uptake in vivo and are blocked by inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase, we have explored the acute effects of the specific cGMP phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor T-1032 on physiologic insulin action in anaesthetized healthy rats in vivo. 2. Whole-body glucose infusion (GIR), femoral blood flow (FBF), hind leg vascular resistance (VR), hind leg glucose uptake (HGU), 2-deoxyglucose uptake into muscles of the lower leg (R'g), hind leg metabolism of infused 1-methylxanthine (1-MX), a measure of capillary recruitment, and muscle cGMP were determined. The experimental groups were T-1032 (10 microg min-1 kg-1) infused for 1 h before and during a euglycaemic insulin clamp (3 mU min-1 kg-1 x 2 h), T-1032 infused for 3 h with saline, T-1032 during a 2 h clamp, T-1032 with saline for 2 h, and a 2 h saline control. 3. Insulin increased GIR from zero to 13 mg min-1 kg-1, HGU from 0.1+/-0.01 to 0.43+/-0.05 micromol min-1, R'g and 1-MX, marginally increased FBF, and had no effect on blood pressure or heart rate. T-1032 alone had no effect on blood pressure, heart rate, FBF, VR, HGU, R'g or 1-MX, but increased muscle cGMP. T-1032 1 h before and during insulin completely blocked GIR (1 h), HGU (2 h), R'g (2 h), and 1-MX (2 h). T-1032 commenced with insulin had only partial blocking activity against insulin. 4. We conclude that T-1032 is a potent acutely acting inhibitor of the muscle effects of physiologic insulin on capillary recruitment and glucose uptake in vivo. These, together with inhibition of whole-body glucose infusion during insulin, may caution against the use of isoenzyme-5-specific cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase inhibitors as therapeutic agents.

  15. Ophthalmic glucose monitoring using disposable contact lenses--a review.

    PubMed

    Badugu, Ramachandram; Lakowicz, Joseph R; Geddes, Chris D

    2004-09-01

    We have developed a range of disposable and colorless tear glucose sensing contact lenses, using off-the-shelf lenses embedded with new water soluble, highly fluorescent and glucose sensitive boronic acid containing fluorophores. The new lenses are readily able to track tear glucose levels and therefore blood glucose levels, which are ideally suited for potential use by diabetics. The fluorescence responses from the lenses can be monitored using simple excitation and emission detection devices. The novelty of our approach is two fold. Firstly, the notion of sensing extremely low glucose concentrations in tears, which track blood levels, by our contact lens approach, and secondly, the unique compatibility of our new glucose signaling probes with the internal mildly acidic contact lens environment. The new lenses are therefore ideal for the non-invasive and continuous monitoring of tear glucose, with about 15-min response time, and a measured shelf life in excess of 3 months. In this review article, we show that fluorescence based signaling using plastic disposable lenses, which have already been industrially optimized with regard to vision correction and oxygen/analyte permeability etc, may a notable alternative to invasive and random finger pricking, the most widely used glucose monitoring technology by diabetics.

  16. Ophthalmic Glucose Monitoring Using Disposable Contact Lenses—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Badugu, Ramachandram; Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Geddes, Chris D.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a range of disposable and colorless tear glucose sensing contact lenses, using off-the-shelf lenses embedded with new water soluble, highly fluorescent and glucose sensitive boronic acid containing fluorophores. The new lenses are readily able to track tear glucose levels and therefore blood glucose levels, which are ideally suited for potential use by diabetics. The fluorescence responses from the lenses can be monitored using simple excitation and emission detection devices. The novelty of our approach is two fold. Firstly, the notion of sensing extremely low glucose concentrations in tears, which track blood levels, by our contact lens approach, and secondly, the unique compatibility of our new glucose signaling probes with the internal mildly acidic contact lens environment. The new lenses are therefore ideal for the non-invasive and continuous monitoring of tear glucose, with about 15-min response time, and a measured shelf life in excess of 3 months. In this review article, we show that fluorescence based signaling using plastic disposable lenses, which have already been industrially optimized with regard to vision correction and oxygen/analyte permeability etc, may a notable alternative to invasive and random finger pricking, the most widely used glucose monitoring technology by diabetics. PMID:15617269

  17. Taurine exerts hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, improves insulin-mediated glucose transport signaling pathway in heart and ameliorates cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Joydeep; Vasan, Vandana; Sil, Parames C.

    2012-01-15

    Hyperlipidemia, inflammation and altered antioxidant profiles are the usual complications in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of taurine in diabetes associated cardiac complications using a rat model. Rats were made diabetic by alloxan (ALX) (single i.p. dose of 120 mg/kg body weight) and left untreated or treated with taurine (1% w/v, orally, in water) for three weeks either from the day of ALX exposure or after the onset of diabetes. Animals were euthanized after three weeks. ALX-induced diabetes decreased body weight, increased glucose level, decreased insulin content, enhanced the levels of cardiac damage markers and altered lipid profile in the plasma. Moreover, it increased oxidative stress (decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH/GSSG ratio, increased xanthine oxidase enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and ROS generation) and enhanced the proinflammatory cytokines levels, activity of myeloperoxidase and nuclear translocation of NFκB in the cardiac tissue of the experimental animals. Taurine treatment could, however, result to a decrease in the elevated blood glucose and proinflammatory cytokine levels, diabetes-evoked oxidative stress, lipid profiles and NFκB translocation. In addition, taurine increased GLUT 4 translocation to the cardiac membrane by enhanced phosphorylation of IR and IRS1 at tyrosine and Akt at serine residue in the heart. Results also suggest that taurine could protect cardiac tissue from ALX induced apoptosis via the regulation of Bcl2 family and caspase 9/3 proteins. Taken together, taurine supplementation in regular diet could play a beneficial role in regulating diabetes and its associated complications in the heart. Highlights: ► Taurine controls blood glucose via protection of pancreatic β cells in diabetic rat. ► Taurine controls blood glucose via increasing the insulin level in diabetic rat. ► Taurine improves cardiac AKT/GLUT4 signaling

  18. Strength training increases insulin-mediated glucose uptake, GLUT4 content, and insulin signaling in skeletal muscle in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Holten, Mads K; Zacho, Morten; Gaster, Michael; Juel, Carsten; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Dela, Flemming

    2004-02-01

    Strength training represents an alternative to endurance training for patients with type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the effect on insulin action and key proteins in skeletal muscle, and the necessary volume of strength training is unknown. A total of 10 type 2 diabetic subjects and 7 healthy men (control subjects) strength-trained one leg three times per week for 6 weeks while the other leg remained untrained. Each session lasted no more than 30 min. After strength training, muscle biopsies were obtained, and an isoglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with arterio-femoral venous catheterization of both legs was carried out. In general, qualitatively similar responses were obtained in both groups. During the clamp, leg blood flow was higher (P < 0.05) in trained versus untrained legs, but despite this, arterio-venous extraction glucose did not decrease in trained legs. Thus, leg glucose clearance was increased in trained legs (P < 0.05) and more than explained by increases in muscle mass. Strength training increased protein content of GLUT4, insulin receptor, protein kinase B-alpha/beta, glycogen synthase (GS), and GS total activity. In conclusion, we found that strength training for 30 min three times per week increases insulin action in skeletal muscle in both groups. The adaptation is attributable to local contraction-mediated mechanisms involving key proteins in the insulin signaling cascade.

  19. Effects of GLP-1 on Forearm Vasodilator Function and Glucose Disposal During Hyperinsulinemia in the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tesauro, Manfredi; Schinzari, Francesca; Adamo, Angelo; Rovella, Valentina; Martini, Francesca; Mores, Nadia; Barini, Angela; Pitocco, Dario; Ghirlanda, Giovanni; Lauro, Davide; Campia, Umberto; Cardillo, Carmine

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have impaired insulin-induced enhancement of vasodilator responses. The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), beyond its effects on blood glucose, has beneficial actions on vascular function. This study, therefore, aimed to assess whether GLP-1 affects insulin-stimulated vasodilator reactivity in patients with the MetS. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Forearm blood flow responses to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were assessed in MetS patients before and after the addition of GLP-1 to an intra-arterial infusion of saline (n = 5) or insulin (n = 5). The possible involvement of oxidative stress in the vascular effects of GLP-1 in this setting was investigated by infusion of vitamin C (n = 5). The receptor specificity of GLP-1 effect during hyperinsulinemia was assessed by infusing its metabolite GLP-1(9-36) (n = 5). The metabolic actions of GLP-1 were also tested by analyzing forearm glucose disposal during hyperinsulinemia (n = 5). RESULTS In MetS patients, GLP-1 enhanced endothelium-dependent and -independent responses to ACh and SNP, respectively, during hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.001 for both), but not during saline (P > 0.05 for both). No changes in vasodilator reactivity to ACh and SNP were seen after GLP-1 was added to insulin and vitamin C (P > 0.05 for both) and after GLP-1(9-36) was given during hyperinsulinemia (P > 0.05 for both). Also, GLP-1 did not affect forearm glucose extraction and uptake during hyperinsulinemia (P > 0.05 for both). CONCLUSIONS In patients with the MetS, GLP-1 improves insulin-mediated enhancement of endothelium-dependent and -independent vascular reactivity. This effect may be influenced by vascular oxidative stress and is possibly exerted through a receptor-mediated mechanism. PMID:23069838

  20. Insulin-mediated hypokalemia and paralysis in familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Minaker, K L; Meneilly, G S; Flier, J S; Rowe, J W

    1988-06-01

    To elucidate a potential role for insulin-mediated extra-renal potassium disposal in the clinical syndrome of hypokalemic periodic paralysis, an obese affected man was studied using the euglycemic insulin clamp, which, in normal and obese subjects, produces predictable, insulin dose-dependent declines in plasma potassium levels. During a 20 mU/m2/minute euglycemic clamp (insulin level, 88 microU/ml) procedure, while the patient with hypokalemic periodic paralysis demonstrated severe resistance to insulin-mediated glucose uptake (glucose uptake 50 percent of that of normal control subjects, n = 17), his plasma potassium declined to a degree similar to that seen in normal subjects. During a subsequent higher dose, 200 mU/m2/minute insulin infusion (insulin level, 914 microU/ml), plasma potassium declined to 2.5 meq/liter, a value significantly below that seen in normal (n = 19) (3.3 +/- 0.1 meq/liter) and obese (n = 6) (3.2 +/- 0.1 meq/liter) subjects. During this study, paralysis began in the patient's hand and forearm at the potassium nadir and lasted three hours, despite restoration of normokalemia 30 minutes after paralysis began. Glucose disposal rates during this high-dose insulin infusion were one-half that seen in lean control subjects (n = 19) and similar to those in obese control subjects. If these findings are representative of hypokalemic periodic paralysis and can be generalized to larger numbers of patients, they indicate several new features of this syndrome. The ability of insulin to induce hypokalemia is enhanced in this syndrome even in the presence of marked coexistent obesity-related resistance to the action of insulin to promote glucose utilization. Enhanced sensitivity of potassium uptake systems to activation by insulin (and other factors) may be a central feature of this syndrome. Additionally, paralytic hypokalemia can be induced during a euglycemic insulin clamp procedure, which could be utilized as a diagnostic test for this syndrome.

  1. Determinants of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in middle-aged, premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Toth, M J; Sites, C K; Cefalu, W T; Matthews, D E; Poehlman, E T

    2001-07-01

    Controversy exists regarding the relative importance of adiposity, physical fitness, and physical activity in the regulation of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. To address this issue, we measured insulin-stimulated glucose disposal [mg. kg fat-free mass (FFM)(-1). min(-1); oxidative and nonoxidative components] in 45 nondiabetic, nonobese, premenopausal women (mean +/- SD; 47 +/- 3 yr) by use of hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (40 mU. m(-2). min(-1)) and [6,6-2H2]glucose dilution techniques. We also measured body composition, abdominal fat distribution, thigh muscle fat content, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), and physical activity energy expenditure ((2)H(2)(18)O kinetics) as possible correlates of glucose disposal. VO2 max was the strongest correlate of glucose disposal (r = 0.63, P < 0.01), whereas whole body and abdominal adiposity showed modest associations (range of r values from -0.32 to -0.46, P < 0.05 to P < 0.01). A similar pattern of correlations was observed for nonoxidative glucose disposal. None of the variables measured correlated with oxidative glucose disposal. The relationship of VO2 max to glucose disposal persisted after statistical control for FFM, percent body fat, and intra-abdominal fat (r = 0.40, P < 0.01). In contrast, correlations of total and regional adiposity measures to insulin sensitivity were no longer significant after statistical adjustment for VO2 max. VO2 max was the only variable to enter stepwise regression models as a significant predictor of total and nonoxidative glucose disposal. Our results highlight the importance of VO2 max as a determinant of glucose disposal and suggest that it may be a stronger determinant of variation in glucose disposal than total and regional adiposity in nonobese, nondiabetic, premenopausal women.

  2. Dapagliflozin improves muscle insulin sensitivity but enhances endogenous glucose production.

    PubMed

    Merovci, Aurora; Solis-Herrera, Carolina; Daniele, Giuseppe; Eldor, Roy; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Tripathy, Devjit; Xiong, Juan; Perez, Zandra; Norton, Luke; Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A; DeFronzo, Ralph A

    2014-02-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia impairs insulin action, resulting in glucotoxicity, which can be ameliorated in animal models by inducing glucosuria with renal glucose transport inhibitors. Here, we examined whether reduction of plasma glucose with a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor could improve insulin-mediated tissue glucose disposal in patients with type 2 diabetes. Eighteen diabetic men were randomized to receive either dapagliflozin (n = 12) or placebo (n = 6) for 2 weeks. We measured insulin-mediated whole body glucose uptake and endogenous glucose production (EGP) at baseline and 2 weeks after treatment using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. Dapagliflozin treatment induced glucosuria and markedly lowered fasting plasma glucose. Insulin-mediated tissue glucose disposal increased by approximately 18% after 2 weeks of dapagliflozin treatment, while placebo-treated subjects had no change in insulin sensitivity. Surprisingly, following dapagliflozin treatment, EGP increased substantially and was accompanied by an increase in fasting plasma glucagon concentration. Together, our data indicate that reduction of plasma glucose with an agent that works specifically on the kidney to induce glucosuria improves muscle insulin sensitivity. However, glucosuria induction following SGLT2 inhibition is associated with a paradoxical increase in EGP. These results provide support for the glucotoxicity hypothesis, which suggests that chronic hyperglycemia impairs insulin action in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

  3. MKR mice have increased dynamic glucose disposal despite metabolic inflexibility, and hepatic and peripheral insulin insensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Vaitheesvaran, B.; LeRoith, D.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Recent work has shown that there can be significant differences when glucose disposal is assessed for high-fat induced insulin resistance by static clamp methods vs dynamic assessment during a stable isotope i.p. glucose tolerance test. MKR mice, though lean, have severe insulin resistance and decreased muscle fatty acid oxidation. Our goal was to assess dynamic vs static glucose disposal in MKR mice, and to correlate glucose disposal and muscle–adipose–liver flux interactions with metabolic flexibility (indirect calorimetry) and muscle characteristics. Methods Stable isotope flux phenotyping was performed using [6,6-2H2]glucose, [U-13C6]glucose and [2-13C]glycerol. Muscle triacylglycerol (TAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) content was assessed by thin layer chromatography, and histological determination of fibre type and cytochrome c activity performed. Metabolic flexibility was assessed by indirect calorimetry. Results Indirect calorimetry showed that MKR mice used more glucose than FVB/N mice during fasting (respiratory exchange ratio [RER] 0.88 vs 0.77, respectively). Compared with FVB/N mice, MKR mice had faster dynamic glucose disposal, despite increased whole-muscle DAG and TAG, and similar hepatic glucose production with higher fasting insulin and unchanged basal glucose. Fed MKR muscle had more glycogen, and increased levels of GLUT1 and GLUT4 than FVB/N muscle. Histology indicated that MKR soleus had mildly decreased cytochrome c activity overall and more type II (glycolytic) fibres compared with that in FVB/N mice. Conclusions/interpretation MKR muscle adapts to using glucose, with more type II fibres present in red muscle. Fasting RER is elevated and glucose disposal during an i.p. glucose tolerance test is accelerated despite increased muscle DAG and TAG. Metabolic inflexibility may result from the compensatory use of fuel that can be best utilised for energy requirements; static vs dynamic glucose disposal assessments may measure

  4. Ethnic differences in glucose disposal, hepatic insulin sensitivity, and endogenous glucose production among African American and European American women.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Amy C; Alvarez, Jessica A; Granger, Wesley M; Ovalle, Fernando; Gower, Barbara A

    2012-05-01

    Intravenous glucose tolerance tests have demonstrated lower whole-body insulin sensitivity (S(I)) among African Americans (AA) compared with European Americans (EA). Whole-body S(I) represents both insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, primarily by skeletal muscle, and insulin's suppression of endogenous glucose production (EGP) by liver. A mathematical model was recently introduced that allows for distinction between disposal and hepatic S(I). The purpose of this study was to examine specific indexes of S(I) among AA and EA women to determine whether lower whole-body S(I) in AA may be attributed to insulin action at muscle, liver, or both. Participants were 53 nondiabetic, premenopausal AA and EA women. Profiles of EGP and indexes of Disposal S(I) and Hepatic S(I) were calculated by mathematical modeling and incorporation of a stable isotope tracer ([6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose) into the intravenous glucose tolerance test. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. After adjustment for percentage fat, both Disposal S(I) and Hepatic S(I) were lower among AA (P = .009 for both). Time profiles for serum insulin and EGP revealed higher peak insulin response and corresponding lower EGP among AA women compared with EA. Indexes from a recently introduced mathematical model suggest that lower whole-body S(I) among nondiabetic AA women is due to both hepatic and peripheral components. Despite lower Hepatic S(I), AA displayed lower EGP, resulting from higher postchallenge insulin levels. Future research is needed to determine the physiological basis of lower insulin sensitivity among AA and its implications for type 2 diabetes mellitus risk.

  5. Effect of ovarian suppression with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on glucose disposal and insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Toth, Michael J; Cooper, Brian C; Pratley, Richard E; Mari, Andrea; Matthews, Dwight E; Casson, Peter R

    2008-06-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that ovarian hormones influence glucose homeostasis, although their exact role in humans has not been clearly defined. In the present study, we sought to test the hypothesis that ovarian hormones regulate glucose homeostasis by examining the effect of pharmacologically induced ovarian hormone deficiency on glucose disposal and insulin secretion. Young, healthy women with regular menstrual patterns were studied during the follicular and luteal phases of their cycle at baseline and after 2 mo of treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa; n = 7) or placebo (n = 6). Using hyperglycemic clamps, in combination with stable isotope-labeled (i.e., (13)C and (2)H) glucose tracers, we measured glucose disposal and insulin secretion. Additionally, we assessed body composition and regional fat distribution using radiologic imaging techniques as well as glucoregulatory hormones. Ovarian hormone suppression with GnRHa did not alter body composition, abdominal fat distribution, or thigh tissue composition. There was no effect of ovarian suppression on total, oxidative, or nonoxidative glucose disposal expressed relative to plasma insulin level. Similarly, no effect of ovarian hormone deficiency was observed on first- or second-phase insulin secretion or insulin clearance. Finally, ovarian hormone deficiency was associated with an increase in circulating adiponectin levels but no change in leptin concentration. Our findings suggest that a brief period of ovarian hormone deficiency in young, healthy, eugonadal women does not alter glucose disposal index or insulin secretion, supporting the conclusion that ovarian hormones play a minimal role in regulating glucose homeostasis. Our data do, however, support a role for ovarian hormones in the regulation of plasma adiponectin levels.

  6. Disposable amperometric biosensor based on nanostructured bacteriophages for glucose detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yu Ri; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Ju Hwan; Nam, Chang Hoon; Kim, Soo Won

    2010-10-01

    The selection of electrode material profoundly influences biosensor science and engineering, as it heavily influences biosensor sensitivity. Here we propose a novel electrochemical detection method using a working electrode consisting of bio-nanowires from genetically modified filamentous phages and nanoparticles. fd-tet p8MMM filamentous phages displaying a three-methionine (MMM) peptide on the major coat protein pVIII (designated p8MMM phages) were immobilized on the active area of an electrochemical sensor through physical adsorption and chemical bonding. Bio-nanowires composed of p8MMM phages and silver nanoparticles facilitated sensitive, rapid and selective detection of particular molecules. We explored whether the composite electrode with bio-nanowires was an effective platform to detect the glucose oxidase. The current response of the bio-nanowire sensor was high at various glucose concentrations (0.1 µm-0.1 mM). This method provides a considerable advantage to demonstrate analyte detection over low concentration ranges. Especially, phage-enabled bio-nanowires can serve as receptors with high affinity and specificity for the detection of particular biomolecules and provide a convenient platform for designing site-directed multifunctional scaffolds based on bacteriophages and may serve as a simple method for label-free detection.

  7. Wearable/disposable sweat-based glucose monitoring device with multistage transdermal drug delivery module

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunjae; Song, Changyeong; Hong, Yong Seok; Kim, Min Sung; Cho, Hye Rim; Kang, Taegyu; Shin, Kwangsoo; Choi, Seung Hong; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical analysis of sweat using soft bioelectronics on human skin provides a new route for noninvasive glucose monitoring without painful blood collection. However, sweat-based glucose sensing still faces many challenges, such as difficulty in sweat collection, activity variation of glucose oxidase due to lactic acid secretion and ambient temperature changes, and delamination of the enzyme when exposed to mechanical friction and skin deformation. Precise point-of-care therapy in response to the measured glucose levels is still very challenging. We present a wearable/disposable sweat-based glucose monitoring device integrated with a feedback transdermal drug delivery module. Careful multilayer patch design and miniaturization of sensors increase the efficiency of the sweat collection and sensing process. Multimodal glucose sensing, as well as its real-time correction based on pH, temperature, and humidity measurements, maximizes the accuracy of the sensing. The minimal layout design of the same sensors also enables a strip-type disposable device. Drugs for the feedback transdermal therapy are loaded on two different temperature-responsive phase change nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are embedded in hyaluronic acid hydrogel microneedles, which are additionally coated with phase change materials. This enables multistage, spatially patterned, and precisely controlled drug release in response to the patient’s glucose level. The system provides a novel closed-loop solution for the noninvasive sweat-based management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:28345030

  8. Differential regulation of baicalin and scutellarin on AMPK and Akt in promoting adipose cell glucose disposal.

    PubMed

    Yang, Le-Le; Xiao, Na; Liu, Jinfeng; Liu, Kang; Liu, Baolin; Li, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2017-02-01

    Baicalin and scutellarin, two flavonoid glucuronic acids isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis, exhibit beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. Baicalin and scutellarin are similar in structure except scutellarin has an additional hydroxyl at composition C-4'. In this work, we observed that baicalin and scutellarin promoted glucose disposal in mice and in adipocytes. Baicalin selectively increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), while scutellarin selectively enhanced Akt phosphorylation. Both of them increased AS160 phosphorylation and glucose uptake in basal condition. AMPK inhibitor or knockdown of AMPK by siRNA blocked baicalin-induced AS160 phosphorylation and glucose uptake, but showed no effects on scutellarin. In contrast, Akt inhibitor and knockdown of Akt with siRNA decreased scutellarin-stimulated glucose uptake but had no effects on baicalin. The molecular dynamic simulations analysis showed that the binding energy of baicalin to AMPK (-34.30kcal/mol) was more favorable than scutellarin (-21.27kcal/mol), while the binding energy of scutellarin (-29.81kcal/mol) to Akt was much more favorable than baicalin (4.04kcal/mol). Interestingly, a combined treatment with baicalin and scutellarin acted synergistically to enhance glucose uptake in adipocytes (combination index: 0.94-0.046). In conclusion, baicalin and scutellarin, though structurally similar, promoted glucose disposal in adipocytes by differential regulation on AMPK and Akt activity. Our data provide insight that multicomponent herbal medicines may act synergistically on multiple targets.

  9. Facile and scalable disposable sensor based on laser engraved graphene for electrochemical detection of glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tehrani, Farshad; Bavarian, Behzad

    2016-06-01

    A novel and highly sensitive disposable glucose sensor strip was developed using direct laser engraved graphene (DLEG) decorated with pulse deposited copper nanocubes (CuNCs). The high reproducibility (96.8%), stability (97.4%) and low cost demonstrated by this 3-step fabrication method indicates that it could be used for high volume manufacturing of disposable glucose strips. The fabrication method also allows for a high degree of flexibility, allowing for control of the electrode size, design, and functionalization method. Additionally, the excellent selectivity and sensitivity (4,532.2 μA/mM.cm2), low detection limit (250 nM), and suitable linear range of 25 μM–4 mM, suggests that these sensors may be a great potential platform for glucose detection within the physiological range for tear, saliva, and/or sweat.

  10. Facile and scalable disposable sensor based on laser engraved graphene for electrochemical detection of glucose

    PubMed Central

    Tehrani, Farshad; Bavarian, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    A novel and highly sensitive disposable glucose sensor strip was developed using direct laser engraved graphene (DLEG) decorated with pulse deposited copper nanocubes (CuNCs). The high reproducibility (96.8%), stability (97.4%) and low cost demonstrated by this 3-step fabrication method indicates that it could be used for high volume manufacturing of disposable glucose strips. The fabrication method also allows for a high degree of flexibility, allowing for control of the electrode size, design, and functionalization method. Additionally, the excellent selectivity and sensitivity (4,532.2 μA/mM.cm2), low detection limit (250 nM), and suitable linear range of 25 μM–4 mM, suggests that these sensors may be a great potential platform for glucose detection within the physiological range for tear, saliva, and/or sweat. PMID:27306706

  11. Visceral adipose tissue is an independent correlate of glucose disposal in older obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Brochu, M; Starling, R D; Tchernof, A; Matthews, D E; Garcia-Rubi, E; Poehlman, E T

    2000-07-01

    Older obese postmenopausal women have an increased risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Increased abdominal obesity may contribute to these comorbidities. There is considerable controversy, however, regarding the effects of visceral adipose tissue as a singular predictor of insulin resistance compared to the other constituents of adiposity. To address this issue, we examined the independent association of regional adiposity and total fat mass with glucose disposal in obese older postmenopausal women. A secondary objective examined the association between glucose disposal with markers of skeletal muscle fat content (muscle attenuation) and physical activity levels. We studied 44 healthy obese postmenopausal women between 50 and 71 yr of age (mean +/- SD, 56.5 +/- 5.3 yr). The rate of glucose disposal was measured using the euglycemic/hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. Visceral and sc adipose tissue areas and midthigh muscle attenuation were measured from computed tomography. Fat mass and lean body mass were estimated from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Peak VO2 was measured from a treadmill test to volitional fatigue. Physical activity energy expenditure was measured from indirect calorimetry and doubly labeled water. Pearson correlations indicated that glucose disposal was inversely related to visceral adipose tissue area (r = -0.40; P < 0.01), but not to sc adipose tissue area (r = 0.17), total fat mass (r = 0.05), midthigh muscle attenuation (r = 0.01), peak VO2 (r = -0.22), or physical activity energy expenditure (r = -0.01). The significant association persisted after adjusting visceral adipose tissue for fat mass and abdominal sc adipose tissue levels (r = -0.45; P < 0.005; in both cases). Additional analyses matched two groups of women for fat mass, but with different visceral adipose tissue levels. Results showed that obese women with high visceral adipose tissue levels (283 +/- 59 vs. 137 +/- 24 cm2; P < 0.0001) had a lower glucose

  12. Glucose oxidation and nonoxidative glucose disposal during prolonged fasts of the northern elephant seal pup (Mirounga angustirostris).

    PubMed

    Houser, Dorian S; Crocker, Daniel E; Tift, Michael S; Champagne, Cory D

    2012-09-01

    Elephant seal weanlings demonstrate rates of endogenous glucose production (EGP) during protracted fasts that are higher than predicted on the basis of mass and time fasting. To determine the nonoxidative and oxidative fate of endogenously synthesized glucose, substrate oxidation, metabolic rate, glycolysis, and EGP were measured in fasting weanlings. Eight weanlings were sampled at 14 days of fasting, and a separate group of nine weanlings was sampled at 49 days of fasting. Metabolic rate was determined via flow-through respirometry, and substrate-specific oxidation was determined from the respiratory quotient and urinary nitrogen measurements. The rate of glucose disposal (Glu((R)(d))) was determined through a primed, constant infusion of [3-(3)H]glucose, and glycolysis was determined from the rate of appearance of (3)H in the body water pool. Glu((R)(d)) was 1.41 ± 0.27 and 0.95 ± 0.21 mmol/min in the early and late fasting groups, respectively. Nearly all EGP went through glycolysis, but the percentage of Glu((R)(d)) oxidized to meet the daily metabolic demand was only 24.1 ± 4.4% and 16.7 ± 5.9% between the early and late fasting groups. Glucose oxidation was consistently less than 10% of the metabolic rate in both groups. This suggests that high rates of EGP do not support substrate provisions for glucose-demanding tissues. It is hypothesized that rates of EGP may be ancillary to the upregulation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle to meet high rates of lipid oxidation while mitigating ketosis.

  13. A modified minimal model analysis of insulin sensitivity and glucose-mediated glucose disposal in insulin-dependent diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ward, G M; Weber, K M; Walters, I M; Aitken, P M; Lee, B; Best, J D; Boston, R C; Alford, F P

    1991-01-01

    Although glucose utilization is impaired in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), it is unclear whether this is due to reductions in insulin sensitivity (Si) and/or glucose-mediated glucose disposal (SG). The minimal model of Bergman et al can be applied to a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) to simultaneously estimate Sl and SG, but cannot accommodate data from diabetics. Exogenous insulin approximating the normal pattern of insulin secretion was infused during FSIGTs in eight young non-obese C-peptide-negative IDDM subjects, but with the total dose modified to achieve sufficient glucose disappearance rates (KG) to allow analysis of data. The minimal model was modified to model the effects of the exogenous insulin on glucose kinetics to estimate SI and SG. Despite deliberately achieving supranormal plasma-free insulin levels during the FSIGT ("first-phase insulin" = 62 +/- 9 SE mU/L; "second phase insulin" = 34 +/- 9 mU/L), the diabetics showed low-normal KG values (1.3 +/- 0.29 min-1 X 10(2). Using the model, good parameter resolution (fractional SD [FSD] less than .5) was achieved (IDDM v controls: SI = 2.5 +/- 0.6 v 8.3 +/- 1.5 min-1.mU-1.L-1 X 10(4); SG = 1.6 +/- 0.5 v 2.6 +/- 0.2 min-1 X 10(2); P less than .05). This reduction in SG was confirmed in the same IDDM subjects by FSIGT during basal insulin infusion only (SG = 1.0 +/- 0.3 min-1 X 10(2)).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. A Disposable Tear Glucose Biosensor—Part 2: System Integration and Model Validation

    PubMed Central

    La Belle, Jeffrey T.; Bishop, Daniel K.; Vossler, Stephen R.; Patel, Dharmendra R.; Cook, Curtiss B.

    2010-01-01

    Background We presented a concept for a tear glucose sensor system in an article by Bishop and colleagues in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology. A unique solution to collect tear fluid and measure glucose was developed. Individual components were selected, tested, and optimized, and system error modeling was performed. Further data on prototype testing are now provided. Methods An integrated fluidics portion of the prototype was designed, cast, and tested. A sensor was created using screen-printed sensors integrated with a silicone rubber fluidics system and absorbent polyurethane foam. A simulated eye surface was prepared using fluid-saturated poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) sheets, and the disposable prototype was tested for both reproducibility at 0, 200, and 400 μM glucose (n = 7) and dynamic range of glucose detection from 0 to 1000 μM glucose. Results From the replicated runs, an established relative standard deviation of 15.8% was calculated at 200 μM and a lower limit of detection was calculated at 43.4 μM. A linear dynamic range was demonstrated from 0 to 1000 μM with an R2 of 99.56%. The previously developed model predicted a 14.9% variation. This compares to the observed variance of 15.8% measured at 200 μM glucose. Conclusion With the newly designed fluidics component, an integrated tear glucose prototype was assembled and tested. Testing of this integrated prototype demonstrated a satisfactory lower limit of detection for measuring glucose concentration in tears and was reproducible across a physiological sampling range. The next step in the device design process will be initial animal studies to evaluate the current prototype for factors such as eye irritation, ease of use, and correlation with blood glucose. PMID:20307390

  15. Effects of Exercise Intensity on Postprandial Improvement in Glucose Disposal and Insulin Sensitivity in Prediabetic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rynders, Corey A.; Weltman, Judy Y.; Jiang, Boyi; Breton, Marc; Patrie, James; Barrett, Eugene J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A single bout of exercise improves postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity in prediabetic patients; however, the impact of exercise intensity is not well understood. The present study compared the effects of acute isocaloric moderate (MIE) and high-intensity (HIE) exercise on glucose disposal and insulin sensitivity in prediabetic adults. Methods: Subjects (n = 18; age 49 ± 14 y; fasting glucose 105 ± 11 mg/dL; 2 h glucose 170 ± 32 mg/dL) completed a peak O2 consumption/lactate threshold (LT) protocol plus three randomly assigned conditions: 1) control, 1 hour of seated rest, 2) MIE (at LT), and 3) HIE (75% of difference between LT and peak O2 consumption). One hour after exercise, subjects received an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations were sampled at 5- to 10-minute intervals at baseline, during exercise, after exercise, and for 3 hours after glucose ingestion. Total, early-phase, and late-phase area under the glucose and insulin response curves were compared between conditions. Indices of insulin sensitivity (SI) were derived from OGTT data using the oral minimal model. Results: Compared with control, SI improved by 51% (P = .02) and 85% (P < .001) on the MIE and HIE days, respectively. No differences in SI were observed between the exercise conditions (P = .62). Improvements in SI corresponded to significant reductions in the glucose, insulin, and C-peptide area under the curve values during the late phase of the OGTT after HIE (P < .05), with only a trend for reductions after MIE. Conclusion: These results suggest that in prediabetic adults, acute exercise has an immediate and intensity-dependent effect on improving postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity. PMID:24243632

  16. Glucagon dose-response curve for hepatic glucose production and glucose disposal in type 2 diabetic patients and normal individuals.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Masafumi; Defronzo, Ralph A; Glass, Leonard; Consoli, Agostino; Giordano, Mauro; Bressler, Peter; Delprato, Stefano

    2002-09-01

    This study sought to examine whether enhanced hepatic sensitivity to glucagon contributes to impaired glucose homeostasis in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Eight T2DM and 9 age-, weight-, and gender-matched nondiabetic subjects received a 4-hour glucagon infusion at the rates of 0.2, 0.5, 2, 6, and 8 ng. kg(-1). min(-1) while maintaining the plasma insulin concentration constant at the basal level with exogenous infusions of somatostatin and insulin. On the evening prior to study, diabetic subjects received a low-dose insulin infusion at a rate designed to maintain euglycemia and this infusion rate was continued until the end of the glucagon infusion study on the following day. Each glucagon infusion study was performed on a separate day and in random order. 3-(3)H-glucose was infused in all studies to measure endogenous glucose production (EGP) and the rate of whole body glucose disposal. During the first 2 hours (0 to 120 minutes) of glucagon infusion, EGP increased sharply in both groups, and the initial rate of rise in EGP was higher in control versus diabetic subjects. During the last 2 hours (120 to 240 minutes) of glucagon infusion, EGP in the diabetics tended to be higher than controls during the 3 lower glucagon infusion rates and this difference reached statistical significance (P <.05 to.01) during the 6 and 8 ng. kg(-1). min(-1) infusions. During the 2 hours following cessation of glucagon (240- to 360-minute time period), the stimulation of glucose disappearance from plasma was impaired (P <.05) during all 5 glucagon infusion rates in the diabetics compared to controls. We conclude that in T2DM patients, the initial (0 to 120 minutes) stimulation of hepatic glucose output (which primarily reflects glycogenolysis) by glucagon is not enhanced in T2DM patients. The late (120 to 240 minutes) stimulation of hepatic glucose output (which primarily reflects gluconeogenesis) by glucagon tends to be increased, especially at supraphysiologic

  17. Exercise Improves Glucose Disposal and Insulin Signaling in Pregnant Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lindsay G; Ngo Tenlep, Sara Y; Woollett, Laura A; Pearson, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Physical activity has been suggested as a non-pharmacological intervention that can be used to improve glucose homeostasis in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of voluntary exercise on glucose tolerance and body composition in pregnant high fat diet fed mice. Methods Female mice were put on a standard diet or high fat diet for two weeks. The mice were then split into 4 groups; control standard diet fed, exercise standard diet fed, control high fat diet fed, and exercise high fat diet fed. Exercise mice had voluntary access to a running wheel in their home cage one week prior to mating, during mating, and throughout pregnancy. Glucose tolerance and body composition were measured during pregnancy. Akt levels were quantified in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue isolated from saline or insulin injected pregnant dams as a marker for insulin signaling. Results Consumption of the high fat diet led to significantly increased body weight, fat mass, and impaired glucose tolerance in control mice. However, voluntary running in the high fat diet fed dams significantly reduced weight gain and fat mass and ultimately improved glucose tolerance compared to control high fat diet fed dams. Further, body weight, fat mass, and glucose disposal in exercise high fat diet dams were indistinguishable from control dams fed the standard diet. High fat diet fed exercise dams also had significantly increased insulin stimulated phosphorylated Akt expression in adipose tissue, but not skeletal muscle, compared to control dams on high fat diet. Conclusion The use of voluntary exercise improves glucose homeostasis and body composition in pregnant female mice. Thus, future studies could investigate potential long-term health benefits in offspring born to obese exercising dams. PMID:26966635

  18. Modelling the effect of insulin on the disposal of meal-attributable glucose in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    García-García, Fernando; Hovorka, Roman; Wilinska, Malgorzata E; Elleri, Daniela; Hernando, M Elena

    2017-02-01

    The management of postprandial glucose excursions in type 1 diabetes has a major impact on overall glycaemic control. In this work, we propose and evaluate various mechanistic models to characterize the disposal of meal-attributable glucose. Sixteen young volunteers with type 1 diabetes were subject to a variable-target clamp which replicated glucose profiles observed after a high-glycaemic-load ([Formula: see text]) or a low-glycaemic-load ([Formula: see text]) evening meal. [6,6-[Formula: see text

  19. Performance effects and metabolic consequences of caffeine and caffeinated energy drink consumption on glucose disposal.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Jane; Graham, Terry E

    2014-10-01

    This review documents two opposing effects of caffeine and caffeine-containing energy drinks, i.e., their positive effects on athletic performance and their negative impacts on glucose tolerance in the sedentary state. Analysis of studies examining caffeine administration prior to performance-based exercise showed caffeine improved completion time by 3.6%. Similar analyses following consumption of caffeine-containing energy drinks yielded positive, but more varied, benefits, which were likely due to the diverse nature of the studies performed, the highly variable composition of the beverages consumed, and the range of caffeine doses administered. Conversely, analyses of studies administering caffeine prior to either an oral glucose tolerance test or insulin clamp showed a decline in whole-body glucose disposal of ~30%. The consequences of this resistance are unknown, but there may be implications for the development of a number of chronic diseases. Both caffeine-induced performance enhancement and insulin resistance converge with the primary actions of caffeine on skeletal muscle.

  20. Design and synthesis of inositolphosphoglycan putative insulin mediators.

    PubMed

    López-Prados, Javier; Cuevas, Félix; Reichardt, Niels-Christian; de Paz, José-Luis; Morales, Ezequiel Q; Martín-Lomas, Manuel

    2005-03-07

    The binding modes of a series of molecules, containing the glucosamine (1-->6) myo-inositol structural motif, into the ATP binding site of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) have been analysed using molecular docking. These calculations predict that the presence of a phosphate group at the non-reducing end in pseudodisaccharide and pseudotrisaccharide structures properly orientate the molecule into the binding site and that pseudotrisaccharide structures present the best shape complementarity. Therefore, pseudodisaccharides and pseudotrisaccharides have been synthesised from common intermediates using effective synthetic strategies. On the basis of this synthetic chemistry, the feasibility of constructing small pseudotrisaccharide libraries on solid-phase using the same intermediates has been explored. The results from the biological evaluation of these molecules provide additional support to an insulin-mediated signalling system which involves the intermediacy of inositolphosphoglycans as putative insulin mediators.

  1. Insulin receptor autophosphorylation in cultured myoblasts correlates to glucose disposal in Pima Indians.

    PubMed

    Youngren, J F; Goldfine, I D; Pratley, R E

    1999-05-01

    In a previous study [Youngren, J. F., I. D. Goldfire, and R. E. Pratley. Am. J. Physiol. 273 (Endocrinol. Metab. 36): E276-E283, 1997] of skeletal muscle biopsies from insulin-resistant, nondiabetic Pima Indians, we demonstrated that diminished insulin receptor (IR) autophosphorylation correlated with in vivo insulin resistance. In the present study, to determine whether decreased IR function is a primary trait of muscle, and not secondary to an altered in vivo environment, we cultured myoblasts from 17 nondiabetic Pima Indians in whom insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (M) was measured during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic glucose clamps. Myoblast IR autophosphorylation was determined by a highly sensitive ELISA. IR autophosphorylation directly correlated with M (r = 0.56, P = 0.02) and inversely correlated with the fasting plasma insulin (r = -0.58, P < 0.05). The relationship between M and IR autophosphorylation remained significant after M was adjusted for the effects of percent body fat (partial r = 0.53, P < 0.04). The relationship between insulin resistance and the capacity for myoblast IR autophosphorylation in nondiabetic Pima Indians suggests that variations in IR-signaling capacity may be intrinsic characteristics of muscle that contribute to the genetic component determining insulin action in this population.

  2. Hexim1, a Novel Regulator of Leptin Function, Modulates Obesity and Glucose Disposal

    PubMed Central

    Dhar-Mascareno, Manya; Ramirez, Susan N.; Rozenberg, Inna; Rouille, Yves; Kral, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Leptin triggers signaling events with significant transcriptional responses that are essential to metabolic processes affecting obesity and glucose disposal. We asked whether hexamethylene bis-acetamide inducible-1 (Hexim1), an inhibitor of RNA II polymerase-dependent transcription elongation, regulates leptin-Janus kinase 2 signaling axis in the hypothalamus. We subjected C57BL6 Hexim1 heterozygous (HT) mice to high-fat diet and when compared with wild type, HT mice were resistant to high-fat diet-induced weight gain and remain insulin sensitive. HT mice exhibited increased leptin-pY705Stat3 signaling in the hypothalamus, with normal adipocyte size, increased type I oxidative muscle fiber density, and enhanced glucose transporter 4 expression. We also observed that normal Hexim1 protein level is required to facilitate the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) required for adipogenesis and inducible suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS) expression. Further support on the role of Hexim1 regulating C/EBPs during adipocyte differentiation was shown when HT 3T3L1 fibroblasts failed to undergo adipogenesis. Hexim1 selectively modulates leptin-mediated signal transduction pathways in the hypothalamus, the expression of C/EBPs and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR γ) in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue during the adaptation to metabolic stress. We postulate that Hexim1 might be a novel factor involved in maintaining whole-body energy balance. PMID:26859361

  3. Laforin and malin knockout mice have normal glucose disposal and insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    DePaoli-Roach, Anna A; Segvich, Dyann M; Meyer, Catalina M; Rahimi, Yasmeen; Worby, Carolyn A; Gentry, Matthew S; Roach, Peter J

    2012-04-01

    Lafora disease is a fatal, progressive myoclonus epilepsy caused in ~90% of cases by mutations in the EPM2A or EPM2B genes. Characteristic of the disease is the formation of Lafora bodies, insoluble deposits containing abnormal glycogen-like material in many tissues, including neurons, muscle, heart and liver. Because glycogen is important for glucose homeostasis, the aberrant glycogen metabolism in Lafora disease might disturb whole-body glucose handling. Indeed, Vernia et al. [Vernia, S., Heredia, M., Criado, O., Rodriguez de Cordoba, S., Garcia-Roves, P.M., Cansell, C., Denis, R., Luquet, S., Foufelle, F., Ferre, P. et al. (2011) Laforin, a dual-specificity phosphatase involved in Lafora disease, regulates insulin response and whole-body energy balance in mice. Hum. Mol. Genet., 20, 2571-2584] reported that Epm2a-/- mice had enhanced glucose disposal and insulin sensitivity, leading them to suggest that laforin, the Epm2a gene product, is involved in insulin signaling. We analyzed 3-month- and 6-7-month-old Epm2a-/- mice and observed no differences in glucose tolerance tests (GTTs) or insulin tolerance tests (ITTs) compared with wild-type mice of matched genetic background. At 3 months, Epm2b-/- mice also showed no differences in GTTs and ITTs. In the 6-7-month-old Epm2a-/- mice, there was no evidence for increased insulin stimulation of the phosphorylation of Akt, GSK-3 or S6 in skeletal muscle, liver and heart. From metabolic analyses, these animals were normal with regard to food intake, oxygen consumption, energy expenditure and respiratory exchange ratio. By dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, body composition was unaltered at 3 or 6-7 months of age. Echocardiography showed no defects of cardiac function in Epm2a-/- or Epm2b-/- mice. We conclude that laforin and malin have no effect on whole-body glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and that laforin is not involved in insulin signaling.

  4. Bed Rest Worsens Impairments in Fat and Glucose Metabolism in Older, Overweight Adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. The effects of bed rest on the dysregulation of fatty acid and glucose metabolism have not been addressed in the older population. Objective. We examined the effect of 10 days of bed rest on fatty acid kinetics and hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance in aging. Methods. We utilized an octreotide, basal glucagon replacement, multistage insulin infusion, and the concomitant infusion of [6,6 2H2]glucose to derive insulin-mediated suppression of glucose production and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in nine older, overweight individuals (body mass index 28.1 ± 1.7 kg m−2; 39.9% ± 1.9% fat). During the multistage insulin infusion, we also infused [1-13C]palmitate to examine free fatty acid rate of appearance (R a). Results. Body weight, % body fat, and energy metabolism did not change with bed rest. There was a significant decrease (−2291 ± 316cm3) in visceral fat, and no change in abdominal subcutaneous fat with bed rest. Insulin-mediated suppression of glucose production was modest prior to bed rest and was further reduced (>15% ± 2%) by bed rest. There was also a minor decrease in the insulin-mediated suppression of free fatty acid R a after bed rest and, as a consequence, a small variation in plasma free fatty acid from pre- to post-bed rest in the first stage of the multistage insulin infusion. There was also a significant bed rest–induced decline (>2.0 ± 0.6 mg kg FFM−1 min− 1) in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Conclusions. Preexisting impairments in insulin sensitivity are worsened by bed rest and seem linked to alterations in the regulation of free fatty acid in older, overweight individuals. PMID:23902932

  5. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids mediate insulin-mediated augmentation in skeletal muscle perfusion and blood volume

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Chi Young; Kim, Sajeevani; Chadderdon, Scott; Wu, Melinda; Qi, Yue; Xie, Aris; Alkayed, Nabil J.; Davidson, Brian P.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle microvascular blood flow (MBF) increases in response to physiological hyperinsulinemia. This vascular action of insulin may facilitate glucose uptake. We hypothesized that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), a family of arachadonic, acid-derived, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors, are mediators of insulin's microvascular effects. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) was performed to quantify skeletal muscle capillary blood volume (CBV) and MBF in wild-type and obese insulin-resistant (db/db) mice after administration of vehicle or trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido)cyclohexyloxy]benzoic acid (t-AUCB), an inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase that converts EETs to less active dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids. Similar studies were performed in rats pretreated with l-NAME. CEU was also performed in rats undergoing a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, half of which were pretreated with the epoxygenase inhibitor MS-PPOH to inhibit EET synthesis. In both wild-type and db/db mice, intravenous t-AUCB produced an increase in CBV (65–100% increase at 30 min, P < 0.05) and in MBF. In db/db mice, t-AUCB also reduced plasma glucose by ∼15%. In rats pretreated with l-NAME, t-AUCB after produced a significant ≈20% increase in CBV, indicating a component of vascular response independent of nitric oxide (NO) production. Hyperinsulinemic clamp produced a time-dependent increase in MBF (19 ± 36 and 76 ± 49% at 90 min, P = 0.026) that was mediated in part by an increase in CBV. Insulin-mediated changes in both CBV and MBF during the clamp were blocked entirely by MS-PPOH. We conclude that EETs are a mediator of insulin-mediated augmentation in skeletal muscle perfusion and are involved in regulating changes in CBV during hyperinsulinemia. PMID:25336524

  6. Cultured 3T3L1 adipocytes dispose of excess medium glucose as lactate under abundant oxygen availability

    PubMed Central

    Sabater, David; Arriarán, Sofía; Romero, María del Mar; Agnelli, Silvia; Remesar, Xavier; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Alemany, Marià

    2014-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) produces lactate in significant amount from circulating glucose, especially in obesity;Under normoxia, 3T3L1 cells secrete large quantities of lactate to the medium, again at the expense of glucose and proportionally to its levels. Most of the glucose was converted to lactate with only part of it being used to synthesize fat. Cultured adipocytes were largely anaerobic, but this was not a Warburg-like process. It is speculated that the massive production of lactate, is a process of defense of the adipocyte, used to dispose of excess glucose. This way, the adipocyte exports glucose carbon (and reduces the problem of excess substrate availability) to the liver, but the process may be also a mechanism of short-term control of hyperglycemia. The in vivo data obtained from adipose tissue of male rats agree with this interpretation. PMID:24413028

  7. Bariatric Surgery in Morbidly Obese Insulin Resistant Humans Normalises Insulin Signalling but Not Insulin-Stimulated Glucose Disposal

    PubMed Central

    de Berker, David A. R.; May, Margaret T.; Hers, Ingeborg; Dayan, Colin M.; Andrews, Robert C.; Tavaré, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Weight-loss after bariatric surgery improves insulin sensitivity, but the underlying molecular mechanism is not clear. To ascertain the effect of bariatric surgery on insulin signalling, we examined glucose disposal and Akt activation in morbidly obese volunteers before and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB), and compared this to lean volunteers. Materials and Methods The hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp, at five infusion rates, was used to determine glucose disposal rates (GDR) in eight morbidly obese (body mass index, BMI=47.3±2.2 kg/m2) patients, before and after RYGB, and in eight lean volunteers (BMI=20.7±0.7 kg/m2). Biopsies of brachioradialis muscle, taken at fasting and insulin concentrations that induced half-maximal (GDR50) and maximal (GDR100) GDR in each subject, were used to examine the phosphorylation of Akt-Thr308, Akt-473, and pras40, in vivo biomarkers for Akt activity. Results Pre-operatively, insulin-stimulated GDR was lower in the obese compared to the lean individuals (P<0.001). Weight-loss of 29.9±4 kg after surgery significantly improved GDR50 (P=0.004) but not GDR100 (P=0.3). These subjects still remained significantly more insulin resistant than the lean individuals (p<0.001). Weight loss increased insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle Akt-Thr308 and Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation, P=0.02 and P=0.03 respectively (MANCOVA), and Akt activity towards the substrate PRAS40 (P=0.003, MANCOVA), and in contrast to GDR, were fully normalised after the surgery (obese vs lean, P=0.6, P=0.35, P=0.46, respectively). Conclusions Our data show that although Akt activity substantially improved after surgery, it did not lead to a full restoration of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. This suggests that a major defect downstream of, or parallel to, Akt signalling remains after significant weight-loss. PMID:25876175

  8. Defective liver disposal of free fatty acids in patients with impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Iozzo, Patricia; Turpeinen, Anu K; Takala, Teemu; Oikonen, Vesa; Bergman, Jörgen; Grönroos, Tove; Ferrannini, Ele; Nuutila, Pirjo; Knuuti, Juhani

    2004-07-01

    The liver exchanges high fluxes of glucose and free fatty acids (FFA) and is one main site of their reciprocal regulation. Acute exposure to hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia has been shown to reduce splanchnic beta-oxidation in healthy humans. We investigated whether a spontaneous condition of chronic mild hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia affects liver FFA uptake. Hepatic FFA influx rate constant (LKi) was measured after a 12-15-h fast in 10 patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and eight control subjects using positron emission tomography in combination with the long-chain FFA analog 14(R,S)-[18F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid. Compared with controls, IGT patients had higher serum insulin, glucose, and triglyceride levels (1.71 +/- 0.24 vs. 0.59 +/- 0.06 mmol/liter, P < 0.001), lower high-density lipoprotein (1.04 +/- 0.11 vs. 1.42 +/- 0.13 mmol/liter, P < 0.05), and similar FFA levels (0.59 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.56 +/- 0.05 mmol/liter(-1), P = not significant). LKi was significantly reduced in IGT (0.288 +/- 0.014 min(-1)) compared with control subjects (0.341 +/- 0.014 min(-1), P < 0.02). LKi was negatively correlated with plasma glucose (r = 0.51, P < 0.03), glycosylated hemoglobin (r = 0.55, P < 0.02), and blood lactate levels (r = 0.52, P < 0.03). We conclude that, in IGT patients, the ability of the liver to extract FFA from the circulation appears to be impaired. The reciprocal relationship between hepatic FFA extraction and glucose/lactate flux may derive from intrahepatic substrate competition.

  9. Quercetin, luteolin, and epigallocatechin gallate promote glucose disposal in adipocytes with regulation of AMP-activated kinase and/or sirtuin 1 activity.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Na; Mei, Fan; Sun, Yan; Pan, Guojun; Liu, Baolin; Liu, Kang

    2014-08-01

    Quercetin, luteolin, and epigallocatechin gallate are flavonoids abundant in edible and medicinal plants with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. This study explored the action of these flavonoids on glucose disposal in adipocytes. Quercetin, luteolin, and epigallocatechin gallate enhanced glucose consumption with the positive regulation of AMP-activated kinase phosphorylation, and the AMP-activated kinase inhibitor compound C abolished their effects on glucose consumption. Luteolin and epigallocatechin gallate, but not quercetin, increased sirtuin 1 abundance, and their regulation of glucose consumption was also attenuated by co-treatment with sirtuin 1 inhibitor nicotinamide. Quercetin, luteolin, and epigallocatechin gallate suppressed nuclear factor-κB activation by inhibition of p65 phosphorylation with beneficial regulation of adipokine expression, whereas these actions were diminished by coincubation with compound C. The sirtuin 1 inhibitor nicotinamide attenuated the effects of luteolin and EGCG on p65 phosphorylation and adipokine expression without any influence on the activity of quercetin. Results of Western blot and fluorescence microscopy also showed that quercetin, luteolin, and epigallocatechin gallate increased Akt substrate of 160 kDa phosphorylation and promoted 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake by adipocytes under basal and inflammatory conditions. These findings suggested that quercetin, luteolin, and epigallocatechin gallate inhibited inflammation and promoted glucose disposal in adipocytes with the regulation of AMP-activated kinase and/or sirtuin 1.

  10. A novel method for simulating insulin mediated GLUT4 translocation.

    PubMed

    Jezewski, Andrew J; Larson, Joshua J; Wysocki, Beata; Davis, Paul H; Wysocki, Tadeusz

    2014-12-01

    Glucose transport in humans is a vital process which is tightly regulated by the endocrine system. Specifically, the insulin hormone triggers a cascade of intracellular signals in target cells mediating the uptake of glucose. Insulin signaling triggers cellular relocalization of the glucose transporter protein GLUT4 to the cell surface, which is primarily responsible for regulated glucose import. Pathology associated with the disruption of this pathway can lead to metabolic disorders, such as type II diabetes mellitus, characterized by the failure of cells to appropriately uptake glucose from the blood. We describe a novel simulation tool of the insulin intracellular response, incorporating the latest findings regarding As160 and GEF interactions. The simulation tool differs from previous computational approaches which employ algebraic or differential equations; instead, the tool incorporates statistical variations of kinetic constants and initial molecular concentrations which more accurately mimic the intracellular environment. Using this approach, we successfully recapitulate observed in vitro insulin responses, plus the effects of Wortmannin-like inhibition of the pathway. The developed tool provides insight into transient changes in molecule concentrations throughout the insulin signaling pathway, and may be employed to identify or evaluate potentially critical components of this pathway, including those associated with insulin resistance. In the future, this highly tractable platform may be useful for simulating other complex cell signaling pathways. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 2454-2465. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Disposable, enzymatically modified printed film carbon electrodes for use in the high-performance liquid chromatographic-electrochemical detection of glucose or hydrogen peroxide from immobilized enzyme reactors.

    PubMed

    Osborne, P G; Yamamoto, K

    1998-04-10

    Disposable screen-printed, film carbon electrodes (PFCE) were modified with cast-coated Osmium-polyvinylpyrridine-wired horse radish peroxidase gel polymer (Os-gel-HRP) to enable the detection of the reduction at 0 mV of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) derived from a post-column immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) containing acetylcholinesterase and choline oxidase. In another series of experiments PFCE were initially modified with cast-coated Os-gel-HRP and then treated with glucose oxidase in bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cross-linked with glutaraldehyde to form a bi-layer glucose-Os-gel-HRP PFCE. This bi-layer glucose-Os-gel-HRP PFCE generated a reduction current at 0 mV to H2O2 derived from the reaction of glucose oxidase and glucose in solution. These enzyme-modified PFCE were housed in a radial flow cell and coupled with cation-exchange liquid chromatographic methods to temporally separate substrates in solution for the determination of acetylcholine (ACh) and choline (Ch) in the first experimental series, or glucose in the second experimental series. These two disposable enzyme-modified PFCE exhibited linear current vs. substrate relations, were durable, being usable for approximately 40 determinations, and were sufficiently sensitive to be employed in biological sampling. Both assays utilized the same HPLC equipment. The limit of detection for ACh was 16 fmol/10 microl and that for glucose was 12 micromol/7.5 microl. ACh and Ch were measured from a microdialysate from the frontal cortex of a rat. Glucose in human urine was determined using the bi-layer glucose oxidase-Os-gel-HRP PFCE.

  12. Disposable all-solid-state pH and glucose sensors based on conductive polymer covered hierarchical AuZn oxide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Min; Cho, Seong Je; Cho, Chul-Ho; Kim, Kwang Bok; Kim, Min-Yeong; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2016-05-15

    Poly(terthiophene benzoic acid) (pTBA) layered-AuZn alloy oxide (AuZnOx) deposited on the screen printed carbon electrode (pTBA/AuZnOx/SPCE) was prepared to create a disposable all-solid-state pH sensor at first. Further, FAD-glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized onto the pTBA/AuZnOx/SPCE to fabricate a glucose sensor. The characterizations of the sensor probe reveal that AuZnOx forms a homogeneous hierarchical structure, and that the polymerized pTBA layer on the alloy oxide surface captures GOx covalently. The benzoic acid group of pTBA coated on the probe layer synergetically improved the pH response of the alloy oxide and provide chemical binding sites to enzyme, which resulted in a Nernstian behavior (59.2 ± 0.5 mV/pH) in the pH range of 2-13. The experimental parameters affecting the glucose analysis were studied in terms of pH, temperature, humidity, and interferences. The sensor exhibited a fast response time <1s and a dynamic range between 30 and 500 mg/dL glucose with a detection limit of 17.23 ± 0.32 mg/dL. The reliabilities of the disposable pH and glucose sensors were examined for biological samples.

  13. Inositols in the Treatment of Insulin-Mediated Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Palomba, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of research is currently focused on the role of inositol isomers and in particular myo-inositol (MYO-INS) and D-chiroinositol (DCI) in the treatment of insulin resistance states. Both isomers have been shown to exert insulin-mimetic action and to lower postprandial glucose. Further, insulin resistance-related diseases were associated to derangements in inositol metabolism. Thus, the aim of this review is to provide current evidence on the potential benefits of inositol isomers (MYO-INS and DCI) in the treatment of disease associated to insulin resistance such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), gestational diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Finally, molecular insights into inositol insulin-sensitizing effects will be covered focusing on the possible role of inositol glycans as insulin second messengers. PMID:27688754

  14. FDP-E induces adipocyte inflammation and suppresses insulin-stimulated glucose disposal: effect of inflammation and obesity on fibrinogen Bβ mRNA.

    PubMed

    Kang, Minsung; Vaughan, Roger A; Paton, Chad M

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is associated with increased fibrinogen production and fibrin formation, which produces fibrin degradation products (FDP-E and FDP-D). Fibrin and FDPs both contribute to inflammation, which would be expected to suppress glucose uptake and insulin signaling in adipose tissue, yet the effect of FDP-E and FDP-D on adipocyte function and glucose disposal is completely unknown. We tested the effects of FDPs on inflammation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and primary macrophages and adipocyte glucose uptake in vitro. High-fat-fed mice increased hepatic fibrinogen mRNA expression ninefold over chow-fed mice, with concomitant increases in plasma fibrinogen protein levels. Obese mice also displayed increased fibrinogen content of epididymal fat pads. We treated cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes and primary macrophages with FDP-E, FDP-D, or fibrinogen degradation products (FgnDP-E). FDP-D and FgnDP-E had no effect on inflammation or glucose uptake. Cytokine mRNA expression in RAW264.7 macrophage-like cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with FDP-E induced inflammation with maximal effects at 100 nM and 6 h. Insulin-stimulated 2-deoxy-d-[(3)H]glucose uptake was reduced by 71% in adipocytes treated with FDP-E. FDP-E, but not FDP-D or FgnDP-E, induces inflammation in macrophages and adipocytes and decreases glucose uptake in vitro. FDP-E may contribute toward obesity-associated acute inflammation and glucose intolerance, although its chronic role in obesity remains to be elucidated.

  15. Opuntia ficus-indica ingestion stimulates peripheral disposal of oral glucose before and after exercise in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Van Proeyen, Karen; Ramaekers, Monique; Pischel, Ivo; Hespel, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) cladode and fruit-skin extract on blood glucose and plasma insulin increments due to high-dose carbohydrate ingestion, before and after exercise. Healthy, physically active men (n = 6; 21.0 ± 1.6 years, 78.1 ± 6.0 kg) participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study involving 2 experimental sessions. In each session, the subjects successively underwent an oral glucose tolerance test at rest (OGTT(R)), a 30-min cycling bout at ~75% VO(2max), and another OGTT after exercise (OGTT(EX)). They received capsules containing either 1,000 mg OFI or placebo (PL) 30 min before and immediately after the OGTT(R). Blood samples were collected before (t₀) and at 30-min intervals after ingestion of 75 g glucose for determination of blood glucose and serum insulin. In OGTT(EX) an additional 75-g oral glucose bolus was administered at t₆₀. In OGTT(R), OFI administration reduced the area under the glucose curve (AUC(GLUC)) by 26%, mainly due to lower blood glucose levels at t₃₀ and t₆₀ (p < .05). Furthermore, a higher serum insulin concentration was noted after OFI intake at baseline and at t₃₀ (p < .05). In OGTT(EX), blood glucose at t₆₀ was ~10% lower in OFI than in PL, which resulted in a decreased AUC(GLUC) (-37%, p < .05). However, insulin values and AUC(INS) were not different between OFI and PL. In conclusion, the current study shows that OFI extract can increase plasma insulin and thereby facilitate the clearance of an oral glucose load from the circulation at rest and after endurance exercise in healthy men.

  16. Altered glucose and lipid homeostasis in liver and adipose tissue pre-dispose inducible NOS knockout mice to insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kanuri, Babu Nageswararao; Kanshana, Jitendra S.; Rebello, Sanjay C.; Pathak, Priya; Gupta, Anand P.; Gayen, Jiaur R.; Jagavelu, Kumaravelu; Dikshit, Madhu

    2017-01-01

    On the basis of diet induced obesity and KO mice models, nitric oxide is implied to play an important role in the initiation of dyslipidemia induced insulin resistance. However, outcomes using iNOS KO mice have so far remained inconclusive. The present study aimed to assess IR in iNOS KO mice after 5 weeks of LFD feeding by monitoring body composition, energy homeostasis, insulin sensitivity/signaling, nitrite content and gene expressions changes in the tissues. We found that body weight and fat content in KO mice were significantly higher while the respiratory exchange ratio (RER), volume of carbon dioxide (VCO2), and heat production were lower as compared to WT mice. Furthermore, altered systemic glucose tolerance, tissue insulin signaling, hepatic gluconeogenesis, augmented hepatic lipids, adiposity, as well as gene expression regulating lipid synthesis, catabolism and efflux were evident in iNOS KO mice. Significant reduction in eNOS and nNOS gene expression, hepatic and adipose tissue nitrite content, circulatory nitrite was also observed. Oxygen consumption rate of mitochondrial respiration has remained unaltered in KO mice as measured using extracellular flux analyzer. Our findings establish a link between the NO status with systemic and tissue specific IR in iNOS KO mice at 5 weeks. PMID:28106120

  17. Angiotensin 1-7 improves insulin sensitivity by increasing skeletal muscle glucose uptake in vivo.

    PubMed

    Echeverría-Rodríguez, Omar; Del Valle-Mondragón, Leonardo; Hong, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) regulates skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity through different mechanisms. The overactivation of the ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme)/Ang (angiotensin) II/AT1R (Ang II type 1 receptor) axis has been associated with the development of insulin resistance, whereas the stimulation of the ACE2/Ang 1-7/MasR (Mas receptor) axis improves insulin sensitivity. The in vivo mechanisms by which this axis enhances skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity are scarcely known. In this work, we investigated whether rat soleus muscle expresses the ACE2/Ang 1-7/MasR axis and determined the effect of Ang 1-7 on rat skeletal muscle glucose uptake in vivo. Western blot analysis revealed the expression of ACE2 and MasR, while Ang 1-7 levels were detected in rat soleus muscle by capillary zone electrophoresis. The euglycemic clamp exhibited that Ang 1-7 by itself did not promote glucose transport, but it increased insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in the rat. In a similar manner, captopril (an ACE inhibitor) enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake and this effect was blocked by the MasR antagonist A-779. Our results show for the first time that rat soleus muscle expresses the ACE2/Ang 1-7/MasR axis of the RAS, and Ang 1-7 improves insulin sensitivity by enhancing insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in rat skeletal muscle in vivo. Thus, endogenous (systemic and/or local) Ang 1-7 could regulate insulin-mediated glucose transport in vivo.

  18. Insulin-mediated oxidative stress and DNA damage in LLC-PK1 pig kidney cell line, female rat primary kidney cells, and male ZDF rat kidneys in vivo.

    PubMed

    Othman, Eman Maher; Kreissl, Michael C; Kaiser, Franz R; Arias-Loza, Paula-Anahi; Stopper, Helga

    2013-04-01

    Hyperinsulinemia, a condition with excessively high insulin blood levels, is related to an increased cancer incidence. Diabetes mellitus is the most common of several diseases accompanied by hyperinsulinemia. Because an elevated kidney cancer risk was reported for diabetic patients, we investigated the induction of genomic damage by insulin in LLC-PK1 pig kidney cells, rat primary kidney cells, and ZDF rat kidneys. Insulin at a concentration of 5nM caused a significant increase in DNA damage in vitro. This was associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the presence of antioxidants, blockers of the insulin, and IGF-I receptors, and a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, the insulin-mediated DNA damage was reduced. Phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB or AKT) was increased and p53 accumulated. Inhibition of the mitochondrial and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphatase oxidase-related ROS production reduced the insulin-mediated damage. In primary rat cells, insulin also induced genomic damage. In kidneys from healthy, lean ZDF rats, which were infused with insulin to yield normal or high blood insulin levels, while keeping blood glucose levels constant, the amounts of ROS and the tumor protein (p53) were elevated in the high-insulin group compared with the control level group. ROS and p53 were also elevated in diabetic obese ZDF rats. Overall, insulin-induced oxidative stress resulted in genomic damage. If the same mechanisms are active in patients, hyperinsulinemia might cause genomic damage through the induction of ROS contributing to the increased cancer risk, against which the use of antioxidants and/or ROS production inhibitors might exert protective effects.

  19. A Molecular and Whole Body Insight of the Mechanisms Surrounding Glucose Disposal and Insulin Resistance with Hypoxic Treatment in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, R. W. A.; Watt, P.

    2016-01-01

    Although the mechanisms are largely unidentified, the chronic or intermittent hypoxic patterns occurring with respiratory diseases, such as chronic pulmonary disease or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obesity, are commonly associated with glucose intolerance. Indeed, hypoxia has been widely implicated in the development of insulin resistance either via the direct action on insulin receptor substrate (IRS) and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) or indirectly through adipose tissue expansion and systemic inflammation. Yet hypoxia is also known to encourage glucose transport using insulin-dependent mechanisms, largely reliant on the metabolic master switch, 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In addition, hypoxic exposure has been shown to improve glucose control in type 2 diabetics. The literature surrounding hypoxia-induced changes to glycemic control appears to be confusing and conflicting. How is it that the same stress can seemingly cause insulin resistance while increasing glucose uptake? There is little doubt that acute hypoxia increases glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle and does so using the same pathway as muscle contraction. The purpose of this review paper is to provide an insight into the mechanisms underpinning the observed effects and to open up discussions around the conflicting data surrounding hypoxia and glucose control. PMID:27274997

  20. Long-term effects of rapamycin treatment on insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt/PKB and glycogen synthase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, Shailly; Shrivastav, Anuraag; Changela, Sheena; Khandelwal, Ramji L.

    2008-04-01

    Protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) is a Ser/Thr kinase that is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation/survival through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the regulation of glycogen metabolism through glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) and glycogen synthase (GS). Rapamycin is an inhibitor of mTOR. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of rapamycin pretreatment on the insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt/PKB phosphorylation and GS activity in parental HepG2 and HepG2 cells with overexpression of constitutively active Akt1/PKB-{alpha} (HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB). Rapamycin pretreatment resulted in a decrease (20-30%) in the insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 (Ser 473) in parental HepG2 cells but showed an upregulation of phosphorylation in HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells. Rictor levels were decreased (20-50%) in parental HepG2 cells but were not significantly altered in the HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells. Furthermore, rictor knockdown decreased the phosphorylation of Akt (Ser 473) by 40-60% upon rapamycin pretreatment. GS activity followed similar trends as that of phosphorylated Akt and so with rictor levels in these cells pretreated with rapamycin; parental HepG2 cells showed a decrease in GS activity, whereas as HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells showed an increase in GS activity. The changes in the levels of phosphorylated Akt/PKB (Ser 473) correlated with GS and protein phoshatase-1 activity.

  1. Metformin Protects Kidney Cells From Insulin-Mediated Genotoxicity In Vitro and in Male Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats.

    PubMed

    Othman, Eman Maher; Oli, R G; Arias-Loza, Paula-Anahi; Kreissl, Michael C; Stopper, Helga

    2016-02-01

    Hyperinsulinemia is thought to enhance cancer risk. A possible mechanism is induction of oxidative stress and DNA damage by insulin, Here, the effect of a combination of metformin with insulin was investigated in vitro and in vivo. The rationales for this were the reported antioxidative properties of metformin and the aim to gain further insights into the mechanisms responsible for protecting the genome from insulin-mediated oxidative stress and damage. The comet assay, a micronucleus frequency test, and a mammalian gene mutation assay were used to evaluate the DNA damage produced by insulin alone or in combination with metformin. For analysis of antioxidant activity, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial disturbances, the cell-free ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, the superoxide-sensitive dye dihydroethidium, and the mitochondrial membrane potential-sensitive dye 5,5',6,6'tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazol-carbocyanine iodide were applied. Accumulation of p53 and pAKT were analyzed. As an in vivo model, hyperinsulinemic Zucker diabetic fatty rats, additionally exposed to insulin during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, were treated with metformin. In the rat kidney samples, dihydroethidium staining, p53 and pAKT analysis, and quantification of the oxidized DNA base 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine were performed. Metformin did not show intrinsic antioxidant activity in the cell-free assay, but protected cultured cells from insulin-mediated oxidative stress, DNA damage, and mutation. Treatment of the rats with metformin protected their kidneys from oxidative stress and genomic damage induced by hyperinsulinemia. Metformin may protect patients from genomic damage induced by elevated insulin levels. This may support efforts to reduce the elevated cancer risk that is associated with hyperinsulinemia.

  2. Insulin-Mediated FFA Suppression Is Associated with Triglyceridemia and Insulin Sensitivity Independent of Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Nikki C.; Basu, Rita; Rizza, Robert A.; Nair, K. Sreekumaran; Khosla, Sundeep

    2012-01-01

    Context: A central/visceral fat distribution and excess free fatty acid (FFA) availability are associated with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. However, these two characteristics often coexist, making it difficult to detect the independent contributions of each. Whether FFA suppression is more closely linked to metabolic abnormalities is not clear. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between FFA suppression, body fat distribution, and fitness as contributors toward insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia. Design: We measured systemic palmitate turnover using an iv infusion of [9,10-3H]palmitate; upper body sc adipose tissue (UBSQ) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and a single-slice abdominal computed tomography scan; fitness with a graded exercise treadmill test; and insulin sensitivity with both the iv glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) (SIIVGTT) and mixed meal tolerance test (SIMeal). Setting: The study was conducted at a General Clinical Research Center. Participants: Baseline data were obtained from 140 elderly adults (age, 60–88 yr; 83 males) and 60 young adults (age, 18–31 yr; 31 males) who participated in a previously published trial assessing the effects of 2-yr supplementation of dehydroepiandrosterone or testosterone on body composition, glucose metabolism, and bone density. Interventions: There were no interventions. Main Outcome Measures: We measured fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations, SIIVGTT, and SIMeal. Results: Using multivariate regression analysis, the strongest combined predictors of TG concentrations were VAT, postmeal nadir FFA concentrations, sex, and age. The best predictors of SIIVGTT were IVGTT nadir palmitate concentration, VAT, UBSQ fat, fitness, and age, whereas the best predictors of SIMeal were meal nadir palmitate concentration, UBSQ fat, fitness, and sex. Conclusions: FFA suppression is associated with both fasting TG concentrations and insulin

  3. Increased Slc12a1 expression in β-cells and improved glucose disposal in Slc12a2 heterozygous mice

    PubMed Central

    Alshahrani, Saeed; Almutairi, Mohammed Mashari; Kursan, Shams; Dias-Junior, Eduardo; Almiahuob, Mohamed Mahmoud; Aguilar-Bryan, Lydia; Di Fulvio, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    The products of the Slc12a1 and Slc12a2 genes, commonly known as Na+-dependent K+2Cl− co-transporters NKCC2 and NKCC1, respectively, are the targets for the diuretic bumetanide. NKCCs are implicated in the regulation of intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl−]i) in pancreatic β-cells, and as such, they may play a role in glucose-stimulated plasma membrane depolarization and insulin secretion. Unexpectedly, permanent elimination of NKCC1 does not preclude insulin secretion, an event potentially linked to the homeostatic regulation of additional Cl− transporters expressed in β-cells. In this report we provide evidence for such a mechanism. Mice lacking a single allele of Slc12a2 exhibit lower fasting glycemia, increased acute insulin response (AIR) and lower blood glucose levels 15–30 min after a glucose load when compared to mice harboring both alleles of the gene. Furthermore, heterozygous expression or complete absence of Slc12a2 associates with increased NKCC2 protein expression in rodent pancreatic β-cells. This has been confirmed by using chronic pharmacological down-regulation of NKCC1 with bumetanide in the mouse MIN6 β-cell line or permanent molecular silencing of NKCC1 in COS7 cells, which results in increased NKCC2 expression. Furthermore, MIN6 cells chronically pretreated with bumetanide exhibit increased initial rates of Cl− uptake while preserving glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Together, our results suggest that NKCCs are involved in insulin secretion and that a single Slc12a2 allele may protect β-cells from failure due to increased homeostatic expression of Slc12a1. PMID:26400961

  4. A model of ovulatory regulation examining the effects of insulin-mediated testosterone production on ovulatory function.

    PubMed

    Graham, Erica J; Selgrade, James F

    2017-03-07

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common cause of infertility in women, is often accompanied by abnormal reproductive and metabolic hormone levels. Specifically, androgens such as testosterone are elevated in many PCOS women, and the syndrome itself is frequently associated with insulin resistance, which leads to hyperinsulinemia, i.e., elevated insulin. Although the precise role of insulin in ovulatory function is unclear, its role in ovulatory dysfunction is often linked to the effects of increased ovarian androgen production. We present a mathematical model of the menstrual cycle that incorporates regulation by the pituitary-ovarian axis and mechanisms of ovarian testosterone production. We determine a physiological role for testosterone in the normal ovulatory cycle and study the role of hyperinsulinemia in pathological regulation of the cycle. Model results indicate increased ovulatory disruption with elevated insulin-mediated testosterone production and suggest that variations in the response of ovarian follicles to essential signals can alter the degree to which hyperinsulinemia disrupts the ovulatory cycle. The model also provides insight into the various PCOS phenotypes and the severity of ovulatory dysfunction.

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation enhances insulin-stimulated glucose disposal by reducing ped/pea-15 gene expression in skeletal muscle cells: evidence for involvement of activator protein-1.

    PubMed

    Ungaro, Paola; Mirra, Paola; Oriente, Francesco; Nigro, Cecilia; Ciccarelli, Marco; Vastolo, Viviana; Longo, Michele; Perruolo, Giuseppe; Spinelli, Rosa; Formisano, Pietro; Miele, Claudia; Beguinot, Francesco

    2012-12-14

    The gene network responsible for inflammation-induced insulin resistance remains enigmatic. In this study, we show that, in L6 cells, rosiglitazone- as well as pioglitazone-dependent activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) represses transcription of the ped/pea-15 gene, whose increased activity impairs glucose tolerance in mice and humans. Rosiglitazone enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake in L6 cells expressing the endogenous ped/pea-15 gene but not in cells expressing ped/pea-15 under the control of an exogenous promoter. The ability of PPARγ to affect ped/pea-15 expression was also lost in cells and in C57BL/6J transgenic mice expressing ped/pea-15 under the control of an exogenous promoter, suggesting that ped/pea-15 repression may contribute to rosiglitazone action on glucose disposal. Indeed, high fat diet mice showed insulin resistance and increased ped/pea-15 levels, although these effects were reduced by rosiglitazone treatment. Both supershift and ChIP assays revealed the presence of the AP-1 component c-JUN at the PED/PEA-15 promoter upon 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate stimulation of the cells. In these experiments, rosiglitazone treatment reduced c-JUN presence at the PED/PEA-15 promoter. This effect was not associated with a decrease in c-JUN expression. In addition, c-jun silencing in L6 cells lowered ped/pea-15 expression and caused nonresponsiveness to rosiglitazone, although c-jun overexpression enhanced the binding to the ped/pea-15 promoter and blocked the rosiglitazone effect. These results indicate that PPARγ regulates ped/pea-15 transcription by inhibiting c-JUN binding at the ped/pea-15 promoter. Thus, ped/pea-15 is downstream of a major PPARγ-regulated inflammatory network. Repression of ped/pea-15 transcription might contribute to the PPARγ regulation of muscle sensitivity to insulin.

  6. Membrane receptor cross talk in gonadotropin-, IGF-I-, and insulin-mediated steroidogenesis in fish ovary: An overview.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Dilip; Majumder, Suravi; Roy Moulik, Sujata; Pal, Puja; Gupta, Shreyasi; Guha, Payel; Kumar, Dhynendra

    2017-01-01

    Gonadal steroidogenesis is critical for survival and reproduction of all animals. The pathways that regulate gonadal steroidogenesis are therefore conserved among animals from the steroidogenic enzymes to the intracellular signaling molecules and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate the activity of these enzymes. Regulation of fish ovarian steroidogenesis in vitro by gonadotropin (GtH) and GPCRs revealed interaction between adenylate cyclase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) and also MAP kinase pathway. Recent studies revealed another important pathway in GtH-induced fish ovarian steroidogenesis: cross talk between GPCRs and membrane receptor tyrosine kinases. Gonadotropin binding to Gαs-coupled membrane receptor in fish ovary leads to production of cAMP which in turn trans-activate the membrane-bound epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This is followed by activation of ERK1/2 signaling that promotes steroid production. Interestingly, GtH-induced trans-activation of EGFR in the fish ovary uniquely requires matrix-metalloproteinase-mediated release of EGF. Inhibition of these proteases blocks GtH-induced steroidogenesis. Increased cAMP production in fish ovarian follicle upregulate follicular cyp19a1a mRNA expression and aromatase activity leading to increased biosynthesis of 17β-estradiol (E2). Evidence for involvement of SF-1 protein in inducing cyp19a1a mRNA and aromatase activity has also been demonstrated. In addition to GtH, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and bovine insulin can alone induced steroidogenesis in fish ovary. In intact follicles and isolated theca cells, IGF-I and insulin had no effect on GtH-induced testosterone and 17a,hydroxysprogeaterone production. GtH-stimulated E2 and 17,20bdihydroxy-4-pregnane 3-one production in granulosa cells however, was significantly increased by IGF-I and insulin. Both IGF-I and insulin mediates their signaling via receptor tyrosine kinases leading to activation of PI3

  7. Insulin-Mediated Downregulation of Apolipoprotein A-I Gene in Human Hepatoma Cell Line HepG2: The Role of Interaction Between FOXO1 and LXRβ Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Shavva, Vladimir S; Bogomolova, Alexandra M; Nikitin, Artemy A; Dizhe, Ella B; Tanyanskiy, Dmitry A; Efremov, Alexander M; Oleinikova, Galina N; Perevozchikov, Andrej P; Orlov, Sergey V

    2017-02-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is a key component of high density lipoproteins which possess anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Insulin is a crucial mediator of the glucose and lipid metabolism that has been implicated in atherosclerotic and inflammatory processes. Important mediators of insulin signaling such as Liver X Receptors (LXRs) and Forkhead Box A2 (FOXA2) are known to regulate apoA-I expression in liver. Forkhead Box O1 (FOXO1) is a well-known target of insulin signaling and a key mediator of oxidative stress response. Low doses of insulin were shown to activate apoA-I expression in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. However, the detailed mechanisms for these processes are still unknown. We studied the possible involvement of FOXO1, FOXA2, LXRα, and LXRβ transcription factors in the insulin-mediated regulation of apoA-I expression. Treatment of HepG2 cells with high doses of insulin (48 h, 100 nM) suppresses apoA-I gene expression. siRNAs against FOXO1, FOXA2, LXRβ, or LXRα abrogated this effect. FOXO1 forms a complex with LXRβ and insulin treatment impairs FOXO1/LXRβ complex binding to hepatic enhancer and triggers its nuclear export. Insulin as well as LXR ligand TO901317 enhance the interaction between FOXA2, LXRα, and hepatic enhancer. These data suggest that high doses of insulin downregulate apoA-I gene expression in HepG2 cells through redistribution of FOXO1/LXRβ complex, FOXA2, and LXRα on hepatic enhancer of apoA-I gene. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 382-396, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Disposable rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  9. Disposal rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.

    1983-10-12

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  10. Disposable Scholarship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Fredrick

    2004-01-01

    The digital materials that faculty produce for their classrooms often are saved only to storage devices that might become obsolete in a few years. Without an institutional effort to provide access systems, storage, and services for their digital media, are campuses in danger of creating "Disposable Scholarship"? In this article, the author…

  11. GLP-1(28-36) improves β-cell mass and glucose disposal in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and activates cAMP/PKA/β-catenin signaling in β-cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shao, Weijuan; Wang, Zhaoxia; Ip, Wilfred; Chiang, Yu-Ting; Xiong, Xiaoquan; Chai, Tuanyao; Xu, Catherine; Wang, Qinghua; Jin, Tianru

    2013-06-15

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the COOH-terminal fragment of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a nonapeptide GLP-1(28-36)amide, attenuates diabetes and hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mice. However, the effect of this nonapeptide in pancreatic β-cells remains largely unknown. Here, we show that in a streptozotocin-induced mouse diabetes model, GLP-1(28-36)amide improved glucose disposal and increased pancreatic β-cell mass and β-cell proliferation. An in vitro investigation revealed that GLP-1(28-36)amide stimulates β-catenin (β-cat) Ser(675) phosphorylation in both the clonal INS-1 cell line and rat primary pancreatic islet cells. In INS-1 cells, the stimulation was accompanied by increased nuclear β-cat content. GLP-1(28-36)amide was also shown to increase cellular cAMP levels, PKA enzymatic activity, and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor-1 (ATF-1) phosphorylation. Furthermore, GLP-1(28-36)amide treatment enhanced islet insulin secretion and increased the growth of INS-1 cells, which was associated with increased cyclin D1 expression. Finally, PKA inhibition attenuated the effect of GLP-1(28-36)amide on β-cat Ser(675) phosphorylation and cyclin D1 expression in the INS-1 cell line. We have thus revealed the beneficial effect of GLP-1(28-36)amide in pancreatic β-cells in vitro and in vivo. Our observations suggest that GLP-1(28-36)amide may exert its effect through the PKA/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  12. The citrus fruit flavonoid naringenin suppresses hepatic glucose production from Fao hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Purushotham, Aparna; Tian, Min; Belury, Martha A

    2009-02-01

    Hepatic gluconeogenesis is the major source of fasting hyperglycemia. Here, we investigated the role of the citrus fruit flavonoid naringenin, in the attenuation of hepatic glucose production from hepatoma (Fao) cells. We show that naringenin, but not its glucoside naringin, suppresses hepatic glucose production. Furthermore, unlike insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production, incubation of hepatocytes with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) inhibitor Ly294002 had no effect on the ability of naringenin to suppress hepatic glucose production. Further, naringenin did not increase phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 or, Thr308, indicating this down-stream target of PI3-kinase is also not a player in naringenin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production. Importantly, like the dimethylbiguanide, metformin, naringenin significantly decreased cellular ATP levels without increasing cell cytotoxicity. Together, these results suggest that the aglycone, naringenin, has a role in the attenuation of hyperglycemia and may exert this effect in a manner similar to the drug, metformin.

  13. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  14. Metabolic and vascular actions of endothelin-1 are inhibited by insulin-mediated vasodilation in perfused rat hindlimb muscle.

    PubMed

    Kolka, Cathryn M; Rattigan, Stephen; Richards, Stephen; Clark, Michael G

    2005-08-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent endothelium-derived vasoactive peptide and may be involved in the microvascular actions of insulin for the normal delivery of nutrients to muscle, although higher levels may be antagonistic. Our aim was to observe the interaction between ET-1 and insulin. Initially, we attempted to distinguish the vascular from the metabolic effects of ET-1 in the constant-flow pump-perfused rat hindlimb by using various doses of ET-1 and measuring changes in perfusion pressure (PP), oxygen consumption (VO(2)), glucose uptake (GU) and lactate release (LR). Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was used to block vasoconstriction and to thus assess the relationship between vascular and metabolic effects. Insulin was included in later experiments to determine the interaction between insulin and ET-1 on the above parameters. ET-1 caused a dose-dependent increase in PP. Effects on VO(2) were biphasic, with low doses increasing VO(2), and higher doses leading to a net inhibition. GU and LR were increased at lower doses (ET-1 < or =1 nM), but this effect was lost at higher doses (> or =10 nM ET-1). SNP (50 microM) fully blocked the increase in pressure and metabolism due to low-dose ET-1 and partly blocked both pressure and metabolic responses by the high dose. ET-1 vasodilatory activity was minimal at high or low dose. Insulin (15 nM) alone caused GU, which was not affected by ET-1. Of the other parameters measured, insulin behaved essentially the same as SNP, inhibiting the pressure and oxygen effects. Overall, these results show that ET-1 has a biphasic dose-dependent vasoconstrictor effect on hindlimb blood vessels, able to modulate flow to cause both the stimulation and inhibition of metabolism, although these effects are blocked by insulin, which is able to vasodilate against both low and high doses of ET-1.

  15. Drilling fluid disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, L.E.; Sanders, J.A.

    1981-12-01

    A maze of U.S. regulations and regulatory agencies coupled with uncertainty in interpretation of environmental data and an evolving system of disposal engineering will require industry action to monitor the area and derive a solid engineering basis for disposal of spent drilling fluid. A set of disposal methods with approximate costs is presented to serve as an initial guide for disposal. 16 refs.

  16. Glucose Variability

    PubMed Central

    Le Floch, Jean-Pierre; Kessler, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Background: Glucose variability has been suspected to be a major factor of diabetic complications. Several indices have been proposed for measuring glucose variability, but their interest remains discussed. Our aim was to compare different indices. Methods: Glucose variability was studied in 150 insulin-treated diabetic patients (46% men, 42% type 1 diabetes, age 52 ± 11 years) using a continuous glucose monitoring system (668 ± 564 glucose values; mean glucose value 173 ± 38 mg/dL). Results from the mean, the median, different indices (SD, MAGE, MAG, glucose fluctuation index (GFI), and percentages of low [<60 mg/dL] and high [>180 mg/dL] glucose values), and ratios (CV = SD/m, MAGE/m, MAG/m, and GCF = GFI/m) were compared using Pearson linear correlations and a multivariate principal component analysis (PCA). Results: CV, MAGE/m (ns), GCF and GFI (P < .05), MAG and MAG/m (P < .01) were not strongly correlated with the mean. The percentage of high glucose values was mainly correlated with indices. The percentage of low glucose values was mainly correlated with ratios. PCA showed 3 main axes; the first was associated with descriptive data (mean, SD, CV, MAGE, MAGE/m, and percentage of high glucose values); the second with ratios MAG/m and GCF and with the percentage of low glucose values; and the third with MAG, GFI, and the percentage of high glucose values. Conclusions: Indices and ratios provide complementary pieces of information associated with high and low glucose values, respectively. The pairs MAG+MAG/m and GFI+GCF appear to be the most reliable markers of glucose variability in diabetic patients. PMID:26880391

  17. Coping with an exogenous glucose overload: glucose kinetics of rainbow trout during graded swimming.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kevin; Weber, Jean-Michel

    2016-03-15

    This study examines how chronically hyperglycemic rainbow trout modulate glucose kinetics in response to graded exercise up to critical swimming speed (Ucrit), with or without exogenous glucose supply. Our goals were 1) to quantify the rates of hepatic glucose production (Ra glucose) and disposal (Rd glucose) during graded swimming, 2) to determine how exogenous glucose affects the changes in glucose fluxes caused by exercise, and 3) to establish whether exogenous glucose modifies Ucrit or the cost of transport. Results show that graded swimming causes no change in Ra and Rd glucose at speeds below 2.5 body lengths per second (BL/s), but that glucose fluxes may be stimulated at the highest speeds. Excellent glucoregulation is also achieved at all exercise intensities. When exogenous glucose is supplied during exercise, trout suppress hepatic production from 16.4 ± 1.6 to 4.1 ± 1.7 μmol·kg(-1)·min(-1) and boost glucose disposal to 40.1 ± 13 μmol·kg(-1)·min(-1). These responses limit the effects of exogenous glucose to a 2.5-fold increase in glycemia, whereas fish showing no modulation of fluxes would reach dangerous levels of 114 mM of blood glucose. Exogenous glucose reduces metabolic rate by 16% and, therefore, causes total cost of transport to decrease accordingly. High glucose availability does not improve Ucrit because the fish are unable to take advantage of this extra fuel during maximal exercise and rely on tissue glycogen instead. In conclusion, trout have a remarkable ability to adjust glucose fluxes that allows them to cope with the cumulative stresses of a glucose overload and graded exercise.

  18. Exogenous thyroxine improves glucose intolerance in insulin-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Anaya, Guillermo; Martinez, Bridget; Soñanez-Organis, José G; Nakano, Daisuke; Nishiyama, Akira; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2017-03-01

    Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are associated with glucose intolerance, calling into question the contribution of thyroid hormones (TH) on glucose regulation. TH analogues and derivatives may be effective treatment options for glucose intolerance and insulin resistance (IR), but their potential glucoregulatory effects during conditions of impaired metabolism are not well described. To assess the effects of thyroxine (T4) on glucose intolerance in a model of insulin resistance, an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) was performed on three groups of rats (n = 8): (1) lean, Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO), (2) obese, Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) and (3) OLETF + T4 (8.0 µg/100 g BM/day × 5 weeks). T4 attenuated glucose intolerance by 15% and decreased IR index (IRI) by 34% in T4-treated OLETF compared to untreated OLETF despite a 31% decrease in muscle Glut4 mRNA expression. T4 increased the mRNA expressions of muscle monocarboxylate transporter 10 (Mct10), deiodinase type 2 (Di2), sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and uncoupling protein 2 (Ucp2) by 1.8-, 2.2-, 2.7- and 1.4-fold, respectively, compared to OLETF. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and insulin receptor were not significantly altered suggesting that the improvements in glucose intolerance and IR were independent of enhanced insulin-mediated signaling. The results suggest that T4 treatment increased the influx of T4 in skeletal muscle and, with an increase of DI2, increased the availability of the biologically active T3 to upregulate key factors such SIRT1 and UCP2 involved in cellular metabolism and glucose homeostasis.

  19. FOXO1 and GSK-3β Are Main Targets of Insulin-Mediated Myogenesis in C2C12 Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Litwiniuk, Anna; Pijet, Barbara; Pijet-Kucicka, Maja; Gajewska, Małgorzata; Pająk, Beata; Orzechowski, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    , inhibition of GSK-3β activity by insulin alone or together with LiCl raised the expression of genes and some proteins central to the metabolic activity of mitochondria resulting in higher ATP synthesis and accelerated myogenesis. The results of this study indicate that there are at least two main targets in insulin-mediated myogenesis: notably FOXO1 and GSK-3β both playing apparent negative role in muscle fiber formation. PMID:26785133

  20. Drilling fluid disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, L.E.; Sander, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper attempts to review the effect of the regulatory process on the selection and handling of drilling fluids for proper disposal. It is shown that a maze of regulations and regulatory agencies coupled with uncertainty in interpretation of environmental data and an evolving system of disposal engineering will require industry action to monitor the area and derive a solid engineering basis for disposal of spent drilling fluid. 16 refs.

  1. Disposables in downstream processing.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Disposable equipment has been used for many years in the downstream processing industry, but mainly for filtration and buffer/media storage. Over the last decade, there has been increasing interest in the use of disposable concepts for chromatography, replacing steel and glass fixed systems with disposable plastic modules that can be discarded once exhausted, fouled or contaminated. These modules save on cleaning and validation costs, and their reduce footprints reduce buffer consumption, water for injection, labor and facility space, contributing to an overall reduction in expenditure that lowers the cost of goods. This chapter examines the practical and economic benefits of disposable modules in downstream processing.

  2. Glucose modulates the amount, but not the kinetics, of insulin released by sulfonylureas.

    PubMed

    Gregorio, F; Ambrosi, F; Filipponi, P; Cristallini, S; Santeusanio, F

    1994-01-01

    This study compares the insulin-secretory profiles induced by therapeutical concentrations of four different sulfonylureas--tolbutamide, gliquidone, gliclazide, and glibenclamide--and the amount of hormone released by each under different ambient glucose concentrations, using the isolated perfused rat pancreas model. All four sulfonylureas stimulated B-cell function, but the kinetics varied. Tolbutamide, gliquidone, and gliclazide produced a quick, biphasic release, whereas glibenclamide stimulated a delayed monophasic insulin secretion. Dramatic falls in insulin release were observed when ambient glucose concentrations were lowered. Glucagon release was not influenced by any of the sulfonylureas whatever the metabolic condition, neither directly nor indirectly, via an insulin-mediated paracrine inhibition of A-cell activity.

  3. Deep sea waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Kester, D.R.; Burt, W.V.; Capuzzo, J.M.; Park, P.K.; Ketchum, B.W.; Duedall, I.W.

    1985-01-01

    The book presents papers on the marine disposal of wastes. Topics considered include incineration at sea, the modelling and biological effects of industrial wastes, microbial studies of ocean dumping, deep-sea mining wastes, the chemical analysis of ferromanganese nodules, and economic aspects of deep-sea disposal.

  4. Disposable Diapers Are OK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poore, Patricia

    1992-01-01

    A personal account of measuring the pros and cons of disposable diaper usage leads the author to differentiate between a garbage problem and environmental problem. Concludes the disposable diaper issue is a political and economic issue with a local environmental impact and well within our abilities to manage. (MCO)

  5. Insulin signalling and glucose transport in the ovary and ovarian function during the ovarian cycle

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Joëlle; Scaramuzzi, Rex J.

    2016-01-01

    Data derived principally from peripheral tissues (fat, muscle and liver) show that insulin signals via diverse interconnecting intracellular pathways and that some of the major intersecting points (known as critical nodes) are the IRSs (insulin receptor substrates), PI3K (phosphoinositide kinase)/Akt and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase). Most of these insulin pathways are probably also active in the ovary and their ability to interact with each other and also with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) signalling pathways enables insulin to exert direct modulating influences on ovarian function. The present paper reviews the intracellular actions of insulin and the uptake of glucose by ovarian tissues (granulosa, theca and oocyte) during the oestrous/menstrual cycle of some rodent, primate and ruminant species. Insulin signals through diverse pathways and these are discussed with specific reference to follicular cell types (granulosa, theca and oocyte). The signalling pathways for FSH in granulosa cells and LH in granulosa and theca cells are summarized. The roles of glucose and of insulin-mediated uptake of glucose in folliculogenesis are discussed. It is suggested that glucose in addition to its well-established role of providing energy for cellular function may also have insulin-mediated signalling functions in ovarian cells, involving AMPK (AMP-dependent protein kinase) and/or hexosamine. Potential interactions of insulin signalling with FSH or LH signalling at critical nodes are identified and the available evidence for such interactions in ovarian cells is discussed. Finally the action of the insulin-sensitizing drugs metformin and the thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone on follicular cells is reviewed. PMID:27234585

  6. Disposal of drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, W.R.

    1983-06-01

    Prior to 1974 the disposal of drilling fluids was not considered to be much of an environmental problem. In the past, disposal of drilling fluids was accomplished in various ways such as spreading on oil field lease roads to stabilize the road surface and control dust, spreading in the base of depressions of sandy land areas to increase water retention, and leaving the fluid in the reserve pit to be covered on closure of the pit. In recent years, some states have become concerned over the indescriminate dumping of drilling fluids into pits or unauthorized locations and have developed specific regulations to alleviate the perceived deterioration of environmental and groundwater quality from uncontrolled disposal practices. The disposal of drilling fluids in Kansas is discussed along with a newer method or treatment in drilling fluid disposal.

  7. Disposal of Vessels at Sea

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Vessel disposal general permits are issued by the EPA under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. Information is provided for vessel disposal permit applicants and where to dispose a vessel.

  8. Insulin Resistance, Defective Insulin-Mediated Fatty Acid Suppression, and Coronary Artery Calcification in Subjects With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Schauer, Irene E.; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; Bergman, Bryan C.; Maahs, David M.; Kretowski, Adam; Eckel, Robert H.; Rewers, Marian

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess insulin action on peripheral glucose utilization and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) suppression as a predictor of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients with type 1 diabetes and nondiabetic controls. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Insulin action was measured by a three-stage hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (4, 8, and 40 mU/m2/min) in 87 subjects from the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes cohort (40 diabetic, 47 nondiabetic; mean age 45 ± 8 years; 55% female). RESULTS Peripheral glucose utilization was lower in subjects with type 1 diabetes compared with nondiabetic controls: glucose infusion rate (mg/kg FFM/min) = 6.19 ± 0.72 vs. 12.71 ± 0.66, mean ± SE, P < 0.0001, after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, fasting glucose, and final clamp glucose and insulin. Insulin-induced NEFA suppression was also lower in type 1 diabetic compared with nondiabetic subjects: NEFA levels (μM) during 8 mU/m2/min insulin infusion = 370 ± 27 vs. 185 ± 25, P < 0.0001, after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, fasting glucose, and time point insulin. Lower glucose utilization and higher NEFA levels, correlated with CAC volume (r = −0.42, P < 0.0001 and r = 0.41, P < 0.0001, respectively) and predicted the presence of CAC (odds ratio [OR] = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.22–0.93, P = 0.03; OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.08–5.32, P = 0.032, respectively). Insulin resistance did not correlate with GHb or continuous glucose monitoring parameters. CONCLUSIONS Type 1 diabetic patients are insulin resistant compared with nondiabetic subjects, and the degree of resistance is not related to current glycemic control. Insulin resistance predicts the extent of coronary artery calcification and may contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes as well as subjects without diabetes. PMID:20978091

  9. An Alternative Procedure for the Glucose Oxidase Assay of Glucose as Applied to the Lactase Activity Assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin Mullis, T.; Winge, Jeffery T.; Deal, S. Todd

    1999-12-01

    The glucose oxidase assay of glucose has been modified to eliminate the use of micropipets. The modification involves the use of disposable Pasteur pipets and a specified number of drops of each reagent. This simplified technique gives accurate and reproducible results.

  10. Economics of the hydrolysis of cellulosic sludge to glucose.

    PubMed

    Mora, Sandeep; Banerjee, Sujit

    2013-08-01

    Cellulosic sludge from paper mills making bleached products can be enzymatically converted to glucose. A kinetic model that accounts for product inhibition was used to estimate the cost:benefits of the process. In the proposed scheme, the sludge is enzymatically hydrolyzed in a sequence of CSTRs, the ash separated, and the product glucose concentrated through reverse osmosis. The water recovered is mostly recycled. By far, the most important economic variable is the value of the glucose. However, even if the glucose is assumed to be of no value the avoided cost of sludge disposal approximately offsets the process costs. The approach should generate significant revenue if the glucose is valued at market.

  11. Magnesium battery disposal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffer, Louis; Atwater, Terrill

    1994-12-01

    This study assesses the disposal characteristics of U.S. Army procured military magnesium batteries under current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste identification regulations administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Magnesium batteries were tested at 100, 50, 10 and 0 percent remaining state of charge. Present findings indicate that magnesium batteries with less than 50 percent remaining charge do not exceed the federal regulatory limit of 5.0 mg/L for chromium. All other RCRA contaminates were below regulatory limits at all levels of remaining charge. Assay methods, findings, disposal requirements and design implications are discussed.

  12. Nuclear Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Meyer, Philip D.; Ward, Andy L.

    2005-01-12

    Nuclear wastes are by-products of nuclear weapons production and nuclear power generation, plus residuals of radioactive materials used by industry, medicine, agriculture, and academia. Their distinctive nature and potential hazard make nuclear wastes not only the most dangerous waste ever created by mankind, but also one of the most controversial and regulated with respect to disposal. Nuclear waste issues, related to uncertainties in geologic disposal and long-term protection, combined with potential misuse by terrorist groups, have created uneasiness and fear in the general public and remain stumbling blocks for further development of a nuclear industry in a world that may soon be facing a global energy crisis.

  13. A novel fiber composite ingredient incorporated into a beverage and bar blunts postprandial serum glucose and insulin responses: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Lauren E; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-03-01

    Previous research supports that consumption of resistant starch and guar gum independently influences insulin-mediated glucose responses to meals. This research assessed a novel co-processed fiber composite (FC) ingredient comprising whole-grain high-amylose maize flour and viscous guar gum on glucose and insulin responses to co-consumed and subsequent meals in humans. It was hypothesized that a smoothie-type beverage or a cold-pressed snack bar containing the FC would blunt and sustain serum glucose and insulin postprandial responses compared with maltodextrin (MD). The beverage and bar were assessed in 2 separate studies using identical protocols. Young, nondiabetic, nonobese adults participated in 2 testing days (randomized crossover design) separated by at least 1 week for both food forms. On each testing day, the FC or MD product was consumed with a low-fiber standardized breakfast followed by a low-fiber standardized lunch (with no FC or MD) 4 hours later. Blood samples were collected at baseline and incrementally throughout the 8-hour testing day. One-tailed paired t tests were performed to compare treatment areas under the curve, and a doubly repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed to compare treatment responses at individual time points (P< .05, Bonferroni corrected). The FC blunted the postprandial glucose and insulin responses compared with MD, including a robust glucose and insulin response reduction after breakfast and a continued modest glycemic second-meal reduction after lunch in both the beverage and the bar. These findings support the use of this novel whole-grain FC ingredient in a beverage or bar for insulin-mediated glucose control in young healthy adults.

  14. Glucose kinetics during prolonged exercise in highly trained human subjects: effect of glucose ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Jeukendrup, Asker E; Raben, Anne; Gijsen, Annemie; Stegen, Jos H C H; Brouns, Fred; Saris, Wim H M; Wagenmakers, Anton J M

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate whether glucose ingestion during prolonged exercise reduces whole body muscle glycogen oxidation, (2) to determine the extent to which glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized during exercise with and without carbohydrate ingestion and (3) to obtain an estimate of gluconeogenesis. After an overnight fast, six well-trained cyclists exercised on three occasions for 120 min on a bicycle ergometer at 50% maximum velocity of O2 uptake and ingested either water (Fast), or a 4% glucose solution (Lo-Glu) or a 22% glucose solution (Hi-Glu) during exercise. Dual tracer infusion of [U-13C]-glucose and [6,6-2H2]-glucose was given to measure the rate of appearance (Ra) of glucose, muscle glycogen oxidation, glucose carbon recycling, metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and non-oxidative disposal of glucose. Glucose ingestion markedly increased total Ra especially with Hi-Glu. After 120 min Ra and rate of disappearance (Rd) of glucose were 51-52 μmol kg−1 min−1 during Fast, 73-74 μmol kg−1 min−1 during Lo-Glu and 117–119 μmol kg−1 min−1 during Hi-Glu. The percentage of Rd oxidized was between 96 and 100% in all trials. Glycogen oxidation during exercise was not reduced by glucose ingestion. The vast majority of glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized and MCR increased markedly with glucose ingestion. Glucose carbon recycling was minimal suggesting that gluconeogenesis in these conditions is negligible. PMID:10050023

  15. Waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  16. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  17. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  18. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration

    EPA Science Inventory

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which ...

  19. Plumbing and Sewage Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine enlisted personnel with the principles of plumbing and sewage disposal used by Marine Hygiene Equipment Operators to perform their mission. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the…

  20. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) in Arkansas. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the PBA and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site- specific study. This dependent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at PBA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources, and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Disposal of Liquid Propellants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-13

    concentrate (formaldehydestrongly catalyzes the formation of nitrosamines from nitrite and secondary amines ). I ° Minimize concentrations of catalytically ...components, as interest in these compounds is relatively new. Therefore, methods for disposing of similar compounds such as triethanol- amine ...appears to have the greatest potential for accomplishing degradation of HAN- based liquid propellant residues in an economical, environmentally safe manner

  3. Alternative Trench Disposal Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhite, E.

    2001-09-05

    During Fiscal Year 2000, a number of activities were conducted to expand the use of trenches for disposal of low-level waste in the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (LLWF). This document presents a summary and interpretation of these activities in the context of future work.

  4. Rapamycin negatively impacts insulin signaling, glucose uptake and uncoupling protein-1 in brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    García-Casarrubios, Ester; de Moura, Carlos; Arroba, Ana I; Pescador, Nuria; Calderon-Dominguez, María; Garcia, Laura; Herrero, Laura; Serra, Dolors; Cadenas, Susana; Reis, Flavio; Carvalho, Eugenia; Obregon, Maria Jesus; Valverde, Ángela M

    2016-12-01

    New onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is a metabolic disorder that affects 40% of patients on immunosuppressive agent (IA) treatment, such as rapamycin (also known as sirolimus). IAs negatively modulate insulin action in peripheral tissues including skeletal muscle, liver and white fat. However, the effects of IAs on insulin sensitivity and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) have not been investigated. We have analyzed the impact of rapamycin on insulin signaling, thermogenic gene-expression and mitochondrial respiration in BAT. Treatment of brown adipocytes with rapamycin for 16h significantly decreased insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) protein expression and insulin-mediated protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation. Consequently, both insulin-induced glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation to the plasma membrane and glucose uptake were decreased. Early activation of the N-terminal Janus activated kinase (JNK) was also observed, thereby increasing IRS1 Ser 307 phosphorylation. These effects of rapamycin on insulin signaling in brown adipocytes were partly prevented by a JNK inhibitor. In vivo treatment of rats with rapamycin for three weeks abolished insulin-mediated Akt phosphorylation in BAT. Rapamycin also inhibited norepinephrine (NE)-induced lipolysis, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 in brown adipocytes. Importantly, basal mitochondrial respiration, proton leak and maximal respiratory capacity were significantly decreased in brown adipocytes treated with rapamycin. In conclusion, we demonstrate, for the first time the important role of brown adipocytes as target cells of rapamycin, suggesting that insulin resistance in BAT might play a major role in NODAT development.

  5. Oil field waste disposal costs at commercial disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    The exploration and production segment of the U.S. oil and gas industry generates millions of barrels of nonhazardous oil field wastes annually. In most cases, operators can dispose of their oil fields wastes at a lower cost on-site than off site and, thus, will choose on-site disposal. However, a significant quantity of oil field wastes are still sent to off-site commercial facilities for disposal. This paper provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in different states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and how much they charge. There appear to be two major off-site disposal trends. Numerous commercial disposal companies that handle oil field wastes exclusively are located in nine oil-and gas-producing states. They use the same disposal methods as those used for on-site disposal. In addition, the Railroad Commission of Texas has issued permits to allow several salt caverns to be used for disposal of oil field wastes. Twenty-two other oil- and gas-producing states contain few or no disposal companies dedicated to oil and gas industry waste. The only off-site commercial disposal companies available handle general industrial wastes or are sanitary landfills. In those states, operators needing to dispose of oil field wastes off-site must send them to a local landfill or out of state. The cost of off-site commercial disposal varies substantially, depending on the disposal method used, the state in which the disposal company is located, and the degree of competition in the area.

  6. Disposal of Some Problem Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes procedures for the disposal of chemicals commonly used in secondary school chemistry laboratories. Special reference is given to inorganic salts. It is suggested that cyanides and other highly toxic salts should be disposed of by experts. (MA)

  7. Islet transplantation under the kidney capsule fully corrects the impaired skeletal muscle glucose transport system of streptozocin diabetic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, R; Davalli, A M; Hirshman, M F; Weitgasser, R; Weir, G C; Horton, E S

    1996-01-01

    Chronic insulin therapy improves but does not restore impaired insulin-mediated muscle glucose uptake in human diabetes or muscle glucose uptake, transport, and transporter translocation in streptozocin diabetic rats. To determine whether this inability is due to inadequate insulin replacement, we studied fasted streptozocin-induced diabetic Lewis rats either untreated or after islet transplantation under the kidney capsule. Plasma glucose was increased in untreated diabetics and normalized by the islet transplantation (110 +/- 5, 452 +/- 9, and 102 +/- 3 mg/dl in controls, untreated diabetics, and transplanted diabetics, respectively). Plasma membrane and intracellular microsomal membrane vesicles were prepared from hindlimb skeletal muscle of basal and maximally insulin-stimulated rats. Islet transplantation normalized plasma membrane carrier-mediated glucose transport Vmax, plasma membrane glucose transporter content, and insulin-induced transporter translocation. There were no differences in transporter intrinsic activity (Vmax/Ro) among the three groups. Microsomal membrane GLUT4 content was reduced by 30% in untreated diabetic rats and normal in transplanted diabetics, whereas the insulin-induced changes in microsomal membrane GLUT4 content were quantitatively similar in the three groups. There were no differences in plasma membrane GLUT1 among the groups and between basal and insulin stimulated states. Microsomal membrane GLUT1 content was increased 60% in untreated diabetics and normalized by the transplantation. In conclusion, an adequate insulin delivery in the peripheral circulation, obtained by islet transplantation, fully restores the muscle glucose transport system to normal in streptozocin diabetic rats. PMID:8617870

  8. Canagliflozin Lowers Postprandial Glucose and Insulin by Delaying Intestinal Glucose Absorption in Addition to Increasing Urinary Glucose Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Polidori, David; Sha, Sue; Mudaliar, Sunder; Ciaraldi, Theodore P.; Ghosh, Atalanta; Vaccaro, Nicole; Farrell, Kristin; Rothenberg, Paul; Henry, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitor, is also a low-potency SGLT1 inhibitor. This study tested the hypothesis that intestinal canagliflozin levels postdose are sufficiently high to transiently inhibit intestinal SGLT1, thereby delaying intestinal glucose absorption. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This two-period, crossover study evaluated effects of canagliflozin on intestinal glucose absorption in 20 healthy subjects using a dual-tracer method. Placebo or canagliflozin 300 mg was given 20 min before a 600-kcal mixed-meal tolerance test. Plasma glucose, 3H-glucose, 14C-glucose, and insulin were measured frequently for 6 h to calculate rates of appearance of oral glucose (RaO) in plasma, endogenous glucose production, and glucose disposal. RESULTS Compared with placebo, canagliflozin treatment reduced postprandial plasma glucose and insulin excursions (incremental 0- to 2-h area under the curve [AUC0–2h] reductions of 35% and 43%, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), increased 0- to 6-h urinary glucose excretion (UGE0–6h, 18.2 ± 5.6 vs. <0.2 g; P < 0.001), and delayed RaO. Canagliflozin reduced AUC RaO by 31% over 0 to 1 h (geometric means, 264 vs. 381 mg/kg; P < 0.001) and by 20% over 0 to 2 h (576 vs. 723 mg/kg; P = 0.002). Over 2 to 6 h, canagliflozin increased RaO such that total AUC RaO over 0 to 6 h was <6% lower versus placebo (960 vs. 1,018 mg/kg; P = 0.003). A modest (∼10%) reduction in acetaminophen absorption was observed over the first 2 h, but this difference was not sufficient to explain the reduction in RaO. Total glucose disposal over 0 to 6 h was similar across groups. CONCLUSIONS Canagliflozin reduces postprandial plasma glucose and insulin by increasing UGE (via renal SGLT2 inhibition) and delaying RaO, likely due to intestinal SGLT1 inhibition. PMID:23412078

  9. Diaper area and disposable diapers.

    PubMed

    Erasala, G N; Romain, C; Merlay, I

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, cloth diapers have been replaced by disposable diapers. The evolution of healthier skin in the diaper area has been demonstrated in parallel to that of disposable diapers. The improvements of disposable diapers--fit, dryness, comfort--have been based on the understanding of factors playing a role in the development of diaper dermatitis.

  10. Insulin secretion and cellular glucose metabolism after prolonged low-grade intralipid infusion in young men.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Holst, Jens J; Dela, Flemming; Madsbad, Sten; Vaag, Allan A

    2003-06-01

    We examined the simultaneous effects of a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion on peripheral glucose disposal, intracellular glucose partitioning and insulin secretion rates in twenty young men, by 2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp [low insulin clamp (LI), 10 mU/m(2) x min; high insulin clamp (HI), 40 mU/m(2) x min], 3-(3)H-glucose, indirect calorimetry, and iv glucose tolerance test. Free fatty acid concentrations were similar during basal steady state but 3.7- to 13-fold higher during clamps. P-glucagon increased and the insulin/glucagon ratio decreased at both LI and HI during Intralipid infusion. At LI, glucose oxidation decreased by 10%, whereas glucose disposal, glycolytic flux, glucose storage, and glucose production were not significantly altered. At HI, glucose disposal, and glucose oxidation decreased by 12% and 24%, respectively, during Intralipid infusion. Glycolytic flux, glucose storage, and glucose production were unchanged. Insulin secretion rates increased in response to Intralipid infusion, but disposition indices (DI = insulin action.insulin secretion) were unchanged. In conclusion, a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion caused insulin resistance in the oxidative (but not in the nonoxidative) glucose metabolism in young healthy men. Moreover, insulin hypersecretion perfectly countered the free-fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Future studies are needed to determine the role of a prolonged moderate lipid load in subjects at increased risk of developing diabetes.

  11. Insulin Signaling in the Control of Glucose and Lipid Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Saltiel, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    A continuous supply of glucose is necessary to ensure proper function and survival of all organs. Plasma glucose levels are thus maintained in a narrow range around 5 mM, which is considered the physiological set point. Glucose homeostasis is controlled primarily by the liver, fat, and skeletal muscle. Following a meal, most glucose disposals occur in the skeletal muscle, whereas fasting plasma glucose levels are determined primarily by glucose output from the liver. The balance between the utilization and production of glucose is primarily maintained at equilibrium by two opposing hormones, insulin and glucagon. In response to an elevation in plasma glucose and amino acids (after consumption of a meal), insulin is released from the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. When plasma glucose falls (during fasting or exercise), glucagon is secreted by α cells, which surround the beta cells in the pancreas. Both cell types are extremely sensitive to glucose concentrations, can regulate hormone synthesis, and are released in response to small changes in plasma glucose levels. At the same time, insulin serves as the major physiological anabolic agent, promoting the synthesis and storage of glucose, lipids, and proteins and inhibiting their degradation and release back into the circulation. This chapter will focus mainly on signal transduction mechanisms by which insulin exerts its plethora of effects in liver, muscle, and fat cells, focusing on those pathways that are crucial in the control of glucose and lipid homeostasis.

  12. Space disposal of nuclear wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, C. C.; Nixon, R. F.; Rice, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    The DOE has been studying several options for nuclear waste disposal, among them space disposal, which NASA has been assessing. Attention is given to space disposal destinations noting that a circular heliocentric orbit about halfway between Earth and Venus is the reference option in space disposal studies. Discussion also covers the waste form, showing that parameters to be considered include high waste loading, high thermal conductivity, thermochemical stability, resistance to leaching, fabrication, resistance to oxidation and to thermal shock. Finally, the Space Shuttle nuclear waste disposal mission profile is presented.

  13. Landfill disposal systems

    PubMed Central

    Slimak, Karen M.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of landfill disposal of hazardous wastes in the United States is indicated by presenting descriptions of six operating landfills. These landfills illustrate the variety of techniques that exist in landfill disposal of hazardous wastes. Although some landfills more effectively isolate hazardous waste than others, all landfills must deal with the following problems. Leachate from hazardous waste landfills is generally highly polluted. Most landfills attempt to contain leachate at the site and prevent its discharge to surface or groundwaters. To retain leachate within a disposal area, subsurface barriers of materials such as concrete, asphalt, butyl rubber, vinyl, and clay are used. It is difficult to assure that these materials can seal a landfill indefinitely. When a subsurface barrier fails, the leachate enters the groundwater in a concentrated, narrow band which may bypass monitoring wells. Once a subsurface barrier has failed, repairs are time-consuming and costly, since the waste above the repair site may have to be removed. The central problem in landfill disposal is leachate control. Recent emphasis has been on developing subsurface barriers to contain the wastes and any leachate. Future emphasis should also be on techniques for removing water from hazardous wastes before they are placed in landfills, and on methods for preventing contact of the wastes with water during and after disposal operations. When leachate is eliminated, the problems of monitoring, and subsurface barrier failure and repair can be addressed, and a waste can be effectively isolated. A surface seal landfill design is recommended for maintaining the dry state of solid hazardous wastes and for controlling leachate. Any impervious liner is utilized over the top of the landfill to prevent surface water from seeping into the waste. The surface barrier is also the site where monitoring and maintenance activities are focused. Barrier failure can be detected by visual

  14. Exenatide Regulates Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Brain Areas Associated With Glucose Homeostasis and Reward System.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Giuseppe; Iozzo, Patricia; Molina-Carrion, Marjorie; Lancaster, Jack; Ciociaro, Demetrio; Cersosimo, Eugenio; Tripathy, Devjit; Triplitt, Curtis; Fox, Peter; Musi, Nicolas; DeFronzo, Ralph; Gastaldelli, Amalia

    2015-10-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) have been found in the brain, but whether GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RAs) influence brain glucose metabolism is currently unknown. The study aim was to evaluate the effects of a single injection of the GLP-1RA exenatide on cerebral and peripheral glucose metabolism in response to a glucose load. In 15 male subjects with HbA1c of 5.7 ± 0.1%, fasting glucose of 114 ± 3 mg/dL, and 2-h glucose of 177 ± 11 mg/dL, exenatide (5 μg) or placebo was injected in double-blind, randomized fashion subcutaneously 30 min before an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The cerebral glucose metabolic rate (CMRglu) was measured by positron emission tomography after an injection of [(18)F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose before the OGTT, and the rate of glucose absorption (RaO) and disposal was assessed using stable isotope tracers. Exenatide reduced RaO0-60 min (4.6 ± 1.4 vs. 13.1 ± 1.7 μmol/min ⋅ kg) and decreased the rise in mean glucose0-60 min (107 ± 6 vs. 138 ± 8 mg/dL) and insulin0-60 min (17.3 ± 3.1 vs. 24.7 ± 3.8 mU/L). Exenatide increased CMRglu in areas of the brain related to glucose homeostasis, appetite, and food reward, despite lower plasma insulin concentrations, but reduced glucose uptake in the hypothalamus. Decreased RaO0-60 min after exenatide was inversely correlated to CMRglu. In conclusion, these results demonstrate, for the first time in man, a major effect of a GLP-1RA on regulation of brain glucose metabolism in the absorptive state.

  15. Neuroscience of glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    La Fleur, S E; Fliers, E; Kalsbeek, A

    2014-01-01

    Plasma glucose concentrations are homeostatically regulated and maintained within strict boundaries. Several mechanisms are in place to increase glucose output when glucose levels in the circulation drop as a result of glucose utilization, or to decrease glucose output and increase tissue glucose uptake to prevent hyperglycemia. Although the term homeostasis mostly refers to stable levels, the blood glucose concentrations fluctuate over the day/night cycle, with the highest concentrations occurring just prior to the activity period in anticipation of increased caloric need. In this chapter we describe how the brain, particularly the hypothalamus, is involved in both the daily rhythm of plasma glucose concentrations and acute glucose challenges.

  16. Curcuma longa polyphenols improve insulin-mediated lipid accumulation and attenuate proinflammatory response of 3T3-L1 adipose cells during oxidative stress through regulation of key adipokines and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Septembre-Malaterre, Axelle; Le Sage, Fanny; Hatia, Sarah; Catan, Aurélie; Janci, Laurent; Gonthier, Marie-Paule

    2016-07-08

    Plant polyphenols may exert beneficial action against obesity-related oxidative stress and inflammation which promote insulin resistance. This study evaluated the effect of polyphenols extracted from French Curcuma longa on 3T3-L1 adipose cells exposed to H2 O2 -mediated oxidative stress. We found that Curcuma longa extract exhibited high amounts of curcuminoids identified as curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, which exerted free radical-scavenging activities. Curcuma longa polyphenols improved insulin-mediated lipid accumulation and upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene expression and adiponectin secretion which decreased in H2 O2 -treated cells. Curcuminoids attenuated H2 O2 -enhanced production of pro-inflammatory molecules such as interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and nuclear factor κappa B. Moreover, they reduced intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species elevated by H2 O2 and modulated the expression of genes encoding superoxide dismutase and catalase antioxidant enzymes. Collectively, these findings highlight that Curcuma longa polyphenols protect adipose cells against oxidative stress and may improve obesity-related metabolic disorders. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(4):418-430, 2016.

  17. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  18. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-10-24

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

  19. Brain glucose overexposure and lack of acute metabolic flexibility in obesity and type 2 diabetes: a PET-[18F]FDG study in Zucker and ZDF rats.

    PubMed

    Liistro, Tiziana; Guiducci, Letizia; Burchielli, Silvia; Panetta, Daniele; Belcari, Nicola; Pardini, Silvia; Del Guerra, Alberto; Salvadori, Piero A; Iozzo, Patricia

    2010-05-01

    Brain glucose exposure may complicate diabetes and obesity. We used positron emission tomography with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose in Zucker obese, diabetic, and control rats to determine the contributions of blood glucose mass action versus local mechanisms in regulating central glucose disposal in fasted and acutely glucose-stimulated states, and their adaptations in obesity and diabetes. Our study data indicate that brain glucose uptake is dependent on both local and mass action components, and is stimulated by acute glucose intake in healthy rats. In diseased animals, the organ was chronically overexposed to glucose, due to high fasting glucose uptake, almost abolishing the physiologic response to glucose loading.

  20. Effects of maternal undernutrition and exercise on glucose kinetics in fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Leury, B J; Chandler, K D; Bird, A R; Bell, A W

    1990-09-01

    Fetal glucose kinetics were measured using a combination of isotope-dilution and Fick-principle methodology in single-pregnant ewes which were either well-fed throughout, or fed at 0.3-0.4 predicted energy requirement for 7-21 d during late pregnancy. All ewes were studied while standing at rest and then while walking on a treadmill at 0.7 m/s on a 10 degree slope for 60 min. Underfed ewes suffered major decreases in fetal total disposal rate, fetal-placental transfer and umbilical net uptake of glucose, each of which were significantly related to declines in maternal and fetal blood glucose concentrations respectively. In well-fed ewes, fetal endogenous glucose production was negligible, as indicated by the similarity between fetal utilization rate (total glucose disposal rate minus placental uptake of fetal glucose) and umbilical net uptake of glucose, and by nearly identical fetal and maternal arterial blood specific radioactivities of maternally infused D-[2-3H]glucose. By contrast, in underfed ewes, fetal utilization rate greatly exceeded umbilical net uptake of glucose, and the fetal:maternal [3H]glucose specific activity ratio declined significantly, suggesting induction of a substantial rate of fetal endogenous glucogenesis. Exercise caused increases in fetal total glucose disposal rate and glycaemia in fed and underfed ewes. In underfed ewes only, this was accompanied by increased placental uptake of fetal glucose and umbilical net glucose uptake, unchanged fetal glucose utilization and decreased fetal endogenous glucose production. It is concluded that fetal gluconeogenesis makes a major contribution to fetal glucose requirements in undernourished ewes. Increased maternal supply of fetal glucose during exercise substitutes for rather than adds to fetal endogenous glucogenesis.

  1. The evolution of commercialized glucose sensors in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    The glucose monitor with a screen-printed carbon sensor has been in commercial production since 1994. In last 15 years, around 10 companies have been involved in manufacturing and marketing the meters and glucose test strips and are being strong competitors of the companies which import these products. Comparison of early stage glucose meters and glucose test strips with latest fabrications showed a large increase in production volume and improved functional features. It also showed technological development of glucose monitors including circuit improvement, as more integrated computer processor units (CPU) are now being used. The technology of mass-production of disposable screen-printed test strips has been widely used in local industries mainly for the production of blood glucose test strips. The opportunities and challenges in local diabetes market are discussed in this paper.

  2. Military nuclear waste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robb, David W.

    1984-04-01

    A National Research Council (NRC) panel has endorsed a plan for a proposed underground military nuclear waste disposal facility located on a site near Carlsbad, N.M. The Department of Energy (DOE) asked NRC to evaluate the geologic suitability of the site.The NRC panel, chaired by Frank L. Parker of Vanderbilt University, concluded in its final report that “the important issues about the geology of the site have been resolved…” Those issues include the purity and volume of salt, the absence of brine pockets at the repository horizon in the areas excavated, the absence of breccia pipes and of toxic gases, and the nearly horizontal bedding of the salt. Thick underground salt beds have long been considered prime candidates for nuclear waste repositories. The existence of salt beds is believed to indicate long-term stability. In addition, the salt is flexible and will seal cracks and discontinuities over time.

  3. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste.

  4. Glyceollins, soy isoflavone phytoalexins, improve oral glucose disposal by stimulating glucose uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyceollins (glyceollin I, II, and III), isoflavone phytoalexins synthesized by soy in response to environmental stresses such as microbial infections. Glyceollins exhibited anti-cancer and anti-diabetes effects: previously we showed that glyceollins inhibited cancer cell growth in vitro and in viv...

  5. CSF glucose test

    MedlinePlus

    Glucose test - CSF; Cerebrospinal fluid glucose test ... The glucose level in the CSF should be 50 to 80 mg/100 mL (or greater than 2/3 ... Abnormal results include higher and lower glucose levels. Abnormal ... or fungus) Inflammation of the central nervous system Tumor

  6. Blood Test: Glucose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Glucose A A A What's in this article? What ... de sangre: glucosa What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...

  7. Integrated Disposal Facility Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F. M.

    2003-06-03

    An environmental risk assessment associated with the disposal of projected Immobilized Low-Activity Waste, solid wastes and failed or decommissioned melters in an Integrated Disposal Facility was performed. Based on the analyses all performance objectives associated with the groundwater, air, and intruder pathways were met.

  8. Disposable diapers: safe and effective.

    PubMed

    Singh, Namita; Purthi, P K; Sachdev, Anupam; Gupta, Suresh

    2003-09-01

    Nappy rash is a common problem in infants due to their thinner skin, wetness, heat and friction under cloth nappy, fecal enzymes and alkaline urine. The disposable diapers containing Super Absorbent Material (SAM) reduce the incidence of nappy rash. SAM quickly absorbs urine and keeps the skin dry. Also disposable diapers prevent fecal contamination by absorbing the urine and containing stools.

  9. Nuclear waste disposal in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

  10. Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document

    SciTech Connect

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-09-25

    This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.

  11. Chemical Waste Management and Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    1988-01-01

    Describes simple, efficient techniques for treating hazardous chemicals so that nontoxic and nonhazardous residues are formed. Discusses general rules for management of waste chemicals from school laboratories and general techniques for the disposal of waste or surplus chemicals. Lists specific disposal reactions. (CW)

  12. The effect of endurance training and subsequent physical inactivity on glycaemic control after oral glucose load and physical exercise in healthy men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radikova, Zofia; Ksinantova, Lucia; Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Nazar, Krystyna; Vigas, Milan; Koska, Juraj

    2007-02-01

    Physical inactivity during space flight has a profound effect on glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to test whether endurance training (ET) may improve a negative effect of subsequent -6∘ head-down bed rest (HDBR) on glucose metabolism. Fourteen healthy males completed the study consisting of 6 weeks lasting ET followed by 6 days HDBR. Treadmill exercise at 80% of pre-training VO2max and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed before and after ET as well as after HDBR. ET increased VO2max by 11%. ET significantly lowered while HDBR had no effect on fasting and OGTT plasma glucose levels. ET had no effect while HDBR was followed by an augmentation of insulin and C-peptide response to OGTT. Insulin sensitivity tended to increase after ET and to decrease during HDBR, however, mostly without statistical significance. Plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide response to exercise were elevated after HDBR only. Our study shows that antecedent physical training could ameliorate a negative effect of simulated microgravity on insulin-mediated glucose metabolism.

  13. Frequent interruptions of sedentary time modulates contraction- and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake pathways in muscle: Ancillary analysis from randomized clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Latouche, Celine; Heywood, Sarah; Grace, Megan S.; Reddy-Luthmoodoo, Medini; Natoli, Alaina K.; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W.; Kingwell, Bronwyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have observed associations between frequent interruptions of sitting time with physical activity bouts and beneficial metabolic outcomes, even in individuals who regularly exercise. Frequent interruptions to prolonged sitting reduce postprandial plasma glucose. Here we studied potential skeletal muscle mechanisms accounting for this improved control of glycemia in overweight adults under conditions of one day uninterrupted sitting and sitting interrupted with light-intensity or moderate-intensity walking every 20-min (n = 8); and, after three days of either uninterrupted sitting or light-intensity walking interruptions (n = 5). Contraction- and insulin-mediated glucose uptake signaling pathways as well as changes in oxidative phosphorylation proteins were examined. We showed that 1) both interventions reduce postprandial glucose concentration, 2) acute interruptions to sitting over one day stimulate the contraction-mediated glucose uptake pathway, 3) both acute interruptions to sitting with moderate-intensity activity over one day and light-intensity activity over three days induce a transition to modulation of the insulin-signaling pathway, in association with increased capacity for glucose transport. Only the moderate-intensity interruptions resulted in greater capacity for glycogen synthesis and likely for ATP production. These observations contribute to a mechanistic explanation of improved postprandial glucose metabolism with regular interruptions to sitting time, a promising preventive strategy for metabolic diseases. PMID:27554943

  14. The measurement of alkaline phosphatase at nanomolar concentration within 70 s using a disposable microelectrochemical transistor.

    PubMed

    Astier, Y; Bartlett, P N

    2004-08-01

    We report a new approach to the measurement of alkaline phosphatase concentration based on the use of a disposable poly(aniline) microelectrochemical transistor. The measurement is carried out in a two cell configuration in which the poly(aniline) microelectrochemical transistor operates in acid solution and is connected to the alkaline buffer solution containing the analyte by a salt bridge. Disposable microelectrochemical transistors were reproducibly fabricated by electrochemical deposition of poly(aniline) onto photolithographically fabricated gold microband arrays. Using these devices alkaline phosphatase was detected by employing p-aminophenyl phosphate as the substrate for the enzyme and using glucose and glucose oxidase to recycle the p-aminophenol generated upon enzyme catalysed hydrolysis of the phosphate. Recycling the p-aminophenol with glucose and glucose oxidase amplified the detection of alkaline phosphatase approximately tenfold. Using this approach we obtain linear calibration curves for alkaline phosphatase up to 5 nM within 70 s on single use devices.

  15. Improper sharp disposal practices among diabetes patients in home care settings: Need for concern?

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Anindo; Sahoo, Jayaprakash; Roy, Gautam; Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, outbreaks of blood-borne infections have been reported from assisted living facilities, which were traced back to improper blood glucose monitoring practices. Needle-stick injuries have been implicated in many such cases. This directly raises concerns over sharp disposal practices of diabetic patients self-managing their condition in home care settings. With India being home to a huge diabetic population, this issue, if neglected, can cause substantial damage to the health of the population and a marked economic loss. This article discusses the sharp disposal practices prevalent among diabetes patients, the importance of proper sharp disposal, barriers to safe disposal of sharps, and the options available for doing the same. For adopting an environmentally safe wholesome approach, disposal of plastics generated as a result of diabetes self-care at home is important as well. The article also looks at the possible long-term solutions to these issues that are sustainable in an Indian context.

  16. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  17. Land Disposal Restrictions for Hazardous Waste

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The land disposal restrictions prohibits the land disposal of untreated hazardous wastes. EPA has specified either concentration levels or methods of treatment for hazardous constituents to meet before land disposal.

  18. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration.

    PubMed

    Holder, Amara L; Vejerano, Eric P; Zhou, Xinzhe; Marr, Linsey C

    2013-09-01

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which nanomaterials may enter incinerator waste streams and the fate of these nanomaterials during the incineration process. Although the literature on incineration of nanomaterials is scarce, results from studies of their behavior at high temperature or in combustion environments for other applications can help predict their fate within an incinerator. Preliminary evidence suggests nanomaterials may catalyze the formation or destruction of combustion by-products. Depending on their composition, nanomaterials may undergo physical and chemical transformations within the incinerator, impacting their partitioning within the incineration system (e.g., bottom ash, fly ash) and the effectiveness of control technology for removing them. These transformations may also drastically affect nanomaterial transport and impacts in the environment. Current regulations on incinerator emissions do not specifically address nanomaterials, but limits on particle and metal emissions may prove somewhat effective at reducing the release of nanomaterials in incinerator effluent. Control technology used to meet these regulations, such as fabric filters, electrostatic precipitators, and wet electrostatic scrubbers, are expected to be at least partially effective at removing nanomaterials from incinerator flue gas.

  19. Disposable diapers: a hygienic alternative.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Maithili; Malkani, Ram

    2003-11-01

    The use of disposable diapers has offered improved health care benefits. Urine and fecal matter leakage from the cloth nappies and the hand-to-mouth behavior in infants leads to many illnesses with a feco-oral mode of transmission. Also, the tender skin of the infant is more prone to nappy rash. The modern age disposable diapers, when compared to cloth nappy, have displayed a superior ability in containment of urine and feces, thereby reducing contamination and transmission of infection. Also disposable diapers contain Super Absorbent Material (SAM) that successfully reduces the incidence of nappy rash.

  20. Promotion of glucose utilization by insulin enhances granulosa cell proliferation and developmental competence of porcine oocyte grown in vitro.

    PubMed

    Itami, Nobuhiko; Munakata, Yasuhisa; Shirasuna, Koumei; Kuwayama, Takehito; Iwata, Hisataka

    2017-02-01

    In vitro culture of the oocyte granulosa cell complexes (OGCs) from early antral follicles (EAFs) shows granulosa cell (GC) proliferation, but to a lesser extent than that observed in vivo during follicle development. As the number of GCs closely relates to energy sufficiency of the oocytes, enhancement of GC proliferation influences oocyte development. GC proliferation depends on glycolysis and insulin-mediated AKT/mTOR signaling pathway; therefore, addition of culture medium containing insulin and glucose may potentially promote GC proliferation and hence improve oocyte development. In the present study, we assessed the effect of exogenous insulin and glucose concentration on GC proliferation and oocyte energy status as well as developmental abilities of porcine oocytes grown in vitro. In the presence of 5.5 mM of glucose (Low), a comparison of 10 versus 20 μg/ml insulin showed that high insulin enhanced GC proliferation but exhausted glucose from the medium, which resulted in low energy status including lipid and adenosine triphosphate of the oocyte. Whereas, in the presence of 20 μg/ml insulin, medium with 11 mM glucose (High) enhanced GC proliferation and oocyte energy status as well as developmental ability up to the blastocyst stage. Considering that there was no difference in OGCs development observed with medium (10 μg/ml insulin) containing 5.5 versus 11 mM glucose, we concluded that the combination of high insulin and glucose enhanced GC proliferation and energy status of oocytes as well as the developmental ability of the oocytes grown in vitro.

  1. Recycling and Disposal of CFLs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Consumers can help prevent the release of mercury into the environment by taking advantage of available local options for recycling CFLs and other household hazardous wastes, rather than disposing of them in regular household trash.

  2. Ultimate disposal of scrubber wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohenour, B. C.

    1978-01-01

    Part of the initial concern with using the wet scrubbers on the hypergolic propellants was the subsequential disposal of the liquid wastes. To do this, consideration was given to all possible methods to reduce the volume of the wastes and stay within the guidelines established by the state and federal environmental protection agencies. One method that was proposed was the use of water hyacinths in disposal ponds to reduce the waste concentration in the effluent to less than EPA tolerable levels. This method was under consideration and even in use by private industry, municipal governments, and NASA for upgrading existing wastewater treatment facilities to a tertiary system. The use of water hyacinths in disposal ponds appears to be a very cost-effective method for reduction and disposal of hypergolic propellants.

  3. Disposal phase experimental program plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility comprises surface and subsurface facilities, including a repository mined in a bedded salt formation at a depth of 2,150 feet. It has been developed to safely and permanently isolate transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes in a deep geological disposal site. On April 12, 1996, the DOE submitted a revised Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The DOE anticipates receiving an operating permit from the NMED; this permit is required prior to the start of disposal operations. On October 29, 1996, the DOE submitted a Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in accordance with the WIPP land Withdrawal Act (LWA) of 1992 (Public Law 102-579) as amended, and the requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR) Parts 191 and 194. The DOE plans to begin disposal operations at the WIPP in November 1997 following receipt of certification by the EPA. The disposal phase is expected to last for 35 years, and will include recertification activities no less than once every five years. This Disposal Phase Experimental Program (DPEP) Plan outlines the experimental program to be conducted during the first 5-year recertification period. It also forms the basis for longer-term activities to be carried out throughout the 35-year disposal phase. Once the WIPP has been shown to be in compliance with regulatory requirements, the disposal phase gives an opportunity to affirm the compliance status of the WIPP, enhance the operations of the WIPP and the national TRU system, and contribute to the resolution of national and international nuclear waste management technical needs. The WIPP is the first facility of its kind in the world. As such, it provides a unique opportunity to advance the technical state of the art for permanent disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes.

  4. Glucose test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... person with diabetes constantly manages their blood's sugar (glucose) levels. After a blood sample is taken and tested, it is determined whether the glucose levels are low or high. Following your health ...

  5. Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Bar for Blood Glucose Meter Performance Recalls & Alerts Shasta Technologies GenStrip Blood Glucose Test Strips May ... Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety Alerts News Releases Consumer Updates About FDA Contact FDA ...

  6. An aqueous extract of Curcuma longa (turmeric) rhizomes stimulates insulin release and mimics insulin action on tissues involved in glucose homeostasis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mohankumar, Sureshkumar; McFarlane, James R

    2011-03-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) has been used widely as a spice, particularly in Asian countries. It is also used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine as an antiinflammatory and antimicrobial agent and for numerous other curative properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an aqueous extract of Curcuma longa (AEC) on tissues involved in glucose homeostasis. The extract was prepared by soaking 100 g of ground turmeric in 1 L of water, which was filtered and stored at -20°C prior to use. Pancreas and muscle tissues of adult mice were cultured in DMEM with 5 or 12 mmol/L glucose and varying doses of extract. The AEC stimulated insulin secretion from mouse pancreatic tissues under both basal and hyperglycaemic conditions, although the maximum effect was only 68% of that of tolbutamide. The AEC induced stepwise stimulation of glucose uptake from abdominal muscle tissues in the presence and absence of insulin, and the combination of AEC and insulin significantly potentiated the glucose uptake into abdominal muscle tissue. However, this effect was attenuated by wortmannin, suggesting that AEC possibly acts via the insulin-mediated glucose uptake pathway. In summary, water soluble compounds of turmeric exhibit insulin releasing and mimicking actions within in vitro tissue culture conditions.

  7. All about Blood Glucose

    MedlinePlus

    Toolkit No. 15 All About Blood Glucose Keeping your blood glucose (sugar)in your target range can prevent or delay the health problems ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 1/15 Toolkit No.15: All About Blood Glucose continued team about when and ...

  8. Noninvasive diagnostic devices for diabetes through measuring tear glucose.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Hodge, William; Hutnick, Cindy; Wang, Xianbin

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the development of a noninvasive diagnostic for diabetes by detecting ocular glucose. Early diagnosis and daily management are very important to diabetes patients to ensure a healthy life. Commercial blood glucose sensors have been used since the 1970s. Millions of diabetes patients have to prick their finger for a drop of blood 4-5 times a day to check blood glucose levels--almost 1800 times annually. There is a strong need to have a noninvasive device to help patients to manage the disease easily and painlessly. Instead of detecting the glucose in blood, monitoring the glucose level in other body fluids may provide a feasible approach for noninvasive diagnosis and diabetes control. Tear glucose has been studied for several decades. This article reviews studies on ocular glucose and its monitoring methods. Attempts to continuously monitor the concentration of tear glucose by using contact lens-based sensors are discussed as well as our current development of a nanostructured lens-based sensor for diabetes. This disposable biosensor for the detection of tear glucose may provide an alternative method to help patients manage the disease conveniently.

  9. Exercise, GLUT4, and skeletal muscle glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Richter, Erik A; Hargreaves, Mark

    2013-07-01

    Glucose is an important fuel for contracting muscle, and normal glucose metabolism is vital for health. Glucose enters the muscle cell via facilitated diffusion through the GLUT4 glucose transporter which translocates from intracellular storage depots to the plasma membrane and T-tubules upon muscle contraction. Here we discuss the current understanding of how exercise-induced muscle glucose uptake is regulated. We briefly discuss the role of glucose supply and metabolism and concentrate on GLUT4 translocation and the molecular signaling that sets this in motion during muscle contractions. Contraction-induced molecular signaling is complex and involves a variety of signaling molecules including AMPK, Ca(2+), and NOS in the proximal part of the signaling cascade as well as GTPases, Rab, and SNARE proteins and cytoskeletal components in the distal part. While acute regulation of muscle glucose uptake relies on GLUT4 translocation, glucose uptake also depends on muscle GLUT4 expression which is increased following exercise. AMPK and CaMKII are key signaling kinases that appear to regulate GLUT4 expression via the HDAC4/5-MEF2 axis and MEF2-GEF interactions resulting in nuclear export of HDAC4/5 in turn leading to histone hyperacetylation on the GLUT4 promoter and increased GLUT4 transcription. Exercise training is the most potent stimulus to increase skeletal muscle GLUT4 expression, an effect that may partly contribute to improved insulin action and glucose disposal and enhanced muscle glycogen storage following exercise training in health and disease.

  10. Ambulatory glucose profile: Flash glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Gupta, Yashdeep

    2015-12-01

    Ambulatory glucose profile (AGP) is a novel way of assessing glycaemic levels on a 24 hour basis, through a minimally invasive method, known as flash glucose monitoring. This review describes the unique features of AGP, differentiates it from existing methods of glucose monitoring, and explains how it helps pursue the glycaemic pentad. The review suggests pragmatic usage of this technology, including pre-test, intra-test, and post-test counselling, and lists specific clinical scenarios where the investigation seems to be of immense benefit.

  11. 40 CFR 191.24 - Disposal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Ground-Water Protection § 191.24 Disposal standards. (a) Disposal systems. (1) General. Disposal systems for waste and...

  12. 40 CFR 191.24 - Disposal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Ground-Water Protection § 191.24 Disposal standards. (a) Disposal systems. (1) General. Disposal systems for waste and...

  13. 40 CFR 191.24 - Disposal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Ground-Water Protection § 191.24 Disposal standards. (a) Disposal systems. (1) General. Disposal systems for waste and...

  14. 40 CFR 191.24 - Disposal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Ground-Water Protection § 191.24 Disposal standards. (a) Disposal systems. (1) General. Disposal systems for waste and...

  15. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... first step, you will have a glucose screening test: You DO NOT need to prepare or change ...

  16. Long-term exposure to abnormal glucose levels alters drug metabolism pathways and insulin sensitivity in primary human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Matthew D.; Ballinger, Kimberly R.; Khetani, Salman R.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus has been linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which can progress to inflammation, fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Understanding how chronic hyperglycemia affects primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) can facilitate the development of therapeutics for these diseases. Conversely, elucidating the effects of hypoglycemia on PHHs may provide insights into how the liver adapts to fasting, adverse diabetes drug reactions, and cancer. In contrast to declining PHH monocultures, micropatterned co-cultures (MPCCs) of PHHs and 3T3-J2 murine embryonic fibroblasts maintain insulin-sensitive glucose metabolism for several weeks. Here, we exposed MPCCs to hypo-, normo- and hyperglycemic culture media for ~3 weeks. While albumin and urea secretion were not affected by glucose level, hypoglycemic MPCCs upregulated CYP3A4 enzyme activity as compared to other glycemic states. In contrast, hyperglycemic MPCCs displayed significant hepatic lipid accumulation in the presence of insulin, while also showing decreased sensitivity to insulin-mediated inhibition of glucose output relative to a normoglycemic control. In conclusion, we show for the first time that PHHs exposed to hypo- and hyperglycemia can remain highly functional, but display increased CYP3A4 activity and selective insulin resistance, respectively. In the future, MPCCs under glycemic states can aid in novel drug discovery and mechanistic investigations. PMID:27312339

  17. Calorie restriction leads to greater Akt2 activity and glucose uptake by insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle from old rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiyan; Arias, Edward B.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is associated with many common age-related diseases, but moderate calorie restriction (CR) can substantially elevate glucose uptake by insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle from both young and old rats. The current study evaluated the isolated epitrochlearis muscle from ∼24.5-mo-old rats that were either fed ad libitum (AL) or subjected to CR (consuming ∼65% of ad libitum, AL, intake beginning at ∼22.5 mo old). Some muscles were also incubated with MK-2206, a potent and selective Akt inhibitor. The most important results were that in isolated muscles, CR vs. AL resulted in 1) greater insulin-stimulated glucose uptake 2) that was accompanied by significantly increased insulin-mediated activation of Akt2, as indicated by greater phosphorylation on both Thr309 and Ser474 along with greater Akt2 activity, 3) concomitant with enhanced phosphorylation of several Akt substrates, including an Akt substrate of 160 kDa on Thr642 and Ser588, filamin C on Ser2213 and proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa on Thr246, but not TBC1D1 on Thr596; and 4) each of the CR effects was eliminated by MK-2206. These data provide compelling new evidence linking greater Akt2 activation to the CR-induced elevation of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by muscle from old animals. PMID:26739650

  18. Long-term exposure to abnormal glucose levels alters drug metabolism pathways and insulin sensitivity in primary human hepatocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Matthew D.; Ballinger, Kimberly R.; Khetani, Salman R.

    2016-06-01

    Hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus has been linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which can progress to inflammation, fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Understanding how chronic hyperglycemia affects primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) can facilitate the development of therapeutics for these diseases. Conversely, elucidating the effects of hypoglycemia on PHHs may provide insights into how the liver adapts to fasting, adverse diabetes drug reactions, and cancer. In contrast to declining PHH monocultures, micropatterned co-cultures (MPCCs) of PHHs and 3T3-J2 murine embryonic fibroblasts maintain insulin-sensitive glucose metabolism for several weeks. Here, we exposed MPCCs to hypo-, normo- and hyperglycemic culture media for ~3 weeks. While albumin and urea secretion were not affected by glucose level, hypoglycemic MPCCs upregulated CYP3A4 enzyme activity as compared to other glycemic states. In contrast, hyperglycemic MPCCs displayed significant hepatic lipid accumulation in the presence of insulin, while also showing decreased sensitivity to insulin-mediated inhibition of glucose output relative to a normoglycemic control. In conclusion, we show for the first time that PHHs exposed to hypo- and hyperglycemia can remain highly functional, but display increased CYP3A4 activity and selective insulin resistance, respectively. In the future, MPCCs under glycemic states can aid in novel drug discovery and mechanistic investigations.

  19. 10 CFR 61.51 - Disposal site design for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposal site design for land disposal. 61.51 Section 61.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.51 Disposal site design for...

  20. 10 CFR 61.51 - Disposal site design for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal site design for land disposal. 61.51 Section 61.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.51 Disposal site design for...

  1. 10 CFR 61.51 - Disposal site design for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposal site design for land disposal. 61.51 Section 61.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.51 Disposal site design for...

  2. 10 CFR 61.51 - Disposal site design for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposal site design for land disposal. 61.51 Section 61.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.51 Disposal site design for...

  3. Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition

    SciTech Connect

    Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H.; Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B.

    1991-10-01

    The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

  4. Disposable telemetry cable deployment system

    DOEpatents

    Holcomb, David Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A disposable telemetry cable deployment system for facilitating information retrieval while drilling a well includes a cable spool adapted for insertion into a drill string and an unarmored fiber optic cable spooled onto the spool cable and having a downhole end and a stinger end. Connected to the cable spool is a rigid stinger which extends through a kelly of the drilling apparatus. A data transmission device for transmitting data to a data acquisition system is disposed either within or on the upper end of the rigid stinger.

  5. DOSE ASSESSMENTS FROM THE DISPOSAL OF LOW ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Modeling the long-term performance of the RCRA-C disposal cell and potential doses to off-site receptors is used to derive maximum radionuclide specific concentrations in the wastes that would enable these wastes to be disposed of safely using the RCRA-C disposal cell technology. Modeling potential exposures to derive these waste acceptance concentrations involves modeling exposures to workers during storage, treatment and disposal of the wastes, as well as exposures to individuals after disposal operations have ceased. Post facility closure exposures can result from the slow expected degradation of the disposal cell over long time periods (one thousand years after disposal) and in advertent human intrusion. Provide a means of determining waste acceptance radionuclide concentrations for disposal of debris from radiological dispersal device incidents as well as low-activity wastes generated in commercial, medical and research activities, potentially serve as the technical basis for guidance on disposal of these materials.

  6. Glucagon-mediated impairments in hepatic and peripheral tissue nutrient disposal are not aggravated by increased lipid availability

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng-Song; Santomango, Tammy S.; Williams, Phillip E.; Lacy, D. Brooks; McGuinness, Owen P.

    2009-01-01

    Glucose, fat, and glucagon availability are increased in diabetes. The normal response of the liver to chronic increases in glucose availability is to adapt to become a marked consumer of glucose. Yet this fails to occur in diabetes. The aim was to determine whether increased glucagon and lipid interact to impair the adaptation to increased glucose availability. Chronically catheterized well controlled depancreatized conscious dogs (n = 21) received 3 days of continuous parenteral nutrition (TPN) that was either high in glucose [C; 75% nonprotein calories (NPC)] or in lipid (HL; 75% NPC) in the presence or absence of a low dose (one-third basal) chronic intraportal infusion of glucagon (GN; 0.25 ng·kg−1·min−1). During the 3 days of TPN, all groups received the same insulin algorithm; the total amount of glucose infused (GIR) was varied to maintain isoglycemia (∼120 mg/dl). On day 3 of TPN, hepatic metabolism was assessed. Glucose and insulin levels were similar in all groups. GIR was decreased in HL and C + GN (∼30%) and was further decreased in HL + GN (55%). Net hepatic glucose uptake was decreased ∼15% in C + GN, and HL and was decreased ∼50% in HL + GN. Lipid alone or combined with glucagon decreased glucose uptake by peripheral tissues. Despite impairing whole body glucose utilization, HL did not limit whole body energy disposal. In contrast, glucagon suppressed whole body energy disposal irrespective of the diet composition. In summary, failure to appropriately suppress glucagon secretion adds to the dietary fat-induced impairment in both hepatic and peripheral glucose disposal. In addition, unlike increasing the percentage of calories as fat, inappropriate glucagon secretion in the absence of compensatory hyperinsulinemia limits whole body nutrient disposition. PMID:19208853

  7. FGF19 action in the brain induces insulin-independent glucose lowering.

    PubMed

    Morton, Gregory J; Matsen, Miles E; Bracy, Deanna P; Meek, Thomas H; Nguyen, Hong T; Stefanovski, Darko; Bergman, Richard N; Wasserman, David H; Schwartz, Michael W

    2013-11-01

    Insulin-independent glucose disposal (referred to as glucose effectiveness [GE]) is crucial for glucose homeostasis and, until recently, was thought to be invariable. However, GE is reduced in type 2 diabetes and markedly decreased in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Strategies aimed at increasing GE should therefore be capable of improving glucose tolerance in these animals. The gut-derived hormone FGF19 has previously been shown to exert potent antidiabetic effects in ob/ob mice. In ob/ob mice, we found that systemic FGF19 administration improved glucose tolerance through its action in the brain and that a single, low-dose i.c.v. injection of FGF19 dramatically improved glucose intolerance within 2 hours. Minimal model analysis of glucose and insulin data obtained during a frequently sampled i.v. glucose tolerance test showed that the antidiabetic effect of i.c.v. FGF19 was solely due to increased GE and not to changes of either insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity. The mechanism underlying this effect appears to involve increased metabolism of glucose to lactate. Together, these findings implicate the brain in the antidiabetic action of systemic FGF19 and establish the brain’s capacity to rapidly, potently, and selectively increase insulin-independent glucose disposal.

  8. Titanium dioxide-cellulose hybrid nanocomposite based conductometric glucose biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniruzzaman, Mohammad; Mahadeva, Suresha K.; Khondoker, Abu Hasan; Kim, Jaehwan

    2012-04-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of conductometric glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized TiO2-cellulose hybrid nanocomposite. TiO2 nanoparticles were blended with cellulose solution prepared by dissolving cotton pulp with lithium chloride/N, N-dimethylacetamide solvent to fabricate TiO2-cellulose hybrid nanocomposite. The enzyme (GOx) was immobilized into this hybrid material by physical adsorption method. The successful immobilization of GOx into TiO2-cellulose hybrid nanocomposite via covalent bonding between TiO2 and GOx was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron analysis. The linear response of our propose glucose biosensor is obtained in the range of 1-10mM with correlation coefficient of 0.93. Our study demonstrates TiO2-cellulose hybrid material as a potential candidate for an inexpensive, flexible and disposable glucose biosensor.

  9. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide confers early phase insulin release to oral glucose in rats: demonstration by a receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J T; Dayanandan, B; Habener, J F; Kieffer, T J

    2000-10-01

    A novel GIP receptor antagonist was developed to evaluate the acute role of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in the insulin response to oral glucose in rats. Antisera to an extracellular epitope of the GIP receptor (GIPR) detected immunoreactive GIPR on rat pancreatic beta-cells. Purified GIPR antibody (GIPR Ab) specifically displaced GIP binding to the receptor and blocked GIP-mediated increases in intracellular cAMP. When delivered to rats by ip injection, GIPR Ab had a half-life of approximately 4 days. Treatment with GIPR Ab (1 microg/g BW) blocked the potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by GIP (60 pmol) but not glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, 60 pmol) in anesthetized rats. The insulin response to oral glucose was delayed in conscious unrestrained rats that were pretreated with GIPR Ab. Plasma insulin levels were approximately 35% lower at 10 min in GIPR Ab treated animals compared with controls. As a result, the glucose excursion was greater in the GIPR Ab treated group. Fasting plasma glucose levels were not altered by GIPR Ab. We conclude that release of GIP following oral glucose may act as an anticipatory signal to pancreatic beta-cells to promote rapid release of insulin for glucose disposal.

  10. Disposing of Canada's used fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Torgerson, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is assessing the permanent disposal of used nuclear fuel in a waste vault located 500 to 1,000 m deep in the Precambrian granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. The specific objectives of the program are to develop and demonstrate the technology to site, design, build, and operate a disposal facility in a way that creates no, or negligible, burden on future generations. In addition, the program must develop a methodology to evaluate the performance of the disposal system against safety criteria and demonstrate that sites are likely to exist in the Canadian Shield that satisfy regulatory criteria. These criteria are very stringent. As in other national high-level waste management programs, the Canadian concept for the permanent disposal of nuclear fuel wastes employs a multiple barrier system for isolating contaminants from the environment. The current phase of the work is generic in nature and is not site specific. Research and development (R and D) has advanced to the point where the generic concept will be evaluated under the Canadian environmental assessment review process, which involves public hearings and independent scientific review.

  11. Geological considerations in hazardouswaste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, K.; Gilkeson, R.H.; Johnson, T.M.

    1981-01-01

    Present regulations assume that long-term isolation of hazardous wastes - including toxic chemical, biological, radioactive, flammable and explosive wastes - may be effected by disposal in landfills that have liners of very low hydraulic conductivity. In reality, total isolation of wastes in humid areas is not possible; some migration of leachate from wastes buried in the gound will always occur. Regulations should provide performance standards applicable on a site-by-site basis rather than rigid criteria for site selection and design. The performance standards should take into account several factors: (1) the categories, segregation, degradation and toxicity of the wastes; (2) the site hydrogeology, which governs the direction and rate of contaminant transport; (3) the attenuation of contaminants by geochemical interactions with geologic materials; and (4) the release rate of unattenuated pollutants to surface or groundwater. An adequate monitoring system is essential. The system should both test the extent to which the operation of the site meets performance standards and provide sufficient warning of pollution problems to allow implementation of remedial measures. In recent years there has been a trend away from numerous, small disposal sites toward fewer and larger sites. The size of a disposal site should be based on the attenuation capacity of the geologic material, which has a finite, though generally not well-defined, limit. For slowly degradable wastes, engineered sites with leachate-collection systems appear to be only a temporary solution since the leachate collected will also require final disposal. ?? 1981.

  12. Ocean Disposal of Dredged Material

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Permits and authorizations for the ocean dumping of dredged material is issued by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Information is provided about where to dispose dredged material and the process for obtaining an ocean dumping permit for dredged material.

  13. HANDBOOK: SEPTAGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The principal purpose of the handbook is to present an up-to-date review of available design, performance, operation and maintenance, cost, and energy information pertaining to the receiving, treatment, and disposal of septage. Septage is the liquid and solid material pumped from...

  14. GLUT2, glucose sensing and glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thorens, Bernard

    2015-02-01

    The glucose transporter isoform GLUT2 is expressed in liver, intestine, kidney and pancreatic islet beta cells, as well as in the central nervous system, in neurons, astrocytes and tanycytes. Physiological studies of genetically modified mice have revealed a role for GLUT2 in several regulatory mechanisms. In pancreatic beta cells, GLUT2 is required for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In hepatocytes, suppression of GLUT2 expression revealed the existence of an unsuspected glucose output pathway that may depend on a membrane traffic-dependent mechanism. GLUT2 expression is nevertheless required for the physiological control of glucose-sensitive genes, and its inactivation in the liver leads to impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, revealing a liver-beta cell axis, which is likely to be dependent on bile acids controlling beta cell secretion capacity. In the nervous system, GLUT2-dependent glucose sensing controls feeding, thermoregulation and pancreatic islet cell mass and function, as well as sympathetic and parasympathetic activities. Electrophysiological and optogenetic techniques established that Glut2 (also known as Slc2a2)-expressing neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius can be activated by hypoglycaemia to stimulate glucagon secretion. In humans, inactivating mutations in GLUT2 cause Fanconi-Bickel syndrome, which is characterised by hepatomegaly and kidney disease; defects in insulin secretion are rare in adult patients, but GLUT2 mutations cause transient neonatal diabetes. Genome-wide association studies have reported that GLUT2 variants increase the risks of fasting hyperglycaemia, transition to type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia and cardiovascular diseases. Individuals with a missense mutation in GLUT2 show preference for sugar-containing foods. We will discuss how studies in mice help interpret the role of GLUT2 in human physiology.

  15. The glucose oxidase-peroxidase assay for glucose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The glucose oxidase-peroxidase assay for glucose has served as a very specific, sensitive, and repeatable assay for detection of glucose in biological samples. It has been used successfully for analysis of glucose in samples from blood and urine, to analysis of glucose released from starch or glycog...

  16. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-09-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  17. Disposal requirements for PCB waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. PCB materials that are no longer in use and have been declared a waste must be disposed of according to the requirements found at 40 CFR 761.60. These requirements establish disposal options for a multitude of PCB materials including soil and debris, liquid PCBs, sludges and slurries, containers, transformers, capacitors, hydraulic machines, and other electrical equipment. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning disposal requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  18. Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  19. Glucose: detection and analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glucose is an aldosic monosaccharide that is centrally entrenched in the processes of photosynthesis and respiration, serving as an energy reserve and metabolic fuel in most organisms. As both a monomer and as part of more complex structures such as polysaccharides and glucosides, glucose also pla...

  20. Branched short-chain fatty acids modulate glucose and lipid metabolism in primary adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Heimann, Emilia; Nyman, Margareta; Pålbrink, Ann-Ki; Lindkvist-Petersson, Karin; Degerman, Eva

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), e.g. acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid, generated through colonic fermentation of dietary fibers, have been shown to reach the systemic circulation at micromolar concentrations. Moreover, SCFAs have been conferred anti-obesity properties in both animal models and human subjects. Branched SCFAs (BSCFAs), e.g., isobutyric and isovaleric acid, are generated by fermentation of branched amino acids, generated from undigested protein reaching colon. However, BSCFAs have been sparsely investigated when referring to effects on energy metabolism. Here we primarily investigate the effects of isobutyric acid and isovaleric acid on glucose and lipid metabolism in primary rat and human adipocytes. BSCFAs inhibited both cAMP-mediated lipolysis and insulin-stimulated de novo lipogenesis at 10 mM, whereas isobutyric acid potentiated insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by all concentrations (1, 3 and 10 mM) in rat adipocytes. For human adipocytes, only SCFAs inhibited lipolysis at 10 mM. In both in vitro models, BSCFAs and SCFAs reduced phosphorylation of hormone sensitive lipase, a rate limiting enzyme in lipolysis. In addition, BSCFAs and SCFAs, in contrast to insulin, inhibited lipolysis in the presence of wortmannin, a phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase inhibitor and OPC3911, a phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor in rat adipocytes. Furthermore, BSCFAs and SCFAs reduced insulin-mediated phosphorylation of protein kinase B. To conclude, BSCFAs have effects on adipocyte lipid and glucose metabolism that can contribute to improved insulin sensitivity in individuals with disturbed metabolism. PMID:27994949

  1. Alternatives for Disposal of Depleted Uranium Waste.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    originating activity by DTIC. Address your request for additional copies to: Defense Technical Information Center Cameron Station Alexandria, Virginia 22314 0...LIST OF TABLES Table Title Page 1 Specific Activity of Depleted Uranium Sand Mixture ......... .................. 8 2 Disposal at Department of Energy...exceed the allowable limits for on-site disposal. This material must be disposed of at a commercial low-level radio- active waste disposal site. Because

  2. Lipopolysaccharides-mediated increase in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion: involvement of the GLP-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh Thoai; Mandard, Stéphane; Dray, Cédric; Deckert, Valérie; Valet, Philippe; Besnard, Philippe; Drucker, Daniel J; Lagrost, Laurent; Grober, Jacques

    2014-02-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria trigger inflammation, which is associated with marked changes in glucose metabolism. Hyperglycemia is frequently observed during bacterial infection and it is a marker of a poor clinical outcome in critically ill patients. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of an acute injection or continuous infusion of LPS on experimentally induced hyperglycemia in wild-type and genetically engineered mice. The acute injection of a single dose of LPS produced an increase in glucose disposal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Continuous infusion of LPS through mini-osmotic pumps was also associated with increased GSIS. Finally, manipulation of LPS detoxification by knocking out the plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) led to increased glucose disposal and GSIS. Overall, glucose tolerance and GSIS tests supported the hypothesis that mice treated with LPS develop glucose-induced hyperinsulinemia. The effects of LPS on glucose metabolism were significantly altered as a result of either the accumulation or antagonism of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Complementary studies in wild-type and GLP-1 receptor knockout mice further implicated the GLP-1 receptor-dependent pathway in mediating the LPS-mediated changes in glucose metabolism. Hence, enhanced GLP-1 secretion and action underlies the development of glucose-mediated hyperinsulinemia associated with endotoxemia.

  3. Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

  4. Safe Disposal of Highly Reactive Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, George; Sansone, Eric B.

    1994-01-01

    Provides specific procedures for the disposal of a variety of highly reactive chemicals and reports the results of a study of their safe disposal. Disposal of some problematic sulfur-containing compounds are included. Procedures are based on a combination of literature review and author development. (LZ)

  5. Disposable remote zero headspace extractor

    DOEpatents

    Hand, Julie J.; Roberts, Mark P.

    2006-03-21

    The remote zero headspace extractor uses a sampling container inside a stainless steel vessel to perform toxicity characteristics leaching procedure to analyze volatile organic compounds. The system uses an in line filter for ease of replacement. This eliminates cleaning and disassembly of the extractor. All connections are made with quick connect fittings which can be easily replaced. After use, the bag can be removed and disposed of, and a new sampling container is inserted for the next extraction.

  6. p75 neurotrophin receptor regulates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Baeza-Raja, Bernat; Li, Pingping; Le Moan, Natacha; Sachs, Benjamin D.; Schachtrup, Christian; Davalos, Dimitrios; Vagena, Eirini; Bridges, Dave; Kim, Choel; Saltiel, Alan R.; Olefsky, Jerrold M.; Akassoglou, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a key factor in the etiology of type 2 diabetes. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is mediated by the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), which is expressed mainly in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Insulin-stimulated translocation of GLUT4 from its intracellular compartment to the plasma membrane is regulated by small guanosine triphosphate hydrolases (GTPases) and is essential for the maintenance of normal glucose homeostasis. Here we show that the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) is a regulator of glucose uptake and insulin resistance. p75NTR knockout mice show increased insulin sensitivity on normal chow diet, independent of changes in body weight. Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp studies demonstrate that deletion of the p75NTR gene increases the insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rate and suppression of hepatic glucose production. Genetic depletion or shRNA knockdown of p75NTR in adipocytes or myoblasts increases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation. Conversely, overexpression of p75NTR in adipocytes decreases insulin-stimulated glucose transport. In adipocytes, p75NTR forms a complex with the Rab5 family GTPases Rab5 and Rab31 that regulate GLUT4 trafficking. Rab5 and Rab31 directly interact with p75NTR primarily via helix 4 of the p75NTR death domain. Adipocytes from p75NTR knockout mice show increased Rab5 and decreased Rab31 activities, and dominant negative Rab5 rescues the increase in glucose uptake seen in p75NTR knockout adipocytes. Our results identify p75NTR as a unique player in glucose metabolism and suggest that signaling from p75NTR to Rab5 family GTPases may represent a unique therapeutic target for insulin resistance and diabetes. PMID:22460790

  7. SPS salvage and disposal alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A wide range of salvage options exist for the satellite power system (SPS) satellite, ranging from use in and beyond geosynchronous orbit to use in low Earth orbit to return and use on Earth. The satellite might be used intact to provide for various purposes, it might be cannibalized, or it might be melted down to supply materials for space- or ground-based products. The use of SPS beyond its nominal lifetime provides value that can be deducted from the SPS capital investment cost. It is shown that the present value of the salvage value of the SPS satellites, referenced to the system initial operation data, is likely to be on the order of five to ten percent of its on-orbit capital cost. (Given a 30 year satellite lifetime and a four percent discount rate, the theoretical maximum salvage value is 30.8 percent of the initial capital cost). The SPS demonstration satellite is available some 30 years earlier than the first full-scale SPS satellite and has a likely salvage value on the order of 80 percent of its on site capital cost. In the event that it becomes desirable to dispose of either the demonstration or full-scale SPS satellite, a number of disposal options appear to exist for which intact disposal costs are less than one percent of capital costs.

  8. The infusion of glucose in ewes during the luteal phase increases the number of follicles but reduces oestradiol production and some correlates of metabolic function in the large follicles.

    PubMed

    Gallet, Claire; Dupont, Joëlle; Campbell, Bruce K; Monniaux, Danielle; Guillaume, Daniel; Scaramuzzi, Rex J

    2011-09-01

    Short-term nutritional supplementation stimulates folliculogenesis in ewes probably by insulin-mediated actions of glucose in the follicle. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of glucose on follicle number and granulosa levels of Aromatase P450 and phosphorylated Akt and AMPK. Twelve Ile-de-France ewes were allocated to two groups; one (n=7) infused with saline and the other (n=5) with glucose (10mM/h) for 72h in the luteal phase. At the end of infusion, ovaries were collected and all follicles >1mm in diameter were dissected to recover granulosa cells. Aromatase P450 and phosphorylated Akt and AMPK were analysed by Western blotting of granulosa cell lysates. Blood plasmas collected before and during the infusions were analysed for progesterone, oestradiol, LH, FSH, glucose, insulin and IGF-I. The infusion of glucose significantly increased follicle number but, significantly reduced Aromatase P450 and phosphorylated Akt and AMPK in granulosa cells. The circulating concentration of glucose rose significantly 3h after the start of the glucose infusion and remained elevated until 27h then fell; the circulating concentration of insulin rose significantly by 3h and remained elevated. The circulating concentration of oestradiol fell significantly by 32h and remained low; the circulating concentrations of LH and FSH were unaffected. These data show that short-term infusion of glucose stimulated follicular growth but decreased Aromatase P450 in granulosa cells. The reduced levels of phosphorylated Akt and AMPK suggest that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway has been inhibited by high concentrations of glucose. These data also suggest that there may be functional cross-talk between FSH and insulin signalling in granulosa cells.

  9. Recombinant glucose uptake system

    DOEpatents

    Ingrahm, Lonnie O.; Snoep, Jacob L.; Arfman, Nico

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant organisms are disclosed that contain a pathway for glucose uptake other than the pathway normally utilized by the host cell. In particular, the host cell is one in which glucose transport into the cell normally is coupled to PEP production. This host cell is transformed so that it uses an alternative pathway for glucose transport that is not coupled to PEP production. In a preferred embodiment, the host cell is a bacterium other than Z. mobilis that has been transformed to contain the glf and glk genes of Z. mobilis. By uncoupling glucose transport into the cell from PEP utilization, more PEP is produced for synthesis of products of commercial importance from a given quantity of biomass supplied to the host cells.

  10. Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    MedlinePlus

    ... la salud en español Health Statistics Healthy Moments Radio Broadcast Clinical Trials For Health Care Professionals Community ... A transmitter sends information about glucose levels via radio waves from the sensor to a pagerlike wireless ...

  11. Vascular Glucose Sensor Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jeffrey I; Torjman, Marc C.; Strasma, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glycemic variability have been associated with increased morbidity, mortality, length of stay, and cost in a variety of critical care and non–critical care patient populations in the hospital. The results from prospective randomized clinical trials designed to determine the risks and benefits of intensive insulin therapy and tight glycemic control have been confusing; and at times conflicting. The limitations of point-of-care blood glucose (BG) monitoring in the hospital highlight the great clinical need for an automated real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) that can accurately measure the concentration of glucose every few minutes. Automation and standardization of the glucose measurement process have the potential to significantly improve BG control, clinical outcome, safety and cost. PMID:26078254

  12. Glucose: Detection and analysis.

    PubMed

    Galant, A L; Kaufman, R C; Wilson, J D

    2015-12-01

    Glucose is an aldosic monosaccharide that is centrally entrenched in the processes of photosynthesis and respiration, serving as an energy reserve and metabolic fuel in most organisms. As both a monomer and as part of more complex structures such as polysaccharides and glucosides, glucose also plays a major role in modern food products, particularly where flavor and or structure are concerned. Over the years, many diverse methods for detecting and quantifying glucose have been developed; this review presents an overview of the most widely employed and historically significant, including copper iodometry, HPLC, GC, CZE, and enzyme based systems such as glucose meters. The relative strengths and limitations of each method are evaluated, and examples of their recent application in the realm of food chemistry are discussed.

  13. Glucose urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine sugar test; Urine glucose test; Glucosuria test; Glycosuria test ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested right away. The health care provider uses a dipstick made with a color-sensitive pad. The ...

  14. Brown Adipose Tissue Improves Whole-Body Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Sensitivity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Chondronikola, Maria; Volpi, Elena; Børsheim, Elisabet; Porter, Craig; Annamalai, Palam; Enerbäck, Sven; Lidell, Martin E.; Saraf, Manish K.; Labbe, Sebastien M.; Hurren, Nicholas M.; Yfanti, Christina; Chao, Tony; Andersen, Clark R.; Cesani, Fernando; Hawkins, Hal

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has attracted scientific interest as an antidiabetic tissue owing to its ability to dissipate energy as heat. Despite a plethora of data concerning the role of BAT in glucose metabolism in rodents, the role of BAT (if any) in glucose metabolism in humans remains unclear. To investigate whether BAT activation alters whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in humans, we studied seven BAT-positive (BAT+) men and five BAT-negative (BAT−) men under thermoneutral conditions and after prolonged (5–8 h) cold exposure (CE). The two groups were similar in age, BMI, and adiposity. CE significantly increased resting energy expenditure, whole-body glucose disposal, plasma glucose oxidation, and insulin sensitivity in the BAT+ group only. These results demonstrate a physiologically significant role of BAT in whole-body energy expenditure, glucose homeostasis, and insulin sensitivity in humans, and support the notion that BAT may function as an antidiabetic tissue in humans. PMID:25056438

  15. Glucose metabolism and hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, Dario; Ceriello, Antonio; Esposito, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Islet dysfunction and peripheral insulin resistance are both present in type 2 diabetes and are both necessary for the development of hyperglycemia. In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, large, prospective clinical studies have shown a strong relation between time-averaged mean values of glycemia, measured as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and vascular diabetic complications. These studies are the basis for the American Diabetes Association's current recommended treatment goal that HbA1c should be <7%. The measurement of the HbA1c concentration is considered the gold standard for assessing long-term glycemia; however, it does not reveal any information on the extent or frequency of blood glucose excursions, but provides an overall mean value only. Postprandial hyperglycemia occurs frequently in patients with diabetes receiving active treatment and can occur even when metabolic control is apparently good. Interventional studies indicate that reducing postmeal glucose excursions is as important as controlling fasting plasma glucose in persons with diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. Evidence exists for a causal relation between postmeal glucose increases and microvascular and macrovascular outcomes; therefore, it is not surprising that treatment with different compounds that have specific effects on postprandial glucose regulation is accompanied by a significant improvement of many pathways supposed to be involved in diabetic complications, including oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and nuclear factor-kappaB activation. The goal of therapy should be to achieve glycemic status as near to normal as safely possible in all 3 components of glycemic control: HbA1c, fasting glucose, and postmeal glucose peak.

  16. An acoustic glucose sensor.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruifen; Stevenson, Adrian C; Lowe, Christopher R

    2012-05-15

    In vivo glucose monitoring is required for tighter glycaemic control. This report describes a new approach to construct a miniature implantable device based on a magnetic acoustic resonance sensor (MARS). A ≈ 600-800 nm thick glucose-responsive poly(acrylamide-co-3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid) (poly(acrylamide-co-3-APB)) film was polymerised on the quartz disc (12 mm in diameter and 0.25 mm thick) of the MARS. The swelling/shrinking of the polymer film induced by the glucose binding to the phenylboronate caused changes in the resonance amplitude of the quartz disc in the MARS. A linear relationship between the response of the MARS and the glucose concentration in the range ≈ 0-15 mM was observed, with the optimum response of the MARS sensor being obtained when the polymer films contained ≈ 20 mol% 3-APB. The MARS glucose sensor also functioned under flow conditions (9 μl/min) with a response almost identical to the sensor under static or non-flow conditions. The results suggest that the MARS could offer a promising strategy for developing a small subcutaneously implanted continuous glucose monitor.

  17. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  18. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    SciTech Connect

    Painter, Scott Leroy; Chu, Shaoping; Harp, Dylan Robert; Perry, Frank Vinton; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  19. Participatory management of waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Noosorn, Narongsak

    2005-05-01

    The general objective of this study was to develop a sustainable waste disposal management model in Yom riverside communities by creating a sense of ownership in the project among the villagers and encourage the community to identify problems based on their socio-cultural background. The participatory approach was applied in developing a continual learning process between the researcher and stakeholders. The Tub Phueng community of Si Samrong, Sukhothai Province was selected as the location for this study. From the population of 240 households in the area, 40 stakeholders were selected to be on the research team. The team found that the waste in this community was comprised of 4 categories: 1. Occupation: discarded insecticide containers used for farming activities; 2. Consumption: plastic bags and wrappers form pre-packed foods; 3. Traditional activities: after holding ceremonies and festivities, the waste was dumped in the river; and 4. Environmental hygiene: waste water from washing, bathing, toileting, cooking and cleaning was directly drained into the Yom River. The sustainable waste disposal model developed to manage these problems included building simple waste-water treatment wells, digging garbage holes, prosecuting people who throw garbage into the river, withdrawing privileges from people who throw garbage into the river, and establishing a garbage center. Most of the villagers were satisfied with the proposed model, looked forward to the expected positive changes, and thought this kind of solution would be easy to put into practice.

  20. Aerosol can waste disposal device

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Michael D.; Klapperick, Robert L.; Bell, Chris

    1993-01-01

    Disclosed is a device for removing gases and liquid from containers. The ice punctures the bottom of a container for purposes of exhausting gases and liquid from the container without their escaping into the atmosphere. The device includes an inner cup or cylinder having a top portion with an open end for receiving a container and a bottom portion which may be fastened to a disposal or waste container in a substantially leak-proof manner. A piercing device is mounted in the lower portion of the inner cylinder for puncturing the can bottom placed in the inner cylinder. An outer cylinder having an open end and a closed end fits over the top portion of the inner cylinder in telescoping engagement. A force exerted on the closed end of the outer cylinder urges the bottom of a can in the inner cylinder into engagement with the piercing device in the bottom of the inner cylinder to form an opening in the can bottom, thereby permitting the contents of the can to enter the disposal container.

  1. Disposable optics for microscopy diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Vilmi, Pauliina; Varjo, Sami; Sliz, Rafal; Hannuksela, Jari; Fabritius, Tapio

    2015-11-20

    The point-of-care testing (POCT) is having increasing role on modern health care systems due to a possibility to perform tests for patients conveniently and immediately. POCT includes lot of disposable devices because of the environment they are often used. For a disposable system to be reasonably utilized, it needs to be high in quality but low in price. Optics based POCT systems are interesting approach to be developed, and here we describe a low-cost fabrication process for microlens arrays for microscopy. Lens arrays having average lens diameter of 222 μm with 300 μm lens pitch were fabricated. The lenses were characterized to have standard deviation of 0.06 μm in height and 4.61 μm in diameter. The resolution limit of 3.9μm is demonstrated with real images, and the images were compared with ones made with glass and polycarbonate lens arrays. The image quality is at the same level than with the glass lenses and the manufacturing costs are very low, thus making them suitable for POCT applications.

  2. Disposable optics for microscopy diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Vilmi, Pauliina; Varjo, Sami; Sliz, Rafal; Hannuksela, Jari; Fabritius, Tapio

    2015-01-01

    The point-of-care testing (POCT) is having increasing role on modern health care systems due to a possibility to perform tests for patients conveniently and immediately. POCT includes lot of disposable devices because of the environment they are often used. For a disposable system to be reasonably utilized, it needs to be high in quality but low in price. Optics based POCT systems are interesting approach to be developed, and here we describe a low-cost fabrication process for microlens arrays for microscopy. Lens arrays having average lens diameter of 222 μm with 300 μm lens pitch were fabricated. The lenses were characterized to have standard deviation of 0.06 μm in height and 4.61 μm in diameter. The resolution limit of 3.9μm is demonstrated with real images, and the images were compared with ones made with glass and polycarbonate lens arrays. The image quality is at the same level than with the glass lenses and the manufacturing costs are very low, thus making them suitable for POCT applications. PMID:26586153

  3. Aerosol can waste disposal device

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, M.D.; Klapperick, R.L.; Bell, C.

    1993-12-21

    Disclosed is a device for removing gases and liquid from containers. The device punctures the bottom of a container for purposes of exhausting gases and liquid from the container without their escaping into the atmosphere. The device includes an inner cup or cylinder having a top portion with an open end for receiving a container and a bottom portion which may be fastened to a disposal or waste container in a substantially leak-proof manner. A piercing device is mounted in the lower portion of the inner cylinder for puncturing the can bottom placed in the inner cylinder. An outer cylinder having an open end and a closed end fits over the top portion of the inner cylinder in telescoping engagement. A force exerted on the closed end of the outer cylinder urges the bottom of a can in the inner cylinder into engagement with the piercing device in the bottom of the inner cylinder to form an opening in the can bottom, thereby permitting the contents of the can to enter the disposal container. 7 figures.

  4. A glucose sensor protein for continuous glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Veetil, Jithesh V; Jin, Sha; Ye, Kaiming

    2010-12-15

    In vivo continuous glucose monitoring has posed a significant challenge to glucose sensor development due to the lack of reliable techniques that are non- or at least minimally-invasive. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrated the development of a new glucose sensor protein, AcGFP1-GBPcys-mCherry, and an optical sensor assembly, capable of generating quantifiable FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) signals for glucose monitoring. Our experimental data showed that the engineered glucose sensor protein can generate measurable FRET signals in response to glucose concentrations varying from 25 to 800 μM. The sensor developed based on this protein had a shelf-life of up to 3 weeks. The sensor response was devoid of interference from compounds like galactose, fructose, lactose, mannose, and mannitol when tested at physiologically significant concentrations of these compounds. This new glucose sensor protein can potentially be used to develop implantable glucose sensors for continuous glucose monitoring.

  5. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2012 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2011 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  6. Radioactive waste disposal in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. R.

    In order to find the optimal solution to waste disposal problems, it is necessary to make comparisons between disposal media. It has become obvious to many within the scientific community that the single medium approach leads to over protection of one medium at the expense of the others. Cross media comparisons are being conducted in the Department of Energy ocean disposal programs for several radioactive wastes. Investigations in three areas address model development, comparisons of laboratory tests with field results and predictions, and research needs in marine disposal of radioactive waste. Tabulated data are included on composition of liquid high level waste and concentration of some natural radionuclides in the sea.

  7. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2014 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2014 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  8. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2010 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2010 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  9. Effects from past solid waste disposal practices.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, L J; Daniel, D E; Abeele, W V; Ledbetter, J O; Hansen, W R

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews documented environmental effects experience from the disposal of solid waste materials in the U.S. Selected case histories are discussed that illustrate waste migration and its actual or potential effects on human or environmental health. Principal conclusions resulting from this review were: solid waste materials do migrate beyond the geometric confines of the initial placement location; environmental effects have been experienced from disposal of municipal, agricultural, and toxic chemical wastes; and utilization of presently known science and engineering principles in sitting and operating solid waste disposal facilities would make a significant improvement in the containment capability of shallow land disposal facilities. PMID:367769

  10. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2008 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2008 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  11. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2007 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2007 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  12. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2013 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2013 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  13. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) The boundaries and locations of each disposal unit (e.g., trenches) must be accurately located and... forth in the approved site closure plan must be carried out as each disposal unit (e.g., each trench)...

  14. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) The boundaries and locations of each disposal unit (e.g., trenches) must be accurately located and... forth in the approved site closure plan must be carried out as each disposal unit (e.g., each trench)...

  15. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) The boundaries and locations of each disposal unit (e.g., trenches) must be accurately located and... forth in the approved site closure plan must be carried out as each disposal unit (e.g., each trench)...

  16. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) The boundaries and locations of each disposal unit (e.g., trenches) must be accurately located and... forth in the approved site closure plan must be carried out as each disposal unit (e.g., each trench)...

  17. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) The boundaries and locations of each disposal unit (e.g., trenches) must be accurately located and... forth in the approved site closure plan must be carried out as each disposal unit (e.g., each trench)...

  18. Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Fritschi, Cynthia; Quinn, Laurie; Penckofer, Sue; Surdyk, Patricia M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this descriptive study was to document the experience of wearing a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) device in women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The availability of CGM has provided patients and clinicians with the opportunity to describe the immediate effects of diet, exercise, and medications on blood glucose levels; however, there are few data examining patients’ experiences and acceptability of using CGM. Methods Thirty-five women with T2DM wore a CGM for 3 days. Semistructured interviews were conducted to capture the self-described experience of wearing a CGM. Three open-ended questions were used to guide the participants’ self-reflection. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed. Results The women verbalized both positive and negative aspects of needing to check their blood glucose more frequently and wearing the monitor. After viewing the results, most women were surprised by the magnitude and frequency of blood glucose excursions. They immediately examined their behaviors during the time they wore the CGM. Independent problem-solving skills became apparent as they attempted to identify reasons for hyperglycemia by retracing food intake, physical activity, and stress experiences during the period of CGM. Most important, the majority of women stated they were interested in changing their diabetes-related self-care behaviors, especially eating and exercise behaviors, after reviewing their CGM results. Conclusions CGM is generally acceptable to women with T2DM and offers patients and their health care practitioners a possible alternative to routine glucose monitoring for assessing the effects of real-life events on blood glucose levels. PMID:20016057

  19. Sodium-glucose cotransport

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Søren Brandt; Fenton, Robert A.; Rieg, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) are important mediators of glucose uptake across apical cell membranes. SGLT1 mediates almost all sodium-dependent glucose uptake in the small intestine, while in the kidney SGLT2, and to a lesser extent SGLT1, account for more than 90% and nearly 3%, respectively, of glucose reabsorption from the glomerular ultrafiltrate. Although the recent availability of SGLT2 inhibitors for the treatment of diabetes mellitus has increased the number of clinical studies, this review has a focus on mechanisms contributing to the cellular regulation of SGLTs. Recent findings Studies have focused on the regulation of SGLT expression under different physiological/pathophysiological conditions, for example diet, age or diabetes mellitus. Several studies provide evidence of SGLT regulation via cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A, protein kinase C, glucagon-like peptide 2, insulin, leptin, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), with-no-K[Lys] kinases/STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (Wnk/SPAK) and regulatory solute carrier protein 1 (RS1) pathways. Summary SGLT inhibitors are important drugs for glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. Although the contribution of SGLT1 for absorption of glucose from the intestine as well as SGLT2/SGLT1 for renal glucose reabsorption has been comprehensively defined, this review provides an up-to-date outline for the mechanistic regulation of SGLT1/SGLT2. PMID:26125647

  20. Redundancy in Glucose Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Amin; Varsavsky, Andrea; Ulloa, Johanna; Horsburgh, Jodie C.; McAuley, Sybil A.; Krishnamurthy, Balasubramanian; Jenkins, Alicia J.; Colman, Peter G.; Ward, Glenn M.; MacIsaac, Richard J.; Shah, Rajiv; O’Neal, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Current electrochemical glucose sensors use a single electrode. Multiple electrodes (redundancy) may enhance sensor performance. We evaluated an electrochemical redundant sensor (ERS) incorporating two working electrodes (WE1 and WE2) onto a single subcutaneous insertion platform with a processing algorithm providing a single real-time continuous glucose measure. Methods: Twenty-three adults with type 1 diabetes each wore two ERSs concurrently for 168 hours. Post-insertion a frequent sampling test (FST) was performed with ERS benchmarked against a glucose meter (Bayer Contour Link). Day 4 and 7 FSTs were performed with a standard meal and venous blood collected for reference glucose measurements (YSI and meter). Between visits, ERS was worn with capillary blood glucose testing ≥8 times/day. Sensor glucose data were processed prospectively. Results: Mean absolute relative deviation (MARD) for ERS day 1-7 (3,297 paired points with glucose meter) was (mean [SD]) 10.1 [11.5]% versus 11.4 [11.9]% for WE1 and 12.0 [11.9]% for WE2; P < .0001. ERS Clarke A and A+B were 90.2% and 99.8%, respectively. ERS day 4 plus day 7 MARD (1,237 pairs with YSI) was 9.4 [9.5]% versus 9.6 [9.7]% for WE1 and 9.9 [9.7]% for WE2; P = ns. ERS day 1-7 precision absolute relative deviation (PARD) was 9.9 [3.6]% versus 11.5 [6.2]% for WE1 and 10.1 [4.4]% for WE2; P = ns. ERS sensor display time was 97.8 [6.0]% versus 91.0 [22.3]% for WE1 and 94.1 [14.3]% for WE2; P < .05. Conclusions: Electrochemical redundancy enhances glucose sensor accuracy and display time compared with each individual sensing element alone. ERS performance compares favorably with ‘best-in-class’ of non-redundant sensors. PMID:26499476

  1. Alcatraz Disposal Site Investigation. Report 3. San Francisco Bay- Alcatraz Disposal Site Erodibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    MISCELLANEOUS PAPER HL-86-1 ALCATRAZ DISPOSAL SITE INVESTIGATION in Report 3 91X FILE COP’Y SAN FRANCISCO BAY- ALCATRAZ DISPOSAL SITE ERODIBILITY (V...Street ELEMENT NO NO NO ACCESSION NO San Francisco, CA 94105-1905 ________________ 11 TITLE (include Security Classification) Alcatraz Disposal Site...Investigation; Report 3, San Francisco Day- Alcatraz Disposal Site Teeter, Allen M. 13a TYPE OF REPORT 113b TIME COVERED 114 DATE OF REPORT (Year, A4oiith

  2. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α2 plays a role in determining the cellular fate of glucose in insulin-resistant mouse skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Young, R.S.; Bonner, J.S.; Mayes, W.H.; Iwueke, I.; Barrick, B.A.; Hasenour, C.M.; Kang, L.; Wasserman, D.H.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We determined whether: (1) an acute lipid infusion impairs skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α2 activity, increases inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and causes peripheral insulin resistance in conscious, unstressed, lean mice; and (2) restoration of AMPKα2 activity during the lipid infusion attenuates the increase in iNOS and reverses the defect in insulin sensitivity in vivo. Methods Chow-fed, 18-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were surgically catheterised. After 5 days they received: (1) a 5 h infusion of 5 ml kg−1 h−1 Intralipid + 6U/h heparin (Lipid treatment) or saline (Control); (2) Lipid treatment or Control, followed by a 2 h hyperinsulinaemic–euglycaemic clamp (insulin clamp; 4 mU kg−1 min−1); and (3) infusion of the AMPK activator, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) (1 mg kg−1 min−1), or saline during Lipid treatment, followed by a 2 h insulin clamp. In a separate protocol, mice producing a muscle-specific kinase-dead AMPKα2 subunit (α2-KD) underwent an insulin clamp to determine the role of AMPKα2 in insulin-mediated muscle glucose metabolism. Results Lipid treatment decreased AMPKα2 activity, increased iNOS abundance/activation and reduced whole-body insulin sensitivity in vivo. AICAR increased AMPKα2 activity twofold; this did not suppress iNOS or improve whole-body or tissue-specific rates of glucose uptake during Lipid treatment. AICAR caused a marked increase in insulin-mediated glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle. Consistent with this latter result, lean α2-KD mice exhibited impaired insulinstimulated glycogen synthesis even though muscle glucose uptake was not affected. Conclusions/interpretation Acute induction of insulin resistance via lipid infusion in healthy mice impairs AMPKα2, increases iNOS and causes insulin resistance in vivo. However, these changes do not appear to be interrelated. Rather, a functionally active AMPKα2 subunit is required for insulin

  3. Deep Borehole Disposal Safety Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Stein, Emily; Price, Laura L.; MacKinnon, Robert J.; Tillman, Jack Bruce

    2016-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary safety analysis for the deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept, using a safety case framework. A safety case is an integrated collection of qualitative and quantitative arguments, evidence, and analyses that substantiate the safety, and the level of confidence in the safety, of a geologic repository. This safety case framework for DBD follows the outline of the elements of a safety case, and identifies the types of information that will be required to satisfy these elements. At this very preliminary phase of development, the DBD safety case focuses on the generic feasibility of the DBD concept. It is based on potential system designs, waste forms, engineering, and geologic conditions; however, no specific site or regulatory framework exists. It will progress to a site-specific safety case as the DBD concept advances into a site-specific phase, progressing through consent-based site selection and site investigation and characterization.

  4. Magnesite disposal of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Wendt, C.H.

    1997-08-01

    In this paper we report our progress on developing a method for carbon dioxide disposal whose purpose it is to maintain coal energy competitive even is environmental and political pressures will require a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. In contrast to most other methods, our approach is not aiming at a partial solution of the problem, or at buying time for phasing out fossil energy. Instead, its purpose is to obtain a complete and economic solution of the problem, and thus maintain access to the vast fossil energy reservoir. A successful development of this technology would guarantee energy availability for many centuries even if world economic growth the most optimistic estimates that have been put forward. Our approach differs from all others in that we are developing an industrial process which chemically binds the carbon dioxide in an exothermic reaction into a mineral carbonate that is thermodynamically stable and environmentally benign.

  5. NEP processing, operations, and disposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stancati, Mike

    1993-01-01

    Several recent studies by ASAO/NPO staff members at LeRC and by other organizations have highlighted the potential benefits of using Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) as the primary transportation means for some of the proposed missions of the Space Exploration Initiative. These include the potential to reduce initial mass in orbit and Mars transit time. Modular NEP configurations also introduce fully redundant main propulsion to Mars flight systems adding several abort or fall back options not otherwise available. Recent studies have also identified mission operations, such as on orbital assembly, refurbishment, and reactor disposal, as important discriminators for propulsion system evaluation. This study is intended to identify and assess 'end-to-end' operational issues associated with using NEP for transporting crews and cargo between Earth and Mars. We also include some consideration of lunar cargo transfer as well.

  6. Nuclear waste disposal educational forum

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-18

    In keeping with a mandate from the US Congress to provide opportunities for consumer education and information and to seek consumer input on national issues, the Department of Energy's Office of Consumer Affairs held a three-hour educational forum on the proposed nuclear waste disposal legislation. Nearly one hundred representatives of consumer, public interest, civic and environmental organizations were invited to attend. Consumer affairs professionals of utility companies across the country were also invited to attend the forum. The following six papers were presented: historical perspectives; status of legislation (Senate); status of legislation (House of Representatives); impact on the legislation on electric utilities; impact of the legislation on consumers; implementing the legislation. All six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

  7. 10 CFR 61.51 - Disposal site design for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... extent practicable water infiltration, to direct percolating or surface water away from the disposed... must direct surface water drainage away from disposal units at velocities and gradients which will not result in erosion that will require ongoing active maintenance in the future. (6) The disposal site...

  8. DOSE ASSESSMENTS FROM THE DISPOSAL OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTES IN RCRA-C DISPOSAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling the long-term performance of the RCRA-C disposal cell and potential doses to off-site receptors is used to derive maximum radionuclide specific concentrations in the wastes that would enable these wastes to be disposed of safely using the RCRA-C disposal cell technology....

  9. Sensing of Salivary Glucose Using Nano-Structured Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Du, Yunqing; Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Ming L

    2016-03-17

    The anxiety and pain associated with frequent finger pricking has always been troublesome for diabetics measuring blood glucose (BG) in their daily lives. For this reason, a reliable glucose monitoring system that allows noninvasive measurements is highly desirable. Our main objective is to develop a biosensor that can detect low-level glucose in saliva (physiological range 0.5-20 mg/dL). Salivary glucose (SG) sensors were built using a layer-by-layer self-assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes, chitosan, gold nanoparticles, and glucose oxidase onto a screen-printed platinum electrode. An electrochemical method was utilized for the quantitative detection of glucose in both buffer solution and saliva samples. A standard spectrophotometric technique was used as a reference method to validate the glucose content of each sample. The disposable glucose sensors have a detection limit of 0.41 mg/dL, a sensitivity of 0.24 μA·s·dL·mg(-1), a linear range of 0.5-20 mg/dL in buffer solution, and a response time of 30 s. A study of 10 healthy subjects was conducted, and SG levels between 1.1 to 10.1 mg/dL were successfully detected. The results revealed that the noninvasive SG monitoring could be an alternative for diabetes self-management at home. This paper is not intended to replace regular BG tests, but to study SG itself as an indicator for the quality of diabetes care. It can potentially help patients control and monitor their health conditions, enabling them to comply with prescribed treatments for diabetes.

  10. Sensing of Salivary Glucose Using Nano-Structured Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yunqing; Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Ming L.

    2016-01-01

    The anxiety and pain associated with frequent finger pricking has always been troublesome for diabetics measuring blood glucose (BG) in their daily lives. For this reason, a reliable glucose monitoring system that allows noninvasive measurements is highly desirable. Our main objective is to develop a biosensor that can detect low-level glucose in saliva (physiological range 0.5–20 mg/dL). Salivary glucose (SG) sensors were built using a layer-by-layer self-assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes, chitosan, gold nanoparticles, and glucose oxidase onto a screen-printed platinum electrode. An electrochemical method was utilized for the quantitative detection of glucose in both buffer solution and saliva samples. A standard spectrophotometric technique was used as a reference method to validate the glucose content of each sample. The disposable glucose sensors have a detection limit of 0.41 mg/dL, a sensitivity of 0.24 μA·s·dL·mg−1, a linear range of 0.5–20 mg/dL in buffer solution, and a response time of 30 s. A study of 10 healthy subjects was conducted, and SG levels between 1.1 to 10.1 mg/dL were successfully detected. The results revealed that the noninvasive SG monitoring could be an alternative for diabetes self-management at home. This paper is not intended to replace regular BG tests, but to study SG itself as an indicator for the quality of diabetes care. It can potentially help patients control and monitor their health conditions, enabling them to comply with prescribed treatments for diabetes. PMID:26999233

  11. A Disposable Blood Cyanide Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Mahon, Sari B.; Ma, Jian; Brenner, Matthew; Wang, Jian-Hua; Boss, Gerry R.

    2013-01-01

    Deaths due to smoke inhalation in fires are often due to poisoning by HCN. Rapid administration of antidotes can result in complete resuscitation of the patient but judicious dosing requires the knowledge of the level of cyanide exposure. Rapid sensitive means for blood cyanide quantitation are needed. Hydroxocyanocobinamide (OH(CN)Cbi) reacts with cyanide rapidly; this is accompanied by a large spectral change. The disposable device consists of a pair of nested petri dish bottoms and a single top that fits the outer bottom dish. The top cover has a diametrically strung porous polypropylene membrane tube filled with aqueous OH(CN)Cbi. One end of the tube terminates in an amber (583 nm) light emitting diode; the other end in a photodiode via an acrylic optical fiber. An aliquot of the blood sample is put in the inner dish, the assembly covered and acid is added through a port in the cover. Evolved HCN diffuses into the OH(CN)Cbi solution and the absorbance in the long path porous membrane tube cell is measured within 160s. The LOD was 0.047, 1.0, 0.15, 5.0 and 2.2 μM, respectively, for water (1 mL), bovine blood (100 μL, 1 mL), and rabbit blood (20μL, 50 μL). RSDs were < 10% in all cases and the linear range extended from 0.5 to 200 μM. The method was validated against a microdiffusion approach and applied to the measurement of cyanide in rabbit and human blood. The disposable device permits field measurement of blood cyanide in < 4 min. PMID:23473259

  12. Effectiveness of GNSS disposal strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessi, E. M.; Rossi, A.; Valsecchi, G. B.; Anselmo, L.; Pardini, C.; Colombo, C.; Lewis, H. G.; Daquin, J.; Deleflie, F.; Vasile, M.; Zuiani, F.; Merz, K.

    2014-06-01

    The management of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and of the Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) region as a whole is a subject that cannot be deferred, due to the growing exploitation and launch rate in that orbital regime. The advent of the European Galileo and the Chinese Beidou constellations significantly added complexity to the system and calls for an adequate global view on the four constellations present in operation. The operation procedures, including maintenance and disposal practices, of the constellations currently deployed were analyzed in order to asses a proper reference simulation scenario. The complex dynamics of the MEO region with all the geopotential and lunisolar resonances was studied to better identify the proper end-of-life orbit for every proposed strategy, taking into account and, whenever possible, exploiting the orbital dynamics in this peculiar region of space. The possibility to exploit low thrust propulsion or non gravitational perturbations with passive de-orbiting devices (and a combination of the two) was analyzed, in view of possible applications in the design of the future generations of the constellations satellites. Several upgrades in the long-term evolution software SDM and DAMAGE were undertaken to properly handle the constellation simulations in every aspect from constellation maintenance to orbital dynamics. A thorough approach considering the full time evolving covariance matrix associated with every object was implemented in SDM to compute the collision risk and associated maneuver rate for the constellation satellites. Once the software upgrades will be completed, the effectiveness of the different disposal strategies will be analyzed in terms of residual collision risk and avoidance maneuvers rate. This work was performed under the ESA/GSP Contract no. 4000107201/12/F/MOS.

  13. Measurement of insulin sensitivity indices using 13C-glucose and gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Clapperton, Allan T; Coward, W Andrew; Bluck, Leslie J C

    2002-01-01

    Important aspects of glucose metabolism can be quantified by using the minimal model of glucose kinetics to interpret the results of intravenous glucose tolerance tests. The power of this methodology can be greatly increased by the addition of stable isotopically labelled tracer to the glucose bolus dose. This allows the separation of glucose disposal from endogenous glucose production and also increases the precision of the estimates of the physiological parameters measured. Until now the tracer of choice has been deuteriated glucose and the analytical technique has been gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The consequence of this choice is that nearly 2 g of labelled material are needed and this makes the test expensive. We have investigated the use of (13)C-labelled glucose as the tracer in combination with gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) as the analytical technique. This methodology offers superior analytical precision when compared with the conventional method and so the amount of tracer used, and hence the cost, can be reduced considerably. Healthy non-obese male volunteers were recruited for a standard intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) protocol but 6,6-(2)H-glucose and 1-(13)C-glucose were administered simultaneously. Tracer/tracee ratios were derived from isotope ratio measurements of plasma glucose using both GC/MS and GC/C/IRMS. The results of these determinations indicated that the two tracers behaved identically under the test protocol. The combination of these results with plasma glucose and insulin concentration data allowed determination of the minimal model parameters S*g and S*i. The parameter relating to insulin-assisted glucose disposal, S*i, was found to be the same in the two techniques, but this was not the case for the non-insulin-dependent parameter S*g.

  14. Keratin 8/18 regulation of glucose metabolism in normal versus cancerous hepatic cells through differential modulation of hexokinase status and insulin signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Jasmin; Loranger, Anne; Gilbert, Stéphane; Faure, Robert; Marceau, Normand

    2013-02-15

    As differentiated cells, hepatocytes primarily metabolize glucose for ATP production through oxidative phosphorylation of glycolytic pyruvate, whereas proliferative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells undergo a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis despite oxygen availability. Keratins, the intermediate filament (IF) proteins of epithelial cells, are expressed as pairs in a lineage/differentiation manner. Hepatocyte and HCC (hepatoma) cell IFs are made solely of keratins 8/18 (K8/K18), thus providing models of choice to address K8/K18 IF functions in normal and cancerous epithelial cells. Here, we demonstrate distinctive increases in glucose uptake, glucose-6-phosphate formation, lactate release, and glycogen formation in K8/K18 IF-lacking hepatocytes and/or hepatoma cells versus their respective IF-containing counterparts. We also show that the K8/K18-dependent glucose uptake/G6P formation is linked to alterations in hexokinase I/II/IV content and localization at mitochondria, with little effect on GLUT1 status. In addition, we find that the insulin-stimulated glycogen formation in normal hepatocytes involves the main PI-3 kinase-dependent signaling pathway and that the K8/K18 IF loss makes them more efficient glycogen producers. In comparison, the higher insulin-dependent glycogen formation in K8/K18 IF-lacking hepatoma cells is associated with a signaling occurring through a mTOR-dependent pathway, along with an augmentation in cell proliferative activity. Together, the results uncover a key K8/K18 regulation of glucose metabolism in normal and cancerous hepatic cells through differential modulations of mitochondrial HK status and insulin-mediated signaling.

  15. Salt sensitivity is associated with insulin resistance in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fuenmayor, N; Moreira, E; Cubeddu, L X

    1998-04-01

    The relationship between salt sensitivity and insulin resistance was investigated in nondiabetic, nonobese (body mass index < or = 28) untreated patients with uncomplicated, mild-to-moderate essential hypertension. Alterations in insulin-mediated glucose disposal were assessed by means of the insulin suppression test. Subjects were classified as salt sensitive and salt resistant according to their blood pressure response to low and high salt intake. Fasting serum glucose levels were within normal limits and did not differ between salt sensitive and salt resistant hypertensives, irrespectively of the level of salt intake. Fasting serum insulin levels increased in salt sensitive patients when on a high intake of salt. The insulin suppression test revealed the existence of marked differences in insulin-mediated glucose uptake between salt sensitive and salt resistant hypertensives. Much higher steady-state glucose values (nanomoles of glucose/ liter) were obtained during the insulin suppression test in salt sensitive than in salt-resistant hypertensives (7.4+/-1.6 v 3.5+/-0.1 under low salt; and 12.5+/-1.1 v 4.3+/-0.1 under high salt intake). The product of glucose times insulin obtained at steady state during low and high salt intakes were 2.5 and 5 times greater, respectively, in salt sensitive than in salt resistant hypertensives. Therefore, the impairment in insulin-mediated glucose disposal observed in salt sensitive hypertensives was present both under low salt (60 to 70 mEq/day) and high salt intake (300 mEq/day). However, it was exacerbated under high salt intake. These results suggest that untreated salt sensitive hypertensives have a considerable impairment in insulin-mediated glucose disposal because of a state of insulin resistance. High salt intake increased BP, induced hyperinsulinemia, and worsened insulin-mediated glucose disposal only in salt sensitive patients. We propose that salt sensitivity contributes, separately from hypertension, to insulin

  16. A BOD monitoring disposable reactor with alginate-entrapped bacteria.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Patricio; Acevedo, Cristian A; Albornoz, Fernando; Sánchez, Elizabeth; Valdés, Erika; Galindo, Raúl; Young, Manuel E

    2010-10-01

    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a measure of the amount of dissolved oxygen that is required for the biochemical oxidation of the organic compounds in 5 days. New biosensor-based methods have been conducted for a faster determination of BOD. In this study, a mathematical model to evaluate the feasibility of using a BOD sensor, based on disposable alginate-entrapped bacteria, for monitoring BOD in situ was applied. The model considers the influences of alginate bead size and bacterial concentration. The disposable biosensor can be adapted according to specific requirements depending on the organic load contained in the wastewater. Using Klein and Washausen parameter in a Lineweaver-Burk plot, the glucose diffusivity was calculated in 6.4 × 10(-10) (m2/s) for beads of 1 mm in diameter and slight diffusion restrictions were observed (n = 0.85). Experimental results showed a correlation (p < 0.05) between the respirometric peak and the standard BOD test. The biosensor response was representative of BOD.

  17. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 42. Read More Enzyme Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Hemoglobin Review Date 2/11/2016 Updated by: ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics G6PD Deficiency Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  18. Glucose Tolerance and Hyperkinesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langseth, Lillian; Dowd, Judith

    Examined were medical records of 265 hyperkinetic children (7-9 years old). Clinical blood chemistries, hematology, and 5-hour glucose tolerance test (GTT) results indicated that hematocrit levels were low in 27% of the Ss, eosinophil levels were abnormally high in 86% of the Ss, and GTT results were abnormal in a maority of Ss. (CL)

  19. 45 CFR 671.12 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provisions of this section, shall, to the maximum extent practicable, not be disposed of onto sea ice, ice... and domestic liquid wastes may be discharged directly into the sea, taking into account the... treatment processes are used, the by-product of such treatment may be disposed of into the sea...

  20. 45 CFR 671.12 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... provisions of this section, shall, to the maximum extent practicable, not be disposed of onto sea ice, ice... and domestic liquid wastes may be discharged directly into the sea, taking into account the... treatment processes are used, the by-product of such treatment may be disposed of into the sea...

  1. 45 CFR 671.12 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... provisions of this section, shall, to the maximum extent practicable, not be disposed of onto sea ice, ice... and domestic liquid wastes may be discharged directly into the sea, taking into account the... treatment processes are used, the by-product of such treatment may be disposed of into the sea...

  2. 45 CFR 671.12 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... provisions of this section, shall, to the maximum extent practicable, not be disposed of onto sea ice, ice... and domestic liquid wastes may be discharged directly into the sea, taking into account the... treatment processes are used, the by-product of such treatment may be disposed of into the sea...

  3. 45 CFR 671.12 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... provisions of this section, shall, to the maximum extent practicable, not be disposed of onto sea ice, ice... and domestic liquid wastes may be discharged directly into the sea, taking into account the... treatment processes are used, the by-product of such treatment may be disposed of into the sea...

  4. Medications at School: Disposing of Pharmaceutical Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed…

  5. Petroleum Engineering Techniques for HLW Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    van den Broek, W. M. G. T.

    2002-02-25

    This paper describes why petroleum engineering techniques are of importance and can be used for underground disposal of HLW (high-level radioactive waste). It is focused on rock salt as a geological host medium in combination with disposal of the HLW canisters in boreholes drilled from the surface. Both permanent disposal and disposal with the option to retrieve the waste are considered. The paper starts with a description of the disposal procedure. Next disposal in deep boreholes is treated. Then the possible use of deviated boreholes and of multiple boreholes is discussed. Also waste isolation aspects and the implications of the HLW heat generation are treated. It appears that the use of deep boreholes can be beneficial, and also that--to a certain extent--borehole deviation offers possibilities. The benefits of using multiple boreholes are questionable for permanent disposal, while this technique cannot be applied for retrievable disposal. For the use of casing material, the additional temperature rise due to the HLW heat generation must be taken into account.

  6. 7 CFR 3203.10 - Disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT... PURSUANT TO SECTION 14220 OF THE 2008 FARM BILL § 3203.10 Disposal. When property received under this part is no longer needed by the recipient, it must be disposed of in an environmentally sound manner...

  7. Tritium waste disposal technology in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Albenesius, E.L.; Towler, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium waste disposal methods in the US range from disposal of low specific activity waste along with other low-level waste in shallow land burial facilities, to disposal of kilocurie amounts in specially designed triple containers in 65' deep augered holes located in an aird region of the US. Total estimated curies disposed of are 500,000 in commercial burial sites and 10 million curies in defense related sites. At three disposal sites in humid areas, tritium has migrated into the ground water, and at one arid site tritium vapor has been detected emerging from the soil above the disposal area. Leaching tests on tritium containing waste show that tritium in the form of HTO leaches readily from most waste forms, but that leaching rates of tritiated water into polymer impregnated concrete are reduced by as much as a factor of ten. Tests on improved tritium containment are ongoing. Disposal costs for tritium waste are 7 to 10 dollars per cubic foot for shallow land burial of low specific activity tritium waste, and 10 to 20 dollars per cubic foot for disposal of high specific activity waste. The cost of packaging the high specific activity waste is 150 to 300 dollars per cubic foot. 18 references.

  8. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Hari S.; Chu, Shaoping; Reimus, Paul William; Makedonska, Nataliia; Hyman, Jeffrey De'Haven; Karra, Satish; Dittrich, Timothy M.

    2015-12-21

    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2014 and July 2015 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program.

  9. 50 CFR 300.109 - Gear disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear disposal. 300.109 Section 300.109... Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.109 Gear disposal. (a) The operator of a harvesting vessel may not... fishing vessels or gear, or that may catch fish or cause damage to any marine resource, including...

  10. 50 CFR 300.109 - Gear disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gear disposal. 300.109 Section 300.109... Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.109 Gear disposal. (a) The operator of a harvesting vessel may not... fishing vessels or gear, or that may catch fish or cause damage to any marine resource, including...

  11. 50 CFR 300.109 - Gear disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gear disposal. 300.109 Section 300.109... Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.109 Gear disposal. (a) The operator of a harvesting vessel may not... fishing vessels or gear, or that may catch fish or cause damage to any marine resource, including...

  12. 50 CFR 300.109 - Gear disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear disposal. 300.109 Section 300.109... Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.109 Gear disposal. (a) The operator of a harvesting vessel may not... fishing vessels or gear, or that may catch fish or cause damage to any marine resource, including...

  13. Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayotamuno, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

  14. Deletion of Rab GAP AS160 modifies glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation in primary skeletal muscles and adipocytes and impairs glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Lansey, Melissa N; Walker, Natalie N; Hargett, Stefan R; Stevens, Joseph R; Keller, Susanna R

    2012-11-15

    Tight control of glucose uptake in skeletal muscles and adipocytes is crucial to glucose homeostasis and is mediated by regulating glucose transporter GLUT4 subcellular distribution. In cultured cells, Rab GAP AS160 controls GLUT4 intracellular retention and release to the cell surface and consequently regulates glucose uptake into cells. To determine AS160 function in GLUT4 trafficking in primary skeletal muscles and adipocytes and investigate its role in glucose homeostasis, we characterized AS160 knockout (AS160(-/-)) mice. We observed increased and normal basal glucose uptake in isolated AS160(-/-) adipocytes and soleus, respectively, while insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was impaired and GLUT4 expression decreased in both. No such abnormalities were found in isolated AS160(-/-) extensor digitorum longus muscles. In plasma membranes isolated from AS160(-/-) adipose tissue and gastrocnemius/quadriceps, relative GLUT4 levels were increased under basal conditions and remained the same after insulin treatment. Concomitantly, relative levels of cell surface-exposed GLUT4, determined with a glucose transporter photoaffinity label, were increased in AS160(-/-) adipocytes and normal in AS160(-/-) soleus under basal conditions. Insulin augmented cell surface-exposed GLUT4 in both. These observations suggest that AS160 is essential for GLUT4 intracellular retention and regulation of glucose uptake in adipocytes and skeletal muscles in which it is normally expressed. In vivo studies revealed impaired insulin tolerance in the presence of normal (male) and impaired (female) glucose tolerance. Concurrently, insulin-elicited increases in glucose disposal were abolished in all AS160(-/-) skeletal muscles and liver but not in AS160(-/-) adipose tissues. This suggests AS160 as a target for differential manipulation of glucose homeostasis.

  15. Reducing Liver Fat by Low Carbohydrate Caloric Restriction Targets Hepatic Glucose Production in Non-Diabetic Obese Adults with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haoyong; Jia, Weiping; Guo, ZengKui

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) impairs liver functions, the organ responsible for the regulation of endogenous glucose production and thus plays a key role in glycemic homeostasis. Therefore, interventions designed to normalize liver fat content are needed to improve glucose metabolism in patients affected by NAFLD such as obesity. Objective: this investigation is designed to determine the effects of caloric restriction on hepatic and peripheral glucose metabolism in obese humans with NAFLD. Methods: eight non-diabetic obese adults were restricted for daily energy intake (800 kcal) and low carbohydrate (<10%) for 8 weeks. Body compositions, liver fat and hepatic glucose production (HGP) and peripheral glucose disposal before and after the intervention were determined. Results: the caloric restriction reduced liver fat content by 2/3 (p = 0.004). Abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat, body weight, BMI, waist circumference and fasting plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations all significantly decreased (p < 0.05). The suppression of post-load HGP was improved by 22% (p = 0.002) whereas glucose disposal was not affected (p = 0.3). Fasting glucose remained unchanged and the changes in the 2-hour plasma glucose and insulin concentration were modest and statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). Liver fat is the only independent variable highly correlated to HGP after the removal of confounders. Conclusion: NAFLD impairs HGP but not peripheral glucose disposal; low carbohydrate caloric restriction effectively lowers liver fat which appears to directly correct the HGP impairment. PMID:25411646

  16. 32 CFR 644.503 - Methods of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.503 Methods of disposal. Standing timber, crops, sand, gravel, or stone-quarried products,...

  17. 32 CFR 644.503 - Methods of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.503 Methods of disposal. Standing timber, crops, sand, gravel, or stone-quarried products,...

  18. 32 CFR 644.503 - Methods of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.503 Methods of disposal. Standing timber, crops, sand, gravel, or stone-quarried products,...

  19. 32 CFR 644.503 - Methods of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.503 Methods of disposal. Standing timber, crops, sand, gravel, or stone-quarried products,...

  20. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  1. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  2. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  3. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  4. Processing Irradiated Beryllium For Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    T. J. Tranter; R. D. Tillotson; N. R. Mann; G. R. Longhurst

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a process for decontaminating irradiated beryllium that will allow it to be disposed of through normal radwaste channels. Thus, the primary objectives of this ongoing study are to remove the transuranic (TRU) isotopes to less than 100 nCi/g and remove {sup 60}Co, and {sup 137}Cs, to levels that will allow the beryllium to be contact handled. One possible approach that appears to have the most promise is aqueous dissolution and separation of the isotopes by selected solvent extraction followed by precipitation, resulting in a granular form for the beryllium that may be fixed to prevent it from becoming respirable and therefore hazardous. Beryllium metal was dissolved in nitric and fluorboric acids. Isotopes of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 85}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs were then added to make a surrogate beryllium waste solution. A series of batch contacts was performed with the spiked simulant using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) and polyethylene glycol diluted with sulfone to extract the isotopes of Cs and Sr. Another series of batch contacts was performed using a combination of octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) in tributyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with dodecane for extracting the isotopes of Pu and Am. The results indicate that greater than 99.9% removal can be achieved for each isotope with only three contact stages.

  5. Large Component Removal/Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, D. M.

    2002-02-27

    This paper describes the removal and disposal of the large components from Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant. The large components discussed include the three steam generators, pressurizer, and reactor pressure vessel. Two separate Exemption Requests, which included radiological characterizations, shielding evaluations, structural evaluations and transportation plans, were prepared and issued to the DOT for approval to ship these components; the first was for the three steam generators and one pressurizer, the second was for the reactor pressure vessel. Both Exemption Requests were submitted to the DOT in November 1999. The DOT approved the Exemption Requests in May and July of 2000, respectively. The steam generators and pressurizer have been removed from Maine Yankee and shipped to the processing facility. They were removed from Maine Yankee's Containment Building, loaded onto specially designed skid assemblies, transported onto two separate barges, tied down to the barges, th en shipped 2750 miles to Memphis, Tennessee for processing. The Reactor Pressure Vessel Removal Project is currently under way and scheduled to be completed by Fall of 2002. The planning, preparation and removal of these large components has required extensive efforts in planning and implementation on the part of all parties involved.

  6. System for disposing of sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.M.

    1991-05-28

    This patent describes improvement in a system for disposing of sludge by using the sludge as a primary source of fuel for its disposition by combustion thereof. The system comprises: processing a mass of liquified sludge to reduce the solids to a predetermined size for use as the fuel and concurrently separating a substantial portion of the contained liquid as a water vapor; delivering the processes solids and liquid to the combustor such that the combustor contains the solids and the liquids in the processed mass for conversion of the solids to ash and the conversion of the liquids to vapor; admitting a portion of the ambient air to the burner to support combustion of the solids, and another portion of ambient air to the combustor for removing the vapor at a temperature below the temperature at which the solids are reduced to ash; utilizing a part of the removed vapor to initiate evaporization of the liquid in the processed mass, and a part of the removed vapor to elevate the temperature of the ambient air admitted to the burner and to the combustor; releasing the part of the removed vapor used to elevate the temperature of the admitted ambient air to the ambient atmosphere; and removing the ash substantially free of vapor.

  7. Consideration of privatization of solid waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.K.

    1995-09-01

    Martin County is responsible by law for the solid waste disposal needs of all County residents. In the State of Florida, counties have the responsibility of providing solid waste disposal services. Florida Statutes 403.706 divides the responsibility among local governments as follows: {open_quotes}The governing body of a County has the responsibility and power to provide for the operation of solid waste disposal facilities to meet the needs of all incorporated and unincorporated areas of the County. In accordance with this section, municipalities are responsible for collecting and transporting solid waste from their jurisdictions to a solid waste disposal facility operated by a county or operated under a contract with a county.{close_quotes} Solid waste disposal is a mandatory obligation primarily because of public health and safety concerns. In addition to contributing to environmental damage, dumping (as opposed to landfilling) contributes to infestations of insects and rodents that carry disease to the human population. Although the County may choose to provide solid waste disposal service indirectly, the ultimate responsibility for the service will remain with the County. If a contractor fails to provide the service, the County will be legally responsible to the State and to County residents for correcting the failure. This report discussess issues associated with the privatization of solid waste disposal.

  8. Glucose and Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, John T. A.

    2008-04-01

    When a human's enzymes attach glucose to proteins they do so at specific sites on a specific molecule for a specific purpose that also can include ascorbic acid (AA) at a high level such as 1 gram per hour during exposure. In an AA synthesizing animal the manifold increase of AA produced in response to illness is automatic. In contrast, the human non-enzymatic process adds glucose haphazardly to any number of sites along available peptide chains. As Cerami clarified decades ago, extensive crosslinking of proteins contributes to loss of elasticity in aging tissues. Ascorbic acid reduces the random non-enyzmatic glycation of proteins. Moreover, AA is a cofactor for hydroxylase enzymes that are necessary for the production and replacement of collagen and other structural proteins. We will discuss the relevance of ``aging is scurvy'' to the biochemistry of human aging.

  9. Liver glucose metabolism in humans

    PubMed Central

    Adeva-Andany, María M.; Pérez-Felpete, Noemi; Fernández-Fernández, Carlos; Donapetry-García, Cristóbal; Pazos-García, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Information about normal hepatic glucose metabolism may help to understand pathogenic mechanisms underlying obesity and diabetes mellitus. In addition, liver glucose metabolism is involved in glycosylation reactions and connected with fatty acid metabolism. The liver receives dietary carbohydrates directly from the intestine via the portal vein. Glucokinase phosphorylates glucose to glucose 6-phosphate inside the hepatocyte, ensuring that an adequate flow of glucose enters the cell to be metabolized. Glucose 6-phosphate may proceed to several metabolic pathways. During the post-prandial period, most glucose 6-phosphate is used to synthesize glycogen via the formation of glucose 1-phosphate and UDP–glucose. Minor amounts of UDP–glucose are used to form UDP–glucuronate and UDP–galactose, which are donors of monosaccharide units used in glycosylation. A second pathway of glucose 6-phosphate metabolism is the formation of fructose 6-phosphate, which may either start the hexosamine pathway to produce UDP-N-acetylglucosamine or follow the glycolytic pathway to generate pyruvate and then acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA may enter the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to be oxidized or may be exported to the cytosol to synthesize fatty acids, when excess glucose is present within the hepatocyte. Finally, glucose 6-phosphate may produce NADPH and ribose 5-phosphate through the pentose phosphate pathway. Glucose metabolism supplies intermediates for glycosylation, a post-translational modification of proteins and lipids that modulates their activity. Congenital deficiency of phosphoglucomutase (PGM)-1 and PGM-3 is associated with impaired glycosylation. In addition to metabolize carbohydrates, the liver produces glucose to be used by other tissues, from glycogen breakdown or from de novo synthesis using primarily lactate and alanine (gluconeogenesis). PMID:27707936

  10. Future trends which will influence waste disposal.

    PubMed Central

    Wolman, A

    1978-01-01

    The disposal and management of solid wastes are ancient problems. The evolution of practices naturally changed as populations grew and sites for disposal became less acceptable. The central search was for easy disposal at minimum costs. The methods changed from indiscriminate dumping to sanitary landfill, feeding to swine, reduction, incineration, and various forms of re-use and recycling. Virtually all procedures have disabilities and rising costs. Many methods once abandoned are being rediscovered. Promises for so-called innovations outstrip accomplishments. Markets for salvage vary widely or disappear completely. The search for conserving materials and energy at minimum cost must go on forever. PMID:570105

  11. Utilities continue to wrestle with radwaste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, S.D.

    1983-12-01

    The continuing doldrums in nuclear generation as an industry is a matter of public knowledge. The level of commercial activity related to nuclear energy, however, is another matter entirely, with waste disposal holding the spotlight. While the ultimate disposal of high-level waste (spent fuel, essentially) is the dramatic headline producer, it is the low-level radioactive wastes that dominate radwaste planning and design activities at nuclear utilities. Dwindling waste-disposal sites and economic considerations have spotlighted the need for volume minimization for at least a half-dozen years.

  12. Disposal of medical waste: a legal perspective.

    PubMed

    Du Toit, Karen; Bodenstein, Johannes

    2013-09-03

    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa provides that everyone has the right to an environment that is not harmful to their health and well-being. The illegal dumping of hazardous waste poses a danger to the environment when pollutants migrate into water sources and ultimately cause widespread infection or toxicity, endangering the health of humans who might become exposed to infection and toxins. To give effect to the Constitution, the safe disposal of hazardous waste is governed by legislation in South Africa. Reports of the illegal disposal of waste suggest a general lack of awareness and training in regard to the safe disposal of medical waste. 

  13. Contribution of abnormal muscle and liver glucose metabolism to postprandial hyperglycemia in NIDDM

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrakou, A.; Kelley, D.; Veneman, T.; Jenssen, T.; Pangburn, T.; Reilly, J.; Gerich, J. )

    1990-11-01

    To assess the role of muscle and liver in the pathogenesis of postprandial hyperglycemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we administered an oral glucose load enriched with (14C)glucose to 10 NIDDM subjects and 10 age- and weight-matched nondiabetic volunteers and compared muscle glucose disposal by measuring forearm balance of glucose, lactate, alanine, O2, and CO2. In addition, we used the dual-lable isotope method to compare overall rates of glucose appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd), suppression of endogenous glucose output, and splanchnic glucose sequestration. During the initial 1-1.5 h after glucose ingestion, plasma glucose increased by approximately 8 mM in NIDDM vs. approximately 3 mM in nondiabetic subjects (P less than 0.01); overall glucose Ra was nearly 11 g greater in NIDDM than nondiabetic subjects, but glucose Rd was not significantly different in NIDDM and nondiabetic subjects. The greater overall glucose Ra of NIDDM subjects was due to 6.8 g greater endogenous glucose output (13.7 +/- 1.1 vs. 6.8 +/- 1.0 g, P less than 0.01) and 3.8 g less oral glucose splanchnic sequestration of the oral load (31.4 +/- 1.5 vs. 27.5 +/- 0.9 g, P less than 0.05). Although glucose taken up by muscle was not significantly different in NIDDM and nondiabetic subjects (39.3 +/- 3.5 vs. 41.0 +/- 2.5 g/5 h), a greater amount of the glucose taken up by muscle in NIDDM was released as lactate and alanine (11.7 +/- 1.0 vs. 5.2 +/- 0.3 g in nondiabetic subjects, P less than 0.01), and less was stored (11.7 +/- 1.3 vs. 16.9 +/- 1.5 g, P less than 0.05). We conclude that increased systemic glucose delivery, due primarily to reduced suppression of endogenous hepatic glucose output and, to a lesser extent, reduced splanchnic glucose sequestration, is the predominant factor responsible for postprandial hyperglycemia in NIDDM.

  14. Spent fuel characteristics & disposal considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Oversby, V.M.

    1996-06-01

    The fuel used in commercial nuclear power reactors is uranium, generally in the form of an oxide. The gas-cooled reactors developed in England use metallic uranium enclosed in a thin layer of Magnox. Since this fuel must be processed into a more stable form before disposal, we will not consider the characteristics of the Magnox spent fuel. The vast majority of the remaining power reactors in the world use uranium dioxide pellets in Zircaloy cladding as the fuel material. Reactors that are fueled with uranium dioxide generally use water as the moderator. If ordinary water is used, the reactors are called Light Water Reactors (LWR), while if water enriched in the deuterium isotope of hydrogen is used, the reactors are called Heavy Water reactors. The LWRs can be either pressurized reactors (PWR) or boiling water reactors (BWR). Both of these reactor types use uranium that has been enriched in the 235 isotope to about 3.5 to 4% total abundance. There may be minor differences in the details of the spent fuel characteristics for PWRs and BWRs, but for simplicity we will not consider these second-order effects. The Canadian designed reactor (CANDU) that is moderated by heavy water uses natural uranium without enrichment of the 235 isotope as the fuel. These reactors run at higher linear power density than LWRs and produce spent fuel with lower total burn-up than LWRs. Where these difference are important with respect to spent fuel management, we will discuss them. Otherwise, we will concentrate on spent fuel from LWRs.

  15. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhead, D. S.

    1980-03-01

    In a general sense, the main attraction of the marine environment as a repository for the wastes generated by human activities lies in the degree of dispersion and dilution which is readily attainable. However, the capacity of the oceans to receive wastes without unacceptable consequences is clearly finite and this is even more true of localized marine environments such as estuaries, coastal waters and semi-enclosed seas. Radionuclides have always been present in the marine environment and marine organisms and humans consuming marine foodstuffs have always been exposed, to some degree, to radiation from this source. The hazard associated with ionizing radiations is dependent upon the absorption of energy from the radiation field within some biological entity. Thus any disposal of radioactive wastes into the marine environment has consequences, the acceptability of which must be assessed in terms of the possible resultant increase in radiation exposure of human and aquatic populations. In the United Kingdom the primary consideration has been and remains the safe-guarding of public health. The control procedures are therefore designed to minimize as far as practicable the degree of human exposure within the overall limits recommended as acceptable by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. There are several approaches through which control could be exercised and the strengths and weaknesses of each are considered. In this review the detailed application of the critical path technique to the control of the discharge into the north-east Irish Sea from the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale is given as a practical example. It will be further demonstrated that when human exposure is controlled in this way no significant risk attaches to the increased radiation exposure experienced by populations of marine organisms in the area.

  16. Method of Disposing of Corrosive Gases

    DOEpatents

    Burford, W.B. III; Anderson, H.C.

    1950-07-11

    Waste gas containing elemental fluorine is disposed of in the disclosed method by introducing the gas near the top of a vertical chamber under a downward spray of caustic soda solution which contains a small amount of sodium sulfide.

  17. Arsenic Treatment Residuals: Quantities, Characteristics and Disposal

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides information on the quantities, the characteristics and the disposal options for the common arsenic removal technologies. The technologies consist of adsorption media, iron removal, coagulation/filtration and ion exchange. The information for the prese...

  18. 40 CFR 191.24 - Disposal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL... the long time period involved and the nature of the processes and events of interest, there...

  19. Disposal of controlled substances. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-09-09

    This rule governs the secure disposal of controlled substances by registrants and ultimate users. These regulations will implement the Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act of 2010 by expanding the options available to collect controlled substances from ultimate users for the purpose of disposal, including: Take-back events, mail-back programs, and collection receptacle locations. These regulations contain specific language allowing law enforcement to voluntarily continue to conduct take-back events, administer mail-back programs, and maintain collection receptacles. These regulations will allow authorized manufacturers, distributors, reverse distributors, narcotic treatment programs (NTPs), hospitals/clinics with an on-site pharmacy, and retail pharmacies to voluntarily administer mail-back programs and maintain collection receptacles. In addition, this rule expands the authority of authorized hospitals/clinics and retail pharmacies to voluntarily maintain collection receptacles at long-term care facilities. This rule also reorganizes and consolidates previously existing regulations on disposal, including the role of reverse distributors.

  20. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k{sub eff} for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes.

  1. Resveratrol protects against polychlorinated biphenyl-mediated impairment of glucose homeostasis in adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Nicki A.; English, Victoria; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J.; Pearson, Kevin J.; Cassis, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol (RSV) is a plant polyphenol that exhibits several favorable effects on glucose homeostasis in adipocytes. Recent studies from our laboratory demonstrated that coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that are ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) impair glucose homeostasis in mice. PCB-induced impairment of glucose homeostasis was associated with augmented expression of inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue, a site for accumulation of lipophilic PCBs. This study determined if RSV protects against PCB-77 induced impairment of glucose disposal in vitro and in vivo, and if these beneficial effects are associated with enhanced nuclear factor erythoid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling in adipose tissue. PCB-77 increased oxidative stress and abolished insulin stimulated 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These effects were restored by RSV, which resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), the downstream target of Nrf2 signaling. We quantified glucose and insulin tolerance and components of Nrf2 and insulin signaling cascades in adipose tissue of male C57BL/6 mice administered vehicle or PCB-77 (50 mg/kg) and fed a diet with or without resVida® (0.1%, or 160 mg/kg/day). PCB-77 impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, and these effects were reversed by RSV. PCB-77 induced reductions in insulin signaling in adipose tissue were also abolished by RSV, which increased NQO1 expression. These results demonstrate that coplanar PCB-induced impairment of glucose homeostasis in mice can be prevented by RSV, potentially through stimulation of Nrf2 signaling and enhanced insulin stimulated glucose disposal in adipose tissue. PMID:24231106

  2. Disposal of radioactive iodine in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.; Defield, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of space disposal of iodine waste from nuclear power reactors is investigated. The space transportation system utilized relies upon the space shuttle, a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen orbit transfer vehicle, and a solid propellant final stage. The iodine is assumed to be in the form of either an iodide or an iodate, and calculations assume that the final destination is either solar orbit or solar system escape. It is concluded that space disposal of iodine is feasible.

  3. Disposal facility data for the interim performance

    SciTech Connect

    Eiholzer, C.R.

    1995-05-15

    The purpose of this report is to identify and provide information on the waste package and disposal facility concepts to be used for the low-level waste tank interim performance assessment. Current concepts for the low-level waste form, canister, and the disposal facility will be used for the interim performance assessment. The concept for the waste form consists of vitrified glass cullet in a sulfur polymer cement matrix material. The waste form will be contained in a 2 {times} 2 {times} 8 meter carbon steel container. Two disposal facility concepts will be used for the interim performance assessment. These facility concepts are based on a preliminary disposal facility concept developed for estimating costs for a disposal options configuration study. These disposal concepts are based on vault type structures. None of the concepts given in this report have been approved by a Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) decision board. These concepts will only be used in th interim performance assessment. Future performance assessments will be based on approved designs.

  4. Nonoxidative Free Fatty Acid Disposal Is Greater in Young Women than Men

    PubMed Central

    Koutsari, Christina; Basu, Rita; Rizza, Robert A.; Nair, K. Sreekumaran; Khosla, Sundeep

    2011-01-01

    Context: Large increases in systemic free fatty acid (FFA) availability in the absence of a corresponding increase in fatty acid oxidation can create a host of metabolic abnormalities. These adverse responses are thought to be the result of fatty acids being shunted into hepatic very low-density lipoprotein-triglyceride production and/or intracellular lipid storage and signaling pathways because tissues are forced to increase nonoxidative FFA disposal. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine whether variations in postabsorptive nonoxidative FFA disposal within the usual range predict insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia. Design: We measured: systemic FFA turnover using a continuous iv infusion of [9–10, 3H]palmitate; substrate oxidation with indirect calorimetry combined with urinary nitrogen excretion; whole-body and peripheral insulin sensitivity with the labeled iv glucose tolerance test minimal model. Setting: the study was conducted at the Mayo Clinic General Clinical Research Center. Participants: Participants included healthy, postabsorptive, nonobese adults (21 women and 21 men). Interventions: There were no interventions. Main Outcome Measures: Nonoxidative FFA disposal (micromoles per minute), defined as the FFA disappearance rate minus fatty acid oxidation. Results: Women had 64% greater nonoxidative FFA disposal rate than men but a better lipid profile and similar insulin sensitivity. There was no significant correlation between nonoxidative FFA disposal and whole-body sensitivity, peripheral insulin sensitivity, or fasting serum triglyceride concentrations in men or women. Conclusions: Healthy nonobese women have greater rates of nonoxidative FFA disposal than men, but this does not appear to relate to adverse health consequences. Understanding the sex-specific interaction between adipose tissue lipolysis and peripheral FFA removal will help to discover new approaches to treat FFA-induced abnormalities. PMID:21123445

  5. Cavern/Vault Disposal Concepts and Thermal Calculations for Direct Disposal of 37-PWR Size DPCs

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest; Hadgu, Teklu; Clayton, Daniel James

    2015-03-01

    This report provides two sets of calculations not presented in previous reports on the technical feasibility of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal directly in dual-purpose canisters (DPCs): 1) thermal calculations for reference disposal concepts using larger 37-PWR size DPC-based waste packages, and 2) analysis and thermal calculations for underground vault-type storage and eventual disposal of DPCs. The reader is referred to the earlier reports (Hardin et al. 2011, 2012, 2013; Hardin and Voegele 2013) for contextual information on DPC direct disposal alternatives.

  6. Protein Ingestion Induces Muscle Insulin Resistance Independent of Leucine-Mediated mTOR Activation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gordon I; Yoshino, Jun; Stromsdorfer, Kelly L; Klein, Seth J; Magkos, Faidon; Reeds, Dominic N; Klein, Samuel; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2015-05-01

    Increased plasma branched-chain amino acid concentrations are associated with insulin resistance, and intravenous amino acid infusion blunts insulin-mediated glucose disposal. We tested the hypothesis that protein ingestion impairs insulin-mediated glucose disposal by leucine-mediated mTOR signaling, which can inhibit AKT. We measured glucose disposal and muscle p-mTOR(Ser2448), p-AKT(Ser473), and p-AKT(Thr308) in 22 women during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure with and without concomitant ingestion of whey protein (0.6 g/kg fat-free mass; n = 11) or leucine that matched the amount given with whey protein (n = 11). Both whey protein and leucine ingestion raised plasma leucine concentration by approximately twofold and muscle p-mTOR(Ser2448) by ∼30% above the values observed in the control (no amino acid ingestion) studies; p-AKT(Ser473) and p-AKT(Thr308) were not affected by whey protein or leucine ingestion. Whey protein ingestion decreased insulin-mediated glucose disposal (median 38.8 [quartiles 30.8, 61.8] vs. 51.9 [41.0, 77.3] µmol glucose/µU insulin · mL(-1) · min(-1); P < 0.01), whereas ingestion of leucine did not (52.3 [43.3, 65.4] vs. 52.3 [43.9, 73.2]). These results indicate that 1) protein ingestion causes insulin resistance and could be an important regulator of postprandial glucose homeostasis and 2) the insulin-desensitizing effect of protein ingestion is not due to inhibition of AKT by leucine-mediated mTOR signaling.

  7. Protein Ingestion Induces Muscle Insulin Resistance Independent of Leucine-Mediated mTOR Activation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gordon I.; Yoshino, Jun; Stromsdorfer, Kelly L.; Klein, Seth J.; Magkos, Faidon; Reeds, Dominic N.; Klein, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Increased plasma branched-chain amino acid concentrations are associated with insulin resistance, and intravenous amino acid infusion blunts insulin-mediated glucose disposal. We tested the hypothesis that protein ingestion impairs insulin-mediated glucose disposal by leucine-mediated mTOR signaling, which can inhibit AKT. We measured glucose disposal and muscle p-mTORSer2448, p-AKTSer473, and p-AKTThr308 in 22 women during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure with and without concomitant ingestion of whey protein (0.6 g/kg fat-free mass; n = 11) or leucine that matched the amount given with whey protein (n = 11). Both whey protein and leucine ingestion raised plasma leucine concentration by approximately twofold and muscle p-mTORSer2448 by ∼30% above the values observed in the control (no amino acid ingestion) studies; p-AKTSer473 and p-AKTThr308 were not affected by whey protein or leucine ingestion. Whey protein ingestion decreased insulin-mediated glucose disposal (median 38.8 [quartiles 30.8, 61.8] vs. 51.9 [41.0, 77.3] µmol glucose/µU insulin · mL−1 · min−1; P < 0.01), whereas ingestion of leucine did not (52.3 [43.3, 65.4] vs. 52.3 [43.9, 73.2]). These results indicate that 1) protein ingestion causes insulin resistance and could be an important regulator of postprandial glucose homeostasis and 2) the insulin-desensitizing effect of protein ingestion is not due to inhibition of AKT by leucine-mediated mTOR signaling. PMID:25475435

  8. Influence of Acute and Chronic Exercise on Glucose Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Röhling, Martin; Herder, Christian; Stemper, Theodor; Müssig, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance plays a key role in the development of type 2 diabetes. It arises from a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental and lifestyle factors including lack of physical exercise and poor nutrition habits. The increased risk of type 2 diabetes is molecularly based on defects in insulin signaling, insulin secretion, and inflammation. The present review aims to give an overview on the molecular mechanisms underlying the uptake of glucose and related signaling pathways after acute and chronic exercise. Physical exercise, as crucial part in the prevention and treatment of diabetes, has marked acute and chronic effects on glucose disposal and related inflammatory signaling pathways. Exercise can stimulate molecular signaling pathways leading to glucose transport into the cell. Furthermore, physical exercise has the potential to modulate inflammatory processes by affecting specific inflammatory signaling pathways which can interfere with signaling pathways of the glucose uptake. The intensity of physical training appears to be the primary determinant of the degree of metabolic improvement modulating the molecular signaling pathways in a dose-response pattern, whereas training modality seems to have a secondary role. PMID:27069930

  9. Perinatal exercise improves glucose homeostasis in adult offspring

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lindsay G.; Lewis, Kaitlyn N.; Wilkerson, Donald C.; Tobia, Christine M.; Ngo Tenlep, Sara Y.; Shridas, Preetha; Garcia-Cazarin, Mary L.; Wolff, Gretchen; Andrade, Francisco H.; Charnigo, Richard J.; Esser, Karyn A.; Egan, Josephine M.; de Cabo, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Emerging research has shown that subtle factors during pregnancy and gestation can influence long-term health in offspring. In an attempt to be proactive, we set out to explore whether a nonpharmacological intervention, perinatal exercise, might improve offspring health. Female mice were separated into sedentary or exercise cohorts, with the exercise cohort having voluntary access to a running wheel prior to mating and during pregnancy and nursing. Offspring were weaned, and analyses were performed on the mature offspring that did not have access to running wheels during any portion of their lives. Perinatal exercise caused improved glucose disposal following an oral glucose challenge in both female and male adult offspring (P < 0.05 for both). Blood glucose concentrations were reduced to lower values in response to an intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test for both female and male adult offspring of parents with access to running wheels (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Male offspring from exercised dams showed increased percent lean mass and decreased fat mass percent compared with male offspring from sedentary dams (P < 0.01 for both), but these parameters were unchanged in female offspring. These data suggest that short-term maternal voluntary exercise prior to and during healthy pregnancy and nursing can enhance long-term glucose homeostasis in offspring. PMID:22932781

  10. Perinatal exercise improves glucose homeostasis in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Carter, Lindsay G; Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Wilkerson, Donald C; Tobia, Christine M; Ngo Tenlep, Sara Y; Shridas, Preetha; Garcia-Cazarin, Mary L; Wolff, Gretchen; Andrade, Francisco H; Charnigo, Richard J; Esser, Karyn A; Egan, Josephine M; de Cabo, Rafael; Pearson, Kevin J

    2012-10-15

    Emerging research has shown that subtle factors during pregnancy and gestation can influence long-term health in offspring. In an attempt to be proactive, we set out to explore whether a nonpharmacological intervention, perinatal exercise, might improve offspring health. Female mice were separated into sedentary or exercise cohorts, with the exercise cohort having voluntary access to a running wheel prior to mating and during pregnancy and nursing. Offspring were weaned, and analyses were performed on the mature offspring that did not have access to running wheels during any portion of their lives. Perinatal exercise caused improved glucose disposal following an oral glucose challenge in both female and male adult offspring (P < 0.05 for both). Blood glucose concentrations were reduced to lower values in response to an intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test for both female and male adult offspring of parents with access to running wheels (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Male offspring from exercised dams showed increased percent lean mass and decreased fat mass percent compared with male offspring from sedentary dams (P < 0.01 for both), but these parameters were unchanged in female offspring. These data suggest that short-term maternal voluntary exercise prior to and during healthy pregnancy and nursing can enhance long-term glucose homeostasis in offspring.

  11. 36 CFR 228.57 - Types of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Types of disposal. 228.57 Section 228.57 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.57 Types of disposal. Except as...

  12. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 817.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  13. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 816.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  14. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 817.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  15. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 816.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  16. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 817.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  17. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 816.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  18. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 817.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  19. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 817.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  20. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 816.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  1. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 816.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  2. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  3. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  4. 10 CFR 20.2005 - Disposal of specific wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposal of specific wastes. 20.2005 Section 20.2005 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2005 Disposal of specific wastes. (a) A licensee may dispose of the following licensed material as if it...

  5. 10 CFR 20.2005 - Disposal of specific wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of specific wastes. 20.2005 Section 20.2005 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2005 Disposal of specific wastes. (a) A licensee may dispose of the following licensed material as if it...

  6. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  7. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  8. 10 CFR 20.2005 - Disposal of specific wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposal of specific wastes. 20.2005 Section 20.2005 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2005 Disposal of specific wastes. (a) A licensee may dispose of the following licensed material as if it...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  10. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  11. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  12. 10 CFR 20.2005 - Disposal of specific wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposal of specific wastes. 20.2005 Section 20.2005 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2005 Disposal of specific wastes. (a) A licensee may dispose of the following licensed material as if it...

  13. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  14. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  15. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  16. 10 CFR 20.2005 - Disposal of specific wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disposal of specific wastes. 20.2005 Section 20.2005 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2005 Disposal of specific wastes. (a) A licensee may dispose of the following licensed material as if it...

  17. 40 CFR 761.97 - Export for disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export for disposal. 761.97 Section... PROHIBITIONS Transboundary Shipments of PCBs for Disposal § 761.97 Export for disposal. (a) General provisions. No person may export PCBs or PCB Items for disposal without an exemption, except that: (1) PCBs...

  18. 48 CFR 45.605 - Inventory disposal reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventory disposal reports... MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 45.605 Inventory disposal reports. The plant clearance officer shall promptly prepare an SF 1424, Inventory Disposal Report,...

  19. 48 CFR 45.605 - Inventory disposal reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inventory disposal reports... MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 45.605 Inventory disposal reports. The plant clearance officer shall promptly prepare an SF 1424, Inventory Disposal Report,...

  20. 12 CFR 717.83 - Disposal of consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information. 717.83... FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal § 717.83 Disposal of consumer information. (a) In general. You must properly dispose of...

  1. FGF21-Mediated Improvements in Glucose Clearance Require Uncoupling Protein 1.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Michelle M; O'Dwyer, Shannon M; Baker, Robert K; Covey, Scott D; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2015-11-24

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)-mediated weight loss and improvements in glucose metabolism correlate with increased uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) levels in adipose tissues, suggesting that UCP1-dependent thermogenesis may drive FGF21 action. It was reported that FGF21 is equally effective at reducing body weight and improving glucose homeostasis without UCP1. We find while FGF21 can lower body weight in both wild-type and Ucp1 knockout mice, rapid clearance of glucose by FGF21 is defective in the absence of UCP1. Furthermore, in obese wild-type mice there is a fall in brown adipose tissue (BAT) temperature during glucose excursion, and FGF21 improves glucose clearance while preventing the fall in BAT temperature. In Ucp1 knockout mice, the fall in BAT temperature during glucose excursion and FGF21-mediated changes in BAT temperature are lost. We conclude FGF21-mediated improvements in clearance of a glucose challenge require UCP1 and evoke UCP1-dependent thermogenesis as a method to increase glucose disposal.

  2. Superior long-term stability of a glucose biosensor based on inserted barrel plating gold electrodes.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cheng-Teng; Hsiao, Hung-Chan; Fang, Mei-Yen; Zen, Jyh-Myng

    2009-10-15

    Disposable one shot usage blood glucose strips are routinely used in the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus and their performance can vary greatly. In this paper we critically evaluated the long-term stability of glucose strips made of barrel plating gold electrodes. Compared to other glucose biosensing platforms of vapor deposited palladium and screen printed carbon electrodes, the proposed glucose biosensor was found to show the best stability among the three biosensing platforms in thermal acceleration experiments at 40 degrees C for 6 months with an average bias of 3.4% at glucose concentrations of 5-20 mM. The precision test of this barrel plating gold glucose biosensor also showed the best performance (coefficients of variation in the range of 1.4-2.4%) in thermal acceleration experiments at 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C and 70 degrees C for 27 days. Error grid analysis revealed that all measurements fell in zone A and zone B. Regression analysis showed no significant difference between the proposed biosensor and the reference method at 99% confidence level. The amperometric glucose biosensor fabricated by inserting two barrel plating gold electrodes onto an injection-molding plastic base followed by immobilizing with a bio-reagent layer and membrane was very impressive with a long-term stability up to 2.5 years at 25 degrees C. Overall, these results indicated that the glucose oxidase/barrel plating gold biosensing platform is ideal for long-term accurate glycemic control.

  3. Caffeine and glucose homeostasis during rest and exercise in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zaharieva, Dessi P; Riddell, Michael C

    2013-08-01

    Caffeine is a substance that has been used in our society for generations, primarily for its effects on the central nervous system that causes wakefulness. Caffeine supplementation has become increasingly more popular as an ergogenic aid for athletes and considerable scientific evidence supports its effectiveness. Because of their potential to alter energy metabolism, the effects of coffee and caffeine on glucose metabolism in diabetes have also been studied both epidemiologically and experimentally. Predominantly targeting the adenosine receptors, caffeine causes alterations in glucose homeostasis by decreasing glucose uptake into skeletal muscle, thereby causing elevations in blood glucose concentration. Caffeine intake has also been proposed to increase symptomatic warning signs of hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes and elevate blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Other effects include potential increases in glucose counterregulatory hormones such as epinephrine, which can also decrease peripheral glucose disposal. Despite these established physiological effects, increased coffee intake has been associated with reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes in large-scale epidemiological studies. This review paper highlights the known effects of caffeine on glucose homeostasis and diabetes metabolism during rest and exercise.

  4. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kayikci, Ömur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression on yeast carbon metabolism with a focus on roles of the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway and Snf1 signal transduction in establishment and relief of glucose repression. PMID:26205245

  5. Subseabed Disposal Program Plan. Volume I. Overview

    SciTech Connect

    1981-07-01

    The primary objective of the Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) is to assess the scientific, environmental, and engineering feasibility of disposing of processed and packaged high-level nuclear waste in geologic formations beneath the world's oceans. High-level waste (HLW) is considered the most difficult of radioactive wastes to dispose of in oceanic geologic formations because of its heat and radiation output. From a scientific standpoint, the understanding developed for the disposal of such HLW can be used for other nuclear wastes (e.g., transuranic - TRU - or low-level) and materials from decommissioned facilities, since any set of barriers competent to contain the heat and radiation outputs of high-level waste will also contain such outputs from low-level waste. If subseabed disposal is found to be feasible for HLW, then other factors such as cost will become more important in considering subseabed emplacement for other nuclear wastes. A secondary objective of the SDP is to develop and maintain a capability to assess and cooperate with the seabed nuclear waste disposal programs of other nations. There are, of course, a number of nations with nuclear programs, and not all of these nations have convenient access to land-based repositories for nuclear waste. Many are attempting to develop legislative and scientific programs that will avoid potential hazards to man, threats to other ocean uses, and marine pollution, and they work together to such purpose in meetings of the international NEA/Seabed Working Group. The US SDP, as the first and most highly developed R and D program in the area, strongly influences the development of subseabed-disposal-related policy in such nations.

  6. Optoelectronic Apparatus Measures Glucose Noninvasively

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Rovati, Luigi L.

    2003-01-01

    An optoelectronic apparatus has been invented as a noninvasive means of measuring the concentration of glucose in the human body. The apparatus performs polarimetric and interferometric measurements of the human eye to acquire data from which the concentration of glucose in the aqueous humor can be computed. Because of the importance of the concentration of glucose in human health, there could be a large potential market for instruments based on this apparatus.

  7. Biosensing of glucose in flow injection analysis system based on glucose oxidase-quantum dot modified pencil graphite electrode.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, Özlem; Kızılkaya, Bayram; Uysal, Hüseyin; Dilgin, Yusuf

    2016-01-15

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor was proposed in flow injection analysis (FIA) system using glucose oxidase (GOD) and Quantum dot (ZnS-CdS) modified Pencil Graphite Electrode (PGE). After ZnS-CdS film was electrochemically deposited onto PGE surface, GOD was immobilized on the surface of ZnS-CdS/PGE through crosslinking with chitosan (CT). A pair of well-defined reversible redox peak of GOD was observed at GOD/CT/ZnS-CdS/PGE based on enzyme electrode by direct electron transfer between the protein and electrode. Further, obtained GOD/CT/ZnS-CdS/PGE offers a disposable, low cost, selective and sensitive electrochemical biosensing of glucose in FIA system based on the decrease of the electrocatalytic response of the reduced form of GOD to dissolved oxygen. Under optimum conditions (flow rate, 1.3mL min(-1); transmission tubing length, 10cm; injection volume, 100μL; and constant applied potential, -500mV vs. Ag/AgCl), the proposed method displayed a linear response to glucose in the range of 0.01-1.0mM with detection limit of 3.0µM. The results obtained from this study would provide the basis for further development of the biosensing using PGE based FIA systems.

  8. 7 CFR 1484.36 - How do Cooperators dispose of disposable property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How do Cooperators dispose of disposable property? 1484.36 Section 1484.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS PROGRAMS TO HELP DEVELOP FOREIGN...

  9. 7 CFR 1484.36 - How do Cooperators dispose of disposable property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How do Cooperators dispose of disposable property? 1484.36 Section 1484.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS PROGRAMS TO...

  10. 7 CFR 1484.36 - How do Cooperators dispose of disposable property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How do Cooperators dispose of disposable property? 1484.36 Section 1484.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS PROGRAMS TO...

  11. 7 CFR 1484.36 - How do Cooperators dispose of disposable property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How do Cooperators dispose of disposable property? 1484.36 Section 1484.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS PROGRAMS TO HELP DEVELOP FOREIGN...

  12. 7 CFR 1484.36 - How do Cooperators dispose of disposable property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How do Cooperators dispose of disposable property? 1484.36 Section 1484.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS PROGRAMS TO HELP DEVELOP FOREIGN...

  13. A regional blood flow model for glucose and insulin kinetics during hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Schneditz, Daniel; Galach, Magda; Thomaseth, Karl; Waniewski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    The distribution and elimination of a bolus of glucose injected during hemodialysis (HD) was examined using a distributed double-pool regional blood flow model. Intracorporeal glucose disposal was assumed as insulin-independent (λ) in the central high-flow compartment comprising blood, brain, and internal organs, including pancreatic insulin secretion (a, C1) and hepatic insulin clearance (α). Insulin-dependent (γ) glucose utilization was allocated to the low-flow system comprising muscle, skin, and bone. This model was compared with a compact single-pool model using the same model parameters except for the distribution volume (V). Six parameters (C1, a, α, λ, γ, and V) were identified from data obtained in seven nondiabetic patients (59-115 kg). The fraction Fd of glucose removed by HD significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with baseline glucose concentration Cg,0 (5.561 ± 0.646 mmol/L; r = 0.535), extracorporeal clearance Kg (0.137 ± 0.024 L/min; r = 0.537), a (0.278 ± 0.095 L/mmol, r = -0.586), and λ (0.099 ± 0.078 L/min, r = -0.587). V was much larger in the double-compartment (17.8 ± 5.1 L) than in the single-compartment model (10.0 ± 3.0 L). The modeled glucose compartment volumes could be of interest for fluid management in HD patients. The use of extracorporeal glucose disposal to detect impaired glucose utilization (a, λ) remains to be validated in diabetic HD patients.

  14. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-02-27

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information.

  15. Vinegar Consumption Increases Insulin-Stimulated Glucose Uptake by the Forearm Muscle in Humans with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mitrou, Panayota; Maratou, Eirini; Lambadiari, Vaia; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Spanoudi, Filio; Raptis, Sotirios A.; Dimitriadis, George

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. Vinegar has been shown to have a glucose-lowering effect in patients with glucose abnormalities. However, the mechanisms of this effect are still obscure. The aim of this randomised, crossover study was to investigate the effect of vinegar on glucose metabolism in muscle which is the most important tissue for insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Materials and Methods. Eleven subjects with DM2 consumed vinegar or placebo (at random order on two separate days, a week apart), before a mixed meal. Plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and glycerol were measured preprandially and at 30–60 min for 300 min postprandially from the radial artery and from a forearm vein. Muscle blood flow was measured with strain-gauge plethysmography. Glucose uptake was calculated as the arteriovenous difference of glucose multiplied by blood flow. Results. Vinegar compared to placebo (1) increased forearm glucose uptake (p = 0.0357), (2) decreased plasma glucose (p = 0.0279), insulin (p = 0.0457), and triglycerides (p = 0.0439), and (3) did not change NEFA and glycerol. Conclusions. In DM2 vinegar reduces postprandial hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, and hypertriglyceridaemia without affecting lipolysis. Vinegar's effect on carbohydrate metabolism may be partly accounted for by an increase in glucose uptake, demonstrating an improvement in insulin action in skeletal muscle. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02309424. PMID:26064976

  16. [Glucose homeostasis in children. I. Regulation of blood glucose].

    PubMed

    Otto Buczkowska, E; Szirer, G; Jarosz-Chobot, P

    2001-01-01

    The amount of glucose in the circulation depends on its absorption from the intestine, uptake by and release from the liver and uptake by peripheral tissues. Insulin and glucagon together control the metabolities required by peripheral tissues and both are involved in maintaining glucose homeostasis. Insulin is considered to be an anabolic hormone in that it promotes the synthesis of protein, lipid and glycogen. The key target tissues for insulin are liver, muscles and adipose tissue. Glucagon acts largely to increase catabolic processes. Between meals or during fast, the most tightly regulated process is the release of glucose from the liver. During fasting glucose is produced from glycogen and is formed by enzymes on the gluconeogenic pathway. Fetal metabolism is directed to ensure anabolism with formation of glycogen, fat and protein. Glucogen is stored in the liver and serves as the immediate source of new glucose during first few hours after birth. Glucose is the most important substrate for brain metabolism. Due to the large size of neonatal brain in relation to body weight cerebral glucose consumption is particularly high. Postnatal hormonal changes have a central role in regulating glucose mobilization through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. The initial glucagon surge is the key adaptive change which triggers the switch to glucose production. The control of insulin and glucagon secretion is of fundamental importance during first hours after birth. Children have a decreased tolerance to starvation when compared with adults, they are more prone to develop hypoglycaemia after short fasting. The faster rate in the fall of blood glucose and gluconeogenic substrates and rapid rate of ketogenesis are characteristic features of fasting adaptation in children.

  17. Colors in Disposable Diapers: Addressing Myths.

    PubMed

    Evans, Eric B; Helmes, C Tucker; Kirsch, Taryn; Ruble, Karen M

    2014-08-01

    Colors are frequently added to disposable diapers to enhance the diapering experience. The colors in the interior of diapers are composed of nonsensitizing pigments that are bound during the fiber-making process into the fibers of the nonwoven that covers the absorbent core materials. In the past, the use of color in diapers has been called into question based on the presumed use of disperse dyes, known sensitizers in the textile industry, and erroneous reports in literature. In fact, disperse dyes are not used in leading disposable diapers; the colors used in these disposable diapers are nonsensitizing pigments with favorable safety profiles. Numerous safety tests, such as skin patch tests with pigments used on diaper backsheets, have found no evidence of skin irritation or sensitization.

  18. Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This Final Second Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SSEIS) to the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the effects of receiving, storing, and ultimately destructing the United States stockpile of lethal unitary chemical munitions currently stored in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) (European stockpile) at the Army's JACADS facility located on Johnston Atoll in the Pacific Ocean. This Final SSEIS addresses the effects of the following proposed European stockpile activities: the transport of the European stockpile from the territorial limit to Johnston Island, the unloading of munitions from transportation ships, the on-island munitions transport and handling, on-island munitions storage, the disposal of munitions in the JACADS facility, the disposal of incineration wastes, and alternatives to the proposed action. This document also updates information in the 1983 EIS and the 1988 SEIS, as appropriate. 46 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Workshop on disposable fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smyrl, W.H.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of the present workshop was to assess the feasibility of a low-power disposable fuel cell. The technological basis for the concept was evaluated along with the barriers that must be overcome for its development. The scope was limited to systems with a useful life of 500 hours or less and a power production of 1 kilowatt or less. Tabulated results reveal that such a system would have advantages related to mass over competitive batteries or other power systems, and this workshop compared other characteristics of such systems as well. Disposable devices infer that a major consideration will be the cost, but there is also implied a limited environment burden. The consensus of the participants was that a disposable fuel cell (DFC) is a viable concept and that there is merit pursuing its development.

  20. Oklahoma's recent earthquakes and saltwater disposal.

    PubMed

    Walsh, F Rall; Zoback, Mark D

    2015-06-01

    Over the past 5 years, parts of Oklahoma have experienced marked increases in the number of small- to moderate-sized earthquakes. In three study areas that encompass the vast majority of the recent seismicity, we show that the increases in seismicity follow 5- to 10-fold increases in the rates of saltwater disposal. Adjacent areas where there has been relatively little saltwater disposal have had comparatively few recent earthquakes. In the areas of seismic activity, the saltwater disposal principally comes from "produced" water, saline pore water that is coproduced with oil and then injected into deeper sedimentary formations. These formations appear to be in hydraulic communication with potentially active faults in crystalline basement, where nearly all the earthquakes are occurring. Although most of the recent earthquakes have posed little danger to the public, the possibility of triggering damaging earthquakes on potentially active basement faults cannot be discounted.

  1. Alginate cryogel based glucose biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatoni, Amin; Windy Dwiasi, Dian; Hermawan, Dadan

    2016-02-01

    Cryogel is macroporous structure provides a large surface area for biomolecule immobilization. In this work, an alginate cryogel based biosensor was developed to detect glucose. The cryogel was prepared using alginate cross-linked by calcium chloride under sub-zero temperature. This porous structure was growth in a 100 μL micropipette tip with a glucose oxidase enzyme entrapped inside the cryogel. The glucose detection was based on the colour change of redox indicator, potassium permanganate, by the hydrogen peroxide resulted from the conversion of glucose. The result showed a porous structure of alginate cryogel with pores diameter of 20-50 μm. The developed glucose biosensor was showed a linear response in the glucose detection from 1.0 to 5.0 mM with a regression of y = 0.01x+0.02 and R2 of 0.994. Furthermore, the glucose biosensor was showed a high operational stability up to 10 times of uninterrupted glucose detections.

  2. Antihypertensive drugs and glucose metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Rizos, Christos V; Elisaf, Moses S

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension plays a major role in the development and progression of micro- and macrovascular disease. Moreover, increased blood pressure often coexists with additional cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance. As a result the need for a comprehensive management of hypertensive patients is critical. However, the various antihypertensive drug categories have different effects on glucose metabolism. Indeed, angiotensin receptor blockers as well as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have been associated with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) have an overall neutral effect on glucose metabolism. However, some members of the CCBs class such as azelnidipine and manidipine have been shown to have advantageous effects on glucose homeostasis. On the other hand, diuretics and β-blockers have an overall disadvantageous effect on glucose metabolism. Of note, carvedilol as well as nebivolol seem to differentiate themselves from the rest of the β-blockers class, being more attractive options regarding their effect on glucose homeostasis. The adverse effects of some blood pressure lowering drugs on glucose metabolism may, to an extent, compromise their cardiovascular protective role. As a result the effects on glucose homeostasis of the various blood pressure lowering drugs should be taken into account when selecting an antihypertensive treatment, especially in patients which are at high risk for developing diabetes. PMID:25068013

  3. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    MedlinePlus

    Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test; Diabetic - glucose tolerance test ... The most common glucose tolerance test is the oral glucose ... the test begins, a sample of blood will be taken. You will then ...

  4. Improving surface coal refuse disposal site inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Meister, R.A.; Hoffman, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    The study on improving surface coal refuse disposal site inspections included surface inspections of 15 refuse disposal sites. Monthly aerial photos were taken of the sites and computer methods were used to determine elevation changes. Photogrammetric techniques that were used are described in detail. A comparison of the results of each of these inspection techniques is included. A detailed evaluation of the photogrammetric techniques was made and conclusions were drawn concerning the advantages and disadvantages of using aerial photography and photogrammetry as part of the inspection procedure. Operators' opinions of the aerial photography methods are included.

  5. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette

    DOEpatents

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E

    2013-09-10

    Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.

  6. Municipal solid wastes and their disposal.

    PubMed Central

    Stone, R

    1978-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the sources, characteristics, and toxic constituents of municipal solid wastes. Several methods are presented for handling, treating, and disposal of solid wastes. Monitoring the landfill site is necessary; there has been a trend to recognize that municipal solid wastes may be hazardous and to provide separate secure handling, treatment, and disposal for their dangerous constituents. Under current state and Federal regulations, permits are being required to assure that proper handling of conventional solid wastes and more hazardous constituents are carefully managed. PMID:738240

  7. Reusable acoustic tweezers for disposable devices

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Feng; Xie, Yuliang; Li, Sixing; Lata, James; Ren, Liqiang; Mao, Zhangming; Ren, Baiyang; Wu, Mengxi; Ozcelik, Adem

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate acoustic tweezers used for disposable devices. Rather than forming an acoustic resonance, we locally transmitted standing surface acoustic waves into a removable, independent polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-glass hybridized microfluidic superstrate device for micromanipulation. By configuring and regulating the displacement nodes on a piezoelectric substrate, cells and particles were effectively patterned and transported into said superstrate, accordingly. With the label-free and contactless nature of acoustic waves, the presented technology could offer a simple, accurate, low-cost, biocompatible, and disposable method for applications in the fields of point-of-care diagnostics and fundamental biomedical studies. PMID:26507411

  8. Insulin Response to Oral Stimuli and Glucose Effectiveness Increased in Neuroglycopenia Following Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Patti, Mary Elizabeth; Li, Ping; Goldfine, Allison B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia with neuroglycopenia is a rare complication following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery for weight management. This study evaluates insulin secretion and action in response to oral and intravenous stimuli in persons with and without neuroglycopenia following RYGB. Design and Methods Cross-sectional cohort studies were performed at a single academic institution to assess insulin secretion and action during oral mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT) and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Results Insulin secretion was increased more following oral mixed meal than intravenous glucose in individuals with neuroglycopenia compared to the asymptomatic group. Reduced insulin clearance did not contribute to higher insulinemia. Glucose effectiveness at zero insulin, estimated during the intravenous glucose tolerance test, was also higher in those with neuroglycopenia. Insulin sensitivity did not differ between groups. Conclusions Increased beta cell response to oral stimuli and insulin-independent glucose disposal may both contribute to severe hypoglycemia after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. PMID:25755084

  9. Relative risk assessment of cruise ships biosolids disposal alternatives.

    PubMed

    Avellaneda, Pedro M; Englehardt, James D; Olascoaga, Josefina; Babcock, Elizabeth A; Brand, Larry; Lirman, Diego; Rogge, Wolfgang F; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Tchobanoglous, George

    2011-10-01

    A relative risk assessment of biosolids disposal alternatives for cruise ships is presented in this paper. The area of study encompasses islands and marine waters of the Caribbean Sea. The objective was to evaluate relative human health and ecological risks of (a) dewatering/incineration, (b) landing the solids for disposal, considering that in some countries land-disposed solids might be discharged in the near-shore environment untreated, and (c) deep ocean disposal. Input to the Bayesian assessment consisted of professional judgment based on available literature and modeling information, data on constituent concentrations in cruise ship biosolids, and simulations of constituent concentrations in Caribbean waters assuming ocean disposal. Results indicate that human health and ecological risks associated with land disposal and shallow ocean disposal are higher than those of the deep ocean disposal and incineration. For incineration, predicted ecological impacts were lower relative to deep ocean disposal before considering potential impacts of carbon emissions.

  10. The disposal of orphan wastes using the greater confinement disposal concept

    SciTech Connect

    Bonano, E.J.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Price, L.L.; Conrad, S.H.; Dickman, P.T.

    1991-02-01

    In the United States, radioactive wastes are conventionally classified as high-level wastes, transuranic wastes, or low-level wastes. Each of these types of wastes, by law, has a ``home`` for their final disposal; i.e., high-level wastes are destined for disposal at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, transuranic waste for the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, and low-level waste for shallow-land disposal sites. However, there are some radioactive wastes within the United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex that do not meet the criteria established for disposal of either high-level waste, transuranic waste, or low-level waste. The former are called ``special-case`` or ``orphan`` wastes. This paper describes an ongoing project sponsored by the DOE`s Nevada Operations Office for the disposal of orphan wastes at the Radioactive Waste Management Site at Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site using the greater confinement disposal (GCD) concept. The objectives of the GCD project are to evaluate the safety of the site for disposal of orphan wastes by assessing compliance with pertinent regulations through performance assessment, and to examine the feasibility of this disposal concept as a cost-effective, safe alternative for management of orphan wastes within the DOE complex. Decisions on the use of GCD or other alternate disposal concepts for orphan wastes can be expected to be addressed in a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement being prepared by DOE. The ultimate decision to use GCD will require a Record of Decision through the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Use of Blood-Glucose Test Strips for Introducing Enzyme Electrodes and Modern Biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Joseph; Macca, Carlo

    1996-08-01

    Electroanalytical experiments in teaching laboratories have traditionally relied on introducing classical polarography to the instrumental analysis laboratory. More modern experiments have been proposed to introduce advanced techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry or stripping analysis. Little attention, however, is given to the field of chemical sensors, despite the growing importance of these devices in real-life applications. In this article we introduce students to modern biosensor technology, and in paticular to disposable screen-printed glucose strips.

  12. Reversal of type 1 diabetes by engineering a glucose sensor in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Mas, Alex; Montané, Joel; Anguela, Xavier M; Muñoz, Sergio; Douar, Anne M; Riu, Efren; Otaegui, Pedro; Bosch, Fatima

    2006-06-01

    Type 1 diabetic patients develop severe secondary complications because insulin treatment does not guarantee normoglycemia. Thus, efficient regulation of glucose homeostasis is a major challenge in diabetes therapy. Skeletal muscle is the most important tissue for glucose disposal after a meal. However, the lack of insulin during diabetes impairs glucose uptake. To increase glucose removal from blood, skeletal muscle of transgenic mice was engineered both to produce basal levels of insulin and to express the liver enzyme glucokinase. After streptozotozin (STZ) administration of double-transgenic mice, a synergic action in skeletal muscle between the insulin produced and the increased glucose phosphorylation by glucokinase was established, preventing hyperglycemia and metabolic alterations. These findings suggested that insulin and glucokinase might be expressed in skeletal muscle, using adeno-associated viral 1 (AAV1) vectors as a new gene therapy approach for diabetes. AAV1-Ins+GK-treated diabetic mice restored and maintained normoglycemia in fed and fasted conditions for >4 months after STZ administration. Furthermore, these mice showed normalization of metabolic parameters, glucose tolerance, and food and fluid intake. Therefore, the joint action of basal insulin production and glucokinase activity may generate a "glucose sensor" in skeletal muscle that allows proper regulation of glycemia in diabetic animals and thus prevents secondary complications.

  13. Hydrologic implications of solid-water disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, William Joseph

    1970-01-01

    Site selection for disposal of solid wastes must be based on adequate water-resources information if pollutional potential is to be minimized. This will require regional as well as localized data on the water resources of the area. Only through such an approach can adequate protection be afforded to the environment in general and the water resources in particular.

  14. DISPOSAL OF RESIDUES FROM BUILDING DECONTAMINATION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    After a building has gone through decontamination activities from a chemical attack there will be a significant amount of building decontamination residue that will need to undergo disposal. This project consists of a fundamental study to investigate the desorption of simulated c...

  15. Radioactive Waste Streams: Waste Classification for Disposal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-13

    created in a reactor by irradiating uranium. These elements include neptunium , plutonium, americium, and curium. Many emit alpha particles and have... neptunium , plutonium, americium, and curium. CRS-35 Appendix Table A-1. Uranium Mill Tailing Site Volume and Activity Site Disposal Cell Waste

  16. Recycling disposable cups into paper plastic composites.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jonathan; Vandeperre, Luc; Dvorak, Rob; Kosior, Ed; Tarverdi, Karnik; Cheeseman, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    The majority of disposable cups are made from paper plastic laminates (PPL) which consist of high quality cellulose fibre with a thin internal polyethylene coating. There are limited recycling options for PPLs and this has contributed to disposable cups becoming a high profile, problematic waste. In this work disposable cups have been shredded to form PPL flakes and these have been used to reinforce polypropylene to form novel paper plastic composites (PPCs). The PPL flakes and polypropylene were mixed, extruded, pelletised and injection moulded at low temperatures to prevent degradation of the cellulose fibres. The level of PPL flake addition and the use of a maleated polyolefin coupling agent to enhance interfacial adhesion have been investigated. Samples have been characterised using tensile testing, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis. Use of a coupling agent allows composites containing 40 wt.% of PPL flakes to increase tensile strength of PP by 50% to 30 MPa. The Young modulus also increases from 1 to 2.5 GPa and the work to fracture increases by a factor of 5. The work demonstrates that PPL disposable cups have potential to be beneficially reused as reinforcement in novel polypropylene composites.

  17. 40 CFR 761.60 - Disposal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a disposal facility approved under this part. (5) Natural gas pipeline systems containing PCBs. The owner or operator of natural gas pipeline systems containing ≥50 ppm PCBs, when no longer in use, shall... the PCB concentrations in natural gas pipeline systems shall do so in accordance with paragraph...

  18. Toxic Overload: The Waste Disposal Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    The role of the Environmental Protection Agency as ombudsman concerning waste disposal is examined with respect to both the current options of source reduction and recycling as pollution prevention, and alternative approaches that expand upon these current options, particularly with respect to toxic and medical waste. (JJK)

  19. The Disposable Syringe: More Experiments and Uses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Andrew

    1973-01-01

    Describes a variety of experiments that can be performed using the disposable syringe. Among others, these include the removal of oxygen during rusting, convection in a liquid and in air, gas collection in an electrolysis cell, small scale production of a fog, and hydrogen/oxygen extraction from a voltameter. (JR)

  20. 40 CFR 721.85 - Disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., State, or local laws and regulations. (1) Incineration. (2) Landfill. (3) Deep well injection. (d... by the following. This provision does not supercede any applicable Federal, State, or local laws and regulations. (1) Incineration. (2) Landfill. (3) Deep well injection. (b) Disposal of the process...

  1. 50 CFR 12.33 - Disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to the wild; (2) Use by the Service or transfer to another government agency for official use; (3... perish, deteriorate, decay, waste, or greatly decrease in value by keeping, or that the expense of keeping is disproportionate to its value may be disposed of immediately after forfeiture or...

  2. Home Sewage Disposal. Special Circular 212.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Site requirements, characteristics and preparation are outlined for a variety of alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches, and oversized absorption area. Diagrams indicating construction…

  3. Urban garbage disposal and management in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuan; Kang, Mu-yi; Liu, Zheng; Zhou, Yan-fang

    2003-07-01

    This paper, probing into the present situation of urban domestic garbage by analyzing its growing trend, compositional change and regional difference, reveals the problems existing in its disposal and management in China. Meanwhile, a questionnaire was conducted in five big cities around China for surveying urban residents' attitudes towards garbage disposal and management policies and measures. Results showed the output of urban domestic garbage in Chinese cities is ever increasing, and the recoverable materials and energy in garbage composition are also increasing. The population growth, economic development, and increase of residents' expenditure level are the main factors influencing the growing output and changing composition of the garbage. Information acquired from the questionnaire showed that majority of the urban residents are in favor of the garbage reduction policies and managerial measures and are willing to collaborate with municipal government in battling against garbage. Based on the analysis and questionnaire, some policymaking-oriented suggestions such as operating the garbage disposal from a social welfare service to a sector of profit-gaining enterprises, transferring the garbage management from passive end control to active source control, promoting the classified garbage collection in cities around China, and charging garbage fees for its cleanup and disposal, have also been put forward in the paper.

  4. 10 CFR 850.32 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.32 Waste disposal. (a) The responsible employer must control the generation of beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium... minimization principles. (b) Beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium-contaminated equipment and other...

  5. 10 CFR 850.32 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.32 Waste disposal. (a) The responsible employer must control the generation of beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium... minimization principles. (b) Beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium-contaminated equipment and other...

  6. 10 CFR 850.32 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.32 Waste disposal. (a) The responsible employer must control the generation of beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium... minimization principles. (b) Beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium-contaminated equipment and other...

  7. 10 CFR 850.32 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.32 Waste disposal. (a) The responsible employer must control the generation of beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium... minimization principles. (b) Beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium-contaminated equipment and other...

  8. 10 CFR 850.32 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.32 Waste disposal. (a) The responsible employer must control the generation of beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium... minimization principles. (b) Beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium-contaminated equipment and other...

  9. GUIDE TO SEPTAGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This guide presents information on the handling, treatment, and disposal of septage in a format easily used by administrators of waste management programs, septage haulers, and managers or operators of septage handling facilities. The guide does not provide detailed engineering d...

  10. Disposable bioreactors: maturation into pharmaceutical glycoprotein manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Brecht, René

    2009-01-01

    Modern biopharmaceutical development is characterised by deep understanding of the structure activity relationship of biological drugs. Therefore, the production process has to be tailored more to the product requirements than to the existing equipment in a certain facility. In addition, the major challenges for the industry are to lower the high production costs of biologics and to shorten the overall development time. The flexibility for providing different modes of operation using disposable bioreactors in the same facility can fulfil these demands and support tailor-made processes.Over the last 10 years, a huge and still increasing number of disposable bioreactors have entered the market. Bioreactor volumes of up to 2,000 L can be handled by using disposable bag systems. Each individual technology has been made available for different purposes up to the GMP compliant production of therapeutic drugs, even for market supply. This chapter summarises disposable technology development over the last decade by comparing the different technologies and showing trends and concepts for the future.

  11. Laboratory Waste Disposal Manual. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, F. G., Ed.

    This manual is designed to provide laboratory personnel with information about chemical hazards and ways of disposing of chemical wastes with minimum contamination of the environment. The manual contains a reference chart section which has alphabetical listings of some 1200 chemical substances with information on the health, fire and reactivity…

  12. System for Odorless Disposal of Human Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Dave; Lewis, Tod

    1987-01-01

    Conceptual system provides clean, hygienic storage. Disposal system stores human wastes compactly. Releases no odor or bacteria and requires no dangerous chemicals or unpleasant handling. Stabilizes waste by natural process of biodegradation in which microbial activity eventually ceases and ordors and bacteria reduced to easily contained levels. Simple and reliable and needs little maintenance.

  13. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, L.

    1993-03-01

    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  14. Low level tank waste disposal study

    SciTech Connect

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  15. Process for the disposal of alkali metals

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Leroy C.

    1977-01-01

    Large quantities of alkali metals may be safely reacted for ultimate disposal by contact with a hot concentrated caustic solution. The alkali metals react with water in the caustic solution in a controlled reaction while steam dilutes the hydrogen formed by the reaction to a safe level.

  16. 7 CFR 2902.52 - Disposable tableware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposable tableware. 2902.52 Section 2902.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES... and used in dining, such as drink ware and dishware, including but not limited to cups, plates,...

  17. The glucose-6-phosphatase system.

    PubMed Central

    van Schaftingen, Emile; Gerin, Isabelle

    2002-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), an enzyme found mainly in the liver and the kidneys, plays the important role of providing glucose during starvation. Unlike most phosphatases acting on water-soluble compounds, it is a membrane-bound enzyme, being associated with the endoplasmic reticulum. In 1975, W. Arion and co-workers proposed a model according to which G6Pase was thought to be a rather unspecific phosphatase, with its catalytic site oriented towards the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum [Arion, Wallin, Lange and Ballas (1975) Mol. Cell. Biochem. 6, 75--83]. Substrate would be provided to this enzyme by a translocase that is specific for glucose 6-phosphate, thereby accounting for the specificity of the phosphatase for glucose 6-phosphate in intact microsomes. Distinct transporters would allow inorganic phosphate and glucose to leave the vesicles. At variance with this substrate-transport model, other models propose that conformational changes play an important role in the properties of G6Pase. The last 10 years have witnessed important progress in our knowledge of the glucose 6-phosphate hydrolysis system. The genes encoding G6Pase and the glucose 6-phosphate translocase have been cloned and shown to be mutated in glycogen storage disease type Ia and type Ib respectively. The gene encoding a G6Pase-related protein, expressed specifically in pancreatic islets, has also been cloned. Specific potent inhibitors of G6Pase and of the glucose 6-phosphate translocase have been synthesized or isolated from micro-organisms. These as well as other findings support the model initially proposed by Arion. Much progress has also been made with regard to the regulation of the expression of G6Pase by insulin, glucocorticoids, cAMP and glucose. PMID:11879177

  18. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by

  19. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2007-06-21

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used.

  20. Conversion of glucose to sorbose

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Mark E.; Gounder, Rajamani

    2016-02-09

    The present invention is directed to methods for preparing sorbose from glucose, said method comprising: (a) contacting the glucose with a silica-containing structure comprising a zeolite having a topology of a 12 membered-ring or larger, an ordered mesoporous silica material, or an amorphous silica, said structure containing Lewis acidic Ti.sup.4+ or Zr.sup.4+ or both Ti.sup.4+ and Zr.sup.4+ framework centers, said contacting conducted under reaction conditions sufficient to isomerize the glucose to sorbose. The sorbose may be (b) separated or isolated; or (c) converted to ascorbic acid.

  1. A minimally invasive chip based near infrared sensor for continuous glucose monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Mohammadi, L.; Sigloch, S.; Frese, I.; Stein, V.; Welzel, K.; Schmitz, F.; Klotzbücher, T.

    2012-06-01

    Assessment of glycaemia in diabetes is crucially important for prevention of both, acute and long term complications. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is certainly the most appropriate way for optimizing the glycaemic control, since it prevents or delays the progression of complications associated with hypo- or hyperglycaemic events, reducing morbidity, mortality, and overall costs in health care systems. In this paper we describe the concept and first in vitro results of a minimally invasive, chip-based NIR-Sensor for continuous glucose monitoring. The sensor concept is based on difference infrared absorption spectroscopy, which was evaluated within laboratory measurements of D+-Glucose dissolved in water. The laboratory measurements revealed a linear relationship between glucose concentration and the integrated difference spectroscopy signal with a coefficient of determination of 99.6% in the concentration range of 0- 500 mg/dL. Suitable wavelength bands were identified in which the correlation is preserved and commercial light sources are available for realisation of a spectrometer-less, integrated NIR-sensor. In the designed sensor the component area (non-disposable) is separated from the detection area (disposable, low-cost). The disposable part of the sensor is fluidically connected to a micro-dialyses needle, accessing glucose subcutaneously via the ISF (interstitial fluid) or intravascularly. The non-disposable part contains all the optical elements, like LED's and photo-detectors. The in- and out-coupling of the optical signal is achieved across the plane of the chip by using total internal reflection on mirrors integrated into the fluidic chip. The glucose is continuously measured by considering the difference signals of light at the corresponding wavelengths, as a function of time or in defined intervals if the light sources are modulated. The in-vitro measurements show an absolute error of about 5 mg/dL with a relative error of 5% for glucose

  2. 10 CFR 61.50 - Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... be conclusively shown that disposal site characteristics will result in molecular diffusion being the predominant means of radionuclide movement and the rate of movement will result in the performance...

  3. 10 CFR 61.50 - Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... be conclusively shown that disposal site characteristics will result in molecular diffusion being the predominant means of radionuclide movement and the rate of movement will result in the performance...

  4. 10 CFR 61.50 - Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... be conclusively shown that disposal site characteristics will result in molecular diffusion being the predominant means of radionuclide movement and the rate of movement will result in the performance...

  5. Glucose-responsive hydrogel electrode for biocompatible glucose transistor.

    PubMed

    Kajisa, Taira; Sakata, Toshiya

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a highly sensitive and biocompatible glucose sensor using a semiconductor-based field effect transistor (FET) with a functionalized hydrogel. The principle of the FET device contributes to the easy detection of ionic charges with high sensitivity, and the hydrogel coated on the electrode enables the specific detection of glucose with biocompatibility. The copolymerized hydrogel on the Au gate electrode of the FET device is optimized by controlling the mixture ratio of biocompatible 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) as the main monomer and vinylphenylboronic acid (VPBA) as a glucose-responsive monomer. The gate surface potential of the hydrogel FETs shifts in the negative direction with increasing glucose concentration from 10 μM to 40 mM, which results from the increase in the negative charges on the basis of the diol-binding of PBA derivatives with glucose molecules in the hydrogel. Moreover, the hydrogel coated on the gate suppresses the signal noise caused by the nonspecific adsorption of proteins such as albumin. The hydrogel FET can serve as a highly sensitive and biocompatible glucose sensor in in vivo or ex vivo applications such as eye contact lenses and sheets adhering to the skin.

  6. Glucose-responsive hydrogel electrode for biocompatible glucose transistor

    PubMed Central

    Kajisa, Taira; Sakata, Toshiya

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we propose a highly sensitive and biocompatible glucose sensor using a semiconductor-based field effect transistor (FET) with a functionalized hydrogel. The principle of the FET device contributes to the easy detection of ionic charges with high sensitivity, and the hydrogel coated on the electrode enables the specific detection of glucose with biocompatibility. The copolymerized hydrogel on the Au gate electrode of the FET device is optimized by controlling the mixture ratio of biocompatible 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) as the main monomer and vinylphenylboronic acid (VPBA) as a glucose-responsive monomer. The gate surface potential of the hydrogel FETs shifts in the negative direction with increasing glucose concentration from 10 μM to 40 mM, which results from the increase in the negative charges on the basis of the diol-binding of PBA derivatives with glucose molecules in the hydrogel. Moreover, the hydrogel coated on the gate suppresses the signal noise caused by the nonspecific adsorption of proteins such as albumin. The hydrogel FET can serve as a highly sensitive and biocompatible glucose sensor in in vivo or ex vivo applications such as eye contact lenses and sheets adhering to the skin. PMID:28179956

  7. Disposal of Unused Medicines: What You Should Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers ( ... Medicine Safe Disposal of Medicines Disposal of Unused Medicines: What You Should Know Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  8. 32 CFR 644.473 - Methods of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Buildings and Other Improvements (without the Related Land) § 644... a denominational house of worship. (4) Owner of the underlying land as a part of restoration... specific purpose. (e) By donation, abandonment or destruction....

  9. Storing, Transporting and Disposing of Mercury in Your Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... passenger compartment, make sure there is adequate ventilation. Recycling and Disposal Options Many states and local agencies ... com) Exit Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Recycling and Disposal Requirements that Apply to Business and ...

  10. 36 CFR 222.70 - Disposal of carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.70 Disposal of carcasses. Carcasses of animals that have lost their status as wild free-roaming horses or burros may be disposed of in...

  11. 36 CFR 222.30 - Disposal of carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.30 Disposal of carcasses. Carcasses of animals that have lost their status as wild free-roaming horses or burros may be disposed of in...

  12. 36 CFR 222.30 - Disposal of carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.30 Disposal of carcasses. Carcasses of animals that have lost their status as wild free-roaming horses or burros may be disposed of in...

  13. 36 CFR 222.70 - Disposal of carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.70 Disposal of carcasses. Carcasses of animals that have lost their status as wild free-roaming horses or burros may be disposed of in...

  14. 36 CFR 222.30 - Disposal of carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.30 Disposal of carcasses. Carcasses of animals that have lost their status as wild free-roaming horses or burros may be disposed of in...

  15. Radioactive Waste Disposal in Hydrologically-Challenged Environments: Opportunities for Waste Disposal Resource Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauxe, J. D.; Black, P. K.

    2006-12-01

    The hydrologic behavior of arid environments poses unique benefits for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal in the shallow subsurface, and unique challenges for modeling as well. Stochastic models of a pair of LLW disposal sites in southern Nevada are presented as examples of how to address a range of closely- coupled environmental contaminant transport phenomena, including unsaturated zone hydrologic processes, in the context of regulatory compliance and site operations optimization. Certain significant insights into system behavior and optimization are achievable only through probabilistic modeling techniques, followed by global sensitivity analysis. Such information is simply not available using traditional modeling techniques involving a chain of deterministic process models. Examples of specific instances of coupled phenomena are presented. The unique perspective provided by a fully-coupled probabilistic model, including contaminant transport through natural and engineered systems and assessment of risk to potential future receptors, allows site operators to evaluate the cost effectiveness of different disposal techniques, and the optimization of disposal of candidate waste streams. This approach simultaneously optimizes superior disposal sites for waste inventories at minimal cost and future risk. In light of the demands on current LLW disposal capacity around the world, this fully-integrated approach to the modeling of contaminant transport, risk to future generations, and site operations is critical to making the best use of this resource.

  16. [Contribution of the kidney to glucose homeostasis].

    PubMed

    Segura, Julián; Ruilope, Luis Miguel

    2013-09-01

    The kidney is involved in glucose homeostasis through three major mechanisms: renal gluconeogenesis, renal glucose consumption, and glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubule. Glucose reabsorption is one of the most important physiological functions of the kidney, allowing full recovery of filtered glucose, elimination of glucose from the urine, and prevention of calorie loss. Approximately 90% of the glucose is reabsorbed in the S1 segment of the proximal tubule, where glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2) and sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT2) are located, while the remaining 10% is reabsorbed in the S3 segment by SGLT1 and GLUT1 transporters. In patients with hyperglycemia, the kidney continues to reabsorb glucose, thus maintaining hyperglycemia. Most of the renal glucose reabsorption is mediated by SGLT2. Several experimental and clinical studies suggest that pharmacological blockade of this transporter might be beneficial in the management of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  17. Crushing leads to waste disposal savings for FUSRAP

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, J.

    1997-02-01

    In this article the author discusses the application of a rock crusher as a means of implementing cost savings in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. Transportation and offsite disposal costs are at present the biggest cost items in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. If these debris disposal problems can be handled in different manners, then remediation savings are available. Crushing can result in the ability to handle some wastes as soil disposal problems, which have different disposal regulations, thereby permitting cost savings.

  18. 77 FR 72997 - Low-Level Waste Disposal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities to require new and revised site-specific... Disposal of Radioactive Waste,'' to require new and revised site-specific analyses and to permit the...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 61 RIN 3150-AI92 Low-Level Waste Disposal AGENCY:...

  19. 21 CFR 872.6870 - Disposable fluoride tray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disposable fluoride tray. 872.6870 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6870 Disposable fluoride tray. (a) Identification. A disposable fluoride tray is a device made of styrofoam intended to apply fluoride topically...

  20. 21 CFR 872.6870 - Disposable fluoride tray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disposable fluoride tray. 872.6870 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6870 Disposable fluoride tray. (a) Identification. A disposable fluoride tray is a device made of styrofoam intended to apply fluoride topically...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6870 - Disposable fluoride tray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disposable fluoride tray. 872.6870 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6870 Disposable fluoride tray. (a) Identification. A disposable fluoride tray is a device made of styrofoam intended to apply fluoride topically...

  2. 12 CFR 615.5143 - Disposal of ineligible investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of ineligible investments. 615.5143... AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5143 Disposal of ineligible investments. You must dispose of an ineligible investment within 6 months unless we approve,...

  3. 40 CFR 761.218 - Certificate of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 761.218 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.218 Certificate of disposal. (a) For each shipment of manifested PCB waste that the owner or operator of a disposal facility accepts by signing the manifest,...

  4. 40 CFR 761.218 - Certificate of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 761.218 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.218 Certificate of disposal. (a) For each shipment of manifested PCB waste that the owner or operator of a disposal facility accepts by signing the manifest,...

  5. 40 CFR 761.218 - Certificate of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 761.218 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.218 Certificate of disposal. (a) For each shipment of manifested PCB waste that the owner or operator of a disposal facility accepts by signing the manifest,...

  6. 40 CFR 761.218 - Certificate of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 761.218 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.218 Certificate of disposal. (a) For each shipment of manifested PCB waste that the owner or operator of a disposal facility accepts by signing the manifest,...

  7. 40 CFR 761.218 - Certificate of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 761.218 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.218 Certificate of disposal. (a) For each shipment of manifested PCB waste that the owner or operator of a disposal facility accepts by signing the manifest,...

  8. Disposability Assessment: Aluminum-Based Spent Nuclear Fuel Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D.W.

    1998-11-06

    This report provides a technical assessment of the Melt-Dilute and Direct Al-SNF forms in disposable canisters with respect to meeting the requirements for disposal in the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) and for interim dry storage in the Treatment and Storage Facility (TSF) at SRS.

  9. 40 CFR 228.10 - Evaluating disposal impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 228.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.10 Evaluating disposal impact. (a... to what extent the marine environment has been impacted by materials disposed of at an ocean...

  10. 40 CFR 228.10 - Evaluating disposal impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 228.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.10 Evaluating disposal impact. (a... to what extent the marine environment has been impacted by materials disposed of at an ocean...

  11. 40 CFR 228.10 - Evaluating disposal impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 228.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.10 Evaluating disposal impact. (a... to what extent the marine environment has been impacted by materials disposed of at an ocean...

  12. 40 CFR 228.10 - Evaluating disposal impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 228.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.10 Evaluating disposal impact. (a... to what extent the marine environment has been impacted by materials disposed of at an ocean...

  13. 40 CFR 228.10 - Evaluating disposal impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 228.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.10 Evaluating disposal impact. (a... to what extent the marine environment has been impacted by materials disposed of at an ocean...

  14. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from...

  15. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from...

  16. 50 CFR 31.17 - Disposal of furs and pelts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disposal of furs and pelts. 31.17 Section 31.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.17 Disposal of furs and pelts. The disposition of animals and the pelts...

  17. 50 CFR 31.17 - Disposal of furs and pelts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disposal of furs and pelts. 31.17 Section 31.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.17 Disposal of furs and pelts. The disposition of animals and the pelts...

  18. 50 CFR 31.17 - Disposal of furs and pelts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disposal of furs and pelts. 31.17 Section 31.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.17 Disposal of furs and pelts. The disposition of animals and the pelts...

  19. 50 CFR 31.17 - Disposal of furs and pelts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disposal of furs and pelts. 31.17 Section 31.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.17 Disposal of furs and pelts. The disposition of animals and the pelts...

  20. 32 CFR 644.474 - Determining method of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 644.474 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Buildings and Other Improvements (without the Related... action may result in a greater burden to transferee agencies or, in the case of disposal by sale...

  1. 32 CFR 644.474 - Determining method of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 644.474 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Buildings and Other Improvements (without the Related... action may result in a greater burden to transferee agencies or, in the case of disposal by sale...

  2. 36 CFR 228.43 - Policy governing disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy governing disposal. 228.43 Section 228.43 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials § 228.43 Policy governing disposal. (a) General. Forest...

  3. 36 CFR 228.43 - Policy governing disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Policy governing disposal. 228.43 Section 228.43 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials § 228.43 Policy governing disposal. (a) General. Forest...

  4. 36 CFR 228.43 - Policy governing disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Policy governing disposal. 228.43 Section 228.43 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials § 228.43 Policy governing disposal. (a) General. Forest...

  5. 36 CFR 228.43 - Policy governing disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Policy governing disposal. 228.43 Section 228.43 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials § 228.43 Policy governing disposal. (a) General. Forest...

  6. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Disposal plan for timber. 644.504 Section 644.504 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone §...

  7. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Disposal plan for timber. 644.504 Section 644.504 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone §...

  8. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal plan for timber. 644.504 Section 644.504 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  9. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal plan for timber. 644.504 Section 644.504 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  10. Designing open water disposal for dredged muddy sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAnally, William H.; Adamec, Stephen A.

    1987-11-01

    Open water disposal of muddy sediments in the estuarine environment is practiced to minimize dredging costs and to preserve contained disposal site capacity. Open water sites are usually either dispersive or retentive. Dispersive sites are used in the expectation that disposed sediments will not remain there, but will be transported out of the site, leaving room for additional disposal. Retentive sites are designed to ensure that disposed sediments mostly remain within the site. Choice of one of these approaches depends on the site character, sediment character, and disposal quantities. Design of disposal management plans for both site types is accomplished by use of field observations, laboratory tests, and numerical modeling. Three disposal site studies illustrate the methods used. At the Alcatraz site in San Francisco Bay, a dispersive condition is maintained by use of constraints on dredged mud characteristics that were developed from laboratory tests on erosion rates and from numerical modeling of the dump process. Field experiments were designed to evaluate the management procedure. In Corpus Christi Bay a numerical model was used to determine how much disposed sediment returns to the navigation channel, and to devise a location for disposal that will minimize that return. In Puget Sound a model has been used to ensure that most of the disposed material remains in the site. New techniques, including a piped disposal through 60 m of water, were investigated.

  11. 25 CFR 700.125 - Disposal of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disposal of property. 700.125 Section 700.125 Indians THE... and Disposal of Habitations and/or Improvements § 700.125 Disposal of property. Property acquired by... the property transfer is refused. In the event of a refusal by the tribe, the Commission shall...

  12. 7 CFR 989.67 - Disposal of reserve raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of reserve raisins. 989.67 Section 989.67... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Volume Regulation § 989.67 Disposal of reserve raisins. (a..., maximum disposal of such raisins by the time reserve tonnage raisins from the subsequent crop year...

  13. 25 CFR 700.125 - Disposal of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disposal of property. 700.125 Section 700.125 Indians THE... and Disposal of Habitations and/or Improvements § 700.125 Disposal of property. Property acquired by... the property transfer is refused. In the event of a refusal by the tribe, the Commission shall...

  14. 50 CFR 27.94 - Disposal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disposal of waste. 27.94 Section 27.94... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.94 Disposal of waste. (a) The littering, disposing, or dumping in any manner of garbage, refuse sewage, sludge, earth, rocks,...

  15. 49 CFR 228.327 - Waste collection and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Waste collection and disposal. 228.327 Section 228... § 228.327 Waste collection and disposal. (a) General disposal requirements. All sweepings, solid or liquid wastes, refuse, and garbage in a camp must be removed in such a manner as to avoid creating...

  16. 50 CFR 27.94 - Disposal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of waste. 27.94 Section 27.94... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.94 Disposal of waste. (a) The littering, disposing, or dumping in any manner of garbage, refuse sewage, sludge, earth, rocks,...

  17. 49 CFR 228.327 - Waste collection and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Waste collection and disposal. 228.327 Section 228... § 228.327 Waste collection and disposal. (a) General disposal requirements. All sweepings, solid or liquid wastes, refuse, and garbage in a camp must be removed in such a manner as to avoid creating...

  18. 25 CFR 700.125 - Disposal of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposal of property. 700.125 Section 700.125 Indians THE... and Disposal of Habitations and/or Improvements § 700.125 Disposal of property. Property acquired by... the property transfer is refused. In the event of a refusal by the tribe, the Commission shall...

  19. 7 CFR 989.67 - Disposal of reserve raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposal of reserve raisins. 989.67 Section 989.67... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Volume Regulation § 989.67 Disposal of reserve raisins. (a..., maximum disposal of such raisins by the time reserve tonnage raisins from the subsequent crop year...

  20. 25 CFR 700.125 - Disposal of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disposal of property. 700.125 Section 700.125 Indians THE... and Disposal of Habitations and/or Improvements § 700.125 Disposal of property. Property acquired by... the property transfer is refused. In the event of a refusal by the tribe, the Commission shall...

  1. 50 CFR 27.94 - Disposal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disposal of waste. 27.94 Section 27.94... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.94 Disposal of waste. (a) The littering, disposing, or dumping in any manner of garbage, refuse sewage, sludge, earth, rocks,...

  2. 10 CFR 61.81 - Tests at land disposal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tests at land disposal facilities. 61.81 Section 61.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Records, Reports, Tests, and Inspections § 61.81 Tests at land disposal facilities. (a)...

  3. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  4. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  5. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  6. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  7. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  8. 21 CFR 880.6060 - Medical disposable bedding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical disposable bedding. 880.6060 Section 880...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6060 Medical disposable bedding. (a) Identification. Medical disposable bedding is a...

  9. 21 CFR 880.6820 - Medical disposable scissors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical disposable scissors. 880.6820 Section 880...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6820 Medical disposable scissors. (a) Identification. Medical disposable scissors...

  10. 12 CFR 571.83 - Disposal of consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information. 571.83... REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal § 571.83 Disposal of consumer information. (a) Scope. This section applies to savings associations whose...

  11. 12 CFR 41.83 - Disposal of consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information. 41.83 Section... Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal § 41.83 Disposal of consumer information. (a) Definitions as used in this section. (1) Bank means national...

  12. 12 CFR 334.83 - Disposal of consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information. 334.83... GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal § 334.83 Disposal of consumer information. (a) In general. You must...

  13. 40 CFR 761.93 - Import for disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Transboundary Shipments of PCBs for Disposal § 761.93 Import for disposal. (a) General provisions. No person may import PCBs or PCB Items for disposal without an exemption issued under the...

  14. 40 CFR 761.93 - Import for disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Transboundary Shipments of PCBs for Disposal § 761.93 Import for disposal. (a) General provisions. No person may import PCBs or PCB Items for disposal without an exemption issued under the...

  15. 40 CFR 761.97 - Export for disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Transboundary Shipments of PCBs for Disposal § 761.97 Export for disposal. (a) General provisions. No person may export PCBs or PCB Items for disposal without an exemption, except that: (1) PCBs...

  16. Radioactive waste disposal fees-Methodology for calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemš, Július; Králík, Tomáš; Kubančák, Ján; Vašíček, Jiří; Starý, Oldřich

    2014-11-01

    This paper summarizes the methodological approach used for calculation of fee for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal and for spent fuel disposal. The methodology itself is based on simulation of cash flows related to the operation of system for waste disposal. The paper includes demonstration of methodology application on the conditions of the Czech Republic.

  17. 10 CFR 20.2108 - Records of waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of waste disposal. 20.2108 Section 20.2108 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2108 Records of waste disposal. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of the disposal of licensed materials...

  18. 41 CFR 50-204.29 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Waste disposal. 50-204.29 Section 50-204.29 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... Radiation Standards § 50-204.29 Waste disposal. No employer shall dispose of radioactive material except...

  19. 43 CFR 3596.2 - Disposal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disposal of waste. 3596.2 Section 3596.2... OPERATIONS Waste From Mining or Milling § 3596.2 Disposal of waste. The operator/lessee shall dispose of all wastes resulting from the mining, reduction, concentration or separation of mineral substances...

  20. 41 CFR 50-204.29 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Waste disposal. 50-204.29 Section 50-204.29 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts... Radiation Standards § 50-204.29 Waste disposal. No employer shall dispose of radioactive material except...

  1. 10 CFR 20.2108 - Records of waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of waste disposal. 20.2108 Section 20.2108 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2108 Records of waste disposal. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of the disposal of licensed materials...

  2. 10 CFR 20.2108 - Records of waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of waste disposal. 20.2108 Section 20.2108 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2108 Records of waste disposal. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of the disposal of licensed materials...

  3. 43 CFR 3596.2 - Disposal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disposal of waste. 3596.2 Section 3596.2... OPERATIONS Waste From Mining or Milling § 3596.2 Disposal of waste. The operator/lessee shall dispose of all wastes resulting from the mining, reduction, concentration or separation of mineral substances...

  4. 43 CFR 3596.2 - Disposal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disposal of waste. 3596.2 Section 3596.2... OPERATIONS Waste From Mining or Milling § 3596.2 Disposal of waste. The operator/lessee shall dispose of all wastes resulting from the mining, reduction, concentration or separation of mineral substances...

  5. 41 CFR 50-204.29 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Waste disposal. 50-204.29 Section 50-204.29 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts... Radiation Standards § 50-204.29 Waste disposal. No employer shall dispose of radioactive material except...

  6. 41 CFR 50-204.29 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Waste disposal. 50-204.29 Section 50-204.29 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts... Radiation Standards § 50-204.29 Waste disposal. No employer shall dispose of radioactive material except...

  7. 10 CFR 20.2108 - Records of waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of waste disposal. 20.2108 Section 20.2108 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2108 Records of waste disposal. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of the disposal of licensed materials...

  8. 43 CFR 3596.2 - Disposal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disposal of waste. 3596.2 Section 3596.2... OPERATIONS Waste From Mining or Milling § 3596.2 Disposal of waste. The operator/lessee shall dispose of all wastes resulting from the mining, reduction, concentration or separation of mineral substances...

  9. 41 CFR 50-204.29 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Waste disposal. 50-204.29 Section 50-204.29 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... Radiation Standards § 50-204.29 Waste disposal. No employer shall dispose of radioactive material except...

  10. 49 CFR 228.327 - Waste collection and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Waste collection and disposal. 228.327 Section 228... § 228.327 Waste collection and disposal. (a) General disposal requirements. All sweepings, solid or liquid wastes, refuse, and garbage in a camp must be removed in such a manner as to avoid creating...

  11. 10 CFR 20.2108 - Records of waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of waste disposal. 20.2108 Section 20.2108 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2108 Records of waste disposal. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of the disposal of licensed materials...

  12. 7 CFR 989.67 - Disposal of reserve raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposal of reserve raisins. 989.67 Section 989.67... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Volume Regulation § 989.67 Disposal of reserve raisins. (a..., maximum disposal of such raisins by the time reserve tonnage raisins from the subsequent crop year...

  13. 10 CFR 61.81 - Tests at land disposal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests at land disposal facilities. 61.81 Section 61.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Records, Reports, Tests, and Inspections § 61.81 Tests at land disposal facilities. (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 228.7 - Regulation of disposal site use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 228.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.7 Regulation of disposal site use. Where necessary, disposal site use will be regulated by setting limitations on times of dumping and rates...

  15. 40 CFR 228.11 - Modification in disposal site use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modification in disposal site use. 228.11 Section 228.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.11 Modification in disposal site...

  16. 40 CFR 228.3 - Disposal site management responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal site management responsibilities. 228.3 Section 228.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.3 Disposal site...

  17. 48 CFR 245.602-1 - Inventory disposal schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inventory disposal..., and Disposal 245.602-1 Inventory disposal schedules. For termination inventory, plant clearance officers shall verify inventory schedules, either directly or through appropriate technical personnel,...

  18. 48 CFR 45.602-1 - Inventory disposal schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventory disposal... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 45.602-1 Inventory disposal schedules. (a) Plant clearance officers should review and accept, or return for correction,...

  19. 48 CFR 45.602-1 - Inventory disposal schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inventory disposal... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 45.602-1 Inventory disposal schedules. (a) Plant clearance officers should review and accept, or return for correction,...

  20. 21 CFR 880.6060 - Medical disposable bedding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical disposable bedding. 880.6060 Section 880...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6060 Medical disposable bedding. (a) Identification. Medical disposable bedding is a...

  1. 21 CFR 880.6820 - Medical disposable scissors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical disposable scissors. 880.6820 Section 880...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6820 Medical disposable scissors. (a) Identification. Medical disposable scissors...

  2. 25 CFR 700.125 - Disposal of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disposal of property. 700.125 Section 700.125 Indians THE... and Disposal of Habitations and/or Improvements § 700.125 Disposal of property. Property acquired by... the property transfer is refused. In the event of a refusal by the tribe, the Commission shall...

  3. 32 CFR 644.503 - Methods of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Methods of disposal. 644.503 Section 644.503 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone §...

  4. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposal plan for timber. 644.504 Section 644.504 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone §...

  5. 24 CFR 586.45 - Disposal of buildings and property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposal of buildings and property... ASSISTANCE-COMMUNITY REDEVELOPMENT AND HOMELESS ASSISTANCE § 586.45 Disposal of buildings and property. (a... from HUD under § 586.35(c)(1) or § 586.35(d)(2), DoD shall dispose of buildings and property...

  6. 24 CFR 586.45 - Disposal of buildings and property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Disposal of buildings and property... ASSISTANCE-COMMUNITY REDEVELOPMENT AND HOMELESS ASSISTANCE § 586.45 Disposal of buildings and property. (a... from HUD under § 586.35(c)(1) or § 586.35(d)(2), DoD shall dispose of buildings and property...

  7. 25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled...

  8. 25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled...

  9. 25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled...

  10. 25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled...

  11. 25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled...

  12. 77 FR 43149 - Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... CFR Part 1777 RIN 0572-AC26 Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service... related to the Section 306C Water and Waste Disposal (WWD) Loans and Grants Program, which provides water... additional priority points to the colonias that lack access to water or waste disposal systems and...

  13. 77 FR 14307 - Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR 1777 RIN 0572-AC26 Water and Waste Disposal Loans and... (RUS) proposes to amend the regulations pertaining to the Section 306C Water and Waste Disposal (WWD) Loans and Grants program, which provides water and waste disposal facilities and services to...

  14. 12 CFR 334.83 - Disposal of consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information. 334.83... GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal § 334.83 Disposal of consumer information. (a) In general. You must...

  15. 12 CFR 571.83 - Disposal of consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information. 571.83... REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal § 571.83 Disposal of consumer information. (a) Scope. This section applies to savings associations whose...

  16. 12 CFR 41.83 - Disposal of consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information. 41.83 Section... Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal § 41.83 Disposal of consumer information. (a) Definitions as used in this section. (1) Bank means national...

  17. Orienteering performance and ingestion of glucose and glucose polymers.

    PubMed

    Kujala, U M; Heinonen, O J; Kvist, M; Kärkkäinen, O P; Marniemi, J; Niittymäki, K; Havas, E

    1989-06-01

    The benefit of glucose polymer ingestion in addition to 2.5 per cent glucose before and during a prolonged orienteering competition was studied. The final time in the competition in the group ingesting 2.5 per cent glucose (group G, n = 10) was 113 min 37 s +/- 8 min 11 s, and in the group which had additionally ingested glucose polymer (group G + GP, n = 8) 107 min 18s +/- 4 min 41 s (NS). One fifth (21 per cent) of the time difference between the two groups was due to difference in orienteering errors. Group G + GP orienteered the last third of the competition faster than group G (p less than 0.05). The time ratio between the last third of the competition and the first third of the competition was lower in group G + GP than in group G (p less than 0.05). After the competition, there was statistically insignificant tendency to higher serum glucose and lower serum free fatty acid concentrations in group G + GP, and serum insulin concentration was higher in group G + GP than in group G (p less than 0.05). Three subjects reported that they exhausted during the competition. These same three subjects had the lowest serum glucose concentrations after the competition (2.9 mmol.1(-1), 2.9 mmol.1(-1), 3.5 mmol.1(-1] and all of them were from group G. It is concluded that glucose polymer syrup ingestion is beneficial for prolonged psychophysical performance.

  18. The disposal of nuclear waste in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The important problem of disposal of nuclear waste in space is addressed. A prior study proposed carrying only actinide wastes to space, but the present study assumes that all actinides and all fission products are to be carried to space. It is shown that nuclear waste in the calcine (oxide) form can be packaged in a container designed to provide thermal control, radiation shielding, mechanical containment, and an abort reentry thermal protection system. This package can be transported to orbit via the Space Shuttle. A second Space Shuttle delivers an oxygen-hydrogen orbit transfer vehicle to a rendezvous compatible orbit and the mated OTV and waste package are sent to the preferred destination. Preferred locations are either a lunar crater or a solar orbit. Shuttle traffic densities (which vary in time) are given and the safety of space disposal of wastes discussed.

  19. Ocean CO{sub 2} disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Shindo, Yuji; Hakuta, Toshikatsu

    1993-12-31

    Most countries in the world will continue to depend on fossil fuels for their main energy at least for half a country, even in the confrontation with the threat of global warming. This indicates that the development of CO{sub 2} removal technologies such as recovering CO{sub 2} from flue gases and sequestering it of in the deep oceans or subterranean sites is necessary, at least until non-fossil fuel dependent society is developed. Ocean CO{sub 2} disposal is one of the promising options for the sequestration of CO{sub 2} recovered from flue gases. Oceans have sufficient capacity to absorb all the CO{sub 2} emitted in the world. It is very significant to research and develop the technologies for ocean CO{sub 2} disposal.

  20. Nanoimprint lithography using disposable biomass template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanabata, Makoto; Takei, Satoshi; Sugahara, Kigen; Nakajima, Shinya; Sugino, Naoto; Kameda, Takao; Fukushima, Jiro; Matsumoto, Yoko; Sekiguchi, Atsushi

    2016-04-01

    A novel nanoimprint lithography process using disposable biomass template having gas permeability was investigated. It was found that a disposable biomass template derived from cellulose materials shows an excellent gas permeability and decreases transcriptional defects in conventional templates such as quartz, PMDS, DLC that have no gas permeability. We believe that outgasses from imprinted materials are easily removed through the template. The approach to use a cellulose for template material is suitable as the next generation of clean separation technology. It is expected to be one of the defect-less thermal nanoimprint lithographic technologies. It is also expected that volatile materials and solvent including materials become available that often create defects and peelings in conventional temples that have no gas permeability.