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Sample records for insurance-sponsored weight management

  1. Predictors of Weight Loss Maintenance following an Insurance-Sponsored Weight Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Abildso, Christiaan G.; Fitzpatrick, Sean J.

    2014-01-01

    Intentional weight loss among overweight and obese adults (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2) is associated with numerous health benefits, but weight loss maintenance (WLM) following participation in weight management programming has proven to be elusive. Many individuals attempting to lose weight join formal programs, especially women, but these programs vary widely in focus, as do postprogram weight regain results. We surveyed 2,106 former participants in a community-based, insurance-sponsored weight management program in the United States to identify the pre, during, and post-intervention behavioral and psychosocial factors that lead to successful WLM. Of 835 survey respondents (39.6% response rate), 450 met criteria for inclusion in this study. Logistic regression analyses suggest that interventionists should assess and discuss weight loss and behavior change perceptions early in a program. However, in developing maintenance plans later in a program, attention should shift to behaviors, such as weekly weighing, limiting snacking in the evening, limiting portion sizes, and being physically active every day. PMID:24738027

  2. Predictors of weight loss maintenance following an insurance-sponsored weight management program.

    PubMed

    Abildso, Christiaan G; Schmid, Olivier; Byrd, Megan; Zizzi, Sam; Quartiroli, Alessandro; Fitzpatrick, Sean J

    2014-01-01

    Intentional weight loss among overweight and obese adults (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) is associated with numerous health benefits, but weight loss maintenance (WLM) following participation in weight management programming has proven to be elusive. Many individuals attempting to lose weight join formal programs, especially women, but these programs vary widely in focus, as do postprogram weight regain results. We surveyed 2,106 former participants in a community-based, insurance-sponsored weight management program in the United States to identify the pre, during, and post-intervention behavioral and psychosocial factors that lead to successful WLM. Of 835 survey respondents (39.6% response rate), 450 met criteria for inclusion in this study. Logistic regression analyses suggest that interventionists should assess and discuss weight loss and behavior change perceptions early in a program. However, in developing maintenance plans later in a program, attention should shift to behaviors, such as weekly weighing, limiting snacking in the evening, limiting portion sizes, and being physically active every day.

  3. Predictors of weight loss maintenance following an insurance-sponsored weight management program.

    PubMed

    Abildso, Christiaan G; Schmid, Olivier; Byrd, Megan; Zizzi, Sam; Quartiroli, Alessandro; Fitzpatrick, Sean J

    2014-01-01

    Intentional weight loss among overweight and obese adults (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) is associated with numerous health benefits, but weight loss maintenance (WLM) following participation in weight management programming has proven to be elusive. Many individuals attempting to lose weight join formal programs, especially women, but these programs vary widely in focus, as do postprogram weight regain results. We surveyed 2,106 former participants in a community-based, insurance-sponsored weight management program in the United States to identify the pre, during, and post-intervention behavioral and psychosocial factors that lead to successful WLM. Of 835 survey respondents (39.6% response rate), 450 met criteria for inclusion in this study. Logistic regression analyses suggest that interventionists should assess and discuss weight loss and behavior change perceptions early in a program. However, in developing maintenance plans later in a program, attention should shift to behaviors, such as weekly weighing, limiting snacking in the evening, limiting portion sizes, and being physically active every day. PMID:24738027

  4. A Mixed Methods Evaluation of a 12-Week Insurance-Sponsored Weight Management Program Incorporating Cognitive-Behavioral Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abildso, Christiaan; Zizzi, Sam; Gilleland, Diana; Thomas, James; Bonner, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity is critical in healthy weight loss, yet there is still much to be learned about psychosocial mechanisms of physical activity behavior change in weight loss. A sequential mixed methods approach was used to assess the physical and psychosocial impact of a 12-week cognitive-behavioral weight management program and explore factors…

  5. Changes in Weight Loss, Health Behaviors, and Intentions among 400 Participants Who Dropped out from an Insurance-Sponsored, Community-Based Weight Management Program.

    PubMed

    Zizzi, Sam J; Lima Fogaca, Jana; Sheehy, Tammy; Welsh, Myia; Abildso, Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    The majority of weight management research is based on data from randomized controlled studies conducted in clinical settings. As these findings are translated into community-based settings, additional research is needed to understand patterns of lifestyle change and dropout. The purpose of this study was to examine reasons for and consequences associated with dropout (or removal) from an insurance-funded weight management program. Using a mixed methods approach with objectively measured changes in body weight and attendance along with quantitative and qualitative survey data, patterns of intention and behavior change were explored. The results from a sample of 400 respondents support the idea that there are both positive and negative consequences of program participation. Overall, 1 in 5 respondents lost a clinically significant amount of weight during the program (>5% of baseline body weight) and 1 in 3 experienced a positive consequence, while only 6% expressed a negative outcome of participation. Additionally, nearly 90% of all of the consequences that emerged from the data were positive. Attitude change was a major theme, including positive health intentions, perceived success, learning skills, and new appreciation of exercise. PMID:27413546

  6. Changes in Weight Loss, Health Behaviors, and Intentions among 400 Participants Who Dropped out from an Insurance-Sponsored, Community-Based Weight Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Zizzi, Sam J.; Lima Fogaca, Jana; Sheehy, Tammy; Welsh, Myia

    2016-01-01

    The majority of weight management research is based on data from randomized controlled studies conducted in clinical settings. As these findings are translated into community-based settings, additional research is needed to understand patterns of lifestyle change and dropout. The purpose of this study was to examine reasons for and consequences associated with dropout (or removal) from an insurance-funded weight management program. Using a mixed methods approach with objectively measured changes in body weight and attendance along with quantitative and qualitative survey data, patterns of intention and behavior change were explored. The results from a sample of 400 respondents support the idea that there are both positive and negative consequences of program participation. Overall, 1 in 5 respondents lost a clinically significant amount of weight during the program (>5% of baseline body weight) and 1 in 3 experienced a positive consequence, while only 6% expressed a negative outcome of participation. Additionally, nearly 90% of all of the consequences that emerged from the data were positive. Attitude change was a major theme, including positive health intentions, perceived success, learning skills, and new appreciation of exercise. PMID:27413546

  7. Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

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  8. Yogurt and weight management.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Paul F; Wang, Huifen

    2014-05-01

    A large body of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has examined the role of dairy products in weight loss and maintenance of healthy weight. Yogurt is a dairy product that is generally very similar to milk, but it also has some unique properties that may enhance its possible role in weight maintenance. This review summarizes the human RCT and prospective observational evidence on the relation of yogurt consumption to the management and maintenance of body weight and composition. The RCT evidence is limited to 2 small, short-term, energy-restricted trials. They both showed greater weight losses with yogurt interventions, but the difference between the yogurt intervention and the control diet was only significant in one of these trials. There are 5 prospective observational studies that have examined the association between yogurt and weight gain. The results of these studies are equivocal. Two of these studies reported that individuals with higher yogurt consumption gained less weight over time. One of these same studies also considered changes in waist circumference (WC) and showed that higher yogurt consumption was associated with smaller increases in WC. A third study was inconclusive because of low statistical power. A fourth study observed no association between changes in yogurt intake and weight gain, but the results suggested that those with the largest increases in yogurt intake during the study also had the highest increase in WC. The final study examined weight and WC change separately by sex and baseline weight status and showed benefits for both weight and WC changes for higher yogurt consumption in overweight men, but it also found that higher yogurt consumption in normal-weight women was associated with a greater increase in weight over follow-up. Potential underlying mechanisms for the action of yogurt on weight are briefly discussed.

  9. Lorcaserin for weight management

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, James R; Dietrich, Eric; Powell, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity commonly occur together. Obesity contributes to insulin resistance, a main cause of type 2 diabetes. Modest weight loss reduces glucose, lipids, blood pressure, need for medications, and cardiovascular risk. A number of approaches can be used to achieve weight loss, including lifestyle modification, surgery, and medication. Lorcaserin, a novel antiobesity agent, affects central serotonin subtype 2A receptors, resulting in decreased food intake and increased satiety. It has been studied in obese patients with type 2 diabetes and results in an approximately 5.5 kg weight loss, on average, when used for one year. Headache, back pain, nasopharyngitis, and nausea were the most common adverse effects noted with lorcaserin. Hypoglycemia was more common in the lorcaserin groups in the clinical trials, but none of the episodes were categorized as severe. Based on the results of these studies, lorcaserin was approved at a dose of 10 mg twice daily in patients with a body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 or ≥27 kg/m2 with at least one weight-related comorbidity, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia, in addition to a reduced calorie diet and increased physical activity. Lorcaserin is effective for weight loss in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes, although its specific role in the management of obesity is unclear at this time. This paper reviews the clinical trials of lorcaserin, its use from the patient perspective, and its potential role in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23788837

  10. Weight management in Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Bipin Kumar; Nagesh, V Sri

    2015-05-01

    Ramadan fasting is associated with significant weight loss in both men and women. Reduction in blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, body mass index and waist and hip circumference may also occur. However, benefits accrued during this month often reverse within a few weeks of cessation of fasting, with most people returning back to their pre-Ramadan body weights and body composition. To ensure maintenance of this fasting induced weight loss, health care professionals should encourage continuation of healthy dietary habits, moderate physical activity and behaviour modification, even after conclusion of fasting. It should be realized that Ramadan is an ideal platform to target year long lifestyle modification, to ensure that whatever health care benefits have been gained during this month, are perpetuated.

  11. Weight Management in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gill, Lydia E; Bartels, Stephen J; Batsis, John A

    2015-09-01

    As the number of older adults increases rapidly, the national epidemic of obesity is also affecting our aging population. This is particularly concerning given the numerous health risks and increased costs associated with this condition. Weight management is extremely important for older adults given the risks associated with abdominal adiposity, which is a typical fat redistribution during aging, and the prevalence of comorbid conditions in this age group. However, approaches to weight loss must be considered critically given the dangers of sarcopenia (a condition that occurs when muscle mass and quality are lost), the increased risk of hip fracture with weight loss, and the association between reduced mortality and increased BMI in older adults. This overview highlights the challenges and implications of measuring adiposity in older adults and the dangers and benefits of weight loss in this population and provides an overview of the new Medicare Obesity Benefit. In addition, we provide a summary of outcomes from successful weight loss interventions for older adults and discuss implications for advancing clinical practice. PMID:26627496

  12. Dietary strategies for weight management.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Barbara J

    2012-01-01

    In an 'obesogenic' environment, getting people to eat appropriate amounts is challenging. Several food-based strategies have the potential to promote satiety and moderate energy intake. Components of foods such as macronutrients and functional ingredients can affect satiety; however, for weight management a more comprehensive approach is needed that emphasizes behavioral strategies to improve the overall diet. Research shows that large portions of energy-dense foods facilitate overconsumption and that reductions in portion size and energy density are associated with reduced energy intake. While this suggests that people should eat smaller portions, recent data show that if people lower the energy density of their diet, they can continue to eat their usual amount of food while limiting calories. Furthermore, serving larger portions of low-energy-dense foods can be used strategically to encourage their consumption and reduce dietary energy density, and this has been shown to be associated with decreased energy intake while maintaining satiety. This new understanding of how portion size can be used positively to manage energy intake has the potential to help people achieve sustainable improvements in their energy intake and bodyweight. Science-based strategies that increase the availability of affordable nutrient-rich, lower energy-dense foods are urgently needed. PMID:23128764

  13. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences.

  14. Weight and weddings. Engaged men's body weight ideals and wedding weight management behaviors.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-01-01

    Most adults marry at some point in life, and many invest substantial resources in a wedding ceremony. Previous research reports that brides often strive towards culturally-bound appearance norms and engage in weight management behaviors in preparation for their wedding. However, little is known about wedding weight ideals and behaviors among engaged men. A cross-sectional survey of 163 engaged men asked them to complete a questionnaire about their current height and weight, ideal wedding body weight, wedding weight importance, weight management behaviors, formality of their upcoming wedding ceremony, and demographics. Results indicated that the discrepancy between men's current weight and reported ideal wedding weight averaged 9.61 lb. Most men considered being at a certain weight at their wedding to be somewhat important. About 39% were attempting to lose weight for their wedding, and 37% were not trying to change their weight. Attempting weight loss was more frequent among men with higher BMI's, those planning more formal weddings, and those who considered being the right weight at their wedding as important. Overall, these findings suggest that weight-related appearance norms and weight loss behaviors are evident among engaged men.

  15. Weight management in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Siram, Amulya T; Yanagisawa, Robert; Skamagas, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a well known risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at risk for weight gain as a result of multiple influences, including sedentary lifestyle, high-calorie diet, diabetes medications, sociocultural factors, chronic medical and psychiatric illnesses, and a dysregulated enteroendocrine axis. Because both diabetes mellitus and obesity predispose patients to abnormal cardiometabolic profiles and increased cardiovascular disease, management of diabetes mellitus should focus on weight management and optimizing cardiometabolic parameters, concomitant with glycemic control. Lifestyle modification incorporating healthy, calorie-appropriate diets and increased physical activity, in addition to metformin, are central components to diabetes management and weight management. These interventions have been shown to improve body weight, glycemic control, and overall cardiometabolic profile. The weight-neutral and weight-losing diabetes medications include metformin, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and amylin analogs. It is essential that providers understand the metabolic and weight effects of diabetes medications in order to develop strategies for managing diabetes mellitus while helping patients maintain or lose weight in order to improve their overall health outcomes. PMID:20960555

  16. Protein, weight management, and satiety.

    PubMed

    Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Westman, Eric; Mattes, Richard D; Wolfe, Robert R; Astrup, Arne; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet

    2008-05-01

    Obesity, with its comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases, is a major public health concern. To address this problem, it is imperative to identify treatment interventions that target a variety of short- and long-term mechanisms. Although any dietary or lifestyle change must be personalized, controlled energy intake in association with a moderately elevated protein intake may represent an effective and practical weight-loss strategy. Potential beneficial outcomes associated with protein ingestion include the following: 1) increased satiety--protein generally increases satiety to a greater extent than carbohydrate or fat and may facilitate a reduction in energy consumption under ad libitum dietary conditions; 2) increased thermogenesis--higher-protein diets are associated with increased thermogenesis, which also influences satiety and augments energy expenditure (in the longer term, increased thermogenesis contributes to the relatively low-energy efficiency of protein); and 3) maintenance or accretion of fat-free mass--in some individuals, a moderately higher protein diet may provide a stimulatory effect on muscle protein anabolism, favoring the retention of lean muscle mass while improving metabolic profile. Nevertheless, any potential benefits associated with a moderately elevated protein intake must be evaluated in the light of customary dietary practices and individual variability. PMID:18469287

  17. Weight management in the performance athlete.

    PubMed

    Manore, Melinda M

    2013-01-01

    Management of weight is an ever-increasing challenge in societies where good tasting food is convenient, relatively inexpensive, and abundant. Developing a weight management plan is essential for everyone, including athletes that expend high amounts of energy in their sport. This brief review addresses the concept of dynamic energy balance and dietary approaches that can be successfully used with active individuals to facilitate weight loss, while retaining lean tissue and minimizing risks for disordered eating. Emphasis is placed on teaching athletes the benefits of consuming a low-energy-dense diet (e.g. high-fiber, high-water, low-fat foods), which allows for the consumption of a greater volume of food that is satiating but reduces energy intake. Other dietary behaviors important for weight loss or weight maintenance after weight loss are also emphasized, such as eating breakfast, spreading food and protein intake throughout the day, eating after exercise, elimination of sweetened beverages, and avoiding fad diets. As the general population becomes heavier, more young athletes will come to their sport needing to alter bodyweight or composition to perform at their peak. Health professionals need to be prepared with effective and evidence-based dietary approaches to help the athletes achieve their bodyweight goals. PMID:23765356

  18. Weight management in the performance athlete.

    PubMed

    Manore, Melinda M

    2013-01-01

    Management of weight is an ever-increasing challenge in societies where good tasting food is convenient, relatively inexpensive, and abundant. Developing a weight management plan is essential for everyone, including athletes that expend high amounts of energy in their sport. This brief review addresses the concept of dynamic energy balance and dietary approaches that can be successfully used with active individuals to facilitate weight loss, while retaining lean tissue and minimizing risks for disordered eating. Emphasis is placed on teaching athletes the benefits of consuming a low-energy-dense diet (e.g. high-fiber, high-water, low-fat foods), which allows for the consumption of a greater volume of food that is satiating but reduces energy intake. Other dietary behaviors important for weight loss or weight maintenance after weight loss are also emphasized, such as eating breakfast, spreading food and protein intake throughout the day, eating after exercise, elimination of sweetened beverages, and avoiding fad diets. As the general population becomes heavier, more young athletes will come to their sport needing to alter bodyweight or composition to perform at their peak. Health professionals need to be prepared with effective and evidence-based dietary approaches to help the athletes achieve their bodyweight goals.

  19. Weight management for children with severe obesity.

    PubMed

    2016-09-28

    In areas where weight management services are not established, an integrated approach is required to sustain results. This article in Primary Health Care suggests using a stepped care approach using a model such as SHINE (Self, Help, Independence, Nutrition and Exercise). This model can be used to provide a holistic and integrative care pathway for children and young people with severe obesity. PMID:27682573

  20. Choose to change maternity weight management pilot.

    PubMed

    Lilley, Suzanne; Anderson, Kate; Benbow, Elizabeth

    2014-07-01

    Obesity during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of adverse health outcomes during pregnancy. There is limited research available regarding effective interventions during pregnancy for obese women and this is combined with local inadequate service provision to support obese mothers in Greater Manchester (GM). Choose to Change (CTC) aims to develop, deliver and evaluate a community based weight management programme to limit excessive gestational weight gain. Participants (n=73) referred from January to December 2013 by Community Midwifery Teams (>18years) with a BMI >30 attended a healthy lifestyle intervention (1:1 or group) covering nutrition, physical activity and behaviour change over 12weeks. Baseline measures were weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), Blood Pressure, physical activity, dietary habits and psychological questionnaires measuring anxiety, self-esteem and dis-ordered eating. 28 clients were assigned to intervention (group (n=15), 1:1 (n=13). Mean age 29 (SD=5.78), mean BMI at referral was 38.96 (SD=4.87). Descriptive statistics suggest an average weight gain for clients (excluding drop outs n=12) is 0.94kg (SD=6.65). For those who have completed the programme (n=8) average weight gain was 1.03kg (SD=7.71). Results vary according to intervention type 1:1, 0.04kg (SD=8.82kg), group, 1.52kg (SD=3.17kg). Drop-out rate from referral to assessment was 62%, from assessment to intervention 32% and during intervention 26%. Overall the results of the present pilot study indicate that the CTC healthy lifestyle intervention can limit excessive gestational weight gain. CTC is looking at future directions for development including changing the assessment procedure to improve DORs, further analysis of various mediating factors including BMI and intervention type and exploration of post-measurements to show further improved health outcomes as the programme is rolled out across GM.

  1. Choose to change maternity weight management pilot.

    PubMed

    Lilley, Suzanne; Anderson, Kate; Benbow, Elizabeth

    2014-07-01

    Obesity during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of adverse health outcomes during pregnancy. There is limited research available regarding effective interventions during pregnancy for obese women and this is combined with local inadequate service provision to support obese mothers in Greater Manchester (GM). Choose to Change (CTC) aims to develop, deliver and evaluate a community based weight management programme to limit excessive gestational weight gain. Participants (n=73) referred from January to December 2013 by Community Midwifery Teams (>18years) with a BMI >30 attended a healthy lifestyle intervention (1:1 or group) covering nutrition, physical activity and behaviour change over 12weeks. Baseline measures were weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), Blood Pressure, physical activity, dietary habits and psychological questionnaires measuring anxiety, self-esteem and dis-ordered eating. 28 clients were assigned to intervention (group (n=15), 1:1 (n=13). Mean age 29 (SD=5.78), mean BMI at referral was 38.96 (SD=4.87). Descriptive statistics suggest an average weight gain for clients (excluding drop outs n=12) is 0.94kg (SD=6.65). For those who have completed the programme (n=8) average weight gain was 1.03kg (SD=7.71). Results vary according to intervention type 1:1, 0.04kg (SD=8.82kg), group, 1.52kg (SD=3.17kg). Drop-out rate from referral to assessment was 62%, from assessment to intervention 32% and during intervention 26%. Overall the results of the present pilot study indicate that the CTC healthy lifestyle intervention can limit excessive gestational weight gain. CTC is looking at future directions for development including changing the assessment procedure to improve DORs, further analysis of various mediating factors including BMI and intervention type and exploration of post-measurements to show further improved health outcomes as the programme is rolled out across GM. PMID:26104613

  2. Beliefs about causes of weight gain, effective weight gain prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management in the Australian population

    PubMed Central

    Dryer, Rachel; Ware, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To identify beliefs held by the general public regarding causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management; and to examine whether such beliefs predict the actual body mass of participants. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was administered to participants recruited from regional and metropolitan areas of Australia. This questionnaire obtained demographic information, height, weight; as well as beliefs about causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management. Results: The sample consisted of 376 participants (94 males, 282 females) between the ages of 18 years and 88 years (mean age = 43.25, SD = 13.64). The range and nature of the belief dimensions identified suggest that the Australian public have an understanding of the interaction between internal and external factors that impact on weight gain but also prevent successful weight management. Beliefs about prevention strategies and barriers to effective weight management were found to predict the participants’ actual body mass, even after controlling for demographic characteristics. Conclusions: The general public have a good understanding of the multiple contributing factors to weight gain and successful weight management. However, this understanding may not necessarily lead to individuals adopting the required lifestyle changes that result in achievement or maintenance of healthy weight levels. PMID:25750768

  3. Correlates of Body Mass Index, Weight Goals, and Weight-Management Practices among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2004-01-01

    The study examined associations among physical activity, cigarette smoking, body mass index, perceptions of body weight, weight-management goals, and weight-management behaviors of public high school adolescents. The CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey provided a cross-sectional sample (n = 3,089) of public high school students in South Carolina.…

  4. Survivorship: Nutrition and Weight Management, Version 2.2014

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, Crystal S.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K. Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Dizon, Don; Friedman, Debra L.; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S.; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S.; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G.; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J.; O’Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D.; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Raza, Muhammad; Rodriguez, M. Alma; Syrjala, Karen L.; Urba, Susan G.; Wakabayashi, Mark T.; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R.; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy lifestyle habits have been associated with improved health outcomes and quality of life and, for some cancers, a reduced risk of recurrence and death. The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship therefore recommend that cancer survivors be encouraged to achieve and maintain a healthy lifestyle, including attention to weight management, physical activity, and dietary habits. This section of the NCCN Guidelines focuses on recommendations regarding nutrition, weight management, and supplement use in survivors. Weight management recommendations are based on the survivor’s body mass index and include discussions of nutritional, weight management, and physical activity principles, with referral to community resources, dietitians, and/or weight management programs as needed. PMID:25313179

  5. Exercise in weight management of obesity.

    PubMed

    Poirier, P; Després, J P

    2001-08-01

    adaptation of adipose tissue metabolism to aerobic exercise training. Physical training helps counteract the permissive and affluent environment that predisposes reduced-obese subjects to regain weight. An exercise program using weight resistance modalities may also be included safely, and it improved program retention in a multidisciplinary weight management program that was designed for obese children. Thirty to 45 minutes of physical activity of moderate intensity, performed 3 to 5 days a week, should be encouraged. All adults should set a long-term goal to accumulate at least 30 minutes or more of moderate-intensity physical activity on most, and preferably all days. Public health interventions promoting walking are likely to be the most successful. Indeed, walking is unique because of its safety, accessibility, and popularity. It is noteworthy that there is a clear dissociation between the adaptation of cardiorespiratory fitness and the improvements in the metabolic risk profile that can be induced by endurance training programs. It appears that as long as the increase in energy expenditure is sufficient, low-intensity endurance exercise is likely to generate beneficial metabolic effects that would be essentially similar to those produced by high-intensity exercise. The clinician should therefore focus on the improvement of the metabolic profile rather than on weight loss alone. Realistic goals should be set between the clinician and the patient, with a weight loss of approximately of 0.5 to 1 pound per week. It should be kept in mind that since it generally takes years to become overweight or obese, a weight loss pattern of 0.5 or 1 pound per week will require time and perseverance to reach the proposed target. However, the use of physical activity as a method to lose weight seems inversely related to patients' age and BMI and directly related to the level of education. Thus, public health interventions helping these groups to become physically active remain a

  6. Toward a Middle-Range Theory of Weight Management.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Stephanie; Peters, Rosalind M; Jarosz, Patricia A

    2014-06-19

    The authors of this paper present the middle-range theory of weight management that focuses on cultural, environmental, and psychosocial factors that influence behaviors needed for weight control. The theory of weight management was developed deductively from Orem's theory of self-care, a constituent theory within the broader self-care deficit nursing theory and from research literature. Linkages between the conceptual and middle-range theory concepts are illustrated using a substruction model. The development of the theory of weight management serves to build nursing science by integrating extant nursing theory and empirical knowledge. This theory may help predict weight management in populations at risk for obesity-related disorders.

  7. How College Students Search the Internet for Weight Control and Weight Management Information: An Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senkowski, Valerie; Branscum, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies have attempted to examine how young adults search for health information on the Internet, especially information related to weight control and weight management. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine search strategies that college students used for finding information related to weight control and weight…

  8. Perceptions of Body Weight, Weight Management Strategies, and Depressive Symptoms among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harring, Holly Anne; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine if inaccurate body weight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate body weight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357).…

  9. Holiday Weight Management by Successful Weight Losers and Normal Weight Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R.; Raynor, Hollie A.; Dibello, Julia; Nedeau, Kim; Peng, Wanfeng

    2008-01-01

    This study compared weight control strategies during the winter holidays among successful weight losers (SWL) in the National Weight Control Registry and normal weight individuals (NW) with no history of obesity. SWL (n = 178) had lost a mean of 34.9 kg and had kept greater than or equal to 13.6 kg off for a mean of 5.9 years. NW (n = 101) had a…

  10. Effectiveness of Hypnosis as an Adjunct to Behavioral Weight Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolocofsky, David N.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Subjects (N=109) completed a behavioral weight-management program either with or without the addition of hypnosis. Both interventions resulted in significant weight reduction. At the eight-month and two-year follow-ups, the hypnosis clients showed significant additional weight loss and were more likely to have achieved and maintained their…

  11. Can weight management programs in worksites reduce the obesity epidemic?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worksites can potentially be important locations for weight management programs that contribute to curbing the national obesity epidemic. In published studies, weight loss programs targeting overweight and obese employees have been relatively more effective for weight loss than programs for preventi...

  12. Exercise Clothing for Children in a Weight-Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Kate; Alexander, Marina; Spencer, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether clothing can be perceived as a form of encouragement for success in a weight management exercise program. A small (n = 30) sample of children and parents, enrolled in a weight-management exercise program, responded to a survey instrument that included questions regarding fit and comfort of the clothing children wore…

  13. Self-Management Patient Education and Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stombaugh, Angela M.

    2010-01-01

    Self-management of a disease is defined as "having or being able to obtain, the skills and resources necessary to best accommodate to the chronic disease and its consequences" (Holman & Lorig, 1992, p. 309). Self-management has been used in the management of several chronic conditions and this model may be useful in the management of weight loss.…

  14. The Weight Management Code of Practice of Australia as a framework for the commercial weight management sector.

    PubMed

    Riddell, Sylvia Ruth

    2006-01-01

    The Weight Management Code of Practice Australia provides a framework for the diversity of players in the weight management industry. In the current worldwide epidemic of overweight and obesity, the potential for the industry to 'do the right thing', comply with the Weight Management Code of Practice Australia, and assist people with long-term weight loss, is far reaching. The Weight Management Code of Practice in Australia is managed by the Weight Management Council Australia Limited. There are many players in the weight management industry, not all will be eligible for membership of Council but there are many who could be eligible. Ideally, all centres, programs and professionals in the industry should have in place business practices and regimens that comply with the Code. The more members of this industry who are willing to modify their business practices and regimens to comply with the Code, the more accountable the industry will be and the better the products and services will be for consumers. The Code has the potential to be implemented in other countries. The Australian Weight Management Code of Practice can be a model for the rest of the world to establish standards by which this huge industry can be governed.

  15. The Influence of Sleep Disordered Breathing on Weight Loss in a National Weight Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Janney, Carol A.; Kilbourne, Amy M.; Germain, Anne; Lai, Zongshan; Hoerster, Katherine D.; Goodrich, David E.; Klingaman, Elizabeth A.; Verchinina, Lilia; Richardson, Caroline R.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate the influence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) on weight loss in overweight/obese veterans enrolled in MOVE!, a nationally implemented behavioral weight management program delivered by the National Veterans Health Administration health system. Methods: This observational study evaluated weight loss by SDB status in overweight/obese veterans enrolled in MOVE! from May 2008–February 2012 who had at least two MOVE! visits, baseline weight, and at least one follow-up weight (n = 84,770). SDB was defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Primary outcome was weight change (lb) from MOVE! enrollment to 6- and 12-mo assessments. Weight change over time was modeled with repeated-measures analyses. Results: SDB was diagnosed in one-third of the cohort (n = 28,269). At baseline, veterans with SDB weighed 29 [48] lb more than those without SDB (P < 0.001). On average, veterans attended eight MOVE! visits. Weight loss patterns over time were statistically different between veterans with and without SDB (P < 0.001); veterans with SDB lost less weight (−2.5 [0.1] lb) compared to those without SDB (−3.3 [0.1] lb; P = 0.001) at 6 months. At 12 mo, veterans with SDB continued to lose weight whereas veterans without SDB started to re-gain weight. Conclusions: Veterans with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) had significantly less weight loss over time than veterans without SDB. SDB should be considered in the development and implementation of weight loss programs due to its high prevalence and negative effect on health. Citation: Janney CA, Kilbourne AM, Germain A, Lai Z, Hoerster KD, Goodrich DE, Klingaman EA, Verchinina L, Richardson CR. The influence of sleep disordered breathing on weight loss in a national weight management program. SLEEP 2016;39(1):59–65. PMID:26350475

  16. Dietary Aspects of Weight Management in Cats and Dogs.

    PubMed

    Linder, Deborah E; Parker, Valerie J

    2016-09-01

    The optimal weight loss diet for cats and dogs is best determined by obtaining a full dietary history and performing a detailed assessment of the pet, pet owner, and environment in which the pet lives. Incorporating information about pet and owner preferences allows for individualization of the weight management plan and has the potential to increase adherence. Calorie density, macronutrients, and micronutrient concentrations should be considered as part of a weight management plan. Owners should play an active role in the weight loss plan to have the best outcome. PMID:27289252

  17. Pulse Consumption, Satiety, and Weight Management1

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, Megan A.; Hamaker, Bruce R.; Lovejoy, Jennifer C.; Eichelsdoerfer, Petra E.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions, making finding effective solutions to reduce obesity a public health priority. One part of the solution could be for individuals to increase consumption of nonoilseed pulses (dry beans, peas, chickpeas, and lentils), because they have nutritional attributes thought to benefit weight control, including slowly digestible carbohydrates, high fiber and protein contents, and moderate energy density. Observational studies consistently show an inverse relationship between pulse consumption and BMI or risk for obesity, but many do not control for potentially confounding dietary and other lifestyle factors. Short-term (≤1 d) experimental studies using meals controlled for energy, but not those controlled for available carbohydrate, show that pulse consumption increases satiety over 2–4 h, suggesting that at least part of the effect of pulses on satiety is mediated by available carbohydrate amount or composition. Randomized controlled trials generally support a beneficial effect of pulses on weight loss when pulse consumption is coupled with energy restriction, but not without energy restriction. However, few randomized trials have been conducted and most were short term (3–8 wk for whole pulses and 4–12 wk for pulse extracts). Overall, there is some indication of a beneficial effect of pulses on short-term satiety and weight loss during intentional energy restriction, but more studies are needed in this area, particularly those that are longer term (≥1 y), investigate the optimal amount of pulses to consume for weight control, and include behavioral elements to help overcome barriers to pulse consumption. PMID:22043448

  18. Caregiver Preferences regarding Technology's Role in Supporting Adolescent Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi-Hayes, Josette M.; Schoenfeld, Elinor R.; Cataldo, Rosa; Huang, Jiayu; Pati, Susmita

    2015-01-01

    Background. Health technology provides a wealth of strategies to address chronic health issues, such as childhood obesity. Few studies have assessed parental preferences regarding use of health technology to support weight management for adolescents. Objective. This study determined caregiver beliefs, attitudes, and practices towards using traditional methods and technology-based health applications to address weight management among overweight adolescents. Methods. Self-administered surveys were distributed to caregivers of children ages 11–18 years in Stony Brook Children's Hospital outpatient offices with a BMI ≥ 85th percentile for age, gender. The data were entered into StudyTrax research platform and analyzed using SAS. Results.  N = 114. Mean BMI z-score = 1.95 ± 0.50. Two-thirds (65.8%) of caregivers preferred a weight management program that includes both traditional and technology components. Most parents rated involvement in program development (68.1%), access to content (72.4%) as very important. Those who believed their child's weight was a problem (p = 0.01) were more likely than other parents to prefer a program that combined both traditional and technology components. Conclusions. Parents' perceptions of their child's weight drove preferences about incorporating technology elements into a weight management program. Future weight management programs should incorporate parental content preferences and be tailored to different age groups. PMID:27347500

  19. Equivalent weight loss for weight management programs delivered by phone and clinic

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Goetz, Jeannine; Gibson, Cheryl; Sullivan, Debra K.; Lee, Robert; Smith, Bryan K.; Lambourne, Kate; Mayo, Matthew S.; Hunt, Suzanne; Lee, Jae Hoon; Honas, Jeffrey J.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Face-to-face weight management is costly and presents barriers for individuals seeking treatment; thus, alternate delivery systems are needed. The objective of this study was to compare weight management delivered by face-to-face (FTF) clinic or group conference calls (phone). Design and Methods Randomized equivalency trial in 295 overweight/obese men/women (BMI = 35.1±4.9, Age = 43.8±10.2, Minority = 39.8%). Weight loss (0–6 months) was achieved by reducing energy intake between 1,200– 1,500 kcal/day and progressing physical activity to 300 minutes/week. Weight maintenance (7–18 months) provided adequate energy to maintain weight and continued 300 minutes/week of physical activity. Behavioral weight management strategies were delivered weekly for 6 months and gradually reduced during months 7–18. A cost analysis provided a comparison of expenses between groups. Results Weight change from baseline to 6 months was −13.4 ± 6.7% and −12.3 ± 7.0% for FTF clinic and phone, respectively. Weight change from 6 months to 18 months was 6.4 ± 7.0% and 6.4 ± 5.2%, for FTF clinic and phone, respectively. The cost to FTF participants was $789.58 more person. Conclusions Phone delivery provided equivalent weight loss and maintenance and reduced program cost. Ubiquitous access to phones provides a vast reach for this approach. PMID:23408579

  20. Antipsychotic induced weight gain in schizophrenia:mechanisms and management.

    PubMed

    Rege, Sanil

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the present paper was to describe the mechanisms and management of antipsychotic-induced weight gain in schizophrenia patients. A comprehensive literature review of all available articles on the mechanisms and management of antipsychotic-induced weight gain was done by searching databases PsychINFO and PubMed. A summary of the available guidelines for monitoring of antipsychotic-induced weight gain and metabolic syndrome is also provided. There has been a substantial increase in the number of studies investigating the mechanisms and management of antipsychotic-induced weight gain after 2002. These include advances in the understanding of pharmacogenomics of weight gain and several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating pharmacological and psychological treatments to promote weight loss. The most effective strategy for prevention of weight gain is the choice of antipsychotic medication with low weight gain potential. In individuals with established weight gain and metabolic issues, switching to an antipsychotic agent with lower weight gain potential and/or lifestyle modifications with physical activity are most effective in promoting weight loss. Pharmacological agents such as orlistat and sibutramine are effective in general obesity but have not been sufficiently evaluated in antipsychotic-induced weight gain. The case to prescribe routine pharmacological treatment to promote weight loss is weak. Long-term, pragmatic studies are required to inform clinical practice. Weight gain in schizophrenia is associated with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Achieving an optimal trade-off between effectiveness and side-effects of antipsychotic agents, although difficult, is achievable. This should be based on three main principles: (i) a shared decision-making model between the patient, clinician and carer(s) when choosing an antipsychotic; (ii) a commitment to baseline and follow-up monitoring with explicit identification of the responsible

  1. Weight Status and Weight-Management Behaviors Among Philadelphia High School Students, 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Lenhart, Clare M.; Bauer, Katherine W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of obesity among youth may be stabilizing and even declining in some areas of the United States. The objective of our study was to examine whether the stabilization in obesity prevalence among Philadelphia high school students was accompanied by changes in weight-management behaviors. Methods We evaluated changes in self-reported weight status and weight-management behaviors by using data collected by the Youth Risk Behavior Survey in 2007, 2009, and 2011. We used multivariable regression models controlling for race/ethnicity and age to estimate prevalence. Results Although the proportion of overweight and obese students did not change significantly during the study period, we found that approximately half of female students and 30% of male students reported trying to lose weight. Among female students, we observed significant increases in the proportion engaging in 5 or more days of physical activity per week (26.0% in 2007 to 31.9% in 2011; P = .003) and significant decreases in the proportion consuming at least 1 soda per day (31.1% in 2007 to 22.5% in 2011, P = .001). The proportion of female students who fasted for weight loss also increased significantly during the study period (12.2% in 2007 to 17.0% in 2011, P = .02). We found no significant changes in behavior among male students. Conclusion Although the prevalence of obesity and overweight may have reached a plateau among Philadelphia high school students, most students still failed to meet recommendations for healthful weight-management behaviors. Continued public health initiatives are necessary to promote participation in healthful weight-management behaviors. PMID:24070036

  2. Mobile Apps for Weight Management: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity remains a major public health concern. Mobile apps for weight loss/management are found to be effective for improving health outcomes in adults and adolescents, and are pursued as a cost-effective and scalable intervention for combating overweight and obesity. In recent years, the commercial market for ‘weight loss apps’ has expanded at rapid pace, yet little is known regarding the evidence-based quality of these tools for weight control. Objective To characterize the inclusion of evidence-based strategies, health care expert involvement, and scientific evaluation of commercial mobile apps for weight loss/management. Methods An electronic search was conducted between July 2014 and July 2015 of the official app stores for four major mobile operating systems. Three raters independently identified apps with a stated goal of weight loss/management, as well as weight loss/management apps targeted to pediatric users. All discrepancies regarding selection were resolved through discussion with a fourth rater. Metadata from all included apps were abstracted into a standard assessment criteria form and the evidence-based strategies, health care expert involvement, and scientific evaluation of included apps was assessed. Evidence-based strategies included: self-monitoring, goal-setting, physical activity support, healthy eating support, weight and/or health assessment, personalized feedback, motivational strategies, and social support. Results A total of 393 apps were included in this review. Self-monitoring was most common (139/393, 35.3%), followed by physical activity support (108/393, 27.5%), weight assessment (100/393, 25.4%), healthy eating support (91/393, 23.2%), goal-setting (84/393, 21.4%), motivational strategies (28/393, 7.1%), social support (21/393, 5.3%), and personalized feedback (7/393, 1.8%). Of apps, 0.8% (3/393) underwent scientific evaluation and 0.3% (1/393) reported health care expert involvement. No apps were comprehensive in the

  3. Meeting Weight Management Goals: The Role of Partner Confirmation.

    PubMed

    Dailey, René M; Crook, Brittani; Glowacki, Elizabeth; Prenger, Erica; Winslow, Addie Anderson

    2016-12-01

    Social support research suggests romantic partners could play a vital role in the success of individuals' weight management (WM) efforts, but contradictory findings from previous research have impeded our understanding of how romantic partners influence weight management goal attainment. Employing a confirmation perspective, overweight participants (body mass index [BMI] greater than 25) who were actively trying to manage their weight (N = 53) were asked to respond to daily questionnaires for a period of 2 weeks regarding their interactions with their romantic partner. Diet, exercise, and general weight management goal accomplishment were assessed. HLM was employed to assess the independent and interactive effects of partner acceptance and challenge on each of these goals. Findings suggest that perceiving high levels of both acceptance and challenge from partners was associated with more general WM and diet goal accomplishment. However, greater attainment of exercise goals was associated with only challenge. Fluctuations in partner acceptance and challenge were also examined to determine whether consistency in confirmation behaviors was associated with WM goals. Hierarchical regressions revealed that fluctuations in acceptance, but not challenge, were linked with goal attainment. Specifically, fluctuations in acceptance were helpful for those whose partners were perceived to exhibit lower levels of acceptance, but fluctuations were detrimental for those whose partners exhibited greater acceptance. Implications for communication among couples in which one partner is attempting to lose weight are discussed. PMID:27092591

  4. Weight Management for Athletes and Active Individuals: A Brief Review.

    PubMed

    Manore, Melinda M

    2015-11-01

    Weight management for athletes and active individuals is unique because of their high daily energy expenditure; thus, the emphasis is usually placed on changing the diet side of the energy balance equation. When dieting for weight loss, active individuals also want to preserve lean tissue, which means that energy restriction cannot be too severe or lean tissue is lost. First, this brief review addresses the issues of weight management in athletes and active individuals and factors to consider when determining a weight-loss goal. Second, the concept of dynamic energy balance is reviewed, including two mathematical models developed to improve weight-loss predictions based on changes in diet and exercise. These models are now available on the Internet. Finally, dietary strategies for weight loss/maintenance that can be successfully used with active individuals are given. Emphasis is placed on teaching the benefits of consuming a low-ED diet (e.g., high-fiber, high-water, low-fat foods), which allows for the consumption of a greater volume of food to increase satiety while reducing energy intake. Health professionals and sport dietitians need to understand dynamic energy balance and be prepared with effective and evidence-based dietary approaches to help athletes and active individuals achieve their body-weight goals. PMID:26553496

  5. Weight Management for Athletes and Active Individuals: A Brief Review.

    PubMed

    Manore, Melinda M

    2015-11-01

    Weight management for athletes and active individuals is unique because of their high daily energy expenditure; thus, the emphasis is usually placed on changing the diet side of the energy balance equation. When dieting for weight loss, active individuals also want to preserve lean tissue, which means that energy restriction cannot be too severe or lean tissue is lost. First, this brief review addresses the issues of weight management in athletes and active individuals and factors to consider when determining a weight-loss goal. Second, the concept of dynamic energy balance is reviewed, including two mathematical models developed to improve weight-loss predictions based on changes in diet and exercise. These models are now available on the Internet. Finally, dietary strategies for weight loss/maintenance that can be successfully used with active individuals are given. Emphasis is placed on teaching the benefits of consuming a low-ED diet (e.g., high-fiber, high-water, low-fat foods), which allows for the consumption of a greater volume of food to increase satiety while reducing energy intake. Health professionals and sport dietitians need to understand dynamic energy balance and be prepared with effective and evidence-based dietary approaches to help athletes and active individuals achieve their body-weight goals.

  6. Social embeddedness in an online weight management programme is linked to greater weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Spring, Bonnie; McClary, Daniel; Moller, Arlen C.; Mukogo, Rufaro; Pellegrini, Christine A.; Coons, Michael J.; Davidson, Miriam; Mukherjee, Satyam; Nunes Amaral, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is heightening chronic disease risk globally. Online weight management (OWM) communities could potentially promote weight loss among large numbers of people at low cost. Because little is known about the impact of these online communities, we examined the relationship between individual and social network variables, and weight loss in a large, international OWM programme. We studied the online activity and weight change of 22 419 members of an OWM system during a six-month period, focusing especially on the 2033 members with at least one friend within the community. Using Heckman's sample-selection procedure to account for potential selection bias and data censoring, we found that initial body mass index, adherence to self-monitoring and social networking were significantly correlated with weight loss. Remarkably, greater embeddedness in the network was the variable with the highest statistical significance in our model for weight loss. Average per cent weight loss at six months increased in a graded manner from 4.1% for non-networked members, to 5.2% for those with a few (two to nine) friends, to 6.8% for those connected to the giant component of the network, to 8.3% for those with high social embeddedness. Social networking within an OWM community, and particularly when highly embedded, may offer a potent, scalable way to curb the obesity epidemic and other disorders that could benefit from behavioural changes. PMID:25631561

  7. Social embeddedness in an online weight management programme is linked to greater weight loss.

    PubMed

    Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Spring, Bonnie; McClary, Daniel; Moller, Arlen C; Mukogo, Rufaro; Pellegrini, Christine A; Coons, Michael J; Davidson, Miriam; Mukherjee, Satyam; Nunes Amaral, Luis A

    2015-03-01

    The obesity epidemic is heightening chronic disease risk globally. Online weight management (OWM) communities could potentially promote weight loss among large numbers of people at low cost. Because little is known about the impact of these online communities, we examined the relationship between individual and social network variables, and weight loss in a large, international OWM programme. We studied the online activity and weight change of 22,419 members of an OWM system during a six-month period, focusing especially on the 2033 members with at least one friend within the community. Using Heckman's sample-selection procedure to account for potential selection bias and data censoring, we found that initial body mass index, adherence to self-monitoring and social networking were significantly correlated with weight loss. Remarkably, greater embeddedness in the network was the variable with the highest statistical significance in our model for weight loss. Average per cent weight loss at six months increased in a graded manner from 4.1% for non-networked members, to 5.2% for those with a few (two to nine) friends, to 6.8% for those connected to the giant component of the network, to 8.3% for those with high social embeddedness. Social networking within an OWM community, and particularly when highly embedded, may offer a potent, scalable way to curb the obesity epidemic and other disorders that could benefit from behavioural changes.

  8. Social embeddedness in an online weight management programme is linked to greater weight loss.

    PubMed

    Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Spring, Bonnie; McClary, Daniel; Moller, Arlen C; Mukogo, Rufaro; Pellegrini, Christine A; Coons, Michael J; Davidson, Miriam; Mukherjee, Satyam; Nunes Amaral, Luis A

    2015-03-01

    The obesity epidemic is heightening chronic disease risk globally. Online weight management (OWM) communities could potentially promote weight loss among large numbers of people at low cost. Because little is known about the impact of these online communities, we examined the relationship between individual and social network variables, and weight loss in a large, international OWM programme. We studied the online activity and weight change of 22,419 members of an OWM system during a six-month period, focusing especially on the 2033 members with at least one friend within the community. Using Heckman's sample-selection procedure to account for potential selection bias and data censoring, we found that initial body mass index, adherence to self-monitoring and social networking were significantly correlated with weight loss. Remarkably, greater embeddedness in the network was the variable with the highest statistical significance in our model for weight loss. Average per cent weight loss at six months increased in a graded manner from 4.1% for non-networked members, to 5.2% for those with a few (two to nine) friends, to 6.8% for those connected to the giant component of the network, to 8.3% for those with high social embeddedness. Social networking within an OWM community, and particularly when highly embedded, may offer a potent, scalable way to curb the obesity epidemic and other disorders that could benefit from behavioural changes. PMID:25631561

  9. Smartphone applications to aid weight loss and management: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Elizabeth F; Redman, Leanne M

    2016-01-01

    The development and dissemination of smart devices has cultivated a global environment of hyperconnectivity and increased our access to information. The paralleled launch and success of the Mobile Health industry has created a market of commercially available applications or "apps" along with tools or sensors, which allow the user to receive and collect personal health information. Apps and accompanying tools now allow an individual to "self-digitize" and, pertaining to weight management, monitor their body weight, caloric intake, physical activity, and more. These products possess the ability to improve the scalability of traditional in-person weight management services considering their near ubiquity, affordability, and capability to deliver information directly and personally to the user. However, similar to the dietary supplement market, the anecdotal value of these products has driven their popularity and acceptance by the general public without requirement of scientific validation or, in the area of weight management or diet/exercise, validation of the safety and efficacy by the Food and Drug Administration prior to market launch. By conducting a literature and clinical trial search, we found remarkably few active, completed, or published studies testing the efficacy of smart device applications using randomized controlled trials. Research efforts must be focused on illuminating the efficacy of behavioral interventions and remote self-monitoring for weight loss/maintenance treatment with true, randomized controlled trials.

  10. Smartphone applications to aid weight loss and management: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Elizabeth F; Redman, Leanne M

    2016-01-01

    The development and dissemination of smart devices has cultivated a global environment of hyperconnectivity and increased our access to information. The paralleled launch and success of the Mobile Health industry has created a market of commercially available applications or “apps” along with tools or sensors, which allow the user to receive and collect personal health information. Apps and accompanying tools now allow an individual to “self-digitize” and, pertaining to weight management, monitor their body weight, caloric intake, physical activity, and more. These products possess the ability to improve the scalability of traditional in-person weight management services considering their near ubiquity, affordability, and capability to deliver information directly and personally to the user. However, similar to the dietary supplement market, the anecdotal value of these products has driven their popularity and acceptance by the general public without requirement of scientific validation or, in the area of weight management or diet/exercise, validation of the safety and efficacy by the Food and Drug Administration prior to market launch. By conducting a literature and clinical trial search, we found remarkably few active, completed, or published studies testing the efficacy of smart device applications using randomized controlled trials. Research efforts must be focused on illuminating the efficacy of behavioral interventions and remote self-monitoring for weight loss/maintenance treatment with true, randomized controlled trials. PMID:27486338

  11. Smartphone applications to aid weight loss and management: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Elizabeth F; Redman, Leanne M

    2016-01-01

    The development and dissemination of smart devices has cultivated a global environment of hyperconnectivity and increased our access to information. The paralleled launch and success of the Mobile Health industry has created a market of commercially available applications or "apps" along with tools or sensors, which allow the user to receive and collect personal health information. Apps and accompanying tools now allow an individual to "self-digitize" and, pertaining to weight management, monitor their body weight, caloric intake, physical activity, and more. These products possess the ability to improve the scalability of traditional in-person weight management services considering their near ubiquity, affordability, and capability to deliver information directly and personally to the user. However, similar to the dietary supplement market, the anecdotal value of these products has driven their popularity and acceptance by the general public without requirement of scientific validation or, in the area of weight management or diet/exercise, validation of the safety and efficacy by the Food and Drug Administration prior to market launch. By conducting a literature and clinical trial search, we found remarkably few active, completed, or published studies testing the efficacy of smart device applications using randomized controlled trials. Research efforts must be focused on illuminating the efficacy of behavioral interventions and remote self-monitoring for weight loss/maintenance treatment with true, randomized controlled trials. PMID:27486338

  12. Risk Preferences, Probability Weighting, and Strategy Tradeoffs in Wildfire Management.

    PubMed

    Hand, Michael S; Wibbenmeyer, Matthew J; Calkin, David E; Thompson, Matthew P

    2015-10-01

    Wildfires present a complex applied risk management environment, but relatively little attention has been paid to behavioral and cognitive responses to risk among public agency wildfire managers. This study investigates responses to risk, including probability weighting and risk aversion, in a wildfire management context using a survey-based experiment administered to federal wildfire managers. Respondents were presented with a multiattribute lottery-choice experiment where each lottery is defined by three outcome attributes: expenditures for fire suppression, damage to private property, and exposure of firefighters to the risk of aviation-related fatalities. Respondents choose one of two strategies, each of which includes "good" (low cost/low damage) and "bad" (high cost/high damage) outcomes that occur with varying probabilities. The choice task also incorporates an information framing experiment to test whether information about fatality risk to firefighters alters managers' responses to risk. Results suggest that managers exhibit risk aversion and nonlinear probability weighting, which can result in choices that do not minimize expected expenditures, property damage, or firefighter exposure. Information framing tends to result in choices that reduce the risk of aviation fatalities, but exacerbates nonlinear probability weighting.

  13. Risk Preferences, Probability Weighting, and Strategy Tradeoffs in Wildfire Management.

    PubMed

    Hand, Michael S; Wibbenmeyer, Matthew J; Calkin, David E; Thompson, Matthew P

    2015-10-01

    Wildfires present a complex applied risk management environment, but relatively little attention has been paid to behavioral and cognitive responses to risk among public agency wildfire managers. This study investigates responses to risk, including probability weighting and risk aversion, in a wildfire management context using a survey-based experiment administered to federal wildfire managers. Respondents were presented with a multiattribute lottery-choice experiment where each lottery is defined by three outcome attributes: expenditures for fire suppression, damage to private property, and exposure of firefighters to the risk of aviation-related fatalities. Respondents choose one of two strategies, each of which includes "good" (low cost/low damage) and "bad" (high cost/high damage) outcomes that occur with varying probabilities. The choice task also incorporates an information framing experiment to test whether information about fatality risk to firefighters alters managers' responses to risk. Results suggest that managers exhibit risk aversion and nonlinear probability weighting, which can result in choices that do not minimize expected expenditures, property damage, or firefighter exposure. Information framing tends to result in choices that reduce the risk of aviation fatalities, but exacerbates nonlinear probability weighting. PMID:26269258

  14. Economic evaluation of an internet-based weight management program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine whether a behavioral Internet treatment (BIT) program for weight management is a viable, cost-effective option compared with usual care (UC) in a diverse sample of overweight (average body mass index = 29 kg/m2), healthy adults (mean age = 34 years) serving in the US Air Force. Two-grou...

  15. University Students' Views of Obesity and Weight Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okonkwo, Ononuju; While, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the knowledge and views of university students regarding obesity and weight management strategies. Design: Online questionnaire-based survey of undergraduate and postgraduate university students in a large London university with a diverse student population. Method: The survey was administered online and circulated…

  16. Maternal morbid obesity: financial implications of weight management.

    PubMed

    Caldas, M C; Serrette, J M; Jain, S K; Makhlouf, M; Olson, G L; McCormick, D P

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate health outcomes and costs of pregnancies complicated by extreme maternal obesity (class III obesity, body mass index ≥ 40). We conducted a retrospective case-control descriptive study comparing extremely obese women (cases) and their infants with randomly selected controls. Health outcomes were obtained from the medical records and costs from billing data. Total costs for each mother-infant dyad were calculated. Compared with 85 controls, the 82 cases experienced higher morbidity, higher costs and prolonged hospital stay. However, 26% of cases maintained or lost weight during pregnancy, whereas none of the controls maintained or lost weight during pregnancy. When mother/infant dyads were compared on costs, case subjects who maintained or lost weight experienced lower costs than those who gained weight. Neonatal intensive care consumed 78% of total hospital costs for infants of the obese women who gained weight, but only 48% of costs for infants of obese women who maintained or lost weight. For extremely obese women, weight management during pregnancy was achievable, resulted in healthier neonatal outcomes and reduced perinatal healthcare costs.

  17. Efficacy comparison of medications approved for chronic weight management.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rekha B; Aronne, Louis J

    2015-04-01

    For the first time, patients who are obese are able to benefit from 5 different FDA approved pharmacologic agents for chronic weight management. Although weight loss from all of these medications was limited to 5% to 10% of total body weight loss in the Phase III clinical trials, patients are capable of losing more weight when a cumulative approach of diet, exercise, and multiple medications are used. A pilot study of adding phentermine to lorcaserin yielded double the weight loss than lorcaserin alone. A higher percentage of total body weight is lost with use of combination phentermine/topiramate compared to orlistat, lorcaserin, and bupropion/naltrexone but there are more contraindications to its use and potential cardiovascular adverse effects due to adrenergic agonism. Lorcaserin and bupropion/naltrexone yielded similar weight loss but carry different adverse effect profiles and interactions with other psychiatric medications may preclude use of one over the other. When choosing a medication for obesity, several factors need to be considered, such as comorbidities, medication interactions, and risk of potential adverse effects. PMID:25900871

  18. What is the role of portion control in weight management?

    PubMed Central

    Rolls, B J

    2014-01-01

    Systematic studies have shown that providing individuals with larger portions of foods and beverages leads to substantial increases in energy intake. The effect is sustained over weeks, supporting the possibility that large portions have a role in the development of obesity. The challenge is to find strategies to effectively manage the effects of portion size. One approach involves teaching people to select appropriate portions and to use tools that facilitate portion control. Although tools such as portion-control plates have been shown in several randomized trials to improve weight loss, limited data are available on whether education and tools lead to long-term changes in eating behavior and body weight. Another approach is to use preportioned foods (PPFs) to add structure to meals and minimize decisions about the amount of food to eat. A number of randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy of both liquid meal replacements and solid PPFs for weight loss and weight loss maintenance, but it is not known if they lead to better understanding of appropriate portions. Although portion control is important for weight management, urging people simply to ‘eat less' of all foods may not be the best approach as high-energy-dense foods disproportionately increase energy intake compared with those lower in energy density. A more effective strategy may be to encourage people to increase the proportion of foods low in energy density in their diets while limiting portions of high-energy-dense foods. If people lower the energy density of their diet, they can eat satisfying portions while managing their body weight. PMID:25033958

  19. What is the role of portion control in weight management?

    PubMed

    Rolls, B J

    2014-07-01

    Systematic studies have shown that providing individuals with larger portions of foods and beverages leads to substantial increases in energy intake. The effect is sustained over weeks, supporting the possibility that large portions have a role in the development of obesity. The challenge is to find strategies to effectively manage the effects of portion size. One approach involves teaching people to select appropriate portions and to use tools that facilitate portion control. Although tools such as portion-control plates have been shown in several randomized trials to improve weight loss, limited data are available on whether education and tools lead to long-term changes in eating behavior and body weight. Another approach is to use preportioned foods (PPFs) to add structure to meals and minimize decisions about the amount of food to eat. A number of randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy of both liquid meal replacements and solid PPFs for weight loss and weight loss maintenance, but it is not known if they lead to better understanding of appropriate portions. Although portion control is important for weight management, urging people simply to 'eat less' of all foods may not be the best approach as high-energy-dense foods disproportionately increase energy intake compared with those lower in energy density. A more effective strategy may be to encourage people to increase the proportion of foods low in energy density in their diets while limiting portions of high-energy-dense foods. If people lower the energy density of their diet, they can eat satisfying portions while managing their body weight.

  20. Body Mass Index Self-Perception and Weight Management Behaviors during Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…

  1. Successes and barriers for a youth weight-management program.

    PubMed

    Rice, Jeffrey; Thombs, David; Leach, Rick; Rehm, Richard

    2008-03-01

    A patient recruiting process was developed for a youth weight-management program in a metropolitan area, and the clinical effects of the program on overweight and obese children aged 7 to 17 years old were assessed. During the 12-month effort, 68 overweight children were enrolled. The program included exercise, nutrition coaching, and behavior change counseling. Clinical outcomes were measured. Patient recruiting methods were monitored and included working with physicians and schools and marketing to consumers. Program adherence was 71% attendance, 5% noncompliance, and 5% drop out rates. Clinical outcomes were excellent: 68% of participants lowered their body mass index by an average of 2.5% (mean, 24 weeks). The program was clinically successful, but patient recruitment initiatives were unsuccessful and the program was discontinued. Parents were the largest obstacle to patient recruiting efforts. For children's weight-management programs to be commercially viable, new models of patient recruiting and promotion of parental acceptance are needed.

  2. The application of the Yerkes-Dodson law in a childhood weight management program: Examining weight dissatisfaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine the effect of dissatisfaction with one's weight on outcomes in a weight management program. Participants included 149 children between the ages of 11 and 14 years who were enrolled in an intensive weight loss intervention. All participants had a body mass index (BMI) ...

  3. Obesity, weight management, and health care costs: a primer.

    PubMed

    Bachman, Keith H

    2007-06-01

    Rational decision-making regarding health care spending for weight management requires an understanding of the cost of care provided to obese patients and the potential cost-effectiveness or cost savings of interventions. The purpose of this review is to assist health plans and disease management leaders in making informed decisions for weight management services. Among the review's findings, obesity and severe obesity are strongly and consistently associated with increased health care costs. The cost-effectiveness of obesity-related interventions is highly dependent on the risk status of the treated population, as well as the length, cost, and effectiveness of the intervention. Bariatric surgery offers high initial costs and uncertain long-term cost savings. From the perspective of a payor, obesity management services are as cost-effective as other commonly offered health services, though not likely to offer cost savings. Behavioral health promotion interventions in the worksite setting provide cost savings from the employer's perspective, if decreased rates of absenteeism are included in the analysis.

  4. Beverage consumption and adult weight management: A review.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Elizabeth A; Flack, Kyle D; Davy, Brenda M

    2009-12-01

    Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the effect of beverage consumption on short-term (i.e., meal) energy intake, as well as longer-term effects on body weight. Specific beverages addressed include water, other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea), and energy-containing beverages (soft drinks, juices and juice drinks, milk and soy beverages, alcohol). Existing evidence, albeit limited, suggests that encouraging water consumption, and substituting water and other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea) for energy-containing beverages may facilitate weight management. Energy-containing beverages acutely increase energy intake, however long-term effects on body weight are uncertain. While there may be health benefits for some beverage categories, additional energy provided by beverages should be compensated for by reduced consumption of other foods in the diet.

  5. Beverage consumption and adult weight management: A review.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Elizabeth A; Flack, Kyle D; Davy, Brenda M

    2009-12-01

    Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the effect of beverage consumption on short-term (i.e., meal) energy intake, as well as longer-term effects on body weight. Specific beverages addressed include water, other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea), and energy-containing beverages (soft drinks, juices and juice drinks, milk and soy beverages, alcohol). Existing evidence, albeit limited, suggests that encouraging water consumption, and substituting water and other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea) for energy-containing beverages may facilitate weight management. Energy-containing beverages acutely increase energy intake, however long-term effects on body weight are uncertain. While there may be health benefits for some beverage categories, additional energy provided by beverages should be compensated for by reduced consumption of other foods in the diet. PMID:19778754

  6. Obesity and osteoarthritis: disease genesis and nonpharmacologic weight management

    PubMed Central

    Messier, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis The mechanisms by which obesity affects osteoarthritis are of great concern to osteoarthritis researchers and clinicians who manage this disease. Inflammation and joint loads are pathways commonly thought to cause or to exacerbate the disease process. This paper reviews the physiologic and mechanical consequences of obesity on older adults with knee OA; the effects of long-term exercise and weight-loss interventions, the most effective non-pharmacological treatments for obesity; and the utility and feasibility of translating these results to clinical practice. PMID:18687279

  7. Safety and tolerability of medications approved for chronic weight management.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Ken

    2015-04-01

    In 2014 we have 4 new weight loss medications and one older medication with very different mechanisms of action – all approved for chronic weight management. Each medication has its own unique risk profile that makes patient selection important. Knowledge of the contraindications and safety issues can guide physicians to the most appropriate choice for a particular patient. Obesity medicine is entering a new era where our available options for prescribing have been very well studied. There should be no surprises, because bupropion, naltrexone, phentermine, topiramate and liraglutide have been prescribed for many years in millions of patients and lorcaserin has high specificity for a single receptor subtype. The FDA demanded very detailed risk-oriented studies to have these medications approved. In addition, the FDA has established REMS programs or risk management strategies to help ensure that the patients do not receive inappropriate medications. These medications were approved by the US FDA after very thorough testing. The decision to approve these medications was based on the benefits out-weighing the risks. Thus, if following the appropriate guidelines according to package labels, the practitioner can feel safe in prescribing these medications. PMID:25900872

  8. Impact of parental weight status on a school-based weight management programme designed for Mexican-American children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While overweight and obese children are more likely to have overweight or obese parents, less is known about the effect of parental weight status on children's success in weight management programmes. This study was a secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial and investigated the impa...

  9. Survivorship: nutrition and weight management, Version 2.2014. Clinical practice guidelines in oncology.

    PubMed

    Denlinger, Crystal S; Ligibel, Jennifer A; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Dizon, Don; Friedman, Debra L; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J; O'Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Raza, Muhammad; Rodriguez, M Alma; Syrjala, Karen L; Urba, Susan G; Wakabayashi, Mark T; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A

    2014-10-01

    Healthy lifestyle habits have been associated with improved health outcomes and quality of life and, for some cancers, a reduced risk of recurrence and death. The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship therefore recommend that cancer survivors be encouraged to achieve and maintain a healthy lifestyle, including attention to weight management, physical activity, and dietary habits. This section of the NCCN Guidelines focuses on recommendations regarding nutrition, weight management, and supplement use in survivors. Weight management recommendations are based on the survivor's body mass index and include discussions of nutritional, weight management, and physical activity principles, with referral to community resources, dietitians, and/or weight management programs as needed.

  10. Body-weight perceptions and selected weight-management goals and practices of high school students--United States, 1990.

    PubMed

    1991-11-01

    Among adults, overweight is associated with elevated serum cholesterol levels, elevated blood pressure, and noninsulin-dependent diabetes and is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. Youth who are overweight and remain overweight as adults may increase their risk for certain chronic diseases in adulthood. However, overemphasis on thinness during adolescence may contribute to potentially harmful weight-management practices and eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. This report presents self-reported body-weight perceptions and selected weight-management goals and practices among high school students in the United States. PMID:1921967

  11. Health economics of weight management: evidence and cost.

    PubMed

    Kouris-Blazos, Antigone; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2007-01-01

    is too much reliance on health workers to treat the problem, especially doctors, who have not been given additional resources to manage obesity outside a typical doctor's consultation. Gross has recommended that further changes should be made to Medicare, private health insurance, and workplace and tax legislation to give people financial incentives to change their behaviour because obesity should not just be treated by governments as a public health problem but also as a barrier to productivity and a drain on resources. A Special Report of the WMCACA (Weight Management Code Administration Council of Australia) (www.weightcouncil.org) on the "Health Economics of Weight Management" has been published in the Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition in September 2006. This report explores the cost benefit analysis of weight management in greater detail. PMID:17392129

  12. Healthy Eating and Exercise: Strategies for Weight Management in the Rural Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nothwehr, Faryle; Peterson, N. Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Obesity prevalence has increased dramatically in the United States. Rural areas have been especially affected, yet few weight management studies have been conducted in these populations. This study was designed to assess weight management attitudes and strategies used when rural adults in particular attempt to lose weight, employing measures that…

  13. Weight management using the internet: A randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most weight-loss research targets obese individuals who desire large weight reductions. However, evaluation of weight-gain prevention in overweight individuals is also critical as most Americans become obese as a result of a gradual gain of 1-2 pounds per year over many years. This study evaluated t...

  14. Physical activity, genetic, and nutritional considerations in childhood weight management.

    PubMed

    Bar-Or, O; Foreyt, J; Bouchard, C; Brownell, K D; Dietz, W H; Ravussin, E; Salbe, A D; Schwenger, S; St Jeor, S; Torun, B

    1998-01-01

    Almost one-quarter of U.S. children are now obese, a dramatic increase of over 20% in the past decade. It is intriguing that the increase in prevalence has been occurring while overall fat consumption has been declining. Body mass and composition are influenced by genetic factors, but the actual heritability of juvenile obesity is not known. A low physical activity (PA) is characteristic of obese children and adolescents, and it may be one cause of juvenile obesity. There is little evidence, however, that overall energy expenditure is low among the obese. There is a strong association between the prevalence of obesity and the extent of TV viewing. Enhanced PA can reduce body fat and blood pressure and improve lipoprotein profile in obese individuals. Its effect on body composition, however, is slower than with low-calorie diets. The three main dietary approaches are: protein sparing modified fast, balanced hypocaloric diets, and comprehensive behavioral lifestyle programs. To achieve long-standing control of overweight, one should combine changes in eating and activity patterns, using behavior modification techniques. However, the onus is also on society to reduce incentives for a sedentary lifestyle and over-consumption of food. To address the key issues related to childhood weight management, the American College of Sports Medicine convened a Scientific Roundtable in Indianapolis. PMID:9475638

  15. Psychosocial processes influencing weight management among persons newly prescribed atypical antipsychotic medications.

    PubMed

    Xiao, S; Baker, C; Oyewumi, L K

    2012-04-01

    The purpose was to generate a theory of the psychosocial processes influencing weight management among persons newly prescribed atypical antipsychotic medications. A grounded theory research design was used to guide the study. Semi-structured interviews were the method of data collection, and analysis was performed using constant comparison. Using theoretical sampling, a sample of 11 participants with first-episode psychosis prescribed atypical antipsychotics for at least 8 weeks, and five participants with a diagnosis of chronic schizophrenia prescribed atypical antipsychotic medication for at least 3 years were recruited from an outpatient psychiatric programme. Contextual factors influencing weight management were: accessibility to resources, unstructured lifestyle, and others' perception of weight. Conditions influencing weight management were: rapid weight gain, insatiable hunger and lack of motivation boosters. Participants' early responses to weight gain included discontinuing medications, choosing lower-calorie foods, using walking in daily activities as exercise, accepting weight gain and trying to manage weight but giving up. The consequences revealed from data analysis were contemplating weight management and not trying, as the barriers to weight management exceeded the facilitators. The theoretical framework developed in this study can assist with the understanding and management of weight gain among this unique population. PMID:22074295

  16. Reducing maladaptive weight management practices: developing a psychoeducational intervention program.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Karina M; LeBow, Michael D

    2007-04-01

    Previous research has addressed the issues of behavior change and eating disorder prevention among adolescents and young women. The current study was designed to evaluate: (a) whether an 8-week psychoeducational intervention can reduce maladaptive weight-management practices in women (University females, N=24) with sub-clinical levels of eating pathology; and (b) whether its implementation reduces the risk of developing more severe eating pathology across time. Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental (EX) group or a self-monitoring control (SMC) group. Statistically significant changes on measures of eating pathology, including the Eating Attitudes Test-26 [Garner, D. M., Olmsted, M. P., Bohr, Y., & Garfinkel, P. (1982). The Eating Attitudes Test: psychometric features and clinical correlates. Psychological Medicine, 12, 871-878]; Forbidden Food Survey [Ruggerio, L., Williamson, D. A., Davis, C. J., Schlundt, D. G., & Carey, M. P. (1988). Forbidden Food Survey: Measure of bulimic's anticipated emotional reactions to specific foods. Addictive Behaviors, 13, 267-274]; and Bulimia Test-Revised [Thelen, M. H., Farmer, J., Wonderlich, S., & Smith, M. (1991). A revision of the bulimia test: The BULIT-R. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 3(1), 119-124] were observed, as were changes in body image, as measured by the Body Shape Questionnaire [Cooper, P. J., Taylor, M. J., Cooper, Z., & Fairburn, C. G. (1987). The development and validation of the body shape questionnaire. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 6(4), 485-494]. Additional significant between-group differences in eating behavior, as measured by daily meal records, were also seen. Participants in the EX group evidenced improvements in scores which were significantly different from those observed in the SMC group. Unfortunately, attrition limited the utility of follow up data. PMID:17336790

  17. Adolescent-parent interactions and communication preferences regarding body weight and weight management: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aimed to canvass the nature of adolescent-parent interactions about weight, particularly overweight, and to explore ideas of how to foster supportive discussions regarding weight, both in the home and with family doctors. Methods A market research company was contracted to recruit and conduct a series of separate focus groups with adolescents and unrelated parents of adolescents from low-middle socio-economic areas in Sydney and a regional centre, Australia. Group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed, and then a qualitative content analysis of the data was performed. Results Nine focus groups were conducted; two were held with girls (n = 13), three with boys (n = 18), and four with parents (20 mothers, 12 fathers). Adolescent and parent descriptions of weight-related interactions could be classified into three distinct approaches: indirect/cautious (i.e. focus on eating or physical activity behaviors without discussing weight specifically); direct/open (i.e. body weight was discussed); and never/rarely discussing the subject. Indirect approaches were described most frequently by both adolescents and parents and were generally preferred over direct approaches. Parents and adolescents were circumspect but generally supportive of the potential role for family doctors to monitor and discuss adolescent weight status. Conclusions These findings have implications for developing acceptable messages for adolescent and family overweight prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:20205918

  18. Outcomes of weight management in obese pet dogs: what can we do better?

    PubMed

    German, Alexander J

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is arguably the biggest health and welfare issue affecting pet dogs. Although successful weight loss has health benefits, current strategies are far from ideal. Many obese dogs that start a weight programme fail to lose weight, or subsequently regain the weight they have lost. Given that current weight loss strategies are not perfect, clinicians need to focus carefully on tailoring the programme, perhaps setting a pragmatic target for weight loss, so as to ensure the benefits are maximised. This review will summarise key findings from recent clinical research into pet obesity, and present a framework for improving success, by better tailoring weight management regimens and end points to the individual. PMID:27132635

  19. Outcomes of weight management in obese pet dogs: what can we do better?

    PubMed

    German, Alexander J

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is arguably the biggest health and welfare issue affecting pet dogs. Although successful weight loss has health benefits, current strategies are far from ideal. Many obese dogs that start a weight programme fail to lose weight, or subsequently regain the weight they have lost. Given that current weight loss strategies are not perfect, clinicians need to focus carefully on tailoring the programme, perhaps setting a pragmatic target for weight loss, so as to ensure the benefits are maximised. This review will summarise key findings from recent clinical research into pet obesity, and present a framework for improving success, by better tailoring weight management regimens and end points to the individual.

  20. Weight Management and Fruit and Vegetable Intake among US High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Richard; Lee, Sarah M.; McKenna, Mary L.; Galuska, Deborah A.; Kann, Laura K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Consumption of fruits and vegetables is often recommended to promote healthy weight. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between fruit and vegetable intake and common weight management behaviors among US high school students who were trying to lose or stay the same weight. Methods: Data from the 1999, 2001, and 2003…

  1. Young Adults' Attitudes and Perceptions of Obesity and Weight Management: Implications for Treatment Development.

    PubMed

    Lanoye, Autumn; Gorin, Amy A; LaRose, Jessica Gokee

    2016-03-01

    Young adults are underrepresented in standard behavioral weight loss trials, and evidence suggests that they differ from older adults on many weight-related constructs. The aim of this review is to explore young adults' attitudes toward obesity and weight management, with particular attention to those factors that may play a role in the development of future treatment efforts. Both intrapersonal and interpersonal considerations unique to young adulthood are assessed; in addition, we examine young adults' perceptions of specific weight-related behaviors such as dieting, physical activity, and self-weighing. Conclusions are consistent with other findings suggesting that weight management interventions should be adapted and designed specifically for this age group.

  2. A qualitative investigation of obese women's experiences of effective and ineffective social support for weight management.

    PubMed

    Zwickert, K; Rieger, E

    2014-10-01

    An obese individual's social context influences the extent to which they engage in weight control behaviors. Although the available literature acknowledges the importance of social support for weight management, detailed analyses of obese individuals' experiences of social support for weight loss and/or weight loss maintenance have not been undertaken. Using a qualitative approach, this study presents 22 Australian obese women's perspectives of the availability and effectiveness of social support for weight control. Three superordinate categories, namely, ineffective support, effective support and personal barriers to accessing support, and 12 subcategories were identified. Participants reported minimal access to quality support for weight management, while also suggesting ways in which obese women themselves may hamper significant others' provision of effective support. The results support the investigation of interventions designed to enhance the skills of significant others in assisting obese individuals with weight management.

  3. Introduction of the transtheoretical model and organisational development theory in weight management: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya-Ke; Chu, Nain-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are serious public health and medical problems among children and adults worldwide. Behavioural change has been demonstrably contributory to weight management programs. Behavioural change-based weight loss programs require a theoretical framework. We will review the transtheoretical model and the organisational development theory in weight management. The transtheoretical model is a behaviour theory of individual level frequently used for weight management programs. The organisational development theory is a more complicated behaviour theory that applies to behavioural change on the system level. Both of these two theories have their respective strengths and weaknesses. In this manuscript, we try to introduce the transtheoretical model and the organisational development theory in the context of weight loss programs among population that are overweight or obese. Ultimately, we wish to present a new framework/strategy of weight management by integrating these two theories together.

  4. Introduction of the transtheoretical model and organisational development theory in weight management: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya-Ke; Chu, Nain-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are serious public health and medical problems among children and adults worldwide. Behavioural change has been demonstrably contributory to weight management programs. Behavioural change-based weight loss programs require a theoretical framework. We will review the transtheoretical model and the organisational development theory in weight management. The transtheoretical model is a behaviour theory of individual level frequently used for weight management programs. The organisational development theory is a more complicated behaviour theory that applies to behavioural change on the system level. Both of these two theories have their respective strengths and weaknesses. In this manuscript, we try to introduce the transtheoretical model and the organisational development theory in the context of weight loss programs among population that are overweight or obese. Ultimately, we wish to present a new framework/strategy of weight management by integrating these two theories together. PMID:25571777

  5. Level of interest in a weight management program among adult U.S. military dependents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is little information on the extent to which different challenged populations with high rates of overweight and obesity have interest in participating in weight management programs. The purpose of this study was to identify potential rates of enrollment in a weight management program among adu...

  6. Exploring Weight Management Recommendations across Australian Community Pharmacies Using Case Vignettes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakih, Souhiela; Marriott, Jennifer L.; Hussainy, Safeera Y.

    2014-01-01

    With the increase in the overweight and obese population, it is critical that pharmacy staff are able to provide weight management advice to women at different stages of their life. This study utilized case vignettes to identify pharmacists' and pharmacy assistants' current weight management recommendations to women of different ages,…

  7. Integration of Nutrient and Activity Analysis Software into a Worksite Weight Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Darwin; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A weight management program utilized the participant's own data for the participant to (1) understand energy balance; (2) compare his/her diet with U.S. dietary codes; (3) know which food selections were high in calories, fat, and cholesterol, and low in complex carbohydrates and fiber; and (4) understand weight management. (JD)

  8. Incorporating a Weight Management Skills Workshop in Pharmacy Curricula in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol; Gill, Timothy; Chaar, Betty B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To develop, implement, and evaluate a competency-based weight management skills workshop for undergraduate pharmacy students in an Australian university. Design. A 3-hour workshop titled “Weight Management in Pharmacy” was implemented with a cohort of fourth-year undergraduate pharmacy students (n=180). Learning activities used included case-based learning, hands-on experience, role-play, and group discussion. Assessment. A 22-item attitudinal survey instrument and the validated Obesity Risk Knowledge (ORK-10) scale were administered at baseline and postworkshop to evaluate the impact of this educational workshop. There was significant improvement in the students’ ORK scores and students’ perceived level of self-confidence in performing weight management skills. Conclusion. An educational workshop designed to enhance professional competencies in weight management ensured graduates were “service-ready” and had the appropriate knowledge, skills, and attributes to deliver patient-centered pharmacy-based weight management services. PMID:27293236

  9. Incorporating a Weight Management Skills Workshop in Pharmacy Curricula in Australia.

    PubMed

    Um, Irene S; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol; Gill, Timothy; Chaar, Betty B

    2016-05-25

    Objective. To develop, implement, and evaluate a competency-based weight management skills workshop for undergraduate pharmacy students in an Australian university. Design. A 3-hour workshop titled "Weight Management in Pharmacy" was implemented with a cohort of fourth-year undergraduate pharmacy students (n=180). Learning activities used included case-based learning, hands-on experience, role-play, and group discussion. Assessment. A 22-item attitudinal survey instrument and the validated Obesity Risk Knowledge (ORK-10) scale were administered at baseline and postworkshop to evaluate the impact of this educational workshop. There was significant improvement in the students' ORK scores and students' perceived level of self-confidence in performing weight management skills. Conclusion. An educational workshop designed to enhance professional competencies in weight management ensured graduates were "service-ready" and had the appropriate knowledge, skills, and attributes to deliver patient-centered pharmacy-based weight management services. PMID:27293236

  10. A Psychophysiological Mechanism Underlying Women's Weight-Management Goals: Women Desire and Strive for Greater Weight Loss Near Peak Fertility.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Andrea L; McNulty, James K; Miller, Saul L; Baker, Levi R

    2015-07-01

    Three studies demonstrated that conception risk was associated with increased motivations to manage weight. Consistent with the rationale that this association is due to ovulatory processes, Studies 2 and 3 demonstrated that it was moderated by hormonal contraceptive (HC) use. Consistent with the rationale that this interactive effect should emerge when modern appearance-related concerns regarding weight are salient, Study 3 used a 14-day diary to demonstrate that the interactive effects of conception risk and HC use on daily motivations to restrict eating were further moderated by daily motivations to manage body attractiveness. Finally, providing evidence that this interactive effect has implications for real behavior, daily fluctuations in the desire to restrict eating predicted daily changes in women's self-reported eating behavior. These findings may help reconcile prior inconsistencies regarding the implications of ovulatory processes by illustrating that such implications can depend on the salience of broader social norms. PMID:25979634

  11. Evaluation of a Family-Centred Children's Weight Management Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinks, Annette; English, Sue; Coufopoulos, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to conduct an in-depth quantitative and qualitative evaluation of a family-based weight loss and healthy life style programme for clinically obese children in England. Design/methodology/approach: The mixed method case study evaluation used included obtaining pre and post measurements of anthropometry and a…

  12. Parental perspectives regarding primary-care weight-management strategies for school-age children.

    PubMed

    Turer, Christy Boling; Mehta, Megha; Durante, Richard; Wazni, Fatima; Flores, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    To identify parental perspectives regarding weight-management strategies for school-age children, focus groups were conducted of parents of overweight and obese (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) 6-12-year-old children recruited from primary-care clinics. Questions focused on the role of the primary-care provider, effective components of weight-management strategies and feasibility of specific dietary strategies. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analysed using margin coding and grounded theory. Six focus groups were held. The mean age (in years) for parents was 32, and for children, eight; 44% of participants were Latino, 33%, African-American and 23%, white. Parents' recommendations on the primary-care provider's role in weight management included monitoring weight, providing guidance regarding health risks and lifestyle changes, consistent follow-up and using discretion during weight discussions. Weight-management components identified as key included emphasising healthy lifestyles and enjoyment, small changes to routines and parental role modelling. Parents prefer guidance regarding healthy dietary practices rather than specific weight-loss diets, but identified principles that could enhance the acceptability of these diets. For dietary guidance to be feasible, parents recommended easy-to-follow instructions and emphasising servings over counting calories. Effective weight-management strategies identified by parents include primary-care provider engagement in weight management, simple instructions regarding healthy lifestyle changes, parental involvement and deemphasising specific weight-loss diets. These findings may prove useful in developing primary-care weight-management strategies for children that maximise parental acceptance. PMID:24720565

  13. Parental perspectives regarding primary-care weight-management strategies for school-age children.

    PubMed

    Turer, Christy Boling; Mehta, Megha; Durante, Richard; Wazni, Fatima; Flores, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    To identify parental perspectives regarding weight-management strategies for school-age children, focus groups were conducted of parents of overweight and obese (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) 6-12-year-old children recruited from primary-care clinics. Questions focused on the role of the primary-care provider, effective components of weight-management strategies and feasibility of specific dietary strategies. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analysed using margin coding and grounded theory. Six focus groups were held. The mean age (in years) for parents was 32, and for children, eight; 44% of participants were Latino, 33%, African-American and 23%, white. Parents' recommendations on the primary-care provider's role in weight management included monitoring weight, providing guidance regarding health risks and lifestyle changes, consistent follow-up and using discretion during weight discussions. Weight-management components identified as key included emphasising healthy lifestyles and enjoyment, small changes to routines and parental role modelling. Parents prefer guidance regarding healthy dietary practices rather than specific weight-loss diets, but identified principles that could enhance the acceptability of these diets. For dietary guidance to be feasible, parents recommended easy-to-follow instructions and emphasising servings over counting calories. Effective weight-management strategies identified by parents include primary-care provider engagement in weight management, simple instructions regarding healthy lifestyle changes, parental involvement and deemphasising specific weight-loss diets. These findings may prove useful in developing primary-care weight-management strategies for children that maximise parental acceptance.

  14. Psycho-markers of weight loss. The roles of TFEQ Disinhibition and Restraint in exercise-induced weight management.

    PubMed

    Bryant, E J; Caudwell, P; Hopkins, M E; King, N A; Blundell, J E

    2012-02-01

    Eating behaviour traits, namely Disinhibition and Restraint, have the potential to exert an effect on food intake and energy balance. The effectiveness of exercise as a method of weight management could be influenced by these traits. Fifty eight overweight and obese participants completed 12-weeks of supervised exercise. Each participant was prescribed supervised exercise based on an expenditure of 500 kcal/session, 5d/week for 12-weeks. Following 12-weeks of exercise there was a significant reduction in mean body weight (-3.26±3.63 kg), fat mass (FM: -3.26±2.64 kg), BMI (-1.16±1.17 kg/m(2)) and waist circumference (WC: -5.0±3.23 cm). Regression analyses revealed a higher baseline Disinhibition score was associated with a greater reduction in BMI and WC, while Internal Disinhibition was associated with a larger decrease in weight, %FM and WC. Neither baseline Restraint or Hunger were associated with any of the anthropometric markers at baseline or after 12-weeks. Furthermore, after 12-weeks of exercise, a decrease in Disinhibition and increase in Restraint were associated with a greater reduction in WC, whereas only Restraint was associated with a decrease in weight. Post-hoc analysis of the sub-factors revealed a decrease in External Disinhibition and increase in Flexible Restraint were associated with weight loss. However, an increase in Rigid Restraint was associated with a reduction in %FM and WC. These findings suggest that exercise-induced weight loss is more marked in individuals with a high level of Disinhibition. These data demonstrate the important roles that Disinhibition and Restraint play in the relationship between exercise and energy balance.

  15. Obesity in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Call for Early Weight Management.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Parsons, Susan K

    2015-09-01

    A high prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions has been increasingly recognized in childhood cancer survivors. In particular, survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been found to be at risk of becoming overweight or obese early in treatment, with increases in weight maintained throughout treatment and beyond. Nutrition plays an important role in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions and is among the few modifiable factors that can prevent or delay the early onset of these chronic conditions. However, nutritional intake in childhood cancer survivors has not been adequately examined and the evidence is built on data from small cohorts of survivors. In addition, the long-term impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment on survivors' nutritional intake as well as how survivors' nutritional intake is associated with chronic health conditions have not been well quantified in large-scale studies. Promoting family-based healthy lifestyles, preferably at a sensitive window of unhealthy weight gain, is a priority for preventing the early onset of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions in childhood cancer survivors.

  16. The heavy LEGACY: Should weight management be part of every atrial fibrillation clinic?

    PubMed Central

    Atreya, Auras R.; Giugliano, Gregory R.

    2015-01-01

    As the global burden of atrial fibrillation (AF) and its attendant economic impact on the healthcare system surges, there is increasing interest in the secondary prevention of AF with various therapies. Of the several identified risk factors for AF, obesity is an important contributor that may be managed with intensive lifestyle modification. Prior studies have demonstrated the short-term and long-term benefits of weight loss in reduction of AF symptoms. In the LEGACY study [Long-Term Effect of Goal-Directed Weight Management in an Atrial Fibrillation Cohort: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study], the investigators evaluated the long-term effects of a weight management program on AF symptoms. Of the 355 patients included in this cohort, outcomes such as AF symptom burden, arrhythmia-free survival, inflammatory markers and structural cardiac changes all appear to have improved in the intense weight loss group as compared to the 2 other groups. Further, the benefits of weight loss appear to be lost when > 5% weight fluctuation (WF) occurred over the 5-year follow-up period. In this review, we discuss the design of the weight management clinic and its impact on the management of AF in the LEGACY study. Given that weight management appears to be an effective intervention that will not have the marketing and financial push that pharmaceutical and device based therapies enjoy, it behooves administrators of AF clinics to develop innovative funding strategies to incorporate weight management programs in order to improve patient-centered outcomes. PMID:26779529

  17. Enhancing the role of nutrition professionals in weight management: A cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Bandara, Sachini; Bennett, Wendy; Cooper, Lisa A.; Gudzune, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective 1) To determine the non-physician health profession perceived as best qualified to provide weight management; 2) To examine nutrition professionals’ current practice characteristics and perceived challenges and solutions for obesity care; and 3) To examine the association between nutrition professionals’ quality of training and self-efficacy in weight management. Design and methods We analyzed a 2014 national cross-sectional online survey of 500 U.S. non-physician health professionals (100 from each: nutrition, nursing, behavioral/mental health, exercise, pharmacy). Results Nutrition professionals most commonly self-identified as the most qualified group to help patients lose weight (92%), sentiments supported by other health professionals (57%). The most often cited challenge was lack of patient adherence (87%). Among nutrition professionals, 77% reported receiving high quality training in weight loss counseling. Nutrition professionals who reported high quality training were significantly more likely to report confidence (95% vs. 48%) and success (74% vs. 50%) in helping obese patients lose weight (p<0.05) than those reporting lower quality training. Conclusion Across all non-physician health professionals, nutrition professionals were identified as best suited to provide routine weight management counseling to obese patients. Yet, nutrition professionals’ receipt of high quality weight management training appears critical to their success in helping patients lose weight. PMID:25445319

  18. Adherence to a multi-component weight management program for Mexican American adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined weight loss among Mexican American students in a weight management program. A total of 358 participants completed a 12-week intervention that incorporated four program components: nutrition education (NE), physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), and a snacking interventi...

  19. The Biggest Loser Thinks Long-Term: Recency as a Predictor of Success in Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    Koritzky, Gilly; Rice, Chantelle; Dieterle, Camille; Bechara, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Only a minority of participants in behavioral weight management lose weight significantly. The ability to predict who is likely to benefit from weight management can improve the efficiency of obesity treatment. Identifying predictors of weight loss can also reveal potential ways to improve existing treatments. We propose a neuro-psychological model that is focused on recency: the reliance on recent information at the expense of time-distant information. Forty-four weight-management patients completed a decision-making task and their recency level was estimated by a mathematical model. Impulsivity and risk-taking were also measured for comparison. Weight loss was measured in the end of the 16-week intervention. Consistent with our hypothesis, successful dieters (n = 12) had lower recency scores than unsuccessful ones (n = 32; p = 0.006). Successful and unsuccessful dieters were similar in their demographics, intelligence, risk taking, impulsivity, and delay of gratification. We conclude that dieters who process time-distant information in their decision making are more likely to lose weight than those who are high in recency. We argue that having low recency facilitates future-oriented thinking, and thereby contributes to behavior change treatment adherence. Our findings underline the importance of choosing the right treatment for every individual, and outline a way to improve weight-management processes for more patients. PMID:26696930

  20. Undergrad and Overweight: An Online Behavioral Weight Management Program for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey-Berino, Jean; Pope, Lizzy; Gold, Beth Casey; Leonard, Heather; Belliveau, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Explore the feasibility of an online behavioral weight management program for college students. Methods: The program focused on behavioral strategies to modify eating and exercise behaviors of students interested in losing weight and/or developing a healthy lifestyle. Specific tools included weekly chat meetings with a facilitator,…

  1. An AHP-Based Weighted Analysis of Network Knowledge Management Platforms for Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chung-Ping; Lou, Shi-Jer; Shih, Ru-Chu; Tseng, Kuo-Hung

    2011-01-01

    This study uses the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to quantify important knowledge management behaviors and to analyze the weight scores of elementary school students' behaviors in knowledge transfer, sharing, and creation. Based on the analysis of Expert Choice and tests for validity and reliability, this study identified the weight scores of…

  2. Process Evaluation Results from an Environmentally Focused Worksite Weight Management Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJoy, David M.; Wilson, Mark G.; Padilla, Heather M.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Parker, Kristin B.; Della, Lindsay J.; Roemer, Enid C.

    2012-01-01

    There is currently much interest in exploring environmental approaches to combat weight gain and obesity. This study presents process evaluation results from a workplace-based study that tested two levels of environmentally focused weight management interventions in a manufacturing setting. The moderate treatment featured a set of relatively…

  3. Accuracy of Heart Rate Watches: Implications for Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Wrist-worn monitors claim to provide accurate measures of heart rate and energy expenditure. People wishing to lose weight use these devices to monitor energy balance, however the accuracy of these devices to measure such parameters has not been established. Aim To determine the accuracy of four wrist-worn devices (Apple Watch, Fitbit Charge HR, Samsung Gear S and Mio Alpha) to measure heart rate and energy expenditure at rest and during exercise. Methods Twenty-two healthy volunteers (50% female; aged 24 ± 5.6 years) completed ~1-hr protocols involving supine and seated rest, walking and running on a treadmill and cycling on an ergometer. Data from the devices collected during the protocol were compared with reference methods: electrocardiography (heart rate) and indirect calorimetry (energy expenditure). Results None of the devices performed significantly better overall, however heart rate was consistently more accurate than energy expenditure across all four devices. Correlations between the devices and reference methods were moderate to strong for heart rate (0.67–0.95 [0.35 to 0.98]) and weak to strong for energy expenditure (0.16–0.86 [-0.25 to 0.95]). All devices underestimated both outcomes compared to reference methods. The percentage error for heart rate was small across the devices (range: 1–9%) but greater for energy expenditure (9–43%). Similarly, limits of agreement were considerably narrower for heart rate (ranging from -27.3 to 13.1 bpm) than energy expenditure (ranging from -266.7 to 65.7 kcals) across devices. Conclusion These devices accurately measure heart rate. However, estimates of energy expenditure are poor and would have implications for people using these devices for weight loss. PMID:27232714

  4. Missing an opportunity: the embedded nature of weight management in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Osunlana, A. M.; Ogunleye, A. A.; Sharma, A. M.; Campbell‐Scherer, D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The 5As Team study was designed to create, implement and evaluate a flexible intervention to improve the quality and quantity of weight management visits in primary care. The objective of this portion of the study was to explore how primary care providers incorporate weight management in their practice. 5AsT is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) on the implementation of a 6‐month 5 As Team (5AsT) intervention designed to operationalize the 5As of obesity management in primary care. Data for the qualitative portion of the study presented here included semi‐structured interviews with 29 multidisciplinary team providers and field notes of intervention sessions. Thematic analysis was undertaken. A key pattern that emerged from the data was that healthcare providers usually do not address obesity as a primary focus for a visit. Rather, obesity is embedded in a wide range of primary care encounters for other conditions. Implications were it can take extra time to discuss weight, it can be inappropriate to bring up weight as a topic, and treating risk factors and root causes of obesity have indirect benefits to patient weight management. Our findings have implications for obesity treatment approaches and tools that assume a discreet weight management visit. The embedded nature of obesity management in primary care can be harnessed to leverage multiple opportunities for asking and assessing root causes of obesity, and working longitudinally towards individual health goals. PMID:26303812

  5. Nurses’ self-efficacy and practices relating to weight management of adult patients: a path analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health professionals play a key role in the prevention and treatment of excess weight and obesity, but many have expressed a lack of confidence in their ability to manage obese patients with their delivery of weight-management care remaining limited. The specific mechanism underlying inadequate practices in professional weight management remains unclear. The primary purpose of this study was to examine a self-efficacy theory-based model in understanding Registered Nurses’ (RNs) professional performance relating to weight management. Methods A self-report questionnaire was developed based upon the hypothesized model and administered to a convenience sample of 588 RNs. Data were collected regarding socio-demographic variables, psychosocial variables (attitudes towards obese people, professional role identity, teamwork beliefs, perceived skills, perceived barriers and self-efficacy) and professional weight management practices. Structural equation modeling was conducted to identify correlations between the above variables and to test the goodness of fit of the proposed model. Results The survey response rate was 71.4% (n = 420). The respondents reported a moderate level of weight management practices. Self-efficacy directly and positively predicted the weight management practices of the RNs (β = 0.36, p < 0.01), and fully or partially mediated the relationships between perceived skills, perceived barriers, professional role identity and teamwork beliefs and weight management practices. The final model constructed in this study demonstrated a good fit to the data [χ2 (14) =13.90, p = 0.46; GFI = 0.99; AGFI = 0.98; NNFI = 1.00; CFI = 1.00; RMSEA = 0.00; AIC = 57.90], accounting for 38.4% and 43.2% of the variance in weight management practices and self-efficacy, respectively. Conclusions Self-efficacy theory appears to be useful in understanding the weight management practices of RNs. Interventions targeting the

  6. Long-term follow-up after weight management in obese cats.

    PubMed

    Deagle, Gabrielle; Holden, Shelley L; Biourge, Vincent; Morris, Penelope J; German, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    Feline obesity is a prevalent medical disease and the main therapeutic strategy is dietary energy restriction. However, at present there are no data regarding long-term outcome in this species. The purpose of the present study was to investigate if, as in other species, some cats regain weight following successful weight loss, and to identify any influencing factors in a cohort of client-owned cats with naturally occurring obesity. Twenty-six cats were included, all of which had successfully completed a weight management programme. After weight loss, cats were periodically monitored. The median duration of follow-up was 954 d (72-2162 d). Ten cats (39 %) maintained their completion weight (±5 %), four (15 %) lost >5 % additional weight and 12 (46 %) gained >5 % weight. Seven of the rebounding cats (58 %) regained over 50 % of their original weight lost. Older cats were less likely to regain weight than younger cats (P = 0·024); with an approximately linear negative association between the cat's age and the amount of weight regained (Kendall's τ = -0·340, P = 0·016). Furthermore, cats whose energy intake during weight loss was greater were also more likely to regain weight (P = 0·023). When the characteristics of weight regain in cats were compared with those from a similar cohort of dogs, cats that rebounded were more likely to regain >50 % of the weight they had lost. These results suggest that weight regain, after successful weight loss, is common in obese cats, and that young cats (<7 years of age) are most at risk. PMID:26101594

  7. Making claims: functional foods for managing appetite and weight.

    PubMed

    Blundell, John

    2010-01-01

    Functional food products promote claims such as 'freedom from hunger' and 'feel fuller for longer'. A legislative framework has been established by the European Food Safety Authority to evaluate the validity of such claims: a claim must be substantiated by scientific evidence and should be clearly understood by consumers. Since consumed foods influence appetite by means of a system of physiological satiety signals, functional foods could in principle act by increasing the potency and/or duration of these signals. Importantly, what constitutes a useful action: a reduction in hunger, an increase in fullness, a change in food intake at a meal, an adjustment in daily energy balance or a reduction in body weight? Any claim should not go beyond the scientific evidence of an effect, and methods exist to scientifically evaluate claims. The wording of a claim is, therefore, critical. The difference between a proof of concept and a guarantee of success is an important point that needs to be conveyed to the consumer. PMID:20010971

  8. Making claims: functional foods for managing appetite and weight.

    PubMed

    Blundell, John

    2010-01-01

    Functional food products promote claims such as 'freedom from hunger' and 'feel fuller for longer'. A legislative framework has been established by the European Food Safety Authority to evaluate the validity of such claims: a claim must be substantiated by scientific evidence and should be clearly understood by consumers. Since consumed foods influence appetite by means of a system of physiological satiety signals, functional foods could in principle act by increasing the potency and/or duration of these signals. Importantly, what constitutes a useful action: a reduction in hunger, an increase in fullness, a change in food intake at a meal, an adjustment in daily energy balance or a reduction in body weight? Any claim should not go beyond the scientific evidence of an effect, and methods exist to scientifically evaluate claims. The wording of a claim is, therefore, critical. The difference between a proof of concept and a guarantee of success is an important point that needs to be conveyed to the consumer.

  9. Can foster care ever be justified for weight management?

    PubMed

    Williams, G M G; Bredow, Maria; Barton, John; Pryce, Rebekah; Shield, J P H

    2014-03-01

    Article nine of the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child states that 'Children must not be separated from their parents unless it is in the best interests of the child.' We describe the impact that placing a child into care can have on long-standing and intractable obesity when this is a component of a child safeguarding strategy. Significant weight loss was documented in a male adolescent following his placement into foster care due to emotional harm and neglect within his birth family. The child's body mass index (BMI) dropped from a peak of 45.6 to 35 over 18 months. We provide brief details of two further similar cases and outcomes. Childhood obesity is often not the sole concern during safeguarding proceedings. Removal from an 'obesogenic' home environment should be considered if failure by the parents/carers to address the obesity is a major cause for concern. It is essential that all other avenues have been explored before removing a child from his birth family. However, in certain circumstances we feel it may be justified. PMID:24225275

  10. Young Adults' Attitudes and Perceptions of Obesity and Weight Management: Implications for Treatment Development.

    PubMed

    Lanoye, Autumn; Gorin, Amy A; LaRose, Jessica Gokee

    2016-03-01

    Young adults are underrepresented in standard behavioral weight loss trials, and evidence suggests that they differ from older adults on many weight-related constructs. The aim of this review is to explore young adults' attitudes toward obesity and weight management, with particular attention to those factors that may play a role in the development of future treatment efforts. Both intrapersonal and interpersonal considerations unique to young adulthood are assessed; in addition, we examine young adults' perceptions of specific weight-related behaviors such as dieting, physical activity, and self-weighing. Conclusions are consistent with other findings suggesting that weight management interventions should be adapted and designed specifically for this age group. PMID:26923688

  11. Association of Self-Reported Weight Change and Quality of Life, and Exercise and Weight Management Behaviors Among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The SHIELD Study.

    PubMed

    Grandy, Susan; Fox, Kathleen M; Bazata, Debbra D

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. This study examined the association between self-reported weight change and quality of life, and exercise and weight management behaviors among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. In the US SHIELD study, respondents reported whether they had lost or gained weight compared with 1 year earlier and completed the SHIELD-WQ-9 quality of life questionnaire as well as provided information on their exercise and weight management behaviors in the past 12 months. Results. Sixteen percent of the respondents reported gaining weight (n = 460), and 30% reported losing weight (n = 895). More respondents who reported losing weight exercised regularly, limited calorie and fat intake, and increased fiber, fruit, and vegetable intake compared with respondents who reported gaining weight (P < 0.01). For all nine aspects of daily life, a significantly greater proportion of respondents who reported losing weight reported improved well-being (12%-44%) compared with respondents who reported gaining weight (P < 0.0001). Conclusions. Self-reported weight loss was associated with improved well-being, better exercise, and weight management behaviors among individuals with T2DM. PMID:22645696

  12. Nutraceuticals for body-weight management: The role of green tea catechins.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Pilou L H R; Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2016-08-01

    Green tea catechins mixed with caffeine have been proposed as adjuvants for maintaining or enhancing energy expenditure and for increasing fat oxidation, in the context of prevention and treatment of obesity. These catechins-caffeine mixtures seem to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that occurs during weight loss. Their effects are of particular importance during weight maintenance after weight loss. Other metabolic targets may be fat absorption and the gut microbiota composition, but these effects still need further investigation in combination with weight loss. Limitations for the effects of green tea catechins are moderating factors such as genetic predisposition related to COMT-activity, habitual caffeine intake, and ingestion combined with dietary protein. In conclusion, a mixture of green tea catechins and caffeine has a beneficial effect on body-weight management, especially by sustained energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and preservation of fat free body-mass, after energy restriction induced body-weight loss, when taking the limitations into account.

  13. Is consuming yoghurt associated with weight management outcomes? Results from a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Eales, J; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; King, S; Wood, H; Kok, F J; Shamir, R; Prentice, A; Edwards, M; Glanville, J; Atkinson, R L

    2016-01-01

    Background: Yoghurt is part of the diet of many people worldwide and is commonly recognised as a ‘health food'. Epidemiological studies suggest that yoghurt may be useful as part of weight management programs. In the absence of comprehensive systematic reviews, this systematic review investigated the effect of yoghurt consumption by apparently healthy adults on weight-related outcomes. Methods: An extensive literature search was undertaken, as part of a wider scoping review, to identify yoghurt studies. A total of 13 631 records were assessed for their relevance to weight-related outcomes. Results: Twenty-two publications were eligible according to the review protocol. Cohort studies (n=6) and cross-sectional studies (n=7) all showed a correlation between yoghurt and lower or improved body weight/composition. Six randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and one controlled trial had various limitations, including small size and short duration. One RCT showed significant effects of yoghurt on weight loss, but was confounded by differences in calcium intake. One trial showed nonsignificant weight gain and the remaining five trials showed nonsignificant weight losses that were greater in yoghurt consumers. Conclusions: Yoghurt consumption is associated with lower body mass index, lower body weight/weight gain, smaller waist circumference and lower body fat in epidemiological studies. RCTs suggest weight reduction effects, but do not permit determination of a cause–effect relationship. Well-controlled, adequately powered trials in research and community settings appear likely to identify a modest but beneficial effect of yoghurt consumption for prevention of weight gain and management of obesity. The ready availability of yoghurt (a nutrient-dense food) and its ease of introduction to most diets suggests that educating the public to eat yoghurt as part of a balanced and healthy diet may potentially contribute to improved public health. Future carefully designed RCTs

  14. Clinical Care Providers’ Perspectives on Body Size and Weight Management Among Long-Term Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Allison M.; Smith, Katherine C.; Coa, Kisha I; Helzlsouer, Kathy J.; Caulfield, Laura E.; Peairs, Kimberly S.; Shockney, Lillie D.; Klassen, Ann C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine clinical care providers’ perspectives on cancer survivors’ body size and weight management Study Design In-depth, semi-structured, qualitative interviews Methods Interviews were conducted with 33 providers (e.g., oncologists, surgeons, primary care providers, nurses, dietitians) across academic and community clinical settings. They were transcribed, coded, and analyzed thematically using constant comparative analysis. Results Providers conceptualized weight in relation to acute treatment, cancer outcomes, or overall health/comorbidities. These patterns were reflected in their reported framing of weight discussions, although providers indicated that they counsel patients on weight to varying extents. Perspectives differed based on professional roles and patient populations. Providers reported that survivors are motivated to lose weight, particularly due to comorbidity concerns, but face numerous barriers to doing so. Conclusion Providers described survivor-level and capacity-level factors influencing survivors’ weight management. Differences by provider type highlighted the role of provider knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs in clinical encounters. Opportunities for research and intervention include developing and disseminating evidence-based clinical resources for weight management among cancer survivors, addressing capacity barriers, and exploring communication strategies at interpersonal and population levels. PMID:25716349

  15. The adoption of mobile weight management services in a virtual community: the perspective of college students.

    PubMed

    Jen, Wen-Yuan

    2010-05-01

    Obesity among Taiwan college students is increasing every year. To help college students manage their weight, a prototype mobile weight management service system, the We Care for You Virtual Community (WCU VC), was designed, which would provide Web-based and cell-phone-based information services to individual participants. Conducted prior to system implementation, this study identified the factors affecting college student's intention in adopting the WCU VC as part of their weight control program. Employing the Technology Acceptance Model, factors associated with the college student's intention toward WCU VC were explored. Structural equation modeling analysis of collected data revealed that "perceived importance of health management" significantly affected the behavioral intention of adopting WCU VC services. Both "perceived importance of health management" and "perceived ease of use" had an indirect effect via "perceived usefulness" upon user's behavioral intention as well. With this knowledge of factors affecting student intention in participating in a Web-based and cell-phone-based weight control social support VC, a WCU VC system can be designed, which will promote the development of good weight management habits and contribute to the reduction in obesity-related chronic diseases among college students.

  16. Exploring parental factors related to weight management in survivors of childhood central nervous system tumors.

    PubMed

    Santa Maria, Diane; Swartz, Maria C; Markham, Christine; Chandra, Joya; McCurdy, Sheryl; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Childhood central nervous system tumor survivors (CCNSTS) are at risk for adverse health issues. Little research has been conducted to explore the role of parental factors in weight management to mitigate adverse health outcomes. We conducted 9 group interviews (n=20) with CCNSTS, their parents, and health care providers to ascertain parental factors that may influence weight management practices in CCNSTS. Three main themes were identified: parenting style, parent-child connectedness, and food and physical activity (PA) environment. Although most parents adopted an authoritative parenting style related to diet and PA practices, some adopted a permissive parenting style. Participants expressed high levels of connection that may hinder the development of peer relationships and described the food and PA environments that promote or hinder weight management through parental modeling of healthy eating and PA and access to healthy food and activities. Weight management interventions for CCNSTS may experience greater benefit from using a family-focused approach, promoting positive food and PA environments, parental modeling of healthy eating and exercise, and partnering with youth to adopt weight management behaviors. PMID:24608701

  17. The adoption of mobile weight management services in a virtual community: the perspective of college students.

    PubMed

    Jen, Wen-Yuan

    2010-05-01

    Obesity among Taiwan college students is increasing every year. To help college students manage their weight, a prototype mobile weight management service system, the We Care for You Virtual Community (WCU VC), was designed, which would provide Web-based and cell-phone-based information services to individual participants. Conducted prior to system implementation, this study identified the factors affecting college student's intention in adopting the WCU VC as part of their weight control program. Employing the Technology Acceptance Model, factors associated with the college student's intention toward WCU VC were explored. Structural equation modeling analysis of collected data revealed that "perceived importance of health management" significantly affected the behavioral intention of adopting WCU VC services. Both "perceived importance of health management" and "perceived ease of use" had an indirect effect via "perceived usefulness" upon user's behavioral intention as well. With this knowledge of factors affecting student intention in participating in a Web-based and cell-phone-based weight control social support VC, a WCU VC system can be designed, which will promote the development of good weight management habits and contribute to the reduction in obesity-related chronic diseases among college students. PMID:20507202

  18. A brief intervention for weight management in primary care: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity affects 25% of the UK adult population but modest weight loss can reduce the incidence of obesity-related chronic disease. Some effective weight loss treatments exist but there is no nationally available National Health Service (NHS) treatment service, and general practitioners (GPs) rarely discuss weight management with patients or support behavior change. Evidence shows that commercial weight management services, that most primary care trusts have 'on prescription', are more effective than primary care treatment. Methods/design We propose a controlled trial where patients will be randomized to receive either the offer of help by referral to a weight management service and follow-up to assess progress, or advice to lose weight on medical grounds. The primary outcome will be weight change at 12-months. Other questions are: what actions do people take to manage their weight in response to the two GP intervention types? How do obese patients feel about GPs opportunistically discussing weight management and how does this vary by intervention type? How do GPs feel about raising the issue opportunistically and giving the two types of brief intervention? What is the cost per kg/m2 lost for each intervention? Research assistants visiting GP practices in England (n = 60) would objectively measure weight and height prior to GP consultations and randomize willing patients (body mass index 30+, excess body fat, 18+ years) using sealed envelopes. Full recruitment (n = 1824) is feasible in 46 weeks, requiring six sessions of advice-giving per GP. Participants will be contacted at 3 months (postintervention) via telephone to identify actions they have taken to manage their weight. We will book appointments for participants to be seen at their GP practice for a 12-month follow-up. Discussion Trial results could make the case for brief interventions for obese people consulting their GP and introduce widespread simple treatments akin to the NHS Stop

  19. Overweight children and adolescents referred for weight management: are they meeting lifestyle behaviour recommendations?

    PubMed

    Ball, Geoff D C; Lenk, Julie M; Barbarich, Bobbi N; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Fishburne, Graham J; Mackenzie, Kelly A; Willows, Noreen D

    2008-10-01

    Adopting and maintaining healthy lifestyle behaviours can help overweight boys and girls manage their weight and reduce obesity-related health risks. However, we currently know very little about the lifestyle habits of overweight children and adolescents referred for weight management in Canada and whether or not they are meeting current lifestyle recommendations. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the demographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviours of overweight children and adolescents referred for clinical weight management, and (ii) to examine sex (boys vs. girls) and (or) age (child vs. youth) differences with respect to the achievement of lifestyle behaviour recommendations. Overweight (age- and sex-specific body mass index > or = 85th percentile) children (n = 27 girls, n = 24 boys) and adolescents (n = 29 girls, n = 19 boys) were referred to and enrolled in weight-management programs at the Pediatric Centre for Weight and Health (PCWH) at the Stollery Children's Hospital (Edmonton, Alta.) from January 2006-September 2007. Information was collected at intake regarding demography, anthropometry, and lifestyle behaviours before participants started a formal weight-management program. Lifestyle behaviour recommendations for nutrition, physical activity, screen time, and sleep were used to determine whether participants were meeting established guidelines. Overall, participants presented with poor lifestyle behaviours. Although most consumed adequate servings of grain products (93.9%) and meat and alternatives (68.7%), few met the serving recommendations for milk and alternatives (31.3%) or vegetables and fruit (14.1%). Physical activity levels were low - 7.4% and 4.1% achieved the recommended time and steps per day goals, respectively. Approximately 1/4 (22.7%) met the screen time recommendation, whereas fewer than 1/2 (47.4%) achieved the nightly sleep duration goal. Sex and age-group comparisons revealed subtle, but potentially important

  20. Barriers to weight management among Emirati women: a qualitative investigation of health professionals' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ali, Habiba I; Bernsen, Roos M; Baynouna, Latifa M

    Obesity and associated chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes are highly prevalent in the United Arab Emirates. This qualitative study explored weight management barriers for Emirati women and strategies that can facilitate their weight management efforts. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 29 primary health care physicians, dietitians, and nurses in Al Ain and Abu Dhabi medical districts. A modified grounded theory was used to guide data collection and analysis. Interview notes were analyzed thematically and inductively using the NVivo software. The three main emerging themes were barriers, motivators, and suggestions. A number of personal, health care system-related, social and physical barriers to weight management were identified. Participants' suggestions to facilitate weight management for Emirati women included: health awareness programs, policies that support lifestyle changes, and provision of the necessary resources. They recommended peer support and culturally-acceptable programs that provide a holistic approach to obesity prevention and management. This study has useful applications in the development of community-based interventions for the prevention and management of overweight and obesity among women in the United Arab Emirates.

  1. Evidence for efficacy and effectiveness of changes in eating frequency for body weight management.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ashima K

    2014-11-01

    In self-reported diets of free living individuals, frequent eating is associated with higher energy intake, yet beliefs about the possible beneficial effect of higher eating frequency for managing body weight persist. Prospective cohort studies and controlled trials of manipulation of eating frequency published by 31 December 2012 were reviewed to assess whether variation in eating frequency may be an adjunct to weight management. Four prospective cohort studies were identified; 2 of these included adults followed for 10 y and 2 followed pre-adolescent/adolescent girls for 6 or 10 y. Within each age category, the findings of the 2 studies were contradictory. Six controlled trials with adult subjects serving as their own controls found no significant changes in body weight due to manipulation of eating frequency interventions lasting 6-8 wk. In 6 additional intervention trials of 8-52 wk duration, free-living adults were counseled to change the eating frequency of self-selected food intake with no significant differences in weight loss attributable to eating frequency. Overall, the consistency of the null findings from controlled trials of manipulation of eating frequency for promoting weight loss suggests that beliefs about the role of higher eating frequency in adult weight management are not supported by evidence. Interpretation of the evidence from published observational studies is complicated by differences in definition of eating frequency and limited knowledge of systematic and random errors in measurement of eating frequency.

  2. Apollo Soyuz Test Project Weights and Mass Properties Operational Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, M. A., Jr.; Hischke, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    The Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) Weights and Mass Properties Operational Management System was established to assure a timely and authoritative method of acquiring, controlling, generating, and disseminating an official set of vehicle weights and mass properties data. This paper provides an overview of the system and its interaction with the various aspects of vehicle and component design, mission planning, hardware and software simulations and verification, and real-time mission support activities. The effect of vehicle configuration, design maturity, and consumables updates is discussed in the context of weight control.

  3. Management of atypical antipsychotic-induced weight gain in schizophrenic patients with topiramate.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Hsiung; Liu, Chia-Yih; Hsiao, Mei-Chun

    2005-10-01

    Patients treated with atypical antipsychotic drugs commonly gain excess weight. Because obesity is associated with considerable morbidity and decreased life expectancy, treatment of weight gain in these patients is critical. Topiramate, a fairly new anticonvulsant, promotes bodyweight loss in healthy obese subjects, patients with bipolar disorder, and patients with eating disorder. However, there are very few reports about the efficacy of topiramate for weight management in schizophrenic patients. We present the cases of three Taiwanese patients with schizophrenia whose bodyweight increased as a result of atypical antipsychotics treatment, then was controlled by topiramate without aggravation of their psychotic symptoms.

  4. Time perspective and weight management behaviors in newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes: a mediational analysis.

    PubMed

    Hall, Peter A; Fong, Geoffrey T; Cheng, Alice Y

    2012-12-01

    The primary objective of the current study was to examine the extent to which domain-specific time perspective predicts weight management behaviors (dietary behavior and physical activity) among those newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. A secondary objective was to test potential mediators of the hypothesized effect (behavioral intention, self-efficacy and control beliefs). A total of 204 adults newly diagnosed (≤6 months) with Type 2 diabetes participated in the study, which included a baseline assessment of domain-general and domain-specific time perspective, as well as strength of intention to perform two weight-management behaviors (dietary choice and physical activity); both weight-management behaviors were assessed again at 6 month follow-up. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed a prospective association between domain-specific time perspective and uptake of weight management behaviors. Individuals with newly diagnosed T2DM possessing a future-oriented time perspective reported making less frequent fatty food choices and greater increases in physical activity over the 6-month follow-up interval. These effects were selectively mediated by intention strength, and not competing social cognitive variables. For both behaviors, the total effects and meditational models were robust to adjustments for demographics, body composition and disease variables. A future-oriented time perspective is prospectively associated with superior uptake of weight management behaviors among those with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes. The facilitating effect of future-oriented thinking appears to occur via enhanced strength of intentions to perform weight management behaviors.

  5. Time perspective and weight management behaviors in newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes: a mediational analysis.

    PubMed

    Hall, Peter A; Fong, Geoffrey T; Cheng, Alice Y

    2012-12-01

    The primary objective of the current study was to examine the extent to which domain-specific time perspective predicts weight management behaviors (dietary behavior and physical activity) among those newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. A secondary objective was to test potential mediators of the hypothesized effect (behavioral intention, self-efficacy and control beliefs). A total of 204 adults newly diagnosed (≤6 months) with Type 2 diabetes participated in the study, which included a baseline assessment of domain-general and domain-specific time perspective, as well as strength of intention to perform two weight-management behaviors (dietary choice and physical activity); both weight-management behaviors were assessed again at 6 month follow-up. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed a prospective association between domain-specific time perspective and uptake of weight management behaviors. Individuals with newly diagnosed T2DM possessing a future-oriented time perspective reported making less frequent fatty food choices and greater increases in physical activity over the 6-month follow-up interval. These effects were selectively mediated by intention strength, and not competing social cognitive variables. For both behaviors, the total effects and meditational models were robust to adjustments for demographics, body composition and disease variables. A future-oriented time perspective is prospectively associated with superior uptake of weight management behaviors among those with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes. The facilitating effect of future-oriented thinking appears to occur via enhanced strength of intentions to perform weight management behaviors. PMID:22105339

  6. Literature review: perceptions and management of body size among normal weight and moderately overweight people.

    PubMed

    Nissen, N K; Holm, L

    2015-02-01

    Improved understanding of how normal weight and moderately overweight people manage their body weight and shape could be used to inform initiatives to prevent and treat obesity. This literature review offers a thorough appraisal of existing research into perceptions and management of own body size among normal weight and moderately overweight people. The studies reported in the 47 publications reviewed here address various themes based on different conceptualizations. The studies point out that normal weight and moderately overweight people are much concerned about their body size, but huge discrepancies are found between their own perceptions and study categorizations. The studies also indicate that normal weight and moderately overweight people are actively engaged in managing their body size through numerous managing strategies, and dieting is widespread. Together the studies do not form a unified and coherent research field, and there is a bias towards North American study populations. Methodological problems were identified in some publications, raising questions about generalizability of the findings. Moreover, only few studies give deeper insight into the specific perceptions and actions. Repeated studies are needed in broader and more differentiated geographical, social and cultural contexts, and longitudinal studies and more in-depth explorations are especially needed.

  7. Virtual worlds as a tool to facilitate weight management for young people

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Michael; Taylor, Dave; Kulendran, Myutan; Gately, Paul; Darzi, Ara

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious problem in the UK, with around 20% of children aged 10-11 being overweight or obese. Lifestyle interventions can be effective, but there is limited evidence of their effectiveness in delivering sustained weight loss. The present research explored potential of web-based, 3-dimensional virtual worlds (VWs) for facilitation of weight-management, well-being and patient and public involvement (PPI) for young people. Attendees of a weight management camp took part in induction sessions for use of the VW of Second Life. All participants successfully learned how to interact with one another and navigate the virtual environment. Participant appraisals of Second Life were varied. Some found it complicated and difficult to use, and some found it fun and the majority stated that they would choose to use VWs again. There is considerable potential for use of VWs to promote weight management, and Second Life or a similar VW could be used to deliver this. Potential barriers include members of the target sample having limited access to computers with necessary system requirements for running VWs, and that some may find VW-based educational experiences unappealing or challenging to navigate. For some however, VWs may provide a useful mode for provision of education, PPI and support relating to weight management. PMID:27540446

  8. Weight management in type 2 diabetes: current and emerging approaches to treatment.

    PubMed

    Van Gaal, Luc; Scheen, André

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes is a growing global health concern, as is obesity. Diabetes and obesity are intrinsically linked: obesity increases the risk of diabetes and also contributes to disease progression and cardiovascular disease. Although the benefits of weight loss in the prevention of diabetes and as a critical component of managing the condition are well established, weight reduction remains challenging for individuals with type 2 diabetes due to a host of metabolic and psychological factors. For many patients, lifestyle intervention is not enough to achieve weight loss, and alternative options, such as pharmacotherapy, need to be considered. However, many traditional glucose-lowering medications may lead to weight gain. This article focuses on the potential of currently available pharmacological strategies and on emerging approaches in development to support the glycemic and weight-loss goals of individuals with type 2 diabetes. Two pharmacotherapy types are considered: those developed primarily for blood glucose control that have a favorable effect on body weight and those developed primarily to induce weight loss that have a favorable effect on blood glucose control. Finally, the potential of combination therapies for the management of obese patients with type 2 diabetes is discussed.

  9. Capsaicinoids and capsinoids. A potential role for weight management? A systematic review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Stephen; Derbyshire, Emma; Tiwari, B K

    2012-10-01

    Capsaicinoids are a group of chemicals found in chilli peppers, with bioactive properties. The purpose of this study is to systematically review research investigating the potential benefits capsaicinoid compounds may have in relation to weight management. Medical databases were searched and 90 trials found, 20 of which were selected for inclusion, involving 563 participants. Three main areas of potential benefit for weight management were found: (1) increased energy expenditure; (2) increased lipid oxidation and (3) reduced appetite. Trial duration, dosage and sized varied, though trials were generally of high quality with a low risk of bias. It was observed that consumption of capsaicinoids increases energy expenditure by approximately 50 kcal/day, and that this would produce clinically significant levels of weight loss in 1-2 years. It was also observed that regular consumption significantly reduced abdominal adipose tissue levels and reduced appetite and energy intake. The mechanism of action is not presently fully understood, although it is well accepted much of the effects are caused by stimulation of the TRPV1 receptor. While capsaicinoids are not a magic bullet for weight loss, the evidence is that they could play a beneficial role, as part of a weight management program.

  10. Weight Optimization of Active Thermal Management Using a Novel Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, William E.; Sherif, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    Efficient lightweight power generation and thermal management are two important aspects for space applications. Weight is added to the space platforms due to the inherent weight of the onboard power generation equipment and the additional weight of the required thermal management systems. Thermal management of spacecraft relies on rejection of heat via radiation, a process that can result in large radiator mass, depending upon the heat rejection temperature. For some missions, it is advantageous to incorporate an active thermal management system, allowing the heat rejection temperature to be greater than the load temperature. This allows a reduction of radiator mass at the expense of additional system complexity. A particular type of active thermal management system is based on a thermodynamic cycle, developed by the authors, called the Solar Integrated Thermal Management and Power (SITMAP) cycle. This system has been a focus of the authors research program in the recent past (see Fig. 1). One implementation of the system requires no moving parts, which decreases the vibration level and enhances reliability. Compression of the refrigerant working fluid is accomplished in this scheme via an ejector.

  11. Body Power! School-Based Weight Management for Middle School Adolescents. Leader's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennee, Phyllis M.; And Others

    This leader's manual contains the materials required to present a school-based weight management curriculum that may be offered both in school and outside the school setting for middle-school adolescents. The first section contains instructor information regarding the following topics: need for the program; program objectives; timeline and…

  12. Predictors of Low-income, Obese Mothers' Use of Healthful Weight Management Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Nitzke, Susan; Brown, Roger; Baumann, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the influence of personal and environmental factors on healthful weight management behaviors mediated through self-efficacy among low-income obese mothers. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in Wisconsin. Participants: Two hundred eighty-four obese…

  13. The Efficacy of a Multifaceted Weight Management Program for Children and Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kihm, Holly Spencer

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of overweight and obesity among children and young adolescents remains unacceptably high and places our youth at risk for several negative outcomes. Recognizing the need for a youth-focused weight management program in our community, the researcher developed, implemented, and evaluated a small pilot study, FitKids. The aims of…

  14. Parent Interest in a School-Based, School Nurse-Led Weight Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Lee, Jiwoo

    2014-01-01

    Because one in three children is already overweight or obese, school-based interventions targeting secondary obesity prevention merit consideration. This study assessed parent interest in participating in a school-based, school nurse-led weight management program for young school-aged children. A random sample of parents ("n" = 122) of…

  15. Applying Grounded Theory to Weight Management among Women: Making a Commitment to Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Ivankova, Nataliya

    2011-01-01

    In this study we developed a theory grounded in data from women who continued healthy eating behaviors after a weight management program. Participant recruitment was guided by theoretical sampling strategies for focus groups and individual interviews. Inclusion criteria were: African American or Caucasian women aged 30+ who lost [greater than or…

  16. A Guide to Care and Management of Very Low Birth Weight Infants. A Team Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmler, Caryl J., Ed.

    The 14 articles, which make up the bulk of this book provide an interdisciplinary guide to the management of very low birth weight infants. Following an introduction, the first section, titled "Family Considerations," presents three papers discussing, respectively, parent-infant interaction, cultural variables in pediatric care, and parents'…

  17. The Effect of a "Mindful Restaurant Eating" Intervention on Weight Management in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmerman, Gayle M.; Brown, Adama

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of a "Mindful Restaurant Eating" intervention on weight management. Design: Randomized control trial. Setting: Greater metropolitan area of Austin, Texas. Participants: Women (n = 35) 40-59 years old who eat out at least 3 times per week. Intervention: The intervention, using 6 weekly 2-hour, small group sessions,…

  18. Understanding Weight Management Perceptions in First-Year College Students Using the Health Belief Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Bhibha M.; Evans, Ellen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine weight management barriers, using the Health Belief Model, in first-year college students. Participants: First-year college students (n = 45), with data collected in April, May, and November 2013. Methods: Nominal group technique sessions (n = 8) were conducted. Results: First-year students recognize benefits to weight…

  19. Developmental Guidance Programming in Junior and Senior High Schools: Eating Disorders and Weight Management Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen-Scott, Rhonda L.; DeLucia-Waack, Janice L.

    1993-01-01

    Suggests integrating eating disorders and weight management (ED/WM) guidance units in existing junior and senior high school programs. Outlines rationale for ED/WM units, identifies goals of interventions, discusses general information regarding practical implementation of model, and presents three potential program components (cognitive,…

  20. Dissemination of an effective weight management program for Mexican American children in schools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rates of child obesity are epidemic in the United States, and Mexican American children are at particular risk. We have found an intensive, multi-component, school-based, weight management intervention to be efficacious at reducing standardized body mass index (zBMI) in overweight children. Our ...

  1. The school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are attempting to uncover the school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students. Data was collected within a time frame for the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) set at two months at the WT Cheney Elementary School and South Wood Elementary for 4th grade stud...

  2. Smartloss: A Personalized Mobile Health Intervention for Weight Management and Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, L. Anne; Apolzan, John W; Myers, Candice A; Thomas, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Background Synonymous with increased use of mobile phones has been the development of mobile health (mHealth) technology for improving health, including weight management. Behavior change theory (eg, the theory of planned behavior) can be effectively encapsulated into mobile phone-based health improvement programs, which is fostered by the ability of mobile phones and related devices to collect and transmit objective data in near real time and for health care or research professionals and clients to communicate easily. Objective To describe SmartLoss, a semiautomated mHealth platform for weight loss. Methods We developed and validated a dynamic energy balance model that determines the amount of weight an individual will lose over time if they are adherent to an energy intake prescription. This model was incorporated into computer code that enables adherence to a prescribed caloric prescription determined from the change in body weight of the individual. Data from the individual are then used to guide personalized recommendations regarding weight loss and behavior change via a semiautomated mHealth platform called SmartLoss, which consists of 2 elements: (1) a clinician dashboard and (2) a mobile phone app. SmartLoss includes and interfaces with a network-connected bathroom scale and a Bluetooth-connected accelerometer, which enables automated collection of client information (eg, body weight change and physical activity patterns), as well as the systematic delivery of preplanned health materials and automated feedback that is based on client data and is designed to foster prolonged adherence with body weight, diet, and exercise goals. The clinician dashboard allows for efficient remote monitoring of all clients simultaneously, which may further increase adherence, personalization of treatment, treatment fidelity, and efficacy. Results Evidence of the efficacy of the SmartLoss approach has been reported previously. The present report provides a thorough description

  3. Primary care-based, targeted screening programme to promote sustained weight management

    PubMed Central

    Järvenpää, Salme; Kautiainen, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To identify overweight and obese subjects at increased cardiovascular risk in the community, and provide them with lifestyle counselling that is possible to implement in real life. Design. Longitudinal cohort study. Setting. The communities of Harjavalta and Kokemäki in south-western Finland. Subjects. A tape for measurement of waist and a risk factor questionnaire was mailed to home-dwelling inhabitants aged 45–70 years (n = 6013). Of the 4421 respondents, 2752 with at least one cardiovascular risk factor were examined by a public health nurse. For the subjects with high cardiovascular risk (n = 1950), an appointment with a physician was scheduled. The main goal of lifestyle counselling for the 1608 high-risk subjects with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 was weight reduction of at least 5%. Among these, 906 had completed self-administrated questionnaires at baseline and form the present study population. Main outcome measure. Success in weight management. Results. At the three-year follow-up visit, 18% of subjects had lost ≥ 5% of their initial weight and 70% had stabilized their weight, while 12% had gained weight ≥ 5%. Newly diagnosed glucose disorder (OR 1.37 [95% CI 1.02–1.84]) predicted success in weight management, whereas depressive symptoms (OR 0.61 [95% CI 0.42–0.90]), excess alcohol use (OR 0.63 [95% CI 0.44–0.90]), and number of drugs used (OR 0.91 [95% CI 0.83–0.99]) at baseline predicted poor outcome. Conclusions. A primary care screening programme to identify overweight or obese individuals can promote sustained weight management. Psychological factors, especially depressive symptoms, are a critical component to consider before attempts to change the lifestyle of an individual. PMID:24592894

  4. Integrating mobile technology with routine dietetic practice: the case of myPace for weight management.

    PubMed

    Harricharan, Michelle; Gemen, Raymond; Celemín, Laura Fernández; Fletcher, David; de Looy, Anne E; Wills, Josephine; Barnett, Julie

    2015-05-01

    The field of Mobile health (mHealth), which includes mobile phone applications (apps), is growing rapidly and has the potential to transform healthcare by increasing its quality and efficiency. The present paper focuses particularly on mobile technology for body weight management, including mobile phone apps for weight loss and the available evidence on their effectiveness. Translation of behaviour change theory into weight management strategies, including integration in mobile technology is also discussed. Moreover, the paper presents and discusses the myPace platform as a case in point. There is little clinical evidence on the effectiveness of currently available mobile phone apps in enabling behaviour change and improving health-related outcomes, including sustained body weight loss. Moreover, it is unclear to what extent these apps have been developed in collaboration with health professionals, such as dietitians, and the extent to which apps draw on and operationalise behaviour change techniques has not been explored. Furthermore, presently weight management apps are not built for use as part of dietetic practice, or indeed healthcare more widely, where face-to-face engagement is fundamental for instituting the building blocks for sustained lifestyle change. myPace is an innovative mobile technology for weight management meant to be embedded into and to enhance dietetic practice. Developed out of systematic, iterative stages of engagement with dietitians and consumers, it is uniquely designed to complement and support the trusted health practitioner-patient relationship. Future mHealth technology would benefit if engagement with health professionals and/or targeted patient groups, and behaviour change theory stood as the basis for technology development. Particularly, integrating technology into routine health care practice, rather than replacing one with the other, could be the way forward.

  5. Satiety-enhancing products for appetite control: science and regulation of functional foods for weight management.

    PubMed

    Halford, Jason C G; Harrold, Joanne A

    2012-05-01

    The current review considers satiety-based approaches to weight management in the context of health claims. Health benefits, defined as beneficial physiological effects, are what the European Food Safety Authority bases their recommendations on for claim approval. The literature demonstrates that foods that target within-meal satiation and post-meal satiety provide a plausible approach to weight management. However, few ingredient types tested produce the sustainable and enduring effects on appetite accompanied by the necessary reductions in energy intake required to claim satiety/reduction in hunger as a health benefit. Proteins, fibre types, novel oils and carbohydrates resistant to digestion all have the potential to produce beneficial short-term changes in appetite (proof-of-concept). The challenge remains to demonstrate their enduring effects on appetite and energy intake, as well as the health and consumer benefits such effects provide in terms of optimising successful weight management. Currently, the benefits of satiety-enhancing ingredients to both consumers and their health are under researched. It is possible that such ingredients help consumers gain control over their eating behaviour and may also help reduce the negative psychological impact of dieting and the physiological consequences of energy restriction that ultimately undermine weight management. In conclusion, industry needs to demonstrate that a satiety-based approach to weight management, based on single-manipulated food items, is sufficient to help consumers resist the situational and personal factors that drive overconsumption. Nonetheless, we possess the methodological tools, which when employed in appropriate designs, are sufficient to support health claims. PMID:22401600

  6. Weight management in Canada: an environmental scan of health services for adults with obesity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity in Canada is a growing concern, but little is known about the available services for managing obesity in adults. Our objectives were to (a) survey and describe programs dedicated to weight management and (b) evaluate program adherence to established recommendations for care. Methods We conducted an online environmental scan in 2011 to identify adult weight management services throughout Canada. We examined the degree to which programs adhered to the 2006 Canadian Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Management and Prevention of Obesity in Adults and Children (CCPGO) and the analysis criteria developed by the Association pour la Santé Publique du Québec (ASPQ). Results A total of 83 non-surgical (34 community-based, 42 primary care-based, 7 hospital-based) and 33 surgical programs were identified. All programs encouraged patient self-management. However, few non-surgical programs adhered to the CCPGO recommendations for assessment and intervention, and there was a general lack of screening for eating disorders, depression and other psychiatric diseases across all programs. Concordance with the ASPQ criteria was best among primary care-based programs, but less common in other settings with deficits most frequently revealed in multidisciplinary health assessment/management and physical activity counselling. Conclusions With more than 60% of Canadians overweight or obese, our findings highlight that availability of weight management services is far outstripped by need. Our observation that evidence-based recommendations are applied inconsistently across the country validates the need for knowledge translation of effective health services for managing obesity in adults. PMID:24521300

  7. Benefits of modest weight loss on the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lau, David C W; Teoh, Hwee

    2013-04-01

    The epidemic of overweight and obesity is a major driver of the growing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus globally. The risk of type 2 diabetes increases exponentially as body mass index rises above 25 kg/m(2). Obesity currently costs the Canadian economy approximately $7.1 billion annually whereas per capita health care cost for individuals with diabetes are 3 to 4 times that for persons without the disease. Each kilogram of weight lost through health behaviour changes in people with impaired glucose tolerance is associated with a relative diabetes risk reduction of 16%. As 80% to 90% of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese, and adiposity worsens the metabolic and physiologic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes, weight loss is recommended as the cornerstone management measure. A modest weight loss of 5% to 10% is an achievable and realistic goal for preventing type 2 diabetes in susceptible individuals and improving glycemic and metabolic control in people with type 2 diabetes. When health behaviour modification fails to achieve glycemic and metabolic goal targets, priority should be given to antihyperglycemic agents that are associated with weight loss or weight neutrality. Every pound of body fat loss matters and every kilogram counts in the management of type 2 diabetes.

  8. Weight management interventions in adults with intellectual disabilities and obesity: a systematic review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of weight management interventions in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and obesity using recommendations from current clinical guidelines for the first line management of obesity in adults. Full papers on lifestyle modification interventions published between 1982 to 2011 were sought by searching the Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases. Studies were evaluated based on 1) intervention components, 2) methodology, 3) attrition rate 4) reported weight loss and 5) duration of follow up. Twenty two studies met the inclusion criteria. The interventions were classified according to inclusion of the following components: behaviour change alone, behaviour change plus physical activity, dietary advice or physical activity alone, dietary plus physical activity advice and multi-component (all three components). The majority of the studies had the same methodological limitations: no sample size justification, small heterogeneous samples, no information on randomisation methodologies. Eight studies were classified as multi-component interventions, of which one study used a 600 kilocalorie (2510 kilojoule) daily energy deficit diet. Study durations were mostly below the duration recommended in clinical guidelines and varied widely. No study included an exercise program promoting 225–300 minutes or more of moderate intensity physical activity per week but the majority of the studies used the same behaviour change techniques. Three studies reported clinically significant weight loss (≥ 5%) at six months post intervention. Current data indicate weight management interventions in those with ID differ from recommended practice and further studies to examine the effectiveness of multi-component weight management interventions for adults with ID and obesity are justified. PMID:24060348

  9. Findings from an online behavioural weight management programme provided with or without a fortified diet beverage.

    PubMed

    Haddock, C Keith; Poston, Walker S C; Lagrotte, Caitlin; Klotz, Alicia A; Oliver, Tracy L; Vander Veur, Stephanie S; Foster, Gary D; Jebb, Susan A; Moore, Carmel; Roberts, Susan A; Reeves, Rebecca S; Bolton, Mary Pat; Foreyt, John P

    2014-01-28

    The present multi-centre randomised weight-loss trial evaluated the efficacy of a low-intensity 12-week online behavioural modification programme, with or without a fortified diet beverage using a 2 × 2 factorial design. A total of 572 participants were randomised to: (1) an online basic lifestyle information (OBLI) intervention, consisting of one online informational class about tips for weight management; (2) an online behavioural weight management (OBWM) intervention, entailing 12 weekly online classes focused on weight-loss behaviour modification; (3) an OBLI intervention plus a fortified diet cola beverage (BEV) containing green tea extract (total catechin 167 mg), soluble fibre dextrin (10 g) and caffeine (100 mg) (OBLI+BEV); (4) OBWM+BEV. Assessments included height, weight, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived body composition, and waist circumference (WC). Attrition was 15·7 %. Intention-to-treat (ITT) models demonstrated a main effect for type of Internet programme, with those assigned to the OBWM condition losing significantly more weight (F= 7·174; P= 0·008) and fat mass (F= 4·491; P= 0·035) than those assigned to the OBLI condition. However, there was no significant main effect for the OBWM condition on body fat percentage (F= 2·906; P= 0·089) or WC (F= 3·351; P= 0·068), and no significant main effect for beverage use or significant interactions between factors in ITT models. A 12-week, low-intensity behaviourally based online programme produced a greater weight loss than a basic information website. The addition of a fortified diet beverage had no additional impact.

  10. Findings from an online behavioural weight management programme provided with or without a fortified diet beverage.

    PubMed

    Haddock, C Keith; Poston, Walker S C; Lagrotte, Caitlin; Klotz, Alicia A; Oliver, Tracy L; Vander Veur, Stephanie S; Foster, Gary D; Jebb, Susan A; Moore, Carmel; Roberts, Susan A; Reeves, Rebecca S; Bolton, Mary Pat; Foreyt, John P

    2014-01-28

    The present multi-centre randomised weight-loss trial evaluated the efficacy of a low-intensity 12-week online behavioural modification programme, with or without a fortified diet beverage using a 2 × 2 factorial design. A total of 572 participants were randomised to: (1) an online basic lifestyle information (OBLI) intervention, consisting of one online informational class about tips for weight management; (2) an online behavioural weight management (OBWM) intervention, entailing 12 weekly online classes focused on weight-loss behaviour modification; (3) an OBLI intervention plus a fortified diet cola beverage (BEV) containing green tea extract (total catechin 167 mg), soluble fibre dextrin (10 g) and caffeine (100 mg) (OBLI+BEV); (4) OBWM+BEV. Assessments included height, weight, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived body composition, and waist circumference (WC). Attrition was 15·7 %. Intention-to-treat (ITT) models demonstrated a main effect for type of Internet programme, with those assigned to the OBWM condition losing significantly more weight (F= 7·174; P= 0·008) and fat mass (F= 4·491; P= 0·035) than those assigned to the OBLI condition. However, there was no significant main effect for the OBWM condition on body fat percentage (F= 2·906; P= 0·089) or WC (F= 3·351; P= 0·068), and no significant main effect for beverage use or significant interactions between factors in ITT models. A 12-week, low-intensity behaviourally based online programme produced a greater weight loss than a basic information website. The addition of a fortified diet beverage had no additional impact. PMID:23920353

  11. Nutraceuticals for body-weight management: The role of green tea catechins.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Pilou L H R; Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2016-08-01

    Green tea catechins mixed with caffeine have been proposed as adjuvants for maintaining or enhancing energy expenditure and for increasing fat oxidation, in the context of prevention and treatment of obesity. These catechins-caffeine mixtures seem to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that occurs during weight loss. Their effects are of particular importance during weight maintenance after weight loss. Other metabolic targets may be fat absorption and the gut microbiota composition, but these effects still need further investigation in combination with weight loss. Limitations for the effects of green tea catechins are moderating factors such as genetic predisposition related to COMT-activity, habitual caffeine intake, and ingestion combined with dietary protein. In conclusion, a mixture of green tea catechins and caffeine has a beneficial effect on body-weight management, especially by sustained energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and preservation of fat free body-mass, after energy restriction induced body-weight loss, when taking the limitations into account. PMID:26836279

  12. [Psychotropic drugs induced weight gain: a review of the literature concerning epidemiological data, mechanisms and management].

    PubMed

    Ruetsch, O; Viala, A; Bardou, H; Martin, P; Vacheron, M N

    2005-01-01

    , antipsychotic drugs) and weight gain despite reduced appetite which can be explained by an altered resting metabolic rate (TCA, SSRI, Monoaminoxidase Inhibitors MAO I). According to current concepts, appetite and feeding are regulated by a complex of neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, cytokines and hormones interacting with the hypothalamus, including the leptin and the tumor necrosis factor system. The pharmacologic mechanisms underlying weight gain are presently poorly understood: maybe the different activities at some receptor systems may induce it, but also genetic predisposition. Understanding of the metabolic consequences of psychotropic drugs (weight gain, diabetes, dyslipidemia) is essential: the insulin-like effect of lithium is known; treatment with antipsychotic medications increases the risk of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus. Several management options of weight gain are available from choosing or switching to another drug, dietary advices, increasing physical activities, behavioural treatment, but the best approach seems to attempt to prevent the weight gain : patients beginning maintenance therapy should be informed of that risk, and nutritional assessment and counselling should be a routine part of treatment management, associated with monitoring of weight, BMI, blood pressure, biological parameters (baseline and three months monitoring of fasting glucose level, fasting cholesterol and triglyceride levels, glycosylated haemoglobin). Psychiatrics must pay attention to concomitant medications and individual factors underlying overweight and obesity. Weight gain has been described since the discovery and the use of the firstpsychotropic drugs, but seems to intensify with especially some of the second generation antipsychotic medications ; understanding of the side effects of psychotropic drugs, including their metabolic consequences (weight gain, diabetes, dyslipidemia) is essential for the psychiatrics to avoid on the one hand a risk of lack of

  13. Design and Methods of a Synchronous Online Motivational Interviewing Intervention for Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    DiLillo, Vicki; Ingle, Krista; Harvey, Jean Ruth; West, Delia Smith

    2016-01-01

    Background While Internet-based weight management programs can facilitate access to and engagement in evidence-based lifestyle weight loss programs, the results have generally not been as effective as in-person programs. Furthermore, motivational interviewing (MI) has shown promise as a technique for enhancing weight loss outcomes within face-to-face programs. Objective This paper describes the design, intervention development, and analysis of a therapist-delivered online MI intervention for weight loss in the context of an online weight loss program. Methods The MI intervention is delivered within the context of a randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of an 18-month, group-based, online behavioral weight control program plus individually administered, synchronous online MI sessions relative to the group-based program alone. Six individual 30-minute MI sessions are conducted in private chat rooms over 18 months by doctoral-level psychologists. Sessions use a semistructured interview format for content and session flow and incorporate core MI components (eg, collaborative agenda setting, open-ended questions, reflective listening and summary statements, objective data, and a focus on evoking and amplifying change talk). Results The project was funded in 2010 and enrollment was completed in 2012. Data analysis is currently under way and the first results are expected in 2016. Conclusions This is the first trial to test the efficacy of a synchronous online, one-on-one MI intervention designed to augment an online group behavioral weight loss program. If the addition of MI sessions proves to be successful, this intervention could be disseminated to enhance other distance-based weight loss interventions. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01232699; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01232699 PMID:27095604

  14. Pharmacologic Approaches to Weight Management: Recent Gains and Shortfalls in Combating Obesity.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Katherine H; Kumar, Rekha B; Igel, Leon I; Aronne, Louis J

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic in the USA with over one third of adults presently classified as obese. Obesity-related comorbidities include many leading causes of preventable death such as heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer. Modest weight loss of 5-10 % of body weight is sufficient to produce clinically relevant improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors among patients with overweight and obesity. Until recently, there were limited pharmacologic options approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat obesity. Phentermine/topiramate ER and lorcaserin were approved in 2012, and naltrexone SR/bupropion SR and liraglutide 3.0 mg were approved in 2014. This article reviews recent literature in the field of Obesity Medicine and highlights important findings from clinical trials. Future directions in the pharmacologic management of obesity are presented along with new diabetes medications that promote weight loss and reduce cardiovascular mortality. PMID:27181165

  15. Pharmacologic Approaches to Weight Management: Recent Gains and Shortfalls in Combating Obesity.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Katherine H; Kumar, Rekha B; Igel, Leon I; Aronne, Louis J

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic in the USA with over one third of adults presently classified as obese. Obesity-related comorbidities include many leading causes of preventable death such as heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer. Modest weight loss of 5-10 % of body weight is sufficient to produce clinically relevant improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors among patients with overweight and obesity. Until recently, there were limited pharmacologic options approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat obesity. Phentermine/topiramate ER and lorcaserin were approved in 2012, and naltrexone SR/bupropion SR and liraglutide 3.0 mg were approved in 2014. This article reviews recent literature in the field of Obesity Medicine and highlights important findings from clinical trials. Future directions in the pharmacologic management of obesity are presented along with new diabetes medications that promote weight loss and reduce cardiovascular mortality.

  16. The role of nurse support within an Internet-delivered weight management intervention: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Renouf, Sarah; Bradbury, Katherine; Yardley, Lucy; Little, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explored patients' experiences of nurse support for an Internet-delivered weight management intervention. Eighteen patients who had received either basic or regular nurse support (three or seven contacts, respectively) for the Internet intervention were interviewed. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. The findings suggest that more regular support for Internet interventions may have the potential to inhibit the development of autonomous motivation for weight loss, which might lead to problems in sustaining losses after support ends. Further research is now needed to confirm whether motivation is influenced by frequency of nurse support in Internet interventions in order to inform the development of optimal support which promotes sustained weight loss. PMID:25438990

  17. Efficacy of Continuing Education in Improving Pharmacists' Competencies for Providing Weight Management Service: Three-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarayani, Amir; Rashidian, Arash; Gholami, Kheirollah; Torkamandi, Hassan; Javadi, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Weight management is a new public health role for community pharmacists in many countries. Lack of expertise is one of the key barriers to counseling obese patients. We evaluated the comparative efficacy of three alternative continuing education (CE) meetings on weight management. Methods: We designed a randomized controlled trial…

  18. Association of increased monetary cost of dietary intake, diet quality and weight management in Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Helmut; Serra-Majem, Luis; Subirana, Isaac; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Fitó, Montserrat; Elosua, Roberto

    2016-03-14

    Higher monetary diet cost is associated with healthier food choices and better weight management. How changes in diet cost affect changes in diet quality and weight remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of changes in individual monetary diet cost on changes in diet quality, measured by the modified Mediterranean diet score recommendations (MDS-rec) and by energy density (ED), as well as changes in weight and BMI. We conducted a prospective, population-based study of 2181 male and female Spaniards aged between 25 and 74 years, who were followed up to the 2009-2010 academic year. We measured weight and height and recorded dietary data using a validated FFQ. Average food cost was calculated from official Spanish government data. We fitted multivariate linear and logistic regression models. The average daily diet cost increased from 3·68(SD0.0·89)€/8·36 MJ to 4·97(SD1·16)€/8·36 MJ during the study period. This increase was significantly associated with improvement in diet quality (Δ ED and Δ MDS-rec; P<0·0001). Each 1€ increase in monetary diet cost per 8·36 MJ was associated with a decrease of 0·3 kg in body weight (P=0·02) and 0·1 kg/m(2) in BMI (P=0·04). These associations were attenuated after adjusting for changes in diet quality indicators. An improvement in diet quality and better weight management were both associated with an increase in diet cost; this could be considered in food policy decisions. PMID:26758710

  19. Exposure–response analyses of liraglutide 3.0 mg for weight management

    PubMed Central

    Overgaard, R. V.; Jacobsen, L. V.; Jensen, C. B.; le Roux, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Liraglutide 3.0 mg, an acylated GLP‐1 analogue approved for weight management, lowers body weight through decreased energy intake. We conducted exposure‐response analyses to provide important information on individual responses to given drug doses, reflecting inter‐individual variations in drug metabolism, absorption and excretion. Methods We report efficacy and safety responses across a wide range of exposure levels, using data from one phase II (liraglutide doses 1.2, 1.8, 2.4 and 3.0 mg), and two phase IIIa [SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes (3.0 mg); SCALE Diabetes (1.8; 3.0 mg)] randomized, placebo‐controlled trials (n = 4372). Results There was a clear exposure–weight loss response. Weight loss increased with greater exposure and appeared to level off at the highest exposures associated with liraglutide 3.0 mg in most individuals, but did not fully plateau in men. In individuals with overweight/obesity and comorbid type 2 diabetes, there was a clear exposure–glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) relationship. HbA1c reduction increased with higher plasma liraglutide concentration (plateauing at ∼21 nM); however, for individuals with baseline HbA1c >8.5%, HbA1c reduction did not fully plateau. No exposure–response relationship was identified for any safety outcome, with the exception of gastrointestinal adverse events (AEs). Individuals with gallbladder AEs, acute pancreatitis or malignant/breast/benign colorectal neoplasms did not have higher liraglutide exposure compared with the overall population. Conclusions These analyses support the use of liraglutide 3.0 mg for weight management in all subgroups investigated; weight loss increased with higher drug exposure, with no concomitant deterioration in safety/tolerability besides previously known gastrointestinal side effects. PMID:26833744

  20. Association of increased monetary cost of dietary intake, diet quality and weight management in Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Helmut; Serra-Majem, Luis; Subirana, Isaac; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Fitó, Montserrat; Elosua, Roberto

    2016-03-14

    Higher monetary diet cost is associated with healthier food choices and better weight management. How changes in diet cost affect changes in diet quality and weight remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of changes in individual monetary diet cost on changes in diet quality, measured by the modified Mediterranean diet score recommendations (MDS-rec) and by energy density (ED), as well as changes in weight and BMI. We conducted a prospective, population-based study of 2181 male and female Spaniards aged between 25 and 74 years, who were followed up to the 2009-2010 academic year. We measured weight and height and recorded dietary data using a validated FFQ. Average food cost was calculated from official Spanish government data. We fitted multivariate linear and logistic regression models. The average daily diet cost increased from 3·68(SD0.0·89)€/8·36 MJ to 4·97(SD1·16)€/8·36 MJ during the study period. This increase was significantly associated with improvement in diet quality (Δ ED and Δ MDS-rec; P<0·0001). Each 1€ increase in monetary diet cost per 8·36 MJ was associated with a decrease of 0·3 kg in body weight (P=0·02) and 0·1 kg/m(2) in BMI (P=0·04). These associations were attenuated after adjusting for changes in diet quality indicators. An improvement in diet quality and better weight management were both associated with an increase in diet cost; this could be considered in food policy decisions.

  1. Service learning in a pediatric weight management program to address childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Fengyi; Goebel, Laurie A; Satkamp, Nicole; Beauchamp, Rachel; Kurrasch, Julie M; Smith, Asia R; Maguire, Julia M

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes an inter-professional service learning collaboration and reflects benefits and considerations when incorporating a family-oriented approach in the community-based pediatric weight management program. Because obesity has tremendous consequences on a nation's health and economy, a pediatrician in a community health network has utilized an inter-professional team to implement a pediatric weight management program targeting children between the ages of 8 and 15 years. The team incorporates a culturally sensitive curriculum using a family-oriented approach for obesity prevention and intervention. Physicians, registered dietitians, occupational therapists, nurse practitioners, and mental health professionals assist participants in adopting a healthier lifestyle by addressing physical and psychosocial issues related to obesity, developing a nutrition plan, making healthier food choices, and finding fun ways to be more physically active. Graduate occupational therapy students work closely with the team members to assist delivery of interactive activities and behavior intervention.

  2. Weight management for overweight and obese men delivered through professional football clubs: a pilot randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of male obesity is increasing, but men are less likely than women to attend existing weight management programmes. We have taken a novel approach to reducing perceived barriers to weight loss for men by using professional football (soccer) clubs to encourage participation in a weight management group programme, gender-sensitised in content and style of delivery. Football Fans in Training (FFIT) provides 12 weeks of weight loss, physical activity and healthy eating advice at top professional football clubs in Scotland. This pilot randomized trial explored the feasibility of using these clubs as a setting for a randomized controlled trial of 12 month weight loss following men’s participation in FFIT. Methods A two-arm pilot trial at two Scottish Premier League football clubs (one large, one smaller), with 103 men (aged 35–65, body mass index (BMI) ≥27 kg/m2) individually randomized to the intervention (n=51, received the pilot programme (p-FFIT) immediately) and waitlist comparison (n=52, received p-FFIT after four months) groups. Feasibility of recruitment, randomization, data collection and retention were assessed. Objective physical measurements (weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, body composition) and questionnaires (self-reported physical activity, diet, alcohol consumption, psychological outcomes) were obtained from both groups by fieldworkers trained to standard protocols at baseline and 12 weeks, and from the intervention group at 6 and 12 months. Qualitative methods elicited men’s experiences of participation in the pilot trial. Results Following a short recruitment period, the recruitment target was achieved at the large, but not smaller, club. Participants’ mean age was 47.1±8.4 years; mean BMI 34.5±5.0 kg/m2. Retention through the trial was good (>80% at 12 weeks and 6 months; >75% at 12 months), and 76% attended at least 80% of available programme delivery sessions. At 12 weeks, the intervention group lost

  3. Weight-gain misperceptions and the third-person effect in Black and White college-bound females: potential implications for healthy weight management.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A; Lee, Shanique J

    2013-08-01

    Elements of social norm theory and communication theory on the third-person effect may prove useful in efforts to prevent excessive weight gain among emerging adults entering college. The present study explored the associations of race/ethnicity and BMI status with these socio-cognitive factors that may affect first-year weight regulation in a sample of Black (N = 247) and White (N = 94) college-bound females. Participants completed an online survey assessing first-year weight-gain perceived norms along with weight-change expectations and concerns. Results provided evidence of the persistence of the myth of the "Freshman 15", belief in the typicality of gaining weight during the first year of college, and significant concern about first-year weight gain. Initial findings further revealed a robust third-person effect whereby despite nearly 90% of the sample endorsing that first-year weight gain was common, only 12% expected they would experience weight gain. Main effects of race/ethnicity, BMI status, and their interaction further uncovered distinct patterns of findings. Preliminary results highlight the need for college health officials at both predominantly White as well as minority-serving institutions to adequately address the significant concern over first-year weight gain in conjunction with the desire to lose weight expressed by an appreciable number of incoming college females. Findings also advocate the utility of evaluating social norm theory and the third-person perceptual bias in the context of first-year weight gain to potentially enhance the design and effectiveness of healthy weight management initiatives among ethnically-diverse young women entering college. PMID:23910760

  4. Spirituality, Religiosity, and Weight Management Among African American Adolescent Males: The Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Marino A; Beech, Bettina M; Griffith, Derek M; Thorpe, Roland J

    2016-01-01

    Spirituality and religion have been identified as important determinants of health for adults; however, the impact of faith-oriented factors on health behaviors and outcomes among African American adolescent males has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between religiosity and spirituality and obesity-related behaviors among 12-19 year old African American males (N = 105) in the Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study. Key variables of interest are church attendance, prayer, daily spirituality, weight status, attempts to lose weight, nutrition, physical activity, and stress. Daily spirituality is associated with whether an individual attempts to lose weight. The results from logistic regression models suggest that daily spirituality increases the odds that African American male adolescents attempt to lose weight (OR = 1.22, CI: 1.07-1.41) and have a history of diet-focused weight management (OR = 1.13, CI: 1.02-1.26). Future studies are needed to further explore the association between religion, spirituality, and obesity-related behaviors.

  5. Examining Maternal Weight Gain During Contingency-Management Treatment for Smoking Cessation Among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Washio, Yukiko; Higgins, Stephen T.; Heil, Sarah H.; Badger, Gary J.; Skelly, Joan; Bernstein, Ira M.; Solomon, Laura J.; Higgins, Tara M.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Hanson, Jennifer D.

    2010-01-01

    Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy can result in serious adverse maternal and neonatal health consequences making it an important outcome to monitor in developing smoking-cessation interventions for pregnant women. Maternal weight gain was investigated in the present study with 154 pregnant participants in controlled trials investigating the efficacy of contingency management (CM) for smoking cessation. Women were assigned to either an abstinence-contingent condition wherein they earned vouchers exchangeable for retail items by abstaining from smoking or to a control condition where they received comparable vouchers independent of smoking status. Mean percent of negative smoking status tests throughout antepartum was greater in the incentive than control condition (45.2±4.6 vs. 15.5±2.4, p < .001) as was late-pregnancy point-prevalence abstinence (36% vs. 8%, p < .001) but maternal weight gain did not differ significantly between treatment conditions (15.0 ± 0.8 kg vs. 15.0 ± 0.9 kg, p = .97). In a comparison of women classified by smoking status rather than treatment condition, a greater percent of negative smoking status tests predicted significantly more weight gain (0.34 kg per 10% increase in negative tests), an effect that appeared to be attributable to women with greater abstinence having larger infants. This study shows no evidence of excessive maternal weight gain among pregnant women receiving a CM intervention for smoking cessation. PMID:20870365

  6. Spirituality, Religiosity, and Weight Management Among African American Adolescent Males: The Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Marino A; Beech, Bettina M; Griffith, Derek M; Thorpe, Roland J

    2016-01-01

    Spirituality and religion have been identified as important determinants of health for adults; however, the impact of faith-oriented factors on health behaviors and outcomes among African American adolescent males has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between religiosity and spirituality and obesity-related behaviors among 12-19 year old African American males (N = 105) in the Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study. Key variables of interest are church attendance, prayer, daily spirituality, weight status, attempts to lose weight, nutrition, physical activity, and stress. Daily spirituality is associated with whether an individual attempts to lose weight. The results from logistic regression models suggest that daily spirituality increases the odds that African American male adolescents attempt to lose weight (OR = 1.22, CI: 1.07-1.41) and have a history of diet-focused weight management (OR = 1.13, CI: 1.02-1.26). Future studies are needed to further explore the association between religion, spirituality, and obesity-related behaviors. PMID:27337622

  7. Behavioural interventions for weight management in pregnancy: A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a rising prevalence of excessive weight gain in pregnancy and an increasing number of pregnant women who are overweight or obese at the start of the pregnancy. Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal consequences and increases the risk of long-term obesity. Pregnancy therefore may be a key time to prevent excessive weight gain and improve the health of women and their unborn child. This systematic review sought to assess the effectiveness of behavioural interventions to prevent excessive weight gain in pregnancy and explore the factors that influence intervention effectiveness. Methods We undertook a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative evidence. This included a meta-analysis of controlled trials of diet and physical activity interventions to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy and a thematic synthesis of qualitative studies that investigated the views of women on weight management during pregnancy. A thorough search of eleven electronic bibliographic databases, reference lists of included studies, relevant review articles and experts in the field were contacted to identify potentially relevant studies. Two independent reviewers extracted data. RevMan software was used to perform the meta-analyses. Qualitative data was subject to thematic analysis. Both quantitative and qualitative data were aligned using a matrix framework. Results Five controlled trials and eight qualitative studies were included. The overall pooled effect size found no significant difference in gestational weight gain amongst participants in the intervention group compared with the control group (mean difference -0.28 95% CI -0.64 to 0.09). The study designs, participants and interventions all varied markedly and there was significant heterogeneity within this comparison in the meta-analysis (I2 67%). Subgroup and sensitivity analysis did not identify contextual elements that influenced the effectiveness

  8. Weight management including dietary and physical activity advice provided by Australian physiotherapists: a pilot cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, Suzanne J; Carter, Amy E; Guest, Maya; Collins, Clare E; James, Carole; Kable, Ashley K; Ashby, Samantha E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2014-08-01

    Physiotherapists may have an impact on obesity prevention and treatment by providing nutrition and physical activity advice to overweight or obese clients; yet little is known about physiotherapists' beliefs and practices related to client weight management. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the practices, beliefs, attitudes and knowledge of physiotherapists regarding the provision of weight management advice to overweight or obese clients. Physiotherapists (n = 65) working in multiple practice settings completed a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression determined factors associated with the provision of dietary and physical activity advice for weight management. The majority of physiotherapists (n = 53 [81.5%]) believed providing weight management advice was within their scope of practice, yet only a minority had received training during their professional entry level education (n = 13 [20%]) or through professional development (n = 7 [11%]). Most physiotherapists (n = 55 [84.6%]) provided physical activity advice for weight management, but a minority (n = 27 [41.5%]) provided dietary advice. Having received training in weight management during their professional entry level education was associated with providing dietary advice (Odds ratio 8.8, 95% confidence interval 2.0-38.9, p = 0.004). Training in weight management may increase the likelihood of physiotherapists providing dietary advice, improving physiotherapists' management of obesity.

  9. Exercise, appetite and weight management: understanding the compensatory responses in eating behaviour and how they contribute to variability in exercise-induced weight loss.

    PubMed

    King, N A; Horner, K; Hills, A P; Byrne, N M; Wood, R E; Bryant, E; Caudwell, P; Finlayson, G; Gibbons, C; Hopkins, M; Martins, C; Blundell, J E

    2012-04-01

    Does exercise promote weight loss? One of the key problems with studies assessing the efficacy of exercise as a method of weight management and obesity is that mean data are presented and the individual variability in response is overlooked. Recent data have highlighted the need to demonstrate and characterise the individual variability in response to exercise. Do people who exercise compensate for the increase in energy expenditure via compensatory increases in hunger and food intake? The authors address the physiological, psychological and behavioural factors potentially involved in the relationship between exercise and appetite, and identify the research questions that remain unanswered. A negative consequence of the phenomena of individual variability and compensatory responses has been the focus on those who lose little weight in response to exercise; this has been used unreasonably as evidence to suggest that exercise is a futile method of controlling weight and managing obesity. Most of the evidence suggests that exercise is useful for improving body composition and health. For example, when exercise-induced mean weight loss is <1.0 kg, significant improvements in aerobic capacity (+6.3 ml/kg/min), systolic (-6.00 mm Hg) and diastolic (-3.9 mm Hg) blood pressure, waist circumference (-3.7 cm) and positive mood still occur. However, people will vary in their responses to exercise; understanding and characterising this variability will help tailor weight loss strategies to suit individuals.

  10. Clinical evaluation of Moro (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) orange juice supplementation for the weight management.

    PubMed

    Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana Carol Eleonora; Venditti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, several studies have recently evaluated the beneficial effects of red orange juice (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) and its active components in weight management and obesity. Moro orange is a cultivar of red orange, particularly rich in active compounds such as anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavone glycosides and ascorbic acid, which displays anti-obesity effects in in vitro and in vivo studies. In this clinical study, the effect of a Moro juice extract (Morosil(®), 400 mg/die) supplementation was evaluated in overweight healthy human volunteers for 12 weeks. Results showed that Moro juice extract intake was able to induce a significant reduction in body mass index (BMI) after 4 weeks of treatment (p < 0.05). Moreover, in subjects treated with Moro extract, body weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference were significantly different from the placebo group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, it could be suggested that the active compounds contained in Moro juice have a synergistic effect on fat accumulation in humans and Moro juice extract can be used in weight management and in the prevention of human obesity.

  11. Systematic review of paediatric weight management interventions delivered in the home setting.

    PubMed

    Appelhans, B M; Moss, O A; Cerwinske, L A

    2016-10-01

    To increase their accessibility, paediatric weight management interventions are increasingly designed to be delivered in the home setting by trained staff. This systematic review summarizes the available evidence for interventions featuring home visitation and identifies key gaps in the literature. PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane and PsycINFO were searched for intervention studies that reported change in objectively measured adiposity outcomes in youth ages 2-18 years. Studies published between 1 January 1995 and 12 February 2016 were analysed. Of 15 eligible studies, nine reported that interventions with home visitation were either superior to a control/comparison condition or achieved significant within-subjects reductions in adiposity. Interventions in which professional staff (e.g. dietitians and exercise trainers) conducted home visits tended to be more efficacious than those delivered by paraprofessional or community-based staff, as were interventions with more frequent contact. Most studies were judged to have low or unclear risk of bias across various domains. As most studies compared interventions with home visits with less intensive and qualitatively different approaches, it remains unclear whether home visitation per se enhances weight loss efficacy. Overall, paediatric weight management interventions that feature home visitation are promising, but the incremental benefit of the home visitation treatment modality remains to be rigorously evaluated. © 2016 World Obesity.

  12. Systematic review of paediatric weight management interventions delivered in the home setting.

    PubMed

    Appelhans, B M; Moss, O A; Cerwinske, L A

    2016-10-01

    To increase their accessibility, paediatric weight management interventions are increasingly designed to be delivered in the home setting by trained staff. This systematic review summarizes the available evidence for interventions featuring home visitation and identifies key gaps in the literature. PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane and PsycINFO were searched for intervention studies that reported change in objectively measured adiposity outcomes in youth ages 2-18 years. Studies published between 1 January 1995 and 12 February 2016 were analysed. Of 15 eligible studies, nine reported that interventions with home visitation were either superior to a control/comparison condition or achieved significant within-subjects reductions in adiposity. Interventions in which professional staff (e.g. dietitians and exercise trainers) conducted home visits tended to be more efficacious than those delivered by paraprofessional or community-based staff, as were interventions with more frequent contact. Most studies were judged to have low or unclear risk of bias across various domains. As most studies compared interventions with home visits with less intensive and qualitatively different approaches, it remains unclear whether home visitation per se enhances weight loss efficacy. Overall, paediatric weight management interventions that feature home visitation are promising, but the incremental benefit of the home visitation treatment modality remains to be rigorously evaluated. © 2016 World Obesity. PMID:27231126

  13. Attrition and weight loss outcomes for patients with complex obesity, anxiety and depression attending a weight management programme with targeted psychological treatment.

    PubMed

    McLean, R C; Morrison, D S; Shearer, R; Boyle, S; Logue, J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of baseline anxiety and depression, using different definitions for caseness, on attrition and weight outcomes following a multidisciplinary weight management programme. The study design is a prospective observational study. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure anxiety and depression with 'caseness' scoring ≥11 and severity ≥14. The participants were all patients who began a weight management programme between 1 October 2008 and 30 September 2009 (n = 1838). The setting was the Glasgow and Clyde Weight Management Service (GCWMS), a specialist multidisciplinary service, which aims to achieve a minimum of ≥5 kg weight loss. The results were as follows: patients with HADS score ≥14 were referred to the integrated psychology service for psychological assessment or intervention. Patients with caseness (HADS ≥11) for anxiety (33%) and depression (27%) were significantly younger, heavier, more socio-economically deprived and a higher proportion was female. There was a significant positive correlation between HADS anxiety and depression scores and increasing body mass index (r(2)  = 0.094, P < 0.001 and r(2)  = 0.175, P < 0.001, respectively). Attendance and completion was lower throughout follow-up amongst patients with anxiety or depression. More patients with HADS score ≥11 achieved ≥5 kg or ≥5% weight loss and by 12 months those with anxiety had a significantly higher mean weight loss (P = 0.032). Participants who scored for severe anxiety (HADS ≥14) achieved similar weight loss to those without, whilst participants who scored for severe depression achieved significantly greater weight loss than non-cases at 3, 6 and 12 months of follow-up (P < 0.01). Despite a less favourable case-mix of risk-factors for poor weight loss, patients who scored caseness for severe anxiety or depression and were offered additional psychological input

  14. Low weight and overweightness in older adults: risk and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Jahangir, Eiman; De Schutter, Alban; Lavie, Carl J

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of individuals who are overweight or obese is growing exponentially in the United States and worldwide. This growth is concerning, as both overweightness and obesity lead to impaired physical function, decreased quality of life, and increased risk of chronic diseases. Additionally, overweightness and obesity are related to increased mortality among young and middle-aged adults. This weight-related risk of mortality is more ambiguous among older adults. In fact, obesity may be protective in this population, a relationship described as the "obesity paradox". In this review we discuss the effects of overweightness and obesity among the elderly on cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, along with the risks of low weight. We conclude by discussing the goal of weight management among older adults, focusing particularly on benefits of preserving lean body mass and muscular strength while stabilizing body fat. Ideally, overweight or mildly obese elderly individuals should devise a plan with their physicians to maintain their weight, while increasing lean body mass through a plan of healthy diet, behavioral therapy, and physical activity.

  15. Filling the treatment gap in the weight management of overweight and obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Gesundheit, N

    2012-01-01

    Approximately two out of three adult Americans are overweight or obese. Despite widespread recognition of this disorder, there has been little progress in the past 20 years in finding effective noninvasive treatments for weight loss. The consequences of obesity are increasingly well recognized and include increases in blood pressure, plasma lipids, the onset of type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, asthma, osteoarthritis and a variety of cancers. Obesity can increase the rate of pregnancy complications and fetal malformations in normoglycemic women. Current medical approaches to obesity, including intensive lifestyle interventions and drug therapies, have been successful in achieving modest weight loss of 4–7%, less than the 1998 NIH Guidelines target of 10%. Surgical approaches, including laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, vertical banded gastroplasty and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, are much more successful, achieving weight loss of 15–50%. A treatment gap therefore exists in the management of obese and overweight patients, because many patients desire and would receive great health benefits by achieving weight loss of 7–15%. This review will discuss the dilemma of the treatment gap and explore possible ways by which it may be filled in the future by the use of innovative approaches. PMID:25018869

  16. An evaluation of a primary care-based weight management initiative.

    PubMed

    Muckle, Sarah

    2007-07-01

    Obesity is a significant issue in public health. There is a wealth of research that will be discussed as part of this article that identifies what has been effective in helping obese people reach a healthy weight. Health visitors and practice nurses are ideally situated to provide evidence-based support and monitoring to those living with obesity who want to improve their health and well-being. This article evaluates a primary-care-based weight management programme that was devised from the research evidence available. A total of nine women were offered a combination of interactive group education sessions, monitoring and supoort over a period of six months. Success was measured using quantitative and qualitative measures. The intervention effectively reduced the BMI of participants and demonstrated the adverse effects obesity has on individual quality of life.

  17. Body image change and improved eating self-regulation in a weight management intervention in women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Successful weight management involves the regulation of eating behavior. However, the specific mechanisms underlying its successful regulation remain unclear. This study examined one potential mechanism by testing a model in which improved body image mediated the effects of obesity treatment on eating self-regulation. Further, this study explored the role of different body image components. Methods Participants were 239 overweight women (age: 37.6 ± 7.1 yr; BMI: 31.5 ± 4.1 kg/m2) engaged in a 12-month behavioral weight management program, which included a body image module. Self-reported measures were used to assess evaluative and investment body image, and eating behavior. Measurements occurred at baseline and at 12 months. Baseline-residualized scores were calculated to report change in the dependent variables. The model was tested using partial least squares analysis. Results The model explained 18-44% of the variance in the dependent variables. Treatment significantly improved both body image components, particularly by decreasing its investment component (f2 = .32 vs. f2 = .22). Eating behavior was positively predicted by investment body image change (p < .001) and to a lesser extent by evaluative body image (p < .05). Treatment had significant effects on 12-month eating behavior change, which were fully mediated by investment and partially mediated by evaluative body image (effect ratios: .68 and .22, respectively). Conclusions Results suggest that improving body image, particularly by reducing its salience in one's personal life, might play a role in enhancing eating self-regulation during weight control. Accordingly, future weight loss interventions could benefit from proactively addressing body image-related issues as part of their protocols. PMID:21767360

  18. Trends in weight management goals and behaviors among 9th-12th grade students: United States, 1999-2009.

    PubMed

    Demissie, Zewditu; Lowry, Richard; Eaton, Danice K; Nihiser, Allison J

    2015-01-01

    To examine trends in weight management goals and behaviors among U.S. high school students during 1999-2009. Data from six biennial cycles (1999-2009) of the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey were analyzed. Cross-sectional, nationally representative samples of 9th-12th grade students (approximately 14,000 students/cycle) completed self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression models adjusted for grade, race/ethnicity, and obesity were used to test for trends in weight management goals and behaviors among subgroups of students. Combined prevalences and trends differed by sex and by race/ethnicity and weight status within sex. During 1999-2009, the prevalence of female students trying to gain weight decreased (7.6-5.7 %). Among female students trying to lose or stay the same weight, prevalences decreased for eating less (69.6-63.2 %); fasting (23.3-17.6 %); using diet pills/powders/liquids (13.7-7.8 %); and vomiting/laxatives (9.5-6.6 %) for weight control. During 1999-2009, the prevalence of male students trying to lose weight increased (26.1-30.5 %). Among male students trying to lose or stay the same weight, the prevalence of exercising to control weight did not change during 1999-2003 and then increased (74.0-79.1 %) while the prevalence of taking diet pills/powders/liquids for weight control decreased (6.9-5.1 %) during 1999-2009. Weight management goals and behaviors changed during 1999-2009 and differed by subgroup. To combat the use of unhealthy weight control behaviors, efforts may be needed to teach adolescents about recommended weight management strategies and avoiding the risks associated with unhealthy methods. PMID:24781877

  19. Trends in weight management goals and behaviors among 9th-12th grade students: United States, 1999-2009.

    PubMed

    Demissie, Zewditu; Lowry, Richard; Eaton, Danice K; Nihiser, Allison J

    2015-01-01

    To examine trends in weight management goals and behaviors among U.S. high school students during 1999-2009. Data from six biennial cycles (1999-2009) of the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey were analyzed. Cross-sectional, nationally representative samples of 9th-12th grade students (approximately 14,000 students/cycle) completed self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression models adjusted for grade, race/ethnicity, and obesity were used to test for trends in weight management goals and behaviors among subgroups of students. Combined prevalences and trends differed by sex and by race/ethnicity and weight status within sex. During 1999-2009, the prevalence of female students trying to gain weight decreased (7.6-5.7 %). Among female students trying to lose or stay the same weight, prevalences decreased for eating less (69.6-63.2 %); fasting (23.3-17.6 %); using diet pills/powders/liquids (13.7-7.8 %); and vomiting/laxatives (9.5-6.6 %) for weight control. During 1999-2009, the prevalence of male students trying to lose weight increased (26.1-30.5 %). Among male students trying to lose or stay the same weight, the prevalence of exercising to control weight did not change during 1999-2003 and then increased (74.0-79.1 %) while the prevalence of taking diet pills/powders/liquids for weight control decreased (6.9-5.1 %) during 1999-2009. Weight management goals and behaviors changed during 1999-2009 and differed by subgroup. To combat the use of unhealthy weight control behaviors, efforts may be needed to teach adolescents about recommended weight management strategies and avoiding the risks associated with unhealthy methods.

  20. Weight loss resistance: a further consideration for the nutritional management of obese Equidae.

    PubMed

    Argo, Caroline McG; Curtis, Gemma C; Grove-White, Dai; Dugdale, Alexandra H A; Barfoot, Clare F; Harris, Patricia A

    2012-11-01

    Evidence-based, weight loss management advice is required to address equine obesity. Changes in body mass (BM), body condition score (BCS), heart (HG) and belly circumference (BG), direct (ultrasonographic) and indirect (D(2)O dilution, bioelectrical impedance analysis [BIA]) measures of body fat as well as indices of insulin resistance (IR) were monitored in 12 overweight (BCS ≥ 7/9) horses and ponies of mixed breed and gender for 16 weeks. Animals were randomly assigned to two groups (Group 1, n=6, BCS 7.6/9 ± 0.6, 489 ± 184.6 kg; Group 2, n=6, BCS 8.1/9 ± 0.6, 479 ± 191.5 kg). Daily dry matter intake (DMI) was restricted to 1.25% BM as one of two, near-isocaloric (DE ∼0.115 MJ/kg BM/day), forage-based diets (Group 1, 0.8% BM chaff-based feed: 0.45% BM hay; Group 2, 1.15% BM hay: 0.1% BM nutrient-balancer). Statistical modelling revealed considerable between-animal heterogeneity in proportional weight losses (0.16-0.55% of Week 1 BM weekly). The magnitude of weight loss resistance (WLR) or sensitivity to dietary restriction was independent of diet or any measured outset variable and was largely (65%) attributed to animal identity. Predicted rates of weight loss decreased over time. BCS and BIA were poor estimates of D(2)O-derived body fat%. Reciprocal changes in depths of retroperitoneal and subcutaneous adipose tissues were evident. Changes in BG were associated with losses in retroperitoneal fat and BM (r(2), 0.67 and 0.79). Indices of IR improved for 9/12 animals by Week 16. For obese animals, weight loss should be initiated by restricting forage DMI to 1.25% BM. Subsequent restriction to 1% BM may be warranted for WLR animals.

  1. The need of a weight management control program in judo: a proposal based on the successful case of wrestling

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Judo competitions are divided into weight classes. However, most athletes reduce their body weight in a few days before competition in order to obtain a competitive advantage over lighter opponents. To achieve fast weight reduction, athletes use a number of aggressive nutritional strategies so many of them place themselves at a high health-injury risk. In collegiate wrestling, a similar problem has been observed and three wrestlers died in 1997 due to rapid weight loss regimes. After these deaths, the National Collegiate Athletic Association had implemented a successful weight management program which was proven to improve weight management behavior. No similar program has ever been discussed by judo federations even though judo competitors present a comparable inappropriate pattern of weight control. In view of this, the basis for a weight control program is provided in this manuscript, as follows: competition should begin within 1 hour after weigh-in, at the latest; each athlete is allowed to be weighed-in only once; rapid weight loss as well as artificial rehydration (i.e., saline infusion) methods are prohibited during the entire competition day; athletes should pass the hydration test to get their weigh-in validated; an individual minimum competitive weight (male athletes competing at no less than 7% and females at no less than 12% of body fat) should be determined at the beginning of each season; athletes are not allowed to compete in any weight class that requires weight reductions greater than 1.5% of body weight per week. In parallel, educational programs should aim at increasing the athletes', coaches' and parents' awareness about the risks of aggressive nutritional strategies as well as healthier ways to properly manage body weight. PMID:20441594

  2. Mobile Phone and Web 2.0 Technologies for Weight Management: A Systematic Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Widespread diffusion of mobile phone and Web 2.0 technologies make them potentially useful tools for promoting health and tackling public health issues, such as the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity. Research in this domain is growing rapidly but, to date, no review has comprehensively and systematically documented how mobile and Web 2.0 technologies are being deployed and evaluated in relation to weight management. Objective To provide an up-to-date, comprehensive map of the literature discussing the use of mobile phone and Web 2.0 apps for influencing behaviors related to weight management (ie, diet, physical activity [PA], weight control, etc). Methods A systematic scoping review of the literature was conducted based on a published protocol (registered at PROSPERO: CRD42014010323). Using a comprehensive search strategy, we searched 16 multidisciplinary electronic databases for original research documents published in English between 2004 and 2014. We used duplicate study selection and data extraction. Using an inductively developed charting tool, selected articles were thematically categorized. Results We identified 457 articles, mostly published between 2013 and 2014 in 157 different journals and 89 conference proceedings. Articles were categorized around two overarching themes, which described the use of technologies for either (1) promoting behavior change (309/457, 67.6%) or (2) measuring behavior (103/457, 22.5%). The remaining articles were overviews of apps and social media content (33/457, 7.2%) or covered a combination of these three themes (12/457, 2.6%). Within the two main overarching themes, we categorized articles as representing three phases of research development: (1) design and development, (2) feasibility studies, and (3) evaluations. Overall, articles mostly reported on evaluations of technologies for behavior change (211/457, 46.2%). Conclusions There is an extensive body of research on mobile phone and Web 2

  3. Dietary protein in weight management: a review proposing protein spread and change theories.

    PubMed

    Bosse, John D; Dixon, Brian M

    2012-01-01

    A large volume of human clinical data supports increased dietary protein for favorable changes to body composition, but not all data are conclusive. The aim of this review is to propose two theories, "protein spread theory" and "protein change theory" in an effort to explain discrepancies in the literature. Protein spread theory proposed that there must have been a sufficient spread or % difference in g/kg/day protein intake between groups during a protein intervention to see body composition and anthropometric differences. Protein change theory postulated that for the higher protein group, there must be a sufficient change from baseline g/kg/day protein intake to during study g/kg/day protein intake to see body composition and anthropometric benefits. Fifty-one studies met inclusion criteria. In studies where a higher protein intervention was deemed successful there was, on average, a 58.4% g/kg/day between group protein intake spread versus a 38.8% g/kg/day spread in studies where a higher protein diet was no more effective than control. The average change in habitual protein intake in studies showing higher protein to be more effective than control was +28.6% compared to +4.9% when additional protein was no more effective than control. Providing a sufficient deviation from habitual intake appears to be an important factor in determining the success of additional protein in weight management interventions. A modest increase in dietary protein favorably effects body composition during weight management interventions. PMID:22971730

  4. Weight management in primary care: how can it be made more effective?

    PubMed

    Maryon-Davis, Alan

    2005-02-01

    Obesity is often difficult to tackle in primary care. Pressure of time in the consultation, a lack of appropriately-trained primary care staff, a shortage of community dietitians or nutritionists, the potentially enormous caseload, language or cultural barriers and the sheer intractability of patients' eating habits, exercise behaviour and their clinical condition, all conspire to make general practitioners, other team members and often the patients themselves lose heart and stop even trying. However, there are ways of overcoming these difficulties. Examples of changes that evidence suggests are able to support and enhance basic one-to-one interventions in general practice include: improved clinical guidelines; better training of primary care staff; at-risk patient registers; smarter database search tools; new quality incentives; closer working with dietitians, counsellors and pharmacists; more hospital outreach clinics; designated general practitioner specialists and practice clustering; expanded exercise referral schemes and links with leisure providers; subsidised referral to commercial slimming groups; better use of patient groups and voluntary and community workers. The present paper describes a proposed 'triple-tier' pathway for weight management incorporating most of the elements mentioned earlier. With a more joined-up and creative approach to the development and organisation of primary care, more comprehensive training and workforce planning, and better integration with social care, voluntary groups and the commercial sector, weight management in general practice has the potential to be much more effective. PMID:15877928

  5. Medical undergraduates’ use of behaviour change talk: the example of facilitating weight management

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity, an increasing problem worldwide, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Management principally requires lifestyle (i.e. behavioural) changes. An evidence-base exists of behaviour change techniques for weight loss; however, in routine practice doctors are often unsure about effective treatments and commonly use theoretically-unfounded communication strategies (e.g. information-giving). It is not known if communication skills teaching during undergraduate training adequately prepares future doctors to engage in effective behaviour change talk with patients. The aim of the study was to examine which behaviour change techniques medical undergraduates use to facilitate lifestyle adjustments in obese patients. Methods Forty-eight medical trainees in their clinical years of a UK medical school conducted two simulated consultations each. Both consultations involved an obese patient scenario where weight loss was indicated. Use of simulated patients (SPs) ensured standardisation of key variables (e.g. barriers to behaviour change). Presentation of scenario order was counterbalanced. Following each consultation, students assessed the techniques they perceived themselves to have used. SPs rated the extent to which they intended to make behavioural changes and why. Anonymised transcripts of the audiotaped consultations were coded by independent assessors, blind to student and SP ratings, using a validated behaviour change taxonomy. Results Students reported using a wide range of evidence-based techniques. In contrast, codings of observed communication behaviours were limited. SPs behavioural intention varied and a range of helpful elements of student’s communication were revealed. Conclusions Current skills-based communication programmes do not adequately prepare future doctors for the growing task of facilitating weight management. Students are able to generalise some communication skills to these encounters, but are over confident and have

  6. Deprivation, clubs and drugs: results of a UK regional population-based cross-sectional study of weight management strategies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite rising levels of obesity in England, little is known about slimming club and weight loss drug (medication) use or users. In order to inform future commissioning, we report the prevalence of various weight management strategies and examine the associations between slimming club and medication use and age, gender, deprivation and body mass index. Methods A population based cross-sectional survey of 26,113 adults was conducted in South Yorkshire using a self-completed health questionnaire. Participants were asked whether they had ever used the following interventions to manage their weight: increasing exercise, healthy eating, controlling portion size, slimming club, over the counter weight loss medication, or meal replacements. Factors associated with slimming club and weight-loss medication use were explored using logistic regression. Results Over half of the sample was either overweight (36.6%) or obese (19.6%). Obesity was more common in the most deprived areas compared to the least deprived (26.3% vs. 12.0%). Healthy eating (49.0%), controlling portion size (43.4%), and increasing exercise (43.0%) were the most commonly reported weight management strategies. Less common strategies were attending a slimming club (17.2%), meal replacements (3.4%) and weight-loss medication (3.2%). Adjusting for BMI, age, deprivation and long standing health conditions, women were significantly more likely to report ever using a slimming club (adjusted OR = 18.63, 95% CI = 16.52–21.00) and more likely to report ever using over the counter weight-loss medications (AOR = 3.73, 95% CI = 3.10-4.48), while respondents from the most deprived areas were less likely to report using slimming clubs (AOR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.53-0.68), and more likely to reporting using weight loss medications (AOR =1.38, 95% CI = 1.05-1.82). Conclusion A large proportion of individuals report having used weight management strategies. Slimming clubs and over-the-counter weight loss medication

  7. Expected Satiety: Application to Weight Management and Understanding Energy Selection in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Forde, Ciarán G.; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the approaches used to quantify expectations of satiation and satiety have led to a better understanding of how humans select and consume food, and the associated links to energy intake regulation. When compared calorie for calorie some foods are expected to deliver several times more satiety than others, and multiple studies have demonstrated that people are able to discriminate between similar foods reliably and with considerable sensitivity. These findings have implications for the control of meal size and the design of foods that can be used to lower the energy density of diets. These methods and findings are discussed in terms of their implications for weight management. The current paper also highlights why expected satiety may also play an important role beyond energy selection, in moderating appetite sensations after a meal has been consumed, through memory for recent eating and the selection of foods across future meals. PMID:26627096

  8. Expected Satiety: Application to Weight Management and Understanding Energy Selection in Humans.

    PubMed

    Forde, Ciarán G; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2015-03-01

    Recent advances in the approaches used to quantify expectations of satiation and satiety have led to a better understanding of how humans select and consume food, and the associated links to energy intake regulation. When compared calorie for calorie some foods are expected to deliver several times more satiety than others, and multiple studies have demonstrated that people are able to discriminate between similar foods reliably and with considerable sensitivity. These findings have implications for the control of meal size and the design of foods that can be used to lower the energy density of diets. These methods and findings are discussed in terms of their implications for weight management. The current paper also highlights why expected satiety may also play an important role beyond energy selection, in moderating appetite sensations after a meal has been consumed, through memory for recent eating and the selection of foods across future meals.

  9. Repressive coping, stigmatization, psychological distress, and quality of life among behavioral weight management participants.

    PubMed

    Truong, Erin A K; Olson, KayLoni L; Emery, Charles F

    2016-08-01

    Repressive coping has been associated with elevated risk of disease and negative health outcomes in past studies. Although a prior study of healthy men found that repression was associated with lower body mass index (BMI), no study has examined repressive coping among obese individuals. This study examined the relationship of repressive coping with BMI and obesity-relevant psychosocial factors among 104 overweight and obese participants in a behavioral weight management program. Participants completed questionnaires assessing repressive coping, stigmatization, psychological distress, and quality of life. BMI was objectively measured. Repressors reported lower stigmatization, anxiety, and depression as well as higher emotional and weight-related quality of life. Repressors and non-repressors had equivalent BMI and reported similar impairment in physical quality of life, but stigmatization moderated the relationship between repressive coping and physical quality of life (b=0.31, p=0.039), reflecting better physical quality of life among non-repressors with lower stigmatization. Obese individuals who engage in repressive coping may tend to underreport psychological symptoms, social difficulties, and impairments in quality of life. Higher physical quality of life among non-repressors with lower stigmatization may reflect a combined influence of coping and social processes in physical quality of life among obese individuals. PMID:27304361

  10. Repressive coping, stigmatization, psychological distress, and quality of life among behavioral weight management participants.

    PubMed

    Truong, Erin A K; Olson, KayLoni L; Emery, Charles F

    2016-08-01

    Repressive coping has been associated with elevated risk of disease and negative health outcomes in past studies. Although a prior study of healthy men found that repression was associated with lower body mass index (BMI), no study has examined repressive coping among obese individuals. This study examined the relationship of repressive coping with BMI and obesity-relevant psychosocial factors among 104 overweight and obese participants in a behavioral weight management program. Participants completed questionnaires assessing repressive coping, stigmatization, psychological distress, and quality of life. BMI was objectively measured. Repressors reported lower stigmatization, anxiety, and depression as well as higher emotional and weight-related quality of life. Repressors and non-repressors had equivalent BMI and reported similar impairment in physical quality of life, but stigmatization moderated the relationship between repressive coping and physical quality of life (b=0.31, p=0.039), reflecting better physical quality of life among non-repressors with lower stigmatization. Obese individuals who engage in repressive coping may tend to underreport psychological symptoms, social difficulties, and impairments in quality of life. Higher physical quality of life among non-repressors with lower stigmatization may reflect a combined influence of coping and social processes in physical quality of life among obese individuals.

  11. Dietary protein in weight management: a review proposing protein spread and change theories

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A large volume of human clinical data supports increased dietary protein for favorable changes to body composition, but not all data are conclusive. The aim of this review is to propose two theories, “protein spread theory” and “protein change theory” in an effort to explain discrepancies in the literature. Protein spread theory proposed that there must have been a sufficient spread or % difference in g/kg/day protein intake between groups during a protein intervention to see body composition and anthropometric differences. Protein change theory postulated that for the higher protein group, there must be a sufficient change from baseline g/kg/day protein intake to during study g/kg/day protein intake to see body composition and anthropometric benefits. Fifty-one studies met inclusion criteria. In studies where a higher protein intervention was deemed successful there was, on average, a 58.4% g/kg/day between group protein intake spread versus a 38.8% g/kg/day spread in studies where a higher protein diet was no more effective than control. The average change in habitual protein intake in studies showing higher protein to be more effective than control was +28.6% compared to +4.9% when additional protein was no more effective than control. Providing a sufficient deviation from habitual intake appears to be an important factor in determining the success of additional protein in weight management interventions. A modest increase in dietary protein favorably effects body composition during weight management interventions. PMID:22971730

  12. A lifestyle assessment and intervention tool for pediatric weight management: the HABITS questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Wright, N. D.; Groisman-Perelstein, A. E.; Wylie-Rosett, J.; Vernon, N.; Diamantis, P. M.; Isasi, C. R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Lifestyle assessment and intervention tools are useful in promoting pediatric weight management. The present study aimed to establish convergent validity and reliability for a quick simple measure of food intake and physical activity/sedentary behaviour. The HABITS questionnaire can be used to identify and monitor behavioural intervention targets. Methods Thirty-five youths (ages 7–16 years) were recruited from the waiting area of the Jacobi Medical Center Child and Teen Health Services. To establish convergent validity for the HABITS questionnaire, study participants completed the HABITS questionnaire, a 24-h recall and a modified version of the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (MAQ). Participants completed a second HABITS questionnaire within 1 month to assess test–retest reliability. Internal consistency for dietary and physical activity/sedentary behaviour subscales was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha, and test–retest reliability was assessed using Cohen’s Kappa coefficient. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients were calculated for individual items using the 24-h recall and the MAQ as reference standards. Results The HABITS questionnaire subscales showed moderate internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of 0.61 and 0.59 for the dietary and physical activity/sedentary behaviour subscale, respectively). The test–retest reliability was 0.94 for the dietary subscale and 0.87 for the physical activity/sedentary behaviour subscale. Several items on the HABITS questionnaire were moderately correlated with information reported in the MAQ and the 24-h recall (r = 0.38–0.59, P < 0.05). Conclusions The HABITS questionnaire can reliably be used in a paediatric setting to quickly assess key dietary and physical activity/sedentary behaviours and to promote behaviour change for weight management. PMID:21210873

  13. Understanding and managing cancer-related weight loss and anorexia: insights from a systematic review of qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Christine; Burden, Sorrel T; Cheng, Huilin; Molassiotis, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to summarize the existing qualitative literature in order to develop the evidence base for understanding and managing weight loss and anorexia, in order to make recommendations for clinical practice. A systematic search was performed to retrieve English language studies using electronic search and manual checks of selected reference lists. Keywords included qualitative, cancer cachexia, weight loss, anorexia, appetite, malnutrition, food, eating, and drinking. The selection and appraisal of papers were undertaken by two reviewers. Twenty-one qualitative articles were included in the review. There were three major findings emerging from the previous qualitative studies including ‘the multidimensionality of weight loss and anorexia experience’, ‘patients and caregivers' responses to coping with weight loss and anorexia’, and ‘clinical assessment and management of weight loss and anorexia’. The literature review revealed the multidimensional nature of cachexia and weight loss experience by patients and caregivers, which was not recognized and adequately managed by healthcare professionals. Future research in this area would be helpful in enabling a deeper understanding of the complexity of cachexia and weight loss experience in order to move forward to develop an optimal model of supportive care for patients and caregivers. PMID:26136417

  14. Development of an Evidence-Based mHealth Weight Management Program Using a Formative Research Process

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Robyn; McRobbie, Hayden; Dorey, Enid; Ball, Kylie; Maddison, Ralph; Myers Smith, Katie; Crawford, David; Jiang, Yannan; Gu, Yulong; Michie, Jo; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a critical need for weight management programs that are effective, cost efficient, accessible, and acceptable to adults from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. mHealth (delivered via mobile phone and Internet) weight management programs have potential to address this need. To maximize the success and cost-effectiveness of such an mHealth approach it is vital to develop program content based on effective behavior change techniques, proven weight management programs, and closely aligned with participants’ needs. Objective This study aims to develop an evidence-based mHealth weight management program (Horizon) using formative research and a structured content development process. Methods The Horizon mHealth weight management program involved the modification of the group-based UK Weight Action Program (WAP) for delivery via short message service (SMS) and the Internet. We used an iterative development process with mixed methods entailing two phases: (1) expert input on evidence of effective programs and behavior change theory; and (2) target population input via focus group (n=20 participants), one-on-one phone interviews (n=5), and a quantitative online survey (n=120). Results Expert review determined that core components of a successful program should include: (1) self-monitoring of behavior; (2) prompting intention formation; (3) promoting specific goal setting; (4) providing feedback on performance; and (5) promoting review of behavioral goals. Subsequent target group input confirmed that participants liked the concept of an mHealth weight management program and expressed preferences for the program to be personalized, with immediate (prompt) and informative text messages, practical and localized physical activity and dietary information, culturally appropriate language and messages, offer social support (group activities or blogs) and weight tracking functions. Most target users expressed a preference for at least one text message

  15. The relevance of increased fat oxidation for body-weight management: metabolic inflexibility in the predisposition to weight gain.

    PubMed

    Astrup, A

    2011-10-01

    Cells, tissues and organisms have the ability to rapidly switch substrate oxidation from carbohydrate to fat in response to changes in nutrient intake, and to changes in energy demands, environmental cues and internal signals. In healthy, metabolically normal individuals, substrate switching occurs rapidly and completely; in other words, substrate switching is 'flexible'. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that a blunted substrate switching from low- to high-fat oxidation exists in obese individuals, as well as in pre-obese and post-obese, and that this 'metabolic inflexibility' may be a genetically determined trait. A decreased fat oxidation can lead to a positive energy balance under conditions of high-fat feeding, due to depletion of glycogen stores that stimulates appetite and energy intake through glucostatic and glucogenostatic mechanisms, e.g. hepatic sensing of glycogen stores. Several genetic polymorphisms and single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified that are associated with low-fat oxidation rates and metabolic inflexibility, and genetic identification of susceptible individuals may lead to personalized prevention of weight gain using fat oxidation stimulants ('fat burners') in the future. PMID:21692967

  16. Weight management for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities: rationale and design for an 18 month randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, J E; Saunders, R R; Saunders, M; Washburn, R A; Sullivan, D K; Gibson, C A; Ptomey, L T; Goetz, J R; Honas, J J; Betts, J L; Rondon, M R; Smith, B K; Mayo, M S

    2013-09-01

    Weight management for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) has received limited attention. Studies on weight management in this population have been conducted over short time frames, in small samples with inadequate statistical power, infrequently used a randomized design, and have not evaluated the use of emerging effective dietary strategies such as pre-packaged meals (PMs). Low energy/fat PMs may be useful in individuals with IDD as they simplify meal planning, limit undesirable food choices, teach appropriate portion sizes, are convenient and easy to prepare, and when combined with fruits and vegetables provide a high volume, low energy dense meal. A randomized effectiveness trial will be conducted in 150 overweight/obese adults with mild to moderate IDD, and their study partners to compare weight loss (6 months) and weight maintenance (12 months) between 2 weight management approaches: 1. A Stop Light Diet enhanced with reduced energy/fat PMs (eSLD); and 2. A recommended care reduced energy/fat meal plan diet (RC). The primary aim is to compare weight loss (0-6 months) and weight maintenance (7-18 months) between the eSLD and RC diets. Secondarily, changes in chronic disease risk factors between the eSLD and RC diets including blood pressure, glucose, insulin, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol will be compared during both weight loss and weight maintenance. Finally, potential mediators of weight loss including energy intake, physical activity, data recording, adherence to the diet, study partner self-efficacy and daily stress related to dietary change will be explored.

  17. Five-year self-management of weight using meal replacements: comparison with matched controls in rural Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Quinn Rothacker, D

    2000-05-01

    We compared 5-y weight changes of subjects after a self-managed meal-replacement weight-control program (MR) with that of matched control subjects in rural Wisconsin. Healthy but overweight females (n = 108) and males (n = 50) received free products and weighed in twice a year from 1992 through 1997. Weights from three area clinics were obtained from 1992 records for 528 healthy males and females, whose weights were again obtained in late 1997. In addition, 1997 weights were obtained on 378 area males and females who reported their 1992 weight by questionnaire. Three control subjects were then selected for each MR participant, matched for age (within 5 y), body mass index (within 2 kg/m(2)), sex, and race. After 5 y, 141 MR participants weighed in, 2 died, and 19 were excluded primarily because of pregnancy. The 50 males were -5.8+/-5.4 kg and the 84 females were -4.2+/-6.9 kg from their 1992 weights. Conversely, 142 matched male controls gained 6.7+/-10.2 kg and 247 female controls gained 6.5+/- 10.7 kg. In conclusion, success determinations of MR and other long-term weight-control programs should be made by comparing changes with matched controls as the background rate of weight gain becomes increasingly more significant the longer the study is run.

  18. Development of and feedback on a fully automated virtual reality system for online training in weight management skills.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J Graham; Spitalnick, Josh S; Hadley, Wendy; Bond, Dale S; Wing, Rena R

    2015-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology can provide a safe environment for observing, learning, and practicing use of behavioral weight management skills, which could be particularly useful in enhancing minimal contact online weight management programs. The Experience Success (ES) project developed a system for creating and deploying VR scenarios for online weight management skills training. Virtual environments populated with virtual actors allow users to experiment with implementing behavioral skills via a PC-based point and click interface. A culturally sensitive virtual coach guides the experience, including planning for real-world skill use. Thirty-seven overweight/obese women provided feedback on a test scenario focused on social eating situations. They reported that the scenario gave them greater skills, confidence, and commitment for controlling eating in social situations.

  19. Development of and Feedback on a Fully Automated Virtual Reality System for Online Training in Weight Management Skills

    PubMed Central

    Spitalnick, Josh S.; Hadley, Wendy; Bond, Dale S.; Wing, Rena R.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology can provide a safe environment for observing, learning, and practicing use of behavioral weight management skills, which could be particularly useful in enhancing minimal contact online weight management programs. The Experience Success (ES) project developed a system for creating and deploying VR scenarios for online weight management skills training. Virtual environments populated with virtual actors allow users to experiment with implementing behavioral skills via a PC-based point and click interface. A culturally sensitive virtual coach guides the experience, including planning for real-world skill use. Thirty-seven overweight/obese women provided feedback on a test scenario focused on social eating situations. They reported that the scenario gave them greater skills, confidence, and commitment for controlling eating in social situations. PMID:25367014

  20. Military Services Fitness Database: Development of a Computerized Physical Fitness and Weight Management Database for the U.S. Army

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Donald A.; Bathalon, Gaston P.; Sigrist, Lori D.; Allen, H. Raymond; Friedl, Karl E.; Young, Andrew J.; Martin, Corby K.; Stewart, Tiffany M.; Burrell, Lolita; Han, Hongmei; Hubbard, Van S.; Ryan, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) has mandated development of a system to collect and manage data on the weight, percent body fat (%BF), and fitness of all military personnel. This project aimed to (1) develop a computerized weight and fitness database to track individuals and Army units over time allowing cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluations and (2) test the computerized system for feasibility and integrity of data collection over several years of usage. The computer application, the Military Services Fitness Database (MSFD), was designed for (1) storage and tracking of data related to height, weight, %BF for the Army Weight Control Program (AWCP) and Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores and (2) generation of reports using these data. A 2.5-year pilot test of the MSFD indicated that it monitors population and individual trends of changing body weight, %BF, and fitness in a military population. PMID:19216292

  1. Your Health Buddies Matter: Preferential Selection and Social Influence on Weight Management in an Online Health Social Network.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jingbo

    2016-12-01

    A growing number of online social networks are designed with the intention to promote health by providing virtual space wherein individuals can seek and share information and support with similar others. Research has shown that real-world social networks have a significant influence on one's health behavior and outcomes. However, there is a dearth of studies on how individuals form social networks in virtual space and whether such online social networks exert any impact on individuals' health outcomes. Built on the Multi-Theoretical Multilevel (MTML) framework and drawing from literature on social influence, this study examined the mechanisms underlying the formation of an online health social network and empirically tested social influence on individual health outcomes through the network. Situated in a weight management social networking site, the study tracked a health buddy network of 709 users and their weight management activities and outcomes for 4 months. Actor-based modeling was used to test the joint dynamics of preferential selection and social influence among health buddies. The results showed that baseline, inbreeding, and health status homophily significantly predicted preferential selection of health buddies in the weight management social networking site, whereas self-interest in seeking experiential health information did not. The study also found peer influence of online health buddy networks on individual weight outcomes, such that an individual's odds of losing weight increased if, on average, the individual's health buddies were losing weight. PMID:27055008

  2. Comparison of orlistat and sibutramine in an obesity management program: efficacy, compliance, and weight regain after noncompliance.

    PubMed

    Gursoy, A; Erdogan, M F; Cin, M O; Cesur, M; Baskal, N

    2006-12-01

    To describe the comparative efficacy of orlistat and sibutramine in an obesity management program, with specific attention to compliance and weight regains after noncompliance. We prospectively evaluated 182 obese patients who were randomized to treatment with orlistat (n=98) or sibutramine (n=84) along with the diet and exercise prescriptions. Compliance (or compliant patient) was defined as adherence to scheduled visit times (at 3- month intervals) and following the prescribed drug regimen. A telephone survey was conducted in case of noncompliance. Significant body weights improvements were seen in both treatment groups. Patients lost a mean of 7.6+/-2.8% and 10.5+/-2.9% of initial body weights after a mean drug use of 8.8+/-5.7 and 8.3+/-3.7 months in the orlistat and sibutramine groups, respectively (p<0.05 vs. initial body weight). Patients in the sibutramine group lost more weight than the orlistat group (p<0.05). A total of 102 patients (56%) were compliant (53.1% in the orlistat group and 59.5% in the sibutramine group). Factors associated with compliance included weight reduction of more than 5% in the first 3 months and adherence to physical activity. Higher initial body weight, prior anti-obesity therapy, number of concurrent medications, and comorbidity were associated with noncompliance. Weight regains in noncompliant patient were a mean of 5.2+/-5.1 kg after a mean period of 9.2+/-4.2 months in the orlistat group, and a mean of 6.1+/-3.8 kg after a mean period of 9.1+/-3.9 months in the sibutramine group (p<0.05 vs. last visit for both groups, p>0.05 between groups). Both drugs in an obesity management program can achieve substantial weight loss. However, noncompliance and rebound weight regain after noncompliance are considerable problems.

  3. Nutrigenomic analysis of diet-gene interactions on functional supplements for weight management.

    PubMed

    Lau, Francis C; Bagchi, Manashi; Sen, Chandan; Roy, Sashwati; Bagchi, Debasis

    2008-06-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology combined with the wealth of information generated by the Human Genome Project have fostered the emergence of nutrigenomics, a new discipline in the field of nutritional research. Nutrigenomics may provide the strategies for the development of safe and effective dietary interventions against the obesity epidemic. According to the World Health Organization, more than 60% of the global disease burden will be attributed to chronic disorders associated with obesity by 2020. Meanwhile in the US, the prevalence of obesity has doubled in adults and tripled in children during the past three decades. In this regard, a number of natural dietary supplements and micronutrients have been studied for their potential in weight management. Among these supplements, (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural extract isolated from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, and the micronutrient niacin-bound chromium(III) (NBC) have been shown to be safe and efficacious for weight loss. Utilizing cDNA microarrays, we demonstrated for the first time that HCA-supplementation altered the expression of genes involved in lipolytic and adipogenic pathways in adipocytes from obese women and up-regulated the expression of serotonin receptor gene in the abdominal fat of rats. Similarly, we showed that NBC-supplementation up-regulated the expression of myogenic genes while suppressed the expression of genes that are highly expressed in brown adipose tissue in diabetic obese mice. The potential biological mechanisms underlying the observed beneficial effects of these supplements as elucidated by the state-of-the-art nutrigenomic technologies will be systematically discussed in this review. PMID:19452041

  4. Why don’t families initiate treatment? A qualitative multicentre study investigating parents’ reasons for declining paediatric weight management

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Arnaldo; Holt, Nicholas; Gokiert, Rebecca; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre; Legault, Laurent; Morrison, Katherine; Sharma, Arya; Ball, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many families referred to specialized health services for managing paediatric obesity do not initiate treatment; however, reasons for noninitiation are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To understand parents’ reasons for declining tertiary-level health services for paediatric weight management. METHOD: Interviews were conducted with 18 parents of children (10 to 17 years of age; body mass index ≥85th percentile) who were referred for weight management, but did not initiate treatment at one of three Canadian multidisciplinary weight management clinics. A semi-structured interview guide was used to elicit parents’ responses about reasons for noninitiation. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were managed using NVivo 9 (QSR International, Australia) and analyzed thematically. RESULTS: Most parents (mean age 44.1 years; range 34 to 55 years) were female (n=16 [89%]), obese (n=12 [66%]) and had a university degree (n=13 [71%]). Parents’ reasons for not initiating health services were grouped into five themes: no perceived need for paediatric weight management (eg, perceived children did not have a weight or health problem); no perceived need for further actions (eg, perceived children already had a healthy lifestyle); no intention to initiate recommended care (eg, perceived clinical program was not efficacious); participation barriers (eg, children’s lack of motivation); and situational factors (eg, weather). CONCLUSION: Physicians should not only discuss the need for and value of specialized care for managing paediatric obesity, but also explore parents’ intention to initiate treatment and address reasons for noninitiation that are within their control. PMID:26038633

  5. 50 CFR Table 2a to Part 660... - 2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 2a Table 2a to Part 660, Subpart G Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Subpart G—2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) Link...

  6. 50 CFR Table 1a to Part 660... - 2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 1a Table 1a to Part 660, Subpart G Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Subpart G—2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) Link...

  7. 50 CFR Table 1a to Part 660... - 2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 1a Table 1a to Part 660, Subpart C Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Subpart C—2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)...

  8. 50 CFR Table 2a to Part 660... - 2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 2a Table 2a to Part 660, Subpart C Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Subpart C—2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)...

  9. Weight management services for adults--highlighting the role of primary care.

    PubMed

    Hassan, S J; O'Shea, D

    2012-01-01

    Ireland has the fourth highest prevalence of overweight and obese men in the European Union and the seventh highest prevalence among women. This study focuses on 777 referrals on the waiting list for Ireland's only fully funded hospital-based adult weight management service with special emphasis on the role of primary care in the referral process. Since our last review two years ago, we found that patients are now being referred at a younger age (mean 43 years). The mean BMI at referral has increased from 44 to 46. Five hundred and forty eight (70%) referrals were from primary care with males accounting for 163 (30%) of these, despite male obesity being more prevalent. Interestingly, as the distance from Dublin increased, the number of referrals decreased. Overall this is a concerning trend showing the increasing burden of obesity on a younger population and a health system inadequately equipped to deal with the problem. It also highlights the central role of the primary care physician in the timely and appropriate referral to optimise use of our available resources.

  10. Outcomes from an orientation model to reduce attrition in paediatric weight management.

    PubMed

    Zenlea, I S; Milliren, C; Herel, S; Thomaseo Burton, E; Askins, N; Ludwig, D S; Rhodes, E T

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to reduce attrition of newly referred patients in a paediatric weight management programme by implementing an orientation to address families' expectations and screen for and support behavioural and mental health problems and psychosocial stressors at programme outset. Orientation impact was monitored with run charts with percentages of scheduled encounters completed. Long-term impact was assessed by comparing patients in the initial 6 months of the orientation to a baseline group of referred patients during the same 6-month time interval in the prior year (Pre-Orientation Group). The outcome measure was programme attrition within 15 months. Groups were compared using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression modelling. Patients in the Orientation Group had a 23% increased odds of attrition compared to patients in the Pre-Orientation group (adjusted Hazard ratio, aHR 1.23; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.01, 1.51) and shorter median duration of follow-up (2.0 vs. 2.9 months, P = 0.004). An increase in body mass index z-score of 1 unit resulted in a nearly fivefold increased odds of attrition (aHR 5.24; 95% CI: 2.95, 9.3). An orientation for new patients did not reduce attrition within 15 months. We suggest that ongoing retention strategies should be embedded into the treatment phase of the programme. PMID:27487780

  11. Stress Management-Augmented Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention for African American Women: A Pilot, Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Krukowski, Rebecca; Love, ShaRhonda J.; Eddings, Kenya; DiCarlo, Marisha; Chang, Jason Y.; Prewitt, T. Elaine; West, Delia Smith

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between chronic stress and weight management efforts may be a concern for African American (AA) women, who have a high prevalence of obesity, high stress levels, and modest response to obesity treatment. This pilot study randomly assigned 44 overweight/obese AA women with moderate to high stress levels to either a 12-week…

  12. Effect of Low-Carbohydrate Claims on Consumer Perceptions about Food Products' Healthfulness and Helpfulness for Weight Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Lin, Chung-Tung Jordan; Verrill, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate effect of low-carbohydrate claims on consumer perceptions about food products' healthfulness and helpfulness for weight management. Design: Experiment in which participants were randomly assigned 1 of 12 front-of-package claim conditions on bread or a frozen dinner. Seven of the 12 conditions also included Nutrition Facts (NF)…

  13. Using the health belief model to develop culturally appropriate weight-management materials for African-American women.

    PubMed

    James, Delores C S; Pobee, Joseph W; Oxidine, D'lauren; Brown, Latonya; Joshi, Gungeet

    2012-05-01

    African-American women have the highest prevalence of adult obesity in the United States. They are less likely to participate in weight-loss programs and tend to have a low success rate when they do so. The goal of this project was to explore the use of the Health Belief Model in developing culturally appropriate weight-management programs for African-American women. Seven focus groups were conducted with 50 African-American women. The Health Belief Model was used as the study's theoretical framework. Participants made a clear delineation between the terms healthy weight, overweight, and obese. Sexy, flirtatious words, such as thick, stacked, and curvy were often used to describe their extra weight. Participants accurately described the health risks of obesity. Most believed that culture and genetics made them more susceptible to obesity. The perceived benefits of losing weight included reduced risk for health problems, improved physical appearance, and living life to the fullest. Perceived barriers included a lack of motivation, reliable dieting information, and social support. Motivators to lose weight included being diagnosed with a health problem, physical appearance, and saving money on clothes. Self-efficacy was primarily affected by a frustrated history of dieting. The data themes suggest areas that should be addressed when developing culturally appropriate weight-loss messages, programs, and materials for African-American women. PMID:22709771

  14. Fit and Strong! Plus: design of a comparative effectiveness evaluation of a weight management program for older adults with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Smith-Ray, Renae L; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa; Schiffer, Linda; Shah, Amy; Huber, Gail M; Braunschweig, Carol; Campbell, Richard T; Hughes, Susan L

    2014-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic condition and principal cause of disability among older adults. The current obesity epidemic has contributed to this high prevalence rate. Fortunately both OA symptoms and obesity can be ameliorated through lifestyle modifications. Physical activity (PA) combined with weight management improves physical function among obese persons with knee OA but evidence-based interventions that combine PA and weight management are limited for this population. This paper describes a comparative effectiveness trial testing an evidence-based PA program for adults with lower extremity (LE) OA, Fit and Strong!, against an enhanced version that also addresses weight management based on the evidence-based Obesity Reduction Black Intervention Trial (ORBIT). Adult participants (n=400) with LE OA, age 60+, overweight/obese, and not meeting PA requirements of ≥ 150 min per week, are randomized to one of the two programs. Both 8-week interventions meet 3 times per week and include 60 min of strength, flexibility, and aerobic exercise instruction followed by 30 min of education/group discussion. The Fit and Strong! education sessions focus on using PA to manage OA; whereas Fit and Strong! Plus addresses PA and weight loss management strategies. Maintenance of behavior change is reinforced in both groups during months 3-24 through telephone calls and mailed newsletters. Outcomes are assessed at baseline, and 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Primary outcomes are dietary change at 2 months followed by weight loss at 6 months that is maintained at 24 months. Secondary outcomes assess PA, physical performance, and anxiety/depression.

  15. Fit and Strong! Plus: Design of a Comparative Effectiveness Evaluation of a Weight Management Program for Older Adults with Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Ray, Renae L.; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa; Schiffer, Linda; Shah, Amy; Huber, Gail M.; Braunschweig, Carol; Campbell, Richard T.; Hughes, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic condition and principal cause of disability among older adults. The current obesity epidemic has contributed to this high prevalence rate. Fortunately both OA symptoms and obesity can be ameliorated through lifestyle modifications. Physical activity (PA) combined with weight management improves physical function among obese persons with knee OA but evidence-based interventions that combine PA and weight management are limited for this population. This paper describes a comparative effectiveness trial testing an evidence-based PA program for adults with lower extremity (LE) OA, Fit and Strong!, against an enhanced version that also addresses weight management based on the evidence-based Obesity Reduction Black Intervention Trial (ORBIT). Adult participants (n=400) with LE OA, age 60+, overweight/obese, and not meeting PA requirements of >=150 minutes per week, are randomized to one of the two programs. Both 8-week interventions meet 3 times per week and include 60 minutes of strength, flexibility, and aerobic exercise instruction followed by 30 minutes of education/group discussion. The Fit and Strong! education sessions focus on using PA to manage OA; whereas Fit and Strong! Plus addresses PA and weight loss management strategies. Maintenance of behavior change is reinforced in both groups during months 3 - 24 through telephone calls and mailed newsletters. Outcomes are assessed at baseline, and 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Primary outcomes are dietary change at 2 months followed by weight loss at 6 months that is maintained at 24 months. Secondary outcomes assess PA, physical performance, and anxiety/depression. PMID:24316240

  16. Fit and Strong! Plus: design of a comparative effectiveness evaluation of a weight management program for older adults with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Smith-Ray, Renae L; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa; Schiffer, Linda; Shah, Amy; Huber, Gail M; Braunschweig, Carol; Campbell, Richard T; Hughes, Susan L

    2014-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic condition and principal cause of disability among older adults. The current obesity epidemic has contributed to this high prevalence rate. Fortunately both OA symptoms and obesity can be ameliorated through lifestyle modifications. Physical activity (PA) combined with weight management improves physical function among obese persons with knee OA but evidence-based interventions that combine PA and weight management are limited for this population. This paper describes a comparative effectiveness trial testing an evidence-based PA program for adults with lower extremity (LE) OA, Fit and Strong!, against an enhanced version that also addresses weight management based on the evidence-based Obesity Reduction Black Intervention Trial (ORBIT). Adult participants (n=400) with LE OA, age 60+, overweight/obese, and not meeting PA requirements of ≥ 150 min per week, are randomized to one of the two programs. Both 8-week interventions meet 3 times per week and include 60 min of strength, flexibility, and aerobic exercise instruction followed by 30 min of education/group discussion. The Fit and Strong! education sessions focus on using PA to manage OA; whereas Fit and Strong! Plus addresses PA and weight loss management strategies. Maintenance of behavior change is reinforced in both groups during months 3-24 through telephone calls and mailed newsletters. Outcomes are assessed at baseline, and 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Primary outcomes are dietary change at 2 months followed by weight loss at 6 months that is maintained at 24 months. Secondary outcomes assess PA, physical performance, and anxiety/depression. PMID:24316240

  17. When is it ok to tell patients they are overweight? General public's views of the role of doctors in supporting patients' dieting and weight management.

    PubMed

    Hart, Jo; Yelland, Sophie; Mallinson, Alice; Hussain, Zarah; Peters, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    The objective was to explore the general public's views on the role of health professionals in the management of weight with diet and the implementation of behaviour change. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. An inductive grounded theory approach utilised a coding framework; recurring concepts/themes explored in future interviews and thematic saturation achieved. Two themes summarised views on the role of health professionals in supporting dieting and weight management: responsibility to initiate talk and what patients expect. Individuals perceive health professionals as having a role in their weight management. Individuals have disparate views about responsibility for initiation of weight management talk. PMID:25759374

  18. A pilot study of a weight management program with food provision in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Jean-Baptiste, Michel; Tek, Cenk; Liskov, Ellen; Chakunta, Umesh Rao; Nicholls, Sarah; Hassan, Akm Q; Brownell, Kelly D; Wexler, Bruce E

    2007-11-01

    Obesity is a serious medical problem that disproportionately affects people with severe mental illness. Behavioral strategies aimed at lifestyle modification have proven effective for weight loss in general population but have not been studied adequately among persons with schizophrenia. We have conducted a randomized controlled pilot trial of an established weight loss program, modified for this specific population, and supplemented with a novel food replacement program, as well as practical, community based teaching of shopping and preparing healthy food. The program not only arrested weight gain, and produced meaningful weight loss, but also weight loss continued 6 months after the intervention is completed. Cognitive impairment had no bearing to the extent a participant benefited from the program. As a conclusion, well designed simple behavioral programs can produce lasting weight loss for patients with schizophrenia and comorbid obesity, improve metabolic indices, and possibly decrease significant medical risks associated with obesity.

  19. Formula food-reducing diets:A new evidence-based addition to the weight management tool box

    PubMed Central

    Leeds, A R

    2014-01-01

    The changing pattern of obesity-related disease has created a need for a greater range of weight management options for the increasing number of people for whom weight loss and maintenance cannot be addressed by conventional dietary methods. Formula diet weight loss programmes [very low-calorie diets (VLCDs) (400–800 kcal/day) and low-calorie diets (LCDs) (800–1200 kcal/day)] can deliver weight loss at rates of 1–2 kg/week. This rate of weight loss can result in 10–20 kg weight loss in 8–12 weeks. Many health benefits associated with weight reduction seem to require between 10 and 20 kg weight loss. Formula diet programmes can result in weight loss, reduction of liver volume and reduction of visceral fat before bariatric surgery; weight loss before knee joint replacement surgery has also been shown. The benefit of pre-operative weight loss is still under investigation and such practices before bariatric surgery are variable in surgical units across the UK. Weight loss with formula diet in obesity-associated conditions where inflammation is an important component, such as osteoarthritis and psoriasis, has been demonstrated. Maintenance of about 10% of initial bodyweight loss, with symptom improvement in elderly obese people with knee osteoarthritis, has been shown over a period of 4 years. In obese people with psoriasis, weight loss with skin improvement has been maintained for 1 year. Clinical trials are currently underway to examine the merits of an initial weight loss with formula diet in pre-diabetes, in early type 2 diabetes and in insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. Rapid initial weight loss can result in rapid symptom improvement, such as reduced joint pain in osteoarthritis, improved sleep quality in obstructive sleep apnoea, reduced shortness of breath on exertion, reduced peripheral oedema and rapid improvement in metabolic control in diabetes, all changes that are highly motivating and conducive towards compliance. There is also some

  20. Poor management of low birth weight compounds obesity and chronic diseases in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Triana, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    The Cuban population exhibits high prevalence of overweight and associated chronic non-communicable diseases, trends that begin in childhood. In addition to factors related to the mother's health, factors contributing to excess weight gain in Cuban children are: reduced prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding of infants up to six months of age, full-term low birth weight infants and nutritional mismanagement of this group, incorrect complementary feeding, obesogenic diet, family history and sedentary lifestyles. Thus, it is important to adopt comprehensive, multisectoral strategies that promote adequate nutrition and weight control. This is particularly important for full-term low birth weight infants, predisposed to body fat storage.

  1. A process evaluation of an adolescent weight management intervention: findings and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh; Shrewsbury, Vanessa A; O'Connor, Janice; Lau, Christine; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Hill, Andrew J; Baur, Louise A

    2015-06-01

    Process evaluation is valuable in guiding development of effective intervention programmes but rare in adolescent weight management. This paper presents a process evaluation of the Loozit(®) randomized controlled trial, a community-based behavioural lifestyle intervention for obese 13-16 year olds. Adolescents were randomized to receive the two-phase Loozit(®) group programme, with (n = 73) or without (n = 78), additional therapeutic contact (telephone coaching, short message service and/or emails) in Phase 2. Quantitative and qualitative process data were collected. Facilitators used a standardized evaluation form to document participant attendance, and comment on lesson adherence and process delivery. Adolescents and parents completed satisfaction questionnaires at 2-, 12- and 24-month follow-ups. Following the intervention, 14 adolescents who provided informed written consent were interviewed about their experience with additional therapeutic contact. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, parametric and non-parametric tests to compare group means, and thematic analyses. Group attendance rates averaged 85 and 47% during Phases 1 (0-2 months) and 2 (3-24 months), respectively. Facilitators frequently noted that participants reported making healthy lifestyle changes. Elements enjoyed in the sessions included practical activities, fun active games, resistance training and forming new friendships. Adolescents struggled with setting specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and timely (SMART) goals. Overall, participants were satisfied with the help received including the telephone and electronic contact. More than 80% of participants found the programme changed adolescents' eating and physical activity habits, and 89% of parents reported changing parenting strategies. Future adolescent group-based programmes may enhance participant engagement and programme effectiveness by including more interactive and frequent telephone and electronic contact.

  2. A process evaluation of an adolescent weight management intervention: findings and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh; Shrewsbury, Vanessa A; O'Connor, Janice; Lau, Christine; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Hill, Andrew J; Baur, Louise A

    2015-06-01

    Process evaluation is valuable in guiding development of effective intervention programmes but rare in adolescent weight management. This paper presents a process evaluation of the Loozit(®) randomized controlled trial, a community-based behavioural lifestyle intervention for obese 13-16 year olds. Adolescents were randomized to receive the two-phase Loozit(®) group programme, with (n = 73) or without (n = 78), additional therapeutic contact (telephone coaching, short message service and/or emails) in Phase 2. Quantitative and qualitative process data were collected. Facilitators used a standardized evaluation form to document participant attendance, and comment on lesson adherence and process delivery. Adolescents and parents completed satisfaction questionnaires at 2-, 12- and 24-month follow-ups. Following the intervention, 14 adolescents who provided informed written consent were interviewed about their experience with additional therapeutic contact. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, parametric and non-parametric tests to compare group means, and thematic analyses. Group attendance rates averaged 85 and 47% during Phases 1 (0-2 months) and 2 (3-24 months), respectively. Facilitators frequently noted that participants reported making healthy lifestyle changes. Elements enjoyed in the sessions included practical activities, fun active games, resistance training and forming new friendships. Adolescents struggled with setting specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and timely (SMART) goals. Overall, participants were satisfied with the help received including the telephone and electronic contact. More than 80% of participants found the programme changed adolescents' eating and physical activity habits, and 89% of parents reported changing parenting strategies. Future adolescent group-based programmes may enhance participant engagement and programme effectiveness by including more interactive and frequent telephone and electronic contact. PMID

  3. The Influence of U.S. Chain Restaurant Food Consumption and Obesity in China and South Korea: An Ecological Perspective of Food Consumption, Self-Efficacy in Weight Management, Willingness to Communicate About Weight/Diet, and Depression.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kevin B; Mazzone, Raphael; Oh, Hyun; Du, Joshua; Smithson, Anne-Bennett; Ryan, Diane; MacNeil, David; Tong, Xing; Stiller, Carol

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the impact of U.S. chain restaurant food consumption in China and South Korea from an ecological perspective. Specifically, it explored the relationships among several environmental and individual variables that have been found to affect obesity/weight management in previous research, including the prevalence/popularity of U.S. chain restaurants in these countries, frequency of U.S. chain restaurant food consumption, self-efficacy in weight management, willingness to communicate about weight/diet, self-perceptions of weight/obesity stigma, body mass index (BMI), and depression. The results indicated that willingness to communicate about weight/diet predicted increased self-efficacy in weight management. Higher BMI scores were found to predict increased weight/obesity stigma, and increased frequency of U.S. restaurant food consumption, weight/obesity stigma, and reduced self-efficacy in weight management were found to predict increased levels of depression. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed, along with limitations and directions for future research.

  4. Pilot study of strategies for effective weight management in type 2 diabetes: Pounds Off with Empowerment (POWER).

    PubMed

    Mayer-Davis, E J; D'Antonio, A; Martin, M; Wandersman, A; Parra-Medina, D; Schulz, R

    2001-07-01

    This pilot test effort focused on weight management strategies for individuals with type 2 diabetes living in rural, medically under-served communities. Randomly selected patients from the diabetes registry of a federally funded primary care practice in a rural community were randomized to one of two 8-week interventions: intensive lifestyle (reduced fat and calorie intake and increased activity) or intensive lifestyle plus ongoing formal evaluation for continuous quality improvement. Mean weight loss was 1.15 +/- 1.90 kg (96.4% African American, n = 23, p < 0.01) with no difference between groups. Among the 78% who lost weight, mean loss was 2.00 kg. Mean difference in pre- vs. postintervention fasting blood glucose was -24.23 mg/dL (n = 23, p < 0.05). In this rural, medically under-served community, the interventions were moderately successful in facilitating weight loss and improving fasting glucose concentration. For purposes of state-of-the-art weight management interventions with diabetics, the addition of formal evaluation did not result in improved outcomes. PMID:11373164

  5. Online tailored weight management in the worksite: does it make a difference in biennial health risk assessment data?

    PubMed

    McHugh, Janice; Suggs, L Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are directly associated with heart disease, cancer, and diabetes and pose a serious cost-related challenge to employers. As most of the rise in health care spending is traced to the rise in population risk factors, maintaining or reducing the prevalence of disease represents a strategy with large potential payoffs. Tailored communication is a promising communication strategy for influencing health behavior change, including behaviors for weight management. Much of the tailored communication research is based on communication developed for research purposes, yet access to commercially available tailored health programs for worksites is growing. As health risk assessments are increasingly used for setting health programming and insurance priorities in U.S. workplaces and worksites have opportunities to purchase tailored programs, it is important to understand the effect of tailored communication on health risk assessment data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of a commercially available web-based tailored weight management program on employee weight, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood glucose. The authors compared health risk assessment data at baseline and 2 years later from 101 overweight and obese employees who participated in the tailored weight management program and 137 overweight and obese employees who did not participate in the program. Results show that there were significant mean differences in systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, and blood sugar levels, but each in a clinically undesirable direction. More research is needed to understand the effect of tailored programs used in worksite health promotion.

  6. "Taking Charge of One's Life": A Model for Weight Management Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is a serious, prevalent, and refractory disorder that increases with age particularly in women who enroll in formal weight loss treatments. This study examined the processes used by obese postmenopausal women as they participated in a formal weight loss program. Using grounded theory, interviews were conducted with 14 women engaged in a…

  7. Development of an Internet/Population-Based Weight Management Program for the U.S. Army

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Tiffany; May, Sandra; Allen, H. Raymond; Bathalon, Col. Gaston P.; Lavergne, Guy; Sigrist, Lori; Ryan, Donna; Williamson, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    A significant number of Army soldiers are sufficiently overweight to exceed the maximum weight allowances defined by the Army weight control program (AR600-9). Also, the body weights of a substantial number of soldiers approach the maximum weight allowances. These soldiers should not gain additional weight if they are to meet Army weight allowances. The conventional approach to this overweight problem is assigning soldiers to remedial physical training and mandatory referral for nutrition counseling by a health care provider. An alternative to this conventional approach is to target the entire population of soldiers (population-based intervention) to promote weight loss in overweight soldiers and weight gain prevention in soldiers who are approaching overweight status. To accomplish this objective, the Healthy Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Training Headquarters (H.E.A.L.T.H.) program was developed. This article describes the rationale for developing the program, the components of the program, and the utilization promotion strategies of the program. The H.E.A.L.T.H. program includes two primary components: (1) a Web site tailored to the standards established in Field Manual 21-20, Physical Fitness Training, Army physical fitness test, and AR600-9, the army weight control program, and (2) a health promotion program designed to promote awareness of the H.E.A.L.T.H. Web site and to facilitate use of the Web site by soldiers and their family members. The Web site is equipped with personalized planning tools and progress tracking over time related to fitness, caloric intake, and lifestyle behavior change goals. The health promotion program includes media advertisements and “ground roots” efforts to facilitate use by soldiers. PMID:19885186

  8. Development of an internet/population-based weight management program for the U.S. Army.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Tiffany; May, Sandra; Allen, H Raymond; Bathalon, Col Gaston P; Lavergne, Guy; Sigrist, Lori; Ryan, Donna; Williamson, Donald A

    2008-01-01

    A significant number of Army soldiers are sufficiently overweight to exceed the maximum weight allowances defined by the Army weight control program (AR600-9). Also, the body weights of a substantial number of soldiers approach the maximum weight allowances. These soldiers should not gain additional weight if they are to meet Army weight allowances. The conventional approach to this overweight problem is assigning soldiers to remedial physical training and mandatory referral for nutrition counseling by a health care provider. An alternative to this conventional approach is to target the entire population of soldiers (population-based intervention) to promote weight loss in overweight soldiers and weight gain prevention in soldiers who are approaching overweight status. To accomplish this objective, the Healthy Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Training Headquarters (H.E.A.L.T.H.) program was developed. This article describes the rationale for developing the program, the components of the program, and the utilization promotion strategies of the program. The H.E.A.L.T.H. program includes two primary components: (1) a Web site tailored to the standards established in Field Manual 21-20, Physical Fitness Training, Army physical fitness test, and AR600-9, the army weight control program, and (2) a health promotion program designed to promote awareness of the H.E.A.L.T.H. Web site and to facilitate use of the Web site by soldiers and their family members. The Web site is equipped with personalized planning tools and progress tracking over time related to fitness, caloric intake, and lifestyle behavior change goals. The health promotion program includes media advertisements and "ground roots" efforts to facilitate use by soldiers.

  9. Case Study: Weight loss in a patient with type 2 diabetes: Challenges of diabetes management.

    PubMed

    Lotfi, Katayoun; Palmer, Kenya; Apovian, Caroline M

    2015-04-01

    This patient with BMI 36 kg/m² and T2DM on insulin glargine and glyburide as well as atenolol for HTN was able to lose 10% of his initial body weight with a low-carbohydrate diet and exercise and adjustment of medications in approximately a 36-week time frame. Insulin glargine and glyburide were reduced gradually with blood glucose monitoring and replaced by an increase in metformin, start of liraglutide, and eventually phentermine/topiramate and canagliflozin (Figure). Therefore, medications that can exacerbate weight gain were discontinued in place of medications which promote weight loss. PMID:25900868

  10. Responses to gestational weight management guidance: a thematic analysis of comments made by women in online parenting forums

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) published guidance on weight management in pregnancy in July 2010 (NICE public health guidance 27: 2010), and this received considerable press coverage across a range of media. This offered an opportunity to examine how gestational weight management guidance was received by UK women. Methods A thematic analysis was conducted of 400 posts made in UK-based parenting internet forums in the week following the publication of the NICE guidance. This allowed us to examine the naturally occurring comments from 202 women who posted about the guidance on public forums. Results Three main themes were identified and explored: i) Perceived control/responsibility ii) Risk perception iii) Confused messages. Conclusions Women differed in their perceptions of the level of control that they had over being overweight with some feeling responsible and motivated to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Others felt there were multiple factors influencing their weight issues beyond their control. There were reports of feeling guilty about the impact of weight on the growing baby and experiencing significant obesity stigma from the public and health professionals. Information about the risks of overweight and obesity in pregnancy were difficult messages for women to hear, and for health professionals to deliver. Women reported being confused by the messages that they received. Health messages need to be delivered sensitively to women, and health professionals need support and training to do this. Risk information should always be accompanied with clear advice and support to help women to manage their weight in pregnancy. PMID:24981024

  11. Middle-aged women’s decisions about body weight management: needs assessment and testing of a knowledge translation tool

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Dawn; Jull, Janet; Beach, Sarah; Dumas, Alex; Strychar, Irene; Adamo, Kristi; Brochu, Martin; Prud’homme, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study aims to assess middle-aged women’s needs when making body weight management decisions and to evaluate a knowledge translation tool for addressing their needs. Methods A mixed-methods study used an interview-guided theory-based survey of professional women aged 40 to 65 years. The tool summarized evidence to address their needs and enabled women to monitor actions taken. Acceptability and usability were reported descriptively. Results Sixty female participants had a mean body mass index of 28.0 kg/m2 (range, 17.0-44.9 kg/m2), and half were premenopausal. Common options for losing (82%) or maintaining (18%) weight included increasing physical activity (60%), eating healthier (57%), and getting support (40%). Decision-making involved getting information on options (52%), soliciting others’ decisions/advice (20%), and being self-motivated (20%). Preferred information sources included written information (97%), counseling (90%), and social networking websites (43%). Five professionals (dietitian, personal trainer, occupational therapist, and two physicians) had similar responses. Of 53 women sent the tool, 27 provided acceptability feedback. They rated it as good to excellent for information on menopause (96%), body weight changes (85%), and managing body weight (85%). Most would tell others about it (81%). After 4 weeks of use, 25 women reported that the wording made sense (96%) and that the tool had clear instructions (92%) and was easy to use across time (88%). The amount of information was rated as just right (64%), but the tool had limited space for responding (72%). Conclusions When making decisions about body weight management, women’s needs were “getting information” and “getting support.” The knowledge translation tool was acceptable and usable, but further evaluation is required. PMID:25816120

  12. Randomized controlled pilot study of a SystemCHANGE™ weight management intervention in stroke survivors: rationale and protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over 65% of stroke survivors are either overweight or obese and have multiple cardiovascular risk factors. However, few studies have examined the effects of comprehensive lifestyle behavior interventions to promote weight loss and control cardiovascular risk factors in stroke survivors. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine a novel behavior change approach - SystemCHANGE™ - to promote weight loss and improve health and function in stroke survivors. SystemCHANGE™ focuses on redesigning the social environment to achieve a specific goal. Methods We will conduct a randomized controlled pilot study to examine the efficacy, feasibility, and safety of the SystemCHANGE™ weight management program in overweight and obese stroke survivors. The central hypothesis of the study is that the SystemCHANGE™ intervention will help overweight and obese stroke survivors lose 5% of their body weight, thereby improving health and function. Thirty-five stroke survivors will be randomized into either the 6-month SystemCHANGE™ intervention or a contact-control intervention. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline and again at 3 and 6 months after the interventions. Body composition will be assessed using a Bod Pod. Patient-reported outcomes will be the Stroke Impact Scale and Reintegration to Normal Living Index. Objective outcomes will include the 6-Minute Walking Test and Rivermead Motor Assessment. Discussion This study will be the first randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a weight management intervention in stroke survivors using the SystemCHANGE™ approach. Furthermore, it will be the first empirically-examined comprehensive lifestyle intervention designed to target physical activity, nutrition, and sleep to promote weight loss in stroke survivors. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01776034 PMID:23782741

  13. Weight management using a meal replacement strategy in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Osama; Zwiefelhofer, Debbie

    2010-04-01

    The growing prevalence of diabetes parallels the increased prevalence of obesity. Overweight and obese individuals with diabetes who attempt weight reduction face considerable challenges. However, several recent studies showed that weight reduction in patients with diabetes is feasible using a multidisciplinary approach that incorporates structured dietary intervention and meal replacements (MRs). Nutritionally complete MRs are shown to be useful at the start of weight reduction programs and for weight maintenance because of their nutrition adequacy. However, patients using this approach need to monitor their blood glucose levels closely and may need to adjust their diabetes medications. Most commercial MRs are currently fortified with vitamins and minerals to prevent long-term deficiency in essential micronutrients that are commonly seen in low-calorie diet plans. They also come in different flavors and formats that improve their general acceptability. To successfully initiate weight loss, MRs are generally used as absolute replacement of an agreed upon number of meals/snacks. This article covers the use of MRs for patients with diabetes for short-term and long-term weight reduction in clinical trials and real-world clinical practice.

  14. Time, Monetary and Other Costs of Participation in Family-Based Child Weight Management Interventions: Qualitative and Systematic Review Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Lisa; Panca, Monica; Morris, Steve; Curtis-Tyler, Katherine; Lucas, Patricia J.; Roberts, Helen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight and obesity have health and economic impacts on individuals and the wider society. Families participating in weight management programmes may foresee or experience monetary and other costs which deter them from signing up to or completing programmes. This is recognised in the health economics literature, though within this sparse body of work, costs to families are often narrowly defined and not fully accounted for. A societal perspective incorporating a broader array of costs may provide a more accurate picture. This paper brings together a review of the health economics literature on the costs to families attending child weight management programmes with qualitative data from families participating in a programme to manage child overweight and obesity. Methods A search identified economic evaluation studies of lifestyle interventions in childhood obesity. The qualitative work drew on interviews with families who attended a weight management intervention in three UK regions. Results We identified four cost-effectiveness analyses that include information on costs to families. These were categorised as direct (e.g. monetary) and indirect (e.g. time) costs. Our analysis of qualitative data demonstrated that, for families who attended the programme, costs were associated both with participation on the scheme and with maintaining a healthy lifestyle afterwards. Respondents reported three kinds of cost: time-related, social/emotional and monetary. Conclusion Societal approaches to measuring cost-effectiveness provide a framework for assessing the monetary and non-monetary costs borne by participants attending treatment programmes. From this perspective, all costs should be considered in any analysis of cost-effectiveness. Our data suggest that family costs are important, and may act as a barrier to the uptake, completion and maintenance of behaviours to reduce child obesity. These findings have implications for the development and

  15. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: standards of practice and standards of professional performance for registered dietitian nutritionists (competent, proficient, and expert) in adult weight management.

    PubMed

    Jortberg, Bonnie; Myers, Eileen; Gigliotti, Linda; Ivens, Barbara J; Lebre, Monica; Burke March, Susan; Nogueira, Isadora; Nwankwo, Robin; Parkinson, Meredith R; Paulsen, Barbara; Turner, Tonya

    2015-04-01

    Weight management encompasses the inter-relationship of nutrition, physical activity, and health behavior change. Nutrition is key for the prevention and treatment of obesity and chronic disease and maintenance of overall health. Thus, the Weight Management Dietetic Practice Group, with guidance from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee, has developed Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (RDNs) in Adult Weight Management as a resource for RDNs working in weight management. This document allows RDNs to assess their current skill levels and to identify areas for further professional development in this expanding practice area. This document describes the current standards for weight management practice for RDNs. The Standards of Practice represent the four steps in the Nutrition Care Process as applied to the care of patients/clients. The Standards of Professional Performance consist of six domains of professionalism: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. Within each standard, specific indicators provide measurable action statements that illustrate how the standard can be applied to practice. The indicators describe three skill levels (competent, proficient, and expert) for RDNs working in weight management. The Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance are complementary resources for the Registered Dietitian Nutritionist in weight management.

  16. Assessing motivation and readiness to change for weight management and control: an in-depth evaluation of three sets of instruments

    PubMed Central

    Ceccarini, Martina; Borrello, Maria; Pietrabissa, Giada; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    It is highly recommended to promptly assess motivation and readiness to change (RTC) in individuals who wish to achieve significant lifestyle behavior changes in order to improve their health, overall quality of life, and well-being. In particular, motivation should be assessed for those who face the difficult task to maintain weight, which implies a double challenge: weight loss initially and its management subsequently. In fact, weight-control may be as problematic as smoking or drugs-taking cessation, since they all share the commonality of being highly refractory to change. This paper will examine three well-established tools following the Transtheoretical Model, specifically assessing RTC in weight management: the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Scale, the S-Weight and the P-Weight and the Decisional Balance Inventory. Though their strengths and weaknesses may appear to be rather homogeneous and similar, the S-Weight and P-Weight are more efficient in assessing RTC in weight management and control. Assessing motivation and RTC may be a crucial step in promptly identifying psychological obstacles or resistance toward weight-management in overweight or obese hospitalized individuals, and it may contribute to provide a more effective weight-control treatment intervention. PMID:26029126

  17. Incorporation of exercise, using an underwater treadmill, and active client education into a weight management program for obese dogs.

    PubMed

    Chauvet, Anne; Laclair, Jim; Elliott, Denise A; German, Alexander J

    2011-05-01

    Physical activity improves outcome of weight loss in obese humans, but limited information exists for dogs. Eight obese dogs (body condition score 5/5), of various breeds and genders, undertook a 3-month weight-loss program which included exercise using lead walks and underwater treadmill exercise. The median number of treadmill exercise sessions per dog was 13 (range: 5 to 17). Median distance walked per session was 0.97 km (range: 0.05 to 2.7 km) (0.6 miles; range: 0.03 to 1.70 miles) and this increased sequentially over the course of the study (P < 0.001). Mean [± standard deviation (s)] percentage of starting weight loss over the 3 mo was 18.9 ± 5.44%, equivalent to a rate of weight loss of 1.5 ± 0.43% per week. Thoracic and abdominal girth also declined significantly during the program (P < 0.0001 for both). This study demonstrates the potential benefit of including an organized exercise regimen, utilizing an underwater treadmill, in conventional canine weight management programs.

  18. Weight Management to Reduce Prostate Cancer Risk: A Survey of Men’s Needs and Interests

    PubMed Central

    Schleper, Amy; Sullivan, Debra K.; Thrasher, J. Brantley; Holzbeierlein, Jeffrey M.; Klemp, Jennifer; Befort, Christie; Hamilton-Reeves, Jill M.

    2016-01-01

    Obese men have a higher rate of prostate cancer-related death than non-obese men, and obesity increases the risk of prostate cancer progression and biochemical recurrence. The purpose of this study was to assess needs and interests of men for a technology-driven weight loss intervention to reduce prostate cancer risk. We distributed a survey collecting demographic characteristics, health history, exercise and eating habits (and perception of those habits), current and prior attempts of health behavior change, and technology use. Survey answers were summarized by count and percent of total respondents. Completed surveys (N = 109) described men with a family history of prostate cancer (25%), a history of elevated prostate specific antigen (26%), and prostate cancer survivors (22%). We compared body mass index (BMI) to perception of weight; overweight and obese men perceived their weight as more normal than their BMI category suggests. Most men reported their diet needed minor improvement (74%), and 65% of men reported they are either currently trying to lose weight or interested in weight loss. Most respondents access the internet (92%), while text messaging (60%) and smartphone application use (40%) are less frequent, especially in men over 60. Our results revealed a need and willingness for lifestyle modification and suggest a need for evidence-based weight loss strategies and for addressing the misperception of weight status. A male-tailored intervention that implements technology could improve energy balance, hold men accountable to healthy behavior change, and promote dietary patterns in order to reduce prostate cancer risk. PMID:27547287

  19. Parental Weight Perceptions: A Cause for Concern in the Prevention and Management of Childhood Obesity in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Aljunaibi, Abdulla; Abdulle, Abdishakur; Nagelkerke, Nico

    2013-01-01

    Parental participation is a key factor in the prevention and management of childhood obesity, thus parental recognition of weight problems is essential. We estimated parental perceptions and their determinants in the Emirati population. We invited 1541 students (grade 1–12; 50% boys) and their parents, but only 1440 (6–19 years) and their parents consented. Of these, 945 Emirati nationals provided data for analysis. Anthropometric and demographic variables were measured by standard methods. CDC BMI percentile charts for age and sex were used to classify children’s weight. Parental perception of their children’s weight status (underweight, normal, and overweight/obese) was recorded. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent predictors of parental perceptions of children’s weight status. Of all parents, 33.8% misclassified their children’s’ weight status; underestimating (27.4%) or overestimating (6.3%). Misclassification was highest among parents of overweight/obese children (63.5%) and underweight (55.1%) children. More importantly, parental perceptions of their children being overweight or obese, among truly overweight/obese children, i.e. correct identification of an overweight/obese child as such, were associated with the true child’s BMI percentile (CDC) with an OR of 1.313 (95% CI: 1.209–1.425; p<0.001) per percentile point, but not age, parental education, household income, and child’s sex. We conclude that the majority of parents of overweight/obese children either overestimated or, more commonly, underestimated children’s weight status. Predictors of accurate parental perception, in this population, include the true children’s BMI, but not age, household income, and sex. Thus, parents having an incorrect perception of their child’s weight status may ignore otherwise appropriate health messages. PMID:23555833

  20. Predicted implications of using percentage weight gain as single discharge criterion in management of acute malnutrition in rural southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Forsén, Emmanuel; Tadesse, Elazar; Berhane, Yemane; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2015-10-01

    Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) is increasingly used in identifying and admitting children with acute malnutrition for treatment. It is easy to use because it does not involve height assessment, but its use calls for alternative discharge criteria. This study examined how use of percentage weight gain as discharge criterion would affect the nutritional status of children admitted into a community-based management programme for acute malnutrition in rural southern Ethiopia. Non-oedematous children (n = 631) aged 6-59 months and having a MUAC of <125 mm were studied. By simulation, 10%, 15% and 20% weight was added to admission weight and their nutritional status by weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) was determined at each target. Moderate and severe wasting according to World Health Organization WHZ definitions was used as outcome. Applying the most commonly recommended target of 15% weight gain resulted in 9% of children with admission MUAC <115 mm still being moderately or severely wasted at theoretical discharge. In children with admission MUAC 115-124 mm, 10% of weight gain was sufficient to generate a similar result. Children failing to recover were the ones with the poorest nutritional status at admission. Increasing the percentage weight gain targets in the two groups to 20% and 15%, respectively, would largely resolve wasting but likely lead to increased programme costs by keeping already recovered children in the programme. Further research is needed on appropriate discharge procedures in programmes using MUAC for screening and admission.

  1. Technology-Assisted Weight Management Interventions: Systematic Review of Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Janna; Patel, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: More than one-third of U.S. adults are obese, which greatly increases their risks for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some types of cancer. Busy healthcare professionals need effective tools and strategies to facilitate healthy eating and increase physical activity, thus promoting weight loss in their patients. Communication technologies such as the Internet and mobile devices offer potentially powerful methodologies to deliver behavioral weight loss interventions, and researchers have studied a variety of technology-assisted approaches. Materials and Methods: The literature from 2002 to 2012 was systematically reviewed by examining clinical trials of technology-assisted interventions for weight loss or weight maintenance among overweight and obese adults. Results: In total, 2,011 citations from electronic databases were identified; 39 articles were eligible for inclusion. Findings suggest that the use of technology-assisted behavioral interventions, particularly those that incorporate text messaging or e-mail, may be effective for producing weight loss among overweight and obese adults. Conclusions: Only a small percentage of the 39 studies reviewed used mobile platforms such as Android® (Google, Mountain View, CA) phones or the iPhone® (Apple, Cupertino, CA), only two studies incorporated cost analysis, none was able to identify which features were most responsible for changes in outcomes, and few reported long-term outcomes. All of these areas are important foci for future research. PMID:25409001

  2. The role of high-protein diets in body weight management and health.

    PubMed

    Te Morenga, Lisa; Mann, Jim

    2012-08-01

    Studies examining the health benefits of high-protein diets typical of most affluent and many developing countries are not consistent. Prospective epidemiological studies relating dietary protein to clinical and metabolic endpoints suggest increased weight gain and increased risk of diabetes amongst those with a high protein intake and an increased risk of cancer with high intakes of red meat, but lower blood pressure and possibly a reduced risk of heart disease with higher protein intakes. The potential for high-protein diets to confer greater benefit than other diets has been examined using ad libitum and energy restricted diets. Of greatest interest have been the comparisons between high-protein and high-carbohydrate diets. Many trials have reported greater weight loss especially in the context of ad libitum diets over the short-to medium-term, sparing of lean body mass, lowering of triglyceride levels, improved HDL: total cholesterol ratio and improved glycaemic control. Limited data regarding insulin sensitivity are less consistent. A major difficulty in interpreting the results of these studies is that carbohydrate quality has not been taken into account. Furthermore, longer term comparisons of weight reducing diets differing in macronutrient composition have reported similar outcomes, suggesting that compliance is a more important consideration. Nevertheless dietary patterns with high-protein intakes are appropriate for weight reduction and weight maintenance and may be useful for those who have high triglyceride levels and other features of the metabolic syndrome.

  3. Naltrexone HCI/bupropion HCI for chronic weight management in obese adults: patient selection and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tek, Cenk

    2016-01-01

    Naltrexone, an opiate antagonist, and bupropion, a noradrenergic/dopaminergic antidepressant, have many effects on the reward systems of the brain. These medications impact eating behavior, presumably via their impact on food reward. However, only bupropion induces weight loss in obese individuals, while naltrexone does not have any appreciable effect. The combination of 32 mg of naltrexone and 360 mg of bupropion in a sustained-release combination pill form has been recently approved for obesity treatment. Studies have shown that the combination of these two medications is more effective in inducing weight loss, when combined with lifestyle intervention and calorie reduction, than each individual medicine alone. The naltrexone-bupropion combination, when combined with lifestyle intervention and modest calorie reduction, seems to be quite effective for 6-month and 1-year outcomes for clinically significant weight loss (over 5% of total body weight). These medications are not devoid of serious side effects, however, and careful patient selection can reduce dramatic complications and increase positive outcomes. This paper reviews existing weight loss clinical trials with bupropion and the bupropion-naltrexone combination. Additionally, the rationale for the suggested patient selection and clinical strategies for special patient populations are discussed. PMID:27217728

  4. Naltrexone HCI/bupropion HCI for chronic weight management in obese adults: patient selection and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tek, Cenk

    2016-01-01

    Naltrexone, an opiate antagonist, and bupropion, a noradrenergic/dopaminergic antidepressant, have many effects on the reward systems of the brain. These medications impact eating behavior, presumably via their impact on food reward. However, only bupropion induces weight loss in obese individuals, while naltrexone does not have any appreciable effect. The combination of 32 mg of naltrexone and 360 mg of bupropion in a sustained-release combination pill form has been recently approved for obesity treatment. Studies have shown that the combination of these two medications is more effective in inducing weight loss, when combined with lifestyle intervention and calorie reduction, than each individual medicine alone. The naltrexone–bupropion combination, when combined with lifestyle intervention and modest calorie reduction, seems to be quite effective for 6-month and 1-year outcomes for clinically significant weight loss (over 5% of total body weight). These medications are not devoid of serious side effects, however, and careful patient selection can reduce dramatic complications and increase positive outcomes. This paper reviews existing weight loss clinical trials with bupropion and the bupropion–naltrexone combination. Additionally, the rationale for the suggested patient selection and clinical strategies for special patient populations are discussed. PMID:27217728

  5. Weight reduction in the management of hypertension: epidemiologic and mechanistic evidence.

    PubMed

    Reisin, E

    1986-06-01

    A number of studies have established a close association between increased body mass and elevated blood pressure. The presence of obesity in hypertensive subjects is associated with some hemodynamic, metabolic, and endocrinic characteristics: an increased intravascular volume with a high intracellular body water/interstitial fluid volume ratio, increased cardiac output, stroke volume, and left ventricular work while peripheral resistance was reduced or normal. Weight loss of at least 10 kg can reduce blood pressure independently of changes in sodium intake in obese persons of both sexes with mild, moderate, or severe high blood pressure. The fall in arterial pressure in obese hypertensives after weight loss may reverse many of the previously mentioned altered findings and underscore previous epidemiological studies that have shown that weight control could be an important measure in the treatment of hypertension. PMID:3756637

  6. Cannabis: a self-medication drug for weight management? The never ending story.

    PubMed

    Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Santacroce, Rita; Coviello, Marialuce; Imperatori, Claudio; Francesconi, Marta; Vicinanza, Roberto; Minichino, Amedeo; Corazza, Ornella

    2016-02-01

    In a society highly focused on physical appearance, people are increasingly using the so-called performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs) or life-style drugs as an easy way to control weight. Preliminary data from online sources (e.g. websites, drug forums, e-newsletters) suggest an increased use of cannabis amongst the general population as a PIED due to its putative weight-loss properties. The use of cannabis and/or cannabis-related products to lose weight may represent a new substance-use trend that should be carefully monitored and adequately investigated, especially in light of the well-known adverse psychiatric and somatic effects of cannabis, its possible interaction with other medications/drugs and the unknown and potentially dangerous composition of synthetic cannabimimetics preparations.

  7. Presentation and management of common post-weight loss surgery problems in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Eric D; Jacob, Brian P; Gagner, Michel; Pomp, Alfons

    2006-02-01

    Morbid obesity is an epidemic in this country. An increasing number of patients are undergoing weight loss surgery in an effort to combat the negative physical and psychological impact of morbid obesity. Fueling the increasing interest in surgical treatment of morbid obesity has been the development of new laparoscopic techniques. There are several surgical approaches to morbid obesity, and each has its own unique set of risks and potential complications. As more patients have weight loss surgery, clinicians working in the emergency department will frequently encounter complications of these procedures. To ensure timely diagnosis and optimal care, clinicians should be familiar with the standard weight loss approaches and the potential complications of these interventions.

  8. The Role of Macronutrient Content in the Diet for Weight Management.

    PubMed

    Bray, George A; Siri-Tarino, Patty W

    2016-09-01

    Diets to treat obesity have been in existence since Hippocrates treated obesity some 2500 years ago. There are currently a wide variety of diets and a common misconception that a single magical diet can cure overweight and obesity. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses indicate that all diets work when adhered to and that initial weight loss can predict the amount of weight lost and maintained for up to 4 years. Individual preferences are thus key in selecting a diet. There are emerging data pinpointing genetic variability in the metabolic responses to variation in macronutrient intake. PMID:27519132

  9. Online tailored weight management in the worksite: does it make a difference in biennial health risk assessment data?

    PubMed

    McHugh, Janice; Suggs, L Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are directly associated with heart disease, cancer, and diabetes and pose a serious cost-related challenge to employers. As most of the rise in health care spending is traced to the rise in population risk factors, maintaining or reducing the prevalence of disease represents a strategy with large potential payoffs. Tailored communication is a promising communication strategy for influencing health behavior change, including behaviors for weight management. Much of the tailored communication research is based on communication developed for research purposes, yet access to commercially available tailored health programs for worksites is growing. As health risk assessments are increasingly used for setting health programming and insurance priorities in U.S. workplaces and worksites have opportunities to purchase tailored programs, it is important to understand the effect of tailored communication on health risk assessment data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of a commercially available web-based tailored weight management program on employee weight, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood glucose. The authors compared health risk assessment data at baseline and 2 years later from 101 overweight and obese employees who participated in the tailored weight management program and 137 overweight and obese employees who did not participate in the program. Results show that there were significant mean differences in systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, and blood sugar levels, but each in a clinically undesirable direction. More research is needed to understand the effect of tailored programs used in worksite health promotion. PMID:22188131

  10. The use of low-calorie sweeteners by children: Implications for weight management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rise in pediatric obesity since the 1970s has been well established in the United States and is becoming a major concern worldwide. As a potential means to help slow the obesity epidemic, low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) have gained attention as dietary tools to assist in adherence to weight loss pl...

  11. Does a Healthy Diet Help Weight Management among Overweight and Obese People?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saquib, Nazmus; Rock, Cheryl L.; Natarajan, Loki; Flatt, Shirley W.; Newman, Vicky A.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Caan, Bette J.; Pierce, John P.

    2009-01-01

    A randomized dietary intervention trial across 4 years examined diet, weight, and obesity incidence (body mass index [BMI] greater than or equal to 30 kg/m[superscript 2]) differences between study groups. Participants were 1,510 breast cancer survivors with BMI greater than or equal to 25 kg/m[superscript 2] at entry. Dietary intake was assessed…

  12. Assessing the Stages of Change Among African American Women in a Weight Management Program.

    PubMed

    Sbrocco, Tracy; Osborn, Robyn; Clark, Robert D; Hsiao, Chiao-Wen; Carter, Michele M

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between stage of change (SOC) and behavioral outcomes among African American women entering obesity treatment in two settings. Fifty-five overweight/obese (body mass index = 26.50-48.13), but otherwise healthy African American women, 23 to 56 years old, attended a 13-week weight loss-treatment program that took place at churches (n = 36) or a university (n = 19). Participants were weighed, completed SOC measures, and had a physical fitness test at pre- and posttreatment. Pretreatment measures of SOC placed 47% of the participants as actors, 31% as contemplators, and 22% as maintainers. Of the 45 women who reported posttreatment SOC, 7% regressed, 44% did not change, and 31% progressed in SOC. Pretreatment SOC predicted posttreatment weight loss in the church setting but not in the university setting. At churches, contemplators lost more weight than actors and maintainers. The church may be a more conducive setting for weight change behaviors for African American women who are categorized as contemplators in the SOC model.

  13. Current and Emerging Pharmacotherapies for Weight Management in Prediabetes and Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lau, David C W; Teoh, Hwee

    2015-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a serious chronic disease that is associated with increased morbidity and premature mortality. It has become the tsunami of noncommunicable diseases, with more than 400 million people worldwide currently living with diabetes. The global diabetes epidemic is driven by rising obesity rates. Excess body fat increases the risk for insulin resistance and prediabetes; obese men and women, respectively, have a 7-fold and 12-fold higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Obesity also predisposes to the development of a myriad of medical complications leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Each increase in body mass index of 5 kg/m(2) or higher is, on average, associated with about a 30% higher overall mortality rate. Modest weight loss through health-behaviour modification can significantly prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in people at risk. Each kg of body weight loss is associated with a 16% relative reduction in diabetes risk. Intentional weight loss is also associated with a 15% reduction in all-cause mortality. Unfortunately, health-behaviour modification alone seldom sustains adequate weight loss to achieve the desired health outcomes, especially in people with diabetes who already have greater difficulty losing weight. Pharmacotherapy is a realistic treatment option as an adjunct to diet and exercise. In addition to orlistat, the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide has recently been approved in Canada for the treatment of obesity in doses of up to 3.0 mg daily. This review is focused on current and emerging pharmacotherapies for obesity in people with prediabetes or diabetes. PMID:26654857

  14. Pilot and Feasibility Test of a Mobile Health-Supported Behavioral Counseling Intervention for Weight Management Among Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Quintiliani, Lisa M; Mann, Devin M; Puputti, Marissa; Quinn, Emily; Bowen, Deborah J

    2016-01-01

    Background Health behavior and weight management interventions for cancer survivors have the potential to prevent future cancer recurrence and improve long-term health; however, their translation can be limited if the intervention is complex and involves high participant burden. Mobile health (mHealth) offers a delivery modality to integrate interventions into daily life routines. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a one-group trial with a pre-post evaluation design on engagement (use and acceptability), physiological (weight), behavioral (diet and physical activity), and other secondary outcomes. Methods The 10-week intervention consisted of mHealth components (self-monitoring of selected diet behaviors via daily text messages, wireless devices to automatically track weight and steps) and 4 motivational interviewing–based technology-assisted phone sessions with a nonprofessionally trained counselor. Participants were overweight breast cancer survivors who had completed treatment and owned a smartphone. Weight was measured objectively; diet and physical activity were measured with brief self-reported questionnaires. Results Ten women participated; they had a mean age of 59 years (SD 6), 50% belonged to a racial or ethnic minority group, 50% had some college or less, and 40% reported using Medicaid health insurance. Engagement was high: out of 70 days in total, the mean number of days recording steps via the wristband pedometer was 64 (SD 7), recording a weight via the scale was 45 (SD 24), and responding to text messages was 60 (SD 13); 100% of participants completed all 4 calls with the counselor. Most (90%) were very likely to participate again and recommend the program to others. Mean weight in pounds decreased (182.5 to 179.1, mean change −3.38 [SD 7.67]), fruit and vegetable daily servings increased (2.89 to 4.42, mean change 1.53 [SD 2.82]), and self-reported moderate physical activity increased in metabolic equivalent of

  15. An Adaptive CBPR Approach to Create Weight Management Materials for a School-Based Health Center Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Andrew L.; Montoya, Carolyn; Davis, Sally; Wallerstein, Nina; Kong, Alberta S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. From our previous clinical work with overweight/obese youth, we identified the need for research to create an effective weight management intervention to address the growing prevalence of adolescent metabolic syndrome. Formative assessment through an adaptive community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach was conducted toward the development of a nutritional and physical activity (DVD) and clinician toolkit for a school-based health center (SBHC) weight management intervention. Methods. We first conducted parent and adolescent interviews on views and experiences about obesity while convening a community advisory council (CAC) recruited from two participating urban New Mexico high schools. Thematic findings from the interviews were analyzed with the CAC to develop culturally and developmentally appropriate intervention materials. Results. Themes from the parent and adolescent interviews included general barriers/challenges, factors influencing motivation, and change facilitators. The CAC and university-based research team reached consensus on the final content of nutrition and physical activity topics to produce a DVD and clinician toolkit through six monthly sessions. These materials used in the SBHC intervention resulted in a greater reduction of body mass index when compared to adolescents receiving standard care. Conclusions. Formative assessment using an adaptive CBPR approach resulted in the creation of culturally and age appropriate weight reduction materials that were acceptable to study participants. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00841334. PMID:23984053

  16. Targeting Parents for Childhood Weight Management: Development of a Theory-Driven and User-Centered Healthy Eating App

    PubMed Central

    Lahiri, Sudakshina; Brown, Katherine Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background The proliferation of health promotion apps along with mobile phones' array of features supporting health behavior change offers a new and innovative approach to childhood weight management. However, despite the critical role parents play in children’s weight related behaviors, few industry-led apps aimed at childhood weight management target parents. Furthermore, industry-led apps have been shown to lack a basis in behavior change theory and evidence. Equally important remains the issue of how to maximize users’ engagement with mobile health (mHealth) interventions where there is growing consensus that inputs from the commercial app industry and the target population should be an integral part of the development process. Objective The aim of this study is to systematically design and develop a theory and evidence-driven, user-centered healthy eating app targeting parents for childhood weight management, and clearly document this for the research and app development community. Methods The Behavior Change Wheel (BCW) framework, a theoretically-based approach for intervention development, along with a user-centered design (UCD) philosophy and collaboration with the commercial app industry, guided the development process. Current evidence, along with a series of 9 focus groups (total of 46 participants) comprised of family weight management case workers, parents with overweight and healthy weight children aged 5-11 years, and consultation with experts, provided data to inform the app development. Thematic analysis of focus groups helped to extract information related to relevant theoretical, user-centered, and technological components to underpin the design and development of the app. Results Inputs from parents and experts working in the area of childhood weight management helped to identify the main target behavior: to help parents provide appropriate food portion sizes for their children. To achieve this target behavior, the behavioral diagnosis

  17. Effects of ID-alG™ on weight management and body fat mass in high-fat-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Terpend, Kathleen; Bisson, Jean-François; Le Gall, Claire; Linares, Elodie

    2012-05-01

    Seaweed extract of Ascophyllum nodosum, ID-alG™, was evaluated for its chronic effects on weight management in high-fat-fed Sprague-Dawley rats. ID-alG™ was orally administered daily during 9 weeks at doses of 40 and 400 mg/kg/day with fat-enriched diet (FED) in comparison with two control groups consuming standard diet (negative control) or FED (positive control) and orally treated with vehicle. Body weight, percentage of body fat mass and lipid parameters were measured. After 9 weeks, the oral administration of ID-alG™ at both doses decreased significantly the mean body weight gains (MBWG) of rats submitted to the FED in comparison to the positive control (-6.8% and -11.8%). ID-alG™ at both doses improved significantly the MBWG of rats and decreased significantly the percentage of body fat mass of rats (-9.8% and -19.0%), in comparison to the positive control. In the same way, the triglyceride blood level was also significantly improved for the dose of 400 mg/kg/day (-30.6% vs. +49.9% for the positive control); and the dose of 40 mg/kg/day just lead to a trend. Moreover, in both controls and ID-alG™-treated groups, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL blood levels were not modified. The seaweed extract of Ascophyllum nodosum, ID-alG™, demonstrated beneficial effects on weight management of rats submitted to a high-fat diet. PMID:22034228

  18. Obesity and weight management in the elderly: a focus on men.

    PubMed

    Han, T S; Wu, F C W; Lean, M E J

    2013-08-01

    The rising rate of overweight/obesity among the ever-growing ageing population is imposing massive and rapidly changing burdens of ill health. The observation that the BMI value associated with the lowest relative mortality is slightly higher in older than in younger adults, mainly through its reduced impact on coronary heart disease, has often been misinterpreted that obesity is not as harmful in the elderly, who suffer a large range of disabling consequences of obesity. All medical consequences of obesity are multi-factorial and most alleviated by modest, achievable weight loss (5-10 kg) with an evidence-based maintenance strategy. But severe obesity, e.g. BMI >40 may demand greater weight loss e.g. >15 kg to reverse type 2 diabetes. Since relatively reduced physical activity and reduced muscle mass (sarcopenic obesity) are common in the elderly, combining exercise and modest calorie restriction optimally reduces fat mass and preserves muscle mass - age presents no obstacle and reducing polypharmacy is a valuable outcome. The currently licensed drug orlistat has no age-related hazards and is effective in a low fat diet, but the risks from bariatric surgery begin to outweigh benefits above age 60. For the growing numbers of obese elderly with diabetes, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor analogue liraglutide appears a safe way to promote and maintain substantial weight loss. Obesity and sarcopenia should be prevented from younger age and during life-transitions including retiral to improve future health outcomes and quality of life, with a focus on those in "obese families".

  19. A data management system for weight control and design-to-cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    The definition of the mass properties data of aircraft changed on a daily basis as do design details of the aircraft. This dynamic nature of the definition has generally encouraged those responsible for the data to update the data on a weekly or monthly basis. The by-product of these infrequent updates was the requirement of manual records to maintain daily activity. The development of WAVES changed the approach to management of mass properties data. WAVES has given the ability to update the data on a daily basis thereby eliminating the need for manual records. WAVES has demonstrated that a software product can support a data management system for engineering data.

  20. A rare case of bilateral non-weight bearing posterior aspect of lateral femoral condyle osteochondral fracture and its management.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Aamir Hassan; Stanclik, Jaroslaw; Murphy, Paul G D

    2014-01-01

    Osteochondral fracture of the lateral femoral condyle can be a real challenging injury to diagnose on initial presentation. The authors report a rare case of bilateral involvement of posterior aspect of lateral femoral condyle osteochondral fracture in a young 15-year-old boy. This was managed with excision of these osteochondral fragments, as the site involved was on the posterior non-weight bearing area of the femur along with chronicity of the injury dictating excision as a reasonable choice of management. Good outcome for such injury is based on an early diagnosis and prompt treatment along with an early rehabilitation for such cases. Our patient has an excellent 2 years outcome with a Knee Society score of 95 after undergoing excision of these osteochondral fragments in both knees in succession.

  1. Obesity in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Call for Early Weight Management123

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Parsons, Susan K

    2015-01-01

    A high prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions has been increasingly recognized in childhood cancer survivors. In particular, survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been found to be at risk of becoming overweight or obese early in treatment, with increases in weight maintained throughout treatment and beyond. Nutrition plays an important role in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions and is among the few modifiable factors that can prevent or delay the early onset of these chronic conditions. However, nutritional intake in childhood cancer survivors has not been adequately examined and the evidence is built on data from small cohorts of survivors. In addition, the long-term impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment on survivors’ nutritional intake as well as how survivors’ nutritional intake is associated with chronic health conditions have not been well quantified in large-scale studies. Promoting family-based healthy lifestyles, preferably at a sensitive window of unhealthy weight gain, is a priority for preventing the early onset of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions in childhood cancer survivors. PMID:26374183

  2. Rates and determinants of uptake and use of an internet physical activity and weight management program in office and manufacturing work sites in England: Cohort Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internet-based physical activity (PA) and weight management programs have the potential to improve employees' health in large occupational health settings. To be successful, the program must engage a wide range of employees, especially those at risk of weight gain or ill health. The aim of the study...

  3. DNA microarray technology in the evaluation of weight management potential of a novel calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric Acid.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Manashi; Zafra-Stone, Shirley; Sen, Chandan K; Roy, Sashwati; Bagchi, Debasis

    2006-01-01

    Quality and quantity of diet and nutrients are key factors of human health and disease prevention. Molecular diagnostics and cellular signaling play a fundamental role in the usefulness of novel nutraceuticals and functional foods. Increasing knowledge of the genes and molecules involved in the development of obesity is creating new methods of obesity regulation. Traditional herbal medicines may have some potential in weight management. Botanical dietary supplements often contain complex mixtures of phytochemicals that have additive or synergistic interactions. Evidence from numerous human and animal dietary studies has demonstrated the potential therapeutic effects of traditional herbal medicines in controlling obesity. We analyzed the effects of low-dose oral administration of calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) on the body weight and abdominal fat transcriptome in rats. HCA-SX restricted body weight gain in rats and lowered abdominal fat leptin expression. High-density microarray analysis of 9960 genes and ESTs present in the fat tissue identified a small set of specific genes sensitive to dietary HCA-SX. Mitochondrial/nuclear proteins necessary for fundamental support of the tissue were not affected by HCA-SX, further demonstrating its safety. Functional characterization of HCA-SX sensitive genes revealed that up-regulation of genes encoding serotonin receptors represents a distinct effect of HCA-SX on appetite suppression. PMID:20021004

  4. A Novel Approach to the Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics of Obesity and Weight Management.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Yael T; Houghton, Christine A

    2016-07-01

    Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics, as well as diet and exercise, play an important role in the development and treatment of obesity and its comorbidities. If an individual's susceptibility to becoming obese and their responsiveness to weight loss interventions are to be understood, then it needs to be addressed at a molecular and metabolic level, including genetic interaction. This review proposes a three-pillar approach to more fully comprehend the complexity of diet-gene interactions in obesity. Peroxisomal proliferating-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) and mitochondrial uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) are explored in detail. Illustrating how an understanding of nutritional biochemistry, nutrigenomics, and nutrigenetics may be the key to understanding differences observed in the obese phenotype that vary both within and across populations. PMID:27215437

  5. "If I drink it anyway, then I rather take the light one". Appropriation of foods and drinks designed for weight management among middle-aged and elderly Finns.

    PubMed

    Niva, Mari; Jauho, Mikko; Mäkelä, Johanna

    2013-05-01

    This article examines everyday ideals of eating for weight management as described by middle-aged and elderly Finns with varying experiences of managing their weight. The paper draws on the theoretical approach of appropriation and looks at the meanings, understandings and use of foods for weight management in the context of the practices of eating. The article is based on an analysis of eight focus group discussions with 68 people (47 women, 21 men, aged between 38 and 77) conducted in Helsinki in autumn 2009. The findings of the study suggest that lay understandings of foods suitable for weight management rest not only on simple measures such as energy, fat and sugar, but also on a complex set of generalised food ideals. These include a conflict between foods described as natural against artificial, moral judgements of the necessity of foods designed for weight management, and the overall emphasis on moderation as a basic ideal. The results indicate that people employ two perspectives in assessing foods suitable for weight management: in the context of the whole of diet the products are dismissed as unnecessary, but in specific situations they can replace 'normal' products if the latter are deemed more harmful.

  6. Delivery room management of very low birth weight infants in Germany, Austria and Switzerland - a comparison of protocols

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Surveys from the USA, Australia and Spain have shown significant inter-institutional variation in delivery room (DR) management of very low birth weight infants (VLBWI, < 1500 g) at birth, despite regularly updated international guidelines. Objective To investigate protocols for DR management of VLBWI in Germany, Austria and Switzerland and to compare these with the 2005 ILCOR guidelines. Methods DR management protocols were surveyed in a prospective, questionnaire-based survey in 2008. Results were compared between countries and between academic and non-academic units. Protocols were compared to the 2005 ILCOR guidelines. Results In total, 190/249 units (76%) replied. Protocols for DR management existed in 94% of units. Statistically significant differences between countries were found regarding provision of 24 hr in house neonatal service; presence of a designated resuscitation area; devices for respiratory support; use of pressure-controlled manual ventilation devices; volume control by respirator; and dosage of Surfactant. There were no statistically significant differences regarding application and monitoring of supplementary oxygen, or targeted saturation levels, or for the use of sustained inflations. Comparison of academic and non-academic hospitals showed no significant differences, apart from the targeted saturation levels (SpO2) at 10 min. of life. Comparison with ILCOR guidelines showed good adherence to the 2005 recommendations. Summary Delivery room management in German, Austrian and Swiss neonatal units was commonly based on written protocols. Only minor differences were found regarding the DR setup, devices used and the targeted ranges for SpO2 and FiO2. DR management was in good accordance with 2005 ILCOR guidelines, some units already incorporated evidence beyond the ILCOR statement into their routine practice. PMID:21159574

  7. Detox diets for toxin elimination and weight management: a critical review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Klein, A V; Kiat, H

    2015-12-01

    Detox diets are popular dieting strategies that claim to facilitate toxin elimination and weight loss, thereby promoting health and well-being. The present review examines whether detox diets are necessary, what they involve, whether they are effective and whether they present any dangers. Although the detox industry is booming, there is very little clinical evidence to support the use of these diets. A handful of clinical studies have shown that commercial detox diets enhance liver detoxification and eliminate persistent organic pollutants from the body, although these studies are hampered by flawed methodologies and small sample sizes. There is preliminary evidence to suggest that certain foods such as coriander, nori and olestra have detoxification properties, although the majority of these studies have been performed in animals. To the best of our knowledge, no randomised controlled trials have been conducted to assess the effectiveness of commercial detox diets in humans. This is an area that deserves attention so that consumers can be informed of the potential benefits and risks of detox programmes. PMID:25522674

  8. BAP guidelines on the management of weight gain, metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular risk associated with psychosis and antipsychotic drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Stephen J; Reynolds, Gavin P; Barnes, Tre; England, E; Haddad, P M; Heald, A; Holt, Rig; Lingford-Hughes, A; Osborn, D; McGowan, O; Patel, M X; Paton, C; Reid, P; Shiers, D; Smith, J

    2016-08-01

    Excess deaths from cardiovascular disease are a major contributor to the significant reduction in life expectancy experienced by people with schizophrenia. Important risk factors in this are smoking, alcohol misuse, excessive weight gain and diabetes. Weight gain also reinforces service users' negative views of themselves and is a factor in poor adherence with treatment. Monitoring of relevant physical health risk factors is frequently inadequate, as is provision of interventions to modify these. These guidelines review issues surrounding monitoring of physical health risk factors and make recommendations about an appropriate approach. Overweight and obesity, partly driven by antipsychotic drug treatment, are important factors contributing to the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in people with schizophrenia. There have been clinical trials of many interventions for people experiencing weight gain when taking antipsychotic medications but there is a lack of clear consensus regarding which may be appropriate in usual clinical practice. These guidelines review these trials and make recommendations regarding appropriate interventions. Interventions for smoking and alcohol misuse are reviewed, but more briefly as these are similar to those recommended for the general population. The management of impaired fasting glycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance ('pre-diabetes'), diabetes and other cardiovascular risks, such as dyslipidaemia, are also reviewed with respect to other currently available guidelines.These guidelines were compiled following a consensus meeting of experts involved in various aspects of these problems. They reviewed key areas of evidence and their clinical implications. Wider issues relating to primary care/secondary care interfaces are discussed but cannot be resolved within guidelines such as these.

  9. BAP guidelines on the management of weight gain, metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular risk associated with psychosis and antipsychotic drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Stephen J; Reynolds, Gavin P; Barnes, Tre; England, E; Haddad, P M; Heald, A; Holt, Rig; Lingford-Hughes, A; Osborn, D; McGowan, O; Patel, M X; Paton, C; Reid, P; Shiers, D; Smith, J

    2016-08-01

    Excess deaths from cardiovascular disease are a major contributor to the significant reduction in life expectancy experienced by people with schizophrenia. Important risk factors in this are smoking, alcohol misuse, excessive weight gain and diabetes. Weight gain also reinforces service users' negative views of themselves and is a factor in poor adherence with treatment. Monitoring of relevant physical health risk factors is frequently inadequate, as is provision of interventions to modify these. These guidelines review issues surrounding monitoring of physical health risk factors and make recommendations about an appropriate approach. Overweight and obesity, partly driven by antipsychotic drug treatment, are important factors contributing to the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in people with schizophrenia. There have been clinical trials of many interventions for people experiencing weight gain when taking antipsychotic medications but there is a lack of clear consensus regarding which may be appropriate in usual clinical practice. These guidelines review these trials and make recommendations regarding appropriate interventions. Interventions for smoking and alcohol misuse are reviewed, but more briefly as these are similar to those recommended for the general population. The management of impaired fasting glycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance ('pre-diabetes'), diabetes and other cardiovascular risks, such as dyslipidaemia, are also reviewed with respect to other currently available guidelines.These guidelines were compiled following a consensus meeting of experts involved in various aspects of these problems. They reviewed key areas of evidence and their clinical implications. Wider issues relating to primary care/secondary care interfaces are discussed but cannot be resolved within guidelines such as these. PMID:27147592

  10. Patients' experience of a telephone booster intervention to support weight management in Type 2 diabetes and its acceptability.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lihua; Forbes, Angus; While, Alison

    2010-01-01

    We studied the patient experience of a telephone booster intervention, i.e. weekly reinforcement of the clinic advice regarding lifestyle modification advice to support weight loss. Forty six adults with Type 2 diabetes and a body mass index >28 kg/m(2) were randomised into either intervention (n = 25) or control (n = 21) groups. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the intervention group participants to explore their views and experiences. The patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the telephone calls and most would recommend the intervention to others in a similar situation. The content of the telephone follow-up met their need for on-going support. The benefits arising from the telephone calls included: being reminded to comply with their regimen; prompting and motivating adherence to diabetes self-care behaviours; improved self-esteem; and feeling 'worthy of interest'. The convenience and low cost of telephone support has much potential in chronic disease management.

  11. [Quality management in weight restitution in Anorexia nervosa--pathophysiology, evidence-based practice and prevention of the refeeding syndrome].

    PubMed

    Mayr, Michael; Imgart, Hartmut; Skala, Katrin; Karwautz, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    During refeeding syndrome-a well-known and dreaded complication of weight-restauration in anorexia nervosa-a shift of electrolytes and fluid can occur in malnourished patients and might therefore lead to-potentially fatal-cardiovascular, respiratory and neurological symptoms. Causes of this are metabolic and hormonal changes during re-establishment of a carbohydrate-rich diet. This syndrome is most commonly associated with hypophosphatemia, which can however be accompanied by other chemical laboratory abnormalities. Standardized guidelines for the prevention and management of the refeeding syndrome have not yet been established. In case and cohort studies different low- and high-calorie diet protocols led to comparable results with similar complication rates. A focus should be placed on prevention of serious complications by careful monitoring. The pathophysiology, the main constituents in the development of the refeeding syndrome, recommendations for risk assessment and treatment, and current evidence are discussed.

  12. Using Qualitative Methods to Understand Physical Activity and Weight Management Among Bangladeshis in New York City, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Lindsey; Mili, Saima; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2016-01-01

    Introduction South Asians experience high rates of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, coupled with low rates of reported physical activity. We report findings from a qualitative sub-study that was conducted in 2013 among Bangladeshi immigrants in New York City to understand factors that affect physical activity practices and weight management in this community. Methods Qualitative study participants were recruited from community-based settings. Sex-specific focus groups were conducted by trained community health workers. Proceedings were audio-recorded for translation and transcription and coded using a constant comparative approach. Data were coded using Atlas.ti software. Results Six focus groups were completed with a final sample of 67 participants (63% male, 37% female). Mean participant age was 42 years; mean years of residence in the United States was 12. Key themes that emerged were beliefs about modesty and sex-separated facilities that may prevent women from engaging in physical activity. Distinctions were made between men and women about what constitutes exercise versus physical activity; religious prayer was considered to be health-promoting because of the movement involved. Other important themes that emerged were cultural dietary practices and evolving conceptions of healthy weight. Conclusion Tailored interventions that take into account the cultural context of this growing community are needed. Findings may also provide insight into barriers to health promotion experienced by other US Muslim communities, which are growing rapidly. PMID:27390073

  13. Parents as Agents of Change (PAC) in pediatric weight management: The protocol for the PAC randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need to develop and evaluate weight management interventions to address childhood obesity. Recent research suggests that interventions designed for parents exclusively, which have been named parents as agents of change (PAC) approaches, have yielded positive outcomes for managing pediatric obesity. To date, no research has combined a PAC intervention approach with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) to examine whether these combined elements enhance intervention effectiveness. This paper describes the protocol our team is using to examine two PAC-based interventions for pediatric weight management. We hypothesize that children with obesity whose parents complete a CBT-based PAC intervention will achieve greater reductions in adiposity and improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors, lifestyle behaviours, and psychosocial outcomes than children whose parents complete a psycho-education-based PAC intervention (PEP). Methods/Design This study is a pragmatic, two-armed, parallel, single-blinded, superiority, randomized clinical trial. The primary objective is to examine the differential effects of a CBT-based PAC vs PEP-based PAC intervention on children’s BMI z-score (primary outcome). Secondary objectives are to assess intervention-mediated changes in cardiometabolic, lifestyle, and psychosocial variables in children and parents. Both interventions are similar in frequency of contact, session duration, group facilitation, lifestyle behaviour goals, and educational content. However, the interventions differ insofar as the CBT-based intervention incorporates theory-based concepts to help parents link their thoughts, feelings, and behaviours; these cognitive activities are enabled by group leaders who possess formal training in CBT. Mothers and fathers of children (8–12 years of age; BMI ≥85th percentile) are eligible to participate if they are proficient in English (written and spoken) and agree for at least one parent to attend

  14. Provision of weight management advice for obese women during pregnancy: a survey of current practice and midwives' views on future approaches.

    PubMed

    Macleod, Maureen; Gregor, Amy; Barnett, Carol; Magee, Elizabeth; Thompson, Joyce; Anderson, Annie S

    2013-10-01

    A semi-structured, web-based questionnaire was developed to survey midwives (n = 241) employed by NHS Tayside, UK, to identify current practice and views on weight management of obese women during pregnancy and the puerperium. A total of 78 (32%) midwives submitted responses following email invitation. Most respondents (79%) reported always calculating women's body mass index (BMI) at booking, with 73% routinely explaining the BMI category. In terms of future practice for obese women, although few respondents (15%) currently offer personalised advice regarding weight management based on a woman's diet and physical activity levels, 77% of respondents thought such advice would be appropriate and 69% thought it could possibly be feasible to offer such advice. The respondents viewed weight management to be of importance and felt that universal advice is appropriate, but confidence in discussing weight management and knowledge of the subject was low. Strategies to improve midwife confidence and weight management services should include training, ongoing support and definition of the midwife's role within the multidisciplinary team to support practice in the future. PMID:22288981

  15. Weight management by phone conference call: a comparison with a traditional face-to-face clinic. Rationale and design for a randomized equivalence trial.

    PubMed

    Lambourne, Kate; Washburn, Richard A; Gibson, Cheryl; Sullivan, Debra K; Goetz, Jeannine; Lee, Robert; Smith, Bryan K; Mayo, Matthew S; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2012-09-01

    State-of-the-art treatment for weight management consists of a behavioral intervention to facilitate decreased energy intake and increased physical activity. These interventions are typically delivered face-to-face (FTF) by a health educator to a small group of participants. There are numerous barriers to participation in FTF clinics including availability, scheduling, the expense and time required to travel to the clinic site, and possible need for dependent care. Weight management clinics delivered by conference call have the potential to diminish or eliminate these barriers. The conference call approach may also reduce burden on providers, who could conduct clinic groups from almost any location without the expenses associated with maintaining FTF clinic space. A randomized trial will be conducted in 395 overweight/obese adults (BMI 25-39.9 kg/m(2)) to determine if weight loss (6 months) and weight maintenance (12 months) are equivalent between weight management interventions utilizing behavioral strategies and pre-packaged meals delivered by either a conference call or the traditional FTF approach. The primary outcome, body weight, will be assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Secondary outcomes including waist circumference, energy and macronutrient intake, and physical activity and will be assessed on the same schedule. In addition, a cost analysis and extensive process evaluation will be completed.

  16. Weight management by phone conference call: A comparison with a traditional face-to-face clinic. Rationale and design for a randomized equivalence trial

    PubMed Central

    Lambourne, Kate; Washburn, Richard A.; Gibson, Cheryl; Sullivan, Debra K.; Goetz, Jeannine; Lee, Robert; Smith, Bryan K.; Mayo, Matthew S.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    State-of-the-art treatment for weight management consists of a behavioral intervention to facilitate decreased energy intake and increased physical activity. These interventions are typically delivered face-to-face (FTF) by a health educator to a small group of participants. There are numerous barriers to participation in FTF clinics including availability, scheduling, the expense and time required to travel to the clinic site, and possible need for dependent care. Weight management clinics delivered by conference call have the potential to diminish or eliminate these barriers. The conference call approach may also reduce burden on providers, who could conduct clinic groups from almost any location without the expenses associated with maintaining FTF clinic space. A randomized trial will be conducted in 395 overweight/obese adults (BMI 25–39.9 kg/m2) to determine if weight loss (6 months) and weight maintenance (12 months) are equivalent between weight management interventions utilizing behavioral strategies and pre-packaged meals delivered by either a conference call or the traditional FTF approach. The primary outcome, body weight, will be assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Secondary outcomes including waist circumference, energy and macronutrient intake, and physical activity and will be assessed on the same schedule. In addition, a cost analysis and extensive process evaluation will be completed. PMID:22664647

  17. Efficacy of an herbal formulation LI10903F containing Dolichos biflorus and Piper betle extracts on weight management

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A novel herbal formulation LI10903F, alternatively known as LOWAT was developed based on its ability to inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes model. The clinical efficacy and tolerability of LI10903F were evaluated in an eight-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial in 50 human subjects with body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m2 (clinical trial registration number: ISRCTN37381706). Participants were randomly assigned to either a placebo or LI10903F group. Subjects in the LI10903F group received 300 mg of herbal formulation thrice daily, while subjects in the placebo group received 300 mg of placebo capsules thrice daily. All subjects were provided a standard diet (2,000 kcal daily) and participated in a moderate exercise of 30 min walk for five days a week. Additionally, the safety of this herbal formulation was evaluated by a series of acute, sub-acute toxicity and genotoxicity studies in animals and cellular models. Results After eight weeks of supplementation, statistically significant net reductions in body weight (2.49 kg; p=0.00005) and BMI (0.96 kg/m2; p=0.00004) were observed in the LI10903F group versus placebo group. Additionally, significant increase in serum adiponectin concentration (p=0.0076) and significant decrease in serum ghrelin concentration (p=0.0066) were found in LI10903F group compared to placebo group. Adverse events were mild and were equally distributed between the two groups. Interestingly, LI10903F showed broad spectrum safety in a series of acute, sub-acute toxicity and genotoxicity studies. Conclusions Results from the current research suggest that LI10903F or LOWAT is well-tolerated, safe and effective for weight management. PMID:23270333

  18. Implementation of pregnancy weight management and obesity guidelines: a meta-synthesis of healthcare professionals' barriers and facilitators using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    PubMed

    Heslehurst, N; Newham, J; Maniatopoulos, G; Fleetwood, C; Robalino, S; Rankin, J

    2014-06-01

    Obesity in pregnancy is rising and is associated with severe health consequences for both the mother and the child. There is an increasing international focus on guidelines to manage the clinical risks of maternal obesity, and for pregnancy weight management. However, passive dissemination of guidelines is not effective and more active strategies are required for effective guideline implementation into practice. Implementation of guidelines is a form of healthcare professional behaviour change, and therefore implementation strategies should be based on appropriate behaviour change theory. This systematic review aimed to identify the determinants of healthcare professionals' behaviours in relation to maternal obesity and weight management. Twenty-five studies were included. Data synthesis of the existing international qualitative and quantitative evidence base used the Theoretical Domains Framework to identify the barriers and facilitators to healthcare professionals' maternal obesity and weight management practice. The domains most frequently identified included 'knowledge', 'beliefs about consequences' and 'environmental context and resources'. Healthcare professionals' weight management practice had the most barriers compared with any other area of maternal obesity practice. The results of this review will be used to inform the development of an intervention to support healthcare professional behaviour change.

  19. Therapy and Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... or hearing the word "pizza" probably gets you thinking about that food! You can see how easy it is to give in. We've all been there. But after you've had the pizza, the guilt and regret set in. You might feel mad at yourself or self-critical. You may think, "Oh, I should have had ...

  20. 5As Team obesity intervention in primary care: development and evaluation of shared decision-making weight management tools.

    PubMed

    Osunlana, A M; Asselin, J; Anderson, R; Ogunleye, A A; Cave, A; Sharma, A M; Campbell-Scherer, D L

    2015-08-01

    Despite several clinical practice guidelines, there remains a considerable gap in prevention and management of obesity in primary care. To address the need for changing provider behaviour, a randomized controlled trial with convergent mixed method evaluation, the 5As Team (5AsT) study, was conducted. As part of the 5AsT intervention, the 5AsT tool kit was developed. This paper describes the development process and evaluation of these tools. Tools were co-developed by the multidisciplinary research team and the 5AsT, which included registered nurses/nurse practitioners (n = 15), mental health workers (n = 7) and registered dieticians (n = 7), who were previously randomized to the 5AsT intervention group at a primary care network in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The 5AsT tool development occurred through a practice/implementation-oriented, need-based, iterative process during learning collaborative sessions of the 5AsT intervention. Feedback during tool development was received through field notes and final provider evaluation was carried out through anonymous questionnaires. Twelve tools were co-developed with 5AsT. All tools were evaluated as either 'most useful' or 'moderately useful' in primary care practice by the 5AsT. Four key findings during 5AsT tool development were the need for: tools that were adaptive, tools to facilitate interdisciplinary practice, tools to help patients understand realistic expectations for weight loss and shared decision-making tools for goal setting and relapse prevention. The 5AsT tools are primary care tools which extend the utility of the 5As of obesity management framework in clinical practice.

  1. 5As Team obesity intervention in primary care: development and evaluation of shared decision‐making weight management tools

    PubMed Central

    Asselin, J.; Anderson, R.; Ogunleye, A. A.; Cave, A.; Sharma, A. M.; Campbell‐Scherer, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Despite several clinical practice guidelines, there remains a considerable gap in prevention and management of obesity in primary care. To address the need for changing provider behaviour, a randomized controlled trial with convergent mixed method evaluation, the 5As Team (5AsT) study, was conducted. As part of the 5AsT intervention, the 5AsT tool kit was developed. This paper describes the development process and evaluation of these tools. Tools were co‐developed by the multidisciplinary research team and the 5AsT, which included registered nurses/nurse practitioners (n = 15), mental health workers (n = 7) and registered dieticians (n = 7), who were previously randomized to the 5AsT intervention group at a primary care network in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The 5AsT tool development occurred through a practice/implementation‐oriented, need‐based, iterative process during learning collaborative sessions of the 5AsT intervention. Feedback during tool development was received through field notes and final provider evaluation was carried out through anonymous questionnaires. Twelve tools were co‐developed with 5AsT. All tools were evaluated as either ‘most useful’ or ‘moderately useful’ in primary care practice by the 5AsT. Four key findings during 5AsT tool development were the need for: tools that were adaptive, tools to facilitate interdisciplinary practice, tools to help patients understand realistic expectations for weight loss and shared decision‐making tools for goal setting and relapse prevention. The 5AsT tools are primary care tools which extend the utility of the 5As of obesity management framework in clinical practice. PMID:26129630

  2. Diet for rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... diet; VLCD; Low-calorie diet; LCD; Very low energy diet; Weight loss - rapid weight loss; Overweight - rapid ... AM, Aveyard P. Clinical effectiveness of very-low-energy diets in the management of weight loss: a ...

  3. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Length-Weight Relationships and Condition of the Ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus (Linnaeus, 1758): Implications for Fisheries Management.

    PubMed

    Al Nahdi, Abdullah; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; King, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of length-weight relationships for commercially exploited fish is an important tool for assessing and managing of fish stocks. However, analyses of length-weight relationship fisheries data typically do not consider the inherent differences in length-weight relationships for fish caught from different habitats, seasons, or years, and this can affect the utility of these data for developing condition indices or calculating fisheries biomass. Here, we investigated length-weight relationships for ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus in the waters of the Arabian Sea off Oman collected during three periods (2001-02, 2007-08, and 2014-15) and showed that a multivariate modelling approach that considers the areas and seasons in which ribbonfish were caught improved estimation of length-weight relationships. We used the outputs of these models to explore spatio-temporal variations in condition indices and relative weights among ribbonfish, revealing fish of 85-125 cm were in the best overall condition. We also found that condition differed according to where and when fish were caught, with condition lowest during spring and pre-south-west monsoon periods and highest during and after the south-west monsoons. We interpret these differences to be a consequence of variability in temperature and food availability. Based on our findings, we suggest fishing during seasons that have the lowest impact on fish condition and which are commercially most viable; such fishery management would enhance fisheries conservation and economic revenue in the region. PMID:27579485

  4. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Length-Weight Relationships and Condition of the Ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus (Linnaeus, 1758): Implications for Fisheries Management

    PubMed Central

    Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; King, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of length-weight relationships for commercially exploited fish is an important tool for assessing and managing of fish stocks. However, analyses of length-weight relationship fisheries data typically do not consider the inherent differences in length-weight relationships for fish caught from different habitats, seasons, or years, and this can affect the utility of these data for developing condition indices or calculating fisheries biomass. Here, we investigated length-weight relationships for ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus in the waters of the Arabian Sea off Oman collected during three periods (2001–02, 2007–08, and 2014–15) and showed that a multivariate modelling approach that considers the areas and seasons in which ribbonfish were caught improved estimation of length-weight relationships. We used the outputs of these models to explore spatio-temporal variations in condition indices and relative weights among ribbonfish, revealing fish of 85–125 cm were in the best overall condition. We also found that condition differed according to where and when fish were caught, with condition lowest during spring and pre-south-west monsoon periods and highest during and after the south-west monsoons. We interpret these differences to be a consequence of variability in temperature and food availability. Based on our findings, we suggest fishing during seasons that have the lowest impact on fish condition and which are commercially most viable; such fishery management would enhance fisheries conservation and economic revenue in the region. PMID:27579485

  5. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Length-Weight Relationships and Condition of the Ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus (Linnaeus, 1758): Implications for Fisheries Management.

    PubMed

    Al Nahdi, Abdullah; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; King, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of length-weight relationships for commercially exploited fish is an important tool for assessing and managing of fish stocks. However, analyses of length-weight relationship fisheries data typically do not consider the inherent differences in length-weight relationships for fish caught from different habitats, seasons, or years, and this can affect the utility of these data for developing condition indices or calculating fisheries biomass. Here, we investigated length-weight relationships for ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus in the waters of the Arabian Sea off Oman collected during three periods (2001-02, 2007-08, and 2014-15) and showed that a multivariate modelling approach that considers the areas and seasons in which ribbonfish were caught improved estimation of length-weight relationships. We used the outputs of these models to explore spatio-temporal variations in condition indices and relative weights among ribbonfish, revealing fish of 85-125 cm were in the best overall condition. We also found that condition differed according to where and when fish were caught, with condition lowest during spring and pre-south-west monsoon periods and highest during and after the south-west monsoons. We interpret these differences to be a consequence of variability in temperature and food availability. Based on our findings, we suggest fishing during seasons that have the lowest impact on fish condition and which are commercially most viable; such fishery management would enhance fisheries conservation and economic revenue in the region.

  6. Combining Environmental and Individual Weight Management Interventions in a Work Setting Results From the Dow Chemical Study

    PubMed Central

    DeJoy, David M.; Parker, Kristin M.; Padilla, Heather M.; Wilson, Mark G.; Roemer, Enid C.; Goetzel, Ron Z.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the comparative effectiveness of environmental weight loss interventions alone versus in combination with an individual intervention. Methods A quasiexperimental design compared with outcomes for two levels of environmental interventions and for participants who did or did not simultaneously self-select into an individually focused weight loss intervention (YW8). ANCOVA and logistic regression techniques were used to examine risk outcomes. Results Employees who participated in YW8 were no more successful at losing weight than those exposed to only the environmental interventions. Approximately, 13.5% of each group lost at least 5% of their body weight; overall changes in mean body weight and body mass index were negligible in both groups. Conclusions Simple worksite environmental modifications may help with weight maintenance, but are not likely to result in substantial weight reductions even when combined with low-intensity individual interventions. PMID:21346636

  7. Kamp K’aana, a 2-week residential weight management summer camp, shows long-term improvement in body mass index z scores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term effects of Kamp K'aana, a 2-week residential weight management camp, on body mass index (BMI) measures were evaluated on 71 of 108 (66%) obese youth 10 to 14 years of age. Measures were obtained at 11-month study follow-up (n=38) or extracted from medical record (n=33). Compared with basel...

  8. Short- and Long-Term Theory-Based Predictors of Physical Activity in Women Who Participated in a Weight-Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserkampf, A.; Silva, M. N.; Santos, I. C.; Carraça, E. V.; Meis, J. J. M.; Kremers, S. P. J.; Teixeira, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed psychosocial predictors of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and evaluated their associations with short- and long-term moderate plus vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and lifestyle physical activity (PA) outcomes in women who underwent a weight-management program. 221 participants (age…

  9. Confirmation in Couples' Communication about Weight Management: An Analysis of How Both Partners Contribute to Individuals' Health Behaviors and Conversational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Rene M.; Romo, Lynsey Kluever; Thompson, Charee Mooney

    2011-01-01

    Using confirmation theory, this study investigated how romantic couples' (N = 100) accepting and challenging communication was associated with several weight management (WM) outcomes (i.e., partners' general effectiveness in motivating each other to enact healthy behaviors, productivity of WM conversations, and diet and exercise behaviors).…

  10. Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

  11. Evaluation of a multidisciplinary Tier 3 weight management service for adults with morbid obesity, or obesity and comorbidities, based in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, A; Hughes, C A; Kumaravel, B; Bachmann, M O; Steel, N; Capehorn, M; Cheema, K

    2014-01-01

    A multidisciplinary Tier 3 weight management service in primary care recruited patients with a body mass index ≥40 kg·m−2, or 30 kg·m−2 with obesity-related co-morbidity to a 1-year programme. A cohort of 230 participants was recruited and evaluated using the National Obesity Observatory Standard Evaluation Framework. The primary outcome was weight loss of at least 5% of baseline weight at 12 months. Diet was assessed using the two-item food frequency questionnaire, activity using the General Practice Physical Activity questionnaire and quality of life using the EuroQol-5D-5L questionnaire. A focus group explored the participants' experiences. Baseline mean weight was 124.4 kg and mean body mass index was 44.1 kg·m−2. A total of 102 participants achieved 5% weight loss at 12 months. The mean weight loss was 10.2 kg among the 117 participants who completed the 12-month programme. Baseline observation carried forward analysis gave a mean weight loss of 5.9 kg at 12 months. Fruit and vegetable intake, activity level and quality of life all improved. The dropout rate was 14.3% at 6 months and 45.1% at 1 year. Focus group participants described high levels of satisfaction. It was possible to deliver a Tier 3 weight management service for obese patients with complex co-morbidity in a primary care setting with a full multidisciplinary team, which obtained good health outcomes compared with existing services. PMID:25825858

  12. Understanding Usage of a Hybrid Website and Smartphone App for Weight Management: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Hargood, Charlie; Lin, Sharon Xiaowen; Dennison, Laura; Joseph, Judith; Hughes, Stephanie; Michaelides, Danius T; Johnston, Derek; Johnston, Marie; Michie, Susan; Little, Paul; Smith, Peter WF; Weal, Mark J; Yardley, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Background Advancements in mobile phone technology offer huge potential for enhancing the timely delivery of health behavior change interventions. The development of smartphone-based health interventions (apps) is a rapidly growing field of research, yet there have been few longitudinal examinations of how people experience and use these apps within their day-to-day routines, particularly within the context of a hybrid Web- and app-based intervention. Objective This study used an in-depth mixed-methods design to examine individual variation in (1) impact on self-reported goal engagement (ie, motivation, self-efficacy, awareness, effort, achievement) of access to a weight management app (POWeR Tracker) when provided alongside a Web-based weight management intervention (POWeR) and (2) usage and views of POWeR Tracker. Methods Thirteen adults were provided access to POWeR and were monitored over a 4-week period. Access to POWeR Tracker was provided in 2 alternate weeks (ie, weeks 1 and 3 or weeks 2 and 4). Participants’ goal engagement was measured daily via self-report. Mixed effects models were used to examine change in goal engagement between the weeks when POWeR Tracker was and was not available and whether the extent of change in goal engagement varied between individual participants. Usage of POWeR and POWeR Tracker was automatically recorded for each participant. Telephone interviews were conducted and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis to further explore participants’ experiences using POWeR and POWeR Tracker. Results Access to POWeR Tracker was associated with a significant increase in participants’ awareness of their eating (β1=0.31, P=.04) and physical activity goals (β1=0.28, P=.03). The level of increase varied between individual participants. Usage data showed that participants used the POWeR website for similar amounts of time during the weeks when POWeR Tracker was (mean 29 minutes, SD 31 minutes) and was not available (mean 27 minutes

  13. Group vs. single mindfulness meditation: exploring avoidance, impulsivity, and weight management in two separate mindfulness meditation settings.

    PubMed

    Mantzios, Michail; Giannou, Kyriaki

    2014-07-01

    Recent research has identified that mindfulness meditation in group settings supports people who are trying to lose weight. The present research investigated mindfulness meditation in group and individual settings, and explored the potential impact on weight loss and other factors (i.e. mindfulness, impulsivity, and avoidance) that may assist or hinder weight loss. Specifically, the hypotheses tested were that the group setting assisted dieters more than the individual setting by reducing weight, cognitive-behavioral avoidance, and impulsivity and by increasing mindfulness. Participants (n = 170) who were trying to lose weight were randomly assigned to practice meditation for 6 weeks within a group or independently. Measurements in mindfulness, cognitive-behavioral avoidance, impulsivity, and weight occurred twice (pre- and post-intervention). Results indicated that participants in the group setting lost weight and lowered their levels of cognitive-behavioral avoidance, while impulsivity and mindfulness remained stable. On the other hand, participants in the individual condition lost less weight, while there was an increase in cognitive-behavioral avoidance and mindfulness scores, but a decrease in impulsivity. Seeing that benefits and limitations observed in group settings are not replicated when people meditate alone, this study concluded that mindfulness meditation in individual settings needs to be used with caution, although there are some potential benefits that could aid future weight loss research.

  14. Distance learning strategies for weight management utilizing social media: A comparison of phone conference call versus social media platform. Rationale and design for a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Willis, Erik A; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N; Ptomey, Lauren T; Steger, Felicia L; Honas, Jeffery J; Al-Hihi, Eyad M; Lee, Robert; Vansaghi, Lisa; Washburn, Richard A; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2016-03-01

    Management of obesity in the context of the primary care physician visit is of limited efficacy in part because of limited ability to engage participants in sustained behavior change between physician visits. Therefore, healthcare systems must find methods to address obesity that reach beyond the walls of clinics and hospitals and address the issues of lifestyle modification in a cost-conscious way. The dramatic increase in technology and online social networks may present healthcare providers with innovative ways to deliver weight management programs that could have an impact on health care at the population level. A randomized study will be conducted on 70 obese adults (BMI 30.0-45.0 kg/m(2)) to determine if weight loss (6 months) is equivalent between weight management interventions utilizing behavioral strategies by either a conference call or social media approach. The primary outcome, body weight, will be assessed at baseline and 6 months. Secondary outcomes including waist circumference, energy and macronutrient intake, and physical activity will be assessed on the same schedule. In addition, a cost analysis and process evaluation will be completed.

  15. Distance learning strategies for weight management utilizing social media: A comparison of phone conference call versus social media platform. Rationale and design for a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Willis, Erik A; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N; Ptomey, Lauren T; Steger, Felicia L; Honas, Jeffery J; Al-Hihi, Eyad M; Lee, Robert; Vansaghi, Lisa; Washburn, Richard A; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2016-03-01

    Management of obesity in the context of the primary care physician visit is of limited efficacy in part because of limited ability to engage participants in sustained behavior change between physician visits. Therefore, healthcare systems must find methods to address obesity that reach beyond the walls of clinics and hospitals and address the issues of lifestyle modification in a cost-conscious way. The dramatic increase in technology and online social networks may present healthcare providers with innovative ways to deliver weight management programs that could have an impact on health care at the population level. A randomized study will be conducted on 70 obese adults (BMI 30.0-45.0 kg/m(2)) to determine if weight loss (6 months) is equivalent between weight management interventions utilizing behavioral strategies by either a conference call or social media approach. The primary outcome, body weight, will be assessed at baseline and 6 months. Secondary outcomes including waist circumference, energy and macronutrient intake, and physical activity will be assessed on the same schedule. In addition, a cost analysis and process evaluation will be completed. PMID:26883282

  16. Irrigation and fertilization effects on Nantucket Pine Tip Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Damage levels and pupal weight in an intensively-managed pine plantation.

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, David, R.; Nowak, John, T.; Fettig, Christopher, J.

    2003-10-01

    The widespread application of intensive forest management practices throughout the southeastern U.S. has increased loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., yields and shortened conventional rotation lengths. Fluctuations in Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), population density and subsequent damage levels have been linked to variations in management intensity. We examined the effects of two practices, irrigation and fertilization, on R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights in an intensively-managed P. taeda plantation in South Carolina. Trees received intensive weed control and one of the following treatments; irrigation only. fertilization only, irrigation + fertilization, or control. Mean whole-tree tip moth damage levels ranged from <1 to 48% during this study. Damage levels differed significantly among treatments in two tip moth generations in 2001, but not 2000. Pupal weight was significantly heavier in fertilization compared to the irrigation treatment in 2000, but no significant differences were observed in 2001. Tree diameter. height. and aboveground volume were significantly greater in the irrigation + fertilization than in the irrigation treatment after two growing seasons. Our data suggest that intensive management practices that include irrigation and fertilization do not consistently increase R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights as is commonly believed. However, tip moth suppression efforts in areas adjacent to our study may have partially reduced the potential impacts of R. frustrana on this experiment.

  17. H.E.A.L.T.H.: Efficacy of an Internet/Population-Based Behavioral Weight Management Program for the U.S. Army

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Tiffany; Han, Hongmei; Allen, H. Raymond; Bathalon, COL Gaston; Ryan, Donna H.; Newton, Robert L.; Williamson, Donald A.

    2011-01-01

    Background A significant number of soldiers exceed the maximum allowable weight standards or have body weights approaching the maximum allowable weight standards. This mandates development of scalable approaches to improve compliance with military weight standards. Methods We developed an intervention that included two components: (1) an Internet-based weight management program (Web site) and (2) a promotion program designed to promote and sustain usage of the Web site. The Web site remained online for 37 months, with the Web site promotion program ending after 25 months. Results Soldiers’ demographics were as follows: mean age, 32 years; body mass index (BMI), 28 kg/m2; 31% female; and 58% Caucasian. Civilian demographics were as follows: mean age, 38 years; BMI, 30 kg/m2; 84% female; and 55% Caucasian. Results indicated that 2417 soldiers and 2147 civilians (N = 4564) registered on the Web site. In the first 25 months (phase 1) of the study, new participants enrolled on the Web site at a rate of 88 (soldiers) and 80 (civilians) per month. After the promotion program was removed (phase 2), new participants enrolled at a rate of 18 (soldiers) and 13 (civilians) per month. Utilization of the Web site was associated with self-reported weight loss (p < .0001). Participants who utilized the Web site more frequently lost more weight (p < .0001). Participants reported satisfaction with the Web site. Conclusions The Web site and accompanying promotion program, when implemented at a military base, received satisfactory ratings and benefited a subset of participants in promoting weight loss. This justifies further examination of effectiveness in a randomized trial setting. PMID:21303642

  18. Effects of live weight adjusted feeding strategy on plasma indicators of energy balance in Holstein cows managed for extended lactation.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, C; Vestergaard, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Sehested, J

    2016-04-01

    In early lactation, most of the dairy cows are in negative energy balance; the extent and duration depend in part on the feeding strategy. Previous studies showed an increased lactation milk yield by use of a live weight (LW) adjusted feeding strategy with a high energy diet before and a reduced energy diet after LW nadir compared with a standard diet throughout lactation. The objective of the present study was to examine how such an individualized feeding strategy affects plasma indicators of energy status. It was hypothesized that an energy-enriched diet until LW nadir will reduce the severity of the negative energy balance, and that the reduction in diet energy concentration from LW nadir will extend the negative energy balance period further. Sixty-two Holstein cows (30% first parity) were managed for 16 months extended lactation and randomly allocated to one of two feeding strategies at calving. Two partially mixed rations were used, one with a high energy density (HD) and a 50 : 50 forage : concentrate ratio, and one with a lower energy density (LD, control diet) and a 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio. Half of the cows were offered the HD diet until they reached at least 42 days in milk and a LW gain⩾0 kg/day based on a 5-days LW average, and were then shifted to the LD diet (strategy HD-LD). The other half of the cows were offered the LD diet throughout lactation (control strategy LD-LD). Weekly blood samples were drawn for analysis of plasma metabolites and hormones. Before the shift in diet, the HD-LD cows had higher glucose and lower beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations than the LD-LD cows. After the shift until 36 weeks after calving, plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were not affected by the feeding strategy. To conclude, in early lactation, the energy-enriched diet reduced the negative energy balance. Plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows from

  19. Rates and Determinants of Uptake and Use of an Internet Physical Activity and Weight Management Program in Office and Manufacturing Work Sites in England: Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hurling, Robert; Bataveljic, Ogi; Fairley, Bruce W; Hurst, Tina L; Murray, Peter; Rennie, Kirsten L; Tomkins, Chris E; Finn, Anne; Cobain, Mark R; Pearson, Dympna A; Foreyt, John P

    2008-01-01

    Background Internet-based physical activity (PA) and weight management programs have the potential to improve employees’ health in large occupational health settings. To be successful, the program must engage a wide range of employees, especially those at risk of weight gain or ill health. Objective The aim of the study was to assess the use and nonuse (user attrition) of a Web-based and monitoring device–based PA and weight management program in a range of employees and to determine if engagement with the program was related to the employees’ baseline characteristics or measured outcomes. Methods Longitudinal observational study of a cohort of employees having access to the MiLife Web-based automated behavior change system. Employees were recruited from manufacturing and office sites in the North West and the South of England. Baseline health data were collected, and participants were given devices to monitor their weight and PA via data upload to the website. Website use, PA, and weight data were collected throughout the 12-week program. Results Overall, 12% of employees at the four sites (265/2302) agreed to participate in the program, with 130 men (49%) and 135 women (51%), and of these, 233 went on to start the program. During the program, the dropout rate was 5% (11/233). Of the remaining 222 Web program users, 173 (78%) were using the program at the end of the 12 weeks, with 69% (153/222) continuing after this period. Engagement with the program varied by site but was not significantly different between the office and factory sites. During the first 2 weeks, participants used the website, on average, 6 times per week, suggesting an initial learning period after which the frequency of website log-in was typically 2 visits per week and 7 minutes per visit. Employees who uploaded weight data had a significant reduction in weight (−2.6 kg, SD 3.2, P< .001). The reduction in weight was largest for employees using the program’s weight loss mode (−3

  20. Review of evaluation tools used to assess the impact of nutrition education on dietary intake and quality, weight management practices, and physical activity of low-income audiences.

    PubMed

    McClelland, J W; Keenan, D P; Lewis, J; Foerster, S; Sugerman, S; Mara, P; Wu, S; Lee, S; Keller, K; Hersey, J; Lindquist, C

    2001-01-01

    Nutrition education programs and social marketing campaigns frequently focus on low-income audiences with the goal of improving dietary intake and quality, weight management practices, and physical activity. The impact of nutrition education can be assessed by measuring change in relation to any or all of these broad variables. Unfortunately, little information is available concerning the reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change of measures used to assess these constructs with low-income audiences of adults and adolescents. This article reviews the literature and discusses the types of available measures that have been used and evaluated for the above audiences. It describes specific measures used to assess total diet, consumption of food groups from the Food Guide Pyramid, and behaviors related to weight management and physical activity. Overall, this review suggests that there is a critical need for additional development and evaluation of dietary quality measurement tools for low-income and minority audiences. PMID:12857543

  1. NIH working group report—using genomic information to guide weight management: From universal to precision treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Molly S; Loos, Ruth JF; McCaffery, Jeanne M; Ling, Charlotte; Franks, Paul W; Weinstock, George M; Snyder, Michael P; Vassy, Jason L; Agurs-Collins, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    Objective Precision medicine utilizes genomic and other data to optimize and personalize treatment. Although more than 2,500 genetic tests are currently available, largely for extreme and/or rare phenotypes, the question remains whether this approach can be used for the treatment of common, complex conditions like obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance, which underlie a host of metabolic diseases. Methods This review, developed from a Trans-NIH Conference titled “Genes, Behaviors, and Response to Weight Loss Interventions,” provides an overview of the state of genetic and genomic research in the area of weight change and identifies key areas for future research. Results Although many loci have been identified that are associated with cross-sectional measures of obesity/body size, relatively little is known regarding the genes/loci that influence dynamic measures of weight change over time. Although successful short-term weight loss has been achieved using many different strategies, sustainable weight loss has proven elusive for many, and there are important gaps in our understanding of energy balance regulation. Conclusions Elucidating the molecular basis of variability in weight change has the potential to improve treatment outcomes and inform innovative approaches that can simultaneously take into account information from genomic and other sources in devising individualized treatment plans. PMID:26692578

  2. Development and validation of the ASPIRE-VA coaching fidelity checklist (ACFC): a tool to help ensure delivery of high-quality weight management interventions.

    PubMed

    Damschroder, Laura J; Goodrich, David E; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Holleman, Robert; Gillon, Leah; Kirsh, Susan; Richardson, Caroline R; Lutes, Lesley D

    2016-09-01

    Practical and valid instruments are needed to assess fidelity of coaching for weight loss. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the ASPIRE Coaching Fidelity Checklist (ACFC). Classical test theory guided ACFC development. Principal component analyses were used to determine item groupings. Psychometric properties, internal consistency, and inter-rater reliability were evaluated for each subscale. Criterion validity was tested by predicting weight loss as a function of coaching fidelity. The final 19-item ACFC consists of two domains (session process and session structure) and five subscales (sets goals and monitor progress, assess and personalize self-regulatory content, manages the session, creates a supportive and empathetic climate, and stays on track). Four of five subscales showed high internal consistency (Cronbach alphas > 0.70) for group-based coaching; only two of five subscales had high internal reliability for phone-based coaching. All five sub-scales were positively and significantly associated with weight loss for group- but not for phone-based coaching. The ACFC is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used to assess fidelity and guide skill-building for weight management interventionists. PMID:27528526

  3. Development and validation of the ASPIRE-VA coaching fidelity checklist (ACFC): a tool to help ensure delivery of high-quality weight management interventions.

    PubMed

    Damschroder, Laura J; Goodrich, David E; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Holleman, Robert; Gillon, Leah; Kirsh, Susan; Richardson, Caroline R; Lutes, Lesley D

    2016-09-01

    Practical and valid instruments are needed to assess fidelity of coaching for weight loss. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the ASPIRE Coaching Fidelity Checklist (ACFC). Classical test theory guided ACFC development. Principal component analyses were used to determine item groupings. Psychometric properties, internal consistency, and inter-rater reliability were evaluated for each subscale. Criterion validity was tested by predicting weight loss as a function of coaching fidelity. The final 19-item ACFC consists of two domains (session process and session structure) and five subscales (sets goals and monitor progress, assess and personalize self-regulatory content, manages the session, creates a supportive and empathetic climate, and stays on track). Four of five subscales showed high internal consistency (Cronbach alphas > 0.70) for group-based coaching; only two of five subscales had high internal reliability for phone-based coaching. All five sub-scales were positively and significantly associated with weight loss for group- but not for phone-based coaching. The ACFC is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used to assess fidelity and guide skill-building for weight management interventionists.

  4. Real-life setting in data collection. The role of nutrition knowledge whilst selecting food products for weight management purposes in a supermarket environment.

    PubMed

    Saarela, Anna-Maria; Lapveteläinen, Anja T; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Kantanen, Teuvo T; Rissanen, Riitta L

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to explore the role of consumers' nutrition knowledge while selecting foods for weight management and the predominating food selection factors by combining quantitative and qualitative methodology in a real-life setting during two consecutive shopping tasks given in a supermarket. Thirty-six consumers were given a list of 11 products and asked to think-aloud while selecting (i) a product they usually buy and (ii) a product they use for weight management. After the consecutive shopping tasks, the subjects were interviewed and asked to answer a nutrition knowledge questionnaire. The subjects were categorized by the difference in the energy contents of their selections and the food selection criteria. The energy contents of the selections for weight management were reduced by 10-46%. Ten subjects with the greatest difference between the energy contents of their selections had higher level in nutrition knowledge and mentioned less nutritional issues during the selections than ten subjects with the smallest such differences. Taste was an important product selection criterion by the former group, while the latter focused primarily on price. Nutrition knowledge is interrelated with personal factors and selection goals. It is not necessarily utilized consistently when selecting food products.

  5. Real-life setting in data collection. The role of nutrition knowledge whilst selecting food products for weight management purposes in a supermarket environment.

    PubMed

    Saarela, Anna-Maria; Lapveteläinen, Anja T; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Kantanen, Teuvo T; Rissanen, Riitta L

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to explore the role of consumers' nutrition knowledge while selecting foods for weight management and the predominating food selection factors by combining quantitative and qualitative methodology in a real-life setting during two consecutive shopping tasks given in a supermarket. Thirty-six consumers were given a list of 11 products and asked to think-aloud while selecting (i) a product they usually buy and (ii) a product they use for weight management. After the consecutive shopping tasks, the subjects were interviewed and asked to answer a nutrition knowledge questionnaire. The subjects were categorized by the difference in the energy contents of their selections and the food selection criteria. The energy contents of the selections for weight management were reduced by 10-46%. Ten subjects with the greatest difference between the energy contents of their selections had higher level in nutrition knowledge and mentioned less nutritional issues during the selections than ten subjects with the smallest such differences. Taste was an important product selection criterion by the former group, while the latter focused primarily on price. Nutrition knowledge is interrelated with personal factors and selection goals. It is not necessarily utilized consistently when selecting food products. PMID:23994504

  6. A Review of the Efficacy and Safety of Litramine IQP-G-002AS, an Opuntia ficus-indica Derived Fiber for Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    Gruenwald, Joerg; Uebelhack, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle and caloric overconsumption are the key determinants of the escalating obesity prevalence. Reducing dietary fat absorption may help to induce a negative energy balance and thus help in managing weight problem. Apart from approved drug therapies, weight problems may also be aided with alternative and natural treatments. This paper compiled and reviewed the efficacy and safety of Litramine IQP-G-002AS, an Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) derived fiber, in reducing dietary fat absorption and promoting weight loss. Evidence reviewed shows that Litramine IQP-G-002AS displays efficacy in promoting fat excretion and weight loss in four randomized, placebo-controlled clinical studies (including an unpublished pilot study). With a daily dosage of 3 g over a seven-day period, Litramine IQP-G-002AS showed an increased faecal fat excretion compared with placebo (15.8% (SD 5.8%) versus 4.6% (SD 3.1%); P < 0.001). In a 12-week study, significant greater weight loss (3.8 kg (SD 1.8 kg) versus 1.4 kg (SD 2.6 kg); P < 0.001) was observed in overweight and obese subjects treated with Litramine IQP-G-002AS as compared to placebo. No relevant gastrointestinal side effects have been reported for Litramine IQP-G-002AS at the dosages studied. PMID:25254061

  7. A 6-month randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention for weight gain management in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with schizophrenia have lower longevity than the general population as a consequence of a combination of risk factors connected to the disease, lifestyle and the use of medications, which are related to weight gain. Methods A multicentric, randomized, controlled-trial was conducted to test the efficacy of a 12-week group Lifestyle Wellness Program (LWP). The program consists of a one-hour weekly session to discuss topics like dietary choices, lifestyle, physical activity and self-esteem with patients and their relatives. Patients were randomized into two groups: standard care (SC) and standard care plus intervention (LWP). Primary outcome was defined as the weight and body mass index (BMI). Results 160 patients participated in the study (81 in the intervention group and 79 in the SC group). On an intent to treat analysis, after three months the patients in the intervention group presented a decrease of 0.48 kg (CI 95% -0.65 to 1.13) while the standard care group showed an increase of 0.48 kg (CI 95% 0.13 to 0.83; p=0.055). At six-month follow-up, there was a significant weight decrease of −1.15 kg, (CI 95% -2.11 to 0.19) in the intervention group compared to a weight increase in the standard care group (+0.5 kg, CI 95% -0.42–1.42, p=0.017). Conclusion In conclusion, this was a multicentric randomized clinical trial with a lifestyle intervention for individuals with schizophrenia, where the intervention group maintained weight and presented a tendency to decrease weight after 6 months. It is reasonable to suppose that lifestyle interventions may be important long-term strategies to avoid the tendency of these individuals to increase weight. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01368406 PMID:23418863

  8. Weight, height, and relative-reliability indicators as a management tool for reducing age at first breeding and calving of dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Cue, R I; Santschi, D E; Lefebvre, D M; Lacroix, R

    2015-03-01

    In Québec first calving occurs on average at 27 mo, whereas the target is 23 to 24.5 mo to maximize herd profitability. The aim of this study was to quantify current and future heifer growth using individual heifer random regressions and to generate indicators (such as heifer weight and height at 15 and 24 mo, average daily gain before and after 15 mo, age at which optimal weight for breeding is attained, i.e., 55% of mature weight, and reliability of the 15- and 24-mo weight predictions) that could be used as a practical on-farm tool. Dairy heifer weight estimated by heart girth circumference and height measured at the withers (from 0 to 27 mo) were obtained from the Valacta database (DHI agency, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada) from 1995 to 2012. Indicators were calculated based on the current situation of Holstein (HO), Ayrshire (AY), Jersey (JE), and Brown Swiss (BS) heifer growth in Québec. Heifers with less than 2 records were excluded from the analysis. Mature weights were determined by weight at calving of cows from third or greater lactation for a given breed and were 710 kg for HO, 625 kg for AY, 470 kg for JE, and 670 kg for BS. Estimated weights at 15 and 24 mo were 425 and 627, 334 and 482, 297 and 429, and 379 and 560 kg for HO, AY, JE, and BS, respectively, which are heavy enough for breeding and calving, except for AY. Relative reliabilities of the 15- and 24-mo weight predictions were on average 89 and 60%, respectively, based on measurements up to 15 mo. For HO, AY, JE, and BS, wither heights at 15 and 24 mo were 134 and 143, 125 and 134, 122 and 131, and 130 and 140 cm, respectively. Age at optimal breeding weight was 13.6, 15.5, 12.6, and 14.5 mo for HO, AY, JE, and BS, respectively. These data suggest that it is realistic to expect a first calving at 24 mo for HO, JE, and BS. A growth delay was observed for AY; average daily gain was 655 and 538 g/d before and after 15 mo, respectively. The average daily gain before and after 15 mo was 848

  9. New and emerging weight management strategies for busy ambulatory settings: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this statement is to provide an overview of new and emerging tools and strategies for discussing weight and assisting overweight and obese patients. Only tools and strategies that can be used practically in busy ambulatory settings are included. The goal is to provide clinicians with ...

  10. The Dietary guideline 2005 and physical activities role in weight management of University Arkansas at Pine Bluff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the weight loss initiative, researchers at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff conducted an obesity prevention intervention based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans approach. A 12 month study was conducted that focused on interventions to improve physical ...

  11. A multicentre observational study of intra-operative ventilatory management during general anaesthesia: tidal volumes and relation to body weight.

    PubMed

    Jaber, S; Coisel, Y; Chanques, G; Futier, E; Constantin, J-M; Michelet, P; Beaussier, M; Lefrant, J-Y; Allaouchiche, B; Capdevila, X; Marret, E

    2012-09-01

    We conducted an observational prospective multicenter study to describe the practices of mechanical ventilation, to determine the incidence of use of large intra-operative tidal volumes (≥10 ml.kg(-1) of ideal body weight) and to identify patient factors associated with this practice. Of the 2960 patients studied in 97 anaesthesia units from 49 hospitals, volume controlled mode was the most commonly used (85%). The mean (SD) tidal volume was 533 (82) ml; 7.7 (1.3) ml.kg(-1) (actual weight) and 8.8 (1.4) ml.kg(-1) (ideal body weight)). The lungs of 381 (18%) patients were ventilated with a tidal volume>10 ml.kg(-1) ideal body weight. Being female (OR 5.58 (95% CI 4.20-7.43)) and by logistic regression, underweight (OR 0.06 (95% CI 0.01-0.45)), overweight (OR 1.98 (95% CI 1.49-2.65)), obese (OR 5.02 (95% CI 3.51-7.16)), severely obese (OR 10.12 (95% CI 5.79-17.68)) and morbidly obese (OR 14.49 (95% CI 6.99-30.03)) were the significant (p ≤ 0.005) independent factors for the use of large tidal volumes during anaesthesia.

  12. Role of Diffusion-weighted Imaging in Acute Stroke Management using Low-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Resource-limited Settings

    PubMed Central

    Okorie, Chinonye K; Ogbole, Godwin I; Owolabi, Mayowa O; Ogun, Olufunmilola; Adeyinka, Abiodun; Ogunniyi, Adesola

    2015-01-01

    A variety of imaging modalities exist for the diagnosis of stroke. Several studies have been carried out to ascertain their contribution to the management of acute stroke and to compare the benefits and limitations of each modality. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been described as the optimal imaging technique for diagnosing acute ischemic stroke, yet limited evidence is available on the value of DWI in the management of ischemic stroke with low-field magnetic resonance (MR) systems. Although high-field MR imaging (MRI) is desirable for DWI, low-field scanners provide an acceptable clinical compromise which is of importance to developing countries posed with the challenge of limited availability of high-field units. The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the literature on the usefulness of DWI in acute stroke management with low-field MRI scanners and present the experience in Nigeria. PMID:26709342

  13. Effect of behavioural techniques and delivery mode on effectiveness of weight management: systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    PubMed

    Hartmann-Boyce, J; Johns, D J; Jebb, S A; Aveyard, P

    2014-07-01

    A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioural weight management programmes and examine how programme characteristics affect mean weight loss. Randomized controlled trials of multicomponent behavioural weight management programmes in overweight and obese adults were included. References were obtained through systematic searches of electronic databases (conducted November 2012), screening reference lists and contacting experts. Two reviewers extracted data and evaluated risk of bias. Thirty-seven studies, representing over 16,000 participants, were included. The pooled mean difference in weight loss at 12 months was -2.8 kg (95% confidence interval [CI] -3.6 to -2.1, P < 0.001). I(2) indicated that 93% of the variability in outcome was due to differences in programme effectiveness. Meta-analysis showed no evidence that supervised physical activity sessions (mean difference 1.1 kg, 95% CI -2.65 to 4.79, P = 0.08), more frequent contact (mean difference -0.3 kg, 95% CI -0.7 to 0.2, P = 0.25) or in-person contact (mean difference 0.0 kg, 95% CI -1.8 to 1.8, P = 0.06) were related to programme effectiveness at 12 months. In meta-regression, calorie counting (-3.3 kg, 95% CI -4.6 to -2.0, P = 0.027), contact with a dietitian (-1.5 kg, 95% CI -2.9 to -0.2, P < 0.001) and use of behaviour change techniques that compare participants' behaviour with others (-1.5 kg, 95% CI -2.9 to -0.1, P = 0.032) were associated with greater weight loss. There was no evidence that other programme characteristics were associated with programme effectiveness. Most but not all behavioural weight management programmes are effective. Programmes that support participants to count calories or include a dietitian may be more effective, but the programme characteristics explaining success are mainly unknown. PMID:24636238

  14. Effect of behavioural techniques and delivery mode on effectiveness of weight management: systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann-Boyce, J; Johns, D J; Jebb, S A; Aveyard, P; Behavioural Weight Management Review Group

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioural weight management programmes and examine how programme characteristics affect mean weight loss. Randomized controlled trials of multicomponent behavioural weight management programmes in overweight and obese adults were included. References were obtained through systematic searches of electronic databases (conducted November 2012), screening reference lists and contacting experts. Two reviewers extracted data and evaluated risk of bias. Thirty-seven studies, representing over 16,000 participants, were included. The pooled mean difference in weight loss at 12 months was −2.8 kg (95% confidence interval [CI] −3.6 to −2.1, P < 0.001). I2 indicated that 93% of the variability in outcome was due to differences in programme effectiveness. Meta-analysis showed no evidence that supervised physical activity sessions (mean difference 1.1 kg, 95% CI −2.65 to 4.79, P = 0.08), more frequent contact (mean difference −0.3 kg, 95% CI −0.7 to 0.2, P = 0.25) or in-person contact (mean difference 0.0 kg, 95% CI −1.8 to 1.8, P = 0.06) were related to programme effectiveness at 12 months. In meta-regression, calorie counting (−3.3 kg, 95% CI −4.6 to −2.0, P = 0.027), contact with a dietitian (−1.5 kg, 95% CI −2.9 to −0.2, P < 0.001) and use of behaviour change techniques that compare participants' behaviour with others (−1.5 kg, 95% CI −2.9 to −0.1, P = 0.032) were associated with greater weight loss. There was no evidence that other programme characteristics were associated with programme effectiveness. Most but not all behavioural weight management programmes are effective. Programmes that support participants to count calories or include a dietitian may be more effective, but the programme characteristics explaining success are mainly unknown. PMID:24636238

  15. Body weight management effect of burdock (Arctium lappa L.) root is associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Daih-Huang; Hung, Ming-Chi; Hung, Chao-Ming; Liu, Li-Min; Chen, Fu-An; Shieh, Po-Chuen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Way, Tzong-Der

    2012-10-01

    Burdock (Arcticum lappa L.) root is used in folk medicine and also as a vegetable in Asian countries. In the present study, burdock root treatment significantly reduced body weight in rats. To evaluate the bioactive compounds, we successively extracted the burdock root with ethanol (AL-1), and fractionated it with n-hexane (AL-2), ethyl acetate (AL-3), n-butanol (AL-4), and water (AL-5). Among these fractions, AL-2 contained components with the most effective hypolipidemic potential in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. AL-2 decreased the expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and inhibited the activity of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) by stimulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through the LKB1 pathway. Three active compounds were identified from the AL-2, namely α-linolenic acid, methyl α-linolenate, and methyl oleate. These results suggest that burdock root is expected to be useful for body weight management.

  16. Body weight management effect of burdock (Arctium lappa L.) root is associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Daih-Huang; Hung, Ming-Chi; Hung, Chao-Ming; Liu, Li-Min; Chen, Fu-An; Shieh, Po-Chuen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Way, Tzong-Der

    2012-10-01

    Burdock (Arcticum lappa L.) root is used in folk medicine and also as a vegetable in Asian countries. In the present study, burdock root treatment significantly reduced body weight in rats. To evaluate the bioactive compounds, we successively extracted the burdock root with ethanol (AL-1), and fractionated it with n-hexane (AL-2), ethyl acetate (AL-3), n-butanol (AL-4), and water (AL-5). Among these fractions, AL-2 contained components with the most effective hypolipidemic potential in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. AL-2 decreased the expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and inhibited the activity of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) by stimulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through the LKB1 pathway. Three active compounds were identified from the AL-2, namely α-linolenic acid, methyl α-linolenate, and methyl oleate. These results suggest that burdock root is expected to be useful for body weight management. PMID:25005949

  17. Weight Management-Related Assessment and Counseling by Primary Care Providers in an Area of High Childhood Obesity Prevalence: Current Practices and Areas of Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jennifer M.; Vos, Miriam B.; Walsh, Stephanie M.; O'Brien, Lauren A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Childhood obesity in Georgia exceeds the national rate. The state's pediatric primary care providers (PCPs) are well positioned to support behavior change, but little is known about provider perceptions and practices regarding this role. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess and compare weight-management–related counseling perceptions and practices among Georgia's PCPs. Methods: In 2012–2013, 656 PCPs (265 pediatricians, 143 family practice physicians [FPs], and 248 nurse practitioners/physician assistants [NP/PAs]) completed a survey regarding weight-management–related practices at well-child visits before their voluntary participation in a free training on patient-centered counseling and child weight management. Data were analyzed in 2014. Likert scales were used to quantify responses from 1 (strongly disagree or never) to 5 (strongly agree or always). Responses of 4 and 5 responses were combined to denote agreement or usual practice. Chi-squared analyses tested for independent associations between pediatricians and others. Statistical significance was determined using two-sided tests and p value <0.05. Results: The majority of PCPs assessed fruit and vegetable intake (83%) and physical activity (78%), but pediatricians were more likely than FPs and NP/PAs to assess beverage intake (96% vs. 82–87%; p≤0.002) and screen time (86% vs. 74–75%; p≤0.003). Pediatricians were also more likely to counsel patients on lifestyle changes (88% vs. 71%; p<0.001) and to track progress (50% vs. 35–39%; p<0.05). Though all PCPs agreed that goal setting is an effective motivator (88%) and that behavior change increases with provider encouragement (85%), fewer were confident in their ability to counsel (72%). Conclusions: Our results show that many PCPS in Georgia, particularly pediatricians, have incorporated weight management counseling into their practice; however, important opportunities to strengthen these efforts by targeting known

  18. Considerations for the use of restricted, soaked grass hay diets to promote weight loss in the management of equine metabolic syndrome and obesity.

    PubMed

    Argo, Caroline McG; Dugdale, Alexandra H A; McGowan, Catherine M

    2015-11-01

    The addition of hay soaking to current nutritional advice for weight loss management for equine obesity lacks clinical evidence. Twelve overweight/obese horses and ponies were used to test the hypothesis that feeding soaked hay at 1.25% of body mass (BM) daily as dry matter (DM) before soaking would elicit weight losses within the target 0.5-1.0% of BM weekly. Six animals were used to evaluate the impact of nutrient-leaching on the digestibility and daily intakes of dietary energy and nutrients. Soaked hay DM was corrected in accordance with the 'insoluble' ADF content of fresh and soaked hays. The ADF-based method was validated using a test-soaking protocol. Animals fed soaked hay for 6 weeks lost 0.98 ± 0.10% of BM weekly. The most weight loss sensitive animal lost ~2% of BM weekly. Soaking hay did not alter DM gross energy concentrations, incurred losses of water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and ash and increased acid detergent fibre (ADF) concentrations. Digestibilities of GE, DM, ash and WSC were unaltered but soaking increased uncorrected values for crude protein (+12%) and ADF (+13.5%) digestibility. Corrected DM provision was only 1% of BM daily, providing 64% of maintenance DE requirements, a 23.5% increase in the intended magnitude of energy restriction. Hay soaking leached nutrients, reduced DM and DE provision and was associated with accelerated weight losses over those expected had fresh-hay been fed to the same level. The ADF-based method will allow the predictive evaluation of individual hays to direct feeding management and prevent inadvertently severe DM and energy restriction. PMID:26403956

  19. Management strategies to improve the performance of low birth weight pigs to weaning and their long-term consequences.

    PubMed

    Douglas, S L; Edwards, S A; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-05-01

    Performance of pigs from birth to slaughter is a result of a complex interaction of factors, with the early stages of a pig's life likely to affect lifetime performance. During the preweaning stage, piglets are reliant on the sow for nutrition, and sibling competition is likely to affect growth, in particular for low birth weight (LBiW) piglets. The objective of the experiment was to determine the effect of litter composition (littermate weight) and milk supplementation during lactation on the performance of LBiW pigs to weaning and the long-term consequences of treatment to slaughter. The experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial with littermate weight (normal or LBiW) and provision of supplementary milk from d 1 to 28 (yes or no) as factors. A total of 265 piglets were selected within 24 h of birth and cross-fostered to create 2 litter types (LOW = LBiW pigs [≤ 1.25 kg] only and MX = both LBiW and normal birth weight pigs [1.6 to 2.0 kg]); half of the litters within a type were supplemented with milk and the other half were not. The behavior of litters given milk was recorded to identify milk consumption patterns. Piglets were weaned at d 28 and kept in their litters until d 70 and then subsequently housed in mixed groups until slaughter. No difference was observed at any stage in the ADG of pigs given access to supplementary milk or not (P > 0.05) nor was there any significant interaction between milk provision and litter composition (P > 0.05). However, LOW litters drank significantly more supplementary milk than MX litters (P < 0.001). There was a significant effect of litter type on ADG from d 14 to 28, with LBiW pigs in LOW litters performing better than those in MX litters (0.252 versus 0.217 kg/d; P < 0.05). At weaning, LBiW piglets in LOW litters weighed over 500 g more than those in MX litters (P < 0.05). In MX litters there was a significant interaction between birth weight and supplementary milk on the CV of BW from d 14 to slaughter (P < 0.05). In

  20. Weight Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

  1. Body Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... sign of a medical problem. Causes for sudden weight loss can include Thyroid problems Cancer Infectious diseases Digestive diseases Certain medicines Sudden weight gain can be due to medicines, thyroid problems, ...

  2. An overview of the safety and efficacy of a novel, natural(-)-hydroxycitric acid extract (HCA-SX) for weight management.

    PubMed

    Preuss, H G; Rao, C V S; Garis, R; Bramble, J D; Ohia, S E; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

    2004-01-01

    Garcinia cambogia-derived (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a safe, natural supplement for weight management. HCA is a competitive inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase, a key enzyme which facilitates the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and triglycerides. Previous studies in our laboratories have demonstrated the superior bioavailability of a novel calcium-potassium salt of HCA derived from Garcinia cambogia (HCA-SX, Super CitriMax). Greater bioavailability of HCA-SX was observed when taken on an empty stomach. HCA-SX was also shown to exhibit concentration-dependent release of serotonin in isolated rat brain cortex, which may explain its appetite suppressive action. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation, primary eye irritation and 90-day chronic toxicity studies, as well as Ames bacterial reverse mutation and mouse lymphoma tests, were assessed to determine the safety of HCA-SX. In the 90-day toxicity study, dose- and time-dependent effects of HCA-SX were assessed on body weight, selected organ weights, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, hematology and clinical chemistry, and histopathology in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. No remarkable toxicity results were detected, demonstrating the safety of HCA-SX. Furthermore, clinical studies to evaluate the safety and efficacy of HCA-SX over a period of eight weeks were conducted in 60 human volunteers. Subjects were given a 2,000 kcal diet/day, participated in a 30 min walking exercise program 5 days/week and given an oral dose of placebo or 4666.7 mg HCA-SX (providing 2,800 mg HCA) in three equally divided doses 30-60 min before meals, Body weight, BMI, lipid profiles, serum leptin, serotonin and excretion of urinary fat metabolites were determined at 0, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. At the end of 8 weeks, body weight and BMI decreased by 5.4% and 5.2%, respectively. Food intake, total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and serum leptin levels were significantly reduced, while

  3. An overview of the safety and efficacy of a novel, natural(-)-hydroxycitric acid extract (HCA-SX) for weight management.

    PubMed

    Preuss, H G; Rao, C V S; Garis, R; Bramble, J D; Ohia, S E; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

    2004-01-01

    Garcinia cambogia-derived (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a safe, natural supplement for weight management. HCA is a competitive inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase, a key enzyme which facilitates the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and triglycerides. Previous studies in our laboratories have demonstrated the superior bioavailability of a novel calcium-potassium salt of HCA derived from Garcinia cambogia (HCA-SX, Super CitriMax). Greater bioavailability of HCA-SX was observed when taken on an empty stomach. HCA-SX was also shown to exhibit concentration-dependent release of serotonin in isolated rat brain cortex, which may explain its appetite suppressive action. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation, primary eye irritation and 90-day chronic toxicity studies, as well as Ames bacterial reverse mutation and mouse lymphoma tests, were assessed to determine the safety of HCA-SX. In the 90-day toxicity study, dose- and time-dependent effects of HCA-SX were assessed on body weight, selected organ weights, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, hematology and clinical chemistry, and histopathology in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. No remarkable toxicity results were detected, demonstrating the safety of HCA-SX. Furthermore, clinical studies to evaluate the safety and efficacy of HCA-SX over a period of eight weeks were conducted in 60 human volunteers. Subjects were given a 2,000 kcal diet/day, participated in a 30 min walking exercise program 5 days/week and given an oral dose of placebo or 4666.7 mg HCA-SX (providing 2,800 mg HCA) in three equally divided doses 30-60 min before meals, Body weight, BMI, lipid profiles, serum leptin, serotonin and excretion of urinary fat metabolites were determined at 0, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. At the end of 8 weeks, body weight and BMI decreased by 5.4% and 5.2%, respectively. Food intake, total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and serum leptin levels were significantly reduced, while

  4. Making tortillas without lard: Latino parents' perspectives on healthy eating, physical activity, and weight-management strategies for overweight Latino children.

    PubMed

    Flores, Glenn; Maldonado, Julio; Durán, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Latinos are among the most overweight racial/ethnic groups of US children. The study aim was to identify parents' perspectives on healthy eating, physical activity, and weight-management strategies for overweight Latino children. Four focus groups were conducted of Mexican immigrant, Mexican-American, Puerto Rican, and other Latino families with overweight children. Parents were asked 33 questions and sampled four healthy substitutes for traditional Latino foods, including multigrain enchiladas and brown rice. Nineteen parents were interviewed in the focus groups. The children?s median body mass index was 23; 60% had a body mass index ?95th percentile. Parents identified 22 themes regarding the most important things parents can do to help overweight children lose weight, including encouragement, not making the child feel left out, the whole family eating healthy, and the parent setting a good example. Parents identified 17 themes regarding the most important things overweight children can do to help themselves lose weight, including eating healthier, limiting portion size and second helpings, drinking more water, increased physical activity, decreased screen time, children educating themselves at school, asking parents for help, and participating in interventions that include the whole family. Challenges to getting kids to exercise included expense, time constraints, and neighborhood safety. Parents were open to integrating healthy substitutes into traditional Latino meals/snacks, and found them palatable. One mother stated, "We have to keep our traditional foods, but realize that we can make them more nutritious." Parents reported their children would accept high-fiber foods and low-fat dairy. In designing effective weight-management interventions for overweight Latino children, the study findings may prove useful in identifying healthy, well-accepted foods and beverages; agreeable physical activities; suitable targets for reducing inactivity; and efficacious

  5. Semi-physical Identification and State Estimation of Energy Intake for Interventions to Manage Gestational Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Penghong; Rivera, Daniel E.; Downs, Danielle S.; Savage, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain (i.e., weight gain during pregnancy) is a significant public health concern, and has been the recent focus of novel, control systems-based interventions. This paper develops a control-oriented dynamical systems model based on a first-principles energy balance model from the literature, which is evaluated against participant data from a study targeted to obese and overweight pregnant women. The results indicate significant under-reporting of energy intake among the participant population. A series of approaches based on system identification and state estimation are developed in the paper to better understand and characterize the extent of under-reporting; these range from back-calculating energy intake from a closed-form of the energy balance model, to a constrained semi-physical identification approach that estimates the extent of systematic under-reporting in the presence of noise and possibly missing data. Additionally, we describe an adaptive algorithm based on Kalman filtering to estimate energy intake in real-time. The approaches are illustrated with data from both simulated and actual intervention participants. PMID:27570366

  6. Inequalities in the uptake of weight management interventions in a pragmatic trial: an observational study in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Ahern, Amy L; Aveyard, Paul; Boyland, Emma J; Halford, Jason CG; Jebb, Susan A

    2016-01-01

    Background Primary care referral to a commercial open-group behavioural weight-loss programme is a cost-effective intervention, but only 10% of patients receiving this intervention are male. Aim To explore whether observed biases in participation in these interventions reflect biases in the uptake of the invitation to participate. Design and setting Comparison of invited population and recruited participants in a multicentre randomised controlled trial of primary care referral to a commercial open-group behavioural weight-loss programme in England (WRAP [Weight loss Referrals for Adults in Primary care]). Method Between October 2012 and February 2014, participants were recruited through 23 primary care practices in England; 17 practices provided data on the characteristics of invited participants. Results Females were twice as likely as males to enrol in the trial (odds ratio [OR] 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.75 to 2.32). However, the proportion of males was threefold higher than seen in routine primary care referrals or similar trials that invited patients opportunistically. People from less deprived areas were more likely to enrol than those in more deprived areas (OR 1.77, 95% CI = 1.55 to 2.03). Older patients (≥40 years) were more likely to enrol than younger patients (OR 1.60, 95% CI = 1.34 to 1.91). Conclusion Males, younger people, and those from more deprived areas were less likely to take up the invitation to participate in this trial. The gender bias was smaller than observed in routine practice, suggesting that a substantial proportion of the inequity observed previously is a consequence of bias with regard to the offer of intervention. This study suggests that a simple way to overcome much of the gender bias is to write to patients who are overweight and offer referral. Uptake of the invitation to participate was lower in groups of lower socioeconomic status suggesting the need to preferentially offer referrals to this group to reduce

  7. The effect of inulin and fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation on the textural, rheological and sensory properties of bread and their role in weight management: a review.

    PubMed

    Morris, Cécile; Morris, Gordon A

    2012-07-15

    There is evidence that fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin can impart a range of health benefits if consumed on a regular basis. The health benefits include increased mineral absorption and improved immune response and while there is mounting evidence that prebiotics play a role in colorectal cancer prevention, their role of satiety and weight management is still being investigated. In this review we look at the evidence published so far on FOS or inulin supplementation and weight management. We also establish whether prebiotic enriched breads are feasible in terms of dough machinability, bread characteristics and consumers acceptance. Addition of inulin to bread generally resulted in smaller loaves with a harder crumb and darker colour. The limited sensory studies on those products reflect those findings and acceptability decreased with inulin content. However, a fortification of 5% seems achievable. Despite evidence that yeast invertase and dry heat degrade inulin, the extent to which this is the case and whether the prebiotics maintain their activity is not known. There is still a great deal of work to be done to establish whether a bread prepared with enough inulin to retain a significant activity can be manufactured without compromising consumer acceptance.

  8. The family partners for health study: a cluster randomized controlled trial for child and parent weight management

    PubMed Central

    Berry, D C; Schwartz, T A; McMurray, R G; Skelly, A H; Neal, M; Hall, E G; Aimyong, N; Amatuli, D J; Melkus, G

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to test a two-phased nutrition and exercise education, coping skills training, and exercise intervention program for overweight or obese low-income ethnic minority 2nd to 4th grade children and their parents in rural North Carolina, USA. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial was carried out with 358 children (7–10 years) and a parent for each child (n=358). General linear mixed models were used to determine the effects of the intervention on weight, adiposity, health behaviors, and eating and exercise self-efficacy by examining changes in children and parents from baseline to completion of the study (18 months). Results: At 18 months, children in the experimental group did not have a significantly decreased body mass index (BMI) percentile (P=0.470); however, they showed a reduction in the growth rate of their triceps (P=0.001) and subscapular skinfolds (P<0.001) and an improvement in dietary knowledge (P=0.018) and drank less than one glass of soda per day (P=0.052) compared with the control group. Parents in the experimental group had decreased BMI (P=0.001), triceps (P<0.001) and subscapular skinfolds (P<0.001) and increased nutrition (P=0.003) and exercise (P<0.001) knowledge and more often drank water or unsweetened drinks (P=0.029). At 18 months, children in the experimental group did not show significant improvement in eating (P=0.956) or exercise self-efficacy (P=0.976). Experimental parents demonstrated improved socially acceptable eating self-efficacy (P=0.013); however, they did not show significant improvement in self-efficacy pertaining to emotional eating (P=0.155) and exercise (P=0.680). Conclusion: The results suggest that inclusion of children and parents in the same intervention program is an effective way to decrease adiposity and improve nutrition behaviors in both children and parents and improve weight and eating self-efficacy in parents. PMID:24418827

  9. Where are family theories in family-based obesity treatment?: conceptualizing the study of families in pediatric weight management.

    PubMed

    Skelton, J A; Buehler, C; Irby, M B; Grzywacz, J G

    2012-07-01

    Family-based approaches to pediatric obesity treatment are considered the 'gold-standard,' and are recommended for facilitating behavior change to improve child weight status and health. If family-based approaches are to be truly rooted in the family, clinicians and researchers must consider family process and function in designing effective interventions. To bring a better understanding of family complexities to family-based treatment, two relevant reviews were conducted and are presented: (1) a review of prominent and established theories of the family that may provide a more comprehensive and in-depth approach for addressing pediatric obesity; and (2) a systematic review of the literature to identify the use of prominent family theories in pediatric obesity research, which found little use of theories in intervention studies. Overlapping concepts across theories include: families are a system, with interdependence of units; the idea that families are goal-directed and seek balance; and the physical and social environment imposes demands on families. Family-focused theories provide valuable insight into the complexities of families. Increased use of these theories in both research and practice may identify key leverage points in family process and function to prevent the development of or more effectively treat obesity. The field of family studies provides an innovative approach to the difficult problem of pediatric obesity, building on the long-established approach of family-based treatment.

  10. Weight Watcher!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Doug

    1990-01-01

    The author, using a weight machine in an airport lounge, varies the machine's input parameters of height and gender to generate data sets of ideal weight. These data are later used at in-service workshops and in both primary and secondary classrooms to explore patterns and make predictions. (JJK)

  11. Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in self-motivated patients: optimized diet, exercise, and medication for weight loss and cardiometabolic fitness.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Daniel A

    2014-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem with significant lifetime health care costs. The majority of Americans do not achieve minimal targets for exercise, and individuals with T2DM typically engage in less exercise than the general adult population. However, those patients with T2DM who are sufficiently self-motivated to manage their condition have the potential to reverse diabetes and prevent its complications through behavioral and pharmacologic interventions. Marked improvements are possible through increased awareness and selection of healthy eating options, a willingness to incorporate vigorous exercise into their lifestyle, and the use of newer medications that essentially eliminate the risk of hypoglycemia while facilitating weight loss and the achievement of ideal glucose targets. For self-motivated patients, daily aerobic activity of 45 to 60 minutes per day may be a suitable target. For those who have cardiovascular clearance, high-intensity interval training accomplishes high levels of cardiometabolic fitness with shorter training periods by alternating moderate and intense exertion. Suitable medications that have a low risk of hypoglycemia during exercise include metformin, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and sodium-glucose linked transporter-2 inhibitors. Specific daily caloric goals and incorporation of a mainly plant-based diet should be considered as a primary target for diabetes management. Self-management is important to achieving diabetes treatment goals, and mobile applications can be useful tools to support lifestyle changes in patients with T2DM.

  12. Kamp K'aana, a 2-Week Residential Weight Management Summer Camp, Shows Long-Term Improvement in Body Mass Index z Scores.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Alicia Elena; Sharma, Shreela; Abrams, Stephanie H; Wong, William W; Barlow, Sarah E

    2016-03-01

    Long-term effects of Kamp K'aana, a 2-week residential weight management camp, on body mass index (BMI) measures were evaluated on 71 of 108 (66%) obese youth 10 to 14 years of age. Measures were obtained at 11-month study follow-up (n = 38) or extracted from medical record (n = 33). Compared with baseline, BMI increased (P < 0.001), but both BMI percentile and BMI z score decreased (98.7 ± 1.0 to 97.3 ± 6.7 and 2.34 ± 0.30 to 2.23 ± 0.34, P < 0.001). A decrease in BMI z score of ≥0.2 units was seen in 27% of the participants (P < 0.001). The short program has sustained effect.

  13. Birth Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the placenta and substance abuse by the mother. Some low birth weight babies may be more at risk for certain health problems. Some may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer ...

  14. Weight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.

  15. Community pharmacy interventions for public health priorities: protocol for a systematic review of community pharmacy-delivered smoking, alcohol and weight management interventions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community pharmacists can deliver health care advice at an opportunistic level, related to prescription or non-prescription medicines and as part of focused services designed to reduce specific risks to health. Obesity, smoking and excessive alcohol intake are three of the most significant modifiable risk factors for morbidity and mortality in the UK, and interventions led by community pharmacists, aimed at these three risk factors, have been identified by the government as public health priorities. In 2008, the Department of Health for England stated that ‘a sound evidence base that demonstrates how pharmacy delivers effective, high quality and value for money services is needed’; this systematic review aims to respond to this requirement. Methods/design We will search the databases MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index, ASSIA, IBSS, Sociological Abstracts, Scopus and NHS Economic Evaluation Database for studies that have evaluated interventions based on community pharmacies that aim to target weight management, smoking cessation and alcohol misuse. We will include all randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series (ITS) and repeated measures studies. Data from included studies will be extracted by two independent reviewers and will include study details methods, results, intervention implementation/costs and methodological quality. Meta-analysis will be conducted if appropriate; if not, the synthesis will be restricted to a narrative overview of individual studies looking at the same question. Discussion The review aims to summarise the evidence base on the effectiveness of community pharmacy interventions on health and health behaviours in relation to weight management, smoking cessation and alcohol misuse. It will also explore if, and how, socio-economic status, gender, ethnicity and age moderate the effect of the

  16. Intervention Use and Action Planning in a Web-Based Computer-Tailored Weight Management Program for Overweight Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van Empelen, Pepijn; Oenema, Anke

    2014-01-01

    Background There are many online interventions aiming for health behavior change but it is unclear how such interventions and specific planning tools are being used. Objective The aim of this study is to identify which user characteristics were associated with use of an online, computer-tailored self-regulation intervention aimed at prevention of weight gain; and to examine the quality of the goals and action plans that were generated using the online planning tools. Methods Data were obtained with a randomized controlled effect evaluation trial in which the online computer-tailored intervention was compared to a website containing generic information about prevention of weight gain. The tailored intervention included self-regulation techniques such as personalized feedback, goal setting, action planning, monitoring, and other techniques aimed at weight management. Participants included 539 overweight adults (mean age 46.9 years, mean body mass index [BMI] 28.03 kg/m2, 31.2% male, 11% low education level) recruited from the general population. Use of the intervention and its planning tools were derived from server registration data. Physical activity, fat intake, motivational factors, and self-regulation skills were self-reported at baseline. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the results. Results Use of the tailored intervention decreased sharply after the first modules. Visiting the first tailored intervention module was more likely among participants with low levels of fat intake (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62-0.95) or planning for change in PA (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.05-0.97). Revisiting the intervention was more likely among participants high in restrained eating (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.12-5.43) or low in proactive coping skills for weight control (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.10-0.76). The planning tools were used by 5%-55% of the participants, but only 20%-75% of the plans were of good quality. Conclusions This study showed that psychological

  17. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Wholegrain Oat Intake on Weight Management and Glucolipid Metabolism in Overweight Type-2 Diabetics: A Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Cai, Xiaxia; Ma, Xiaotao; Jing, Lulu; Gu, Jiaojiao; Bao, Lei; Li, Jun; Xu, Meihong; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Li, Yong

    2016-09-07

    Glycemic control and weight reduction are primary goals for the management of overweight and obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Effective management cannot be achieved without an appropriate diet. Our study aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of oat intake and develop a reasonable dietary plan for overweight T2DM patients. A randomized control trial, registered under ClinicalTrials.gov (Identification code: NCT01495052), was carried out among adult T2DM patients. A subgroup of 298 overweight subjects was selected and received a 30-day centralized intervention and 1-year free-living follow-up. Participants were randomly allocated to one of the following four groups. The usual care group (n = 60) received no intervention; the healthy diet group (n = 79) received a low-fat and high-fiber diet ("healthy diet"); the 50 g-oats group (n = 80) and 100 g-oats group (n = 79) received the "healthy diet" with the same amount of cereals replaced by 50 g and 100 g oats respectively. Anthropometric, blood glycemic and lipid variables were measured. For the 30-day intervention, significant differences in the changes of FPG (fasting plasma glucose), PPG (postprandial plasma glucose), HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin), HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), TC (total cholesterol), TG (total triglycerides), and LDL-c (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were observed among the four groups. Compared to the healthy diet group, the 50 g-oats group had a bigger reduction in PPG (mean difference (MD): -1.04 mmol/L; 95% CI: -2.03, -0.05) and TC (MD: -0.24 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.47, -0.01); the 100 g-oats group had a bigger reduction in PPG (MD: -1.48 mmol/L; 95% CI: -2.57, -0.39), HOMA-IR (MD: -1.77 mU·mol/L²; 95% CI: -3.49, -0.05), TC (MD: -0.33 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.56, -0.10) and LDL-c (MD: -0.22 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.41, -0.03). In the 1-year follow-up, greater effects in reducing weight (MD: -0.89 kg; 95% CI: -1.56, -0.22), HbA1c (MD: -0.64%; 95% CI

  18. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Wholegrain Oat Intake on Weight Management and Glucolipid Metabolism in Overweight Type-2 Diabetics: A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue; Cai, Xiaxia; Ma, Xiaotao; Jing, Lulu; Gu, Jiaojiao; Bao, Lei; Li, Jun; Xu, Meihong; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Glycemic control and weight reduction are primary goals for the management of overweight and obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Effective management cannot be achieved without an appropriate diet. Our study aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of oat intake and develop a reasonable dietary plan for overweight T2DM patients. A randomized control trial, registered under ClinicalTrials.gov (Identification code: NCT01495052), was carried out among adult T2DM patients. A subgroup of 298 overweight subjects was selected and received a 30-day centralized intervention and 1-year free-living follow-up. Participants were randomly allocated to one of the following four groups. The usual care group (n = 60) received no intervention; the healthy diet group (n = 79) received a low-fat and high-fiber diet (“healthy diet”); the 50 g-oats group (n = 80) and 100 g-oats group (n = 79) received the “healthy diet” with the same amount of cereals replaced by 50 g and 100 g oats respectively. Anthropometric, blood glycemic and lipid variables were measured. For the 30-day intervention, significant differences in the changes of FPG (fasting plasma glucose), PPG (postprandial plasma glucose), HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin), HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), TC (total cholesterol), TG (total triglycerides), and LDL-c (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were observed among the four groups. Compared to the healthy diet group, the 50 g-oats group had a bigger reduction in PPG (mean difference (MD): −1.04 mmol/L; 95% CI: −2.03, −0.05) and TC (MD: −0.24 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.47, −0.01); the 100 g-oats group had a bigger reduction in PPG (MD: −1.48 mmol/L; 95% CI: −2.57, −0.39), HOMA-IR (MD: −1.77 mU·mol/L2; 95% CI: −3.49, −0.05), TC (MD: −0.33 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.56, −0.10) and LDL-c (MD: −0.22 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.41, −0.03). In the 1-year follow-up, greater effects in reducing weight (MD: −0.89 kg; 95% CI

  19. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Wholegrain Oat Intake on Weight Management and Glucolipid Metabolism in Overweight Type-2 Diabetics: A Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Cai, Xiaxia; Ma, Xiaotao; Jing, Lulu; Gu, Jiaojiao; Bao, Lei; Li, Jun; Xu, Meihong; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Glycemic control and weight reduction are primary goals for the management of overweight and obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Effective management cannot be achieved without an appropriate diet. Our study aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of oat intake and develop a reasonable dietary plan for overweight T2DM patients. A randomized control trial, registered under ClinicalTrials.gov (Identification code: NCT01495052), was carried out among adult T2DM patients. A subgroup of 298 overweight subjects was selected and received a 30-day centralized intervention and 1-year free-living follow-up. Participants were randomly allocated to one of the following four groups. The usual care group (n = 60) received no intervention; the healthy diet group (n = 79) received a low-fat and high-fiber diet ("healthy diet"); the 50 g-oats group (n = 80) and 100 g-oats group (n = 79) received the "healthy diet" with the same amount of cereals replaced by 50 g and 100 g oats respectively. Anthropometric, blood glycemic and lipid variables were measured. For the 30-day intervention, significant differences in the changes of FPG (fasting plasma glucose), PPG (postprandial plasma glucose), HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin), HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), TC (total cholesterol), TG (total triglycerides), and LDL-c (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were observed among the four groups. Compared to the healthy diet group, the 50 g-oats group had a bigger reduction in PPG (mean difference (MD): -1.04 mmol/L; 95% CI: -2.03, -0.05) and TC (MD: -0.24 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.47, -0.01); the 100 g-oats group had a bigger reduction in PPG (MD: -1.48 mmol/L; 95% CI: -2.57, -0.39), HOMA-IR (MD: -1.77 mU·mol/L²; 95% CI: -3.49, -0.05), TC (MD: -0.33 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.56, -0.10) and LDL-c (MD: -0.22 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.41, -0.03). In the 1-year follow-up, greater effects in reducing weight (MD: -0.89 kg; 95% CI: -1.56, -0.22), HbA1c (MD: -0.64%; 95% CI

  20. Low-molecular-weight heparins for managing vasoocclusive crises in people with sickle cell disease: a summary of a cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Zuuren, Esther J; Fedorowicz, Zbys

    2014-01-01

    We summarize a Cochrane systematic review that was conducted to assess the effects of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) for managing vasoocclusive crises (VOC) in people with sickle cell disease. Sickle cell disease is one of the most common and severe genetic disorders in the world. It can be divided into three broadly distinct clinical phenotypes characterized by either hemolysis, pain syndromes or organ damage. Pain is the most prominent symptom of vasoocclusion, and hypercoagulability is a well-established pathogenic phenomenon in people with sickle cell disease. Searches included the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, abstract books of conference proceedings and several online trials registries (December 2012). One study (with an overall unclear to high risk of bias) comprising 253 participants was included. This study provided limited data, but concluded that tinzaparin resulted in a more rapid resolution of pain, and in a statistically significant lower number of hospitalization days compared to a placebo. Two minor bleeding events were reported as adverse events in the tinzaparin group. Based on the results from this single study, there is incomplete evidence to either support or refute the effectiveness of LMWH in people with sickle cell disease.

  1. Obesity Prevention and Weight Maintenance After Loss.

    PubMed

    German, Alexander James

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the most prevalent medical diseases in pets. Outcomes are often disappointing; many animals either fail to reach target weight or regain weight. This article discusses managing obesity, focusing on prevention. It gives guidance on establishing monitoring programs that use regular body weight and condition assessments to identify animals at risk of inappropriate weight gain, enabling early intervention. Weight management in obese animals is a lifelong process. Regular weight and body condition monitoring are key to identifying animals that rebound early, while continuing to feed a therapeutic weight loss diet can help prevent it from happening.

  2. Use of Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season to Assess Effectiveness of Agricultural and Environmental Best Management Practices in California and Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagalski, J. L.; Schlegel, B.; Hutchins, J.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term data sets on stream-water quality and discharge can be used to assess whether best management practices (BMPs) are restoring beneficial uses of impaired water as required under the Clean Water Act. In this study, we evaluated a greater than 20-year record of water quality from selected streams in the Central Valley (CV) of California and Lake Tahoe (California and Nevada, USA). The CV contains a mix of agricultural and urbanized land, while the Lake Tahoe area is mostly forested, with seasonal residents and tourism. Because nutrients and fine sediments cause a reduction in water clarity that impair Lake Tahoe, BMPs were implemented in the early 1990's, to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus loads. The CV does not have a current nutrient management plan, but numerous BMPs exist to reduce pesticide loads, and it was hypothesized that these programs could also reduce nutrient levels. In the CV and Lake Tahoe areas, nutrient concentrations, loads, and trends were estimated by using the recently developed Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) model. Sufficient data were available to compare trends during a voluntary and enforcement period for seven CV sites within the lower Sacramento and San Joaquin Basins. For six of the seven sites, flow-normalized mean annual concentrations of total phosphorus and nitrate decreased at a faster rate during the enforcement period than during the earlier voluntary period. Concentration changes during similar years and ranges of flow conditions suggest that BMPs designed for pesticides also reduced nutrient loads in the CV. A trend analysis using WRTDS was completed for six streams that enter Lake Tahoe during the late 1980's through 2008. The results of the model confirm that nutrient loading is influenced strongly by season, such as by spring runoff from snowmelt. The highest nutrient concentrations in the late 1980's and early 1990's correlate with high flows, followed by statistically significant decreases

  3. Scuba Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Attitude Adjuster is a system for weight repositioning corresponding to a SCUBA diver's changing positions. Compact tubes on the diver's air tank permit controlled movement of lead balls within the Adjuster, automatically repositioning when the diver changes position. Manufactured by Think Tank Technologies, the system is light and small, reducing drag and energy requirements and contributing to lower air consumption. The Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center helped the company with both technical and business information and arranged for the testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's Weightlessness Environmental Training Facility for astronauts.

  4. Community pharmacy-delivered interventions for public health priorities: a systematic review of interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management, including meta-analysis for smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tamara J; Todd, Adam; O'Malley, Claire; Moore, Helen J; Husband, Andrew K; Bambra, Clare; Kasim, Adetayo; Sniehotta, Falko F; Steed, Liz; Smith, Sarah; Nield, Lucie; Summerbell, Carolyn D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review the effectiveness of community pharmacy-delivered interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management. Design Systematic review and meta-analyses. 10 electronic databases were searched from inception to May 2014. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Study design: randomised and non-randomised controlled trials; controlled before/after studies, interrupted times series. Intervention: any relevant intervention set in a community pharmacy, delivered by the pharmacy team. No restrictions on duration, country, age, or language. Results 19 studies were included: 2 alcohol reduction, 12 smoking cessation and 5 weight management. Study quality rating: 6 ‘strong’, 4 ‘moderate’ and 9 ‘weak’. 8 studies were conducted in the UK, 4 in the USA, 2 in Australia, 1 each in 5 other countries. Evidence from 2 alcohol-reduction interventions was limited. Behavioural support and/or nicotine replacement therapy are effective and cost-effective for smoking cessation: pooled OR was 2.56 (95% CI 1.45 to 4.53) for active intervention vs usual care. Pharmacy-based interventions produced similar weight loss compared with active interventions in other primary care settings; however, weight loss was not sustained longer term in a range of primary care and commercial settings compared with control. Pharmacy-based weight management interventions have similar provider costs to those delivered in other primary care settings, which are greater than those delivered by commercial organisations. Very few studies explored if and how sociodemographic or socioeconomic variables moderated intervention effects. Insufficient information was available to examine relationships between effectiveness and behaviour change strategies, implementation factors, or organisation and delivery of interventions. Conclusions Community pharmacy-delivered interventions are effective for smoking cessation, and demonstrate that the pharmacy is a

  5. Evaluation of a Community-Based Weight Management Program for Predominantly Severely Obese, Difficult-To-Reach, Inner-City Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Unab I.; Heo, Moonseong; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Blank, Arthur E.; Strauss, Temima; Viswanathan, Nisha; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Few interventions targeting severely obese minority youth have been implemented in community-based settings. We evaluate a 9-month multicomponent, community-based program for obese, inner-city adolescents. Methods Of 5250 estimated eligible adolescents, 349 were recruited; they had a mean age of 15±2 years, mean BMI %ile 98.9±1.5, and comprised 52% African American and 44% Hispanic. Longitudinal trends of anthropometric measures were compared 1 year before enrollment (T−12), at baseline (T0) and after program completion (T9). Dietary and physical activity behaviors were compared at T0 and T9. Anthropometric changes were compared at T9 and 18 months (T18) in completers and noncompleters. Results A majority of participants were severely obese (67%) and expressed low readiness to change behaviors (82%). For intervals T−12 to T0 versus T0 to T9, there were significant decreases in rates of gain in BMI (0.13 vs. 0.04, p<0.01), BMI percentile (0.0002 vs. −0.0001, p<0.01), percent overweight (0.001 vs. −0.001, p<0.01), and BMI z-score (0.003 vs. −0.003, p<0.01). Significant increases in vegetable and fruit consumption and in vigorous physical activity participation were observed. From T9 to T18, except for a significant increase in BMI (38.3±7.4 vs. 39.0±7.5, p<0.01) in completers, all other anthropometric measures remained unchanged in completers and noncompleters. Conclusions We demonstrate modest clinical improvements and increased healthy lifestyle behaviors in predominantly severely obese, difficult-to-reach, ethnic minority adolescents attending a community-based weight management program. The loss of clinical improvements 9 months after program completion implies that extending the duration of such a program may prevent long-term weight regain in severely obese adolescents. PMID:23865528

  6. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, F L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an ‘obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their

  7. Social class and body management. A qualitative exploration of differences in perceptions and practices related to health and personal body weight.

    PubMed

    Smith, Louise H; Holm, Lotte

    2010-10-01

    To deepen our understanding of the relationship between social class and obesity, the study compares the ways in which conceptions of health and personal body weight are enmeshed in the everyday lives of people with disparate socio-cultural backgrounds and weight status. We ask how perceptions and enactments of health and personal body weight are related to social structures and practices at work, in spare time, and in family life. Qualitative interviews focusing on life history and current everyday life were conducted with two groups of Danish adults. One group contained highly educated people of normal weight. The other contained people with less education and body weights above the obesity threshold. Recommended healthy lifestyle regimes complied more fully with the established practices and internalized ideas of those in the normal weight highly educated group than they did with the practices and ideas of those in the high-BMI less educated group. Work environments, and also conditions connected with work that were carried over into spare time and family life, further promoted the integration of healthy lifestyles into the everyday practices of the highly educated, normal weight group. In the less educated, high-BMI group this kind of integration occurred less.

  8. Unconscious agendas in the etiology of refractory obesity and the role of hypnosis in their identification and resolution: a new paradigm for weight-management programs or a paradigm revisited?

    PubMed

    Entwistle, Paul A; Webb, Richard J; Abayomi, Julie C; Johnson, Brian; Sparkes, Andrew C; Davies, Ian G

    2014-01-01

    Hypnosis has long been recognized as an effective tool for producing behavioral change in the eating disorders anorexia and bulimia. Despite many studies from the latter half of the last century suggesting that hypnosis might also be of value in managing obesity situations, the efficacy of hypnotherapy for weight reduction has received surprisingly little formal research attention since 2000. This review presents a brief history of early clinical studies using hypnosis for weight reduction and describes a hypnotherapeutic approach within which a combination of instructional/pedagogic and exploratory therapeutic sessions can work together synergistically to maximize the potential for sustained weight loss. Hypnotic modulation of appetite- and satiation-associated peptides and hormone levels may yield additional physiological benefits in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.

  9. Novel monitoring method for the management of heart failure: combined measurement of body weight and bioimpedance index of body fat percentage.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hajime

    2009-11-01

    Although body weight scales are most commonly used to evaluate body fluid status during follow-up of definite heart failure (HF) patients, bioimpedance measurement methods have become increasingly available in the clinical setting. These monitoring methods, however, are typically used separately to evaluate body fluid status in HF patients. Kataoka developed a novel method for monitoring HF patients using a digital weight scale that incorporated a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. This method combines the well-known advantages of body weighing with a refined bioimpedance technique to monitor HF status and provides valid information regarding a change in a patient's body fluid status during follow-up for HF, such as predominant fluid versus fat weight gain or loss. This special report describes examples of the practical use of this method for monitoring and treating definite HF patients.

  10. Weight-ing: the experience of waiting on weight loss.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Nicole M

    2013-03-01

    Perhaps we want to be perfect, strive for health, beauty, and the admiring gaze of others. Maybe we desire the body of our youth, the "healthy" body, the body that has just the right fit. Regardless of the motivation, we might find ourselves striving, wanting, and waiting on weight loss. What is it to wait on weight loss? I explore the meaning of this experience-as-lived using van Manen's guide to phenomenological reflection and writing. Weight has become an increasing focus of contemporary culture, demonstrated, for example, by a growing weight-loss industry and global obesity "epidemic." Weight has become synonymous with health status, and weight loss with "healthier." I examine the weight wait through experiences of the common and uncommon, considering relations to time, body, space, and the other with the aim of evoking a felt, embodied, emotive understanding of the meaning of waiting on weight loss. I also discuss the implications of the findings.

  11. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

  12. A qualitative, exploratory study of predominantly female parental perceptions of consumer health technology use by their overweight and/or obese female adolescent participating in a fee-based 4-week weight-management intervention.

    PubMed

    Knoblock-Hahn, Amy L; LeRouge, Cynthia M

    2014-04-01

    Consumer health technologies (CHTs) are a growing part of the continuum of care for self-management of overweight and obesity. Parents positively or negatively influence adolescent weight-management efforts and are especially important throughout continuum of care settings. User-centered design (UCD) applications have been developed to assist primary users, such as adolescents, with their weight management, but less is known about the influence of parents as secondary users across many socio-ecological environments. The purpose of this study was to use the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) to inform the design of a UCD application in a qualitative study that sought to determine parental views on how technology can support previously learned behaviors that require ongoing management and support beyond formal lifestyle interventions. Parents of overweight and obese adolescents (n=14) were interviewed about perceived usefulness and planned user-intent of CHT that was designed for adolescents. UTAUT provided theoretical parental constructs (intention, performance and effort expectancy, and social influence) interactions within several socio-ecological contexts, including the home food environment and restaurant dining experiences. Although generalizations of this qualitative study are limited by a small sample size with predominantly mothers (n=13) of overweight and obese daughters (n=12), the exploratory inquiry using a parent as a secondary consumer user can complement the adoption of applications designed by adolescents. PMID:24507626

  13. A qualitative, exploratory study of predominantly female parental perceptions of consumer health technology use by their overweight and/or obese female adolescent participating in a fee-based 4-week weight-management intervention.

    PubMed

    Knoblock-Hahn, Amy L; LeRouge, Cynthia M

    2014-04-01

    Consumer health technologies (CHTs) are a growing part of the continuum of care for self-management of overweight and obesity. Parents positively or negatively influence adolescent weight-management efforts and are especially important throughout continuum of care settings. User-centered design (UCD) applications have been developed to assist primary users, such as adolescents, with their weight management, but less is known about the influence of parents as secondary users across many socio-ecological environments. The purpose of this study was to use the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) to inform the design of a UCD application in a qualitative study that sought to determine parental views on how technology can support previously learned behaviors that require ongoing management and support beyond formal lifestyle interventions. Parents of overweight and obese adolescents (n=14) were interviewed about perceived usefulness and planned user-intent of CHT that was designed for adolescents. UTAUT provided theoretical parental constructs (intention, performance and effort expectancy, and social influence) interactions within several socio-ecological contexts, including the home food environment and restaurant dining experiences. Although generalizations of this qualitative study are limited by a small sample size with predominantly mothers (n=13) of overweight and obese daughters (n=12), the exploratory inquiry using a parent as a secondary consumer user can complement the adoption of applications designed by adolescents.

  14. Eating for 1, Healthy and Active for 2; feasibility of delivering novel, compact training for midwives to build knowledge and confidence in giving nutrition, physical activity and weight management advice during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Women in Wales are more likely to be obese in pregnancy than in any other United Kingdom (UK) country. Midwives are ideally placed to explore nutrition, physical activity and weight management concerns however qualitative studies indicate they lack confidence in raising the sensitive issue of weight. Acknowledging this and the reality of finite time and resources, this study aimed to deliver compact training on nutrition, physical activity and weight management during pregnancy to increase the knowledge and confidence of midwives in this subject. Methods A compact training package for midwives was developed comprising of evidence based nutrition, physical activity and weight management guidance for pregnancy. Training was promoted via midwifery leads and delivered within the Health Board. Questionnaires based on statements from national public health guidance were used to assess changes in self-reported knowledge and confidence pre and post training. Descriptive statistics were applied and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results 43 midwives registered for training, 32 (74%) attended and completed the questionnaires. Although, pre training knowledge and confidence varied between participants, statistically significant improvements in self-reported knowledge and confidence were observed post training. 97% indicated knowledge of pregnancy specific food and nutrition messages as ‘better’ (95% CI 85 to 100), as opposed to 3% stating ‘stayed the same’ – 60% stated ‘much better’. 83% indicated confidence to explain the risks of raised BMI in pregnancy was either ‘much’ or ‘somewhat better’ (95% CI 66 to 93), as opposed to 17% stating ‘stayed the same’. 89% indicated confidence to discuss eating habits and physical activity was ‘much’ or ‘somewhat better’ (95% CI 73 to 97) as opposed to 11% stating ‘stayed the same’. Emergent themes highlighted that training was positively received and relevant to midwifery

  15. High fat diet causes rebound weight gain.

    PubMed

    McNay, David E G; Speakman, John R

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is at epidemic proportions but treatment options remain limited. Treatment of obesity by calorie restriction (CR) despite having initial success often fails due to rebound weight gain. One possibility is that this reflects an increased body weight (BW) set-point. Indeed, high fat diets (HFD) reduce adult neurogenesis altering hypothalamic neuroarchitecture. However, it is uncertain if these changes are associated with weight rebound or if long-term weight management is associated with reversing this. Here we show that obese mice have an increased BW set-point and lowering this set-point is associated with rescuing hypothalamic remodelling. Treating obesity by CR using HFD causes weight loss, but not rescued remodelling resulting in rebound weight gain. However, treating obesity by CR using non-HFD causes weight loss, rescued remodelling and attenuates rebound weight gain. We propose that these phenomena may explain why successful short-term weight loss improves obesity in some people but not in others.

  16. Weight Goals, Perceptions, and Practices among Hispanic and Anglo College Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamaley-Kornatz, Angelee; Smith, Brenda; Tomaka, Joe

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the weight management practices, rates overweight and obesity, perceptions of body weight, and weight management goals in a large sample (N = 467) of Hispanic (n = 421) and Anglo (n = 46) female college students on the U.S.-Mexico border. Women self-reported their height and weight, weight perceptions, and weight management…

  17. Informed Test Component Weighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies and evaluates alternative methods for weighting tests. Presents formulas for composite reliability and validity as a function of component weights and suggests a rational process that identifies and considers trade-offs in determining weights. Discusses drawbacks to implicit weighting and explicit weighting and the difficulty of…

  18. A Second Chance at Health: How a 3D Virtual World Can Improve Health Self-Efficacy for Weight Loss Management Among Adults.

    PubMed

    Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Lewallen, Jennifer; Choi, Grace

    2016-02-01

    Health self-efficacy, or the beliefs in one's capabilities to perform health behaviors, is a significant factor in eliciting health behavior change, such as weight loss. Research has demonstrated that virtual embodiment has the potential to alter one's psychology and physicality, particularly in health contexts; however, little is known about the impacts embodiment in a virtual world has on health self-efficacy. The present research is a randomized controlled trial (N = 90) examining the effectiveness of virtual embodiment and play in a social virtual world (Second Life [SL]) for increasing health self-efficacy (exercise and nutrition efficacy) among overweight adults. Participants were randomly assigned to a 3D social virtual world (avatar virtual interaction experimental condition), 2D social networking site (no avatar virtual interaction control condition), or no intervention (no virtual interaction control condition). The findings of this study provide initial evidence for the use of SL to improve exercise efficacy and to support weight loss. Results also suggest that individuals who have higher self-presence with their avatar reap more benefits. Finally, quantitative findings are triangulated with qualitative data to increase confidence in the results and provide richer insight into the perceived effectiveness and limitations of SL for meeting weight loss goals. Themes resulting from the qualitative analysis indicate that participation in SL can improve motivation and efficacy to try new physical activities; however, individuals who have a dislike for video games may not be benefitted by avatar-based virtual interventions. Implications for research on the transformative potential of virtual embodiment and self-presence in general are discussed.

  19. Efficacy and tolerability of a novel herbal formulation for weight management in obese subjects: a randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The effect of an herbal formulation LI85008F on weight loss in obese human subjects was evaluated in an 8-weeks randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (Clinical Trial Registration no. ISRCTN37381706). Fifty obese subjects (Body mass index 30 to 40 kg/m², 29.3% male; 70.7% female; ages 27–50 years) were randomized into two groups; placebo (n = 25) and LI85008F formulation (n = 25). The participants received either 900 mg/day of LI85008F formulation in three divided doses or three identical placebo capsules and all of them remained on a calorie-controlled diet (2000 cal/day) and 30 min walking for 5 days a week during the entire duration of the study. Results and discussion At the end of the trial period, LI85008F supplemented group showed significant net reductions in body weight and Body Mass Index (BMI). The participants who received the herbal formulation, showed reduced fasting blood glucose, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, and triglycerides. At the end of the study, LI85008F supplementation also provided 21.26% (p = 0.012) increase in serum adiponectin level, compared with the placebo group. No major adverse events were reported by the participants in the study duration. In addition, Adipokine profiling study in 3T3-L1 adipocytes demonstrates that LI85008F modulates key regulatory factors of adipogenic differentiation and insulin sensitivity, such as Adiponectin, Pref-1, and resistin. Conclusion The herbal formulation LI85008F (Adipromin) is prepared from commonly used medicinal plants extracts, which provides useful and safe application for weight loss in obese humans. It also demonstrates potential promise in controlling healthy blood glucose level in obesity linked type 2 diabetes. PMID:22995673

  20. A Second Chance at Health: How a 3D Virtual World Can Improve Health Self-Efficacy for Weight Loss Management Among Adults.

    PubMed

    Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Lewallen, Jennifer; Choi, Grace

    2016-02-01

    Health self-efficacy, or the beliefs in one's capabilities to perform health behaviors, is a significant factor in eliciting health behavior change, such as weight loss. Research has demonstrated that virtual embodiment has the potential to alter one's psychology and physicality, particularly in health contexts; however, little is known about the impacts embodiment in a virtual world has on health self-efficacy. The present research is a randomized controlled trial (N = 90) examining the effectiveness of virtual embodiment and play in a social virtual world (Second Life [SL]) for increasing health self-efficacy (exercise and nutrition efficacy) among overweight adults. Participants were randomly assigned to a 3D social virtual world (avatar virtual interaction experimental condition), 2D social networking site (no avatar virtual interaction control condition), or no intervention (no virtual interaction control condition). The findings of this study provide initial evidence for the use of SL to improve exercise efficacy and to support weight loss. Results also suggest that individuals who have higher self-presence with their avatar reap more benefits. Finally, quantitative findings are triangulated with qualitative data to increase confidence in the results and provide richer insight into the perceived effectiveness and limitations of SL for meeting weight loss goals. Themes resulting from the qualitative analysis indicate that participation in SL can improve motivation and efficacy to try new physical activities; however, individuals who have a dislike for video games may not be benefitted by avatar-based virtual interventions. Implications for research on the transformative potential of virtual embodiment and self-presence in general are discussed. PMID:26882324

  1. Healthy Weight: Healthy Weight Loss Starts With a Plan You Can Stick To

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor or other health-care provider about controlling your weight before you decide on a weight-loss program. Health-care providers don't always address issues such as healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management during general office visits. It's important for you ...

  2. Assessing Your Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Measure and Interpret Weight Status Adult Body Mass Index or BMI Body Mass Index (BMI) is a person's weight in kilograms divided ... finding your height and weight in this BMI Index Chart 1 . If your BMI is less than ...

  3. EFFECTS OF MANAGEMENT FACTORS ON THE CONCENTRATION OF A HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYSACCARIDE FRACTION FROM LOG-GROWN SHIITAKE MUSHROOMS (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiitake mushrooms have a reputation as a healthy food. Growers may be able to use the presence of health promoting constituents as a marketing tool to promote sales of their products for premium prices. There are few reports on the effects of management protocols for log-grown shiitakes on the conc...

  4. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  5. Safety and Efficacy of Banaba-Moringa oleifera-Green Coffee Bean Extracts and Vitamin D3 in a Sustained Release Weight Management Supplement.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Kaats, Gilbert R; Preuss, Harry G

    2016-04-01

    This 60-day, 30-subject pilot study examined a novel combination of ingredients in a unique sustained release (Carbopol matrix) tablet consumed twice daily. The product was composed of extracts of banaba leaf, green coffee bean, and Moringa oleifera leaf and vitamin D3. Safety was assessed using a 45-measurement blood chemistry panel, an 86-item self-reported Quality of Life Inventory, bone mineral density, and cardiovascular changes. Efficacy was assessed by calculating a body composition improvement index (BCI) based on changes in dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measured fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) as well as between the study group (SG) and a historical placebo group. No changes occurred in any blood chemistry measurements. Positive changes were found in the Quality of Life (QOL) inventory composite scores. No adverse effects were observed. Decreases occurred in FM (p = 0.004) and increases in FFM (p = 0.009). Relative to the historical placebo group, the SG lost more FM (p < 0.0001), gained more FFM (p = <0.0001), and had a negative BCI of -2.7 lb. compared with a positive BCI in the SG of 3.4 lb., a 6.1 discordance (p = 0.0009). The data support the safety and efficacy of this unique product and demonstrate importance of using changes in body composition versus scale weight and BMI. PMID:26871553

  6. Safety and Efficacy of Banaba-Moringa oleifera-Green Coffee Bean Extracts and Vitamin D3 in a Sustained Release Weight Management Supplement.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Kaats, Gilbert R; Preuss, Harry G

    2016-04-01

    This 60-day, 30-subject pilot study examined a novel combination of ingredients in a unique sustained release (Carbopol matrix) tablet consumed twice daily. The product was composed of extracts of banaba leaf, green coffee bean, and Moringa oleifera leaf and vitamin D3. Safety was assessed using a 45-measurement blood chemistry panel, an 86-item self-reported Quality of Life Inventory, bone mineral density, and cardiovascular changes. Efficacy was assessed by calculating a body composition improvement index (BCI) based on changes in dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measured fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) as well as between the study group (SG) and a historical placebo group. No changes occurred in any blood chemistry measurements. Positive changes were found in the Quality of Life (QOL) inventory composite scores. No adverse effects were observed. Decreases occurred in FM (p = 0.004) and increases in FFM (p = 0.009). Relative to the historical placebo group, the SG lost more FM (p < 0.0001), gained more FFM (p = <0.0001), and had a negative BCI of -2.7 lb. compared with a positive BCI in the SG of 3.4 lb., a 6.1 discordance (p = 0.0009). The data support the safety and efficacy of this unique product and demonstrate importance of using changes in body composition versus scale weight and BMI.

  7. Improving Weight Maintenance Using Virtual Reality (Second Life)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Debra K.; Goetz, Jeannine R.; Gibson, Cheryl A.; Washburn, Richard A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Lee, Jaehoon; Gerald, Stephanie; Fincham, Tennille; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Compare weight loss and maintenance between a face-to-face (FTF) weight management clinic and a clinic delivered via virtual reality (VR). Methods: Participants were randomized to 3 months of weight loss with a weekly clinic delivered via FTF or VR and then 6 months' weight maintenance delivered with VR. Data were collected at baseline…

  8. Promoting Healthy Weight with "Stability Skills First": A Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Michaela; Brown, Susan D.; Schoffman, Danielle E.; Lee, Katherine; King, Abby C.; Taylor, C. Barr; Schleicher, Nina C.; Perri, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although behavioral weight-loss interventions produce short-term weight loss, long-term maintenance remains elusive. This randomized trial examined whether learning a novel set of "stability skills" before losing weight improved long-term weight management. Stability skills were designed to optimize individuals' current satisfaction…

  9. Safety and Efficacy of Banaba–Moringa oleifera–Green Coffee Bean Extracts and Vitamin D3 in a Sustained Release Weight Management Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Kaats, Gilbert R.; Preuss, Harry G.

    2016-01-01

    This 60‐day, 30‐subject pilot study examined a novel combination of ingredients in a unique sustained release (Carbopol matrix) tablet consumed twice daily. The product was composed of extracts of banaba leaf, green coffee bean, and Moringa oleifera leaf and vitamin D3. Safety was assessed using a 45‐measurement blood chemistry panel, an 86‐item self‐reported Quality of Life Inventory, bone mineral density, and cardiovascular changes. Efficacy was assessed by calculating a body composition improvement index (BCI) based on changes in dual energy X‐ray absorptiometry measured fat mass (FM) and fat‐free mass (FFM) as well as between the study group (SG) and a historical placebo group. No changes occurred in any blood chemistry measurements. Positive changes were found in the Quality of Life (QOL) inventory composite scores. No adverse effects were observed. Decreases occurred in FM (p = 0.004) and increases in FFM (p = 0.009). Relative to the historical placebo group, the SG lost more FM (p < 0.0001), gained more FFM (p = <0.0001), and had a negative BCI of −2.7 lb. compared with a positive BCI in the SG of 3.4 lb., a 6.1 discordance (p = 0.0009). The data support the safety and efficacy of this unique product and demonstrate importance of using changes in body composition versus scale weight and BMI. © 2016 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd PMID:26871553

  10. [Development of an evidence-based self-management programme for patients in the first year after renal transplantation with a focus on prevention of weight gain, physical exercise and drug adherence].

    PubMed

    Schmid-Mohler, Gabriela; Fehr, Thomas; Witschi, Patrick; Albiez, Thomas; Biotti, Beatrice; Spirig, Rebecca

    2013-06-01

    In the first year after kidney transplantation patients are challenged with incorporating new behaviour patterns into their daily lives. Due to the higher risk of cardiovascular disease amongst kidney transplant recipients, behaviours such as preventing undesired weight gain, exercising, avoiding smoking, and managing medications take on crucial importance. The aim of the project was to develop a programme based on prevailing evidence to promote self-management skills in this patient population. To this end a participatory action research approach was chosen. The programme was developed with inter-professional collaboration under the direction of an advanced practice nurse. As theoretical framework for the development of the intervention models of behaviour change and self-management were chosen. The content is based on current literature and includes the viewpoints of both patients and nursing experts. The programme consists of three elements: 1) Educational brochures developed through inter-professional collaboration and evaluated in a pilot survey. These brochures provide a framework for appointments with nursing professionals. 2) The appointments are a forum in which the patient can gain access to relevant information and can be supported in putting sustainable health-related behaviours into practice in daily life. 3) A peer programme that uses treatment plans to encourage patients deviating from preferred health-related behaviours to make changes in their behaviour. The programme evaluation started in May of 2012. Results of the pilot study are expected in 2014.

  11. Circadian rhythmicity as a predictor of weight-loss effectiveness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some of the major challenges associated with successful dietary weight management include the identification of individuals not responsive to specific interventions. The aim was to investigate the potential relationship between weight loss and circadian rhythmicity, using wrist temperature and actim...

  12. A potential role for adjunctive vitamin D therapy in the management of weight gain and metabolic side effects of second-generation antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    Nwosu, Benjamin U.; Meltzer, Bruce; Maranda, Louise; Ciccarelli, Carol; Reynolds, Daniel; Curtis, Laura; King, Jean; Frazier, Jean A.; Lee, Mary M.

    2014-01-01

    Second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) medications introduced about 20 years ago are increasingly used to treat psychiatric illnesses in children and adolescents. There has been a five-fold increase in the use of these medications in U.S. children and adolescents in the past decade. However, there has also been a parallel rise in the incidence of side effects associated with these medications, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus. Despite the severity of these complications and their financial impact on the national healthcare budget, there is neither a clear understanding of the mechanisms contributing to these side effects nor the best ways to address them. Studies that examined lifestyle modification and pharmaceutical agents have yielded mixed results. Therefore, clinical studies using agents, such as vitamin D, which are inexpensive, readily available, with low side effects profile, and have mechanisms to counteract the metabolic side effects of SGA agents, are warranted. Vitamin D is a prohormone with skeletal and extraskeletal properties that could potentially reduce the severity of these metabolic side effects. Its role as an adjunctive therapy for the management of metabolic side effects of SGA agents has not been adequately studied. Effective strategies to curb these side effects will improve the overall health of youths with psychiatric illnesses who receive SGAs. Herein we present a pilot study on the use of vitamin D in patients on treatment with SGAs. PMID:22145446

  13. Losing weight after pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... below the minimum number of calories you need. Breastfeeding If you are breastfeeding, you will want to lose weight slowly. Weight ... not affect your milk supply or your health. Breastfeeding makes your body burn calories. It helps you ...

  14. Pregnancy and Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Division (HMD) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine released updated guidelines for weight gain ... Division (HMD) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine: Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the ...

  15. Weight-loss medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000346.htm Weight-loss medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Several weight-loss medicines are available. Ask your health care provider ...

  16. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem ... one of these diseases before they enter a weight-loss program. Also, they should not participate in a ...

  17. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... as much as 25 to 30 pounds. This weight gain is not simply due to eating more. ... or a dietitian about how to make a healthy eating plan and set ... be causing the weight gain without talking with your provider.

  18. Watching Your Weight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Doug

    1993-01-01

    Describes an activity shared at an inservice teacher workshop and suitable for middle school in which students predict their ideal weight in kilograms based on tables giving ideal weights for given heights. (MDH)

  19. Gradient Weight in Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kevin Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

  20. Kriging without negative weights

    SciTech Connect

    Szidarovszky, F.; Baafi, E.Y.; Kim, Y.C.

    1987-08-01

    Under a constant drift, the linear kriging estimator is considered as a weighted average of n available sample values. Kriging weights are determined such that the estimator is unbiased and optimal. To meet these requirements, negative kriging weights are sometimes found. Use of negative weights can produce negative block grades, which makes no practical sense. In some applications, all kriging weights may be required to be nonnegative. In this paper, a derivation of a set of nonlinear equations with the nonnegative constraint is presented. A numerical algorithm also is developed for the solution of the new set of kriging equations.

  1. Backpack Weight and the Scaling of the Human Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Modeling real-life situations is an important part of introductory physics. Here we consider the question "What is the largest weight of backpack a hiker can manage?" A quick perusal of the Internet suggests that as the weight of a healthy adult increases, the largest backpack weight Wbp also increases and should be about 25-30% of a person's body weight for a reasonably fit adult.1 We show here that a careful modeling of the hiker and backpack leads to a somewhat different result, with hikers of sufficiently large (but otherwise healthy) weight not being able to carry as much backpack weight as hikers of smaller weight.

  2. Feeding management practices and feed characteristics associated with Salmonella prevalence in live and slaughtered market-weight finisher swine: a systematic review and summation of evidence from 1950 to 2005.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, A M; Denagamage, T; Sargeant, J M; Rajić, A; McKean, J

    2008-11-17

    This review summarizes evidence for associations between Salmonella prevalence in market-weight swine and changes in feeding management practices or feed characteristics. A systematic review of the topic was conducted with the goal of minimizing the impact of bias on the review conclusions. Potential interventions included feed withdrawal from swine prior to slaughter, feed acidification, heat treatment of feed, pelletized feed versus mash, course versus fine grind, and wet versus dry feeds. In the reviewed literature, Salmonella prevalence was measured either by culture or by the presence of antibodies to Salmonella. The evidentiary value of studies was assessed, and studies that failed to meet predetermined standards were excluded. 7694 potentially relevant references were identified by an extensive literature search; however, 2623 references that were not published in English were excluded, because funds for translation were not available. Of the remaining references, only 277 were considered relevant to the review topic by two independent reviewers, and assessed for methodological quality. During quality assessment, 233 references were excluded because they failed to report design features that limit the introduction of bias or were conducted in a non-target population such as gnotobiotic, neonatal, nursery, or recently weaned pigs and sows. Forty-four publications passed the quality assessment conducted by 2 independent reviewers, but only 15 of the 44 publications reported studies that tested hypotheses associated with feeding management practices and feed characteristics and Salmonella prevalence in market-weight swine. The most common study design was cross-sectional (7/15). The included studies failed to provide strong evidence of an association between any of the potential interventions and Salmonella prevalence, due to the potential for confounding, and the failure to document temporal association between the intervention and Salmonella prevalence. The

  3. Blogging for weight loss: personal accountability, writing selves, and the weight-loss blogosphere.

    PubMed

    Leggatt-Cook, Chez; Chamberlain, Kerry

    2012-09-01

    Body weight is a key concern in contemporary society, with large proportions of the population attempting to control their weight. However, losing weight and maintaining weight loss is notoriously difficult, and new strategies for weight loss attract significant interest. Writing about experiences of weight loss in online journals, or blogging, has recently expanded rapidly. Weight-loss bloggers typically write about daily successes and failures, report calorie consumption and exercise output, and post photographs of their changing bodies. Many bloggers openly court the surveillance of blog readers as a motivation for accountability to their weight-loss goals. Drawing from a sample of weight-loss blogs authored by women, we explore three issues arising from this practice of disclosing a conventionally private activity within an online public domain. First, we examine motivations for blogging, focusing on accountability. Secondly, we consider the online construction of self, exploring how weight-loss bloggers negotiate discourses around fatness, and rework selves as their bodies transform. Finally, we consider the communities of interest that form around weight-loss blogs. This 'blogosphere' provides mutual support for weight loss. However, participating in online social spaces is complicated and bloggers must carefully manage issues of privacy and disclosure.

  4. Weight Management Following SCI (Spinal Cord Injury)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and family can be a wonderful source of reinforcement if you give them suggestions on ways they ... Do not try to predict future. • Keep a positive attitude. • Do not be self-critical. • Recognize the ...

  5. Managing your weight with healthy eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods that have partially-hydrogenated fats or trans fats. Limit foods that are high in saturated fats. Fruits and Vegetables Fruits and vegetables are lower in calories than other foods. They are also packed with fiber, vitamins, and ...

  6. Managing your weight gain during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... light on fats. Fats include cooking oils, margarine, butter, gravy, sauces, mayonnaise, regular salad dressings, lard, sour ... fat cooking methods. Frying foods in oil or butter will increase the calories and fat of the ...

  7. 5 CFR 591.210 - What are weights?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are weights? 591.210 Section 591.210 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS... What are weights? (a) A weight is the relative importance or share of a subpart of a group...

  8. 5 CFR 591.210 - What are weights?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What are weights? 591.210 Section 591.210 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS... What are weights? (a) A weight is the relative importance or share of a subpart of a group...

  9. Backpack Weight and the Scaling of the Human Frame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Modeling real-life situations is an important part of introductory physics. Here we consider the question "What is the largest weight of backpack a hiker can manage?" A quick perusal of the Internet suggests that as the weight of a healthy adult increases, the largest backpack weight W[subscript bp] also increases and should be about…

  10. Maintaining Healthy Behaviors Following Weight Loss: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Cox, Tiffany L.; Ard, Jamy D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Rutt, Candace D.; Baskin, Monica L.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the process of how women maintained their healthy behaviors after a weight management program using a grounded theory approach. We conducted 2 focus groups and 23 interviews with a purposeful sample of African American and Caucasian women aged 30 and older who lost greater than 5% of their body weight during a weight management…

  11. The Meaning of Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iona, Mario

    1975-01-01

    Presents a summary and comparison of various views on the concepts of mass and weight. Includes a consideration of gravitational force in an inertial system and apparent gravitational force on a rotating earth. Discusses the units and methods for measuring mass and weight. (GS)

  12. The Weighted Oblimin Rotation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that the weighting procedure proposed by E. Cureton and S. Mulaik (1975) can be applied to the Direct Oblimin approach of D. Clarkson and R. Jennrich (1988) to provide good results. The rotation method obtained is called Weighted Oblimin. Compared this method to other rotation methods with favorable results. (SLD)

  13. Marijuana and Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status—i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight. PMID:25337447

  14. Exercise and Weight Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Victor L.

    This paper describes a number of factors which go into determining weight. The paper describes what calories are, how caloric expenditure is measured, and why caloric expenditure is different for different people. The paper then outlines the way the body tends to adjust food intake and exercise to maintain a constant body weight. It is speculated…

  15. Labor Supply and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate on-the-job exercise and weight. For male workers, job-related exercise has causal effects on weight, but for female workers, the effects seem primarily selective. A man who spends 18 years in the most physical fitness-demanding occupation is about 25 pounds (14…

  16. Distribution of pregnancy-related weight measures

    PubMed Central

    Woolcott, Christy; Dodds, Linda; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Piccinini-Vallis, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the distribution of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, and interpregnancy weight change. Design Descriptive epidemiologic study using the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database. Setting Nova Scotia, 2003 to 2013. Participants Included were 63 355 pregnancies in women aged 20 years and older. Analyses of gestational weight gain were restricted to 54 289 singleton pregnancies. Analyses of interpregnancy weight change included 22 890 pairs of successive pregnancies. Main outcome measures Prepregnancy BMI; gestational weight gain (the difference between delivery and prepregnancy weight adjusted for length of gestation); and interpregnancy weight change (the difference in prepregnancy weight between successive pregnancies). Results The median (interquartile range [IQR]) prepregnancy BMI was 24.7 kg/m2 (21.7 to 29.4 kg/m2). Fewer than half (48.5%) of the pregnancies were in normal-weight women, 24.6% were in overweight women, and 23.0% were in obese women. The median (IQR) weight loss needed for women who entered pregnancy overweight or obese to be within the normal range was 13.2 kg (5.7 to 25.2 kg). The median (IQR) gestational weight gain was 14.9 kg (11.0 to 19.1 kg). Inadequate weight gain was observed in 15.8% of women and of these women, half were below the recommended amount by at least 2.2 kg. Excess gestational weight gain was observed in 57.9% of pregnancies, and among these, half were above the recommended amount by at least 4.8 kg. The median (IQR) interpregnancy weight change was 2.3 kg (−0.9 to 6.8 kg). Most (57.2%) women gained more than 1 kg between pregnancies and 24.6% lost 1 kg or more between pregnancies. Conclusion In Nova Scotia, both inadequate and excess pregnancy-related weight are prevalent, although the latter is more common than the former. Strategies are needed to promote healthier weight in reproductive-aged women, optimize gestational weight gain, and support postpartum weight management.

  17. Do dietary supplements help promote weight loss?

    PubMed

    Bell, Stacey J; Van Ausdal, Wendy; Grochoski, Greg

    2009-01-01

    As two-thirds of the US population is overweight or obese, new strategies are needed to help individuals safely and effectively lose weight. One option is to use dietary supplements, but not all supplements that are touted for weight loss have published clinical support for efficacy. The purpose of this article was to identify all published articles on dietary supplements for weight loss. Effectiveness of these supplements was defined as promoting 1-2 lb of weight loss each week. Although several dozen different dietary supplements are sold, only 14 published studies were identified. Four individual ingredients and three blends of ingredients were considered to be effective. Additionally, we compared weight loss from these dietary supplements to over-the-counter (OTC) orlistat (alli™, GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, UK). Five single ingredients and three blends of ingredients produced more weight loss than OTC orlistat. Persons who use dietary supplements for weight management, counsel patients on how to lose weight, and retailers who sell dietary supplements, should become familiar with those supplements only that are effective at producing weight loss to assure the best results. PMID:22435353

  18. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. PMID:23731874

  19. Fast-weighted secret image sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sian-Jheng; Chen, Lee Shu-Teng; Lin, Ja-Chen

    2009-07-01

    Thien and Lin [Comput. and Graphics 26(5), 765-770 (2002)] proposed a threshold scheme to share a secret image among n shadows: any t of the n shadows can recover the secret, whereas t-1 or fewer shadows cannot. However, in real life, certain managers probably play key roles to run a company and thus need special authority to recover the secret in managers' meeting. (Each manager's shadow should be more powerful than an ordinary employee's shadow.) In Thien and Lin's scheme, if a company has less than t managers, then manager's meeting cannot recover the secret, unless some managers were given multiple shadows in advance. But this compromise causes managers inconvenience because too many shadows were to be kept daily and carried to the meeting. To solve this dilemma, a weighted sharing method is proposed: each of the shadows has a weight. The secret is recovered if and only if the total weights (rather than the number) of received shadows is at least t. The properties of GF(2r) are utilized to accelerate sharing speed. Besides, the method is also a more general approach to polynomial-based sharing. Moreover, for convenience, each person keeps only one shadow and only one shadow index.

  20. The Effectiveness of a Weight Maintenance Intervention for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Obesity: A Single Stranded Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Hankey, Catherine R.; Melville, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The evidence base for weight management programmes incorporating a weight loss and a weight maintenance phase for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) is limited. This study describes the weight maintenance phase of a multicomponent weight management programme for adults with intellectual disability and obesity (TAKE 5).…

  1. Thyroid and Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Differences in BMRs are associated with changes in energy balance. Energy balance reflects the difference between the amount of ... such as amphetamines, animals often have a negative energy balance which leads to weight loss. Based on ...

  2. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    ... If this is the case, preventing further weight gain is a worthy goal. As people age, their body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This ...

  3. Prizes for weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  4. Your Child's Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... spurts in height and weight gain in both boys and girls. Once these changes start, they continue for several ... or obese . Different BMI charts are used for boys and girls under the age of 20 because the amount ...

  5. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  6. Correctly Expressing Atomic Weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolini, Moreno; Cercignani, Giovanni; Bauer, Carlo

    2000-11-01

    Very often, atomic or molecular weights are expressed as dimensionless quantities, but although the historical importance of their definition as "pure numbers" is acknowledged, it is inconsistent with experimental formulas and with the theory of measure in general. Here, we propose on the basis of clear-cut formulas that, contrary to customary statements, atomic and molecular weights should be expressed as dimensional quantities (masses) in which the Dalton (= 1.663 x 10-24 g) is taken as the unit.

  7. The bid to lose weight: impact of social media on weight perceptions, weight control and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Das, Leah; Mohan, Ranjini; Makaya, Tafadzwa

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the internet has come to permeate every aspect of our lives. With huge leaps in accessibility of the internet via mobile personal devices such as smart cellular phones and tablets, individuals are connected to the internet virtually all the time. It is no surprise therefore that social media now dominates the lives of many people within society. The authors take a look at how social media is influencing diabetes with particular focus on weight perception, weight management and eating behaviours. The authors explore the concept of how the advertising of Size 0 models and photo-shopping of images which are easily available on line and via social media is causing an increase in the number of young people with distorted body images. This has led to an increased number of people resorting to sometimes drastic weight loss programmes. We focus on the bid for 'low-fat' consumption and highlight how this could actually be leading to an increased risk for developing diabetes or worsening the complications of diabetes. We also discuss the increase of eating disorder in diabetes related to this distorted body image.

  8. Exercise and weight control.

    PubMed

    Stefanick, M L

    1993-01-01

    Several important questions need to be answered to increase the likelihood that exercise will be accepted by the millions in the population who are obese. What is the minimum exercise "dose" (intensity, duration, frequency) and what is the optimal mode to bring about substantial fat weight loss, with minimal loss of lean mass? What is the best nutritional plan to optimize fat utilization during exercise, without impairing performance or loss of lean mass? Which diet and exercise programs maximally increase utilization of centrally deposited fat and how can hyperplastic obesity best be treated? Also of interest is the potential role of resistance exercise for weight loss, and the predictors of weight loss success. For instance, do individuals with gynoid obesity really differ from individuals with android obesity in their utilization and loss of body fat during exercise? The potential advantages of exercise include: stimulation of fat as opposed to carbohydrate oxidation; increased energy use during the exercise itself and in the postexercise period; protection of lean body mass; possible reversal of the diet-induced suppression of BMR; and other health benefits. Among other parameters, the effectiveness of exercise on weight loss may be influenced by the type, intensity, frequency, and duration of exercise bouts and the duration of the training program, the nature of the excess fat stores, i.e., whether the person has obesity characterized by hyperplastic or hypertrophic adipose tissue or central (with large-intra-abdominal depot) or peripheral obesity, the composition and caloric content of the diet, and behavioral aspects that affect adherence to the program. With respect to this latter concern, even if a person has been very successful at weight loss in a metabolic ward or intensive program, he/she must eventually return to the outside world and figure out for himself/herself how to eat real food and/or maintain an activity level that promotes weight maintenance

  9. Nutrition Care for Patients with Weight Regain after Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Johnson Stoklossa, Carlene; Atwal, Suneet

    2013-01-01

    Achieving optimal weight outcomes for patients with obesity is important to the management of their chronic disease. All interventions present risks for weight regain. Bariatric surgery is the most efficacious treatment, producing greater weight losses that are sustained over more time compared to lifestyle interventions. However, approximately 20–30% of patients do not achieve successful weight outcomes, and patients may experience a regain of 20–25% of their lost weight. This paper reviews several factors that influence weight regain after bariatric surgery, including type of surgery, food tolerance, energy requirements, drivers to eat, errors in estimating intake, adherence, food and beverage choices, and patient knowledge. A comprehensive multidisciplinary approach can provide the best care for patients with weight regain. Nutrition care by a registered dietitian is recommended for all bariatric surgery patients. Nutrition diagnoses and interventions are discussed. Regular monitoring of weight status and early intervention may help prevent significant weight regain. PMID:24348530

  10. Nutrition care for patients with weight regain after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Johnson Stoklossa, Carlene; Atwal, Suneet

    2013-01-01

    Achieving optimal weight outcomes for patients with obesity is important to the management of their chronic disease. All interventions present risks for weight regain. Bariatric surgery is the most efficacious treatment, producing greater weight losses that are sustained over more time compared to lifestyle interventions. However, approximately 20-30% of patients do not achieve successful weight outcomes, and patients may experience a regain of 20-25% of their lost weight. This paper reviews several factors that influence weight regain after bariatric surgery, including type of surgery, food tolerance, energy requirements, drivers to eat, errors in estimating intake, adherence, food and beverage choices, and patient knowledge. A comprehensive multidisciplinary approach can provide the best care for patients with weight regain. Nutrition care by a registered dietitian is recommended for all bariatric surgery patients. Nutrition diagnoses and interventions are discussed. Regular monitoring of weight status and early intervention may help prevent significant weight regain.

  11. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  12. Sonography in Fetal Birth Weight Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinola, R. A.; Akinola, O. I.; Oyekan, O. O.

    2009-01-01

    The estimation of fetal birth weight is an important factor in the management of high risk pregnancies. The information and knowledge gained through this study, comparing a combination of various fetal parameters using computer assisted analysis, will help the obstetrician to screen the high risk pregnancies, monitor the growth and development,…

  13. Smoking Cessation and Weight Gain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated determinants of weight gain after quitting smoking in two smoking treatment outcome studies. Results indicated abstinence resulted in weight gain, and postquitting weight gain was predicted by pretreatment tobacco use, a history of weight problems, and eating patterns. Relapse to smoking did not follow weight gain. (Author/BL)

  14. Weight for Stephen Finlay.

    PubMed

    Evers, Daan

    2013-04-01

    According to Stephen Finlay, 'A ought to X' means that X-ing is more conducive to contextually salient ends than relevant alternatives. This in turn is analysed in terms of probability. I show why this theory of 'ought' is hard to square with a theory of a reason's weight which could explain why 'A ought to X' logically entails that the balance of reasons favours that A X-es. I develop two theories of weight to illustrate my point. I first look at the prospects of a theory of weight based on expected utility theory. I then suggest a simpler theory. Although neither allows that 'A ought to X' logically entails that the balance of reasons favours that A X-es, this price may be accepted. For there remains a strong pragmatic relation between these claims. PMID:23576822

  15. Light weight phosphate cements

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  16. Generalized constructive tree weights

    SciTech Connect

    Rivasseau, Vincent E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org; Tanasa, Adrian E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org

    2014-04-15

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

  17. Weight change among people randomized to minimal intervention control groups in weight loss trials

    PubMed Central

    Johns, David J.; Hartmann‐Boyce, Jamie; Jebb, Susan A.; Aveyard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evidence on the effectiveness of behavioral weight management programs often comes from uncontrolled program evaluations. These frequently make the assumption that, without intervention, people will gain weight. The aim of this study was to use data from minimal intervention control groups in randomized controlled trials to examine the evidence for this assumption and the effect of frequency of weighing on weight change. Methods Data were extracted from minimal intervention control arms in a systematic review of multicomponent behavioral weight management programs. Two reviewers classified control arms into three categories based on intensity of minimal intervention and calculated 12‐month mean weight change using baseline observation carried forward. Meta‐regression was conducted in STATA v12. Results Thirty studies met the inclusion criteria, twenty‐nine of which had usable data, representing 5,963 participants allocated to control arms. Control arms were categorized according to intensity, as offering leaflets only, a single session of advice, or more than one session of advice from someone without specialist skills in supporting weight loss. Mean weight change at 12 months across all categories was −0.8 kg (95% CI −1.1 to −0.4). In an unadjusted model, increasing intensity by moving up a category was associated with an additional weight loss of −0.53 kg (95% CI −0.96 to −0.09). Also in an unadjusted model, each additional weigh‐in was associated with a weight change of −0.42 kg (95% CI −0.81 to −0.03). However, when both variables were placed in the same model, neither intervention category nor number of weigh‐ins was associated with weight change. Conclusions Uncontrolled evaluations of weight loss programs should assume that, in the absence of intervention, their population would weigh up to a kilogram on average less than baseline at the end of the first year of follow‐up. PMID:27028279

  18. Weighted Uncertainty Relations

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Maccone and Pati have given two stronger uncertainty relations based on the sum of variances and one of them is nontrivial when the quantum state is not an eigenstate of the sum of the observables. We derive a family of weighted uncertainty relations to provide an optimal lower bound for all situations and remove the restriction on the quantum state. Generalization to multi-observable cases is also given and an optimal lower bound for the weighted sum of the variances is obtained in general quantum situation. PMID:26984295

  19. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... oxygen into energy), and behavior or habits. Energy Balance Energy balance is important for maintaining a healthy weight. The ... OUT over time = weight stays the same (energy balance) More energy IN than OUT over time = weight ...

  20. Weight and Diabetes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Weight and Diabetes KidsHealth > For Parents > Weight and Diabetes Print A ... or type 2 diabetes. Weight and Type 1 Diabetes Undiagnosed or untreated, type 1 diabetes can make ...

  1. Weighted multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Menichetti, Giulia; Remondini, Daniel; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragón, Raúl J; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of [Formula: see text] nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multiparticipation ratio. Finally, we introduce a theoretical framework based on the entropy of multiplex ensembles to quantify the information stored in multiplex networks that would remain undetected if the single layers were analyzed in isolation.

  2. Weight Training Adds Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, June

    1995-01-01

    Secondary level physical education teachers can have their students use math concepts while working out on the weight-room equipment. The article explains how students can reinforce math skills while weightlifting by estimating their strength, estimating their power, or calculating other formulas. (SM)

  3. Implicit Bias about Weight and Weight Loss Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Carels, Robert A; Hinman, Nova G; Hoffmann, Debra A; Burmeister, Jacob M; Borushok, Jessica E.; Marx, Jenna M; Ashrafioun, Lisham

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The goal of the current study was to examine the impact of a weight loss intervention on implicit bias toward weight, as well as the relationship among implicit bias, weight loss behaviors, and weight loss outcomes. Additionally, of interest was the relationship among these variables when implicit weight bias was measured with a novel assessment that portrays individuals who are thin and obese engaged in both stereotypical and nonstereotypical health-related behaviors. Methods Implicit weight bias (stereotype consistent and stereotype inconsistent), binge eating, self-monitoring, and body weight were assessed among weight loss participants at baseline and post-treatment (N=44) participating in two weight loss programs. Results Stereotype consistent bias significantly decreased from baseline to post-treatment. Greater baseline stereotype consistent bias was associated with lower binge eating and greater self-monitoring. Greater post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with greater percent weight loss. Stereotype inconsistent bias did not change from baseline to post-treatment and was generally unrelated to outcomes. Conclusion Weight loss treatment may reduce implicit bias toward overweight individuals among weight loss participants. Higher post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with a higher percent weight loss, possibly suggesting that losing weight may serve to maintain implicit weight bias. Alternatively, great implicit weight bias may identify individuals motivated to make changes necessary for weight loss. PMID:25261809

  4. Weighty dynamics: exploring couples' perceptions of post-weight-loss interaction.

    PubMed

    Romo, Lynsey Kluever; Dailey, René M

    2014-01-01

    Although romantic couples can use communication to help one another lose weight and maintain weight loss, the effect of weight loss on partner interaction is less understood. However, an examination of the interpersonal context in which partners manage their weight is important to help partners negotiate their weight, their relationship, and the U.S. obesity epidemic. Guided by systems theory, this study explored partners' perceptions of post-weight-loss interaction in relationships in which one partner lost weight and the other did not. Through qualitative questionnaires of 42 adults (21 romantic couples), the dyadic investigation revealed that while losing weight resulted in positive interaction for many partners (e.g., engaging in a shared healthy lifestyle), shedding weight also yielded some negative consequences (e.g., non-weight-loss partner criticism). The extent to which partners embraced new weight management rules and patterns largely influenced post-weight-loss communication and behavior. PMID:24156394

  5. Weight gain associated with taking psychotropic medication: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    McCloughen, Andrea; Foster, Kim

    2011-06-01

    People with serious mental illness have higher morbidity and mortality rates than general populations, and overweight/obesity-related conditions are prevalent. Psychotropic medications are a primary factor in significant weight gain. Adolescents and young adults, particularly those with first-episode psychoses taking atypical antipsychotics, are susceptible to weight gain. This paper reports findings from an integrative review of research investigating the impact and treatment of psychotropic-induced weight gain. Four databases were searched, yielding 522 papers. From these and hand-searched papers, 36 research reports were systematically classified and analysed. The review revealed people experiencing psychotropic-induced weight gain perceive it as distressing. It impacts on quality of life and contributes to treatment non-adherence. Weight management and prevention strategies have primarily targeted adults with existing/chronic illness rather than those with first-episode psychoses and/or drug naiveté. Single and multimodal interventions to prevent or manage weight gain produced comparable, modest results. This review highlights that the effectiveness of weight management interventions is not fully known, and there is a lack of information regarding weight gain prevention for young people taking psychotropics. Future research directions include exploring the needs of young people regarding psychotropic-related weight gain and long-term, follow-up studies of lifestyle interventions to prevent psychotropic-related weight gain.

  6. Heterogeneous edge weights promote epidemic diffusion in weighted evolving networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wei; Song, Zhichao; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2016-08-01

    The impact that the heterogeneities of links’ weights have on epidemic diffusion in weighted networks has received much attention. Investigating how heterogeneous edge weights affect epidemic spread is helpful for disease control. In this paper, we study a Reed-Frost epidemic model in weighted evolving networks. Our results indicate that a higher heterogeneity of edge weights leads to higher epidemic prevalence and epidemic incidence at earlier stage of epidemic diffusion in weighted evolving networks. In addition, weighted evolving scale-free networks come with a higher epidemic prevalence and epidemic incidence than unweighted scale-free networks.

  7. Reducing rotor weight

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  8. Weighted guided image filtering.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengguo; Zheng, Jinghong; Zhu, Zijian; Yao, Wei; Wu, Shiqian

    2015-01-01

    It is known that local filtering-based edge preserving smoothing techniques suffer from halo artifacts. In this paper, a weighted guided image filter (WGIF) is introduced by incorporating an edge-aware weighting into an existing guided image filter (GIF) to address the problem. The WGIF inherits advantages of both global and local smoothing filters in the sense that: 1) the complexity of the WGIF is O(N) for an image with N pixels, which is same as the GIF and 2) the WGIF can avoid halo artifacts like the existing global smoothing filters. The WGIF is applied for single image detail enhancement, single image haze removal, and fusion of differently exposed images. Experimental results show that the resultant algorithms produce images with better visual quality and at the same time halo artifacts can be reduced/avoided from appearing in the final images with negligible increment on running times. PMID:25415986

  9. Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

  10. Light weight aluminum optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catura, R. C.; Vieira, J. R.

    1985-09-01

    Light weight mirror blanks were fabricated by dip-brazing a core of low mass aluminum foam material to thin face sheets of solid aluminum. The blanks weigh 40% of an equivalent size solid mirror and were diamond turned to provide reflective surfaces. Optical interferometry was used to assess their dimensional stability over 7 months. No changes in flatness are observed (to the sensitivity of the measurements of a half wavelength of red light).

  11. Excessive Body Weight in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Bales, Connie W

    2015-08-01

    The health challenges prompted by obesity in the older adult population are poorly recognized and understudied. A defined treatment of geriatric obesity is difficult to establish, as it must take into account biological heterogeneity, age-related comorbidities, and functional limitations (sarcopenia/dynapenia). This retrospective article highlights the current understanding of the optimal body mass index (BMI) in later life, addressing appropriate recommendations based on BMI category, age, and health history. The findings of randomized control trials of weight loss/maintenance interventions help one to move closer to evidence-based and appropriately individualized recommendations for body weight management in older adults.

  12. Losing Weight on Reality TV: A Content Analysis of the Weight Loss Behaviors and Practices Portrayed on The Biggest Loser.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Greenleaf, Christy; Paly, Natalie; Kessler, Molly M; Shoemaker, Colby G; Suchla, Erika A

    2015-01-01

    A number of weight loss-related reality television programs chronicle the weight loss experience of obese individuals in a competitive context. Although highly popular, such shows may misrepresent the behavior change necessary to achieve substantial weight loss. A systematic, quantitative content analysis of Seasons 10-13 (n = 66 episodes) of The Biggest Loser was conducted to determine the amount of time and number of instances that diet, physical activity, or other weight management strategies were presented. The average episode was 78.8 ± 15.7 min in length. Approximately 33.3% of an episode, representing 1,121 segments, portrayed behavioral weight management-related content. Within the episode time devoted to weight management content, 85.2% was related to physical activity, 13.5% to diet, and 1.2% to other. Recent seasons of The Biggest Loser suggest that substantial weight loss is achieved primarily through physical activity, with little emphasis on modifying diet and eating behavior. Although physical activity can impart substantial metabolic health benefits, it may be difficult to create enough of an energy deficit to induce significant weight loss in the real world. Future studies should examine the weight loss attitudes and behaviors of obese individuals and health professionals after exposure to reality television shows focused on weight loss. PMID:25909247

  13. Weight loss maintenance: A review on dietary related strategies

    PubMed Central

    Soeliman, Fatemeh Azizi; Azadbakht, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Background: Weight regain after weight loss is a common problem for all those obese or overweight who have had a recent weight loss. Different cures such as diet therapy, behavioral therapy, exercise or a mixture of them have been advised as solutions. The purpose of this review is to find the best diet or eating pattern to maintain a recent weight loss. Materials and Methods: We searched in PubMed and SCOPUS by using the following key words: Overweight, obesity, weight maintenance, weight regain, and diet therapy. Finally, we assessed 26 articles in the present article. Results: Meal replacement, low carbohydrate-low glycemic index (GI) diet, high protein intake, and moderate fat consumption have shown some positive effects on weight maintenance. However, the results are controversial. A Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-type diet seems helpful for weight maintenance although the need for more study has remained. Some special behaviors were associated with less weight regain, such as, not being awake late at night, drinking lower amount of sugar-sweetened beverages, and following a healthy pattern. Some special foods have been suggested for weight maintenance. However, the roles of specific foods are not confirmed. Conclusion: Healthy diets recommend low carbohydrate, low GI, and moderate fat foods, but it is not clear whether they are useful in preventing weight gain. It seems that consuming fewer calories helps people to keep weight loss. Further research to find strategies in obesity management focusing on successful maintenance of weight loss is needed. PMID:24949037

  14. Genetic causal attributions for weight status and weight loss during a behavioral weight gain prevention intervention

    PubMed Central

    McVay, Megan A.; Steinberg, Dori M.; Askew, Sandy; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Bennett, Gary G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Emerging evidence suggests that attributing one’s weight to genetics may contribute to the adoption of obesogenic behaviors. We examined if weight-related genetic attributions were associated with weight change during a weight gain prevention intervention. Methods Participants (n=185) were from a randomized clinical trial of a digital health weight gain prevention intervention for Black women age 25–44 with BMI 25.0–34.9kg/m2. Weight-related genetic attributions (weight status attribution and weight loss attributions) were measured at baseline and 12 months. Results Among intervention participants, high genetic attribution for weight loss was associated with greater weight loss at 12 months (−2.7 kg vs 0.5 kg) and 18 months (−3.0 kg vs 0.9 kg). Among usual care participants, high genetic attribution for weight status was associated with greater 18-month weight gain (2.9 kg vs 0.3 kg). The intervention reduced likelihood of high genetic attribution for weight loss at 12 months (p=0.05). Change in likelihood of genetic attribution was not associated with weight change over 12 months. Conclusion Impact of genetic attributions on weight differs for those enrolled and not enrolled in an intervention. However, weight gain prevention intervention may reduce genetic attribution for weight loss. PMID:26291598

  15. 48 CFR 47.207-4 - Determination of weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determination of weights... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Contracts for Transportation or for Transportation-Related Services 47.207-4 Determination of weights. The contracting officer shall specify in the contract the method...

  16. 48 CFR 47.207-4 - Determination of weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determination of weights... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Contracts for Transportation or for Transportation-Related Services 47.207-4 Determination of weights. The contracting officer shall specify in the contract the method...

  17. Learning to Lose: Weight Loss Classes and Personal Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Adult learning takes place not only in educational organisations, but through participation in leisure and special interest groups. Commercially operated weight management organisations recruit large numbers of adults to their classes to learn how to eat healthily and lose weight. They publish readers' "real life" success stories in their…

  18. 48 CFR 47.207-4 - Determination of weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determination of weights... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Contracts for Transportation or for Transportation-Related Services 47.207-4 Determination of weights. The contracting officer shall specify in the contract the method...

  19. 48 CFR 47.207-4 - Determination of weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of weights... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Contracts for Transportation or for Transportation-Related Services 47.207-4 Determination of weights. The contracting officer shall specify in the contract the method...

  20. Mechanisms of Body Weight Fluctuations in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kistner, Andrea; Lhommée, Eugénie; Krack, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Typical body weight changes are known to occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand, an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake, and expenditure in PD. PMID:24917848

  1. Mechanisms of body weight fluctuations in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kistner, Andrea; Lhommée, Eugénie; Krack, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Typical body weight changes are known to occur in Parkinson's disease (PD). Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand, an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake, and expenditure in PD.

  2. Avoiding Weight Gain in Cardiometabolic Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Maruthur, Nisa M.; Fawole, Oluwakemi A.; Wilson, Renee F.; Lau, Brandyn D.; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.; Bleich, Sara N.; Segal, Jodi

    2014-01-01

    Patients with cardiometabolic disease are at higher risk for obesity-related adverse effects. Even without weight loss, weight maintenance may be beneficial. We performed a systematic review to identify the effect of nonweight loss-focused lifestyle interventions in adults with cardiometabolic disease. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify comparative studies of lifestyle interventions (self-management, diet, exercise, or their combination) without a weight loss focus in adults with or at risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Weight, BMI, and waist circumference at ≥12 months were the primary outcomes. Of 24,870 citations, we included 12 trials (self-management, n = 2; diet, n = 2; exercise, n = 2; combination, n = 6) studying 4,206 participants. Self-management plus physical activity ± diet versus minimal/no intervention avoided meaningful weight (−0.65 to −1.3 kg) and BMI (−0.4 to −0.7 kg/m2) increases. Self-management and/or physical activity prevented meaningful waist circumference increases versus control (−2 to −4 cm). In patients with cardiometabolic disease, self-management plus exercise may prevent weight and BMI increases and self-management and/or exercise may prevent waist circumference increases versus minimal/no intervention. Future studies should confirm these findings and evaluate additional risk factors and clinical outcomes. PMID:25610639

  3. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  4. Up to 7 Years of Sustained Weight Loss for Weight Loss Program Completers

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Nia S.; Polsky, Sarit; Catenacci, Victoria A.; Furniss, Anna L.; Prochazka, Allan V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Two issues remain elusive in weight management programs: significant, long-term weight loss maintenance and widely accessible programs that produce significant weight loss for reasonable costs. The purpose of this study is to determine the long-term weight loss of participants who consecutively renew their annual membership in Take Off Pounds Sensibly (TOPS), a national, nonprofit, low-cost, peer-led weight loss program. Methods This completers’ analysis was a retrospective cohort study of overweight and obese men and women who joined TOPS in 2005–2011 and consecutively renewed their annual membership at least once. Data were analyzed from June to October 2013. TOPS participants’ weights are sent to the national database when they join and at the time of their annual renewal, thus follow-up weight is only available for those who renew their membership. Among 207,469 individuals who joined during the study period, 74,629 (35.9%) had at least one consecutive annual renewal and were included in the study. Results Cumulative mean (95% CI) weight change as a percentage of initial weight ranged from −6.0% (−6.0%, −5.9%) for 74,629 participants who renewed at 1 year to −8.3% (−8.7%, −7.8%) for 2,289 participants with 7 years of consecutive annual renewal. Conclusions In the subset of individuals who choose to renew their program membership, TOPS can effectively promote maintenance of clinically significant weight loss for an extended period of time. RCTs are needed to further evaluate this low-cost, widely available program, which could be a viable option to treat overweight and obesity. PMID:26033350

  5. Weight Advice Associated With Male Firefighter Weight Perception and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Austin L.; Poston, Walker S.C.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Haddock, C. Keith; Luo, Sheng; Delclos, George L.; Day, R. Sue

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The high prevalence of overweight and obesity threatens the health and safety of the fire service. Healthcare professionals may play an important role in helping firefighters achieve a healthy weight by providing weight loss counseling to at-risk firefighters. This study characterizes the impact of healthcare professional weight loss advice on firefighter weight perceptions and weight loss behaviors among overweight and obese male firefighters. Methods A national sample of 763 overweight and obese male firefighters who recalled visiting a healthcare provider in the past 12 months reported information regarding healthcare visits, weight perceptions, current weight loss behaviors, and other covariates in 2011–2012. Analyzed in 2013, four unique multilevel logistic regression models estimated the association between healthcare professional weight loss advice and the outcomes of firefighter-reported weight perceptions, intentions to lose weight, reduced caloric intake, and increased physical activity. Results Healthcare professional weight loss advice was significantly associated with self-perception as overweight (OR=4.78, 95% CI=2.16, 10.57) and attempted weight loss (OR=2.06, 95% CI=1.25, 3.38), but not significantly associated with reduced caloric intake (OR=1.26, 95% CI=0.82, 1.95) and increased physical activity (OR=1.51, 95% CI=0.89, 2.61), after adjusting for confounders. Conclusions Healthcare professional weight loss advice appears to increase the accuracy of firefighter weight perceptions, promote weight loss attempts, and may encourage dieting and physical activity behaviors among overweight firefighters. Healthcare providers should acknowledge their ability to influence the health behaviors of overweight and obese patients and make efforts to increase the quality and frequency of weight loss recommendations for all firefighters. PMID:26141913

  6. Weight maintenance from young adult weight predicts better health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Votruba, Susanne B; Thearle, Marie S; Piaggi, Paolo; Knowler, William C; Hanson, Robert L; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Defining groups of individuals within a larger population with similar patterns of weight change over time may provide insight into influences of weight stability or gain. Methods Latent class growth modeling was used to define subgroups of weight change in adult members of the Gila River Indian Community participating in at least 4 non-diabetic health exams including OGTTs (N=1157, 762F/395M; 78.4±19.0 kg). In a separate study, 152 individuals had 24-hr EE measured in a respiratory chamber. Results Eight groups with baseline weights of 54.6±7.3 (n=124), 64.2±7.7 (n=267), 73.6±7.8 (n=298), 86.1±10.2 (n=194), 95.5±6.7 (n=90), 97.9±10.4 (n=92), 110.9±11.9 (n=61), and 122.1±13.6 (n=31) kg (P<0.001) were delineated. Group 5, (initial weight=95.5±6.7 kg) maintained a comparatively stable weight over time (+3.3±10.3 kg, +3.8±11.2% of initial weight; median follow-up time: 13.1 years). All other groups gained weight over time (+29.9±21.1% of initial weight; median follow-up time: 16.3 years). Higher starting weight defined weight gain in most groups, but higher 2hr glucose predicted membership in the lower weight trajectories. The weight stable group had higher rates of impaired glucose regulation at baseline and higher 24-hr EE. Conclusions Weight in young adulthood defined weight gain trajectory underscoring the importance of intervening early to prevent weight gain. PMID:25131650

  7. Modeling operating weight and axle weight distributions for highway vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Liang, J.C.

    1988-07-01

    The estimation of highway cost responsibility requires detailed information on vehicle operating weights and axle weights by type of vehicle. Typically, 10--20 vehicle types must be cross-classified by 10--20 registered weight classes and again by 20 or more operating weight categories, resulting in 100--400 relative frequencies to be determined for each vehicle type. For each of these, gross operating weight must be distributed to each axle or axle unit. Given the rarity of many of the heaviest vehicle types, direct estimation of these frequencies and axle weights from traffic classification count statistics and truck weight data may exceed the reliability of even the largest (e.g., 250,000 record) data sources. An alternative is to estimate statistical models of operating weight distributions as functions of registered weight, and models of axle weight shares as functions of operating weight. This paper describes the estimation of such functions using the multinomial logit model (a log-linear model) and the implementation of the modeling framework as a PC-based FORTRAN program. Areas for further research include the addition of highway class and region as explanatory variables in operating weight distribution models, and the development of theory for including registration costs and costs of operating overweight in the modeling framework. 14 refs., 45 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Grappling with Weight Cutting. The Wisconsin Wrestling Minimum Weight Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppliger, Robert A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In response to a new state rule, the Wisconsin Minimum Weight Project curtails weight cutting among high school wrestlers. The project uses skinfold testing to determine a minimum competitive weight and nutrition education to help the wrestler diet safety. It serves as a model for other states and other sports. (Author/SM)

  9. The downside of weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Bosomworth, N. John

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the reasons why long-term weight loss is seldom achieved and to evaluate the consequences of various weight trajectories, including stability, loss, and gain. Quality of evidence Studies evaluating population weight metrics were mainly observational. Level I evidence was available to evaluate the influence of weight interventions on mortality and quality of life. Main message Sustained weight loss is achieved by a small percentage of those intending to lose weight. Mortality is lowest in the high-normal and overweight range. The safest body-size trajectory is stable weight with optimization of physical and metabolic fitness. With weight loss there is evidence for lower mortality in those with obesity-related comorbidities. There is also evidence for improved health-related quality of life in obese individuals who lose weight. Weight loss in the healthy obese, however, is associated with increased mortality. Conclusion Weight loss is advisable only for those with obesity-related comorbidities. Healthy obese people wishing to lose weight should be informed that there might be associated risks. A strategy that leads to a stable body mass index with optimized physical and metabolic fitness at any size is the safest weight intervention option. PMID:22586192

  10. The role of social support in weight loss maintenance: results from the MedWeight study.

    PubMed

    Karfopoulou, Eleni; Anastasiou, Costas A; Avgeraki, Evangelia; Kosmidis, Mary H; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2016-06-01

    The role of social support in weight management is not fully understood, as more support has been linked to both favorable and unfavorable outcomes. We examined social support in relation to weight loss maintenance, comparing between maintainers and regainers of weight loss. The MedWeight study is a Greek registry of people who have intentionally lost ≥10 % of their weight and are either maintaining this loss for over a year (maintainers), or have regained weight (regainers). Demographics and lifestyle habits questionnaires are completed online. Dietary assessment is carried out by two telephone 24 h recalls. Perceived social support was assessed by validated scales examining support from family and friends regarding healthy eating and exercise. 289 maintainers and 122 regainers participated. Regainers received more support compared to maintainers. However, maintainers reported receiving compliments and active participation, whereas regainers receiving verbal instructions and encouragements. Maintainers who received diet support displayed improved dietary intakes, such as lower energy intake; regainers' diet was unaffected by support. Positive, rather than instructive, support appears beneficial in weight loss maintenance.

  11. Management of obesity.

    PubMed

    Bray, George A; Frühbeck, Gema; Ryan, Donna H; Wilding, John P H

    2016-05-01

    A modern approach to obesity acknowledges the multifactorial determinants of weight gain and the health benefits to be derived from weight loss. Foundational to any weight loss effort is lifestyle change, diet, and increased physical activity. The approach should be a high quality diet to which patients will adhere accompanied by an exercise prescription describing frequency, intensity, type, and time with a minimum of 150 min moderate weekly activity. For patients who struggle with weight loss and who would receive health benefit from weight loss, management of medications that are contributing to weight gain and use of approved medications for chronic weight management along with lifestyle changes are appropriate. Medications approved in the USA or European Union are orlistat, naltrexone/bupropion, and liraglutide; in the USA, lorcaserin and phentermine/topiramate are also available. Surgical management (gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy, and Roux-en Y gastric bypass) can produce remarkable health improvement and reduce mortality for patients with severe obesity. PMID:26868660

  12. Geophysical weight loss diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, Kenneth

    1984-04-01

    Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.

  13. [Nutrition and body weight].

    PubMed

    Gohlke, H

    2002-01-01

    Certain dietary components play a key role for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Complex carbohydrates lower the prevalence of CAD. Protein should provide 15% of daily calories. Populations with a high consumption of soy protein have a low coronary event rate and a high life expectancy. Soy protein has a favorable effect on LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol. Dietary cholesterol correlates with an increased incidence of CAD. Saturated fats increase cholesterol levels as well as the activity of clotting factor VII and promote progression of CAD. Mono-(MUFA) and poly-unsaturated fatty acids lower LDL-cholesterol to a similar extent. MUFA are contained in rape seed oil, olive oil and pea nut oil, but also in avocados and almonds. Omega-3-fatty acids are in fatty fish like salmon, tuna and herring and improve survival after myocardial infarction. They improve among others endothelial function (adhesion molecules). Eating 1-2 fish meals per week has a preventive effect on CAD and stroke. Dietary fiber decreases the risk for CAD up to 30% and favorably influences carbohydrate metabolism. Antioxidants have a favorable effect in their natural form (fruits and fresh vegetables). The secondary preventive effect of a mediterranean diet after myocardial infarction (probably by a combination of the above effects) has been validated. Body weight correlates with coronary risk, diabetes and use of health care resources. A reduction of body weight is best achieved by calory reduction plus an increase of physical activity. A calory-adjusted diet, low in total fat with a significant proportion of unsaturated fats and omega-3-fatty acids and rich in fiber is of great importance for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Fruits, vegetables and whole grain products are important components of this diet, which lowers the coronary event rate, increases longevity and is associated with a low rate of malignancies and osteoporosis.

  14. Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 144 Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions (Web, free access)   The atomic weights are available for elements 1 through 111, and isotopic compositions or abundances are given when appropriate.

  15. Human biology of weight maintenance after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Mariman, Edwin C M

    2012-01-01

    One year after losing weight, most people have regained a significant part of the lost weight. As such, weight regain after weight loss has a negative impact on human health. The risk for weight regain is determined by psychosocial and behavioral factors as well as by various physiological and molecular parameters. Here, the latter intrinsic factors are reviewed and assembled into four functional modules, two related to the energy balance and two related to resistance against weight loss. Reported genetic factors do not reveal additional functional processes. The modules form nodes in a network describing the complex interactions of intrinsically determined weight maintenance. This network indicates that after an initial weight loss persons with a high baseline fat mass will most easily succeed in maintaining weight, because they can lose fat without raising stress in adipocytes and at the same time spare fat-free mass. However, continued weight loss and weight maintenance requires extra measures like increased physical activity, limited energy intake and a fat-free sparing composition of the diet. Eventually, this network may help to design novel therapeutic measures based on preventing the return effect of specific plasma factors or by preventing the accumulation of adipocyte cellular stress. PMID:22472972

  16. The weight of mass or the mass of weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gat, U.

    1987-06-01

    This paper explores the cause of confusion associated with the words mass and weight, and offers suggestions to correct the problem. It is recommended that in technical and scientific use, weight shall be restricted to mean force of gravity. Technical standards, ASTM and others, and terminology shall clearly reflect and define weight to be force of gravity. Weight should be avoided in technical context because of its imprecision. Legal, formal, and official language shall use weight to mean force only. Under no circumstances should the SI units of mass, the kilogram, or its derivatives, be associated with weight. The term weight should be avoided in any language and wording that intends to convey a precise or important meaning. ASTM should revise all standards and terminology accordingly.

  17. The weight of mass or the mess of weight

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, U.

    1987-06-24

    This paper explores the cause of confusion associated with the words mass and weight, and offers suggestions to correct the problem. It is recommended that in technical and scientific use, weight shall be restricted to mean force of gravity. Technical standards, ASTM and others, and terminology shall clearly reflect and define weight to be force of gravity. Weight should be avoided in technical context because of its imprecision. Legal, formal, and official language shall use weight to mean force only. Under no circumstances should the SI units of mass, the kilogram, or its derivatives, be associated with weight. The term weight should be avoided in any language and wording that intends to convey a precise or important meaning. ASTM should revise all standards and terminology accordingly.

  18. Correlation Weights in Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Niels G.; Jones, Jeff A.

    2010-01-01

    A general theory on the use of correlation weights in linear prediction has yet to be proposed. In this paper we take initial steps in developing such a theory by describing the conditions under which correlation weights perform well in population regression models. Using OLS weights as a comparison, we define cases in which the two weighting…

  19. Weighting Regressions by Propensity Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, David A.; Berk, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Regressions can be weighted by propensity scores in order to reduce bias. However, weighting is likely to increase random error in the estimates, and to bias the estimated standard errors downward, even when selection mechanisms are well understood. Moreover, in some cases, weighting will increase the bias in estimated causal parameters. If…

  20. Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

    1986-01-01

    Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

  1. Weight Training for Wheelchair Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practical Pointers, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The article examines weight lifting training procedures for persons involved in wheelchair sports. Popular myths about weight training are countered, and guidelines for a safe and sound weight or resistance training program are given. Diagrams and descriptions follow for specific weightlifting activities: regular or standing press, military press,…

  2. Weight loss goals of patients in a health maintenance organization.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Gareth R; Perri, Michael G; Dancer-Brown, Melissa; Goble, Mary; Van Vessem, Nancy

    2010-04-01

    Individuals seeking weight loss treatment endorse unrealistic expectations regarding their goals for weight loss, although these conclusions are primarily based on research conducted in obesity specialty clinics and/or controlled clinical trials. This study examined the weight loss goals and predictors of these goals among patients participating in obesity treatment in an applied, clinical setting (i.e., managed care organization). Managed care patients enrolled in a behavioral weight loss program (N=143; mean age=46.8 years; mean BMI=36.9 kg/m(2); 89.5% female; 64.5% Caucasian) completed a self-report survey during an initial weight loss session. The survey included items assessing patients' weight loss expectations, including goals for dream, happy, acceptable, and disappointed weights. Participants completed questions regarding contacts with their primary care physician and physician provision of weight loss counseling and/or referrals. They also provided values for current height and weight. BMI's and weight loss associated with dream, happy, acceptable, and disappointed weight goals were 24.8 kg/m(2) (30.9% loss), 27.1 kg/m(2) (25.2% loss), 29.3 kg/m(2) (19.7% loss), and 33.0 kg/m(2) (10.4% loss), respectively. There were significant gender differences in weight loss goals, with women endorsing more unrealistic goals than men for dream and happy weights, ps<0.001. Significant predictors of all four weight loss goals included baseline BMI, gender, ethnicity, and frequency of visits with one's primary care physician, ps<0.01. Consistent with previous research, patients participating in a weight loss program implemented in a managed care setting endorsed unrealistic expectations for weight loss. However, more frequent contact with one's primary care physician was associated with more realistic goals. Future, longitudinal research is needed to document the discrepancy between these goals and actual weight loss achieved in such settings as well as to determine

  3. 41 CFR 302-7.103 - How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage is less than the minimum weight charged? 302-7.103 Section 302-7.103 Public Contracts and...

  4. 41 CFR 302-7.103 - How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage is less than the minimum weight charged? 302-7.103 Section 302-7.103 Public Contracts and...

  5. 41 CFR 302-7.103 - How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage is less than the minimum weight charged? 302-7.103 Section 302-7.103 Public Contracts and...

  6. 41 CFR 302-7.103 - How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage is less than the minimum weight charged? 302-7.103 Section 302-7.103 Public Contracts and...

  7. The effects of water and non‐nutritive sweetened beverages on weight loss and weight maintenance: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Jimikaye; Cardel, Michelle; Wyatt, Holly R.; Foster, Gary D.; Pan, Zhaoxing; Wojtanowski, Alexis C.; Vander Veur, Stephanie S.; Herring, Sharon J.; Brill, Carrie; Hill, James O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of water versus beverages sweetened with non‐nutritive sweeteners (NNS) on body weight in subjects enrolled in a year‐long behavioral weight loss treatment program. Methods The study used a randomized equivalence design with NNS or water beverages as the main factor in a trial among 303 weight‐stable people with overweight and obesity. All participants participated in a weight loss program plus assignment to consume 24 ounces (710 ml) of water or NNS beverages daily for 1 year. Results NNS and water treatments were non‐equivalent, with NNS treatment showing greater weight loss at the end of 1 year. At 1 year subjects receiving water had maintained a 2.45 ± 5.59 kg weight loss while those receiving NNS beverages maintained a loss of 6.21 ± 7.65 kg (P < 0.001 for difference). Conclusions Water and NNS beverages were not equivalent for weight loss and maintenance during a 1‐year behavioral treatment program. NNS beverages were superior for weight loss and weight maintenance in a population consisting of regular users of NNS beverages who either maintained or discontinued consumption of these beverages and consumed water during a structured weight loss program. These results suggest that NNS beverages can be an effective tool for weight loss and maintenance within the context of a weight management program. PMID:26708700

  8. 41 CFR 302-7.301 - Is my UAB shipment in addition to the 18,000 pounds net weight of the HHG weight allowance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Is my UAB shipment in addition to the 18,000 pounds net weight of the HHG weight allowance? 302-7.301 Section 302-7.301 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION...

  9. 41 CFR 302-7.301 - Is my UAB shipment in addition to the 18,000 pounds net weight of the HHG weight allowance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Is my UAB shipment in addition to the 18,000 pounds net weight of the HHG weight allowance? 302-7.301 Section 302-7.301 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION...

  10. Paternal contribution to birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Magnus, P; Gjessing, H; Skrondal, A; Skjarven, R

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—Understanding causes of variation in birth weight has been limited by lack of sufficient sets of data that include paternal birth weight. The objective was to estimate risks of low birth weight dependent on parental birth weights and to estimate father-mother-offspring correlations for birth weight to explain the variability in birth weight in terms of effects of genes and environmental factors.
DESIGN—A family design, using trios of father-mother-firstborn child.
SETTING—The complete birth population in Norway 1967-98.
PARTICIPANTS—67 795 families.
MAIN RESULTS—The birth weight correlations were 0.226 for mother-child and 0.126 for father-child. The spousal correlation was low, 0.020. The relative risk of low birth weight in the first born child was 8.2 if both parents were low birth weight themselves, with both parents being above 4 kg as the reference. The estimate of heritability is about 0.25 for birth weight, under the assumption that cultural transmission on the paternal side has no effect on offspring prenatal growth.
CONCLUSIONS—Paternal birth weight is a significant and independent predictor of low birth weight in offspring. The estimate of the heritability of birth weight in this study is lower than previously estimated from data within one generation in the Norwegian population.


Keywords: birth weight; genes; paternal effects PMID:11707480

  11. Weight Stigma Reduction and Genetic Determinism

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    One major approach to weight stigma reduction consists of decreasing beliefs about the personal controllability of—and responsibility for—obesity by educating about its biogenetic causes. Evidence on the efficacy of this approach is mixed, and it remains unclear whether this would create a deterministic view, potentially leading to detrimental side-effects. Two independent studies from Germany using randomized designs with delayed-intervention control groups served to (1) develop and pilot a brief, interactive stigma reduction intervention to educate N = 128 university students on gene × environment interactions in the etiology of obesity; and to (2) evaluate this intervention in the general population (N = 128) and determine mechanisms of change. The results showed (1) decreased weight stigma and controllability beliefs two weeks post-intervention in a student sample; and (2) decreased internal attributions and increased genetic attributions, knowledge, and deterministic beliefs four weeks post-intervention in a population sample. Lower weight stigma was longitudinally predicted by a decrease in controllability beliefs and an increase in the belief in genetic determinism, especially in women. The results underline the usefulness of a brief, interactive intervention promoting an interactionist view of obesity to reduce weight stigma, at least in the short term, lending support to the mechanisms of change derived from attribution theory. The increase in genetic determinism that occurred despite the intervention’s gene × environment focus had no detrimental side-effect on weight stigma, but instead contributed to its reduction. Further research is warranted on the effects of how biogenetic causal information influences weight management behavior of individuals with obesity. PMID:27631384

  12. Weight Stigma Reduction and Genetic Determinism.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    One major approach to weight stigma reduction consists of decreasing beliefs about the personal controllability of-and responsibility for-obesity by educating about its biogenetic causes. Evidence on the efficacy of this approach is mixed, and it remains unclear whether this would create a deterministic view, potentially leading to detrimental side-effects. Two independent studies from Germany using randomized designs with delayed-intervention control groups served to (1) develop and pilot a brief, interactive stigma reduction intervention to educate N = 128 university students on gene × environment interactions in the etiology of obesity; and to (2) evaluate this intervention in the general population (N = 128) and determine mechanisms of change. The results showed (1) decreased weight stigma and controllability beliefs two weeks post-intervention in a student sample; and (2) decreased internal attributions and increased genetic attributions, knowledge, and deterministic beliefs four weeks post-intervention in a population sample. Lower weight stigma was longitudinally predicted by a decrease in controllability beliefs and an increase in the belief in genetic determinism, especially in women. The results underline the usefulness of a brief, interactive intervention promoting an interactionist view of obesity to reduce weight stigma, at least in the short term, lending support to the mechanisms of change derived from attribution theory. The increase in genetic determinism that occurred despite the intervention's gene × environment focus had no detrimental side-effect on weight stigma, but instead contributed to its reduction. Further research is warranted on the effects of how biogenetic causal information influences weight management behavior of individuals with obesity. PMID:27631384

  13. Handling Dynamic Weights in Weighted Frequent Pattern Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Chowdhury Farhan; Tanbeer, Syed Khairuzzaman; Jeong, Byeong-Soo; Lee, Young-Koo

    Even though weighted frequent pattern (WFP) mining is more effective than traditional frequent pattern mining because it can consider different semantic significances (weights) of items, existing WFP algorithms assume that each item has a fixed weight. But in real world scenarios, the weight (price or significance) of an item can vary with time. Reflecting these changes in item weight is necessary in several mining applications, such as retail market data analysis and web click stream analysis. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a dynamic weight for each item, and propose an algorithm, DWFPM (dynamic weighted frequent pattern mining), that makes use of this concept. Our algorithm can address situations where the weight (price or significance) of an item varies dynamically. It exploits a pattern growth mining technique to avoid the level-wise candidate set generation-and-test methodology. Furthermore, it requires only one database scan, so it is eligible for use in stream data mining. An extensive performance analysis shows that our algorithm is efficient and scalable for WFP mining using dynamic weights.

  14. Weighted EMPCA: Weighted Expectation Maximization Principal Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Weighted EMPCA performs principal component analysis (PCA) on noisy datasets with missing values. Estimates of the measurement error are used to weight the input data such that the resulting eigenvectors, when compared to classic PCA, are more sensitive to the true underlying signal variations rather than being pulled by heteroskedastic measurement noise. Missing data are simply limiting cases of weight = 0. The underlying algorithm is a noise weighted expectation maximization (EM) PCA, which has additional benefits of implementation speed and flexibility for smoothing eigenvectors to reduce the noise contribution.

  15. Testosterone and weight loss: the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Traish, Abdulmaged M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this article is to examine the contemporary data linking testosterone therapy in overweight and obese men with testosterone deficiency to increased lean body mass, decreased fat mass, improvement in overall body composition and sustained weight loss. This is of paramount importance because testosterone therapy in obese men with testosterone deficiency represents a novel and a timely therapeutic strategy for managing obesity in men with testosterone deficiency. Recent findings Long-term testosterone therapy in men with testosterone deficiency produces significant and sustained weight loss, marked reduction in waist circumference and BMI and improvement in body composition. Further, testosterone therapy ameliorates components of the metabolic syndrome. The aforementioned improvements are attributed to improved mitochondrial function, increased energy utilization, increased motivation and vigor resulting in improved cardio-metabolic function and enhanced physical activity. Summary The implication of testosterone therapy in management of obesity in men with testosterone deficiency is of paramount clinical significance, as it produces sustained weight loss without recidivism. On the contrary, alternative therapeutic approaches other than bariatric surgery failed to produce significant and sustained outcome and exhibit a high rate of recidivism. These findings represent strong foundations for testosterone therapy in obese men with testosterone deficiency and should spur clinical research for better understanding of usefulness of testosterone therapy in treatment of underlying pathophysiological conditions of obesity. PMID:25105998

  16. Comparative outcome of low birth weight babies.

    PubMed

    Das, B K; Mishra, R N; Mishra, O P; Bhargava, V; Prakash, A

    1993-01-01

    One hundred and fifty six babies with birth weight between 1500-2000 g and 103 full term-appropriate for gestational age (FT-AGA) babies delivered at University Hospital, District Hospital and village homes were included for a comparative study of mortality, morbidity and growth pattern. The low birth weight (LBW) babies from the three centres had similar birth weight and gestational age. Neonatal mortality rates for the LBW babies were similar at the three centres. The main cause of death were infections and aspiration with rates again being similar. Diarrhea and respiratory tract infections were common causes of morbidity. The mortality rates for the LBW babies were significantly higher as compared to FT-AGA babies irrespective of the place of delivery. The incidence of morbidities like diarrhea and respiratory infections were also higher in LBW babies. However, the differences were statistically significant mostly in the preterm group. The weight gain of all LBW babies was similar up to 3 months of age. The findings of an identical outcome for the LBW babies at village level to those managed at hospitals is an encouraging trend to increasing domiciliary care for LBW babies. PMID:8406701

  17. Search in weighted complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thadakamalla, Hari P.; Albert, R.; Kumara, S. R. T.

    2005-12-01

    We study trade-offs presented by local search algorithms in complex networks which are heterogeneous in edge weights and node degree. We show that search based on a network measure, local betweenness centrality (LBC), utilizes the heterogeneity of both node degrees and edge weights to perform the best in scale-free weighted networks. The search based on LBC is universal and performs well in a large class of complex networks.

  18. Weight Saving Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The airplane shown below is the Beech Super King Air, an executive transport built by Beech Aircraft corporation, Wichita, Kansas. Its development was aided by the NASA computer program known as NASTRAN(Registered TradeMark) (NASA Structural Analysis), which electronically analyzes a computerized design and predicts how it will react to many different conditions of stress and strain. In this instance the program was employed in analysis of the airplane's structure and engine mounts. NASTRAN was similarly used in development of other Beech planes, such as the T-34C military trainer and the new single-engine Skipper light-plane, which is making its debut this year. At its Boulder, Colorado facility, Beech has used NASTRAN in analysis of fuel tanks for space vehicles. The company reports it has achieved cost savings and improved its design/analysis capabilities through use of the NASA program. NASTRAN and other government-generated computer programs are made available to industry through NASA's Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC)(Registered TradeMark) at the University of Georgia.

  19. Cremation weights in east Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Bass, William M; Jantz, Richard L

    2004-09-01

    In spite of increasing number of cremations in the U.S., little is known about weights of cremated remains. This research was undertaken in order to add to the limited literature on cremains weights and to explore variation. Weights of cremated remains were obtained from the East Tennessee Crematorium. The sample consists of 151 males and 155 females. Age, sex, and race were obtained for each individual. Males are about 1000 g heavier than females. Both sexes lose weight with age, but females lose weight at about twice the rate of males. East Tennessee cremation weights were compared with those from Florida reported by Warren and Maples, and those from Southern California reported by Sonek. East Tennessee results were also compared with an earlier study on ash weight of anatomical human skeletons carried out by Trotter and Hixon. East Tennessee cremations weigh about 500 g more than the samples from Florida and California, and about the same as the earlier anatomical samples. We hypothesize that variation reflects variation in body weight and activity. This variation must be taken into account when cremation weights are at issue.

  20. Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distributions in Synthetic Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Thomas Carl

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on molecular weight and molecular weight distributions (MWD) and models for predicting MWD in a pedagogical way. In addition, instrumental methods used to characterize MWD are reviewed with emphasis on physical chemistry of each, including end-group determination, osmometry, light scattering, solution viscosity, fractionation, and…

  1. Socioeconomic Disparities in Emerging Adult Weight and Weight Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanKim, Nicole A.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore weight, weight behaviors, and tobacco and alcohol use among emerging adults by parental education and financial strain. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of 2010 survey data from an urban Minnesota public 4-year university and 2-year community college (n=1201). Results: Low parental education was associated with lower…

  2. Link Prediction in Weighted Networks: A Weighted Mutual Information Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Boyao; Xia, Yongxiang

    2016-01-01

    The link-prediction problem is an open issue in data mining and knowledge discovery, which attracts researchers from disparate scientific communities. A wealth of methods have been proposed to deal with this problem. Among these approaches, most are applied in unweighted networks, with only a few taking the weights of links into consideration. In this paper, we present a weighted model for undirected and weighted networks based on the mutual information of local network structures, where link weights are applied to further enhance the distinguishable extent of candidate links. Empirical experiments are conducted on four weighted networks, and results show that the proposed method can provide more accurate predictions than not only traditional unweighted indices but also typical weighted indices. Furthermore, some in-depth discussions on the effects of weak ties in link prediction as well as the potential to predict link weights are also given. This work may shed light on the design of algorithms for link prediction in weighted networks. PMID:26849659

  3. Link Prediction in Weighted Networks: A Weighted Mutual Information Model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Boyao; Xia, Yongxiang

    2016-01-01

    The link-prediction problem is an open issue in data mining and knowledge discovery, which attracts researchers from disparate scientific communities. A wealth of methods have been proposed to deal with this problem. Among these approaches, most are applied in unweighted networks, with only a few taking the weights of links into consideration. In this paper, we present a weighted model for undirected and weighted networks based on the mutual information of local network structures, where link weights are applied to further enhance the distinguishable extent of candidate links. Empirical experiments are conducted on four weighted networks, and results show that the proposed method can provide more accurate predictions than not only traditional unweighted indices but also typical weighted indices. Furthermore, some in-depth discussions on the effects of weak ties in link prediction as well as the potential to predict link weights are also given. This work may shed light on the design of algorithms for link prediction in weighted networks.

  4. The Healthy Weight Collaborative: quality improvement methods promoting healthy weight.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Marianne E; Vanderkruik, Rachel; Reims, Kathy; Coulouris, Natasha; Anand, Shikha; Linde-Feucht, Sarah; Homer, Charles J

    2012-08-01

    Promoting healthy weight requires innovative approaches and a concerted response across all sectors of society. This commentary features the framework guiding the Healthy Weight Collaborative, a two-phased quality improvement (QI) learning collaborative and key activity of the Collaborate for Healthy Weight initiative. Multi-sector teams from primary care, public health, and community-based organizations use QI to identify, test, and implement program and policy changes in their communities related to promoting healthy weight. We describe the Collaborative's overall design based on the Action Model to Achieve Healthy People 2020 Goals and our approach of applying QI methods to advance implementation of sustainable ways to promote healthy weight and healthy equity. We provide specifics on measurement and change strategies as well as examples of Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles from teams participating in Phase 1 of the Collaborative. These teams will serve as leaders for sustainable, positive change in their communities.

  5. Maternal misconceptions of weight status among Nepean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shrewsbury, Vanessa A; Garnett, Sarah P; Campbell, Karen; Carver, Alison; Torvaldsen, Siranda; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Cowell, Chris T; Baur, Louise A

    2012-12-01

    Adolescence is characterized by rapid physical growth and sexual maturation. These changes may alter parents' beliefs about their adolescent's weight status. This study aimed to examine the changes between early and mid-adolescence in: (a) the accuracy of maternal perception regarding her adolescent's weight status, (b) the degree of maternal concern about her adolescent's weight status, and (c) the predictors of maternal misclassification of adolescent overweight as average weight. A secondary analysis of the longitudinal Nepean Study data was conducted. Participants were Australian, free-living 13-year-olds in 2002-2003 (n=347) followed up at age 15 years (n=279) and their mothers. Participants' body mass index (BMI) status (overweight, normal, or underweight) was calculated from measured height and weight. Maternal perceptions and concerns about adolescent's weight status were determined by items adapted from the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Sex-adjusted binary logistic regression models assessed potential predictors of maternal misclassification of adolescent overweight. Data were available on 224 adolescent-mother dyads. Approximately one fourth of mothers misclassified their adolescent's weight status, but this varied across groups (age 13 years [%]; age 15 years [%], respectively) underweight (75%; 70%), overweight (54%; 59%), and normal weight (12%; 9%). The endpoint data show that between 13 and 15 years of age, maternal concern regarding their adolescent's weight decreased in all weight-status groups. Predictors of maternal misclassification of adolescent overweight were adolescent BMI z score, recent weight-management practices, weight history, sex, and maternal concern regarding her adolescent's weight. These results reinforce the need for strategies in primary care that are implemented throughout adolescence to improve maternal awareness of childhood overweight.

  6. Nutrition, Weight Control, and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Frank I.; McArdle, William D.

    This book contains information on nutrition, weight control, and exercise. Some basic information from the biological sciences is included but a specialized background is not necessary to understand the text. The content is appropriate for nutrition, weight control, exercise, and physical fitness courses at the university level, for the various…

  7. Bone, body weight, and weight reduction: what are the concerns?

    PubMed

    Shapses, Sue A; Riedt, Claudia S

    2006-06-01

    Of the U.S. population, 65% is either overweight or obese, and weight loss is recommended to reduce co-morbid conditions. However, bone mobilization and loss may also occur with weight loss. The risk for bone loss depends on initial body weight, age, gender, physical activity, and conditions of dieting such as the extent of energy restriction and specific levels of nutrient intake. Older populations are more prone to bone loss with weight loss; in women, this is due at least in part to a reduced dietary Ca intake and/or efficiency of absorption. Potential hormonal mechanisms regulating bone loss during weight loss are discussed, including decreases in estrogen, leptin, glucagon-like peptide-2, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1, or an increase in cortisol. In contrast, the rise in adiponectin and ghrelin with weight reduction should not be detrimental to bone. Combining energy restriction with exercise does not necessarily prevent bone loss, but may attenuate loss as was shown with additional Ca intake or osteoporosis medications. Future controlled weight loss trials should be designed to further address mechanisms influencing the density and quality of bone sites vulnerable to fracture, in the prevention of osteoporosis. PMID:16702302

  8. Pharmacological Approaches in the Treatment and Maintenance of Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Van Gaal, Luc; Dirinck, Eveline

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is a growing global health concern, associated with a number of important comorbid conditions. It increases the risk of diabetes and contributes to development of cardiovascular disease. While the benefits of weight loss are well established, weight reduction remains a difficult-to-reach goal in overweight and obese individuals due to several metabolic and psychological factors. For many patients, lifestyle intervention is insufficient to achieve long-term weight loss, and additional options, such as pharmacotherapy, need to be considered. Besides the challenging enterprise of weight reduction, weight maintenance remains an even more crucial and outcome-determining aspect of weight management. This article focuses on the potential of currently available pharmacological strategies to support weight loss and maintenance goals in individuals at risk. Two pharmacotherapy types are considered: those developed primarily to induce weight loss and those developed primarily for blood glucose control that have a favorable effect on body weight. Finally, the potential of very low- and low-calorie diets combined with pharmacotherapy and pharmacological combination therapies are discussed, as well as emerging approaches in development. PMID:27440841

  9. Fungible weights in logistic regression.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeff A; Waller, Niels G

    2016-06-01

    In this article we develop methods for assessing parameter sensitivity in logistic regression models. To set the stage for this work, we first review Waller's (2008) equations for computing fungible weights in linear regression. Next, we describe 2 methods for computing fungible weights in logistic regression. To demonstrate the utility of these methods, we compute fungible logistic regression weights using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (2010) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey, and we illustrate how these alternate weights can be used to evaluate parameter sensitivity. To make our work accessible to the research community, we provide R code (R Core Team, 2015) that will generate both kinds of fungible logistic regression weights. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  11. How can obese weight controllers minimize weight gain during the high risk holiday season? By self-monitoring very consistently.

    PubMed

    Boutelle, K N; Kirschenbaum, D S; Baker, R C; Mitchell, M E

    1999-07-01

    This study examined the efficacy of augmenting standard weekly cognitive-behavioral treatment for obesity with a self-monitoring intervention during the high risk holiday season. Fifty-seven participants in a long-term cognitive-behavioral treatment program were randomly assigned to self-monitoring intervention or comparison groups. During 2 holiday weeks (Christmas-New Years), the intervention group's treatment was supplemented with additional phone calls and daily mailings, all focused on self-monitoring. As hypothesized, the intervention group self-monitored more consistently and managed their weight better than the comparison group during the holidays. However, both groups struggled with weight management throughout the holidays. These findings support the critical role of self-monitoring in weight control and demonstrate the benefits of a low-cost intervention for assisting weight controllers during the holidays.

  12. 41 CFR 302-7.302 - What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment? 302-7.302 Section 302-7.302 Public Contracts and Property Management...) Baggage Allowance § 302-7.302 What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment? The maximum...

  13. 41 CFR 302-7.302 - What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment? 302-7.302 Section 302-7.302 Public Contracts and Property Management...) Baggage Allowance § 302-7.302 What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment? The maximum...

  14. Selecting a Weight-Loss Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight Tip Choose weight-loss programs that encourage healthy behaviors that help you lose weight gradually and maintain your weight over time. Looking for easy-to-use information for eating healthy on the go? The Maintaining a Healthy ...

  15. Rapid Weight Loss in Sports with Weight Classes.

    PubMed

    Khodaee, Morteza; Olewinski, Lucianne; Shadgan, Babak; Kiningham, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Weight-sensitive sports are popular among elite and nonelite athletes. Rapid weight loss (RWL) practice has been an essential part of many of these sports for many decades. Due to the limited epidemiological studies on the prevalence of RWL, its true prevalence is unknown. It is estimated that more than half of athletes in weight-class sports have practiced RWL during the competitive periods. As RWL can have significant physical, physiological, and psychological negative effects on athletes, its practice has been discouraged for many years. It seems that appropriate rule changes have had the biggest impact on the practice of RWL in sports like wrestling. An individualized and well-planned gradual and safe weight loss program under the supervision of a team of coaching staff, athletic trainers, sports nutritionists, and sports physicians is recommended. PMID:26561763

  16. Rapid Weight Loss in Sports with Weight Classes.

    PubMed

    Khodaee, Morteza; Olewinski, Lucianne; Shadgan, Babak; Kiningham, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Weight-sensitive sports are popular among elite and nonelite athletes. Rapid weight loss (RWL) practice has been an essential part of many of these sports for many decades. Due to the limited epidemiological studies on the prevalence of RWL, its true prevalence is unknown. It is estimated that more than half of athletes in weight-class sports have practiced RWL during the competitive periods. As RWL can have significant physical, physiological, and psychological negative effects on athletes, its practice has been discouraged for many years. It seems that appropriate rule changes have had the biggest impact on the practice of RWL in sports like wrestling. An individualized and well-planned gradual and safe weight loss program under the supervision of a team of coaching staff, athletic trainers, sports nutritionists, and sports physicians is recommended.

  17. Comparison of weight loss by weight classification in a commercial, community-based weight loss program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of our study was to determine the impact of grade of obesity on weight-loss outcomes of a community-based, intensive behavioral counseling program (Weight Watchers Points-Plus). Previous studies have shown that individuals with a higher body mass index (BMI) at the beginning of treatme...

  18. Weighted constraints in generative linguistics.

    PubMed

    Pater, Joe

    2009-08-01

    Harmonic Grammar (HG) and Optimality Theory (OT) are closely related formal frameworks for the study of language. In both, the structure of a given language is determined by the relative strengths of a set of constraints. They differ in how these strengths are represented: as numerical weights (HG) or as ranks (OT). Weighted constraints have advantages for the construction of accounts of language learning and other cognitive processes, partly because they allow for the adaptation of connectionist and statistical models. HG has been little studied in generative linguistics, however, largely due to influential claims that weighted constraints make incorrect predictions about the typology of natural languages, predictions that are not shared by the more popular OT. This paper makes the case that HG is in fact a promising framework for typological research, and reviews and extends the existing arguments for weighted over ranked constraints.

  19. Eating Well and Losing Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & Resources Sodium & High Blood Pressure Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 All About Heart Rate (Pulse) ...

  20. Apparatus for molecular weight separation

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Liu, Chuanliang

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to an apparatus and method for separating high molecular weight molecules from low molecular weight molecules. More specifically, the invention relates to the use of microdialysis for removal of the salt (low molecular weight molecules) from a nucleotide sample (high molecular weight molecules) for ESI-MS analysis. The dialysis or separation performance of the present invention is improved by (1) increasing dialysis temperature thereby increasing desalting efficiency and improving spectrum quality; (2) adding piperidine and imidazole to the dialysis buffer solution and reducing charge states and further increasing detection sensitivity for DNA; (3) using low concentrations (0-2.5 mM NH4OAc) of dialysis buffer and shifting the DNA negative ions to higher charge states, producing a nearly 10-fold increase in detection sensitivity and a slightly decreased desalting efficiency, (4) conducting a two-stage separation or (5) any combination of (1), (2), (3) and (4).