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Sample records for intake feeding behaviour

  1. Feeding Behaviour, Swimming Activity and Boldness Explain Variation in Feed Intake and Growth of Sole (Solea solea) Reared in Captivity

    PubMed Central

    Mas-Muñoz, Julia; Komen, Hans; Schneider, Oliver; Visch, Sander W.; Schrama, Johan W.

    2011-01-01

    The major economic constraint for culturing sole (Solea solea) is its slow and variable growth. The objective was to study the relationship between feed intake/efficiency, growth, and (non-) feeding behaviour of sole. Sixteen juveniles with an average (SD) growth of 2.7 (1.9) g/kg0.8/d were selected on their growth during a 4-week period in which they were housed communally with 84 other fish. Selected fish were housed individually during a second 4-week period to measure individual feed intake, growth, and behaviour. Fish were hand-fed three times a day during the dark phase of the day until apparent satiation. During six different days, behaviour was recorded twice daily during 3 minutes by direct observations. Total swimming activity, frequency of burying and of escapes were recorded. At the beginning and end of the growth period, two sequential behavioural tests were performed: “Novel Environment” and “Light Avoidance”. Fish housed individually still exhibited pronounced variation in feed intake (CV = 23%), growth (CV = 25%) and behavior (CV = 100%). Differences in feed intake account for 79% of the observed individual differences in growth of sole. Fish with higher variation in feed intake between days and between meals within days had significantly a lower total feed intake (r = −0.65 and r = −0.77) and growth. Active fish showed significantly higher feed intake (r = 0.66) and growth (r = 0.58). Boldness during both challenge tests was related to fast growth: (1) fish which reacted with a lower latency time to swim in a novel environment had significantly higher feed intake (r = −0.55) and growth (r = −0.66); (2) fish escaping during the light avoidance test tended to show higher feed intake (P<0.1) and had higher growth (P<0.05). In conclusion, feeding consistency, swimming activity in the tank, and boldness during behavioral tests are related to feed intake and growth of sole in captivity. PMID:21738651

  2. Mealtime Energy Intake and Feeding Behaviour in Children Who Fail to Thrive: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Wright, Charlotte M.; Drewett, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The essential link between energy needs and energy intake is feeding behaviour, yet few studies have directly observed feeding behaviour in children who have failed to thrive. A cohort of 961 term infants was screened to identify children with first year weight gain below the 5th centile in order to examine their feeding behaviour and…

  3. Ghrelin stimulates milk intake by affecting adult type feeding behaviour in postnatal rats.

    PubMed

    Piao, H; Hosoda, H; Kangawa, K; Murata, T; Narita, K; Higuchi, T

    2008-03-01

    The influence of ghrelin on feeding behaviour during infancy is unknown. To determine whether ghrelin influences milk intake in rat pups, newborn rats received a single i.p. injection of either rat ghrelin (100 microg/kg) or rabbit anti-ghrelin immunoglobulin G (100 microg/kg) every 5 days from postpartum day 5 to day 30 (P5-P30). Milk intake was then assessed by body weight gain following a 2-h suckling period. Ghrelin significantly increased weight gain relative to vehicle-injected controls in P20, P25 and P30 pups, but not in younger animals. Similarly, after 8 h of milk restriction, anti-ghrelin injections significantly decreased weight gain in P25 and P30, but not in younger pups. Interestingly, however, ghrelin did increase independent feeding in P10 and P15 pups using a paradigm in which pups consumed milk from a milk-soaked paper towel. We therefore conclude that ghrelin stimulates milk intake at an early postnatal stage, primarily by affecting adult-type feeding behaviour. PMID:18194428

  4. Feed intake limitation strategies for the growing rabbit: effect on feeding behaviour, welfare, performance, digestive physiology and health: a review.

    PubMed

    Gidenne, T; Combes, S; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2012-09-01

    This review aims to present the different effects produced by a post-weaning intake limitation strategy on the growing rabbit, now largely used by French professional rabbit breeders. Although a quantitative feed restriction leads to slower growth, feed conversion (FC) is improved, particularly when the rabbits are again fed freely, as compensatory growth occurs. This better FC or the healthy rabbit is because of better digestion resulting from slower passage through the intestine, whereas the digestive physiology is slightly modified (morphometry of the intestinal mucosa, fermentation pattern, microbiota). Meat quality and carcass characteristics are not greatly affected by feed restriction, except for a lower dressing-out percentage. One of the main advantages of limiting post-weaning intake of the rabbit is to reduce the mortality and morbidity rate due to digestive disorders (particularly epizootic rabbit enteropathy syndrome). The consequences for animal welfare are debatable, as feed restriction probably leads to hunger, but it reduces the incidence of digestive troubles after weaning. However, the growing rabbit adapts very well to an intake limitation strategy, without any aggressive behaviour for congener. In conclusion, restriction strategies could improve profitability of rabbit breeding, but they should be adapted to any specific breeding situation, according to the national market, feed prices, etc. PMID:23031513

  5. Dietary forage concentration and particle size affect sorting, feeding behaviour, intake and growth of Chinese Holstein male calves.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, A U R; Xia, C Q; Cao, B H

    2016-04-01

    The objective of study was to evaluate the effect of forage concentration (F:C) and forage particle length (FPL) on sorting, feeding behaviour, intake, growth and body measurements of growing calves. Twenty-eight weaned calves of body weight 156.79 ± 33.44 (mean ± SD) were used in 2 × 2 factorial arrangements with the factors FPL of hay grass (full and short) and hay grass concentrations (low, 50% and high, 65%). The treatments were as follows: full length (FL) with low F:C (50:50), FL with high F:C(65:35), short length (SL) with low F:C (50:50) and SL with high F:C (65:35). Increasing F:C and decreasing FPL enhanced sorting for short and fine particle and sorting against long particle (p < 0.05). Dry matter intake (DMI) was decreased by decreasing the FPL (p < 0.05). Increasing F:C (65:35) increased the DMI (p < 0.05). A positive interaction between FPL and F:C was found for (daily weight gain) DWG, weight gain (WG) and feed conversation ratio (FCR) (p < 0.05). In case of feeding behaviour, interaction for eating time and eating time per kilogram DM was present. Increasing the F:C increased the eating time in both FL and SL (p < 0.05). Chopping of hay had decreased the chewing time (p < 0.05). Increasing F:C increased chewing time per kilogram DMI. High F:C decreased the lying time (p < 0.05) in FL and SL treatments (p < 0.05). Increasing F:C reduced the overall abnormal behaviour (p < 0.05). These results suggested that animals performed better at higher F:C at SL diet. Intensity of sorting for short and fine particle and against long particle increased at higher F:C and SL diets. Eating time and eating time per kilogram DMI increased by increasing F:C level in both FL and SL treatments. Chewing time increased by increasing the FPL, while increasing the F:C enhanced the chewing time per kilogram DMI and reduced animal's abnormal behaviour.

  6. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets.

    PubMed

    Clouard, Caroline; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p < 0.10). Several behavioural effects of the postnatal HFS diet depended on the prenatal diet, with piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the

  7. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Gerrits, Walter J. J.; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p < 0.10). Several behavioural effects of the postnatal HFS diet depended on the prenatal diet, with piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the

  8. Foraging behaviour, nutrient intake from pasture and performance of free-range growing pigs in relation to feed CP level in two organic cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, M; Kongsted, A G; Hermansen, J E

    2015-12-01

    In organic pig production one of the major challenges is to be able to fulfil amino acid requirements based on organic and locally grown protein feed crops. The pig is an opportunistic omnivore with a unique capacity for foraging above and below the soil surface. It is hypothesized that direct foraging in the range area can pose an important contribution in terms of fulfilling nutrient requirements of growing pigs. Foraging activity, lucerne nutrient intake and pig performance were investigated in 36 growing pigs, foraging on lucerne or grass and fed either a standard organic pelleted feed mixture (HP: high protein) or a grain mixture containing 48% less CP (LP: low protein) compared with the high protein feed mixture, from an average live weight of 58 kg to 90 kg in a complete block design in three replicates. The pigs were fed 80% of energy recommendations and had access to 4 m2 of pasture/pig per day during the 40 days experimental period from September to October 2013. Behavioural observations were carried out 12 times over the entire experimental period. For both crops, LP pigs rooted significantly more compared with HP pigs but the effect of CP level was more pronounced in grass (44% v. 19% of all observations) compared with lucerne (28% v. 16% of all observations). Feed protein level turned out not to have any significant effect on grazing behaviour but pigs foraging on lucerne grazed significantly more than pigs foraging on grass (10% v. 4% of all observations). Daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly affected by feed protein and forage crop interactions. Compared to HP pigs, LP treated pigs had 33% lower daily weight gain (589 v. 878 g) and 31% poorer feed conversion ratio (3.75 v. 2.59 kg feed/kg weight gain) in grass paddocks, whereas in lucerne paddocks LP pigs only had 18% lower daily weight gain (741 v. 900 g) and a 14% poorer feed conversion ratio (2.95 v. 2.54 kg feed/kg weight gain) compared with HP pigs. LP pigs foraging on

  9. Divergent selection for residual feed intake in group-housed growing pigs: characteristics of physical and behavioural activity according to line and sex.

    PubMed

    Meunier-Salaün, M C; Guérin, C; Billon, Y; Sellier, P; Noblet, J; Gilbert, H

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the impact of selection for residual feed intake (RFI) on the behavioural activity of lines divergently selected for RFI during seven generations. In all, six successive batches from the seventh generation of selection were raised in collective pens equipped with a single-place electronic feeder (SEF) from 10 weeks of age to 100 kg BW. Each batch included four groups of 12 pigs: high RFI (RFI+) castrated males, RFI+ females, low RFI (RFI-) castrated males, RFI- females. At 17 weeks of age, health criteria were evaluated using a gradient scale for increased severity of lameness, body lesions, bursae and tail biting. Individual behavioural activities were recorded by 24-h video tape on the day after health evaluation. The investigative motivation towards unfamiliar objects was quantified at 18 weeks of age. The daily individual feeding patterns were computed from SEF records during the 4 weeks surrounding 12, 17 and 22 weeks of age. All pigs spent significantly most of their time lying in diurnal (80% of total scan) and nocturnal (>89%) periods. The RFI- pigs showed a lower proportion of health problems (P<0.01) than RFI+ pigs. The RFI- pigs used the SEF less than the RFI+ pigs, in diurnal (5.3% v. 6.4% of video scans, P<0.05) and nocturnal periods (3.6% v. 4.5% of video scans, P<0.05). This was confirmed by a significantly lower daily number and duration of visits to the SEF computed from the SEF data. The feeding activity measured from the video recording was significantly correlated (R>0.34; P<0.05) with feeding patterns computed from the SEF. The RFI- pigs spent less time standing over the 24-h period (9.7% v. 12.2% of scans, i.e. 35 min/day, P<0.05). In terms of energy costs, this amounted to 14% of the line difference in terms of daily metabolizable energy intake. The castrated males used the SEF more than females, especially at night (4.7% v. 3.4% of total scans, P<0.05), whereas females displayed greater investigation of

  10. Suitability of feeding and chewing time for estimation of feed intake in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pahl, C; Hartung, E; Grothmann, A; Mahlkow-Nerge, K; Haeussermann, A

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring of feeding and rumination behaviour can provide useful information for dairy herd management. The feeding behaviour of dairy cows can be recorded by different techniques, such as video cameras, weighing troughs or chewing sensors. Among feeding characteristics, individual feed intake of cows is of utmost interest, but as weighing troughs have high space and cost requirements they are used primarily in research studies. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether records on feeding time or chewing activity or a combination of both contain enough information to estimate feed intake with sufficient accuracy. Feed intake and feeding time per cow were recorded by means of weighing troughs. Concurrently, chewing activity of seven cows was recorded by MSR-ART pressure sensors during five to eight measuring days per cow. Feeding and chewing behaviour were evaluated in time slots (1 min) and additionally assigned to feeding bouts for further analysis. The 1 min time slots were classified into feeding/no feeding or chewing/no chewing by the two systems, and agreement was found in 92.2% of the records. On average, cows spent 270±39 min/day at the feeding troughs and chewed 262±48 min/day. The average fresh matter intake (FMI) was 49.6±5.1 kg/day. Feed intake was divided into 9.7 bouts/day during which cows fed in average 27.8±21.7 min/bout and chewed 27.0±23.1 min/bout. The correlation between FMI and feeding time was r=0.891 and between FMI and chewing time r=0.780 overall cows. Hence, both systems delivered suitable information for estimating feed intake.

  11. Serotonin depresses feeding behaviour in ants.

    PubMed

    Falibene, Agustina; Rössler, Wolfgang; Josens, Roxana

    2012-01-01

    Feeding behaviour is a complex functional system that relies on external signals and the physiological state of the animal. This is also the case in ants as they vary their feeding behaviour according to food characteristics, environmental conditions and - as they are social insects - to the colony's requirements. The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) was shown to be involved in the control and modulation of many actions and processes related to feeding in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, we investigated whether 5-HT affects nectar feeding in ants by analysing its effect on the sucking-pump activity. Furthermore, we studied 5-HT association with tissues and neuronal ganglia involved in feeding regulation. Our results show that 5-HT promotes a dose-dependent depression of sucrose feeding in Camponotus mus ants. Orally administered 5-HT diminished the intake rate by mainly decreasing the volume of solution taken per pump contraction, without modifying the sucrose acceptance threshold. Immunohistochemical studies all along the alimentary canal revealed 5-HT-like immunoreactive processes on the foregut (oesophagus, crop and proventriculus), while the midgut and hindgut lacked 5-HT innervation. Although the frontal and suboesophageal ganglia contained 5-HT immunoreactive cell bodies, serotonergic innervation in the sucking-pump muscles was absent. The results are discussed in the frame of a role of 5-HT in feeding control in ants.

  12. Hormonal control of feed intake in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Voluntary feed intake is controlled by a plethora of factors including, but not limited to, day length, social interactions, environmental conditions, oronasal sensory cues (i.e., taste, smell, texture), gastrointestinal fill, health status, metabolic status, dietary composition, drug interactions, ...

  13. Genome-wide association analysis of feed intake and residual feed intake in Nellore cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Feed intake plays an important economic role in beef cattle, and is related with feed efficiency, weight gain and carcass traits. However, the phenotypes collected for dry matter intake and feed efficiency are scarce when compared with other measures such as weight gain and carcass traits. The use of genomic information can improve the power of inference of studies on these measures, identifying genomic regions that affect these phenotypes. This work performed the genome-wide association study (GWAS) for dry matter intake (DMI) and residual feed intake (RFI) of 720 Nellore cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Results In general, no genomic region extremely associated with both phenotypic traits was observed, as expected for the variables that have their regulation controlled by many genes. Three SNPs surpassed the threshold for the Bonferroni multiple test for DMI and two SNPs for RFI. These markers are located on chromosomes 4, 8, 14 and 21 in regions near genes regulating appetite and ion transport and close to important QTL as previously reported to RFI and DMI, thus corroborating the literature that points these two processes as important in the physiological regulation of intake and feed efficiency. Conclusions This study showed the first GWAS of DMI to identify genomic regions associated with feed intake and efficiency in Nellore cattle. Some genes and QTLs previously described for DMI and RFI, in other subspecies (Bos taurus taurus), that influences these phenotypes are confirmed in this study. PMID:24517472

  14. Automated monitoring and quantitative analysis of feeding behaviour in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Itskov, Pavel M; Moreira, José-Maria; Vinnik, Ekaterina; Lopes, Gonçalo; Safarik, Steve; Dickinson, Michael H; Ribeiro, Carlos

    2014-08-04

    Food ingestion is one of the defining behaviours of all animals, but its quantification and analysis remain challenging. This is especially the case for feeding behaviour in small, genetically tractable animals such as Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we present a method based on capacitive measurements, which allows the detailed, automated and high-throughput quantification of feeding behaviour. Using this method, we were able to measure the volume ingested in single sips of an individual, and monitor the absorption of food with high temporal resolution. We demonstrate that flies ingest food by rhythmically extending their proboscis with a frequency that is not modulated by the internal state of the animal. Instead, hunger and satiety homeostatically modulate the microstructure of feeding. These results highlight similarities of food intake regulation between insects, rodents, and humans, pointing to a common strategy in how the nervous systems of different animals control food intake.

  15. Automated monitoring and quantitative analysis of feeding behaviour in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Itskov, Pavel M.; Moreira, José-Maria; Vinnik, Ekaterina; Lopes, Gonçalo; Safarik, Steve; Dickinson, Michael H.; Ribeiro, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Food ingestion is one of the defining behaviours of all animals, but its quantification and analysis remain challenging. This is especially the case for feeding behaviour in small, genetically tractable animals such as Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we present a method based on capacitive measurements, which allows the detailed, automated and high-throughput quantification of feeding behaviour. Using this method, we were able to measure the volume ingested in single sips of an individual, and monitor the absorption of food with high temporal resolution. We demonstrate that flies ingest food by rhythmically extending their proboscis with a frequency that is not modulated by the internal state of the animal. Instead, hunger and satiety homeostatically modulate the microstructure of feeding. These results highlight similarities of food intake regulation between insects, rodents, and humans, pointing to a common strategy in how the nervous systems of different animals control food intake. PMID:25087594

  16. Feeding behaviour of artificially reared Romane lambs.

    PubMed

    David, I; Bouvier, F; Ricard, E; Ruesche, J; Weisbecker, J-L

    2014-06-01

    A consequence of increasing litter size in sheep is that a portion of the lambs have to be reared artificially. Detailed information about the pattern of milk consumption of artificially reared lambs would help improve their management. The purpose of this study is to describe the individual and group feeding behaviour of 94 Romane artificially reared lambs from 5 to 28 days of age using an electronic automatic lamb feeder. Animals were located in four pens of 8 to 15 lambs of similar age with one teat per pen. They were fed ad libitum. In our experimental situation (group rearing, continuous lightning) on average a lamb made 1.4±0.7 visits to the teat per meal and 9.5±3 meals per day. Mean meal duration was 247±158 s and the mean daily time spent feeding was 38±25 min. The mean quantity of milk intake was 176±132 ml per meal and 1.68±0.8 l per day. With age, the number of daily meals and their duration decreased while the quantity of milk consumed per meal and per day increased. Females tended to make more visits to the teat per meal and perform more meals per day but their milk consumption per meal was lower. The feed conversion ratio was 1.36±0.2. Synchrony in feeding (group meal) was estimated as the percentage of lambs that wanted to access the teat within the same short period (relative group meal size). On average 65% of lambs in the pen wanted to access the teat within the same period, but for 35% of group meals the relative group meal size was >90%. There was no consistency in the order in which lambs accessed the teat during a group meal. Our evaluation suggested that electronic automatic lamb feeders are tools that can provide, on a large scale, data describing the feeding behaviour of artificially reared lambs. It is then possible to study factors influencing these traits in order to improve the outcome of artificially reared lambs. PMID:24666599

  17. Feeding behaviour of artificially reared Romane lambs.

    PubMed

    David, I; Bouvier, F; Ricard, E; Ruesche, J; Weisbecker, J-L

    2014-06-01

    A consequence of increasing litter size in sheep is that a portion of the lambs have to be reared artificially. Detailed information about the pattern of milk consumption of artificially reared lambs would help improve their management. The purpose of this study is to describe the individual and group feeding behaviour of 94 Romane artificially reared lambs from 5 to 28 days of age using an electronic automatic lamb feeder. Animals were located in four pens of 8 to 15 lambs of similar age with one teat per pen. They were fed ad libitum. In our experimental situation (group rearing, continuous lightning) on average a lamb made 1.4±0.7 visits to the teat per meal and 9.5±3 meals per day. Mean meal duration was 247±158 s and the mean daily time spent feeding was 38±25 min. The mean quantity of milk intake was 176±132 ml per meal and 1.68±0.8 l per day. With age, the number of daily meals and their duration decreased while the quantity of milk consumed per meal and per day increased. Females tended to make more visits to the teat per meal and perform more meals per day but their milk consumption per meal was lower. The feed conversion ratio was 1.36±0.2. Synchrony in feeding (group meal) was estimated as the percentage of lambs that wanted to access the teat within the same short period (relative group meal size). On average 65% of lambs in the pen wanted to access the teat within the same period, but for 35% of group meals the relative group meal size was >90%. There was no consistency in the order in which lambs accessed the teat during a group meal. Our evaluation suggested that electronic automatic lamb feeders are tools that can provide, on a large scale, data describing the feeding behaviour of artificially reared lambs. It is then possible to study factors influencing these traits in order to improve the outcome of artificially reared lambs.

  18. Altered nutrient intake by baculovirus-challenged insects: Self-medication or compensatory feeding?

    PubMed

    Shikano, Ikkei; Cory, Jenny S

    2016-09-01

    Infection by parasites can alter the feeding behaviour of hosts. Some animals seek out substances that can therapeutically clear infections (self-medication), some may seek out resources to recoup resources lost while fighting off infection (compensatory feeding) and others may be manipulated to ingest substances that benefit parasite fitness (parasite manipulation of host). Recent studies have indicated that pathogen-challenged insects can self-medicate by increasing their protein intake relative to carbohydrate, which is thought to act by boosting the insect's immune response. However, increased protein intake could also be due to compensatory feeding or pathogen manipulation of the host, and a rigorous examination of all four of the testable predictions, which is necessary for verifying self-medication behaviour, has not been conducted. The therapeutic behaviour must (1) only be employed by infected individuals and (2) alleviate the potential fitness loss of the infected individual. (3) If an uninfected individual engages in the behaviour, they suffer a decrease in fitness, and lastly, (4) the parasite cannot benefit from the behaviour. In response to baculovirus-challenge (AcMNPV) at 24°C, the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, increased proportional protein intake, by increasing protein intake rather than decreasing carbohydrate intake. Increased protein intake did not benefit virus fitness, but it also did not increase the probability of host survival. Increased proportional protein intake did not occur in response to TnSNPV-challenge at 24°C or in response to AcMNPV-challenge at a higher temperature (32°C), indicating that the virus-induced change in nutrient intake depends on virus identity and temperature. Since virus-challenged T. ni did not show the typical costs associated with infection, the altered nutrient intake is likely to be a compensatory response. Understanding the motivation behind pathogen-induced changes in feeding behaviour could have

  19. Feeding behaviour in young children who fail to thrive.

    PubMed

    Drewett, Robert F; Kasese-Hara, Mambwe; Wright, Charlotte

    2003-02-01

    One-year-old children who failed to thrive in infancy were identified through a specialist clinical service using a conditional weight gain criterion which identified the slowest gaining 5%. Control children of the same age and sex were recruited from the same local geographical area and had the same primary care physician. The food intake and feeding behaviour of the groups was compared using a detailed observational micro-analysis of a lunchtime meal, using a behavioural coding scheme developed for use over the weaning period. Both food and fluid intake at the test meal were significantly lower in the children who failed to thrive than the controls. There was no significant difference in the energy density of the foods they consumed. As recorded in the behaviour counts at the meal, the mothers of the children who failed to thrive fed them as much as or more than the control mothers fed their children. The children who failed to thrive tended to refuse or reject the offered food more, and also fed themselves significantly less often than the controls. These behavioural differences during the meal accounted for about one third of the difference in energy intake between the groups. PMID:12631505

  20. Sucking pump activity in feeding behaviour regulation in carpenter ants.

    PubMed

    Falibene, Agustina; Gontijo, Alberto de Figueiredo; Josens, Roxana

    2009-06-01

    Modulation of liquid feeding-rate would allow insects to ingest more food in the same time when this was required. Ants can vary nectar intake rate by increasing sucking pump frequency according to colony requirements. We analysed electrical signals generated by sucking pump activity of ants during drinking solutions of different sucrose concentrations and under different carbohydrate-deprivation levels. Our aim was to define parameters that characterize the recordings and analyse their relationship with feeding behaviour. Signals showed that the initial and final frequencies of sucking pump activity, as well as the difference between them were higher in sugar-deprived ants. However, these parameters were not influenced by sucrose solution concentration, which affected the number of pump contractions and the volume per contraction. Unexpectedly, we found two different responses in feeding behaviour of starved and non-starved ants depending on concentration. Starved ants drank dilute solutions for the same length of time as non-starved ants but ingested higher volumes. While drinking the concentrated solutions, starved ants drank the same volume, but did so in a shorter time than the non-starved ones. Despite these differences, for each analysed concentration the total number of pump contractions remained constant independently of sugar-deprivation level. These results are discussed in the frame of feeding regulation and decision making in ant foraging behaviour. PMID:19217950

  1. Sucking pump activity in feeding behaviour regulation in carpenter ants.

    PubMed

    Falibene, Agustina; Gontijo, Alberto de Figueiredo; Josens, Roxana

    2009-06-01

    Modulation of liquid feeding-rate would allow insects to ingest more food in the same time when this was required. Ants can vary nectar intake rate by increasing sucking pump frequency according to colony requirements. We analysed electrical signals generated by sucking pump activity of ants during drinking solutions of different sucrose concentrations and under different carbohydrate-deprivation levels. Our aim was to define parameters that characterize the recordings and analyse their relationship with feeding behaviour. Signals showed that the initial and final frequencies of sucking pump activity, as well as the difference between them were higher in sugar-deprived ants. However, these parameters were not influenced by sucrose solution concentration, which affected the number of pump contractions and the volume per contraction. Unexpectedly, we found two different responses in feeding behaviour of starved and non-starved ants depending on concentration. Starved ants drank dilute solutions for the same length of time as non-starved ants but ingested higher volumes. While drinking the concentrated solutions, starved ants drank the same volume, but did so in a shorter time than the non-starved ones. Despite these differences, for each analysed concentration the total number of pump contractions remained constant independently of sugar-deprivation level. These results are discussed in the frame of feeding regulation and decision making in ant foraging behaviour.

  2. Relationships between residual feed intake, average daily gain, and feeding behavior in growing dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Green, T C; Jago, J G; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C

    2013-05-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of an individual's efficiency in utilizing feed for maintenance and production during growth or lactation, and is defined as the difference between the actual and predicted feed intake of that individual. The objective of this study was to relate RFI to feeding behavior and to identify behavioral differences between animals with divergent RFI. The intakes and body weight (BW) of 1,049 growing dairy heifers (aged 5-9 mo; 195 ± 25.8 kg of BW) in 5 cohorts were measured for 42 to 49 d to ascertain individual RFI. Animals were housed in an outdoor feeding facility comprising 28 pens, each with 8 animals and 1 feeder per pen, and were fed a dried, cubed alfalfa diet. This forage diet was chosen because most dairy cows in New Zealand are grazed on ryegrass-dominant pastures, without grain or concentrates. An electronic feed monitoring system measured the intake and feeding behavior of individuals. Feeding behavior was summarized as daily intake, daily feeding duration, meal frequency, feeding rate, meal size, meal duration, and temporal feeding patterns. The RFI was moderately to strongly correlated with intake in all cohorts (r=0.54-0.74), indicating that efficient animals ate less than inefficient animals, but relationships with feeding behavior traits (meal frequency, feeding duration, and feeding rate) were weak (r=0.14-0.26), indicating that feeding behavior cannot reliably predict RFI in growing dairy heifers. Comparison of the extremes of RFI (10% most and 10% least efficient) demonstrated similar BW and average daily gain for both groups, but efficient animals ate less; had fewer, longer meals; shorter daily feeding duration; and ate more slowly than the least-efficient animals. These groups also differed in their feeding patterns over 24h, with the most efficient animals eating less and having fewer meals during daylight (0600 to 2100 h), especially during the afternoon (1200 to 1800 h), but ate for a longer time during

  3. Is feeding behaviour related to glass eel propensity to migrate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau du Colombier, Sarah; Lambert, Patrick; Bardonnet, Agnès

    2008-11-01

    Several studies have shown that eel diadromy is facultative and that migratory divergences may appear during glass eel estuarine migration. The origin of the differences in migratory behaviour among glass eels remains unclear but initial evidence supports the role of individual energetic and thyroidal status. Even if starvation is usually associated with glass eel migration, feeding does seem to occur in some glass eels. The aim of the present study was to investigate feeding behaviour and glass eel growth in relation to the propensity to migrate. Feeding rate and weight gain were higher in fish having a high propensity to migrate (M + fish) than in fish having a low propensity to migrate (M - fish) in fed glass eels, whereas no clear difference in the variation in body weight was observed among unfed fish (controls). M - fish initially had lower percent dry weight than M + fish, which suggests a link between appetite, propensity to migrate, and energy content. We discuss the role played by endocrine signals on these processes. In fish, thyroid hormones contribute to the control of growth and development. In addition, they play a role in flatfish and leptocephalus metamorphosis and appear to be involved in smolt and glass eel migratory behaviour. As such, they represent a good candidate which would promote the propensity to migrate as well as digestive system development. Their role in the hormonal control of food intake however remains vague. The large and sharp decline in glass eel abundances observed since the 1980s could partly be explained by changes in ocean productivity. If so, it could be accompanied by a decrease in glass eel energy stores. The ability to resume feeding in the course of the estuarine crossing would then represent a serious advantage to maintain energy levels compatible with migration.

  4. Lying behaviour and IgG-levels of newborn calves after feeding colostrum via tube and nipple bottle feeding.

    PubMed

    Bonk, Stephanie; Nadalin, Audrey; Heuwieser, Wolfgang; Veira, Douglas

    2016-08-01

    Oesophageal tube feeding colostrum is used to ensure sufficient colostrum intake in newborn calves but the impact of tube feeding on animal behaviour is unclear. Therefore the objective of this study was to compare lying behaviour of tube-fed or bottle-fed dairy calves. Calves (n = 37) in 3 groups were offered 3·5 l colostrum 2 h after birth. Calves of the bottle group were fed with a nipple bottle. Calves of the placebo tubing group were tubed for 4 min but no colostrum was given and they were then fed with a nipple bottle. Calves of the tubing group received 3·5 l colostrum via tube feeding. Consumed amount of bottle and placebo tubing calves was recorded. If they refused some of the offered 3·5 l the rest was offered in a second feeding 2 h later. Lying behaviour was measured by data loggers fitted to right hind leg for 3 d. Blood samples were taken 24 h after birth for determination of IgG concentration. The voluntary colostrum intake differed significantly between bottle-fed and placebo tubed calves at first feeding. Considering both colostrum feedings, bottle-fed calves consumed 3·44 ± 0·14 l and placebo tubed calves consumed 3·20 ± 0·38 l colostrum. ImmunoglobulinG intake (255·6 ± 77·5 g IgG), serum IgG concentration 24 h after birth (22·8 ± 6·7 g/l) and total serum protein concentration (6·1 ± 0·6 g/dl) did not differ between groups. None of the calves had a failure of passive transfer. There was no effect of tubing on lying behaviour. PMID:27600963

  5. Fluid intake rates in ants correlate with their feeding habits.

    PubMed

    Paul, J; Roces, F

    2003-04-01

    This study investigates the techniques of nectar feeding in 11 different ant species, and quantitatively compares fluid intake rates over a wide range of nectar concentrations in four species that largely differ in their feeding habits. Ants were observed to employ two different techniques for liquid food intake, in which the glossa works either as a passive duct-like structure (sucking), or as an up- and downwards moving shovel (licking). The technique employed for collecting fluids at ad libitum food sources was observed to be species-specific and to correlate with the presence or absence of a well-developed crop in the species under scrutiny. Workers of ponerine ants licked fluid food during foraging and transported it as a droplet between their mandibles, whereas workers of species belonging to phylogenetically more advanced subfamilies, with a crop capable of storing liquids, sucked the fluid food, such as formicine ants of the genus Camponotus. In order to evaluate the performance of fluid collection during foraging, intake rates for sucrose solutions of different concentrations were measured in four ant species that differ in their foraging ecology. Scaling functions between fluid intake rates and ant size were first established for the polymorphic species, so as to compare ants of different size across species. Results showed that fluid intake rate depended, as expected and previously reported in the literature, on sugar concentration and the associated fluid viscosity. It also depended on both the species-specific feeding technique and the extent of specialization on foraging on liquid food. For similarly-sized ants, workers of two nectar-feeding ant species, Camponotus rufipes (Formicinae) and Pachycondyla villosa (Ponerinae), collected fluids with the highest intake rates, while workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens (Myrmicinae) and a predatory ant from the Rhytidoponera impressa-complex (Ponerinae) did so with the lowest rate. Calculating the

  6. Relationship between feeding behavior and residual feed intake in growing Brangus heifers.

    PubMed

    Bingham, G M; Friend, T H; Lancaster, P A; Carstens, G E

    2009-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency defined as the difference between actual feed intake and expected feed intake required for maintenance and production. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between RFI, feeding behavior, and other performance traits in growing heifers. Individual DMI was measured in Brangus heifers (n = 115) fed a roughage-based diet (ME = 2.0 Mcal/kg) for 70 d using Calan-gate feeders. Residual feed intake was computed as the residuals from linear regression of DMI on mid-test BW(0.75) and ADG. Heifers with the greatest (least efficient, n = 18) and least (most efficient, n = 18) RFI were identified for quantification of feeding behavior traits. Continuous video recordings were obtained for all heifers during d 28 through d 56 of the 70-d feeding trial. Video data of 2 replications of four 24-h periods, 2 wk apart, were analyzed for the focal heifers. A head-down feeding event was defined as a heifer positioned in the feeder with her head lowered. A meal included all head-down feeding events that were separated by less than 300 s. The mean RFI for the high- and low-RFI heifers were 1.00 and -1.03 +/- 0.03 kg/d, respectively. High-RFI heifers consumed 21.9% more (P < 0.0001) DM but had similar BW and ADG compared with low-RFI heifers. The high-RFI heifers spent less time in head-down feeding events per day (P < 0.0001; 124 vs. 152 +/- 4.3 min/d), consumed DM at a faster rate (99.6 vs. 62.8 +/- 3.3 g/min), and ate more often per day (119.1 vs. 90.5 +/- 3.9 head-down feeding events/d) compared with the low-RFI heifers; however, meal duration and frequency were not related to RFI. We conclude that feeding behavior related to head-down feeding events may be more useful as an indicator of RFI than the number of meal events. PMID:19395511

  7. Review: Quantifying animal feeding behaviour with a focus on pigs.

    PubMed

    Maselyne, Jarissa; Saeys, Wouter; Van Nuffel, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    The study of animal feeding behaviour is of interest to understand feeding, to investigate the effect of treatments and conditions or to predict illness. This paper reviews the different steps to undertake when studying animal feeding behaviour, with illustrations for group-housed pigs. First, one must be aware of the mechanisms that control feeding and the various influences that can change feeding behaviour. Satiety is shown to largely influence free feeding (ad libitum and without an operant condition) in animals, but 'free' feeding seems a very fragile process, given the many factors that can influence feeding behaviour. Second, a measurement method must be chosen that is compatible with the goal of the research. Several measurement methods exist, which lead to different experimental set-ups and measurement data. Sensors are available for lab conditions, for research on group-housed pigs and also for on-farm use. Most of these methods result in a record of feeding visits. However, these feeding visits are often found to be clustered into meals. Thus, the third step is to choose which unit of feeding behaviour to use for analysis. Depending on the situation, either meals, feeding visits, other raw data, or a combination thereof can be suitable. Meals are more appropriate for analysing short-term feeding behaviour, but this may not be true for disease detection. Further research is therefore needed. To cluster visits into meals, an appropriate analysis method has to be selected. The last part of this paper provides a review and discussion of the existing methods for meal determination. A variety of methods exist, with the most recent methods based on the influence of satiety on feeding. More thorough validation of the recent methods, including validation from a behavioural point of view and uniformity in the applied methods is therefore necessary.

  8. The effects of 5-HT on feeding behaviour in mianserin- or cyproheptadine-pretreated rats.

    PubMed

    Mancilla-Díaz, J M; Escartín-Pérez, R E; López-Alonso, V E

    2003-12-01

    We examined the effects of 5-HT on the feeding behaviour patterns of rats pretreated with mianserin (5-HT(1B/2A/1D receptor antagonist) or cyproheptadine (a 5-HT(2c) receptor antagonist), injected into the pariventricular hypothalamus nucleus (PVN). The animals were kept at 21 +/- 1 degrees C with a 12 h light and 12 h dark cycle on a self-selected feeding paradigm, and provided with freely available and separate sources of proteins, carbohydrates, fats and water. The results indicate that the suppressive effect of 5-HT on carbohydrate intake can be blocked by mianserin and cyproheptadine even at the onset of the natural (dark) feeding period; however, this is a distinct blockade in the paradigm of feeding behavior. All of the meal patterns of fat intake and rest remained unaffected.

  9. Maternal feeding self-efficacy and fruit and vegetable intakes in infants. Results from the SAIDI study.

    PubMed

    Koh, Gloria A; Scott, Jane A; Woodman, Richard J; Kim, Susan W; Daniels, Lynne A; Magarey, Anthea M

    2014-10-01

    Adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) is a characteristic of a healthy diet but remains a challenge in nutrition interventions. This cross-sectional study explored the multi-directional relationships between maternal feeding self-efficacy, parenting confidence, child feeding behaviour, exposure to new food and FV intake in a cohort of 277 infants. Mothers with healthy infants weighing ≥2500 g and ≥37 weeks gestation were recruited post-natally from 11 South Australian hospitals. Socio-demographic data were collected at recruitment. At 6 months postnatal, infants were weighed and measured, and mothers completed a questionnaire exploring their perceptions of child feeding behaviour and child exposure to new foods. The questionnaire also included the Short Temperament Scale for Infants, Kessler 10 to measure maternal psychological distress and 5 items measuring maternal feeding self-efficacy. The number of occasions and variety of FV (number of subgroups within food groups) consumed by infants were estimated from a 24-hour dietary recall and 2 days food record. Structural equation modelling was performed using Mplus version 6.11. Median (IQR) variety scores were 2 (1-3) for fruit and 3 (2-5) for vegetable intake. The most popular FV consumed were apple (n = 108, 45.0%) and pumpkin (n = 143, 56.3%). None of the variables studied predicted the variety of child fruit intake. Parenting confidence, exposure to new foods and child feeding behaviour were indirectly related to child vegetable intake through maternal feeding self-efficacy while total number of children negatively predicted child vegetable variety (p < 0.05). This highlights the need for addressing antecedents of maternal feeding self-efficacy and the family eating environment as key strategies towards development of healthy eating in children.

  10. Technical note: Validation of a system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and individual feed intake in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Chizzotti, M L; Machado, F S; Valente, E E L; Pereira, L G R; Campos, M M; Tomich, T R; Coelho, S G; Ribas, M N

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to validate an electronic system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and feed intake (Intergado Ltd., Contagem, Minas Gerais, Brazil) in freestall-housed dairy cattle. No data have been published that validate either the behavioral measurement or the feed intake of this system. Feeding behavior data were recorded for 12 Holstein cows over 5d using an Intergado system and time-lapse video. The cows were fitted with an ear tag containing a unique passive transponder and provided free access to 12 feed bins. The system documented the visit duration and feed intake by recording the animal identification number, bin number, initial and final times, and the difference between feed weight at start and end of each feed bin visit. These data were exported to Intergado web software and reports were generated. Electronic data on animal behavior were compared with video data collected during the same evaluation period. An external scale was used to manually measure and validate the electronic system's ability to monitor dairy cow feed intake for each feed bin visit. The feed intake was manually measured for 4-h time periods and compared with the sum of the feed intake recorded by the monitoring system for each cow visit during the same time period. Video and manual weight data were regressed on the electronic feeding behavior and feeding intake data to evaluate the precision of the monitoring system. The Intergado system presented high values for specificity (99.9%) and sensitivity (99.6%) for cow detection. The visit duration and feed intake per visit collected using the electronic monitoring system were similar to the video and manual weighing data, respectively. The difference between the feed intake measured manually and the sum of the electronically recorded feed intake was less than 250g (25,635±2,428 and 25,391±2,428g estimated using manual weighing and the electronic system, respectively). In conclusion, the Intergado system is

  11. Technical note: Validation of a system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and individual feed intake in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Chizzotti, M L; Machado, F S; Valente, E E L; Pereira, L G R; Campos, M M; Tomich, T R; Coelho, S G; Ribas, M N

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to validate an electronic system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and feed intake (Intergado Ltd., Contagem, Minas Gerais, Brazil) in freestall-housed dairy cattle. No data have been published that validate either the behavioral measurement or the feed intake of this system. Feeding behavior data were recorded for 12 Holstein cows over 5d using an Intergado system and time-lapse video. The cows were fitted with an ear tag containing a unique passive transponder and provided free access to 12 feed bins. The system documented the visit duration and feed intake by recording the animal identification number, bin number, initial and final times, and the difference between feed weight at start and end of each feed bin visit. These data were exported to Intergado web software and reports were generated. Electronic data on animal behavior were compared with video data collected during the same evaluation period. An external scale was used to manually measure and validate the electronic system's ability to monitor dairy cow feed intake for each feed bin visit. The feed intake was manually measured for 4-h time periods and compared with the sum of the feed intake recorded by the monitoring system for each cow visit during the same time period. Video and manual weight data were regressed on the electronic feeding behavior and feeding intake data to evaluate the precision of the monitoring system. The Intergado system presented high values for specificity (99.9%) and sensitivity (99.6%) for cow detection. The visit duration and feed intake per visit collected using the electronic monitoring system were similar to the video and manual weighing data, respectively. The difference between the feed intake measured manually and the sum of the electronically recorded feed intake was less than 250g (25,635±2,428 and 25,391±2,428g estimated using manual weighing and the electronic system, respectively). In conclusion, the Intergado system is

  12. Residual feed intake: a nutritional tool for genetic improvement.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Sarmento, José Lindenberg Rocha; Neto, Severino Gonzaga; de Paula, Ney Rômulo Oliveira; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; do Rêgo, Wagner Martins Fontes

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this bibliographical study was to provide information about residual feed intake (RFI), a new criterion used in the selection of beef cattle for growth rate, food ingestion, and feed efficiency. RFI is calculated as the difference between real consumption and the quantity of food an animal is expected to eat based on its mean live weight and rate of weight gain. In studies of RFI, many speculations are made among researchers about the reliability of this criterion. However, there is a high genetic correlation with characteristics related to post-weaning consumption and maturity, indicating that the biological processes that regulate consumption and efficiency in young animals are similar to the processes that regulate consumption and efficiency in animals of greater age. In contrast to feed conversion, selection based on RFI seems to select for lower rates of consumption and lower animal maintenance requirements without changing adult weight or weight gain. Therefore, we conclude that the data indicate that there are extraordinary benefits to be gained from changing the goals of selection from increased weight gain to improved nutritional efficiency. Given the importance of animal production for economic development in Brazil choosing the best selection goals for livestock improvement is essential. To include an index of feed efficiency in future goals would be desirable, and RFI may play a part in this if economic methods of implementation can be developed.

  13. Parental feeding behaviours and motivations. A qualitative study in mothers of UK pre-schoolers.

    PubMed

    Carnell, S; Cooke, L; Cheng, R; Robbins, A; Wardle, J

    2011-12-01

    Parental feeding behaviours are considered major influences on children's eating behaviour. However, many questionnaire studies of feeding neglect subtle distinctions between specific feeding strategies and practices in favour of eliciting general feeding goals, and do not take account of the context provided by parents' motivations. These factors may be critical to understanding child outcomes and engaging parents in child obesity prevention. The present study obtained interview and diary data on specific feeding behaviours and underlying motivations from 22 mothers of predominantly healthy weight 3-5 y olds in the UK. Parents described a wide range of efforts to promote or restrict intake that were largely motivated by practical and health considerations and only rarely by concern about weight. There was also evidence for instrumental feeding, rules surrounding meal-time, child involvement, and parental flexibility in relation to feeding. Almost all parents described responding to children's appetitive traits, consistent with growing evidence for genetically influenced individual differences in children's appetite. These findings suggest that in order to engage parents of currently healthy weight children, obesity prevention advice should aim to satisfy their primary motivations (practicality, health), and be framed as helping parents to respond sensitively and appropriately to different children's characteristics. PMID:21884741

  14. Parental feeding behaviours and motivations. A qualitative study in mothers of UK pre-schoolers.

    PubMed

    Carnell, S; Cooke, L; Cheng, R; Robbins, A; Wardle, J

    2011-12-01

    Parental feeding behaviours are considered major influences on children's eating behaviour. However, many questionnaire studies of feeding neglect subtle distinctions between specific feeding strategies and practices in favour of eliciting general feeding goals, and do not take account of the context provided by parents' motivations. These factors may be critical to understanding child outcomes and engaging parents in child obesity prevention. The present study obtained interview and diary data on specific feeding behaviours and underlying motivations from 22 mothers of predominantly healthy weight 3-5 y olds in the UK. Parents described a wide range of efforts to promote or restrict intake that were largely motivated by practical and health considerations and only rarely by concern about weight. There was also evidence for instrumental feeding, rules surrounding meal-time, child involvement, and parental flexibility in relation to feeding. Almost all parents described responding to children's appetitive traits, consistent with growing evidence for genetically influenced individual differences in children's appetite. These findings suggest that in order to engage parents of currently healthy weight children, obesity prevention advice should aim to satisfy their primary motivations (practicality, health), and be framed as helping parents to respond sensitively and appropriately to different children's characteristics.

  15. Effect of diet energy level and genomic residual feed intake on dairy heifer performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency of dairy heifers with different genomically predicted residual feed intakes (RFI), and offered diets differing in energy density. Post-bred Holstein heifers (N=128; ages 14-20 months) were blocked by initial we...

  16. Residual feed intake as a feed efficiency selection tool and its relationship with feed intake, performance and nutrient utilization in Murrah buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Subhashchandra Bose, Bisitha Kattiparambil; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Tho, Nguyen Thi Be; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Sontakke, Umesh Balaji

    2014-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its body weight and growth rate over a specific period. The objective of this study was to determine the RFI of buffalo calves using residuals from appropriate linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body weight. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves of 5-7 months were selected and fed individually. A feeding trial using ad libitum feeding of total mixed ration (TMR, concentrate/roughage = 40:60) was conducted for 52 days in which the daily DMI, weekly body weight (BW) and growth rate of the calves were monitored. RFI of calves ranged from -0.20 to +0.23 kg/day. Mean DMI (in grams per kilogram of BW(0.75)) during the feeding trial period was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (79.66 g/kg BW(0.75)) compared to high RFI (87.74 g/kg BW(0.75)). Average initial BW, final BW and mid-test BW(0.75) did not differ (P > 0.05) between low and high RFI groups. Over the course of a trial period, low RFI group animals consumed 10% less feed compared to high RFI group of animals, yet performed in a comparable manner in terms of growth rate. Metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (13.54 MJ/100 kg BW) as compared to that of high RFI group (15.56 MJ/100 kg BW). The present study indicates that RFI is a promising selection tool for the selection of buffaloes for increased feed efficiency. PMID:24563229

  17. Fine mapping quantitative trait loci for feed intake and feed efficiency in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Sherman, E L; Nkrumah, J D; Li, C; Bartusiak, R; Murdoch, B; Moore, S S

    2009-01-01

    Feed intake and feed efficiency are economically important traits in beef cattle because feed is the greatest variable cost in production. Feed efficiency can be measured as feed conversion ratio (FCR, intake per unit gain) or residual feed intake (RFI, measured as DMI corrected for BW and growth rate, and sometimes a measure of body composition, usually carcass fatness, RFI(bf)). The goal of this study was to fine map QTL for these traits in beef cattle using 2,194 markers on 24 autosomes. The animals used were from 20 half-sib families originating from Angus, Charolais, and University of Alberta Hybrid bulls. A mixed model with random sire and fixed QTL effect nested within sire was used to test each location (cM) along the chromosomes. Threshold levels were determined at the chromosome and genome levels using 20,000 permutations. In total, 4 QTL exceeded the genome-wise threshold of P < 0.001, 3 exceeded at P < 0.01, 17 at P < 0.05, and 30 achieved significance at the chromosome-wise threshold level (at least P < 0.05). No QTL were detected on BTA 8, 16, and 27 above the 5% chromosome-wise significance threshold for any of the traits. Nineteen chromosomes contained RFI QTL significant at the chromosome-wise level. The RFI(bf) QTL results were generally similar to those of RFI, the positions being similar, but occasionally differing in the level of significance. Compared with RFI, fewer QTL were detected for both FCR and DMI, 12 and 4 QTL, respectively, at the genome-wise thresholds. Some chromosomes contained FCR QTL, but not RFI QTL, but all DMI QTL were on chromosomes where RFI QTL were detected. The most significant QTL for RFI was located on BTA 3 at 82 cM (P = 7.60 x 10(-5)), for FCR on BTA 24 at 59 cM (P = 0.0002), and for DMI on BTA 7 at 54 cM (P = 1.38 x 10(-5)). The RFI QTL that showed the most consistent results with previous RFI QTL mapping studies were on BTA 1, 7, 18, and 19. The identification of these QTL provides a starting point to identify

  18. Prenatal drug exposure and maternal and infant feeding behaviour

    PubMed Central

    LaGasse, L; Messinger, D; Lester, B; Seifer, R; Tronick, E; Bauer, C; Shankaran, S; Bada, H; Wright, L; Smeriglio, V; Finnegan, L; Maza, P; Liu, J

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate feeding difficulties and maternal behaviour during a feeding session with 1 month old infants prenatally exposed to cocaine and/or opiates. Methods: The study is part of the maternal lifestyle study, which recruited 11 811 subjects at four urban hospitals, then followed 1388 from 1 to 36 months of age. Exposure to cocaine and opiates was determined by maternal interview and meconium assay. At the 1 month clinic visit, biological mothers were videotaped while bottle feeding their infants. This sample included 364 exposed to cocaine, 45 exposed to opiates, 31 exposed to both drugs, and 588 matched comparison infants. Mothers were mostly black, high school educated, and on public assistance. Videotapes were coded without knowledge of exposure status for frequency, duration and quality of infant sucking, arousal, feeding problems, and maternal feeding activity and interaction. Results: No cocaine effects were found on infant feeding measures, but cocaine-using mothers were less flexible (6.29 v 6.50), less engaged (5.77 v 6.22), and had shorter feeding sessions (638 v 683 seconds). Opiate exposed infants showed prolonged sucking bursts (29 v 20 seconds), fewer pauses (1.6 v 2.2 per minute), more feeding problems (0.55 v 0.38), and increased arousal (2.59 v 2.39). Their mothers showed increased activity (30 v 22), independent of their infants' feeding problems. Conclusions: Previous concerns about feeding behaviour in cocaine exposed infants may reflect the quality of the feeding interaction rather than infant feeding problems related to prenatal exposure. However, opiate exposed infants and their mothers both contributed to increased arousal and heightened feeding behaviour. PMID:12937043

  19. Social and health behavioural determinants of maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Isabel; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Durão, Catarina; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Parental child-feeding attitudes and practices may compromise the development of healthy eating habits and adequate weight status in children. This study aimed to identify maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children and to evaluate their association with maternal social and health behavioural characteristics. Trained interviewers evaluated 4724 dyads of mothers and their 4-5-year-old child from the Generation XXI cohort. Maternal child-feeding attitudes and practices were assessed through the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Overt/Covert Control scale. Associations were estimated using linear regression [adjusted for maternal education, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake and child's BMI z-score]. Principal component analysis defined a three-factor structure explaining 58% of the total variance of maternal child-feeding patterns: perceived monitoring - representing mothers with higher levels of monitoring, perceived responsibility and overt control; restriction - characterizing mothers with higher covert control, restriction and concerns about child's weight; pressure to eat - identifying mothers with higher levels of pressure to eat and overt control. Lower socioeconomic status, better health perception, higher F&V intake and offspring cohabitation were associated with more 'perceived monitoring' mothers. Higher maternal F&V intake and depression were associated with more 'restrictive' mothers. Younger mothers, less educated, with poorer health perception and offspring cohabiting, were associated with higher use of 'pressure to eat'. Maternal socioeconomic indicators and family environment were more associated with perceived monitoring and pressure to eat, whereas maternal health behavioural characteristics were mainly associated with restriction. These findings will be helpful in future research and public health programmes on child-feeding patterns.

  20. Feed intake of gilts following intracerebroventicular injection of the novel hypothalamic RFamide (RFa) neuropeptide, 26RFa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RFamide (RFa) peptides have been implicated in a broad spectrum of biological processes including energy expenditure and feed intake. 26RFa is a recently discovered hypothalamic neuropeptide that altered the release of pituitary hormones and stimulated feed intake via a NPY-specific mechanism in rat...

  1. Emotionality Modulates the Effect of Chronic Stress on Feeding Behaviour in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Favreau-Peigné, Angélique; Calandreau, Ludovic; Constantin, Paul; Gaultier, Bernard; Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Cécile; Laurence, Agathe; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Houdelier, Cécilia; Lumineau, Sophie; Boissy, Alain; Leterrier, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress is a long-lasting negative emotional state that induces negative consequences on animals’ psycho-physiological state. This study aimed at assessing whether unpredictable and repeated negative stimuli (URNS) influence feeding behaviour in quail. Sixty-four quail were exposed to URNS from day 17 to 40, while 64 quail were undisturbed. Two lines divergently selected on their inherent emotionality were used to assess the effect of genetic factors on the sensitivity to URNS. All quail were submitted to a sequential feeding procedure (using two diets of different energetic values) which placed them in a contrasting situation. Behavioural tests were performed to assess the emotional reactivity of the two lines. Results confirmed that differences exist between them and that their emotional reactivity was enhanced by URNS. Diet preferences, motivation and daily intake were also measured. URNS did not change the preferences for the hypercaloric diet compared to the hypocaloric diet in choice tests, but they reduced daily intakes in both lines. Motivations for each diet were differently affected by URNS: they decreased the motivation to eat the hypercaloric diet in quail selected for their low inherent fearfulness whereas they increased the motivation to eat the hypocaloric diet in quail selected for their high inherent fearfulness, which suggested a devaluation process in the former and a compensatory behaviour in the later. Growth was furthermore reduced and laying delayed by URNS in both lines. In conclusion, the exposure to URNS induced interesting changes in feeding behaviour added with an increase in emotional reactivity and an alteration of production parameters. This confirms that both lines of quail experienced a chronic stress state. However differences in feed motivation and emotional reactivity between lines under chronic stress suggested that they experienced different emotional state and use different ways to cope with it depending on their

  2. Impact of cow size on dry matter intake, residual feed intake, metabolic response, and cow performance.

    PubMed

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Gentry, G T; Gentry, L R

    2015-02-01

    Thirty-eight Angus-cross beef cows were used to evaluate differences in DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers on the basis of cow size and RFI ranking during 2 stages of production. Cows housed in individual pens (2.2 × 9.1 m) were fed, over a 70-d feeding period, 30% Bermuda grass hay and 70% ryegrass baleage diet during lactation (LACT) and a 100% ryegrass hay diet during postweaning (NOLACT). Individual daily feed intake, BW, and BCS were recorded, and hip height was used to determine frame score (FS). Feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each cow, and cow was the experimental unit. Blood samples were obtained on d 0 and 70 and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, leptin, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4). Cows were assigned to a light (LIT) or heavy (HEV) BW groups on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of the LACT period. On the basis of RFI values for each feeding period, cows were placed into a negative (NEG; RFI < 0.00) or positive (POS; RFI > 0.00) RFI group and into a low (LOW; ≤0.2 SD mean RFI), medium (MED; within ±0.19 SD), or high (HI; ≥0.2 SD mean RFI) RFI group. During LACT, DMI was 4.8% greater (P = 0.03) and FS was greater (P < 0.01; 6.4 and 5.5 ± 0.16) for the HEV compared with LIT BW cows. No RFI by day interaction or RFI group main effect occurred for endocrine markers during LACT; however, a negative relationship (P = 0.04) existed between BW group and combined T3 data, and a positive relationship (P = 0.04) existed between RFI and combined insulin data. For both LACT and NOLACT, RFI was similar (P > 0.05) among BW groups; however, DMI was 6.5% and 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for POS compared with NEG RFI in the LACT and NOLACT periods. In LACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for HI and MED RFI compared with LOW RFI, and in NOLACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for the HI compared with MED and LOW RFI cows and MED compared with LOW RFI cows. During NOLACT, DMI was 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for the HEV (12.4 ± 0.22 kg

  3. Impact of cow size on dry matter intake, residual feed intake, metabolic response, and cow performance.

    PubMed

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Gentry, G T; Gentry, L R

    2015-02-01

    Thirty-eight Angus-cross beef cows were used to evaluate differences in DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers on the basis of cow size and RFI ranking during 2 stages of production. Cows housed in individual pens (2.2 × 9.1 m) were fed, over a 70-d feeding period, 30% Bermuda grass hay and 70% ryegrass baleage diet during lactation (LACT) and a 100% ryegrass hay diet during postweaning (NOLACT). Individual daily feed intake, BW, and BCS were recorded, and hip height was used to determine frame score (FS). Feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each cow, and cow was the experimental unit. Blood samples were obtained on d 0 and 70 and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, leptin, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4). Cows were assigned to a light (LIT) or heavy (HEV) BW groups on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of the LACT period. On the basis of RFI values for each feeding period, cows were placed into a negative (NEG; RFI < 0.00) or positive (POS; RFI > 0.00) RFI group and into a low (LOW; ≤0.2 SD mean RFI), medium (MED; within ±0.19 SD), or high (HI; ≥0.2 SD mean RFI) RFI group. During LACT, DMI was 4.8% greater (P = 0.03) and FS was greater (P < 0.01; 6.4 and 5.5 ± 0.16) for the HEV compared with LIT BW cows. No RFI by day interaction or RFI group main effect occurred for endocrine markers during LACT; however, a negative relationship (P = 0.04) existed between BW group and combined T3 data, and a positive relationship (P = 0.04) existed between RFI and combined insulin data. For both LACT and NOLACT, RFI was similar (P > 0.05) among BW groups; however, DMI was 6.5% and 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for POS compared with NEG RFI in the LACT and NOLACT periods. In LACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for HI and MED RFI compared with LOW RFI, and in NOLACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for the HI compared with MED and LOW RFI cows and MED compared with LOW RFI cows. During NOLACT, DMI was 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for the HEV (12.4 ± 0.22 kg

  4. Characterization of feed intake patterns during lactation in commercial swine herds.

    PubMed

    Koketsu, Y; Dial, G D; Pettigrew, J E; Marsh, W E; King, V L

    1996-06-01

    This study created and used a data-base containing 25,719 farrowing and 19,393 subsequent litter records abstracted from the PigCHAMP records of 30 commercial farms and daily feed intake records of 25,040 of these lactating sows. Each lactation feed record was categorized into one of six patterns: RAPID, rapid increase in feed intake following farrowing; MAJOR, major drop in feed intake during lactation; MINOR, minor drop; LLL, low feed intake throughout lactation; LHH, low feed intake during the first week then increasing for the remainder of lactation; and GRADUAL, gradual increase in feed intake throughout lactation. At the herd level, patterns RAPID, MAJOR, MINOR, LLL, LHH, and GRADUAL were observed in 22.8%, 32.9%, 27.8%, 1.0%, 8%, and 14.7% of sows, respectively. On a sow basis, across all feed intake records of all farms, patterns RAPID, MAJOR, MINOR, LLL, LHH, and GRADUAL were observed at frequencies of 17.8%, 38.3%, 25.8%, 1.2%, 1.5%, and 15.4%, respectively. Using logistic regression, the risk factors affecting the occurrence of MAJOR and MINOR patterns were lower parity, thicker backfat, higher room temperature, and greater feed intake during early lactation. Average daily feed intake and the day of peak intake were 5.2 (1.4 SD) kg/sow and 12.6 (4.6 SD) d after farrowing. Regression coefficients of factors affecting ADFI derived from multiple regression analyses were 247 g for parity, 9 g for weaning litter weight (kg), -13 g for room temperature (degree C), 62 g for lactation length (d), and -.4 g for energy density (kcal/kg). This study demonstrated substantial individual sow and farm variation in overall feed intake and pattern of feed intake during lactation. It also identified key risk factors (i.e., parity, lactation length, room temperature, weaning litter weights, energy density) for ADFI and pattern of feed intake on commercial farms.

  5. Intermittent Feeding Schedules—Behavioural Consequences and Potential Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Michelle; Mercer, Julian G.

    2014-01-01

    Food availability and associated sensory cues such as olfaction are known to trigger a range of hormonal and behavioural responses. When food availability is predictable these physiological and behavioural responses can become entrained to set times and occur in anticipation of food rather than being dependent on the food-related cues. Here we summarise the range of physiological and behavioural responses to food when the time of its availability is unpredictable, and consider the potential to manipulate feeding patterns for benefit in metabolic and mental health. PMID:24599157

  6. Managing young children's snack food intake. The role of parenting style and feeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Boots, Samantha B; Tiggemann, Marika; Corsini, Nadia; Mattiske, Julie

    2015-09-01

    One major contributor to the problem of childhood overweight and obesity is the over-consumption of foods high in fat, salt and sugar, such as snack foods. The current study aimed to examine young children's snack intake and the influence of feeding strategies used by parents in the context of general parenting style. Participants were 611 mothers of children aged 2-7 years who completed an online questionnaire containing measures of general parenting domains and two particular feeding strategies, restriction and covert control. It was found that greater unhealthy snack intake was associated with higher restriction and lower covert control, while greater healthy snack intake was associated with lower restriction and higher covert control. Further, the feeding strategies mediated the association between parental demandingness and responsiveness and child snack intake. These findings provide evidence for the differential impact of controlling and positive parental feeding strategies on young children's snack intake in the context of general parenting.

  7. Feeding programs promoting daily feed intake stability in rabbit males reduce sperm abnormalities and improve fertility.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J J; Marco-Jiménez, F; Martínez-Paredes, E; Ródenas, L; Fabre, C; Juvero, M A; Cano, J L

    2016-08-01

    Feeding programs promoting daily feed intake (DFI) stability in rabbit males could be useful to ensure successful coverage of their nutritional requirements and for continued production of quality semen. To evaluate two feeding systems designed to reduce DFI variability, 115 rabbit males at age 1.2 years were randomly assigned to three different treatments for 294 days: CS, animals fed ad libitum with a control diet (127-g starch and 281-g total soluble fiber [hemicellulose + soluble fiber] kg(-1) dry matter); SF, males fed ad libitum with diet enriched in soluble fiber (86-g starch and 330-g total soluble fiber kg(-1) dry matter); and R, animals fed with CS diet but daily restricted to maintenance requirements. Feed intake, body weight, body condition, and variability of DFI were controlled every 42 days, and individual semen volume and sperm motility, concentration, acrosome status, and abnormalities every 15 days. In six commercial farms, the number of females inseminated, pregnant and kindling, as well as the number of kits born alive, was registered for 15,893 inseminations with pooled semen from each treatment. DFI was significantly lower for R males than for the other treatments (on average, -12 ± 4 g/day; P < 0.001). Daily weight gain of R males was close to zero and significantly lower than in the other groups (-1.42 g/day; P < 0.001). Variability of DFI was significantly (P < 0.01) lower for R males (7%) than for males of dietary treatments CS (13%), with SF males showing intermediate values (11%). Semen from R males presented lower sperm abnormalities (-5.9%; P < 0.05) and higher percentages of normal and motile spermatozoa (-3.4% than SF males; P < 0.05). Dietary treatments formulated to reduce DFI variability (SF and R) led to an improvement of kindling to pregnant and kindling to insemination ratio (+0.039 and + 0.060 ± 0.015, respectively; P < 0.05) compared with CS treatment. In conclusion, a moderate restriction of rabbit

  8. Associations among parental feeding styles and children's food intake in families with limited incomes

    PubMed Central

    Hoerr, Sharon L; Hughes, Sheryl O; Fisher, Jennifer O; Nicklas, Theresa A; Liu, Yan; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2009-01-01

    Background Although general parenting styles and restrictive parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, few studies have examined the association between feeding styles and proximal outcomes such as children's food intake, especially in multi-ethnic families with limited incomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of parental feeding styles and young children's evening food intake in a multiethnic sample of families in Head Start. Methods Participants were 715 Head Start children and their parents from Texas and Alabama representing three ethnic groups: African-American (43%), Hispanic (29%), and White (28%). The Caregivers Feeding Styles Questionnaire (Hughes) was used to characterize authoritative, authoritarian (referent), indulgent or uninvolved feeding styles. Food intake in several food groups was calculated from 3 days of dietary recalls for the child for evening food intakes from 3 PM until bedtime. Results Compared to children of authoritarian parents, intakes of fruits, juice and vegetables were lowest among children of indulgent or uninvolved parents (1.77 ± 0.09 vs 1.45 ± 0.09 and 1.42 ± 0.11 cups) as were intakes of dairy foods (0.84 ± 0.05 vs 0.67 ± 0.05 and 0.63+0.06 cups), respectively. Conclusion Findings suggest that permissive parent feeding styles like indulgent or uninvolved relate negatively to children's intake of nutrient-rich foods fruit, 100% fruit juice, vegetables and dairy foods from 3 PM until bedtime. PMID:19678947

  9. Nocturnal Light Pulses Lower Carbon Dioxide Production Rate without Affecting Feed Intake in Geese.

    PubMed

    Huang, De-Jia; Yang, Shyi-Kuen

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nocturnal light pulses (NLPs) on the feed intake and metabolic rate in geese. Fourteen adult Chinese geese were penned individually, and randomly assigned to either the C (control) or NLP group. The C group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod (12 h light and 12 h darkness per day), whereas the NLP group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod inserted by 15-min lighting at 2-h intervals in the scotophase. The weight of the feed was automatically recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 wk. The fasting carbon dioxide production rate (CO2 PR) was recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 d. The results revealed that neither the daily feed intake nor the feed intakes during both the daytime and nighttime were affected by photoperiodic regimen, and the feed intake during the daytime did not differ from that during the nighttime. The photoperiodic treatment did not affect the time distribution of feed intake. However, NLPs lowered (p<0.05) the mean and minimal CO2 PR during both the daytime and nighttime. Both the mean and minimal CO2 PR during the daytime were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those during the nighttime. We concluded that NLPs lowered metabolic rate of the geese, but did not affect the feed intake; both the mean and minimal CO2 PR were higher during the daytime than during the nighttime. PMID:26950871

  10. Exploring breeding opportunities for reduced thermal sensitivity of feed intake in the lactating sow.

    PubMed

    Bergsma, R; Hermesch, S

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were, first, to evaluate the effects of climatic variables on daily feed intake of lactating sows and, second, to establish whether the response of sows to variation in temperature on feed intake during lactation was heritable. A total of 82,614 records for daily feed intake during lactation were available for 848 sows with 3,369 litters farrowing from January 2000 to December 2007. Climatic parameters available from the nearest weather station were maximum 24 h outside temperature, day length changes, and humidity. Although ambient room temperature was modified at the animal level in the farrowing shed, these climatic variables still had a significant effect on feed intake during lactation. Regression coefficients temperature and humidity were 0.01385 ± 0.00300 (temperature) - 0.00031 ± 0.00009 (temperature(2)) and 0.01443 ± 0.00620 (humidity) - 0.00009 ± 0.00004 (humidity(2)). There was an interaction between temperature and humidity, partly due to the climate control in the farrowing shed. At low temperature, feed intake increased considerably with greater humidity, in contrast to a small reduction in feed intake with greater humidity at high temperature. Day length change was modeled with a cosine function. At the start of autumn (September 21), sows ate 0.36 ± 0.056 kg/d less feed than at the start of spring (March 21). Daily feed intake during lactation was described as a function of days in lactation and as a function of both days in lactation and temperature using random regression models. The average heritability and repeatability summarized over the day in lactation at the mean temperature were 0.21 and 0.69, respectively. Genetic variance of temperature response on feed intake was less than 20% of the day effect. The permanent environmental variance was 2-fold (day) and 4-fold (temperature) greater than the corresponding additive genetic variance. Heritabilities of daily feed intake were greater during the first week of

  11. Effect of intermittent chronic exposure to hypoxia on feeding behaviour of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. B.; Selvamurthy, W.

    1993-12-01

    Healthy albino male rats were exposed to a simulated high altitude (HA) equivalent to 25000 ft (7620 m) for 6 h daily, continuously for 21 days to study the feeding behaviour. The 24-h food and water intake and body weight once in 3 days were recorded. Blood samples were drawn once a week from the retro-orbital venous plexus for blood sugar analysis. All the parameters were recorded before, during and after exposure to simulated HA. The results show a decrease in 24-h food and water intake and decreased gain in body weight during hypoxic exposure, which showed a tendency to come back to control during the post-exposure period. The blood sugar reflected a state of mild hyperglycaemia during exposure to HA.

  12. The choice behaviour of pigs in a Y maze: effects of deprivation of feed, social contact and bedding.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, Paul H; Smith, Kenneth; Karlen, Marcus G; Arnold, Naomi A; Moeller, Steven J; Barnett, John L

    2011-06-01

    We examined effects of deprivation of feed, social contact and bedding on the choice behaviour in Y maze tests. Eighty pigs were used to study two main effects: feed (estimated voluntary feed intake (VFI) vs. 70% VFI) and bedding (presence vs. absence), experiment 1; social contact (full vs. restricted) and bedding (presence vs. absence), experiment 2; and feed (as in experiment 1) and social contact (as in experiment 2), experiment 3. Overall pigs consistently chose feed and social contact over bedding. While social contact was more preferred than feed in experiment 3, there was substantial variation between pigs in their choice behaviour. The overall choice behaviour in experiment 3 contradicts previous research, but differences such as the preference methodology as well as the level of deprivation, level of reward and cost involved in accessing reward, may be responsible. Average daily weight gain (ADG) was affected in experiment 3: both feed and social restriction reduced ADG. While the feed effect is expected, one interpretation of the social effect is that social deprivation, through stress, may have reduced ADG. These results provide limited support for the notion that deprivation of a highly preferred resource may disrupt biological function.

  13. Behavioural changes in laboratory mice during cannabis feeding and withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Cutler, M G; Mackintosh, J H; Chance, M R

    1975-10-31

    The effects of feeding cannabis at a level of 0.4% in the diet has been studied by an ethological analysis of encounters between male mice. Administration of cannabis to dominant males resulted in a reduction of non-social activity and an increase in flight and in social and sexual investigation when compared with untreated controls, but the behaviour of subordinate males was not significantly altered by cannabis. One week after withdrawal of cannabis, the behaviour of diminant males showed a rebound effect with increase in aggression. Nevertheless, by a preference feeding test it was demonstrated that the treated mice were not dependent on the cannabis-containing diet but consumed the control diet in preference.

  14. Expression of candidate genes for residual feed intake in Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Al-Husseini, W; Gondro, C; Quinn, K; Herd, R M; Gibson, J P; Chen, Y

    2014-02-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) has been adopted in Australia for the purpose of genetic improvement in feed efficiency in beef cattle. RFI is the difference between the observed feed intake of an animal and the predicted feed intake based on its size and growth rate over a test period. Gene expression of eight candidate genes (AHSG, GHR, GSTM1, INHBA, PCDH19, S100A10, SERPINI2 and SOD3), previously identified as differentially expressed between divergent lines of high- and low-RFI animals, was measured in an unselected population of 60 steers from the Angus Society Elite Progeny Test Program using quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that the levels of gene expression were significantly correlated with RFI. The genes explain around 33.2% of the phenotypic variance in RFI, and prediction equations using the expression data are reasonably accurate estimators of RFI. The association of these genes with economically important traits, such as other feed efficiency-related traits and fat, growth and carcass traits, was investigated as well. The expression of these candidate genes was significantly correlated with feed conversion ratio and daily feed intake, which are highly associated with RFI, suggesting a functional role for these genes in modulating feed utilisation. The expression of these genes did not show any association with average daily gain, eye muscle area and carcass composition.

  15. Asssociations among parental feeding styles and children's food intake in families with limited outcome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although general parenting styles and restrictive parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, few studies have examined the association between feeding styles and proximal outcomes such as children's food intake, especially in multi-ethnic families with limited inc...

  16. QTL with dominance effect affecting residual feed intake on BTA6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency and therefore an economically relevant trait. A genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting RFI in beef cattle was conducted. Approximately equally spaced microsatellite markers (n = 229) spanned the 29 bovine autosomes. Tw...

  17. A prototype national cattle evaluation for feed intake and efficiency of Angus cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent development of technologies for measuring individual feed intake has made possible the collection of data suitable for breed-wide genetic evaluation. Goals of this research were to estimate genetic parameters for components of feed efficiency and develop a prototype system for conducting a ge...

  18. Dietary self-selection by broilers at normal and high temperature changes feed intake behavior, nutrient intake, and performance.

    PubMed

    Syafwan, S; Wermink, G J D; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A

    2012-03-01

    Self-selection assumes that at high ambient temperature, birds are able to select a diet from different sources to minimize the heat load associated with the ingested nutrient metabolism. The objective was to test the hypothesis that young chickens are able to compose an adequate ration by adjusting dietary nutrient intake from 3 different diets that vary in energy and in protein contents from a cafeteria system at high temperature (HT; 31-32°C) and at normal temperature (NT; 31-21°C). Night temperature was set at 25°C at HT and at 18°C at NT and 12 h dark:12 h light. Control birds were fed a standard control diet (CP: 215 g/kg; ME: 2,895 kcal/kg) for broiler chickens. The choice-fed birds could choose between the control diet, a high-protein diet (CP: 299 g/kg; ME: 2,780 kcal/kg), and a high-energy diet (CP: 150.7 g/kg; ME: 3,241 kcal/kg). The diets had similar pellet size and color. Birds had access to each diet in a separate feeding trough from 1 to 42 d of age. Results showed that broilers spent 3.3% more time eating at NT than at HT and showed 42% more panting behavior at HT than at NT. High temperature decreased feed intake, protein intake, energy intake, and BW gain. Choice-fed birds had similar feed intake and BW gain, 14% lower protein intake, and 6.4% higher energy intake than control-fed birds. Body temperature and heterophil/lymphocyte ratio were higher at HT than at NT. Water intake was 8% higher in control-fed birds than in choice-fed birds but similar at both temperature regimens. It can be concluded that broilers can compose a diet by selecting less protein but higher energy density from different diets compared with the control. Choice-fed birds had similar feed efficiency as control-fed birds at HT, indicating similar body composition for both groups. Extra energy intake of choice-fed birds at HT was used for panting activity.

  19. Effects of supplemental feeding on intake by kid, yearling, and adult Angora goats on rangeland.

    PubMed

    Huston, J E

    1994-03-01

    Sixty female Angoras, including 20 each of kids (9 mo), pregnant yearlings (21 mo), and pregnant adults (2.5 to 4 yr), were used to determine the effects of supplemental feed and level of supplemental digestible DM (DDM) on voluntary intake on rangeland. Treatments included negative control (NC: no supplemental feed) and supplements to provide equal CP (3 g/kg of BW.75) and either 4.8, 9.8, or 19.8 g/kg of BW.75 of DDM per day. Forage intake (FI), gastrointestinal tract fill (FILL), mean particulate turnover, mean particulate whole-tract residence time, fecal output, and forage DM digestibility (FDMD) were measured in all goats using a pulse-dose marker technique when the yearling and adult goats were in late pregnancy. Forage intake increased (quadratic regression, P = .01) at the low level of feeding, but both FI and FDMD decreased in a quadratic pattern in the pregnant goats as DDM feeding level increased. Total DDM intake reached a maximum at the medium supplementation level. Stimulative, additive, and substitutive effects on forage intake were observed as feeding level increased. Yearling goats had lower FILL and intake than kids and adults (metabolic BW basis), which may explain problems associated with reproduction in young goats.

  20. Feed intake and protein skeletal muscle in growing mice treated with growth hormone: time course effects.

    PubMed

    López-Oliva, M E; Agis-Torres, A; Unzaga, M T; Muñoz-Martínez, E

    2000-03-01

    The exogenous recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) administration on gastrocnemius muscle growth performance and its contribution to body growth of male and female BALB/c mice fed a 12 % protein diet from 25 to 50 days of age, as well as the mechanism of utilization of feed intake to the lean muscle deposition were studied. Male and female weaning mice (21 days of age) were injected subcutaneously for 29 days with rhGH (74 ng x g(-1)) or saline vehicle (control). Feed intake and body weight (BW) were measured daily. At 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 days of age twenty mice were killed by cervical dislocation and the gastrocnemius muscle was isolated, weighed and the protein content was measured. The rhGH administration caused a biphasic response of BW and muscle growth as a consequence of age-specific feed intake changes. The initial feed intake fall induced the allometric proportion decreases in both muscle growth versus body growth and protein muscle versus muscle growth. That effect was due to ineffient utilization of energy and protein intake on protein muscle store. Later on, the self-controlled increase of feed intake leads to the recovery of muscle weight to control values, through nutrient partitioning toward non protein tissue showing a compensatory muscle growth. This suggests that a higher dietary protein level should be necessary for promoting the protein anabolic effect of GH during weaning.

  1. The effects of energy intake of four different feeding patterns in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Huan; Han, Yi-wen; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, En-yi; Li, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Energy intake can affect the metabolism. But it is not very clear that how and to what degree the metabolism can be changed by energy intake quantity and change. Here we applied four feeding patterns in male Sprague–Dawley rats—normal ad libitum diet (NFal), high-fat diet (HFal), caloric restriction (CR) after HFal (HFal-NFcr), and refeeding from CR to ad libitum (HFal-NFcr-NFal). Food intake and body weight, along with fat mass, insulin sensitivity, fasting plasma insulin, and glucose level were used to calculate the energy efficiency and compared the quantitative effects of energy intake. Energy intake changed little in NFal or HFal group; while it changed greatly and suddenly in HFal-NFcr or HFal-NFcr-NFal group. All the parameters we detected were different between these four feeding patterns. Excess of energy intake from high-fat diet induced adverse outcomes with low energy efficiency. CR reversed the impairment of high-fat diet with very high energy efficiency in a short period. However, dramatic response with high energy efficiency induced by recovery to feeding ad libitum after CR, which was possible harmful to health. In conclusion, energy intake quantity and change are key determinants of metabolism. Different energy intake quantity and change affect body weight, white adipose tissue weight, insulin sensitivity, etc. at different degrees and speeds because of different energy efficiency. PMID:25966980

  2. The effects of energy intake of four different feeding patterns in rats.

    PubMed

    Gong, Huan; Han, Yi-wen; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, En-yi; Li, Yi; Zhang, Tie-mei

    2016-01-01

    Energy intake can affect the metabolism. But it is not very clear that how and to what degree the metabolism can be changed by energy intake quantity and change. Here we applied four feeding patterns in male Sprague-Dawley rats--normal ad libitum diet (NFal), high-fat diet (HFal), caloric restriction (CR) after HFal (HFal-NFcr), and refeeding from CR to ad libitum (HFal-NFcr-NFal). Food intake and body weight, along with fat mass, insulin sensitivity, fasting plasma insulin, and glucose level were used to calculate the energy efficiency and compared the quantitative effects of energy intake. Energy intake changed little in NFal or HFal group; while it changed greatly and suddenly in HFal-NFcr or HFal-NFcr-NFal group. All the parameters we detected were different between these four feeding patterns. Excess of energy intake from high-fat diet induced adverse outcomes with low energy efficiency. CR reversed the impairment of high-fat diet with very high energy efficiency in a short period. However, dramatic response with high energy efficiency induced by recovery to feeding ad libitum after CR, which was possible harmful to health. In conclusion, energy intake quantity and change are key determinants of metabolism. Different energy intake quantity and change affect body weight, white adipose tissue weight, insulin sensitivity, etc. at different degrees and speeds because of different energy efficiency.

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid prohormone processing and neuropeptides stimulating feed intake of dairy cows during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, Björn; Laeger, Thomas; Husi, Holger; Mullen, William

    2015-02-01

    After parturition, feed intake of dairy cows increases within the first weeks of lactation, but the molecular mechanisms stimulating or delaying the slope of increase are poorly understood. Some of the molecules controlling feed intake are neuropeptides that are synthesized as propeptides and subsequently processed before they bind to specific receptors in feeding centers of the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid surrounds most of the feed intake regulatory centers and contains numerous neuropeptides. In the present study, we used a proteomic approach to analyze the neuropeptide concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid taken from dairy cows between day -18 and -10, and between day +10 and +20 relative to parturition. We found 13 proteins which were only present in samples taken before parturition, 13 proteins which were only present in samples taken after parturition, and 25 proteins which were commonly present, before and after parturition. Among them, differences in pro-neuropeptide Y, proenkephalin-A, neuroendocrine convertase-2, neurosecretory protein VGF, chromogranin-A, and secretogranin-1 and -3 concentrations relative to parturition highlight propeptides and prohormone processings involved in the control of feed intake and energy homeostasis. Scaffold analysis further emphasized an increased tone of endogenous opioids associated with the postparturient increase of feed intake.

  4. Effects of deoxynivalenol in naturally contaminated wheat on feed intake and health status of horses.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Anna-Katharina; Kersten, Susanne; Dänicke, Sven; Coenen, Manfred; Vervuert, Ingrid

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined the short-term effects of deoxynivalenol (DON), administered at two different concentrations via a feed preparation using naturally contaminated wheat, on feed intake, liver and kidney metabolism and immunomodulatory properties in horses. Twelve geldings were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 21 days. DON was provided via naturally contaminated wheat (14.6 ± 6.5 mg DON/kg dry matter). The daily feed intake was adjusted to 4 kg of wheat and 1.7 kg of silage per 100 kg of body weight (BW). Horses were fed one of the following diets: control wheat with 0% contaminated wheat (CON), wheat mixture containing 53 ± 2% of DON-contaminated wheat [low DON intake (LDI)] or wheat mixture containing 78 ± 4% of DON-contaminated wheat [high DON intake (HDI)]. CON, LDI and HDI corresponded to a targeted daily DON intake via the complete ration of <5, 50 and 75 μg/kg BW, respectively. None of the horses demonstrated any clinical signs commonly associated with the intake of DON such as colic or depression. HDI was associated with lower daily wheat intake on day 21. Serum DON concentrations increased with higher DON intake. The non-toxic DON metabolite, deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) was only detected on day 21 of the DON feeding period. No changes in haematological and serum parameters or serum globulins or in the ex vivo proliferation response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were observed. These results suggest that horses are less sensitive to DON exposure than other domestic species, for example, swine. Therefore, the European Commission guidance value for critical DON concentrations in swine feed (complete diet) of 0.9 mg/kg could be safely applied for rations intended for feeding adult horses as well.

  5. Feed intake and competition in ewes on ad libitum or semi-restricted feeding of grass silage and hay.

    PubMed

    Bøe, K E; Ottosen, A M; Andersen, I L

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effect of feeding level and type of roughage on feed intake, feeding behavior and competition of ewes. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with amount of roughage available (ad libitum or semi restricted) and type of roughage (grass silage or hay) as main factors. Forty-eight ewes were randomly assigned to 8 groups of 6 ewes. All groups were subjected to all 4 treatments, each treatment period lasted 7 d, and the order of treatments was rotated systematically. The ewes were video recorded for the 2 last days of each treatment period and feeding and general activity were scored every 10 min. All aggressive interactions and displacement at the feed barrier were scored continuously the first 3 h after feeding. Daily feed intake (P < 0.0001) and DMI (P < 0.0001) were both greater in the silage than in the hay treatment. Ewes in the semi-restricted treatment spent less time feeding (P < 0.0001), had a greater individual variation in feeding time (P < 0.05) and spent more time queuing for feed (standing maximum 1.5 m from the feeding barrier with the head towards the feed; P < 0.0001). Individual data showed that 5 ewes fed hay and 3 ewes fed silage reduced their time spent feeding more than 50% when the feeding level was reduced. When fed hay, the level of feeding did not affect number of aggressive interactions or displacements, but when fed silage the number of aggressive interactions (P < 0.01) and the number of displacements (P < 0.05) were much greater in the semi-restricted than in the ad libitum treatment. We conclude that even a minor restriction in the level of feeding will decrease time spent feeding and increase queuing and number of aggressive interactions when feeding space is also restricted, and that the increase in aggressive interactions is mainly for ewes fed grass silage.

  6. Effects of repeated transport on Holstein calf post-transport behavior and feed intake.

    PubMed

    Adams-Progar, A L; Friend, T H; Holub, G A; Krenek, A J; Garey, S M; Terrill, C L

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have determined that stress causes decreases in feed intake and efficiency in livestock, but the effect of repeated transport on these parameters has not been well studied. This study determined how repeated transport affected calf post-transport behavior, feed intake, ADG, and feed conversion. Thirty-six 4-mo-old Holstein steer calves were housed in groups of 6 with each group randomly assigned to either transport or control treatments. Each calf was assigned to an individual Calan gate feeder and feed intake was recorded daily. Transport calves were transported for 6 h in their groups in a 7.3 by 2.4 m gooseneck trailer divided into 3 compartments, at an average density of 0.87 m/calf, every 7 d for 5 consecutive weeks. After return to their home pens, behavior was recorded for transported calves at 5-min intervals for 1 h. Calf ADG and feed conversion were analyzed in a mixed model ANOVA, whereas feed intake was analyzed as a repeated measure in a mixed model ANOVA. Post-transport, calves followed a pattern of drinking, eating, and then lying down. The highest (82 ± 5% calves) and lowest (0 ± 5% calves) incidences of eating behavior occurred 10 and 60 min post-transport, respectively. Control calves had a higher feed intake than transported calves overall (7.29 ± 0.22 kg for control and 6.91 ± 0.21 kg for transport; = 0.01), for the feeding posttreatment (6.78 ± 0.27 kg for control and 6.01 ± 0.28 kg for transport; = 0.007), and the day after treatment (7.83 ± 0.23 kg for control and 7.08 ± 0.15 kg for transport; = 0.02). Feed intake for the feeding post-transport for transport calves significantly decreased after the second transport but increased with each successive transport ( < 0.0001). Overall, control calves had higher ADG than transported calves (1.34 ± 0.13 kg/d for control and 1.15 ± 0.12 kg/d for transport; = 0.006). No significant difference ( = 0.12) between treatments was detected for feed conversion. These results

  7. Modelling milk production from feed intake in dairy cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.L.

    1985-05-01

    Predictive models were developed for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Since Holsteins comprised eighty-five percent of the data, the predictive models developed for Holsteins were used for the development of a user-friendly computer model. Predictive models included: milk production (squared multiple correlation .73), natural log (ln) of milk production (.73), four percent fat-corrected milk (.67), ln four percent fat-corrected milk (.68), fat-free milk (.73), ln fat-free milk (.73), dry matter intake (.61), ln dry matter intake (.60), milk fat (.52), and ln milk fat (.56). The predictive models for ln milk production, ln fat-free milk and ln dry matter intake were incorporated into a computer model. The model was written in standard Fortran for use on mainframe or micro-computers. Daily milk production, fat-free milk production, and dry matter intake were predicted on a daily basis with the previous day's dry matter intake serving as an independent variable in the prediction of the daily milk and fat-free milk production. 21 refs.

  8. Feeding behaviour of adult Centropages hamatus (Copepoda, Calanoida): Functional response and selective feeding experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saage, Andrea; Vadstein, Olav; Sommer, Ulrich

    2009-06-01

    The feeding behaviour of adults of the marine calanoid copepod Centropages hamatus was studied in laboratory experiments with ciliates and phytoplankton as food sources. The ingestion rate of algal (flagellates, diatoms) and ciliate prey (oligotrichs) as a function of prey concentration could be described by a Holling type III functional response, with close to zero ingestion rates at concentrations below 5 µg C l - 1 . In general, ingestion of ciliates was higher than ingestion of algae, and maximum feeding rates by adult males reached were half the feeding rates of adult females at prey concentrations exceeding 50 µg C l - 1 . When diatoms and ciliates were offered together C. hamatus (both sexes) fed exclusively on ciliates as long as they contributed with more than 5% to the mixture. This indicates the capability of active prey selection and switching between suspension feeding and ambush predation. Therefore, the feeding behaviour of adult C. hamatus can be characterised as omnivorous with a preference for larger motile prey. This implies a trophic level above two, if there is a sufficient abundance of protozoan food available.

  9. Biological implications of longevity in dairy cows: 1. Changes in feed intake, feeding behavior, and digestion with age.

    PubMed

    Grandl, F; Luzi, S P; Furger, M; Zeitz, J O; Leiber, F; Ortmann, S; Clauss, M; Kreuzer, M; Schwarm, A

    2016-05-01

    Milk production strategies focusing on longevity and limited use of concentrate are receiving increasing attention. To evaluate such strategies, knowledge of the development with age of animal characteristics, particularly digestion, is indispensable. We therefore investigated the development of feed intake, chewing activity, and digestion in 30 lactating Brown Swiss cows (876-3,648 d old) and 12 heifers (199-778 d old). We also studied whether age effects were exhibited differently in animals selected from herds subjected for 11 yr either to a forage-only or to a forage-concentrate feeding regimen. Forages consisted of grass hay (the only feed for heifers), corn silage, and grass pellets. Measurements lasted for 8 d, where amounts and composition of feeds, feces, and milk were recorded and analyzed. Ruminal pH data and eating and rumination activity were assessed by pH sensors put into the rumen and halter-mounted noseband sensors. The mean retention time of feed particles was assessed using Cr-mordanted fiber and data were used to calculate dry matter gut fill. Data were subjected to regression analyses with age and feeding regimen as explanatory variables, and body weight, milk yield, and proportion of hay in forage as covariates. This allowed separating age-related changes of body weight and milk yield from independent age effects and correcting for differences in preference for individual forages. In cows, organic matter intake increased with age (from slightly below to above 20kg/d), as did mean retention time and gut fill. Digestibility of organic matter did not show a clear age dependency, but fiber digestibility had a maximum in cows of around 4 to 6 yr of age. Ruminal pH and absolute eating and rumination times did not vary with cow age. Young and old cows chewed regurgitated boluses more intensively (60-70 times) than middle-aged cows (about 50 times). Effects of feeding regimen were small, except for fiber intake and rumination time per unit of intake

  10. Feeding and reproductive behaviour in fallow bucks (Dama dama)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonio, Marco; Vittorio, Irene

    2004-12-01

    Observations on individually marked fallow deer (Dama dama) in central Italy were performed over 2 years in order to analyse time budgets of four age and sex classes. The aim was to test whether feeding activity was influenced by mating activity, forage quality or physiological constraints during the rut. Only adult males (bucks) completely ceased feeding during the rutting season, well before the actual start of mating behaviour and concurrently with the phenomenon of scent-urination, and spending most of their daily time completely inactive. All other age and sex classes were unaffected in their feeding behaviour by the rutting season. Indeed, females and young males showed a marked increase in grazing in response to an improvement in forage quality from summer to autumn. These results seem to confirm the hypothesis that hypophagia, displayed only by bucks, may be of no adaptive value in itself. On the other hand, it may be a by-product of other physiological processes occurring during the rut, inducing scent-urination, which plays an important role in intraspecific recognition and sexual attraction.

  11. The effect of level of feed intake on the pharmacokinetic disposition of oxfendazole in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ali, D N; Hennessy, D R

    1995-01-01

    Oxfendazole (OFZ) containing a trace of [14C]-OFZ was administered intraruminally and intravenously to sheep fitted with rumen and abomasal cannulae and which were being fed 800 and 400 g of 50:50 lucerne:wheaten chaff daily. The [14C] was extensively associated with rumen particulate digesta, the shorter residence time of digesta in sheep on high compared to low feed intake reduced the duration of OFZ absorption. Abomasal fluid flow was greater in sheep on high than low intake and was attributed to increased gastric secretions. At high intake a greater proportion of the [14C] dose flowed from the abomasum in digesta fluid, but its residence time in the abomasum was of shorter duration compared with low intake. The more rapid passage of digesta through the gastrointestinal tract in the former sheep reduced the duration for drug desorption from particulate material and absorption into the bloodstream. In these high intake sheep and availability of [14C]-compounds in plasma was lower and more rapidly cleared than in sheep on low feed intake. Concomitant with the reduced absorption a greater proportion of the dose was excreted in faeces, and a lower proportion in the urine of sheep on high compared with low feed intake. The extensive association of OFZ and its metabolites with rumen digesta, is a principal determinant of OFZ kinetics.

  12. Effects of feed intake and genetics on tissue nitrogen-15 enrichment and feed conversion efficiency in sheep.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Logan, C M; Dewhurst, R J; Hodge, S; Zhou, H; Edwards, G R

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of sheep genetics and feed intake on nitrogen isotopic fractionation (ΔN) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE; live weight gain/DMI), using a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 2 levels of genetic merit for growth (high vs. low) and 2 levels of feed intake (110 vs. 170% of ME for maintenance [MEm]). No effect of genetic merit was detected for live weight gain ( = 0.64), FCE ( = 0.46), plasma urea nitrogen ( = 0.52), plasma glucose ( = 0.78), and ΔN of wool ( = 0.45), blood ( = 0.09), and plasma ( = 0.51). Sheep receiving 170% of MEm had 175% higher live weight gain ( < 0.001) and 77% higher FCE ( < 0.001) than sheep receiving 110% of MEm. There was no difference among treatments at the beginning of the study for either blood or plasma ∆N, but the treatment groups started to diverge in blood and plasma ∆N at 21 and 7 d, respectively. Blood, plasma, and wool samples were enriched in N compared with feed. There was a higher blood, plasma, and wool ∆N for the low feed intake group than the high feed intake group ( < 0.001 in all cases). Across the 4 treatment groups, higher FCE in sheep was associated with lower ∆N for plasma, blood, and wool. Overall, the results are consistent with the potential of ∆N as a rapid, low-cost biomarker of FCE in sheep, despite there being no effects of genetic treatment on FCE and ∆N.

  13. Management factors affecting mortality, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of grow-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Agostini, P S; Fahey, A G; Manzanilla, E G; O'Doherty, J V; de Blas, C; Gasa, J

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of animal management and farm facilities on total feed intake (TFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and mortality rate (MORT) of grower-finishing pigs. In total, 310 batches from 244 grower-finishing farms, consisting of 454 855 Pietrain sired pigs in six Spanish pig companies were used. Data collection consisted of a survey on management practices (season of placement, split-sex by pens, number of pig origins, water source in the farm, initial or final BW) and facilities (floor, feeder, ventilation or number of animals placed) during 2008 and 2009. Results indicated that batches of pigs placed between January and March had higher TFI (P=0.006), FCR (P=0.005) and MORT (P=0.03) than those placed between July and September. Moreover, batches of pigs placed between April and June had lower MORT (P=0.003) than those placed between January and March. Batches which had split-sex pens had lower TFI (P=0.001) and better FCR (P<0.001) than those with mixed-sex in pens; pigs fed with a single-space feeder with incorporated drinker also had the lowest TFI (P<0.001) and best FCR (P<0.001) in comparison to single and multi-space feeders without a drinker. Pigs placed in pens with <50% slatted floors presented an improvement in FCR (P<0.05) than pens with 50% or more slatted floors. Batches filled with pigs from multiple origins had higher MORT (P<0.001) than those from a single origin. Pigs housed in barns that performed manual ventilation control presented higher MORT (P<0.001) in comparison to automatic ventilation. The regression analysis also indicated that pigs which entered to grower-finisher facilities with higher initial BW had lower MORT (P<0.05) and finally pigs which were sent to slaughterhouse with a higher final BW presented higher TFI (P<0.001). The variables selected for each dependent variable explained 61.9%, 24.8% and 20.4% of the total variability for TFI, FCR and MORT, respectively. This study indicates that

  14. Prawn Shell Chitosan Exhibits Anti-Obesogenic Potential through Alterations to Appetite, Affecting Feeding Behaviour and Satiety Signals In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Egan, Áine M; O'Doherty, John V; Vigors, Stafford; Sweeney, Torres

    2016-01-01

    The crustacean shells-derived polysaccharide chitosan has received much attention for its anti-obesity potential. Dietary supplementation of chitosan has been linked with reductions in feed intake, suggesting a potential link between chitosan and appetite control. Hence the objective of this experiment was to investigate the appetite suppressing potential of prawn shell derived chitosan in a pig model. Pigs (70 ± 0.90 kg, 125 days of age, SD 2.0) were fed either T1) basal diet or T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group) for 63 days. The parameter categories which were assessed included performance, feeding behaviour, serum leptin concentrations and expression of genes influencing feeding behaviour in the small intestine, hypothalamus and adipose tissue. Pigs offered chitosan visited the feeder less times per day (P<0.001), had lower intake per visit (P<0.001), spent less time eating per day (P<0.001), had a lower eating rate (P<0.01) and had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001) compared to animals offered the basal diet. There was a treatment (P<0.05) and time effect (P<0.05) on serum leptin concentrations in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to animals offered the basal diet. Pigs receiving dietary chitosan had an up-regulation in gene expression of growth hormone receptor (P<0.05), Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (P<0.01), neuromedin B (P<0.05), neuropeptide Y receptor 5 (P<0.05) in hypothalamic nuclei and neuropeptide Y (P<0.05) in the jejunum. Animals consuming chitosan had increased leptin expression in adipose tissue compared to pigs offered the basal diet (P<0.05). In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that dietary prawn shell chitosan exhibits anti-obesogenic potential through alterations to appetite, and feeding behaviour affecting satiety signals in vivo.

  15. Prawn Shell Chitosan Exhibits Anti-Obesogenic Potential through Alterations to Appetite, Affecting Feeding Behaviour and Satiety Signals In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Áine M.; O’Doherty, John V.; Vigors, Stafford; Sweeney, Torres

    2016-01-01

    The crustacean shells-derived polysaccharide chitosan has received much attention for its anti-obesity potential. Dietary supplementation of chitosan has been linked with reductions in feed intake, suggesting a potential link between chitosan and appetite control. Hence the objective of this experiment was to investigate the appetite suppressing potential of prawn shell derived chitosan in a pig model. Pigs (70 ± 0.90 kg, 125 days of age, SD 2.0) were fed either T1) basal diet or T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group) for 63 days. The parameter categories which were assessed included performance, feeding behaviour, serum leptin concentrations and expression of genes influencing feeding behaviour in the small intestine, hypothalamus and adipose tissue. Pigs offered chitosan visited the feeder less times per day (P<0.001), had lower intake per visit (P<0.001), spent less time eating per day (P<0.001), had a lower eating rate (P<0.01) and had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001) compared to animals offered the basal diet. There was a treatment (P<0.05) and time effect (P<0.05) on serum leptin concentrations in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to animals offered the basal diet. Pigs receiving dietary chitosan had an up-regulation in gene expression of growth hormone receptor (P<0.05), Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (P<0.01), neuromedin B (P<0.05), neuropeptide Y receptor 5 (P<0.05) in hypothalamic nuclei and neuropeptide Y (P<0.05) in the jejunum. Animals consuming chitosan had increased leptin expression in adipose tissue compared to pigs offered the basal diet (P<0.05). In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that dietary prawn shell chitosan exhibits anti-obesogenic potential through alterations to appetite, and feeding behaviour affecting satiety signals in vivo. PMID:26901760

  16. Effect of operative stress on food intake and feeding pattern in female rats.

    PubMed

    Varma, M; Chai, J K; Meguid, M M; Gleason, J R; Yang, Z J

    1999-05-01

    Effects of operative stress on food intake, meal size, and meal number were measured in 15 female rats before and after jugular vein catheterization. All rats had 5-d estrous cycles which correlated with cyclical feeding patterns that were most prominent during dark phase eating. In proestrous, meal number peaked (30.3+/-1.32), and meal size reached a nadir (0.33+/-0.02 g) with some corresponding change in food intake (9.8+/-0.38 g). Following operation on day 11, the cyclical variation of food intake, meal number, and meal size with estrous cycle was lost for the first 3 d, as was the diurnal rhythm in food intake. Eight rats recovered their dark phase feeding pattern by day 17 (recovered group), while 7 had not done so even by day 24 (non-recovered group). Food intake decreased to 40% of baseline in the recovered group and to 25% in the non-recovered group on day 11, increasing to 70% by day 14 in both groups and matching preoperative levels by day 17. Similar postoperative decreases were observed in meal number and meal size. Light phase feeding was increased, the ratio of day to night food intake being three times preoperative levels even at day 24. Preoperatively, non-recovered rats were similar to the recovered rats in all feeding indexes and continued to have estrous cycling in vaginal smears postoperatively. In the non-recovered rats, meal size more than doubled and meal number was depressed by 47% of preoperative levels and remained low until the end of the study. We conclude that operative stress disrupted cyclical and diurnal rhythms in food intake. In female rats, meal size is the first index to recover, increasing temporarily to maintain food intake.

  17. Correlated responses in sow appetite, residual feed intake, body composition, and reproduction after divergent selection for residual feed intake in the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, H; Bidanel, J-P; Billon, Y; Lagant, H; Guillouet, P; Sellier, P; Noblet, J; Hermesch, S

    2012-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) has been explored as an alternative selection criterion to feed conversion ratio to capture the fraction of feed intake not explained by expected production and maintenance requirements. Selection experiments have found that low RFI in the growing pig is genetically correlated with reduced fatness and feed intake. Selection for feed conversion ratio also reduces sow appetite and fatness, which, together with increased prolificacy, has been seen as a hindrance for sow lifetime performance. The aims of our study were to derive equations for sow RFI during lactation (SRFI) and to evaluate the effect of selection for RFI during growth on sow traits during lactation. Data were obtained on 2 divergent lines selected for 7 generations for low and high RFI during growth in purebred Large Whites. The RFI was measured on candidates for selection (1,065 pigs), and sow performance data were available for 480 sows having from 1 to 3 parities (1,071 parities). Traits measured were sow daily feed intake (SDFI); sow BW and body composition before farrowing and at weaning (28.4 ± 1.7d); number of piglets born total, born alive, and surviving at weaning; and litter weight, average piglet BW, and within-litter SD of piglet BW at birth, 21 d of age (when creep feeding was available), and weaning. Sow RFI was defined as the difference between observed SDFI and SDFI predicted for sow maintenance and production. Daily production requirements were quantified by litter size and daily litter BW gain as well as daily changes in sow body reserves. The SRFI represented 24% of the phenotypic variability of SDFI. Heritability estimates for RFI and SRFI were both 0.14. The genetic correlation between RFI and SRFI was 0.29 ± 0.23. Genetic correlations of RFI with sow traits were low to moderate, consistent with responses to selection; selection for low RFI during growth reduced SDFI and increased number of piglets and litter growth, but also increased mobilization of

  18. Estimating salivary flow and ruminal water balance of intake, diet, feeding pattern, and slaframine.

    PubMed

    Jacques, K; Harmon, D L; Croom, W J; Hagler, W M

    1989-02-01

    Three experiments with ruminally fistulated cattle fed 12 times daily were conducted to study the role of saliva secretion in ruminal water balance when intake, diet, and feeding pattern were altered. Water balance data were determined from continuously infused Co-EDTA and pulse-dosed Cr-EDTA with saliva flow estimated by difference between water intake and ruminal outflow. Any net transruminal water flux would be included in the estimate of salivary flow. When the concentration of bluestem hay in the diet was increased from 50 to 90%, ruminal fluid volume, saliva secretion, water intake, dilution rate, and total ruminal outflow increased. At equal intake, the higher forage diet increased ruminal liquid volume, outflow, and saliva secretion but had no effect on dilution rate. Intake, but not forage concentration, affected ruminal pH when 50 and 90% hay diets were fed. Increasing feeding frequency of forage in a 65% bluestem hay diet from 4 to 12 times daily (the grain portion was fed 12 times daily) increased dilution and ruminal outflow; however, the latter was only significant with data from Cr-EDTA. Ruminal volatile fatty acids were not altered by feeding frequency of forage. Nycterohemeral patterns were seen in water intake, ruminal dilution rate, outflow, and salivary flow in both studies. Slaframine increased saliva flow by 29% and was accompanied by increased ruminal liquid volume, dilution rate, and outflow.

  19. Educational Intervention to Modify Bottle-Feeding Behaviors among Formula-Feeding Mothers in the WIC Program: Impact on Infant Formula Intake and Weight Gain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Katherine F.; Cohen, Roberta J.; Heinig, M. Jane; Dewey, Kathryn G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Formula-fed infants gain weight faster than breastfed infants. This study evaluated whether encouraging formula-feeding caregivers to be sensitive to infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and reduce infant formula intake and weight gain. Design: Double-blind, randomized educational intervention, with intake and growth…

  20. Evaluating equations estimating change in swine feed intake during heat and cold stress.

    PubMed

    White, Robin R; Miller, Phillip S; Hanigan, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate heat stress feed intake models for growing swine using a data set assembled from the literature and to develop a series of new equations modeling the influence of the thermal environment and interactions between the thermal environmental and other factors on feed intake. A literature survey was conducted to identify studies assessing intake responses to temperature. The resulting data set comprised 35 studies containing 120 comparisons to thermoneutral intake. Intake as a fraction of thermoneutral intake (FFI) was the primary response variable, where a value of 1 represented no change from thermoneutral intake. The FFI predicted by NRC and a recent model from a meta-analysis (Renaudeau et al.,) were compared to observed values. New parameters for the NRC equation (NRCmod) were derived, and a series of new equations incorporating duration of exposure (TD), temperature cycling (TC), and floor type (TH) were also derived. Root-mean-square prediction error (RMSPE) and concordance correlation coefficients were used to evaluate all models. The RMSPE for the NRC model was 23.6 with mean and slope bias accounting for 12.6% and 51.1% of prediction error, respectively. The TD, TC, and TH models had reduced RMSPE compared with NRC: 12.9 for TD, 12.6 for TC, and 12.9 for TS. Substantial improvements were also made by refitting parameters (NRCmod; RMSPE 13.0%). In NRCmod, TD, TC, and TH, random error was the predominant source, accounting for over 97% of prediction error. The Renaudeau et al. model was also evaluated. Renaudeau et al. had relatively low RMSPE (22.3) for intake but higher RMSPE for FFI (22.6) than NRC, NRCmod, TD, TC, or TH. Additional parameters were derived for the Renaudeau et al. equation to account for housing system and diet characteristics. This adjustment reduced RMSPE of predicting feed intake (16.0) and FFI (16.3) and reduced systematic bias in the equation. This evaluation of equations highlights the

  1. Evaluating equations estimating change in swine feed intake during heat and cold stress.

    PubMed

    White, Robin R; Miller, Phillip S; Hanigan, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate heat stress feed intake models for growing swine using a data set assembled from the literature and to develop a series of new equations modeling the influence of the thermal environment and interactions between the thermal environmental and other factors on feed intake. A literature survey was conducted to identify studies assessing intake responses to temperature. The resulting data set comprised 35 studies containing 120 comparisons to thermoneutral intake. Intake as a fraction of thermoneutral intake (FFI) was the primary response variable, where a value of 1 represented no change from thermoneutral intake. The FFI predicted by NRC and a recent model from a meta-analysis (Renaudeau et al.,) were compared to observed values. New parameters for the NRC equation (NRCmod) were derived, and a series of new equations incorporating duration of exposure (TD), temperature cycling (TC), and floor type (TH) were also derived. Root-mean-square prediction error (RMSPE) and concordance correlation coefficients were used to evaluate all models. The RMSPE for the NRC model was 23.6 with mean and slope bias accounting for 12.6% and 51.1% of prediction error, respectively. The TD, TC, and TH models had reduced RMSPE compared with NRC: 12.9 for TD, 12.6 for TC, and 12.9 for TS. Substantial improvements were also made by refitting parameters (NRCmod; RMSPE 13.0%). In NRCmod, TD, TC, and TH, random error was the predominant source, accounting for over 97% of prediction error. The Renaudeau et al. model was also evaluated. Renaudeau et al. had relatively low RMSPE (22.3) for intake but higher RMSPE for FFI (22.6) than NRC, NRCmod, TD, TC, or TH. Additional parameters were derived for the Renaudeau et al. equation to account for housing system and diet characteristics. This adjustment reduced RMSPE of predicting feed intake (16.0) and FFI (16.3) and reduced systematic bias in the equation. This evaluation of equations highlights the

  2. Large, binge-type meals of high fat diet change feeding behaviour and entrain food anticipatory activity in mice*

    PubMed Central

    Bake, T.; Murphy, M.; Morgan, D.G.A.; Mercer, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    Male C57BL/6 mice fed ad libitum on control diet but allowed access to a palatable high fat diet (HFD) for 2 h a day during the mid-dark phase rapidly adapt their feeding behaviour and can consume nearly 80% of their daily caloric intake during this 2 h-scheduled feed. We assessed food intake microstructure and meal pattern, and locomotor activity and rearing as markers of food anticipatory activity (FAA). Schedule fed mice reduced their caloric intake from control diet during the first hours of the dark phase but not during the 3-h period immediately preceding the scheduled feed. Large meal/binge-like eating behaviour during the 2-h scheduled feed was characterised by increases in both meal number and meal size. Rearing was increased during the 2-h period running up to scheduled feeding while locomotor activity started to increase 1 h before, indicating that schedule-fed mice display FAA. Meal number and physical activity changes were sustained when HFD was withheld during the anticipated scheduled feeding period, and mice immediately binged when HFD was represented after a week of this “withdrawal” period. These findings provide important context to our previous studies suggesting that energy balance systems in the hypothalamus are not responsible for driving these large, binge-type meals. Evidence of FAA in HFD dark phase schedule-fed mice implicates anticipatory processes in binge eating that do not involve immediately preceding hypophagia or regulatory homeostatic signalling. PMID:24631639

  3. The Physiological Suppressing Factors of Dry Forage Intake and the Cause of Water Intake Following Dry Forage Feeding in Goats - A Review.

    PubMed

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Nagamine, Itsuki

    2016-02-01

    The goats raised in the barn are usually fed on fresh grass. As dry forage can be stored for long periods in large amounts, dry forage feeding makes it possible to feed large numbers of goats in barns. This review explains the physiological factors involved in suppressing dry forage intake and the cause of drinking following dry forage feeding. Ruminants consume an enormous amount of dry forage in a short time. Eating rates of dry forage rapidly decreased in the first 40 min of feeding and subsequently declined gradually to low states in the remaining time of the feeding period. Saliva in large-type goats is secreted in large volume during the first hour after the commencement of dry forage feeding. It was elucidated that the marked suppression of dry forage intake during the first hour was caused by a feeding-induced hypovolemia and the loss of NaHCO3 due to excessive salivation during the initial stages of dry forage feeding. On the other hand, it was indicated that the marked decrease in feed intake observed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period was related to ruminal distension caused by the feed consumed and the copious amount of saliva secreted during dry forage feeding. In addition, results indicate that the marked decreases in dry forage intake after 40 min of feeding are caused by increases in plasma osmolality and subsequent thirst sensations produced by dry forage feeding. After 40 min of the 2 h dry forage feeding period, the feed salt content is absorbed into the rumen and plasma osmolality increases. The combined effects of ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality accounted for 77.6% of the suppression of dry forage intake 40 min after the start of dry forage feeding. The results indicate that ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality are the main physiological factors in suppression of dry forage intake in large-type goats. There was very little drinking behavior observed during the first hour of the 2 h feeding period most

  4. The Physiological Suppressing Factors of Dry Forage Intake and the Cause of Water Intake Following Dry Forage Feeding in Goats — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Nagamine, Itsuki

    2016-01-01

    The goats raised in the barn are usually fed on fresh grass. As dry forage can be stored for long periods in large amounts, dry forage feeding makes it possible to feed large numbers of goats in barns. This review explains the physiological factors involved in suppressing dry forage intake and the cause of drinking following dry forage feeding. Ruminants consume an enormous amount of dry forage in a short time. Eating rates of dry forage rapidly decreased in the first 40 min of feeding and subsequently declined gradually to low states in the remaining time of the feeding period. Saliva in large-type goats is secreted in large volume during the first hour after the commencement of dry forage feeding. It was elucidated that the marked suppression of dry forage intake during the first hour was caused by a feeding-induced hypovolemia and the loss of NaHCO3 due to excessive salivation during the initial stages of dry forage feeding. On the other hand, it was indicated that the marked decrease in feed intake observed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period was related to ruminal distension caused by the feed consumed and the copious amount of saliva secreted during dry forage feeding. In addition, results indicate that the marked decreases in dry forage intake after 40 min of feeding are caused by increases in plasma osmolality and subsequent thirst sensations produced by dry forage feeding. After 40 min of the 2 h dry forage feeding period, the feed salt content is absorbed into the rumen and plasma osmolality increases. The combined effects of ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality accounted for 77.6% of the suppression of dry forage intake 40 min after the start of dry forage feeding. The results indicate that ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality are the main physiological factors in suppression of dry forage intake in large-type goats. There was very little drinking behavior observed during the first hour of the 2 h feeding period most

  5. Cyclic feeding behaviour and changes in hypothalamic galanin and neuropeptide Y gene expression induced by zinc deficiency in the rat.

    PubMed

    Selvais, P L; Labuche, C; Nguyen, X N; Ketelslegers, J M; Denef, J F; Maiter, D M

    1997-01-01

    Dietary zinc-deficiency induces a striking reduction and a cyclic pattern of food intake in rodents. To elucidate the mechanisms for these effects, we studied the hypothalamic content, synthesis, and distribution of galanin (GAL) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) during zinc deficiency and refeeding in the rat. In Wistar rats, three weeks of zinc-deprivation consistently induced a reduction and a cyclic pattern of night- and day-time food intake, as well as of water intake. This was accompanied in zinc-deficient (ZD) rats, and to a lesser extent in pair-fed (PF) rats, by a decrease of hypothalamic GAL mRNA concentration (CTR: 100 +/- 8, ZD: 61 +/- 4, PF: 78 +/- 2 arbitrary densitometric units, ADU, P < 0.01) and an increase of hypothalamic NPY (CTR: 100 +/- 11, ZD: 154 +/- 10, PF: 126 +/- 4 ADU, P < 0.05), without peptide modification. The two neuropeptidergic systems were not affected by the cycles of feeding, with the exception of the NPY-immunoreactivity in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (geniculo-hypothalamic tract), that was inversely correlated to the food intake in both ZD and PF animals. In a second experiment, we showed that zinc-repletion for 4 days suppressed the behaviour induced by a two-week zinc-deprivation, and reversed the increase of NPY mRNA in ZD animals. We finally demonstrated that zinc-deficiency induced a similar behaviour in Zucker rats. However, in these rats whose synthesis of NPY is constitutively up-regulated, no change of NPY synthesis was observed in ZD rats, suggesting that the increase observed in Wistar is adaptative rather than instrumental to the abnormal food intake. In conclusion, we have further characterized the cyclic feeding behaviour of the zinc-deficient Wistar rats, and shown in these animals a decreased activity of the GAL system and an increased activity of the NPY system, likely corresponding to a compensatory response of the two neuropeptidergic systems, as observed in food-deprived animals. As spontaneous food intake of ZD rats

  6. Divergent selection for residual feed intake affects the transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of pig skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Vincent, A; Louveau, I; Gondret, F; Tréfeu, C; Gilbert, H; Lefaucheur, L

    2015-06-01

    Improving feed efficiency is a relevant strategy to reduce feed cost and environmental waste in livestock production. Selection experiments on residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, previously indicated that low RFI was associated with lower feed intake, similar growth rate, and greater lean meat content compared with high RFI. To gain insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences, 24 Large White females from 2 lines divergently selected for RFI were examined. Pigs from a low-RFI ("efficient") and high-RFI ("inefficient") line were individually fed ad libitum from 67 d of age (27 kg BW) to slaughter at 115 kg BW (n = 8 per group). Additional pigs of the high-RFI line were feed restricted to the daily feed intake of the ad libitum low-RFI pigs (n = 8) to investigate the impact of selection independently of feed intake. Global gene and protein expression profiles were assessed in the LM collected at slaughter. The analyses involved a porcine commercial microarray and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. About 1,000 probes were differentially expressed (P < 0.01) between RFI lines. Only 10% of those probes were also affected by feed restriction. Gene functional classification indicated a greater expression of genes involved in protein synthesis and a lower expression of genes associated with mitochondrial energy metabolism in the low-RFI pigs compared with the high-RFI pigs. At the protein level, 11 unique identified proteins exhibited a differential abundance (P < 0.05) between RFI lines. Differentially expressed proteins were generally not significantly affected by feed restriction. Mitochondrial oxidative proteins such as aconitase hydratase, ATP synthase subunit α, and creatine kinase S-type had a lower abundance in the low-RFI pigs, whereas fructose-biphosphate aldolase A and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 2 proteins involved in glycolysis, had a greater abundance in those pigs compared with high-RFI pigs

  7. Level of Leucaena leucocephala silage feeding on intake, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy steers.

    PubMed

    Giang, Nguyen Thien Truong; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of Leucaena silage (LS) feeding on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and rumen fermentation in dairy steers. Four rumen fistulated dairy steers, 167 ± 12 kg body weight (BW), were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were as follows: T1 = 100 % untreated rice straw (RS), T2 = 70 % RS + 30 % LS, T3 = 40 % RS + 60 % LS, and T4 = 100 % LS, respectively. All animals were fed rice straw and LS ad libitum with concentrate mixture supplemented at 0.2 % BW. The results found that dry matter intake and nutrient digestibility were the highest in dairy steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05). Ruminal temperature and pH were not affected by LS feeding (P > 0.05) while ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen concentration were linearly increased with increasing levels of LS feeding (P < 0.01). On the other hand, total volatile fatty acids and propionate (C3) were improved by LS feeding especially in steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05) whereas acetate (C2) production and C2/C3 ratio were decreased. Moreover, methane production was reduced together with increasing LS feeding level (P < 0.05). Based on this study, it could be concluded that 60 % LS feeding could enhance feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation end-product while reducing methane production in dairy steers. This study suggested that LS could be used as high-quality roughage for ruminant feeding in the tropical region.

  8. Level of Leucaena leucocephala silage feeding on intake, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy steers.

    PubMed

    Giang, Nguyen Thien Truong; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of Leucaena silage (LS) feeding on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and rumen fermentation in dairy steers. Four rumen fistulated dairy steers, 167 ± 12 kg body weight (BW), were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were as follows: T1 = 100 % untreated rice straw (RS), T2 = 70 % RS + 30 % LS, T3 = 40 % RS + 60 % LS, and T4 = 100 % LS, respectively. All animals were fed rice straw and LS ad libitum with concentrate mixture supplemented at 0.2 % BW. The results found that dry matter intake and nutrient digestibility were the highest in dairy steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05). Ruminal temperature and pH were not affected by LS feeding (P > 0.05) while ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen concentration were linearly increased with increasing levels of LS feeding (P < 0.01). On the other hand, total volatile fatty acids and propionate (C3) were improved by LS feeding especially in steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05) whereas acetate (C2) production and C2/C3 ratio were decreased. Moreover, methane production was reduced together with increasing LS feeding level (P < 0.05). Based on this study, it could be concluded that 60 % LS feeding could enhance feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation end-product while reducing methane production in dairy steers. This study suggested that LS could be used as high-quality roughage for ruminant feeding in the tropical region. PMID:27113453

  9. A Comparison by Milk Feeding Method of the Nutrient Intake of a Cohort of Australian Toddlers.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jane; Davey, Kristina; Ahwong, Ellen; Devenish, Gemma; Ha, Diep; Do, Loc

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is recommended beyond 12 months of age, but little is known about the contribution of breastmilk and infant formula to the nutritional intake of toddlers as they transition to a family diet in the second year of life. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a birth cohort study in Adelaide, Australia. Dietary intake data were collected when children were approximately 1 year of age by an interviewer-administered multi-pass 24 h recall and a mother-completed 2 days food diary. Children were categorized according to their milk feeding method, i.e., breastmilk, infant formula, combination or other, and their nutrient intakes compared with recommended nutrient reference values. Complete data were available for 832 children, of which 714 had plausible energy intakes. Breastmilk and formula made a substantial contribution to the nutrient intake of those toddlers, contributing 28% and 34% of total energy, and 16% and 26% of protein intake, respectively when not drunk in combination. In general, Australian toddlers transitioning to the family diet consumed nutritionally adequate diets, although almost one quarter of all children and half of breastfed children with plausible intakes had iron intakes below the estimated average requirement, placing them at risk of iron deficiency. PMID:27537910

  10. A Comparison by Milk Feeding Method of the Nutrient Intake of a Cohort of Australian Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jane; Davey, Kristina; Ahwong, Ellen; Devenish, Gemma; Ha, Diep; Do, Loc

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is recommended beyond 12 months of age, but little is known about the contribution of breastmilk and infant formula to the nutritional intake of toddlers as they transition to a family diet in the second year of life. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a birth cohort study in Adelaide, Australia. Dietary intake data were collected when children were approximately 1 year of age by an interviewer-administered multi-pass 24 h recall and a mother-completed 2 days food diary. Children were categorized according to their milk feeding method, i.e., breastmilk, infant formula, combination or other, and their nutrient intakes compared with recommended nutrient reference values. Complete data were available for 832 children, of which 714 had plausible energy intakes. Breastmilk and formula made a substantial contribution to the nutrient intake of those toddlers, contributing 28% and 34% of total energy, and 16% and 26% of protein intake, respectively when not drunk in combination. In general, Australian toddlers transitioning to the family diet consumed nutritionally adequate diets, although almost one quarter of all children and half of breastfed children with plausible intakes had iron intakes below the estimated average requirement, placing them at risk of iron deficiency. PMID:27537910

  11. Screening for feeding disorders. Creating critical values using the behavioural pediatrics feeding assessment scale.

    PubMed

    Dovey, Terence M; Jordan, Caroline; Aldridge, Victoria K; Martin, Clarissa I

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to discriminate between clinical and non-clinical samples on the Behavioural Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS). The objective was to present a cut-off value, that was derived statistically, which could be used to screen for feeding disorders. A sample of five hundred and seventy-three families with a target child ranging in age from 20 to 85 months took part in the current study. Sixty-four children had a known diagnosis of a feeding disorder and were embedded into a typically developing sample of families that had not sought professional intervention. All families completed the BPFAS in order to provide a known database to measure discriminative statistics. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the cut off value for the BPFAS was a Child Frequency score of 61 and a Child Problem score of six. This offered an 87% accuracy rate at these values. The current study offered definitive evidence that the BPFAS was accurate (both sensitive and specific) to determine differences between clinical and non-clinical samples in the United Kingdom. It is therefore advocated that BPFAS should be adopted in future studies exploring the impact of feeding disorders and problems in both clinical and research settings. PMID:23742944

  12. Profile of the spleen transcriptome in beef steers with variation in gain and feed intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously identified components of the immune system contributing to feed intake and gain in both the rumen and small intestine of beef steers. In this study, we examined the spleen, a major lymphatic organ near the digestive tract, to determine whether it was also contributing to an animal...

  13. Feed intake and weight gain in beef steers of known genetic background following BVDV challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-sired steers (n = 95) born in the spring of 2008 produced from TAMU McGregor Genomics Project cows were evaluated for individual feed intake and ADG for 42 d following challenge to BVD virus. Steers were not vaccinated for BRD prior to trial initiation, and were verified to be BVD-free. Prior ...

  14. Flocking and feeding in the fiddler crab ( UCA tangeri): Prey availability as risk-taking behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ens, B. J.; Klaassen, M.; Zwarts, L.

    For a full understanding of prey availability, it is necessary to study risk-taking behaviour of the prey. Fiddler crabs are ideally suited for such a study, as they have to leave their safe burrow to feed on the surface of the intertidal flats during low tide, thereby exposing themselves to avian predators. A study in an intertidal area along the coast of Mauritania showed that small crabs always stayed in the vicinity of their burrow, but large crabs wandered in large flocks (also referred to as droves) to feed on sea-grass beds downshore. Transplanting downshore feeding substrate to the burrowing zone of the small crabs proved that they too preferred to feed on it. Since small crabs can be preyed upon by more species of birds, this suggests that the decision not to leave the burrowing zone might be related to the risk of being fed upon by birds. We calculated predation risk from measurements on the density and feeding activity of the crabs, as well as the feeding density, the intake rate and the size selection of the avian predators. Per hour on the surface, crabs in a flock were more at risk than crabs feeding near their burrow. Thus, though flocking crabs may have benefited from 'swamping the predator' by emerging in maximum numbers during some tides only, this did not reduce their risk of predation below that of non-flocking crabs. Furthermore we found that irrespective of activity, large crabs suffered a higher mortality per tide from avian predators than small crabs. This suggests that large crabs could not sufficiently reduce their foraging time to compensate for the increased risk while foraging in a flock, even though they probably experienced better feeding conditions than small crabs staying near their burrow. The greater energy demands of large crabs were reflected in a greater surface area grazed. Thus, with increasing size a fiddler crab has to feed further away from its burrow and so may derive less protection from staying near to it. It seems that

  15. Feeding Behaviour of Cynopterus sphinx (Pteropodidae) Under Captive Conditions.

    PubMed

    Shafie, Nur Juliani; Rahman, Nor Amira; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Rosely, Nik Fadzly Nik; Sufian, Maryam

    2014-12-01

    We examined the olfactory and visual abilities of megachiropteran bats, Cynopterus sphinx, for discrimination of the odour and shape of the banana fruit, Musa sp. We conducted the experiments in captive conditions by offering a selection of ripe bananas, blended bananas and artificial bananas. The behaviour of the bats was observed visually, and the percentage of activity and rest, duration of the first foraging bout, number of feeding attempts and the average duration of successful attempts was recorded for each bat. The bats exhibited an increased number of visits to ripe bananas and blended banana fruits. However, the artificial fruit did not evoke any response. Our study suggests that odour cues are more important than visual cues for the location of fruits by C. sphinx. PMID:27073599

  16. Endogenous and dietary lipids influencing feed intake and energy metabolism of periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, B; Metges, C C; Hammon, H M

    2016-07-01

    The high metabolic priority of the mammary gland for milk production, accompanied by limited feed intake around parturition results in a high propensity to mobilize body fat reserves. Under these conditions, fuel selection of many peripheral organs is switched, for example, from carbohydrate to fat utilization to spare glucose for milk production and to ensure partitioning of tissue- and dietary-derived nutrients toward the mammary gland. For example, muscle tissue uses nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) but releases lactate and amino acids in a coordinated order, thereby providing precursors for milk synthesis or hepatic gluconeogenesis. Tissue metabolism and in concert, nutrient partitioning are controlled by the endocrine system involving a reduction in insulin secretion and systemic insulin sensitivity and orchestrated changes in plasma hormones such as insulin, adiponectin, insulin growth factor-I, growth hormone, glucagon, leptin, glucocorticoids, and catecholamines. However, the endocrine system is highly sensitive and responsive to an overload of fatty acids no matter if excessive NEFA supply originates from exogenous or endogenous sources. Feeding a diet containing rumen-protected fat from late lactation to calving and beyond exerts similar negative effects on energy intake, glucose and insulin concentrations as does a high extent of body fat mobilization around parturition in regard to the risk for ketosis and fatty liver development. High plasma NEFA concentrations are thought not to act directly at the brain level, but they increase the energy charge of the liver which is, signaled to the brain to diminish feed intake. Cows differing in fat mobilization during the transition phase differ in their hepatic energy charge, whole body fat oxidation, glucose metabolism, plasma ghrelin, and leptin concentrations and in feed intake several week before parturition. Hence, a high lipid load, no matter if stored, mobilized or fed, affects the endocrine system

  17. Endogenous and dietary lipids influencing feed intake and energy metabolism of periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, B; Metges, C C; Hammon, H M

    2016-07-01

    The high metabolic priority of the mammary gland for milk production, accompanied by limited feed intake around parturition results in a high propensity to mobilize body fat reserves. Under these conditions, fuel selection of many peripheral organs is switched, for example, from carbohydrate to fat utilization to spare glucose for milk production and to ensure partitioning of tissue- and dietary-derived nutrients toward the mammary gland. For example, muscle tissue uses nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) but releases lactate and amino acids in a coordinated order, thereby providing precursors for milk synthesis or hepatic gluconeogenesis. Tissue metabolism and in concert, nutrient partitioning are controlled by the endocrine system involving a reduction in insulin secretion and systemic insulin sensitivity and orchestrated changes in plasma hormones such as insulin, adiponectin, insulin growth factor-I, growth hormone, glucagon, leptin, glucocorticoids, and catecholamines. However, the endocrine system is highly sensitive and responsive to an overload of fatty acids no matter if excessive NEFA supply originates from exogenous or endogenous sources. Feeding a diet containing rumen-protected fat from late lactation to calving and beyond exerts similar negative effects on energy intake, glucose and insulin concentrations as does a high extent of body fat mobilization around parturition in regard to the risk for ketosis and fatty liver development. High plasma NEFA concentrations are thought not to act directly at the brain level, but they increase the energy charge of the liver which is, signaled to the brain to diminish feed intake. Cows differing in fat mobilization during the transition phase differ in their hepatic energy charge, whole body fat oxidation, glucose metabolism, plasma ghrelin, and leptin concentrations and in feed intake several week before parturition. Hence, a high lipid load, no matter if stored, mobilized or fed, affects the endocrine system

  18. Human REM sleep: influence on feeding behaviour, with clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Horne, James A

    2015-08-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep shares many underlying mechanisms with wakefulness, to a much greater extent than does non-REM, especially those relating to feeding behaviours, appetite, curiosity, exploratory (locomotor) activities, as well as aspects of emotions, particularly 'fear extinction'. REM is most evident in infancy, thereafter declining in what seems to be a dispensable manner that largely reciprocates increasing wakefulness. However, human adults retain more REM than do other mammals, where for us it is most abundant during our usual final REM period (fREMP) of the night, nearing wakefulness. The case is made that our REM is unusual, and that (i) fREMP retains this 'dispensability', acting as a proxy for wakefulness, able to be forfeited (without REM rebound) and substituted by physical activity (locomotion) when pressures of wakefulness increase; (ii) REM's atonia (inhibited motor output) may be a proxy for this locomotion; (iii) our nocturnal sleep typically develops into a physiological fast, especially during fREMP, which is also an appetite suppressant; (iv) REM may have 'anti-obesity' properties, and that the loss of fREMP may well enhance appetite and contribute to weight gain ('overeating') in habitually short sleepers; (v) as we also select foods for their hedonic (emotional) values, REM may be integral to developing food preferences and dislikes; and (vii) REM seems to have wider influences in regulating energy balance in terms of exercise 'substitution' and energy (body heat) retention. Avenues for further research are proposed, linking REM with feeding behaviours, including eating disorders, and effects of REM-suppressant medications.

  19. Season of testing and its effect on feed intake and efficiency in growing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Mujibi, F D N; Moore, S S; Nkrumah, D J; Wang, Z; Basarab, J A

    2010-12-01

    This study sought to assess whether residual feed intake (RFI) calculated by regressing feed intake (DMI) on growth rate (ADG) and metabolic mid-BW in 3 different ways led to similar estimates of genetic parameters and variance components for young growing cattle tested for feed intake in fall and winter seasons. A total of 378 beef steers in 5 cohorts were fed a typical high energy feedlot diet and had free-choice access to feed and water. Feed intake data were collected in fall or winter seasons. Climate data were obtained from the University of Alberta Kinsella meteorological station and Vikings AGCM station. Individual animal RFI was obtained by either fitting a regression model to each test group separately (RFI(C)), fitting a regression model to pooled data consisting of all cohorts but including test group as a fixed effect (RFI(O)), or fitting a regression to pooled data with test group as a fixed effect but within seasonal (fall-winter or winter-spring) groups (RFI(S)). Two animal models (M1 and M2) that differed by the inclusion of fixed effects of test group or season, respectively, were used to evaluate RFI measurements. Feed intake was correlated with air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed (-0.26, 0.23, 0.30, -0.14 for fall-winter and 0.31, -0.04, 0.14, 0.16 for winter-spring, respectively), but the nature and magnitude of the correlations were different for the 2 seasons. Single trait direct heritability, model likelihood, direct genetic variance, and EBV accuracy estimates were greatest for RFI(C) and least for RFI(O) for both M1 and M2 models. A significant genetic correlation was also observed between RFI(O) and ADG, but not for RFI(C) and RFI(S). Including a season effect (M2) in the genetic evaluation of RFI(O) resulted in the smallest heritability, model LogL, EBV accuracy, and largest residual variance estimates. These results, though not conclusive, suggest a possible effect of seasonality on feed intake and thus

  20. Effect of feed intake restriction on reproductive performance and pregnancy rate in Egyptian buffalo heifers.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Hassan Ali; Abdel-Raheem, Sherief Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the present experiment is to study the effect of feed intake restriction on the reproductive performance and pregnancy rate in Egyptian buffalo heifers. Thirty anestrus buffalo heifers were randomly divided into two equal groups. The low feed intake (LFI, n=15, 50 % restriction) group was fed a diet that consists of 3 kg concentrate, 1 kg wheat straw, and 3 kg fresh alfalfa, while the high feed intake (HFI, n=15) group was fed double the amount given to the LFI group for 4 months. All animals were weighed, transrectally examined, and visually checked for the signs of estrus, and blood samples were collected. Heifers in heat were mated with one fertile bull. The number of heifers showing estrus activity was 93.3 % in HFI vs. 20 % in LFI (P<0.01). Ovarian activity started earlier (P=0.03) in the HFI than LFI group. The weight at breeding, the diameter of the dominant follicle, number of heifers showing ovulations, number of services per conception, pregnancy rate, and overall mean of progesterone and estrogen concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.01) in the HFI than in the LFI group. The level of serum total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, total cholesterol, and calcium were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the HFI group. Restriction of the daily feed intake to 50 % from NRC recommendations impair reproductive performance in terms of increasing the age at first service and reducing the pregnancy rate in buffalo heifers. In conclusion, feed intake could be effective in improvement of reproductive performance in buffalo heifers and further studies should be done on large scale of buffaloes in this point. PMID:23212835

  1. [Alimentary intake of opioid alkaloids by horses. Hazards due to poppy-containing feeds].

    PubMed

    Hertzsch, R; Emmerich, I U; Lachenmeier, D W; Sproll, C; Monakhova, Y B; Aboling, S; Bachmann, U; Vervuert, I

    2015-01-01

    Opioid alkaloids were identified in the urine of horses during an anti-doping control and in a case of intoxication. In both cases, it was suspected that the horses had ingested poppy-contaminated feed. To verify this suspicion, possible opioid alkaloid sources in Germany were identified through a literature research. Additionally, the contaminated feed was botanically and chemically analysed. The results indicated that both cases were most probably caused by the poppy in the feed. This highlights the previously underestimated risk of an intake of poppy-contaminated feed in horses. Recommendations are formulated for the prevention of positive doping-test results and intoxications by poppy-contaminated feeds in horses. Furthermore, a threshold for morphine in urine samples in competing horses is proposed.

  2. [Alimentary intake of opioid alkaloids by horses. Hazards due to poppy-containing feeds].

    PubMed

    Hertzsch, R; Emmerich, I U; Lachenmeier, D W; Sproll, C; Monakhova, Y B; Aboling, S; Bachmann, U; Vervuert, I

    2015-01-01

    Opioid alkaloids were identified in the urine of horses during an anti-doping control and in a case of intoxication. In both cases, it was suspected that the horses had ingested poppy-contaminated feed. To verify this suspicion, possible opioid alkaloid sources in Germany were identified through a literature research. Additionally, the contaminated feed was botanically and chemically analysed. The results indicated that both cases were most probably caused by the poppy in the feed. This highlights the previously underestimated risk of an intake of poppy-contaminated feed in horses. Recommendations are formulated for the prevention of positive doping-test results and intoxications by poppy-contaminated feeds in horses. Furthermore, a threshold for morphine in urine samples in competing horses is proposed. PMID:25624174

  3. The effect of passive immunization against ghrelin on feed and water intake in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Vizcarra, J A; Wright, H; Vizcarra, A

    2012-09-01

    Five-week-old turkeys were used to evaluate the effect of passive immunization against ghrelin on feed and water intake and animal behavior. In experiment 1, females were reared using normal feeding and lighting management recommended by the industry. At 5 wk of age (d 0 of experiment 1), birds (n = 40) were individually caged (0.65 × 0.4 × 0.4 m) with free access to feed and water. Feed and water intake were measured 3 times a day (0800, 1200, and 1700 h) by recording the weight of feed or water offered minus any unconsumed feed or water remaining. After 3 d of adaptation to the cages (d 3), birds were stratified by BW and feed consumption and randomly assigned to a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement of treatment. Starting on d 3, turkeys were given intravenous (iv) injections (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 mL) of pooled undiluted plasma obtained from pigs that were previously actively immunized against ghrelin or iv injections (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 mL) of pooled undiluted plasma, obtained from nonimmunized pigs (control). In experiment 2, the 2 highest doses (i.e., 4.0 and 8.0 mL; n = 4/treatment) were repeated in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement as described in experiment 1. A laptop computer with a built-in color camera and appropriate software was used to record birds for 9 consecutive hours, starting 4 h before treatments were applied. Video clips were saved and a human observer watched and annotated bird behavior associated with feeding, drinking, and standing. Passively immunized birds increased feed consumption (P = 0.04) compared with control animals. Water intake was not affected by treatments. There was a tendency for immunized birds to increase the number of pecks per hour and the amount of time devoted for feeding. Our data suggest that in turkeys, the effect of immunization against ghrelin on feed intake is the opposite of that observed in mammalian species.

  4. Methane emissions from cattle differing in feed intake and feed efficiency fed a high concentrate diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methane gas released by cattle is a product of fermentation of feed in the digestive tract and represents a loss of feed energy. In addition to being a dietary energy loss, methane is considered a greenhouse gas. Developing strategies to reduce methane emissions from cattle have the potential to i...

  5. Nutrient and nontraditional food intakes by Zambian children in a controlled feeding trial

    PubMed Central

    Schmaelzle, Samantha; Kaliwile, Chisela; Arscott, Sara A.; Gannon, Bryan; Masi, Cassim; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many programs aim to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Biofortification is an approach to improve provitamin A carotenoid concentrations of staple crops in some developing countries. In rural Zambia, maize accounts for the majority of energy intake. Provitamin A–biofortified (orange) maize has been released in Zambia. Objective This study quantified food intake of Zambian children from records collected in a feeding trial in 2012 in order to compare adoption of orange maize and a new vegetable (green beans) with white maize and traditional foods. Methods One hundred thirty-six children with a mean age of 71.5 ± 6.9 months were fed three meals a day for 6 days a week for 15 weeks at four feeding centers. Breakfast consisted of maize porridge, and lunch and dinner were stiff porridge (nshima) with various side dishes (relishes). There were three treatment groups, which received orange maize and placebo oil, white maize and placebo oil, or white maize and a daily vitamin A supplement. Food was weighed before and after consumption. Nutritionists were trained to interview the children’s caregivers about the previous day’s intake using dietary recalls. Nine dietary recalls for each child were recorded and analyzed. Results Total food intake did not differ among the groups (p = .31) and energy intakes on Sundays (<880 kcal) were below recommendations. Nshima intake was lower in the orange-maize group (p = .008), largely due to a genotype effect. Intakes of relish, green bean, and porridge did not differ among the groups (p > .19). Dietary recalls revealed that children living in sites closer to the main road consumed more on Sundays than children living about 8 km from the main road, but less in the evenings when children were off site. Conclusions The intakes of energy of these Zambian children suggest inadequacy. Implementation and adoption of new and biofortified foods is possible with promotion. PMID:24791580

  6. Meta-analysis of feed intake and growth responses of growing pigs after a sanitary challenge.

    PubMed

    Pastorelli, H; van Milgen, J; Lovatto, P; Montagne, L

    2012-06-01

    Sanitary challenges negatively affect feed intake and growth, leading to a negative impact on animal well-being and economic losses. The aim of this study was to carry out a meta-analysis to quantify the dynamic feed intake and growth responses of growing pigs after a sanitary challenge. A database was constructed using 122 published experiments reporting the average daily feed intake (ADFI) and the average daily gain (ADG) of pigs subjected to one of six sanitary challenges: digestive bacterial infections, poor housing conditions, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenges, mycotoxicoses, parasitic infections and respiratory diseases. The responses to experimental challenges were calculated relative to that of a control group. Statistical analyses were carried out for each challenge to quantify the mean and the dynamic responses in feed intake and growth and to identify the basis of the reduction in growth (i.e. reduction in feed intake or reduction in feed efficiency related to changes in maintenance requirements). All challenges resulted in a reduction in ADFI and ADG, with the strongest responses for mycotoxicoses, respiratory diseases and digestive bacterial infections (8% to 23% reduction in ADFI and 16% to 29% reduction in ADG). The reduction in ADG was linearly related to the reduction in ADFI for digestive bacterial infections, LPS challenge, parasitic infections and respiratory diseases. For poor housing conditions and mycotoxicoses, the relationship was curvilinear. A 10% reduction in ADFI resulted in a reduction in ADG varying from 10% for mycotoxicoses to 43% for digestive bacterial infections. More than 70% of the reduction in ADG could be explained by the reduction in ADFI for mycotoxicoses, LPS challenge and respiratory diseases. For challenges associated with the gastrointestinal tract, a large part of the reduction in ADG was due to an increase in maintenance requirements, suggesting digestive and metabolic changes. A dynamic pattern in the reduction in

  7. Chewing activities and oesophageal motility during feed intake, rumination and eructation in camels.

    PubMed

    von Engelhardt, W; Haarmeyer, P; Kaske, M; Lechner-Doll, M

    2006-02-01

    It was the aim of this study to characterize rumination behaviour, eructation and oesophageal motility in camels to identify similarities and differences between camels and domestic ruminants. Recordings were carried out in five camels fed on a hay-based diet. On an average, the duration of rumination, feeding and resting was 8.3, 5.6 and 10.1 h per 24 h, respectively. Rumination activity peaked in the morning between 9:00 and 11:00 and in the night between 02:00 and 04:00 a.m. During rumination periods, on an average 67 boluses were regurgitated per hour. Each bolus was chewed for an average of 45 s with 68 chews per min. The pause between two rumination cycles lasted on an average 9 s. Hay intake took 61 min/kg dry matter (DM), rumination lasted 71 min/kg DM of hay consumed. The regurgitation of a bolus started with a contraction of cranial compartment 1 (C 1) during a B-sequence, followed by a deep inspiration with closed glottis. Digesta enters the oesophagus, and an antiperistaltic wave transported the bolus orally. Eructation starts with a contraction of the caudal C1 during a B-sequence when the cranial C1 is relaxed. After entering the oesophagus, a rapid antiperistaltic wave transports the gas orally. Results revealed that the parameter values obtained in the camels were remarkably similar to those in domestic ruminants despite profound morphological differences and different patterns of forestomach motility.

  8. Biological mechanisms related to differences in residual feed intake in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Xi, Y M; Wu, F; Zhao, D Q; Yang, Z; Li, L; Han, Z Y; Wang, G L

    2016-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and expected feed intake over a specific period, is an inheritable character of feed conversion efficiency in dairy cows. Research has shown that a lower RFI could improve the profitability of milk production. This study explored variation in RFI by comparing the differences in body size, milk performance, feeding behavior, and serum metabolites in 29 Holstein cows in mid lactation. The cows were selected from a total of 84 animals based on their RFI following feedlot tests. Selected cows were ranked into high RFI (RFI >1 SD above the mean, n=14) and low RFI (RFI<1 SD below the mean, n=15). The low RFI cows (more efficient) consumed 1.59 kg/day less dry matter than the high RFI group (P<0.01), while they produced nearly equal 4% fat-corrected milk. The milk : feed ratio was higher for the low RFI group than for the high RFI group (P<0.05). The levels of milk protein (P<0.01), total solids (P<0.05), and nonfat solids (P<0.05) were also higher for the low RFI group, whereas milk urea nitrogen was lower (P<0.01). The daily feeding duration was shorter for the low RFI group than for the high RFI group (P<0.01). No significant differences were found in levels of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, prolactin, insulin, IGF-1, growth hormone or ghrelin, but the level of neuropeptide Y was higher (P<0.01) and levels of leptin and non-esterified fatty acid (P<0.05) were lower for the low RFI group than for the high RFI group. There were substantial differences between cows with different RFI, which might affect the efficiency of milk protein metabolism and fat mobilization.

  9. Factors associated with parental use of restrictive feeding practices to control their children's food intake.

    PubMed

    Gray, Wendy N; Janicke, David M; Wistedt, Kristin M; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn C

    2010-10-01

    There is a critical need to identify risk factors that make parents more likely to restrict their child's food intake. Child weight and ethnicity, parent weight, parent body dissatisfaction, and parent concern of child weight were examined as correlates of parent use of restrictive feeding practices in a diverse sample of 191 youth (ages 7-17). Participants attending a pediatric outpatient visit completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (parent feeding practices and beliefs), the Figure Rating Scale (body dissatisfaction) and a demographic form. Parent BMI and child degree of overweight were calculated. Parent use of restrictive feeding practices was positively associated with parent BMI and was moderated by parent body dissatisfaction. Parent concern of child weight mediated the relationship between increasing child degree of overweight and parent use of restrictive feeding practices. There were no differences by child gender or ethnicity in parent use of restrictive feeding practices. These preliminary findings highlight the importance of assessing for underlying parent motivations for utilizing restrictive feeding practices and may help to identify and intervene with families at-risk for engaging in counterproductive weight control strategies. Continued identification of correlates of parent use of restrictive feeding practices is needed across child development and among individuals from diverse backgrounds. PMID:20633586

  10. Impact of selection for residual feed intake on production traits and behavior of mule ducks.

    PubMed

    Drouilhet, L; Monteville, R; Molette, C; Lague, M; Cornuez, A; Canario, L; Ricard, E; Gilbert, H

    2016-09-01

    A divergent selection experiment of Muscovy sires based on the residual feed intake (RFI) of their male mule progeny was initiated in 2009. Using electronic feeders, the aim of this study was to establish whether 3 generations of selection for RFI had an impact on feeding behavior traits and general behavior, and to examine its effect on liver and meat quality. Eighty mule ducks, issued from 8 Muscovy drakes per line with extreme RFI, were tested in a pen equipped with 4 electronic feeders. Feeding behaviors were recorded from 3 to 7 wk after hatching under ad libitum feeding conditions. Then animals were prepared for overfeeding with a 3-week period of restricted feeding, and overfed during 12 d before slaughter. The RFI was significantly lower in the low RFI line than in the high RFI line (-5.4 g/d, P = 0.0005) and daily feed intake was reduced both over the entire test period (-5 g/d, P = 0.049) and on a weekly basis (P = 0.006). Weekly and total feed conversion ratios were also significantly lower (-0.08, P = 0.03 and -0.06, P = 0.01, respectively). Low RFI ducks had more frequent meals, spent as much time eating as high RFI ducks, and their feeding rate was lower when analyzed at the wk level only. Additionally no significant correlation between feed efficiency and feeding behavior traits was evidenced, indicating only limited relationships between RFI and feeding patterns. Some differences in behavioral responses to stressors (open field test combined with a test measuring the response to human presence) suggested that a lower RFI is associated with less fearfulness. Selection for RFI had no effect on liver weight and quality and a slightly deleterious impact on meat quality (decreased drip loss and L*). Finally, low RFI animals had higher body weights after restricted feeding from wk 10 to wk 12 and after overfeeding than high RFI ducks. This suggests that selection for reduced RFI until 7 wk of age increases the feed efficiency up to slaughter. PMID

  11. Impact of selection for residual feed intake on production traits and behavior of mule ducks

    PubMed Central

    Drouilhet, L.; Monteville, R.; Molette, C.; Lague, M.; Cornuez, A.; Canario, L.; Ricard, E.; Gilbert, H.

    2016-01-01

    A divergent selection experiment of Muscovy sires based on the residual feed intake (RFI) of their male mule progeny was initiated in 2009. Using electronic feeders, the aim of this study was to establish whether 3 generations of selection for RFI had an impact on feeding behavior traits and general behavior, and to examine its effect on liver and meat quality. Eighty mule ducks, issued from 8 Muscovy drakes per line with extreme RFI, were tested in a pen equipped with 4 electronic feeders. Feeding behaviors were recorded from 3 to 7 wk after hatching under ad libitum feeding conditions. Then animals were prepared for overfeeding with a 3-week period of restricted feeding, and overfed during 12 d before slaughter. The RFI was significantly lower in the low RFI line than in the high RFI line (−5.4 g/d, P = 0.0005) and daily feed intake was reduced both over the entire test period (−5 g/d, P = 0.049) and on a weekly basis (P = 0.006). Weekly and total feed conversion ratios were also significantly lower (−0.08, P = 0.03 and −0.06, P = 0.01, respectively). Low RFI ducks had more frequent meals, spent as much time eating as high RFI ducks, and their feeding rate was lower when analyzed at the wk level only. Additionally no significant correlation between feed efficiency and feeding behavior traits was evidenced, indicating only limited relationships between RFI and feeding patterns. Some differences in behavioral responses to stressors (open field test combined with a test measuring the response to human presence) suggested that a lower RFI is associated with less fearfulness. Selection for RFI had no effect on liver weight and quality and a slightly deleterious impact on meat quality (decreased drip loss and L*). Finally, low RFI animals had higher body weights after restricted feeding from wk 10 to wk 12 and after overfeeding than high RFI ducks. This suggests that selection for reduced RFI until 7 wk of age increases the feed efficiency up to slaughter

  12. Prolonged oral cyanide effects on feed intake, growth rate and blood parameters in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Avais, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Sarwar; Khan, Muhammad Arif; Ashraf, Kamran; Khan, Jawaria Ali; Hameed, Sajid

    2014-07-01

    Twelve adult rabbits bred locally were divided into two equal groups of 6; experimental and control groups. Rabbits in the experimental group were orally dosed with KCN at 3mg/kg body weight for 40 consecutive days. Members in control group were given placebo (distilled water) for the same period. Animals in both groups were offered feed at 90gm/kg/day while ample drinking water was available ad lib. Feed consumption and body weight of rabbits in both the groups were recorded. Blood samples were also drawn to determine various hematological parameters. Statistical analysis revealed a non-significant difference of total and daily feed intakes in rabbits of experimental and control groups. Whereas the feed efficiency of rabbits in the experimental group were significantly reduced (P<0.05) compared to controls. Likewise a significant decrease in body weight gain of rabbits in experimental group (P<0.05) was observed. A non-significant difference (P>0.05) was observed in leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count and platelets of rabbits in both the groups. Erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin were significantly decreased in treated rabbits. It was concluded that chronic cyanide intake had a deleterious effect on feed efficiency, growth rate and blood components of rabbits. PMID:25015439

  13. Genetic parameters between feed-intake-related traits and conformation in 2 separate dairy populations—the Netherlands and United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To include feed-intake-related traits in the breeding goal, accurate estimates of genetic parameters of feed intake, and its correlations with other related traits (i.e., production, conformation) are required to compare different options. However, the correlations between feed intake and conformati...

  14. Improved nutrient digestibility and retention partially explains feed efficiency gains in pigs selected for low residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Harris, A J; Patience, J F; Lonergan, S M; J M Dekkers, C; Gabler, N K

    2012-12-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a unique measure of feed efficiency (FE) and an alternative to traditional measures. The RFI is defined as the difference between the actual feed intake of a pig and its expected feed intake based on a given amount of growth and backfat. Therefore, selecting pigs with a low RFI (LRFI) results in a more feed-efficient animal for a given rate of growth. Our objective was to determine the extent to which apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and energy use and retention may explain FE differences between pigs divergently selected for LRFI or high RFI (HRFI). After 7 generations of selection, 12 HRFI and 12 LRFI pigs (62 ± 3 kg BW) were randomly assigned to metabolism crates. Pigs had free access to a standard diet based on corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) meal containing 0.4% TiO(2), an exogenous digestibility marker. After a 7-d acclimation, total urine and feces were collected for 72 h. Nutrient and energy digestibility, P digestibility, and N balance were then measured and calculated to determine differences between the RFI lines. As expected, ADFI was lower (2.0 vs. 2.6 kg; P < 0.01), ADG did not differ, and FE was higher in the LRFI (P < 0.001) compared to the HRFI pigs. The digestibility values for DM (87.3 vs. 85.9%), N (88.3 vs. 86.1%), and GE (86.9 vs. 85.4%) were higher (P ≤ 0.003) in the LRFI vs. HRFI pigs, respectively. The DE (16.59 vs. 16.32 MJ/kg DM) and ME (15.98 vs. 15.72 MJ/kg DM) values were also greater (P < 0.001) in LRFI pigs. When correcting for ADFI, P digestibility did not differ between the lines. However, the LRFI pigs tended to have improved N retention (P = 0.08) compared to HRFI pigs (36.9 vs. 32.1 g/d). In conclusion, the higher energy and nutrient digestibility, use, and retention may partially explain the superior FE seen in pigs selected for LRFI. PMID:23365317

  15. Body Mass Index, Nutrient Intakes, Health Behaviours and Nutrition Knowledge: A Quantile Regression Application in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shih-Neng; Tseng, Jauling

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess various marginal effects of nutrient intakes, health behaviours and nutrition knowledge on the entire distribution of body mass index (BMI) across individuals. Design: Quantitative and distributional study. Setting: Taiwan. Methods: This study applies Becker's (1965) model of health production to construct an individual's BMI…

  16. Immune response and insulin signalling alter mosquito feeding behaviour to enhance malaria transmission potential.

    PubMed

    Cator, Lauren J; Pietri, Jose E; Murdock, Courtney C; Ohm, Johanna R; Lewis, Edwin E; Read, Andrew F; Luckhart, Shirley; Thomas, Matthew B

    2015-01-01

    Malaria parasites alter mosquito feeding behaviour in a way that enhances parasite transmission. This is widely considered a prime example of manipulation of host behaviour to increase onward transmission, but transient immune challenge in the absence of parasites can induce the same behavioural phenotype. Here, we show that alterations in feeding behaviour depend on the timing and dose of immune challenge relative to blood ingestion and that these changes are functionally linked to changes in insulin signalling in the mosquito gut. These results suggest that altered phenotypes derive from insulin signalling-dependent host resource allocation among immunity, blood feeding, and reproduction in a manner that is not specific to malaria parasite infection. We measured large increases in mosquito survival and subsequent transmission potential when feeding patterns are altered. Leveraging these changes in physiology, behaviour and life history could promote effective and sustainable control of female mosquitoes responsible for transmission.

  17. Relationship between residual feed intake and lymphocyte mitochondrial complex protein concentration and ratio in crossbred steers.

    PubMed

    Davis, M P; Brooks, M A; Kerley, M S

    2016-04-01

    Rate of oxygen uptake by muscle mitochondria and respiratory chain protein concentrations differed between high- and low-residual feed intake (RFI) animals. The hypothesis of this research was that complex I (CI), II (CII), and III (CIII) mitochondria protein concentrations in lymphocyte (blood) mitochondria were related to the RFI phenotype of beef steers. Daily feed intake (ADFI) was individually recorded for 92 Hereford-crossbreed steers over 63 d using GrowSafe individual feed intake system. Predicted ADFI was calculated as the regression of ADFI on ADG and midtest BW. Difference between ADFI and predicted ADFI was RFI. Lymphocytes were isolated from low-RFI (-1.32 ± 0.11 kg/d; = 10) and high-RFI (1.34 ± 0.18 kg/d; = 8) steers. Immunocapture of CI, CII, and CIII proteins from the lymphocyte was done using MitoProfile CI, CII, and CIII immunocapture kits (MitoSciences Inc., Eugene, OR). Protein concentrations of CI, CII, and CIII and total protein were quantified using bicinchoninic acid colorimetric procedures. Low-RFI steers consumed 30% less ( = 0.0004) feed and had a 40% improvement ( < 0.0001) in feed efficiency compared with high-RFI steers with similar growth ( = 0.78) and weight measurements ( > 0.65). High- and low-RFI steers did not differ in CI ( = 0.22), CII ( = 0.69), and CIII ( = 0.59) protein concentrations. The protein concentration ratios for CI to CII ( = 0.03) were 20% higher and the ratios of CI to CIII ( = 0.01) were 30% higher, but the ratios of CII to CIII ( = 0.89) did not differ when comparing low-RFI steers with high-RFI steers. The similar magnitude difference in feed intake, feed efficiency measurements, and CI-to-CIII ratio between RFI phenotypes provides a plausible explanation for differences between the phenotypes. We also concluded that mitochondria isolated from lymphocytes could be used to study respiratory chain differences among differing RFI phenotypes. Further research is needed to determine if lymphocyte mitochondrial

  18. Use of a gyroscope/accelerometer data logger to identify alternative feeding behaviours in fish.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Yuuki; Noda, Takuji; Nakashima, Yuuki; Nanami, Atsushi; Sato, Taku; Takebe, Takayuki; Mitamura, Hiromichi; Arai, Nobuaki; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Soyano, Kiyoshi

    2014-09-15

    We examined whether we could identify the feeding behaviours of the trophic generalist fish Epinephelus ongus on different prey types (crabs and fish) using a data logger that incorporated a three-axis gyroscope and a three-axis accelerometer. Feeding behaviours and other burst behaviours, including escape responses, intraspecific interactions and routine movements, were recorded from six E. ongus individuals using data loggers sampling at 200 Hz, and were validated by simultaneously recorded video images. For each data-logger record, we extracted 5 s of data when any of the three-axis accelerations exceeded absolute 2.0 g, to capture all feeding behaviours and other burst behaviours. Each feeding behaviour was then identified using a combination of parameters that were derived from the extracted data. Using decision trees with the parameters, high true identification rates (87.5% for both feeding behaviours) with low false identification rates (5% for crab-eating and 6.3% for fish-eating) were achieved for both feeding behaviours.

  19. Use of a gyroscope/accelerometer data logger to identify alternative feeding behaviours in fish.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Yuuki; Noda, Takuji; Nakashima, Yuuki; Nanami, Atsushi; Sato, Taku; Takebe, Takayuki; Mitamura, Hiromichi; Arai, Nobuaki; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Soyano, Kiyoshi

    2014-09-15

    We examined whether we could identify the feeding behaviours of the trophic generalist fish Epinephelus ongus on different prey types (crabs and fish) using a data logger that incorporated a three-axis gyroscope and a three-axis accelerometer. Feeding behaviours and other burst behaviours, including escape responses, intraspecific interactions and routine movements, were recorded from six E. ongus individuals using data loggers sampling at 200 Hz, and were validated by simultaneously recorded video images. For each data-logger record, we extracted 5 s of data when any of the three-axis accelerations exceeded absolute 2.0 g, to capture all feeding behaviours and other burst behaviours. Each feeding behaviour was then identified using a combination of parameters that were derived from the extracted data. Using decision trees with the parameters, high true identification rates (87.5% for both feeding behaviours) with low false identification rates (5% for crab-eating and 6.3% for fish-eating) were achieved for both feeding behaviours. PMID:25013109

  20. Precision feeding can significantly reduce lysine intake and nitrogen excretion without compromising the performance of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Andretta, I; Pomar, C; Rivest, J; Pomar, J; Radünz, J

    2016-07-01

    This study was developed to assess the impact on performance, nutrient balance, serum parameters and feeding costs resulting from the switching of conventional to precision-feeding programs for growing-finishing pigs. A total of 70 pigs (30.4±2.2 kg BW) were used in a performance trial (84 days). The five treatments used in this experiment were a three-phase group-feeding program (control) obtained with fixed blending proportions of feeds A (high nutrient density) and B (low nutrient density); against four individual daily-phase feeding programs in which the blending proportions of feeds A and B were updated daily to meet 110%, 100%, 90% or 80% of the lysine requirements estimated using a mathematical model. Feed intake was recorded automatically by a computerized device in the feeders, and the pigs were weighed weekly during the project. Body composition traits were estimated by scanning with an ultrasound device and densitometer every 28 days. Nitrogen and phosphorus excretions were calculated by the difference between retention (obtained from densitometer measurements) and intake. Feeding costs were assessed using 2013 ingredient cost data. Feed intake, feed efficiency, back fat thickness, body fat mass and serum contents of total protein and phosphorus were similar among treatments. Feeding pigs in a daily-basis program providing 110%, 100% or 90% of the estimated individual lysine requirements also did not influence BW, body protein mass, weight gain and nitrogen retention in comparison with the animals in the group-feeding program. However, feeding pigs individually with diets tailored to match 100% of nutrient requirements made it possible to reduce (P<0.05) digestible lysine intake by 26%, estimated nitrogen excretion by 30% and feeding costs by US$7.60/pig (-10%) relative to group feeding. Precision feeding is an effective approach to make pig production more sustainable without compromising growth performance.

  1. Food sensory characteristics: their unconsidered roles in the feeding behaviour of domestic ruminants.

    PubMed

    Favreau-Peigné, A; Baumont, R; Ginane, C

    2013-05-01

    When domestic ruminants are faced with food diversity, they can use pre-ingestive information (i.e. food sensory characteristics perceived by the animal before swallowing the food) and post-ingestive information (i.e. digestive and metabolic consequences, experienced by the animal after swallowing the food) to evaluate the food and make decisions to select a suitable diet. The concept of palatability is essential to understand how pre- and post-ingestive information are interrelated. It refers to the hedonic value of the food without any immediate effect of post-ingestive consequences and environmental factors, but with the influence of individual characteristics, such as animal's genetic background, internal state and previous experiences. In the literature, the post-ingestive consequences are commonly considered as the main force that influences feeding behaviour whereas food sensory characteristics are only used as discriminatory agents. This discriminatory role is indeed important for animals to be aware of their feeding environment, and ruminants are able to use their different senses either singly or in combination to discriminate between different foods. However, numerous studies on ruminants' feeding behaviour demonstrate that the role of food sensory characteristics has been underestimated or simplified; they could play at least two other roles. First, some sensory characteristics also possess a hedonic value which influences ruminants' intake, preferences and food learning independently of any immediate post-ingestive consequences. Further, diversity of food sensory characteristics has a hedonic value, as animals prefer an absence of monotony in food sensory characteristics at similar post-ingestive consequences. Second, some of these food sensory characteristics become an indicator of post-ingestive consequences after their initial hedonic value has acquired a positive or a negative value via previous individual food learning or evolutionary processes

  2. Expression profile of hypothalamic neuropeptides in chicken lines selected for high or low residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Sintubin, P; Greene, E; Collin, A; Bordas, A; Zerjal, T; Tesseraud, S; Buyse, J; Dridi, S

    2014-08-01

    The R(+) and R(-) chicken lines have been divergently selected for high (R(+)) or low (R(-)) residual feed intake. For the same body weight and egg production, the R(+) chickens consume 40% more food than their counterparts R(-) lines. In the present study we sought to determine the hypothalamic expression profile of feeding-related neuropeptides in these lines maintained under fed or food-deprived conditions. In the fed condition, the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) was 17-fold lower (P<0.05) and the ghrelin receptor was 7-fold higher (P<0.05) in R(+) compared to R(-) chicken lines. The hypothalamic expression of the other studied genes remained unchanged between the two lines. In the fasted state, orexigenic neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide were more responsive, with higher significant levels in the R(+) compared to R(-) chickens, while no significant differences were seen for the anorexigenic neuropeptides pro-opiomelanocortin and corticotropin releasing hormone. Interestingly, C-reactive protein, adiponectin receptor 1 and ghrelin receptor gene expression were significantly higher (12-, 2- and 3-folds, respectively), however ghrelin and melanocortin 5 receptor mRNA levels were lower (4- and 2-folds, P=0.05 and P=0.03, respectively) in R(+) compared to R(-) animals. We identified several key feeding-related genes that are differently expressed in the hypothalamus of R(+) and R(-) chickens and that might explain the difference in feed intake observed between the two lines.

  3. Effects of dietary fiber concentrations supplied by corn bran on feed intake growth and feed efficiency of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study examined the effects of dietary fiber and digestible energy on the feed intake, growth, and feed efficiency of juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Fish with an initial weight of 9.8 ± 0.1 g/fish (mean ± SD) were stocked in 110-L flow-through aquariums and fed for 9 weeks ...

  4. Influence of nutrients on feed intake and condition of captive canvasbacks in winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Kuenzel, W.J.; Williams, B.K.; Serafin, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Dramatic changes in the food habits and distribution of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) in Chesapeake Bay during the 1970's generated a need to evaluate the nutritional value of food items and the requirements of this species on its wintering grounds. Groups of captive canvasbacks were maintained ad libitum on 5 diets during the winters of 1978-79 and 1979-80 to evaluate the effects of varying protein and energy levels on feed intake and condition. Feed intake during the 1979-80 winter was 42% greater for those ducks fed the low energy (1,543 kcal/kg) diet than for those fed the high energy (3,638 kcal/kg) diet. Canvasbacks fed the high energy diet, however, consumed 317 kcal/bird day, whereas those fed the low energy diet consumed only 191 kcal/bird day. Body weight of males and females did not differ among groups fed different diets, but there were seasonal differences (P < 0.05) for both sexes aggregated across diets. Data from this study indicate that canvasbacks may be unable to adjust intake rates to compensate for low energy foods and subsequently may store less fat or modify behavior. However, decreased weight, feed intake, and activity of ducks fed ad libitum rations occurred in mid-winter irrespective of diet quality and appeared to be an endogenous component of their annual cycle that persists in captivity. These changes apparently have a selective advantage of increasing the probability of survival in ducks by decreasing energy expenditure during periods of winter stress.

  5. Inappropriate Feeding Behaviors and Dietary Intakes in Children with FASD or Probable PAE

    PubMed Central

    Werts, Rachel L.; Van Calcar, Sandra C.; Wargowski, David S.; Smith, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is a leading cause of significant neurobehavioral and neurocognitive deficits. Its potential consequences for eating behaviors, nutritional status and other nutritional issues in childhood have received little attention. Methods Nineteen children (11 male, 8 female) of mean age 9.6 years, referred for FASD screening and assessment, were analyzed with physical exams and caregiver questionnaires to identify possible abnormalities in food and eating behaviors. Fourteen children contributed 24-hour diet recalls and were assessed for nutritional status. Results Seventy-nine percent of participants were diagnosed with FASD and 63.2% had confirmed PAE. Fifty percent of females were overweight or obese, whereas 37% of males had reduced stature, weight, or BMI for their age. Recurring feeding problems included constant snacking (36.8%), lack of satiety (26.3%), and picky eating/poor appetite (31.6%). None had oral feeding problems. Constipation was common (26.3%). Macronutrient intakes were largely normal but sugar consumption was excessive (140%-190% of recommendations) in 57% of subjects. Vitamin A intake exceeded the Upper Limit for 64% of participants, whereas ≥50% had intakes <80% of RDAs for choline, vitamin E, potassium, β-carotene, and essential fatty acids; 100% had vitamin D intakes <80% of the RDA. Conclusions PAE may be associated with altered acquisition and distribution of body mass with increasing age. Disordered eating was common. The increased feeding behaviors surrounding lack of satiety suggest self-regulation may be altered. Constipation could reflect low dietary fiber or altered gastrointestinal function. These exploratory data suggest that children with PAE may be at risk for nutritional deficiencies, which are influenced by inappropriate food preferences, disordered eating patterns, medication use, and the stressful dynamics surrounding food preparation and mealtime. PMID:24164456

  6. Predatory feeding behaviour in Pristionchus nematodes is dependent on phenotypic plasticity and induced by serotonin.

    PubMed

    Wilecki, Martin; Lightfoot, James W; Susoy, Vladislav; Sommer, Ralf J

    2015-05-01

    Behavioural innovation and morphological adaptation are intrinsically linked but their relationship is often poorly understood. In nematodes, a huge diversity of feeding morphologies and behaviours can be observed to meet their distinctive dietary and environmental demands. Pristionchus and their relatives show varied feeding activities, both consuming bacteria and also predating other nematodes. In addition, Pristionchus nematodes display dimorphic mouth structures triggered by an irreversible developmental switch, which generates a narrower mouthed form with a single tooth and a wider mouthed form with an additional tooth. However, little is known about the specific predatory adaptations of these mouth forms or the associated mechanisms and behaviours. Through a mechanistic analysis of predation behaviours, in particular in the model organism Pristionchus pacificus, we reveal multifaceted feeding modes characterised by dynamic rhythmic switching and tooth stimulation. This complex feeding mode switch is regulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin in a previously uncharacterised role, a process that appears conserved across several predatory nematode species. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of starvation, prey size and prey preference on P. pacificus predatory feeding kinetics, revealing predation to be a fundamental component of the P. pacificus feeding repertoire, thus providing an additional rich source of nutrition in addition to bacteria. Finally, we found that mouth form morphology also has a striking impact on predation, suppressing predatory behaviour in the narrow mouthed form. Our results therefore hint at the regulatory networks involved in controlling predatory feeding and underscore P. pacificus as a model for understanding the evolution of complex behaviours.

  7. Profile of the Spleen Transcriptome in Beef Steers with Variation in Gain and Feed Intake.

    PubMed

    Lindholm-Perry, Amanda K; Kern, Rebecca J; Keel, Brittney N; Snelling, Warren M; Kuehn, Larry A; Freetly, Harvey C

    2016-01-01

    We have previously identified components of the immune system contributing to feed intake and gain in both the rumen and small intestine of beef steers. In this study, we examined the spleen, a major lymphatic organ near the digestive tract, to determine whether it was also influencing individual feed efficiency status through immune responses. Animals (n = 16) that were divergent for gain and intake were selected for tissue sampling. The spleen transcriptomes were evaluated by microarray. A total of 1216 genes were identified as differentially expressed. Genes were over-represented in Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathways including biological regulation, protein folding, cell communication, immune systems process, response to stress, and RNA metabolic process. Several stress response or heat shock genes including HSPH1, HSPA1A, HSPA4, DNAJB4, DNAJA4, etc., were identified as a stress response functional gene cluster in the low gain-low intake animals. These genes were up-regulated amongst the low gain-low intake animals compared to all other groups. Canonical pathways associated with the differentially expressed genes included the coagulation system, extrinsic prothrombin activation, protein ubiquitination, unfolded protein response, and aldosterone signaling in epithelial cells. An analysis of expressed copy number variable (CNV) genes in the spleen produced some of the same genes and gene families that were differentially expressed. Our data suggests the splenic contribution to some of the underlying variation among gain and intake within this group of animals may be a result of immune function and stress response. In addition, some of the differences in immune response functions may be related to gene copy number. PMID:27504120

  8. Profile of the Spleen Transcriptome in Beef Steers with Variation in Gain and Feed Intake

    PubMed Central

    Lindholm-Perry, Amanda K.; Kern, Rebecca J.; Keel, Brittney N.; Snelling, Warren M.; Kuehn, Larry A.; Freetly, Harvey C.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously identified components of the immune system contributing to feed intake and gain in both the rumen and small intestine of beef steers. In this study, we examined the spleen, a major lymphatic organ near the digestive tract, to determine whether it was also influencing individual feed efficiency status through immune responses. Animals (n = 16) that were divergent for gain and intake were selected for tissue sampling. The spleen transcriptomes were evaluated by microarray. A total of 1216 genes were identified as differentially expressed. Genes were over-represented in Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathways including biological regulation, protein folding, cell communication, immune systems process, response to stress, and RNA metabolic process. Several stress response or heat shock genes including HSPH1, HSPA1A, HSPA4, DNAJB4, DNAJA4, etc., were identified as a stress response functional gene cluster in the low gain-low intake animals. These genes were up-regulated amongst the low gain-low intake animals compared to all other groups. Canonical pathways associated with the differentially expressed genes included the coagulation system, extrinsic prothrombin activation, protein ubiquitination, unfolded protein response, and aldosterone signaling in epithelial cells. An analysis of expressed copy number variable (CNV) genes in the spleen produced some of the same genes and gene families that were differentially expressed. Our data suggests the splenic contribution to some of the underlying variation among gain and intake within this group of animals may be a result of immune function and stress response. In addition, some of the differences in immune response functions may be related to gene copy number. PMID:27504120

  9. Associations between food consumption habits with meal intake behaviour in Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Keller, Kristin; Rodríguez López, Santiago; Carmenate Moreno, M Margarita; Acevedo Cantero, Paula

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the contribution of different types of meal intake behaviour on a healthy diet and seeks to find associations with food consumption habits. A cross-sectional survey with data from 1332 Spanish adults aged between 20 and 79 years was conducted. The survey was carried out during the cardiovascular health event 'Semanas del Corazon 2008' in four Spanish cities. Several food consumption habits such as the recommended intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, as well as the regular consumption of fatty and salty food and ready-made meals, were used as dependent variables in logistic regression. We evaluated different meal intake behaviour such as the type of meals, snacking, and drinks taken with a meal. Our survey revealed that snacking is positively associated with the regular consumption of salty and fatty food, and having sugary drinks with meals was positively associated with the regular consumption of ready-made meals. Having a forenoon meal is positively associated with the consumption of two or more portions of milk and dairy products and vegetables, and taking an afternoon meal with the recommended intake of milk and dairy products and fruits. Drinking water during a meal increases the probability of consuming two or more portions of fruits and vegetables. Our results enhance the understanding of the contribution that meal intake behaviour makes to a healthy diet based on food consumption habits. This work provides an insight into eating behaviour and would make a useful contribution to interventions aimed at promoting healthier eating habits.

  10. Associations between food consumption habits with meal intake behaviour in Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Keller, Kristin; Rodríguez López, Santiago; Carmenate Moreno, M Margarita; Acevedo Cantero, Paula

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the contribution of different types of meal intake behaviour on a healthy diet and seeks to find associations with food consumption habits. A cross-sectional survey with data from 1332 Spanish adults aged between 20 and 79 years was conducted. The survey was carried out during the cardiovascular health event 'Semanas del Corazon 2008' in four Spanish cities. Several food consumption habits such as the recommended intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, as well as the regular consumption of fatty and salty food and ready-made meals, were used as dependent variables in logistic regression. We evaluated different meal intake behaviour such as the type of meals, snacking, and drinks taken with a meal. Our survey revealed that snacking is positively associated with the regular consumption of salty and fatty food, and having sugary drinks with meals was positively associated with the regular consumption of ready-made meals. Having a forenoon meal is positively associated with the consumption of two or more portions of milk and dairy products and vegetables, and taking an afternoon meal with the recommended intake of milk and dairy products and fruits. Drinking water during a meal increases the probability of consuming two or more portions of fruits and vegetables. Our results enhance the understanding of the contribution that meal intake behaviour makes to a healthy diet based on food consumption habits. This work provides an insight into eating behaviour and would make a useful contribution to interventions aimed at promoting healthier eating habits. PMID:25127937

  11. Whole Genome Association Studies of Residual Feed Intake and Related Traits in the Pig

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jennifer M.; Garrick, Dorian J.; Dekkers, Jack C. M.; Rothschild, Max F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, is the difference between observed feed intake and the expected feed requirement predicted from growth and maintenance. Pigs with low RFI have reduced feed costs without compromising their growth. Identification of genes or genetic markers associated with RFI will be useful for marker-assisted selection at an early age of animals with improved feed efficiency. Methodology/Principal findings Whole genome association studies (WGAS) for RFI, average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), back fat (BF) and loin muscle area (LMA) were performed on 1,400 pigs from the divergently selected ISU-RFI lines, using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. Various statistical methods were applied to find SNPs and genomic regions associated with the traits, including a Bayesian approach using GenSel software, and frequentist approaches such as allele frequency differences between lines, single SNP and haplotype analyses using PLINK software. Single SNP and haplotype analyses showed no significant associations (except for LMA) after genomic control and FDR. Bayesian analyses found at least 2 associations for each trait at a false positive probability of 0.5. At generation 8, the RFI selection lines mainly differed in allele frequencies for SNPs near (<0.05 Mb) genes that regulate insulin release and leptin functions. The Bayesian approach identified associations of genomic regions containing insulin release genes (e.g., GLP1R, CDKAL, SGMS1) with RFI and ADFI, of regions with energy homeostasis (e.g., MC4R, PGM1, GPR81) and muscle growth related genes (e.g., TGFB1) with ADG, and of fat metabolism genes (e.g., ACOXL, AEBP1) with BF. Specifically, a very highly significantly associated QTL for LMA on SSC7 with skeletal myogenesis genes (e.g., KLHL31) was identified for subsequent fine mapping. Conclusions/significance Important genomic regions associated with RFI related traits were identified for future

  12. Dietary Vitamin K Intake Is Associated with Cognition and Behaviour among Geriatric Patients: The CLIP Study

    PubMed Central

    Chouet, Justine; Ferland, Guylaine; Féart, Catherine; Rolland, Yves; Presse, Nancy; Boucher, Kariane; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether dietary vitamin K intake was associated with cognition and behavior among older adults. 192 consecutive participants ≥65 years, recruited in the cross-sectional CLIP (Cognition and LIPophilic vitamins) study, were separated into two groups according to the tertiles of dietary phylloquinone intake (i.e., lowest third below 207 µg/day versus the other two thirds combined). Daily dietary phylloquinone intake was estimated from 50-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cognition was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); behaviour with Frontotemporal Behavioral Rating Scale (FBRS). Age, gender, social problems, education, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, history of stroke, use vitamin K antagonists, inadequate fatty fish intake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), vitamin B12, albumin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were used as confounders. Compared to participants in the lowest third of dietary phylloquinone intake (n = 64), those with higher intake had higher (i.e., better) mean MMSE score (22.0 ± 5.7 versus 19.9 ± 6.2, p = 0.024) and lower (i.e., better) FBRS score (1.5 ± 1.2 versus 1.9 ± 1.3, p = 0.042). In multivariate linear regressions, log dietary phylloquinone intake was positively associated with MMSE score (adjusted β = 1.66, p = 0.013) and inversely associated with FBRS score (adjusted β = −0.33, p = 0.037). Specifically, log dietary phylloquinone intake correlated negatively with FBRS subscore of physical neglect (r = −0.24, p = 0.001). Higher dietary phylloquinone intake was associated with better cognition and behavior among older adults. PMID:26274973

  13. Dietary Vitamin K Intake Is Associated with Cognition and Behaviour among Geriatric Patients: The CLIP Study.

    PubMed

    Chouet, Justine; Ferland, Guylaine; Féart, Catherine; Rolland, Yves; Presse, Nancy; Boucher, Kariane; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cedric

    2015-08-12

    Our objective was to determine whether dietary vitamin K intake was associated with cognition and behavior among older adults. 192 consecutive participants ≥65 years, recruited in the cross-sectional CLIP (Cognition and LIPophilic vitamins) study, were separated into two groups according to the tertiles of dietary phylloquinone intake (i.e., lowest third below 207 µg/day versus the other two thirds combined). Daily dietary phylloquinone intake was estimated from 50-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cognition was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); behaviour with Frontotemporal Behavioral Rating Scale (FBRS). Age, gender, social problems, education, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, history of stroke, use vitamin K antagonists, inadequate fatty fish intake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), vitamin B12, albumin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were used as confounders. Compared to participants in the lowest third of dietary phylloquinone intake (n = 64), those with higher intake had higher (i.e., better) mean MMSE score (22.0 ± 5.7 versus 19.9 ± 6.2, p = 0.024) and lower (i.e., better) FBRS score (1.5 ± 1.2 versus 1.9 ± 1.3, p = 0.042). In multivariate linear regressions, log dietary phylloquinone intake was positively associated with MMSE score (adjusted β = 1.66, p = 0.013) and inversely associated with FBRS score (adjusted β = -0.33, p = 0.037). Specifically, log dietary phylloquinone intake correlated negatively with FBRS subscore of physical neglect (r = -0.24, p = 0.001). Higher dietary phylloquinone intake was associated with better cognition and behavior among older adults.

  14. Altered feeding behaviour induced by long-term cisplatin in rats.

    PubMed

    Vera, Gema; Chiarlone, Anna; Martín, Ma Isabel; Abalo, Raquel

    2006-06-30

    In animals without the emetic reflex, several emetogenic stimuli induce pica, an altered feeding behaviour consisting of the ingestion of non-nutritive substances. The development of pica in response to an emetogenic stimulus has been proposed to be useful as an indirect marker of nausea in the rat. In fact, like nausea and emesis in humans, it is accompanied by serotonin release from the enterochromaffin cells, increased c-fos labelling in the area postrema and the nucleus tractus solitarius, and a delay in gastric emptying. Furthermore, pica, measured as kaolin intake, is reduced by anti-emetic drugs. Pica has been demonstrated after single doses of cisplatin, the most emetogenic chemotherapeutic drug. However, cisplatin, as other antineoplastic drugs, is generally given in cycles, where conventional anti-emetics tend to lose efficiency. The aim of this work was to evaluate the pica induced by long-term treatment with cisplatin. Saline or cisplatin was administered once a week for 5 consecutive weeks, and temperature, body weight, food ingestion and kaolin intake were measured on a daily basis. The influence of isolation (pica is necessarily studied in isolated animals) and exposure to kaolin (basal kaolin intake could modify pica itself and other parameters) on temperature, body weight and daily food ingestion was negligible in saline-treated rats. Cisplatin administered at 3 mg/kg/week was too toxic: it produced hypothermia, weight drop and anorexia in both grouped and isolated rats, and 50% mortality in isolated animals. Toxicity associated with cisplatin administered at 1 mg/kg/week was acceptable, with a slower rate of weight gain being the major effect. In these rats, each cisplatin injection produced both acute anorexia and rebound hyperphagic responses. In addition, each administration induced both acute pica and an increase in basal kaolin intake, resembling the development of nausea in humans. This model could be useful for studying both the mechanisms

  15. Physiological, Morphological and Behavioural Responses of Self-Feeding Precocial Chicks Copying with Contrasting Levels of Water Salinity during Development

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Afonso R.; Silva, Rita; Villegas, Auxiliadora; Sánchez-Guzmán, Juan M.; Ramos, Jaime A.; Masero, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Combined physiological and behavioural responses to salt loads during development have rarely been studied in air-breathing vertebrates able to inhabit hypersaline habitats, but they may be of particular importance in understanding, for example, the differences among species in patterns of habitat use or ontogenetic diet switches. Here, we compared the physiological and behavioural responses of self-feeding precocial chicks developed in contrasting levels of water salinity. The model species was the Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus) a precocial shorebird that breeds in a range of habitats from freshwater to hypersaline wetlands. Specifically, we compared resting metabolic rate (RMR), heat shock proteins (Hsp70), plasma ions, hematocrit, body mass, body size, growth rate and head-shaking behaviour of captive-reared Black-winged Stilt fledglings developed under fresh (0 ‰), saline (20 ‰), and hypersaline (60 ‰) water. Contrary to expectations, none of the physiological and morphological variables measured differed significantly among treatments. Likewise, the RMR of wild and captive-reared fledglings was similar. Surprisingly, the saltgland mass of wild fledglings from freshwater and those from hypersaline habitats was also similar. However, head-shaking, a behavioural response associated to minimize salt intake and to expel the secretions of salt glands, differed according to salinity source: head-shaking rate increased with increasing salinity. The results of this study support the key role of behavioural osmoregulation in avoiding salt stress during development. PMID:27788200

  16. Effects of temperature and feed intake on astaxanthin digestibility and metabolism in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Ytrestøyl, T; Struksnaes, G; Koppe, W; Bjerkeng, B

    2005-12-01

    The effects of feed intake, growth rate and temperature (8 and 12 degrees C) on apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC), blood uptake of individual astaxanthin E/Z isomers and metabolism of astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-beta,beta-carotene-4,4'-dione) were determined in Atlantic salmon. Accumulation of idoxanthin (3,4,3'-trihydroxy-beta,beta-carotene-4-one) in plasma was used to indicate metabolic transformation of astaxanthin. Quadruplicate groups of fish were subjected to three different treatments; one treatment was kept at 12 degrees C and fed to satiation. Another treatment kept at 12 degrees C was pair-fed with fish fed to satiation at 8 degrees C, resulting in a restricted feeding regime for the former treatment. After 2 months of feeding, the fish were fed a single meal containing ballotini glass beads to determine individual feed intake and Y(2)O(3) as an inert marker to determine ADCs. The faeces samples were pooled into 6 categories according to individual meal size (range 0.2-1.5% of body weight) and the ADCs for different meal sizes were determined. ADCs of astaxanthin ranged from 20% to 60% but were not significantly correlated with meal size. However, fish kept at 12 degrees C had approximately 10% higher ADC than fish kept at 8 degrees C (p=0.032). Growth rate and plasma astaxanthin concentration were higher at higher temperature and higher ration. Plasma concentration of idoxanthin was not affected by temperature or by meal size. The incidence of fin erosion and non-feeding individuals was significantly higher among fish fed a restricted ration indicating more aggressive interactions. Fish with visible fin damage had a tendency for having higher idoxanthin content in plasma than fish without noticeable fin damage. It is concluded that temperature but not individual meal size affect ADC of astaxanthin, whereas both influence plasma astaxanthin levels and may therefore affect the efficiency of astaxanthin utilization.

  17. Thermoregulatory responses during thermal acclimation in pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Paulo Henrique Reis Furtado; Noblet, Jean; Jaguelin-Peyraud, Yolande; Gilbert, Hélène; Mormède, Pierre; de Oliveira Donzele, Rita Flavia Miranda; Donzele, Juarez Lopes; Renaudeau, David

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and thermoregulatory responses during acclimation to high ambient temperature (Ta) of pigs from two lines selected for high (RFI+) or low (RFI-) residual feed intake with the hypothesis that RFI- pigs producing less heat would better tolerate high Ta. Pigs (50 kg initial body weight; 17 per line among which 10 of them were catheterized) were individually housed in a climatic-controlled room where Ta was maintained at 24.2 ± 0.4 °C during 7 days and thereafter at 30.4 ± 0.7 °C during 14 days. Irrespective of Ta, RFI- pigs had lower feed intake (ADFI) and similar average daily gain (ADG) than RFI+ pigs. Whatever the line, ADFI, ADG, and feed efficiency decreased with increased Ta. Overall, the Ta increase resulted in an increase in rectal temperature (RT), skin temperature (ST), and respiratory rate (RR) within the first 24-48 h and, subsequently, in a decrease followed by stabilization. The RT decrease during acclimation occurred 24 h earlier in RFI- pigs than in RFI+. Thyroid hormones and cortisol decreased at high Ta and it was similar in both lines. Based on performance and RT, ST, and RR responses, it seems that selection for low RFI tends to ameliorate pigs' tolerance to high Ta. Nevertheless, this selection does not induce significant differences between lines in endocrine and metabolite responses during thermal stress.

  18. Factors in the control of feed intake of horses and ponies.

    PubMed

    Ralston, S L; Baile, C A

    1983-01-01

    Ponies are large nonruminant herbivores which are capable of utilizing the products of both enzymatic digestion in the small intestine and bacterial fermentation (volatile fatty acids, VFAs) in the cecum and large colon as sources of metabolizable energy. Recent studies have demonstrated that ponies utilize nutrient stimuli from both carbohydrate and fat digestion in the small intestine and VFAs in the cecum and large colon in the control of meal frequency. These animals, however, rely primarily upon oropharyngeal and external stimuli to control the size and duration of meals. This is perhaps an adaptation to a feeding pattern of small frequent meals and food sources which provide significant amounts of nutrients to the animal system only after microbial fermentation in the hind gut. Nutrient cues which are operant in controlling feed intake in omnivores, carnivores, and ruminants appear to be important primarily in the regulation of meal frequency and long-term energy balance in the equine animal. The emphasis on oropharyngeal stimuli in the immediate control of feed intake of ponies reflects the unusual digestive physiology of these animals relative to other species studied to date.

  19. Assessing peripheral blood cell profile of Yorkshire pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Mpetile, Z; Young, J M; Gabler, N K; Dekkers, J C M; Tuggle, C K

    2015-03-01

    The cost of feed is a serious issue in the pork industry, contributing about 65 to 75% of the total production cost. To prevent economic losses and decreased productivity of the herd, it is important to select for animals that eat less for the same lean gain, or more efficient animals. Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between observed feed intake and expected feed intake based on estimated maintenance and production requirements. Selection for decreased RFI, or more efficient animals, is a potential solution to higher feed costs in pig production. However, animals that are highly selected for decreased RFI may have reduced energy input to the immune system and fail to withstand diseases and stressors after infection that negatively impact profitability. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in circulating blood cell profiles at a young age between 2 lines of Yorkshire pigs that were divergently selected for RFI as well as the heritability of these traits, to investigate effects of selection for RFI on immune system parameters, and to identify potential biomarkers for feed efficiency. Previous work has shown that the 2 lines had diverged for IGF-1 in serum in young pigs and, therefore, this stage was investigated for other potential physiological differences. Blood samples were drawn for a complete blood count (CBC) analysis from 517 gilts and barrows, ages 35 to 42 d, across the 2 lines. In general, the low-RFI line had lower numbers of specific types of white blood cells but higher hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell volume compared to the high-RFI line. No significant correlations were found between CBC traits and RFI across and within the lines (0.05 < < 0.1). Of the 15 CBC traits that were measured, 3 were highly heritable (0.56 < < 0.62), 9 were moderately heritable (0.12 < < 0.47), and 3 were lowly heritable ( < 0.12), suggesting a substantial genetic component for CBC traits and that selection for CBC traits could be

  20. Locomotor activity and body temperature in selected mouse lines differing greatly in feed intake.

    PubMed

    Sojka, P A; Griess, R S; Nielsen, M K

    2013-08-01

    Locomotor activity, body temperature, feed intake, and BW were measured on 382 mature male mice sampled from lines previously selected (25 generations) for either high (MH) or low (ML) heat loss and an unselected control (MC). Animals were from all 3 independent replicates of the 3 lines and across 4 generations (68 through 71). Locomotor activity and body temperatures were obtained using implanted transmitters with data collection over 4 d following a 3-d postsurgery recovery period. Data were collected every minute and then averaged into 30-min periods, thus providing 192 data points for each mouse. Least-squares means for feed intake adjusted for BW (Feed/BW, feed·BW(-1)·d(-1), g/g) were 0.1586, 0.1234, and 0.1125 (±0.0022) for MH, MC, and ML, respectively, with line being a highly significant source of variation (P < 0.0003). Line effects for locomotor activity counts, transformed to the 0.25 power for analysis, were significantly different, with MH mice being 2.1 times more active than ML mice (P < 0.003); MC mice were intermediate. Differences in body temperature were significant for both line (P < 0.03) and day effects (P < 0.001), with a 0.32°C difference between the MH and ML lines. Fourier series analysis used the combined significant periodicities of 24, 18, 12, 9, 6, and 3 h to describe circadian cycles for activity and body temperature. All 3 lines expressed daily peaks in body temperature and locomotor activity ∼3 h into darkness and ∼2 h after lights were turned on. There was a stronger relationship between locomotor activity and Feed/BW (P < 0.0001) than between body temperature and Feed/BW (P < 0.01); differences between lines in locomotor activity and body temperature explained 17% and 3%, respectively, of differences between lines in Feed/BW. Thus, line differences in locomotor activity contribute to line differences in maintenance, but approximately 80% of the differences between the MH and ML selection lines in Feed/BW remains

  1. Genetic variance and covariance components for feed intake, average daily gain, and postweaning gain in growing beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed is the single most expensive cost related to a beef cattle production enterprise. Data collection to determine feed efficient animals is also costly. Currently a 70 d performance test is recommended for accurate calculation of efficiency. Previous research has suggested intake tests can be l...

  2. Analysis of copy number variations in Holstein cows identify potential mechanisms contributing to differences in residual feed intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. In this study, we performed an initial analysis of CNVs using BovineHD SNP genotyping data from 147 Holstein cows identified as having high or low feed efficiency as estimated by residual feed intak...

  3. Environmental factors affecting feed intake of steers in different housing systems in the summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koknaroglu, H.; Otles, Z.; Mader, T.; Hoffman, M. P.

    2008-07-01

    A total of 188 yearling steers of predominantly Angus and Hereford breeds, with mean body weight of 299 kg, were used in this study, which started on 8 April and finished on 3 October, to assess the effects of environmental factors on feed intake of steers in various housing systems. Housing consisted of outside lots with access to overhead shelter, outside lots with no overhead shelter and a cold confinement building. Ad libitum corn, 2.27 kg of 35% dry matter whole plant sorghum silage and 0.68 kg of a 61% protein-vitamin-mineral supplement was offered. Feed that was not consumed was measured to determine feed intake. The temperature data were recorded by hygro-thermographs. Hourly temperatures and humidity were used to develop weather variables. Regression analysis was used and weather variables were regressed on dry matter intake (DMI). When addition of a new variable did not improve R 2 more than one unit, then the number of variables in the model was truncated. Cattle in confinement had lower DMI than those in open lots and those in open lots with access to an overhead shelter ( P < 0.05). Cattle in outside lots with access to overhead shelter had similar DMI compared to those in open lots ( P = 0.065). Effect of heat was predominantly displayed in August in the three housing systems. In terms of explaining variation in DMI, in outside lots with access to overhead shelter, average and daytime temperatures were important factors, whereas in open lots, nocturnal, peak and average temperatures were important factors. In confinement buildings, the previous day’s temperature and humidity index were the most important factors explaining variation in DMI. Results show the effect of housing and weather variables on DMI in summer and when considering these results, cattle producers wishing to improve cattle feedlot performance should consider housing conditions providing less stress or more comfort.

  4. Effect of time at pasture combined with restricted indoor feeding on production and behaviour in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, T; Oudshoorn, F; Munksgaard, L; Søegaard, K

    2007-03-01

    Extremely high nutrient loads have been reported in grazed grassland regimes compared with cutting regimes in some dairy systems that include the use of supplemental feeding. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the effects on productivity and behaviour of high-yielding dairy cows with limited access to indoor feed and restriction in the time at pasture in a continuous stocking system. During a 6-week period from the start of the grazing season 2005, an experiment was conducted with the aim of investigating the effect of restrictive indoor feeding combined with limiting the time at pasture on the productivity and behaviour of high-yielding dairy cows (31.0 ± 5.4 kg energy-corrected milk) in a system based on continuous stocking. The herd was split into three groups allocated to three treatments consisting of 4, 6.5 and 9 h at pasture, respectively. Each group of cows grazed in separate paddocks with three replicates and was separately housed in a cubicle system with slatted floor during the rest of the day. All cows were fed the same amount of supplement, adjusted daily to meet the ad libitum indoor intake of the cows at pasture for nine hours. The herbage allowance was 1650 kg dry matter (DM) per ha, and the intake of supplemental feed was 9.1 kg DM per cow daily. The limitation of the time at pasture to 4 h in combination with restrictive indoor feeding reduced the daily milk, fat and protein yield and live weight compared with 9 h of access to pasture. The proportion of time during which the cows were grazing while at pasture increased from 0.64 to 0.86 and the estimated herbage intake per h at pasture decreased from 2547 g DM to1398 g DM, when time at pasture changed from 4 to 9 h. It can be concluded, that in systems with a high herbage allowance, the cow was able to compensate for 0.8 of the reduction in time at pasture by increasing the proportion of time spent grazing and presumably also both the bite rate and mass, although the

  5. Effects of a proteolytic feed enzyme on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Eun, J-S; Beauchemin, K A

    2005-06-01

    The effects of exogenous proteolytic enzyme (EPE) on intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance were determined using 8 lactating Holstein cows in a double 4 x4 Latin square experiment with a 2 x2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets based on barley silage and alfalfa hay as the forage sources were formulated to maintain different forage to concentrate ratios [60:40 vs. 34:66, dry matter (DM) basis]. Four dietary treatments were tested: high forage (HF) without EPE (HF-EPE), HF with EPE (HF+EPE), low forage (LF) without EPE (LF-EPE), and LF with EPE (LF+EPE). The EPE, which contained proteolytic activity but negligible fibrolytic activity, was added to the concentrate portion of the diets after pelleting at a rate of 1.25 mL/kg of DM. Adding EPE to the diet increased total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, N, acid detergent fiber, and neutral detergent fiber, with larger increases in digestibility observed for cows fed LF+EPE. Effects of added EPE on in vivo digestibility were consistent with improvements in gas production and degradability of the individual components of the TMR observed in vitro. Ruminal enzymic activities of xylanase and endoglucanase increased with addition of EPE to the diet, which may have accounted for improvements in fiber digestion. However, feeding EPE unexpectedly decreased feed intake of cows, which offset the benefits of improved feed digestibility. Consequently, milk yield of cows fed high or low forage diets decreased with adding EPE. Nevertheless, dairy efficiency, expressed as milk/DM intake, was highest for the LF+EPE diet. Addition of EPE to the diet increased milk fat and milk lactose percentages, but decreased milk protein percentage of cows fed a low forage diet. For cows fed high forage diets, EPE only increased milk lactose percentage. Efficiency of N use for milk production was decreased for both the high and low forage diets when EPE was added to the diet. Mean ruminal pH was

  6. Feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride is associated with decreased dry matter intake shortly after initiation of feeding dependent on season and previous intake.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, C D; Vahl, C I; Depenbusch, B E; Hutcheson, J P; Thomson, D U

    2014-10-01

    A database of daily feed deliveries for steers and heifers fed at 3 commercial feedyards in Kansas between January 1, 2010, and January 31, 2012 (n = 1,515 pens), was used to investigate the prevalence and extent of changes in DMI after initiation of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZIL) at 8.3 mg/kg (DM) for 20 d. Season affected the percentage of pens experiencing a decrease in DMI post-ZIL (P < 0.01), but there were significant (P < 0.01) season × sex, season × feedyard, season × pre-ZIL DMI, season × days post-ZIL, and season × period post-ZIL interactions. Average DMI decreased within 1 d after initiation of ZIL feeding in all seasons; however, this initial decrease was greater (P < 0.01) in the summer (-0.30 kg) and winter (-0.27 kg) than in the spring (-0.05 kg) or fall (-0.06 kg). The decrease in DMI averaged across all days post-ZIL was greater in summer than during other seasons for both steers and heifers, and the change in intake was greater in steers than heifers in all seasons but fall. Size of intake change within each season varied by feedyard and by season. The percentage of pens that had a large DMI decrease (≥ 0.9 kg/d) was greatest during the summer (33%), and the percentage of pens with no decrease was the least (15%); during the fall, 34% of pens had no DMI decrease and only 8% of pens had a large decrease in DMI. Intake before ZIL initiation affected size and prevalence of DMI decrease; with increasing pre-ZIL DMI, the percentage of pens with a decrease increased from 62% for pens with pre-ZIL DMI of less than 7.7 kg/d to 82% for pens consuming greater than 10.5 kg/d pre-ZIL (P < 0.01). Of those pens with greater than 10.5 kg/d pre-ZIL DMI, 27% had DMI decrease of greater than 1.4 kg/d compared to only 3% for pens consuming <8.7 kg/d pre-ZIL. The average dosage of ZIL consumed per animal with an average DMI of 7.3, 8.2, 9.1, 10.0, and 10.9 kg/d was calculated to be 61, 68, 76, 83, and 91 mg/animal daily, which may be related to the

  7. Short-term number of pecks and feed intake levels: a link with the physical characteristics of feed in four-week-old turkeys.

    PubMed

    Chagneau, A M; Laviron, F; Lamy, S; Bouvarel, I; Picard, M; Lessire, M; Lescoat, P

    2006-05-01

    Short-term reactions of young turkeys to changes in the physical characteristics of their feed sometimes give rise to problems of adaptation in the field. Specific feeders were designed for this study to automatically count the number of pecks given at feed by 4-wk-old male turkeys during 95-min sessions. The lighting program was intermittent (0140L:0100D). In experiment 1, 4 series of 12 birds were tested 4 times/day from 28 to 31 d of age. Four control turkeys were consistently tested with 1 feed, and 8 experimental turkeys ate 1 of 32 commercial feeds (30 as pellets and 2 as crumbs) with a distinct feed for each test (16 replicates/experimental feed). Feed intake, total number of pecks, and pecking efficiency (mg/peck) were recorded for each test and normalized for each turkey. The effects of series, day, and test were not significant for controls. The number of pecks and pecking efficiency differed among feeds (P < 0.001) but not feed intake. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis for these variables distinguished 3 groups of feed: group 3 (6 crumb and small pellets) resulted in high pecking and low efficiency. However, group 1 (10 feeds) were pecked at less but more efficiently than group 2 (16 feeds) for similar feed intake, although the average sizes of the pellets were similar (6.23 and 6.16 mm, respectively), as were the average bulk density, hardness, resistance to abrasion, and color characteristics of the pellets for both groups. Two feeds of each of these 2 groups were compared in a second experiment for 12 turkeys receiving the 4 feeds successively each day over 4 d in varying order. The turkeys consistently pecked the feeds of group 1 less and less efficiently compared with group 2. The automated measurement of pecking, combined with a more detailed image analysis of feed particles, might enhance the evaluation of the effects of feed technology on the behavior of turkeys and thus become a useful tool for the feed industry.

  8. Development of the Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours Scale (PARM): links with food intake among children and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Palfreyman, Zoe; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to develop a self-report questionnaire to explore parental modelling of eating behaviours and then to use the newly developed measure to investigate associations between parental modelling with healthy and unhealthy food intake in both mothers and their children. Mothers (n = 484) with a child aged between 18 months and 8 years completed the Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours Scale (PARM), a new, self-report measure of modelling, as well as a food frequency questionnaire. Principal components analysis of the PARM identified 15 items grouped into three subscales: verbal modelling (modelling through verbal communication); unintentional modelling (UM) (children adopting eating behaviours that parents had not actively modelled); and behavioural consequences (children's eating behaviours directly associated with parental modelling). The PARM subscales were found to be differentially related to food intake. Maternally perceived consequences of behavioural modelling were related to increased fruit and vegetable intake in both mothers and children. UM was related to higher levels of savoury snack intake in both mothers and their children. This study has highlighted three distinct aspects of parental modelling of eating behaviours. The findings suggest that mothers may intentionally model healthy food intake while unintentionally acting as role models for their children's less healthy, snack food intake.

  9. A novel feeding behaviour in wild redfronted lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons): depletion of spider nests.

    PubMed

    Schnoell, Anna Viktoria; Fichtel, Claudia

    2013-10-01

    Reports on behavioural innovations in wild primate populations as well as on their transmission are rare. Here, we report observations suggesting that redfronted lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons) invent new behaviours in the wild. We observed a novel feeding behaviour in redfronted lemurs in Kirindy Forest, western Madagascar. The feeding behaviour consisted of depletion of nests of a social spider species (Stegodyphus sp.). The behaviour was observed in only one out of four study groups, although spider nests were present in the home ranges of all four groups. The behaviour was exhibited in three different years (2009, 2011, 2012) and appears to be re-invented from time to time. Interestingly, in 2011 this behaviour was shown by four individuals and probably spread within the group. This feeding behaviour has only been observed between the middle of June and early August (i.e. the early dry season), and nests were found to be empty later on, suggesting that these nests are available as a food source only seasonally. Our observation contributes a rare case of behavioural innovations in a wild primate population.

  10. Feeding preferences and voluntary feed intake of dairy cows: Effect of conservation and harvest time of birdsfoot trefoil and chicory.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, D; Vasseur, E; Berthiaume, R; DeVries, T J; Bergeron, R

    2015-10-01

    Bioactive forages contain compounds, such as tannins, that are active against pathogens. They have been successfully used in ruminants to control parasite infections. Because cattle may find bioactive forages unpalatable, it is of interest to know if an afternoon harvest time, which has been shown to increase the percentage of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC), hence palatability, may mitigate this. The objectives of this study were to quantify voluntary intake and preference of dairy cows for 2 bioactive forages, harvested in the morning and evening, in addition to determining their time spent grazing on each forage species. The forage species evaluated were fresh chicory harvested at 0700 h (FCAM) and 1800 h (FCPM), fresh birdsfoot trefoil harvested at 0700 h (FBAM) and 1800 h (FBPM), birdsfoot trefoil baleage harvested the previous summer at 0700 h (BBAM) and at 1800 h (BBPM), and third-cut alfalfa baleage harvested the previous summer and used as control (CON). Single forages were offered ad libitum in 30-min tests to 14 dairy cows to determine intake in a 7 × 7 Latin square (experiment 1). Every possible pair of forages (21 pairs) was then presented for a 30-min test to 8 different dairy cows, and feed intake was measured (experiment 2). Finally, time spent grazing on chicory and birdsfoot trefoil was measured on 12 dairy cows (experiment 3). The tests consisted of 2 d of restriction on 1 of the 2 fields for 1h, and 2 d of free-choice sessions (1h) between the 2 fields adjacent to each other. Grazing time and location of the animals on the field was assessed through 2-min scan sampling. In experiment 1, the highest voluntary intakes were for CON, BBPM, and BBAM. In experiment 2, BBPM was preferentially consumed over all other forages followed by CON and BBAM. Multidimensional scaling showed that preference for BBPM, CON, and BBAM in dimension 1 was positively associated with dry matter and nitrogen content, and negatively associated with hemicellulose and

  11. Feeding preferences and voluntary feed intake of dairy cows: Effect of conservation and harvest time of birdsfoot trefoil and chicory.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, D; Vasseur, E; Berthiaume, R; DeVries, T J; Bergeron, R

    2015-10-01

    Bioactive forages contain compounds, such as tannins, that are active against pathogens. They have been successfully used in ruminants to control parasite infections. Because cattle may find bioactive forages unpalatable, it is of interest to know if an afternoon harvest time, which has been shown to increase the percentage of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC), hence palatability, may mitigate this. The objectives of this study were to quantify voluntary intake and preference of dairy cows for 2 bioactive forages, harvested in the morning and evening, in addition to determining their time spent grazing on each forage species. The forage species evaluated were fresh chicory harvested at 0700 h (FCAM) and 1800 h (FCPM), fresh birdsfoot trefoil harvested at 0700 h (FBAM) and 1800 h (FBPM), birdsfoot trefoil baleage harvested the previous summer at 0700 h (BBAM) and at 1800 h (BBPM), and third-cut alfalfa baleage harvested the previous summer and used as control (CON). Single forages were offered ad libitum in 30-min tests to 14 dairy cows to determine intake in a 7 × 7 Latin square (experiment 1). Every possible pair of forages (21 pairs) was then presented for a 30-min test to 8 different dairy cows, and feed intake was measured (experiment 2). Finally, time spent grazing on chicory and birdsfoot trefoil was measured on 12 dairy cows (experiment 3). The tests consisted of 2 d of restriction on 1 of the 2 fields for 1h, and 2 d of free-choice sessions (1h) between the 2 fields adjacent to each other. Grazing time and location of the animals on the field was assessed through 2-min scan sampling. In experiment 1, the highest voluntary intakes were for CON, BBPM, and BBAM. In experiment 2, BBPM was preferentially consumed over all other forages followed by CON and BBAM. Multidimensional scaling showed that preference for BBPM, CON, and BBAM in dimension 1 was positively associated with dry matter and nitrogen content, and negatively associated with hemicellulose and

  12. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness. PMID:18811793

  13. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness.

  14. Differential gene expression in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum among crossbred beef steers with divergent gain and feed intake phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Lindholm-Perry, A K; Butler, A R; Kern, R J; Hill, R; Kuehn, L A; Wells, J E; Oliver, W T; Hales, K E; Foote, A P; Freetly, H C

    2016-08-01

    Small intestine mass and cellularity were previously associated with cattle feed efficiency. The small intestine is responsible for the digestion of nutrients and absorption of fatty acids, amino acids and carbohydrates, and it contributes to the overall feed efficiency of cattle. The objective of this study was to evaluate transcriptome differences among the small intestine from cattle with divergent gain and feed intake. Animals most divergent from the bivariate mean in each of the four phenotypic Cartesian quadrants for gain × intake were selected, and the transcriptomes of duodenum, jejunum and ileum were evaluated. Gene expression analyses were performed comparing high gain vs. low gain animals, high intake vs. low intake animals and each of the phenotypic quadrants to all other groups. Genes differentially expressed within the high gain-low intake and low gain-high intake groups of animals included those involved in immune function and inflammation in all small intestine sections. The high gain-high intake group differed from the high gain-low intake group by immune response genes in all sections of the small intestine. In all sections of small intestine, animals with low gain-low intake displayed greater abundance of heat-shock genes compared to other groups. Several over-represented pathways were identified. These include the antigen-processing/presentation pathway in high gain animals and PPAR signaling, starch/sucrose metabolism, retinol metabolism and melatonin degradation pathways in the high intake animals. Genes with functions in immune response, inflammation, stress response, influenza pathogenesis and melatonin degradation pathways may have a relationship with gain and intake in beef steers. PMID:27226174

  15. Effects of residual feed intake and dam body weight on replacement heifer intake, efficiency, performance, and metabolic response.

    PubMed

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Buttrey, B

    2015-07-01

    Thirty-eight Angus-based, crossbred, nulliparous beef heifers (BW = 280 ± 26.3 kg) sired by 2 Angus sires were used to determine if dam BW affected heifer performance, DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers. Heifers were housed in individual pens (2.2 by 9.1 m) equipped with 2.2 m of bunk space and fed a diet (90.4% DM, 13.7% CP, 67.2% NDF, and 56.2% TDN) consisting of 87.2% bermudagrass hay and 12.8% liquid protein supplement for a 14-d adaption period and a 70-d feeding period. Individual daily feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each heifer, and heifer was the experimental unit. Two-day beginning and end BW were recorded and hip height was used to calculate frame score (FS). Heifer dams were assigned to a light (LIT; 544 ± 21.3 kg) or heavy (HEV; 621 ± 34.8 kg) BW group on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of their lactation period the previous year to determine differences in heifer offspring DMI and RFI. Based on heifer RFI ranking, heifers were classified as positive (POS; 0.34) or negative (NEG; –0.31) RFI and low (LOW; –0.45), medium (MED; 0.00), or high (HI; 0.49) RFI for analysis of BW, FS, BW gain, and DMI. There were no dam BW group × sire interactions (P > 0.10) for all independent variables. Beginning and end BW was greater (P < 0.05) for heifers out of HEV compared with LIT BW dams. Body weight gain, ADG, FS, DMI, and RFI were not significant (P > 0.10) for heifers out of HEV compared with LIT BW dams; however, a sire effect existed (P < 0.01) for BW gain, ADG, FS, and DMI. Among RFI classifications, beginning and end BW, BW gain, ADG, and FS were not different (P > 0.10) whereas DMI was greater (P = 0.03) among heifers in the POS compared with the NEG RFI group and greater (P = 0.01) among heifers in the MED and HI compared with LOW RFI group, respectively. Plasma insulin levels were greater (P = 0.03) in the NEG compared with the POS RFI heifers, and thyroxine (T4) levels were greater (P = 0.02) in the POS compared

  16. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung

    2015-01-01

    Low-level mercury (Hg) exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20–0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89–0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001) and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age—Z-score of the birthweight; r = −0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001), and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033). In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles), dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086–12.597, p < 0.001) and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034–1.401; p = 0.017), were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg exposure

  17. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung

    2015-11-01

    Low-level mercury (Hg) exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89-0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001) and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age-Z-score of the birthweight; r = -0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001), and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033). In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles), dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086-12.597, p < 0.001) and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034-1.401; p = 0.017), were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg exposure through

  18. Is the relationship between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic health in adolescents independent of dietary intake? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, E; Leech, R; McNaughton, S A; Dunstan, D W; Lacy, K E; Salmon, J

    2015-09-01

    Screen time, but not overall sedentary behaviour, is consistently related to cardiometabolic health in adolescents. Because of the associations screen time has with dietary intake, diet may be an important factor in the screen time and health relationship; however, evidence has not previously been synthesized. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to explore whether the associations between various sedentary behaviours and cardiometabolic risk markers are independent of dietary intake in adolescents. Online databases and personal libraries were searched for peer-reviewed original research articles published in English before March 2014. Included studies assessed associations between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic markers in 12- to 18-year-olds and adjusted for dietary intake. Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. From the 21 studies examining sedentary behaviour and adiposity, the majority found significant positive associations between television viewing, screen time and self-reported overall sedentary behaviour with markers of adiposity, independent of dietary intake. No significant associations between screen time with blood pressure and cholesterol were reported. Sedentary behaviour appears to be associated with adiposity in adolescents, irrespective of dietary intake. However, the variability of dietary variables between studies suggests further work is needed to understand the role of dietary intake when examining these associations in youth.

  19. Is the relationship between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic health in adolescents independent of dietary intake? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, E; Leech, R; McNaughton, S A; Dunstan, D W; Lacy, K E; Salmon, J

    2015-09-01

    Screen time, but not overall sedentary behaviour, is consistently related to cardiometabolic health in adolescents. Because of the associations screen time has with dietary intake, diet may be an important factor in the screen time and health relationship; however, evidence has not previously been synthesized. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to explore whether the associations between various sedentary behaviours and cardiometabolic risk markers are independent of dietary intake in adolescents. Online databases and personal libraries were searched for peer-reviewed original research articles published in English before March 2014. Included studies assessed associations between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic markers in 12- to 18-year-olds and adjusted for dietary intake. Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. From the 21 studies examining sedentary behaviour and adiposity, the majority found significant positive associations between television viewing, screen time and self-reported overall sedentary behaviour with markers of adiposity, independent of dietary intake. No significant associations between screen time with blood pressure and cholesterol were reported. Sedentary behaviour appears to be associated with adiposity in adolescents, irrespective of dietary intake. However, the variability of dietary variables between studies suggests further work is needed to understand the role of dietary intake when examining these associations in youth. PMID:26098509

  20. Is the relationship between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic health in adolescents independent of dietary intake? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, E; Leech, R; McNaughton, S A; Dunstan, D W; Lacy, K E; Salmon, J

    2015-01-01

    Screen time, but not overall sedentary behaviour, is consistently related to cardiometabolic health in adolescents. Because of the associations screen time has with dietary intake, diet may be an important factor in the screen time and health relationship; however, evidence has not previously been synthesized. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to explore whether the associations between various sedentary behaviours and cardiometabolic risk markers are independent of dietary intake in adolescents. Online databases and personal libraries were searched for peer-reviewed original research articles published in English before March 2014. Included studies assessed associations between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic markers in 12- to 18-year-olds and adjusted for dietary intake. Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. From the 21 studies examining sedentary behaviour and adiposity, the majority found significant positive associations between television viewing, screen time and self-reported overall sedentary behaviour with markers of adiposity, independent of dietary intake. No significant associations between screen time with blood pressure and cholesterol were reported. Sedentary behaviour appears to be associated with adiposity in adolescents, irrespective of dietary intake. However, the variability of dietary variables between studies suggests further work is needed to understand the role of dietary intake when examining these associations in youth. PMID:26098509

  1. Effect of adaptation strategies when feeding fresh cassava foliage on intake and physiological responses of lambs.

    PubMed

    Hue, Khuc Thi; Van, Do Thi Thanh; Spörndly, Eva; Ledin, Inger; Wredle, Ewa

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the experiment was to study different adaptation strategies to avoid HCN intoxication when feeding fresh cassava foliage to sheep. Twenty-four Phan Rang lambs (initial weight = 19.6 kg at 5.5 months of age) were used in the study. The four experimental diets contained guinea grass (Panicum maximum) supplemented with concentrate at 1.5% of body weight (BW) as dry matter (DM) (control) or supplemented with fresh cassava foliage (FCF) that was introduced into the diet with an adaptation period of 0 (FCF-0), 7 (FCF-7) or 21 (FCF-21) days before reaching the target feeding level of 2% of BW. The average intake of FCF expressed as DM was not different amongst the supplemented treatments and ranged from 1.4 to 1.5% of BW but gradually increased during the first 7 days without any adaptation. The hydrogen cyanide consumed varied from 5.1 to 5.4 mg/kg BW and no difference between treatments with cassava foliage in the diet was found. The live weight gain was significantly higher in the treatments control and FCF-7 compared to FCF-21. No significant differences in heart rate, respiration rate and rumen movement were found between diets. The thiocyanate concentration in the urine of the lambs increased concomitantly with the increase in fresh cassava foliage offered during the first part of the experiment. In conclusion, an adaptation period of approximately 7 days seems to be favourable in combined diets where cassava foliage is offered in quantities up to 2% of BW. This level of intake could enhance the intake and LWG of the lambs without any documented effects on heart rate, respiration rate or rumen movements.

  2. A Physiological Stimulating Factor of Water Intake during and after Dry Forage Feeding in Large-type Goats

    PubMed Central

    Van Thang, Tran; Sunagawa, Katsunori; Nagamine, Itsuki; Kishi, Tetsuya; Ogura, Go

    2012-01-01

    When ruminants consume dry forage, they also drink large volumes of water. The objective of this study was to clarify which factor produced when feed boluses enter the rumen is mainly responsible for the marked increase in water intake in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period in large-type goats fed on dry forage for 2 h twice daily. Six large-type male esophageal- and ruminal-fistulated goats (crossbred Japanese Saanen/Nubian, aged 2 to 6 years, weighing 85.1±4.89 kg) were used in two experiments. In experiment 1, the water deprivation (WD) control and the water availability (WA) treatment were conducted to compare changes in water intake during and after dry forage feeding. In experiment 2, a normal feeding conditions (NFC) control and a feed bolus removal (FBR) treatment were carried out to investigate whether decrease in circulating plasma volume or increase in plasma osmolality is mainly responsible for the marked increase in water intake in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period. The results of experiment 1 showed that in the WA treatment, small amounts of water were consumed during the first hour of feeding while the majority of water intake was observed during the second hour of the 2 h feeding period. Therefore, the amounts of water consumed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period accounted for 82.8% of the total water intake. The results of experiment 2 indicated that in comparison with the NFC control, decrease in plasma volume in the FBR treatment, which was indicated by increase in hematocrit and plasma total protein concentrations, was higher (p<0.05) in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period. However, plasma osmolality in the FBR treatment was lower (p<0.05) than compared to the NFC control from 30 min after the start of feeding. Therefore, thirst level in the FBR treatment was 82.7% less (p<0.01) compared with that in the NFC control upon conclusion of the 30 min drinking period. The results of the study indicate that the increased

  3. Effect of intermittent feeding, structural components and phytase on performance and behaviour of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Svihus, B; Lund, V B; Borjgen, B; Bedford, M R; Bakken, M

    2013-01-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of intermittent feeding on performance and the efficacy of an exogenous phytase, and to assess whether intermittent feeding changed the activity pattern of broiler chickens. 2. Broiler chickens were given, either ad libitum or intermittently, a phosphorus deficient pelleted diet containing either coarsely or finely ground oat hulls and either no enzyme or a phytase added from 10 d of age, in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Ad libitum feeding consisted of continuous access to feed in a room with 18 h of light and 6 h of complete darkness, whereas birds on intermittent feeding had restricted access to feed from 7 d of age, with 4 1-h feeding bouts/d and one 2-h feeding bout/d from d 14. 3. Performance, characteristics of the anterior digestive tract and phosphorus retention were assessed in experiment 1, while in experiment 2, birds were observed during 4-h periods to quantify different behaviours. 4. Intermittent feeding and phytase improved performance, but intermittent feeding did not improve the efficacy of the enzyme added. Ad libitum fed broiler chickens ate and drank on average twice per hour, and spent close to three-quarters of their time resting. Apart from an increased standing and feed searching activity for intermittently fed birds compared to ad libitum fed birds during the last hour before feed was presented, no differences in activity was detected. 5. It was concluded that broiler chickens quickly adapt to intermittent feeding without reduction in final body weight and with improvements in feed efficiency, but without improving the efficacy of dietary phytase. Only small changes occur in the behaviour of intermittently fed birds compared to ad libitum fed birds.

  4. Chronic sugar intake dampens feeding-related activity of neurons synthesizing a satiety mediator, oxytocin

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Anaya; Gosnell, Blake A.; Schiöth, Helgi B.; Grace, Martha K.; Klockars, Anica; Olszewski, Pawel K.; Levine, Allen S.

    2010-01-01

    Increased tone of orexigens mediating reward occurs upon repeated consumption of sweet foods. Interestingly, some of these reward orexigens, such as opioids, diminish activity of neurons synthesizing oxytocin, a nonapeptide that promotes satiety and feeding termination. It is not known, however, whether consumption-related activity of the central oxytocin system is modified under chronic sugar feeding reward itself. Therefore, we examined how chronic consumption of a rewarding high-sucrose (HS) vs. bland cornstarch (CS) diet affected the activity of oxytocin cells in the hypothalamus at the time of meal termination. Schedule-fed (2 hrs/day) rats received either a HS or CS powdered diet for 20 days. On the 21st day, they were given the same or the opposite diet, and food was removed after the main consummatory activity was completed. Animals were perfused 60 minutes after feeding termination and brains were immunostained for oxytocin and the marker of neuronal activity, c-Fos. The percentage of c-Fos-positive oxytocin cells in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus was significantly lower in rats chronically exposed to the HS than to the CS diet, regardless of which diet they received on the final day. A similar pattern was observed in the supraoptic nucleus. We conclude that the chronic rather than acute sucrose intake reduces activity of the anorexigenic oxytocin system. These findings indicate that chronic consumption of sugar blunts activity of pathways that mediate satiety. We speculate that a reduction in central satiety signaling precipitated by regular intake of foods high in sugar may lead to generalized overeating. PMID:20399242

  5. Multiple trait model combining random regressions for daily feed intake with single measured performance traits of growing pigs

    PubMed Central

    Schnyder, Urs; Hofer, Andreas; Labroue, Florence; Künzi, Niklaus

    2002-01-01

    A random regression model for daily feed intake and a conventional multiple trait animal model for the four traits average daily gain on test (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass lean content and meat quality index were combined to analyse data from 1 449 castrated male Large White pigs performance tested in two French central testing stations in 1997. Group housed pigs fed ad libitum with electronic feed dispensers were tested from 35 to 100 kg live body weight. A quadratic polynomial in days on test was used as a regression function for weekly means of daily feed intake and to escribe its residual variance. The same fixed (batch) and random (additive genetic, pen and individual permanent environmental) effects were used for regression coefficients of feed intake and single measured traits. Variance components were estimated by means of a Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling. Four Gibbs chains were run for 550 000 rounds each, from which 50 000 rounds were discarded from the burn-in period. Estimates of posterior means of covariance matrices were calculated from the remaining two million samples. Low heritabilities of linear and quadratic regression coefficients and their unfavourable genetic correlations with other performance traits reveal that altering the shape of the feed intake curve by direct or indirect selection is difficult. PMID:11929625

  6. Multiple trait model combining random regressions for daily feed intake with single measured performance traits of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Schnyder, Urs; Hofer, Andreas; Labroue, Florence; Künzi, Niklaus

    2002-01-01

    A random regression model for daily feed intake and a conventional multiple trait animal model for the four traits average daily gain on test (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass lean content and meat quality index were combined to analyse data from 1449 castrated male Large White pigs performance tested in two French central testing stations in 1997. Group housed pigs fed ad libitum with electronic feed dispensers were tested from 35 to 100 kg live body weight. A quadratic polynomial in days on test was used as a regression function for weekly means of daily feed intake and to describe its residual variance. The same fixed (batch) and random (additive genetic, pen and individual permanent environmental) effects were used for regression coefficients of feed intake and single measured traits. Variance components were estimated by means of a Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling. Four Gibbs chains were run for 550000 rounds each, from which 50000 rounds were discarded from the burn-in period. Estimates of posterior means of covariance matrices were calculated from the remaining two million samples. Low heritabilities of linear and quadratic regression coefficients and their unfavourable genetic correlations with other performance traits reveal that altering the shape of the feed intake curve by direct or indirect selection is difficult.

  7. Efficacy of a Feed Dispenser for Horses in Decreasing Cribbing Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Palestrini, Clara; Cannas, Simona; Fè, Eleonora; Bagnato, Gaia Lisa; Vigo, Daniele; Frank, Diane; Minero, Michela

    2016-01-01

    Cribbing is an oral stereotypy, tends to develop in captive animals as a means to cope with stress, and may be indicative of reduced welfare. Highly energetic diets ingested in a short time are one of the most relevant risk factors for the development of cribbing. The aim of this study was to verify whether feeding cribbing horses through a dispenser that delivers small quantities of concentrate when activated by the animal decreases cribbing behaviour, modifies feeding behaviour, or induces frustration. Ten horses (mean age 14 y), balanced for sex, breed, and size (mean height 162 cm), were divided into two groups of 5 horses each: Cribbing and Control. Animals were trained to use the dispenser and videorecorded continuously for 15 consecutive days from 1 h prior to feeding to 2 h after feeding in order to measure their behaviours. The feed dispenser, Quaryka®, induced an increase in time necessary to finish the ration in both groups of horses (P < 0.05). With Quaryka, cribbers showed a significant reduction of time spent cribbing (P < 0.05). After removal of the feed dispenser (Post-Quaryka), cribbing behaviour significantly increased. The use of Quaryka may be particularly beneficial in horses fed high-energy diets and ingesting the food too quickly.

  8. Residual feed intake is repeatable for lactating Holstein dairy cows fed high and low starch diets.

    PubMed

    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J

    2015-07-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a tool to quantify feed efficiency in livestock and is commonly used to assess feed efficiency independent of production level, body weight (BW), or BW change. Lactating Holstein cows (n=109; 44 primiparous and 65 multiparous), averaging (mean ± standard deviation, SD) 665±77kg of BW, 42±9kg of milk/d, and 120±30 d postpartum, were fed diets of high (HI) or low (LO) starch content in 4 crossover experiments with two 28-d treatment periods. The LO diets were ~40% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~14% starch and the HI diets were ~26% NDF and ~30% starch. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) of a cow was modeled as a function of milk energy output, metabolic BW, body energy change, and fixed effects of parity, experiment, cohort nested within experiment, and diet nested within cohort and experiment; RFI for each cow was the residual error term. Cows were classified as high (>0.5 SD of the mean), medium (±0.5 SD of the mean), or low (<-0.5 SD of the mean) RFI. On average, for the linear model used to determine RFI for individual cows, each unit increase in milk energy output, metabolic BW, or body energy gain was associated with 0.35, 0.09, or 0.05kg increase in DMI, respectively. When compared with LO diets, HI diets increased energy partitioning to body energy gain and tended to increase DMI. The correlation between RFI when cows were fed HI diets and RFI when cows were fed LO diets was 0.73 and was similar across each parity and experiment. Fifty-six percent of cows maintained the same RFI classification (high, medium, or low RFI) and only 4 of 109 cows changed from high RFI to low RFI or vice versa when diets were changed. Milk:feed, income over feed cost, and DMI were also highly repeatable (r=0.72, 0.84, and 0.92, respectively). We achieved significant changes in milk yield and component concentration as well as energy partitioning between HI and LO diets and still determined RFI to be repeatable across diets. We conclude that

  9. Residual feed intake is repeatable for lactating Holstein dairy cows fed high and low starch diets.

    PubMed

    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J

    2015-07-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a tool to quantify feed efficiency in livestock and is commonly used to assess feed efficiency independent of production level, body weight (BW), or BW change. Lactating Holstein cows (n=109; 44 primiparous and 65 multiparous), averaging (mean ± standard deviation, SD) 665±77kg of BW, 42±9kg of milk/d, and 120±30 d postpartum, were fed diets of high (HI) or low (LO) starch content in 4 crossover experiments with two 28-d treatment periods. The LO diets were ~40% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~14% starch and the HI diets were ~26% NDF and ~30% starch. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) of a cow was modeled as a function of milk energy output, metabolic BW, body energy change, and fixed effects of parity, experiment, cohort nested within experiment, and diet nested within cohort and experiment; RFI for each cow was the residual error term. Cows were classified as high (>0.5 SD of the mean), medium (±0.5 SD of the mean), or low (<-0.5 SD of the mean) RFI. On average, for the linear model used to determine RFI for individual cows, each unit increase in milk energy output, metabolic BW, or body energy gain was associated with 0.35, 0.09, or 0.05kg increase in DMI, respectively. When compared with LO diets, HI diets increased energy partitioning to body energy gain and tended to increase DMI. The correlation between RFI when cows were fed HI diets and RFI when cows were fed LO diets was 0.73 and was similar across each parity and experiment. Fifty-six percent of cows maintained the same RFI classification (high, medium, or low RFI) and only 4 of 109 cows changed from high RFI to low RFI or vice versa when diets were changed. Milk:feed, income over feed cost, and DMI were also highly repeatable (r=0.72, 0.84, and 0.92, respectively). We achieved significant changes in milk yield and component concentration as well as energy partitioning between HI and LO diets and still determined RFI to be repeatable across diets. We conclude that

  10. Permissive parental feeding behavior is associated with an increase in intake of low-nutrient-dense foods among American children living in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Erin; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

    2012-01-01

    Parents play an important role in shaping children's eating habits. Few studies have evaluated the influence of both parenting style and parenting practices on child outcomes such as dietary intake. During spring 2007, 99 parent-child dyads from four rural US areas participated in this cross-sectional study. Child food intake was reported during two interviewer-administered, parent-assisted 24-hour recalls. Diet quality was defined as the average number of low-nutrient-dense (LND) foods consumed. Validated questionnaires were used to assess parental feeding practices and feeding style. Pearson correlations identified relationships among child food intake, parental feeding style typologies, and covariates. Regression analyses were used to predict child diet quality. Sixty percent of children and 76% of parents were overweight or obese. A permissive feeding style, which is highly responsive to a child's requests and sets few demands on him or her, was the most common (n=37) parental feeding style. This feeding style was associated with child intake of LND foods (r=0.3; P<0.001) and moderated the relationship between parental feeding practices and child intake of LND foods. In the presence of a permissive feeding style, higher levels of monitoring were associated with child intake of LND foods (β=.69; P<0.05). Parental feeding style may alter the effectiveness of parental feeding practices on children's food intake. More research is needed to understand the parent-child feeding relationship in the context of parental feeding styles and practices.

  11. Permissive parental feeding behavior is associated with an increase in intake of low-nutrient-dense foods among American children living in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Erin; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

    2012-01-01

    Parents play an important role in shaping children's eating habits. Few studies have evaluated the influence of both parenting style and parenting practices on child outcomes such as dietary intake. During spring 2007, 99 parent-child dyads from four rural US areas participated in this cross-sectional study. Child food intake was reported during two interviewer-administered, parent-assisted 24-hour recalls. Diet quality was defined as the average number of low-nutrient-dense (LND) foods consumed. Validated questionnaires were used to assess parental feeding practices and feeding style. Pearson correlations identified relationships among child food intake, parental feeding style typologies, and covariates. Regression analyses were used to predict child diet quality. Sixty percent of children and 76% of parents were overweight or obese. A permissive feeding style, which is highly responsive to a child's requests and sets few demands on him or her, was the most common (n=37) parental feeding style. This feeding style was associated with child intake of LND foods (r=0.3; P<0.001) and moderated the relationship between parental feeding practices and child intake of LND foods. In the presence of a permissive feeding style, higher levels of monitoring were associated with child intake of LND foods (β=.69; P<0.05). Parental feeding style may alter the effectiveness of parental feeding practices on children's food intake. More research is needed to understand the parent-child feeding relationship in the context of parental feeding styles and practices. PMID:22709645

  12. The influence of larval diet on adult feeding behaviour in the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Raguso, Robert A; Ojeda-Avila, Tamairé; Desai, Sheetal; Jurkiewicz, Melissa A; Woods, H Arthur

    2007-09-01

    Lab-reared sphingid and noctuid moths appear to feed less than wild moths, and often are starved to enhance responsiveness in feeding assays. To measure the impact of larval nutrition on adult feeding, we raised a model sphingid species, Manduca sexta, on control or modified diets (reduced sugar, protein or water, supplemented beta-carotene) or cut tobacco leaves, then conducted feeding assays with artificial flowers. Behaviour was scored and analysed in a double-blind manner. Larval diet affected adult eclosion time, size and fat content, the latter of which was inversely proportional to moth approaches to the floral array in a flight cage. In contrast, behaviours refractory to feeding (sitting, escaping) were associated with sex and barometric pressure, but not with diet or fat content. Frequency of floral approaches and probing was not associated with any variable. However, moths reared on beta-carotene-supplemented diet were 2-3 times more likely to feed, and significantly less likely to sit or show "escape" behaviour than were moths from most other treatments. Our results suggest that decreased visual sensitivity, rather than increased fat content, accounts for reduced adult feeding by lab-reared M. sexta.

  13. Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.

    PubMed

    Hietala, P; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J

    2014-02-01

    Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving

  14. Effect of treating sugarcane bagasse with urea and calcium hydroxide on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gunun, Nirawan; Wanapat, Metha; Gunun, Pongsatorn; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four beef cattle with initial body weight of 283 ± 14 kg were randomly allocated according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study on the effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse (SB) treated with urea and/or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The treatments were as follows: rice straw (RS), untreated SB (SB), 4 % urea-treated SB (SBU), and 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2-treated SB (SBUC), respectively. The results revealed that cattle fed with SBU and SBUC had higher feed intake and apparent digestibility. Ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were increased in cattle fed with SB as roughage source (P < 0.05). Feeding SBU and SBUC to cattle resulted in higher propionic acid and lower acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, and methane production (P < 0.05). Moreover, the number of fungi was increased in SBU- and SBUC-fed groups while protozoa population was unchanged. This study concluded that the nutritive value of SB was improved by urea and/or Ca(OH)2 treatment, and feeding treated SB could increase feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. This study suggested that SB treated with 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2 could be used as an alternative roughage source for ruminant feeding.

  15. Effect of treating sugarcane bagasse with urea and calcium hydroxide on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gunun, Nirawan; Wanapat, Metha; Gunun, Pongsatorn; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four beef cattle with initial body weight of 283 ± 14 kg were randomly allocated according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study on the effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse (SB) treated with urea and/or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The treatments were as follows: rice straw (RS), untreated SB (SB), 4 % urea-treated SB (SBU), and 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2-treated SB (SBUC), respectively. The results revealed that cattle fed with SBU and SBUC had higher feed intake and apparent digestibility. Ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were increased in cattle fed with SB as roughage source (P < 0.05). Feeding SBU and SBUC to cattle resulted in higher propionic acid and lower acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, and methane production (P < 0.05). Moreover, the number of fungi was increased in SBU- and SBUC-fed groups while protozoa population was unchanged. This study concluded that the nutritive value of SB was improved by urea and/or Ca(OH)2 treatment, and feeding treated SB could increase feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. This study suggested that SB treated with 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2 could be used as an alternative roughage source for ruminant feeding. PMID:27139254

  16. Effect of dietary supplementation of garlic, ginger and their combination on feed intake, growth performance and economics in commercial broilers

    PubMed Central

    Karangiya, V. K.; Savsani, H. H.; Patil, Shrikant Soma; Garg, D. D.; Murthy, K. S.; Ribadiya, N. K.; Vekariya, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of supplementation of garlic, ginger and their combination in the diets of broiler chickens and assessment in terms of feed intake, growth performance and economics of feeding. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 1-day-old Cobb-400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each with three replicates of 20 chicks per replicate (n=60). Four experimental diets were formulated in such a way that control diet (T1) contained neither ginger nor garlic. While, birds in group T2 and T3 were fed with diets containing 1% garlic and ginger, respectively. Diet 4 (T4 group) contained a combination of 1% of garlic and ginger. The feeding experiment was carried out for 42 days, and different parameters evaluated includes feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, gut morphometry, and economics of feeding in terms of return over feed cost (ROFC) and European Performance Efficiency Index. Results: Feed intake of experimental birds in ginger and mixture of garlic and ginger supplemented groups, i.e., T3 and T4 groups have significantly (p<0.05) higher feed intake as compared to control. While, feeding of garlic have non-significant effect on feed intake as compared to other groups. A body weight gain (g/bird) was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in garlic (T2 group) and ginger (T3 group) supplemented group as compare to control and garlic and ginger mixture supplemented group (T4 group). Feed conversion ratio was significantly (p<0.05) lower in ginger (T3 group) supplemented group as compare to other groups. Mean villi length, villi width and cryptal depth were significantly (p<0.05) higher in T3 group than rest of all three groups, indicating increased absorptive surface area. ROFC was significantly (p<0.05) lower in T3 and T4 groups as compare to control. However, it was not significantly different between control and T2 group. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of the study

  17. Residual feed intake, body composition, and fertility in yearling beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, K S; Turk, P; Wagner, W R; Felton, E E D

    2011-04-01

    One hundred thirty-seven spring-born yearling beef heifers of British breed types were used to determine the relationships between residual feed intake (RFI) and growth rate, body composition, mature size, and fertility. Heifers were housed in a dry lot facility during the experimental period, and data were collected over a 2-yr period (yr 1, n = 67; yr 2, n = 70). Individual feed intake, BW, BCS, hip height, and ultrasonic measurements [subcutaneous rib fat (UBF), rump fat (URF), LM area (LMA), and intramuscular fat (IMF)] of body composition were recorded. Individual feed intakes (kg of TDN consumed/d) were used to calculate RFI combining both years of data. Heifers averaged 387.0 ± 19.4 d of age and 337.1 ± 29.9 kg of BW at initiation of the experiment. Mean ADG was 1.14 ± 0.21 kg/d during the trial. Based on RFI, with year of test and farm of origin included in the model as covariates, heifers were classified into groups: positive (POS; 0.74 kg of TDN/d) or negative (NEG; -0.73 kg TDN/d) for first analysis and high (HI), medium (MED), or low (LO; mean RFI = 1.06, -0.01, and -1.13 kg of TDN/d, respectively) subsequently. An initial phenotypic relationship (P < 0.05) between RFI and both UBF and URF (r = 0.19 and 0.17, respectively) was sustained (P < 0.01) with UBF (r = 0.27) and URF (r = 0.24) to trial conclusion. No other correlations with RFI were significant. Heifers classified as POS reached puberty earlier than those classified as NEG (414 ± 3.83 vs. 427 ± 4.67 d of age, P = 0.03), and possessed greater LMA per 100 kg of BW (LMACWT) at conclusion of the trial (P < 0.01). Medium heifers exhibited less URF (P < 0.05) compared with either HI or LO heifers at trial initiation. Low heifers possessed less LM area (cm(2)) per 100 kg of BW (P < 0.05) than HI but did not differ (P > 0.10) from MED heifers at either the beginning or the end of test. Additionally, a negative linear relationship was observed between RFI and age at puberty (P < 0.05). Each 1-unit

  18. Feeding behaviour of Black Sea bottom fishes: Did it change over time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bănaru, Daniela; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille

    2009-11-01

    This study was designed to improve knowledge in feeding behaviour of the round goby ( Apollonia melanostomus (Pallas, 1814)), the red mullet ( Mullus barbatus ponticus Essipov, 1927), the whiting ( Merlangius merlangus (Linnaeus, 1758)), the flounder ( Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758)), the sole ( Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758)), the turbot ( Psetta maeotica (Pallas, 1814)) and the starry sturgeon ( Acipenser stellatus Pallas, 1771) from the north-western Black Sea. Gut content coupled with stable isotope analysis allowed describing food web variations according to species, in two seasons and at two areas located seawards the Danube River. Present results showed that most fishes have likely changed their feeding behaviour compared to past studies from the same area. Trophic niches were reduced and dietary overlap was common, as different fish species consumed the same dominant prey types. Fishes probably adapted their feeding behaviour to the increasingly low biodiversity of the Black Sea communities.

  19. Effect of water addition to a total mixed ration on feed temperature, feed intake, sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Felton, C A; DeVries, T J

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water addition to a high-moisture total mixed ration (TMR) on feed temperature, feed intake, feed sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (155.8+/-60.1 DIM), individually fed once daily at 1000 h, were exposed to 3 diets in a Latin square design with 28-d treatment periods. Diets had the same ingredient composition [30.9% corn silage, 30.3% alfalfa haylage, 21.2% high-moisture corn, and 17.6% protein supplement; dry matter (DM) basis] and differed only in DM concentration, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets averaged 56.3, 50.8, and 44.1% DM. The study was conducted between May and August when environmental temperature was 18.2+/-3.6 degrees C and ambient temperature in the barn was 24.4+/-3.3 degrees C. Dry matter intake (DMI) was monitored for each animal for the last 14 d of each treatment period. For the final 7 d of each period, milk production was monitored, feed temperature and ambient temperature and humidity were recorded (daily at 1000, 1300, and 1600 h), and fresh feed and orts were sampled for determination of sorting. For the final 4 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis. Samples taken for determining sorting were separated using a Penn State Particle Separator that had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Greater amounts of water added to the TMR resulted in greater increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery, greater sorting against long particles, and decreased DMI, reducing the overall intake of starch and neutral detergent fiber. Milk production and composition were not affected by the addition of water to the TMR. Efficiency of production of milk was, however

  20. Effects of feed intake and dietary urea concentration on ruminal dilution rate and efficiency of bacteria growth in steers

    SciTech Connect

    Firkins, J.L.; Lewis, S.M. Montgomery, L.; Berger, L.L.; Merchen, N.R.; Fahey, G.C. Jr.

    1987-11-01

    Four multiple-fistulated steers (340 kg) were fed a diet containing 50% ground grass hay, 20% dry distillers grains, and 30% concentrate at two intakes (7.2 or 4.8 kg DM/d). Urea (.4 or 1.2% of the diet) was infused continuously into the steers' rumens. The experimental design was a 4 x 4 Latin square with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Infusing urea at .4 or 1.2% of the diet resulted in ruminal NH/sub 3/ N concentration of 4.97 and 9.10 mg/dl, respectively. Feeding steers at high rather than low intake decreased ruminal and total tract digestibilities of organic matter, NDF, and ADF but did not increase ruminal escape of N. However, apparent N escape from the rumen calculated using purines, but not /sup 15/N, as a bacterial marker was higher when 1.2 vs. .4% urea was infused. Feeding at high rather than at low intake increased the total pool of viable bacteria per gram organic matter fermented in the rumen. Although ruminal fluid outflows and particulate dilution rates were greater when steers were fed at high than low intakes, efficiencies of bacterial protein synthesis were unaffected by intake. The possibility of increased N recycling within the rumen with feeding at the higher intake is discussed.

  1. Effects of feeding algal meal high in docosahexaenoic acid on feed intake, milk production, and methane emissions in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Hannah, M C; Eckard, R J; Auldist, M J; Ribaux, B E; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2013-05-01

    This study examined effects on milk yield and composition, milk fatty acid concentrations and methane (CH4) emissions when dairy cows were offered diets containing different amounts of algal meal. The algal meal contained 20% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and cows were offered either 0, 125, 250, or 375 g/cow per d of algal meal corresponding to 0, 25, 50, or 75 g of DHA/cow per d. Thirty-two Holstein cows in mid lactation were allocated to 4 treatment groups, and cows in all groups were individually offered 5.9k g of dry matter (DM) per day of concentrates [683 g/kg of cracked wheat (Triticum aestivum), 250 g/kg of cold-pressed canola, 46 g/kg of granulated dried molasses, and 21 g/kg of mineral mix] and ad libitum alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay. The algal meal supplement was added to the concentrate allowance and was fed during the morning and afternoon milking, whereas the alfalfa hay was fed individually in pens. Cows were gradually introduced to their diets over 7d and then fed their treatment diets for a further 16d. Dry matter intake and milk yield were measured daily, and milk composition was measured on a sample representative of the daily milk yield on Thursday of each week. For the last 2d of the experiment, cows were individually housed in respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emissions. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were also measured while cows were in the respiration chambers. Cows ate all their offered concentrates, but measured intake of alfalfa decreased with increasing dose of DHA by 16.2, 16.4, 15.1, and 14.3 kg of DM/d, respectively. Milk yield (22.6, 23.5, 22.6, and 22.6 kg/cow per d) was not affected by DHA dose, but milk fat concentrations (49.7, 37.8, 37.0, and 38.3g/kg) and, consequently, milk fat yields (1.08, 0.90, 0.83, and 0.85 kg/d) decreased with addition of DHA. The feeding of algal meal high in DHA was associated with substantial increases in the concentrations of DHA (0.04, 0.36, 0.60, and 0.91 g/100g

  2. [Dry matter intake of South American camelids and its effects on the composition of feed rations].

    PubMed

    Stölzl, Anna Maria; Lambertz, Christian; Moors, Eva; Stiehl, Jennifer; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The number of South American camelids (SAC) is increasing in Germany since decades. Due to a lack of scientifically based publications the knowledge about feeding SACs is still poor. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the dry matter intake (DMI) of SACs as a basis for calculations of feed rations. Previous studies proposed a DMI of up to 3% of the body weight (BW) (Vaughan und Gauly, 2011). In the present study, eight llamas (Llama glama) were allocated to two groups of four animals each. The two groups were fed with hay of different qualities over a total period often weeks, which was divided into two runs of five weeks each. During the first run, group 1 was fed with hay 1 (15.1% crude protein; 8.5% crude ash; 3.1% crude fat; 52.6% NDF per kg DM) and group 2 with hay 2 (6.6% crude protein; 6.2% crude ash; 2.1% crude fat; 64.3% NDF per kg DM). After five weeks the groups were changed and group 1 received hay 2 and group 2 received hay 1. BW was measured at the start and end of each run (week zero, five and ten). The hay quality affected the DMI, but the animals did not compensate a lower feed quality with an increased DMI. The total DMI was 1.26% and 0.89% of the BW for hay 1 and hay 2, respectively, which was lower than expected in both groups. In conclusion, calculations of feed rations for SACs should be adjusted to the present findings of a lower DMI capability.

  3. Meta-analysis on the effects of the physical environment, animal traits, feeder and feed characteristics on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Averós, X; Brossard, L; Dourmad, J Y; de Greef, K H; Edwards, S A; Meunier-Salaün, M C

    2012-08-01

    A meta-analysis, using information from 45 experiments on growing-finishing pigs published in 39 manuscripts, was carried out to determine the simultaneous effects of the physical environment (space allowance, group size, flooring conditions, temperature, presence of enrichment), pig traits (initial body weight (BW) for each studied time interval, sex, genetics), feeder characteristics (water provision within the feeder, feeder design (individual/collective), feeder places/pig, presence of feeder protection) and feed characteristics (feed allowance (ad libitum/restricted), net energy content, crude protein (CP) content), as well as their potential interactions, on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs. The detrimental effect of low temperature on performance was particularly evident for restricted-fed pigs (P < 0.05). At reduced feeder space allowance, a reduction in the percentage of time spent eating was predicted when increasing initial BW, whereas the opposite was predicted for larger feeder space allowances (P < 0.001). The reduction in visit duration to the feeder in higher BW groups became gradually more important with increasing feeder space allowance (P < 0.01), whereas the increase in the ingestion rate and average daily feed intake (ADFI) with increasing initial BW became smaller with increasing feeder space (P < 0.05). The model predicted a reduction in feed conversion ratio (FCR) with increasing group size (P < 0.05) and floor space allowance (P < 0.01) and on solid floors with or without bedding (P < 0.05). In comparison with other feeders, wet/dry feeders were associated with more frequent but shorter feeder visits (P < 0.05), higher ingestion rates (P < 0.001) and higher ADFI (P < 0.10). The use of protection within individual feeders increased the time spent feeding (P < 0.001), reduced the number of visits per day (P < 0.01), the ingestion rate (P < 0.001) and FCR (P < 0.01) in comparison with other feeder types. Sex

  4. Voluntary feed intake and leptin sensitivity in ad libitum fed obese ponies following a period of restricted feeding: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Van Weyenberg, S; Buyse, J; Kalmar, I D; Swennen, Q; Janssens, G P J

    2013-08-01

    The relation between plasma leptin and daily ad libitum roughage intake was evaluated during a 14-day period in eight obese Shetland ponies. When the feeding strategy was changed from maintenance feeding to ad libitum feeding, feed intake increased the first day, decreased the second day and increased again during the following days to reach a constant level after 8 days. Plasma leptin concentration increased during the first 2 days, but remained constant afterwards. Although the same pattern was found in all ponies, the magnitude of the increase in leptin on day 1 and the resulting decrease in feed intake on day 2 differed between ponies. A lower anorectic effect was seen in ponies with higher initial leptin concentration, suggesting the presence of different degrees in leptin sensitivity in obese ponies. High leptin production in a attempt to compensate for the decrease in leptin sensitivity might explain large variations in plasma leptin among obese ponies with similar body condition score. Further research is necessary to clarify whether the reduced leptin sensitivity precedes obesity in equines or vice versa.

  5. Differential profiles of direct and indirect modification of vector feeding behaviour by a plant virus

    PubMed Central

    He, Wen-Bo; Li, Jie; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Plant viruses interact with their insect vectors directly and indirectly via host plants, and this tripartite interaction may produce fitness benefits to both the vectors and the viruses. Our previous studies show that the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex improved its performance on tobacco plants infected by the Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV), which it transmits, although virus infection of the whitefly per se reduced its performance. Here, we use electrical penetration graph recording to investigate the direct and indirect effects of TYLCCNV on the feeding behaviour of MEAM1. When feeding on either cotton, a non-host of TYLCCNV, or uninfected tobacco, a host of TYLCCNV, virus-infection of the whiteflies impeded their feeding. Interestingly, when viruliferous whiteflies fed on virus-infected tobacco, their feeding activities were no longer negatively affected; instead, the virus promoted whitefly behaviour related to rapid and effective sap ingestion. Our findings show differential profiles of direct and indirect modification of vector feeding behaviour by a plant virus, and help to unravel the behavioural mechanisms underlying a mutualistic relationship between an insect vector and a plant virus that also has features reminiscent of an insect pathogen. PMID:25567524

  6. Significant others, situations and infant feeding behaviour change processes: a serial qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding until six months followed by the introduction of solids and continued breastfeeding is recommended by the World Health Organisation. The dominant approach to achieving this has been to educate and support women to start and continue breastfeeding rather than understanding behaviour change processes from a broader perspective. Method Serial qualitative interviews examined the influences of significant others on women’s feeding behaviour. Thirty-six women and 37 nominated significant others participated in 220 interviews, conducted approximately four weekly from late pregnancy to six months after birth. Responses to summative structured questions at the end of each interview asking about significant influences on feeding decisions were compared and contrasted with formative semi-structured data within and between cases. Analysis focused on pivotal points where behaviour changed from exclusive breastfeeding to introducing formula, stopping breastfeeding or introducing solids. This enabled us to identify processes that decelerate or accelerate behaviour change and understand resolution processes afterwards. Results The dominant goal motivating behaviour change was family wellbeing, rather than exclusive breastfeeding. Rather than one type of significant other emerging as the key influence, there was a complex interplay between the self-baby dyad, significant others, situations and personal or vicarious feeding history. Following behaviour change women turned to those most likely to confirm or resolve their decisions and maintain their confidence as mothers. Conclusions Applying ecological models of behaviour would enable health service organisation, practice, policy and research to focus on enhancing family efficacy and wellbeing, improving family-centred communication and increasing opportunities for health professionals to be a constructive influence around pivotal points when feeding behaviour changes. A paradigm shift is

  7. Genetic parameters for feed intake, litter weight, body condition and rebreeding success in primiparous Norwegian Landrace sows.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, H; Fikse, W F; Grandinson, K; Lundeheim, N; Canario, L; Vangen, O; Olsen, D; Rydhmer, L

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for feed intake recorded as farmers' perception of young sows' appetite for the first 3 weeks of lactation (APP) and feed intake recorded for one day in the 3rd week of lactation (FEED), litter weight (LW) at 3 weeks, sow body condition at weaning (BC) and the following five reproduction traits: weaning-to-service interval of 1 to 7 days (WSI7), weaning-to-service interval of 1 to 50 days (WSI50), delayed service or not (DELAYED), pregnant on first service or not (PREGNANT) and litter size in 2nd parity (NBT2). The analyses included data on 4606 Norwegian Landrace 1st-parity sows and their litters. The Gibbs sampling method was used. The traits DELAYED and PREGNANT were analysed as threshold traits and APP, FEED, LW, BC, WSI7, WSI50 and NBT2 were analysed as linear traits. The heritability estimates for APP and FEED were low (<0.1), whereas the estimates for DELAYED and PREGNANT were rather high (0.4 and 0.3). The heritability estimate for BC was 0.2. The genetic correlations confirmed the complexity of breeding for sow performance; selection for heavy 1st litters may lead to lower body condition at weaning, which in turn leads to lower reproductive performance and smaller litters in 2nd parity. Selection for higher sow feed intake would improve body condition, but the simple way of measuring feed intake tested in this study (APP and FEED) cannot be recommended because of the low heritability obtained for these traits.

  8. Phenotypic and genetic relationships between growth and feed intake curves and feed efficiency and amino acid requirements in the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Saintilan, R; Brossard, L; Vautier, B; Sellier, P; Bidanel, J; van Milgen, J; Gilbert, H

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of feed efficiency in pigs has been achieved essentially by increasing lean growth rate, which resulted in lower feed intake (FI). The objective was to evaluate the impact of strategies for improving feed efficiency on the dynamics of FI and growth in growing pigs to revisit nutrient recommendations and strategies for feed efficiency improvement. In 2010, three BWs, at 35±2, 63±9 and 107±7 kg, and daily FI during this period were recorded in three French test stations on 379 Large White and 327 French Landrace from maternal pig populations and 215 Large White from a sire population. Individual growth and FI model parameters were obtained with the InraPorc® software and individual nutrient requirements were computed. The model parameters were explored according to feed efficiency as measured by residual feed intake (RFI) or feed conversion ratio (FCR). Animals were separated in groups of better feed efficiency (RFI- or FCR-), medium feed efficiency and poor feed efficiency. Second, genetic relationships between feed efficiency and model parameters were estimated. Despite similar average daily gains (ADG) during the test for all RFI groups, RFI- pigs had a lower initial growth rate and a higher final growth rate compared with other pigs. The same initial growth rate was found for all FCR groups, but FCR- pigs had significantly higher final growth rates than other pigs, resulting in significantly different ADG. Dynamic of FI also differed between RFI or FCR groups. The calculated digestible lysine requirements, expressed in g/MJ net energy (NE), showed the same trends for RFI or FCR groups: the average requirements for the 25% most efficient animals were 13% higher than that of the 25% least efficient animals during the whole test, reaching 0.90 to 0.95 g/MJ NE at the beginning of the test, which is slightly greater than usual feed recommendations for growing pigs. Model parameters were moderately heritable (0.30±0.13 to 0.56±0.13), except for the

  9. Feed intake, body weight, body condition score, musculation, and immunocompetence in aged mares given equine somatotropin.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, K; Christensen, R A; Konopka, A; Scanes, C G; Hafs, H D

    1997-03-01

    Sixteen 20- to 26-yr-old mares were given 0, 6.25, or 12.5 mg/d equine somatotropin (eST) to determine whether aged mares respond to ST with changes in feed intake, body weight, body condition score (based mostly on fat cover), or immunocompetence. Neither dry matter intake, body weight, nor body condition scores were altered during the 6 wk of eST injection. However, based on photographs taken to evaluate musculation before and after treatment (scores 0 to 4), mares given eST developed greater (P < .07) muscle definition (1.8 +/- .6 and 2.5 +/- .6 for 6.25 and 12.5 mg eST/d, respectively) than control mares (.7 +/- .4). Total circulating leukocytes increased (P < .05) in both of the eST-treated groups during the 6-wk injection period, caused by an increase (P < .05) in granulocytes. Lymphocyte numbers were not altered. Granulocyte oxidative burst activity was not altered by eST treatment. Although lymphocyte proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin, pokeweed mitogen, or lipopolysaccharide were not altered during the treatment period, lymphocyte proliferation in response to phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen increased twofold in eST-treated horses at 2 wk after eST treatment. In overview, the increased musculation and the increase in granulocyte numbers in mares given eST suggest that eST supplementation may improve the health and well-being of aged mares. PMID:9078493

  10. Supplementation of cottonseed, linseed, and noug seed cakes on feed intake, digestibility, body weight, and carcass parameters of Sidama goats.

    PubMed

    Alemu, Wondwosen; Melaku, Solomon; Tolera, Adugna

    2010-04-01

    A digestibility, feed intake, and carcass evaluation experiment using 20 yearling intact male Sidama goats weighing 16.4 +/- 0.63 kg (mean +/- SD) was conducted in Ethiopia with the objectives to determine feed intake, digestibility, body weight (BW) gain, and carcass parameters. The treatments included feeding natural pasture hay (T1, control) and supplementation with cottonseed cake (284 g-T2), linseed cake (250 g-T3), and noug seed cake (296 g-T4) on dry matter (DM) basis to supply 85 g crude protein (CP) per head per day. Randomized complete block design for feed intake and BW parameters and complete randomized design for digestibility and carcass parameters were used. Hay DM intake was higher (P < 0.01) for T1 than for the other treatments. T3 promoted higher (P < 0.01) DM (29.3 g/kg W(0.75)/day) and CP (14.1 g/kg W(0.75)/day) intake than T4 (8.9 g/kg W(0.75)/day DM and 4.1 g/kg W(0.75)/day CP). T3 showed better (P < 0.05) organic matter and CP digestibility than T2. Goats in T3 had higher nitrogen intake (P < 0.01) and retention (P < 0.05) than those in T1. Goats in T2 and T3 showed higher (P < 0.05) daily BW gain and final BW than those in T4 and T1. Goats in T2 and T3 had higher (P < 0.05) slaughter weight, empty BW, hot carcass weight, rib-eye muscle area, and dressing percentage on slaughter weight basis than those in T1. The results showed that T2 and T3 had similar effect on CP intake, daily BW gain, and carcass parameters for growing Sidama goats fed natural pasture hay.

  11. Adjusting homestead feeding to requirements and nutrient intake of grazing goats on semi-arid, subtropical highland pastures.

    PubMed

    Dickhoefer, U; Mahgoub, O; Schlecht, E

    2011-03-01

    Intensive livestock grazing can largely deplete the natural fodder resources in semi-arid, subtropical highlands and together with the low nutritional quality of the pasture vegetation limit the growth and production of grazing animals. To evaluate the contribution of homestead feeding of grazing goats to rangeland conservation and animal nutrition, two researcher-managed on-farm trials were conducted in a mountain oasis of Northern Oman. Goats' feed intake on pasture in response to four rations containing different levels of locally available green fodder and concentrate feeds was determined in six male goats each (35 ± 10.2 kg body weight (BW)). Total feed intake was estimated using titanium dioxide as external fecal marker as well as the diet organic matter (OM) digestibility derived from fecal crude protein concentration. The nutritional quality of selected fodder plants on pasture was analyzed to determine the animals' nutrient and energy intake during grazing. The pasture vegetation accounted for 0.46 to 0.65 of the goats' total OM intake (87 to 107 g/kg0.75 BW), underlining the importance of this fodder resource for the husbandry system. However, metabolizable energy (7.2 MJ/kg OM) and phosphorus concentrations (1.4 g/kg OM) in the consumed pasture plants were low. Homestead feeding of nutrient and energy-rich by-products of the national fishery and date palm cultivation to grazing goats increased their daily OM intake (R2 = 0.36; P = 0.005) and covered their requirements for growth and production. While the OM intake on pasture was highest in animals fed a concentrate-based diet (P = 0.003), the daily intake of 21 g OM/kg0.75 BW of cultivated green fodder reduced the animals' feed intake on pasture (R2 = 0.44; P = 0.001). Adjusting homestead supplementation with locally available feedstuffs to the requirements of individual goats and to the nutritional quality of the pasture vegetation improves animal performance and eases the grazing pressure exerted on

  12. Adjusting homestead feeding to requirements and nutrient intake of grazing goats on semi-arid, subtropical highland pastures.

    PubMed

    Dickhoefer, U; Mahgoub, O; Schlecht, E

    2011-03-01

    Intensive livestock grazing can largely deplete the natural fodder resources in semi-arid, subtropical highlands and together with the low nutritional quality of the pasture vegetation limit the growth and production of grazing animals. To evaluate the contribution of homestead feeding of grazing goats to rangeland conservation and animal nutrition, two researcher-managed on-farm trials were conducted in a mountain oasis of Northern Oman. Goats' feed intake on pasture in response to four rations containing different levels of locally available green fodder and concentrate feeds was determined in six male goats each (35 ± 10.2 kg body weight (BW)). Total feed intake was estimated using titanium dioxide as external fecal marker as well as the diet organic matter (OM) digestibility derived from fecal crude protein concentration. The nutritional quality of selected fodder plants on pasture was analyzed to determine the animals' nutrient and energy intake during grazing. The pasture vegetation accounted for 0.46 to 0.65 of the goats' total OM intake (87 to 107 g/kg0.75 BW), underlining the importance of this fodder resource for the husbandry system. However, metabolizable energy (7.2 MJ/kg OM) and phosphorus concentrations (1.4 g/kg OM) in the consumed pasture plants were low. Homestead feeding of nutrient and energy-rich by-products of the national fishery and date palm cultivation to grazing goats increased their daily OM intake (R2 = 0.36; P = 0.005) and covered their requirements for growth and production. While the OM intake on pasture was highest in animals fed a concentrate-based diet (P = 0.003), the daily intake of 21 g OM/kg0.75 BW of cultivated green fodder reduced the animals' feed intake on pasture (R2 = 0.44; P = 0.001). Adjusting homestead supplementation with locally available feedstuffs to the requirements of individual goats and to the nutritional quality of the pasture vegetation improves animal performance and eases the grazing pressure exerted on

  13. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-01

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  14. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-01

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  15. Effect of feed type and method of presentation on feeding behavior, intake, and growth of dairy calves fed a high level of milk.

    PubMed

    Overvest, M A; Bergeron, R; Haley, D B; DeVries, T J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of different feed types and method of feed presentation in the first 12 wk of life on the feeding behavior, intake, and growth of calves fed a high milk level. Forty-eight neonatal Holstein calves were individually housed and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments and fed solid feed ad libitum: silage-based total mixed ration (TMR), concentrate (CON), and chopped hay and concentrate presented in 2 manners: mixed (MIX) or separate (SEP). All calves were offered 12 L/d of acidified milk replacer (1.8 kg of dry matter) until d 38 at which time step-down weaning by 1 L/d began. At d 50 calves no longer received milk, and all calves on SEP and CON treatments were offered the MIX diet until the end of the trial, whereas TMR and MIX calves did not change feeds. Feed intakes were recorded daily, and calves were weighed twice per week. Rumination time was observed on the last 3 d of alternate weeks (wk 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11) for 1h beginning at 1500 h. Time spent feeding was determined for the last 2 d of alternate weeks. In the preweaning stage (d 1-37) average daily gain was similar for all calves (1.1 kg/d). The TMR calves had lower average daily gain than calves on the other 3 treatments during both the weaning (d 38-49; 0.2 vs. 0.7 kg/d) and postweaning (d 50-84; 0.5 vs. 1.2 kg/d) stages. This result is related to the lower dry matter intake of calves fed TMR in comparison with MIX, SEP, and CON calves in the weaning (0.2 vs. 0.5 kg/d) and postweaning (1.8 vs. 2.8 kg/d) stages. Given dry matter content of the feeds (TMR=52%, other diets=89%), the as-fed intake of the calves was similar across treatments in all 3 stages. Calves offered hay in addition to concentrate showed no difference in concentrate intake in the first 7 wk of life. Interestingly, TMR calves spent more time feeding during the postweaning stage than MIX, SEP, and CON calves (308 vs. 194 min/d) and exhibited a slower feeding rate postweaning (5.9 vs. 14

  16. Effect of feed type and method of presentation on feeding behavior, intake, and growth of dairy calves fed a high level of milk.

    PubMed

    Overvest, M A; Bergeron, R; Haley, D B; DeVries, T J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of different feed types and method of feed presentation in the first 12 wk of life on the feeding behavior, intake, and growth of calves fed a high milk level. Forty-eight neonatal Holstein calves were individually housed and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments and fed solid feed ad libitum: silage-based total mixed ration (TMR), concentrate (CON), and chopped hay and concentrate presented in 2 manners: mixed (MIX) or separate (SEP). All calves were offered 12 L/d of acidified milk replacer (1.8 kg of dry matter) until d 38 at which time step-down weaning by 1 L/d began. At d 50 calves no longer received milk, and all calves on SEP and CON treatments were offered the MIX diet until the end of the trial, whereas TMR and MIX calves did not change feeds. Feed intakes were recorded daily, and calves were weighed twice per week. Rumination time was observed on the last 3 d of alternate weeks (wk 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11) for 1h beginning at 1500 h. Time spent feeding was determined for the last 2 d of alternate weeks. In the preweaning stage (d 1-37) average daily gain was similar for all calves (1.1 kg/d). The TMR calves had lower average daily gain than calves on the other 3 treatments during both the weaning (d 38-49; 0.2 vs. 0.7 kg/d) and postweaning (d 50-84; 0.5 vs. 1.2 kg/d) stages. This result is related to the lower dry matter intake of calves fed TMR in comparison with MIX, SEP, and CON calves in the weaning (0.2 vs. 0.5 kg/d) and postweaning (1.8 vs. 2.8 kg/d) stages. Given dry matter content of the feeds (TMR=52%, other diets=89%), the as-fed intake of the calves was similar across treatments in all 3 stages. Calves offered hay in addition to concentrate showed no difference in concentrate intake in the first 7 wk of life. Interestingly, TMR calves spent more time feeding during the postweaning stage than MIX, SEP, and CON calves (308 vs. 194 min/d) and exhibited a slower feeding rate postweaning (5.9 vs. 14

  17. Partial-genome evaluation of postweaning feed intake and efficiency of crossbred beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Snelling, W M; Allan, M F; Keele, J W; Kuehn, L A; Thallman, R M; Bennett, G L; Ferrell, C L; Jenkins, T G; Freetly, H C; Nielsen, M K; Rolfe, K M

    2011-06-01

    The effects of individual SNP and the variation explained by sets of SNP associated with DMI, metabolic midtest BW, BW gain, and feed efficiency, expressed as phenotypic and genetic residual feed intake, were estimated from BW and the individual feed intake of 1,159 steers on dry lot offered a 3.0 Mcal/kg ration for at least 119 d before slaughter. Parents of these F(1) × F(1) (F(1)(2)) steers were AI-sired F(1) progeny of Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental bulls mated to US Meat Animal Research Center Angus, Hereford, and MARC III composite females. Steers were genotyped with the BovineSNP50 BeadChip assay (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Effects of 44,163 SNP having minor allele frequencies >0.05 in the F(1)(2) generation were estimated with a mixed model that included genotype, breed composition, heterosis, age of dam, and slaughter date contemporary groups as fixed effects, and a random additive genetic effect with recorded pedigree relationships among animals. Variance in this population attributable to sets of SNP was estimated with models that partitioned the additive genetic effect into a polygenic component attributable to pedigree relationships and a genotypic component attributable to genotypic relationships. The sets of SNP evaluated were the full set of 44,163 SNP and subsets containing 6 to 40,000 SNP selected according to association with phenotype. Ninety SNP were strongly associated (P < 0.0001) with at least 1 efficiency or component trait; these 90 accounted for 28 to 46% of the total additive genetic variance of each trait. Trait-specific sets containing 96 SNP having the strongest associations with each trait explained 50 to 87% of additive variance for that trait. Expected accuracy of steer breeding values predicted with pedigree and genotypic relationships exceeded the accuracy of their sires predicted without genotypic information, although gains in accuracy were not sufficient to encourage that

  18. Bivariate Genome-Wide Association Analysis of the Growth and Intake Components of Feed Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Beever, Jonathan E.; Bollero, Germán A.; Southey, Bruce R.; Faulkner, Daniel B.; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with average daily gain (ADG) and dry matter intake (DMI), two major components of feed efficiency in cattle, were identified in a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Uni- and multi-SNP models were used to describe feed efficiency in a training data set and the results were confirmed in a validation data set. Results from the univariate and bivariate analyses of ADG and DMI, adjusted by the feedlot beef steer maintenance requirements, were compared. The bivariate uni-SNP analysis identified (P-value <0.0001) 11 SNPs, meanwhile the univariate analyses of ADG and DMI identified 8 and 9 SNPs, respectively. Among the six SNPs confirmed in the validation data set, five SNPs were mapped to KDELC2, PHOX2A, and TMEM40. Findings from the uni-SNP models were used to develop highly accurate predictive multi-SNP models in the training data set. Despite the substantially smaller size of the validation data set, the training multi-SNP models had slightly lower predictive ability when applied to the validation data set. Six Gene Ontology molecular functions related to ion transport activity were enriched (P-value <0.001) among the genes associated with the detected SNPs. The findings from this study demonstrate the complementary value of the uni- and multi-SNP models, and univariate and bivariate GWAS analyses. The identified SNPs can be used for genome-enabled improvement of feed efficiency in feedlot beef cattle, and can aid in the design of empirical studies to further confirm the associations. PMID:24205251

  19. Prediction of residual feed intake for first-lactation dairy cows using orthogonal polynomial random regression.

    PubMed

    Manafiazar, G; McFadden, T; Goonewardene, L; Okine, E; Basarab, J; Li, P; Wang, Z

    2013-01-01

    Residual Feed Intake (RFI) is a measure of energy efficiency. Developing an appropriate model to predict expected energy intake while accounting for multifunctional energy requirements of metabolic body weight (MBW), empty body weight (EBW), milk production energy requirements (MPER), and their nonlinear lactation profiles, is the key to successful prediction of RFI in dairy cattle. Individual daily actual energy intake and monthly body weight of 281 first-lactation dairy cows from 1 to 305 d in milk were recorded at the Dairy Research and Technology Centre of the University of Alberta (Edmonton, AB, Canada); individual monthly milk yield and compositions were obtained from the Dairy Herd Improvement Program. Combinations of different orders (1-5) of fixed (F) and random (R) factors were fitted using Legendre polynomial regression to model the nonlinear lactation profiles of MBW, EBW, and MPER over 301 d. The F5R3, F5R3, and F5R2 (subscripts indicate the order fitted) models were selected, based on the combination of the log-likelihood ratio test and the Bayesian information criterion, as the best prediction equations for MBW, EBW, and MPER, respectively. The selected models were used to predict daily individual values for these traits. To consider the body reserve changes, the differences of predicted EBW between 2 consecutive days were considered as the EBW change between these days. The smoothed total 301-d actual energy intake was then linearly regressed on the total 301-d predicted traits of MBW, EBW change, and MPER to obtain the first-lactation RFI (coefficient of determination=0.68). The mean of predicted daily average lactation RFI was 0 and ranged from -6.58 to 8.64 Mcal of NE(L)/d. Fifty-one percent of the animals had an RFI value below the mean (efficient) and 49% of them had an RFI value above the mean (inefficient). These results indicate that the first-lactation RFI can be predicted from its component traits with a reasonable coefficient of

  20. Feeding behavior and dietary intake of male children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kamila; Faccioli, Larissa Slongo; Baronio, Diego; Gottfried, Carmem; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Riesgo, Rudimar

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with restrictive or repetitive behaviors and difficulties with verbal and interpersonal communication, in which some problems involving nutrition may be present. This study aims to evaluate dietary intake and identify feeding behavioral problems in male children and adolescents with ASD when compared to matched controls, as well as parents or caregivers' feelings about strategies for dealing with eating problems. A 3-day food record was performed and nutrient intake was compared to the Dietary Reference Intake according to age. To evaluate children feeding behavior and parents or caregivers' feelings, the Behavior Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFA) was used. ASD patients consumed in average more calories than controls (though with a high patient's frequency above and below calorie range references), had a limited food repertoire, high prevalence of children with inadequate calcium, sodium, iron vitamin B5, folate, and vitamin C intake. BPFA scores were also higher in the ASD group when compared to controls for all frequencies (child behavior, parents and total). These findings lead us to endorse the importance of evaluating feeding problems in the clinical routine, considering also the singular features of the patients. PMID:27432261

  1. The Use of Inappropriate Feeding Practices by Rural Parents and Their Effect on Preschoolers' Fruit and Vegetable Preferences and Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bante, Holly; Elliott, Michael; Harrod, Amanda; Haire-Joshu, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To describe the frequency of inappropriate feeding practices used by parents of preschoolers and the impact on a child's preference for and intake of fruits and vegetables (FV). Design: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a telephone interview. Setting: A community-based program in rural southeastern Missouri. Participants:…

  2. Effect of quantity and route of administration of manganese monoxide on feed intake and serum manganese in ruminants

    SciTech Connect

    Black, J.R.; Ammerman, C.B.; Henry, P.R.

    1985-02-01

    The experiment investigated effects of high quantities of manganese and route of administration (diet versus capsule-dosed) on feed intake and blood characteristics in sheep. Twenty-four Florida native or Florida native by St. Croix crossbred wethers, 47 kg initially, were assigned randomly to eight treatments including basal diet supplemented with 0, 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm manganese as a reagent grade manganese monoxide or basal diet plus gelatin capsules containing the equivalent of 0, 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm manganese based on intake of the previous day. Three sheep per treatment were provided feed and tap water for ad libitum intake. Sheep were fed basal diet for 7 days followed by a 21-day experimental period, then placed back on the basal diet for 7 days. Average daily feed intake was reduced by increasing supplemental manganese, regardless of route. Animals dosed by capsule consumed less feed than those administered manganese in the diet. Serum manganese increased as manganese supplementation increased, but route of administration had no effect.

  3. Grazing behavior and production characteristics among cows differing in residual feed intake while grazing late season Idaho rangeland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives were to determine if cows classified as either low- or high-residual feed intake (LRFI or HRFI) differed in BW, BCS, and winter grazing activity over time. Thirty Hereford x Angus (LRFI = 16; HRFI = 14) 2-year-old cows grazed sagebrush-steppe for 78 d beginning 29 September 2016. Body...

  4. Feeding behavior and dietary intake of male children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kamila; Faccioli, Larissa Slongo; Baronio, Diego; Gottfried, Carmem; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Riesgo, Rudimar

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with restrictive or repetitive behaviors and difficulties with verbal and interpersonal communication, in which some problems involving nutrition may be present. This study aims to evaluate dietary intake and identify feeding behavioral problems in male children and adolescents with ASD when compared to matched controls, as well as parents or caregivers' feelings about strategies for dealing with eating problems. A 3-day food record was performed and nutrient intake was compared to the Dietary Reference Intake according to age. To evaluate children feeding behavior and parents or caregivers' feelings, the Behavior Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFA) was used. ASD patients consumed in average more calories than controls (though with a high patient's frequency above and below calorie range references), had a limited food repertoire, high prevalence of children with inadequate calcium, sodium, iron vitamin B5, folate, and vitamin C intake. BPFA scores were also higher in the ASD group when compared to controls for all frequencies (child behavior, parents and total). These findings lead us to endorse the importance of evaluating feeding problems in the clinical routine, considering also the singular features of the patients.

  5. Effect of breed composition on phenotypic residual feed intake and growth in Angus, Brahman, and Angus x Brahman crossbred cattle.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of additive and nonadditive genetic effects and temperament on 4 postweaning feed intake and growth traits was evaluated in a group of 578 bull, heifer, and steer calves born in 3 Florida herds in 2006 and 2007. Calves had breed compositions ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman...

  6. Feeding style differences in food parenting practices associated with fruit and vegetable intake in children fromlow-income families

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the moderating effects of feeding styles on the relationship between food parenting practices and fruit and vegetable intake in low-income families with preschool-aged children. Focus group meetings with Head Start parents were conducted by using the nomina...

  7. Association between meal intake behaviour and abdominal obesity in Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Keller, Kristin; Rodríguez López, Santiago; Carmenate Moreno, Margarita M

    2015-09-01

    The study aims to evaluate the association between abdominal obesity with meal intake behaviour such as having a forenoon meal, having an afternoon meal and snacking. This cross-sectional study includes n = 1314 participants aged 20-79 who were interviewed during the Cardiac health "Semanas del Corazon" events in four Spanish cities (Madrid, Las Palmas, Seville and Valencia) in 2008. Waist circumference, weight and height were assessed to determine abdominal obesity (waist circumference: ≥88 cm in women and ≥102 cm in men) and BMI, respectively. The intake of forenoon and afternoon meal and snacking between the participants' regular meals were assessed with a questionnaire that also included individual risk factors. The information obtained about diet was required to calculate an Unhealthy Habit Score and a score reflecting the Achievement of Dietary Guidelines. Adjusted logistic regressions were used to examine the association between abdominal obesity and the mentioned meal intake behaviour controlling for sex, age, individual risk factors, BMI and diet. Having an afternoon meal (OR 0.60; 95% CI (0.41-0.88)) was negatively associated with abdominal obesity after adjusting for all confounders, whereas the positive association of snacking (OR 1.39; 95% CI (1.05-1.85)) was not independent of BMI (OR 1.25; 95% CI (0.84-1.87)). Taking a forenoon meal did not show any associations (OR 0.92; 95% CI (0.63-1.34)) with abdominal obesity. The results obtained could be helpful in the promotion of healthy habits in nutritional education programmes and also in health programmes preventing abdominal obesity.

  8. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on performance, rate and variation in feed intake, and acid-base balance in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Abney, C S; Vasconcelos, J T; McMeniman, J P; Keyser, S A; Wilson, K R; Vogel, G J; Galyean, M L

    2007-11-01

    Two experiments evaluated effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on performance, intake patterns, and acid-base balance of feedlot cattle. In Exp. 1, 360 crossbred steers (Brangus, British, and British x Continental breeding; initial BW = 545 kg) were used in a study with a 3 x 3 factorial design to study the effects of dose [0, 100, or 200 mg/(steer x d) of RAC] and duration (28, 35, or 42 d) of feeding of RAC in a randomized complete block design (9 treatments, 8 pens/treatment). No dose x duration interactions were detected (P > 0.10). As RAC dose increased, final BW (FBW; P = 0.01), ADG (P < 0.01), and G:F (P < 0.01) increased linearly. As duration of feeding increased, ADG increased quadratically (P = 0.04), with tendencies for quadratic effects for FBW (P = 0.06), DMI (P = 0.07), and G:F (P = 0.09). Hot carcass weight increased linearly (P = 0.02) as dose of RAC increased. Thus, increasing the dose of RAC from 0 to 200 mg/(steer x d) and the duration of feeding from 28 to 42 d improved feedlot performance, although quadratic responses for duration of feeding indicated little improvement as the duration was extended from 35 to 42 d. In Exp. 2, 12 crossbred beef steers (BW = 593 kg) were used in a completely random design to evaluate the effects of RAC [0 or 200 mg/(steer x d) for 30 d; 6 steers/treatment] on rate of intake, daily variation in intake patterns, and acid-base balance. To assess intake patterns, absolute values of daily deviations in feed delivered to each steer relative to the total quantity of feed delivered were analyzed as repeated measures. There were no differences (P > 0.10) in feedlot performance, urine pH, blood gas measurements, or variation in intake patterns between RAC and control cattle, but steers fed RAC had increased (P = 0.04) LM area, decreased (P = 0.03) yield grade, and increased (P < 0.10) time to consume 50 and 75% of daily intake relative to control steers. Our results suggest that feeding RAC for 35 d at 200 mg

  9. Constant light induces alterations in melatonin levels, food intake, feed efficiency, visceral adiposity, and circadian rhythms in rats.

    PubMed

    Wideman, Cyrilla H; Murphy, Helen M

    2009-10-01

    Melatonin levels, metabolic parameters, circadian rhythm activity patterns, and behavior were observed in rats subjected to a 12-h/12-h light/dark cycle (LD) compared to animals exposed to continuous dark (DD) or continuous light (LL). LD and DD animals were similar in melatonin levels, food intake, relative food intake, feed efficiency, water intake, circadian activity levels, and behavior. LL animals had lower melatonin levels in the subjective dark compared to LD and DD animals. Food intake, relative food intake, and water intake values were lower and feed efficiency was more positive in LL animals compared to LD and DD animals. In addition, LL animals exhibited greater visceral adiposity than the other two groups. The circadian rhythmicity of activity became free-running in LL animals and there was a decrease in overall activity. Notable behavioral changes in LL animals were an increase in irritability and excitability. Results indicate that a decrease in melatonin levels and concomitant changes in metabolism, circadian rhythms, and behavior are consequences of exposure to constant light. PMID:19761654

  10. Rationale and design of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) study for self-regulation of energy intake in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Eneli, Ihuoma U; Tylka, Tracy L; Hummel, Jessica; Watowicz, Rosanna P; Perez, Susana A; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-03-01

    In 2011, the Institute of Medicine Early Childhood Prevention Policies Report identified feeding dynamics as an important focus area for childhood obesity prevention and treatment. Feeding dynamics includes two central components: (1) caregiver feeding practices (i.e., determining how, when, where, and what they feed their children) and (2) child eating behaviors (i.e., determining how much and what to eat from what food caregivers have provided). Although there has been great interest in overweight and obesity prevention and treatment in young children, they have not focused comprehensively on feeding dynamics. Interventions on feeding dynamics that reduce caregivers' excessive controlling and restrictive feeding practices and encourage the development of children's self-regulation of energy intake may hold promise for tackling childhood obesity especially in the young child but currently lack an evidence base. This manuscript describes the rationale and design for a randomized controlled trial designed to compare a group of mothers and their 3-to 5-year old children who received an intervention focused primarily on feeding dynamics called the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) with a Wait-list Control Group (WLC). The primary aim of the study will be to investigate the efficacy of the FDI for decreasing Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) and improving energy compensation (COMPX). The secondary aim will be to examine the effect of the FDI in comparison to the WLC on maternal self-reported feeding practices and child satiety responsiveness.

  11. Rationale and Design of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) Study for Self-Regulation of Energy Intake in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Hummel, Jessica; Watowicz, Rosanna P.; Perez, Susana A.; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, the Institute of Medicine Early Childhood Prevention Policies Report identified feeding dynamics as an important focus area for childhood obesity prevention and treatment. Feeding dynamics include two central components: (1) caregiver feeding practices (i.e., determining how, when, where, and what they feed their children) and (2) child eating behaviors (i.e., determining how much and what to eat from what food caregivers have provided). Although there has been great interest in overweight and obesity prevention and treatment in young children, they have not focused comprehensively on feeding dynamics. Interventions on feeding dynamics that reduce caregivers’ excessive controlling and restrictive feeding practices and encourage the development of children’s self-regulation of energy intake may hold promise for tackling childhood obesity especially in the young child but currently lack an evidence base. This manuscript describes the rationale and design for a randomized controlled trial designed to compare a group of mothers and their 3-to 5-year old children who received an intervention focused primarily on feeding dynamics called the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) with a Wait-list Control Group (WLC). The primary aim of the study will be to investigate the efficacy of the FDI for decreasing Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) and improving energy compensation (COMPX). The secondary aim will be to examine the effect of the FDI in comparison to the WLC on maternal self-reported feeding practices and child satiety responsiveness. PMID:25616192

  12. Vigilance and feeding behaviour in large feeding flocks of laughing gulls, Larus atricilla, on Delaware Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    1991-02-01

    Laughing gulls ( Larus atricilla) forage on horseshoe crab ( Limulus polyphemus) eggs during May in Delaware Bay each year. They feed in dense flocks, and foraging rates vary with vigilance, bird density, number of steps and location in the flock, whereas time devoted to vigilance is explained by number of steps, density, location and feeding rates. The time devoted to vigilance decreases with increasing density, increasing foraging rates and decreasing aggression. Birds foraging on the edge of flocks take fewer pecks and more steps, and devote more time to vigilance than those in the intermediate or central parts of a flock.

  13. Comparative effects of sodium butyrate and flavors on feed intake of lactating sows and growth performance of piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Yang, Mei; Xu, Shengyu; Lin, Yan; Che, Lianqiang; Fang, Zhengfeng; Wu, De

    2014-06-01

    We examined the effects of sodium butyrate and flavors on feed intake of lactating sows and growth performance of piglets. A total of 52 primiparous sows (Large White) were randomly divided into four treatments (n = 13) and received 6 g/kg sodium butyrate (SB), fruit-milk (FM) flavor and fruit-milk-anise (FMA) flavor with pair feeding to the mothers receiving the control diet. The feeding trial lasted for 29 days, including 21 days of nursing and 8 days of post-weaning period, respectively. The nursing and weaning piglets received creep diets with the same flavor or SB supplement as their mother. The results showed that FMA flavor increased average daily feed intake (ADFI) of lactating sows (P < 0.01), as well as improved litter weight gain (P = 0.05) and ADFI (P < 0.01) of nursing pigs among treatments. Indeed, greater ADFI and average daily gain of weaning piglets for the initial 8 days after weaning was observed in the FMA group compared with those in the control group (P < 0.01). These findings indicated that adding FMA flavor was superior to SB for increasing feed intake of lactating sows and improving growth performance of piglets.

  14. Nutritional assessment in alcoholic patients. Its relationship with alcoholic intake, feeding habits, organic complications and social problems.

    PubMed

    Santolaria, F; Pérez-Manzano, J L; Milena, A; González-Reimers, E; Gómez-Rodríguez, M A; Martínez-Riera, A; Alemán-Valls, M R; de la Vega-Prieto, M J

    2000-06-01

    To establish their ability to predict malnutrition, irregular feeding, alcoholic intake, derangement of social and familial links and organic complications (liver cirrhosis) were assessed in 181 hospitalized male alcoholic. BMI was under 18.5 kg/m(2) in 8.9%, between 18.5-20 kg/m(2) in 8.9%, 20-25 kg/m(2) in 42%, 25-30 kg/m(2) in 32.2% and over 30 kg/m(2) in 8.2% of patients. Malnutrition was related to the intensity of ethanol intake, development of social or familial problems, irregularity of feeding habits and cirrhosis with ascites. Irregularity of feeding habits was also related to heavy drinking and to social or familial derangement. By logistic regression analysis, the only variables which independently predict malnutrition were irregular feeding habits and liver cirrhosis with ascites. In a second step, irregular feeding was dependent on social or familial troubles and daily intake of ethanol. So, malnutrition related to alcoholism seems multifactorial in its pathogenesis.

  15. Selection for residual feed intake in growing pigs: effects on sow performance in a tropical climate.

    PubMed

    Renaudeau, D; Gourdine, J L; Fleury, J; Ferchaud, S; Billon, Y; Noblet, J; Gilbert, H

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the consequences of a divergent selection for residual feed intake (RFI) during growth in a temperate environment (TEMP) on sow performance in a tropical environment (TROP). Sows came from a selection experiment conducted at INRA in which 2 lines were selected for larger (RFI(+)) or smaller (RFI(─)) feed intake than predicted from performance. In the first analysis, a subsample of data obtained in TROP conditions (49 lactations) was compared to those obtained in TEMP on their sibs mated with the same boars (54 lactations). In the second analysis, data obtained in the TROP environment (82 lactations) were analyzed for testing the effect of season (warm vs. hot) and line on sow performance. Except for the lactation length, the interaction between line and climatic environment was not significant for the others traits (P > 0.05). The ADFI expressed per kilogram of litter BW gain tended to be higher in the RFI(+) line bred in the TROP environment (P = 0.080), together with piglet BW at weaning, which tended to be lower (P = 0.080). The ADFI was lower in TROP than in TEMP (4.56 vs. 5.86 kg/d; P = 0.003), with negative consequence on litter BW gain and maternal BW loss. The RFI(-) sows tended to eat less feed than RFI(+) sows during lactation (4.55 vs. 5.86 kg/d; P = 0.099). Litter BW at weaning was higher in the RFI(─) line. The RFI(─) sows ate significantly less feed to produce 1 kg of litter than the RFI(+) sows and tended to lose a larger amount of BW during lactation than the RFI(+) sows (2.40 vs. 3.02 kg/kg and -0.66 vs. -0.39 kg/d, respectively, P < 0.10). Whatever the line, ADFI was reduced by about 21% in the hot season (P < 0.05). Litter BW gain was depressed (P < 0.05) in the hot season (1.72 vs. 2.08 kg/d in the warm season; P = 0.023). Lactation maternal BW loss tended to increase in the hot season (1.10 vs. 0.71 kg/d in the warm season; P = 0.016), but back fat loss remained constant (P = 0.295). In the TROP

  16. Genome-wide association and systems genetic analyses of residual feed intake, daily feed consumption, backfat and weight gain in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Feed efficiency is one of the major components determining costs of animal production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed and the expected feed intake given a certain production. Residual feed intake 1 (RFI1) was calculated based on regression of individual daily feed intake (DFI) on initial test weight and average daily gain. Residual feed intake 2 (RFI2) was as RFI1 except it was also regressed with respect to backfat (BF). It has been shown to be a sensitive and accurate measure for feed efficiency in livestock but knowledge of the genomic regions and mechanisms affecting RFI in pigs is lacking. The study aimed to identify genetic markers and candidate genes for RFI and its component traits as well as pathways associated with RFI in Danish Duroc boars by genome-wide associations and systems genetic analyses. Results Phenotypic and genotypic records (using the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip) were available on 1,272 boars. Fifteen and 12 loci were significantly associated (p < 1.52 × 10-6) with RFI1 and RFI2, respectively. Among them, 10 SNPs were significantly associated with both RFI1 and RFI2 implying the existence of common mechanisms controlling the two RFI measures. Significant QTL regions for component traits of RFI (DFI and BF) were detected on pig chromosome (SSC) 1 (for DFI) and 2 for (BF). The SNPs within MAP3K5 and PEX7 on SSC 1, ENSSSCG00000022338 on SSC 9, and DSCAM on SSC 13 might be interesting markers for both RFI measures. Functional annotation of genes in 0.5 Mb size flanking significant SNPs indicated regulation of protein and lipid metabolic process, gap junction, inositol phosphate metabolism and insulin signaling pathway are significant biological processes and pathways for RFI, respectively. Conclusions The study detected novel genetic variants and QTLs on SSC 1, 8, 9, 13 and 18 for RFI and indicated significant biological processes and metabolic pathways involved in RFI. The

  17. The effect of feed intake on the rate of flow of digesta and the disposition and activity of oxfendazole in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ali, D N; Hennessy, D R

    1993-07-01

    Within 3 h of intra-ruminal (IR) administration oxfendazole (OFZ) was extensively associated with digesta particulate material. This association appeared to be a passive adsorption/desorption since sheep given dose equivalent OFZ which was contained solely in rumen particulate digesta (obtained from OFZ treated donor sheep) exhibited similar OFZ disposition to the IR treated animals. The association of OFZ with rumen particulate digesta is a major determinant of the pharmacokinetic behaviour of OFZ. The kinetic disposition of OFZ was compared in sheep fed 400 g and 800 g day-1 of 50:50 lucerne/wheaten chaff. The flow rate of rumen and abomasal fluid and particulate digesta increased with feed intake whilst the availability of OFZ and its metabolites in the digestive tract and bloodstream decreased. Compared to untreated sheep fed 800 g day-1, OFZ did not affect benzimidazole (BZ) resistant Trichostrongylus colubriformis, but reduced the numbers of BZ-resistant Haemonchus contortus by 61%. When sheep were fed 400 g day-1 36 h before and after OFZ administration, 60% of T. colubriformis and 94% of H. contortus were removed. Elevated anthelmintic efficacy in sheep can therefore be obtained when gastric flow has been slowed by temporarily reducing feed intake.

  18. Effect of breed composition on phenotypic residual feed intake and growth in Angus, Brahman, and Angus x Brahman crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Elzo, M A; Riley, D G; Hansen, G R; Johnson, D D; Myer, R O; Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-12-01

    The influence of additive and nonadditive genetic effects and temperament on 4 postweaning feed intake and growth traits was evaluated in a group of 581 bull, heifer, and steer calves born in 3 Florida herds in 2006 and 2007. Calves had breed compositions ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). They were randomly allocated to 24 pens each year by herd (Brooksville, Gainesville, Marianna, FL), sire group (A, 3/4 A 1/4 B, Brangus, 1/2 A 1/2 B, 1/4 A 3/4 B, and B), and sex (bull, heifer, and steer) in a GrowSafe automated feeding facility at Marianna. Calves were fed a concentrate diet during the 21-d adjustment and the 70-d trial periods. Individual feed intakes were recorded daily, and BW, chute scores, and exit velocities were recorded every 2 wk. Traits were phenotypic daily residual feed intake (RFI), mean daily feed intake (DFI), mean daily feed conversion ratio (FCR), and postweaning BW gain. Phenotypic RFI was computed as the difference between actual and expected feed intakes. Calves were assigned to 3 RFI groups: high (RFI greater than 0.9 kg of DM/d), low (RFI less than -0.9 kg of DM/d), and medium (RFI between mean +/- 0.9 kg of DM/d; SD = 1.8 kg of DM/d). The mixed model included the fixed effects of contemporary group (herd-year-pen), RFI group (except when trait was RFI), age of dam, sex of calf, age of calf, B fraction of calf, heterozygosity of calf, mean chute score, and mean exit velocity. Brahman fraction and heterozygosity of calf were nested within sex of calf for RFI and within RFI group for DFI, FCR, and postweaning BW gain. Random effects were sire and residual. Feed efficiency tended to improve (decreased RFI) as the B fraction increased. However, calves required larger amounts of feed per kilogram of BW gain (larger FCR) as the B fraction increased. Postweaning BW gain tended to decrease as the B fraction increased. Temperament traits were unimportant for all traits except exit velocity for DFI, suggesting perhaps a lack of

  19. Alighting and feeding behaviour of tabanid flies on horses, kangaroos and pigs.

    PubMed

    Muzari, M O; Skerratt, L F; Jones, R E; Duran, T L

    2010-05-28

    Successful mechanical transmission of surra between animals by tabanid flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) depends to a large extent on the blood-feeding behaviour of the tabanid species prevalent in the area. We studied tabanid-host interactions in Australia to better predict risk of surra transmission and design intervention strategies. At least six tabanid species were observed alighting on horses, pigs and kangaroos, but the most abundant were Tabanus pallipennis Macquart, Pseudotabanus silvester Bergroth and T. townsvilli Ricardo. The behaviour of tabanids in terms of landing location on the host body, duration of feeding and the proportion completing the blood-meal varied with fly species and host species. The findings predict that some species of tabanid such as T. pallipennis should be better vectors and some species of host such as pigs should be better reservoirs of surra based on the inability of flies to feed to repletion and longer feeding durations. This will result in multiple feeds and increased risk of exposure to the infectious agent, respectively, which increases the risk of transmission. Insecticide treatments should target preferred feeding sites on the host's body.

  20. Mitochondrial complex I protein differs among residual feed intake phenotype in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M H; Kerley, M S

    2013-07-01

    Four experiments were performed to determine if residual feed intake (RFI) was related to mitochondrial complex I (CI) protein. For Exp. 1, crossbred Angus steers (initial BW 270 ± 2.0 kg) were fed for a total of 170 d (n = 72). For Exp. 2, crossbred Braunvieh steers (initial BW 280 ± 3.0 kg) were fed for a total of 150 d (n = 50). For Exp. 3, crossbred Braunvieh heifers (initial BW 260 ± 3.0 kg) were fed for a total of 160 d (n = 40). For Exp. 4, crossbred Angus steers (initial BW 290 ± 3.0 kg) were fed for a total of 160 d (n = 40). All cattle in all experiments were fed the same diet. The variable RFI was calculated as the difference between predicted and actual DMI. Predicted DMI was calculated from regressing intake on ADG and metabolic body weight. Blood was collected, lymphocytes were isolated, and antibody used to capture CI. For Exp. 1, 2, and 3, CI quantity was measured using an ELISA commercial kit (Mitosciences, OR). For Exp. 4, CI subunits were separated by gel electrophoresis and bands were analyzed for differences in concentration (absorbance) among RFI phenotypes. For all 4 experiments, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between RFI and DMI but no difference (P > 0.05) was reported for ADG and metabolic midweight. For Exp. 1, 2, and 3, CI concentration in mitochondria was greater (P < 0.05) for low RFI compared with other treatments. For Exp. 4, animals with low RFI had a trend (P = 0.07) for greater concentration of Band I (protein S1) than high RFI. Correlation between RFI and Band I was -0.72 (P = 0.04). We concluded that mitochondrial function was at least in part responsible for differences among animals in metabolic efficiency.

  1. Mothers’ Child-Feeding Practices Are Associated with Children’s Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake1234

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; Li, Ruowei; Birch, Leann

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake is a substantial source of energy in the diet of US children. Objective: We examined the associations between mothers’ child-feeding practices and SSB intake among 6-y-old children. Methods: We analyzed data from the Year 6 Follow-up of the Infant Feeding Practices Study II in 1350 US children aged 6 y. The outcome variable was child’s SSB intake. The exposure variables were 4 child-feeding practices of mothers: setting limits on sweets or junk foods, regulating their child’s favorite food intake to prevent overconsumption, pressuring their child to eat enough, and pressuring their child to “clean the plate.” We used multinomial logistic regression and controlled for child and maternal characteristics. Analyses were stratified on child weight status. Results: The consumption of SSBs ≥1 time/d was observed among 17.1% of underweight/normal-weight children and in 23.2% of overweight/obese children. Adjusted ORs (aORs) of consuming SSBs ≥1 time/d (vs. no SSB consumption) were significantly lower in children whose mothers reported setting limits on sweets/junk foods (aOR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.58 for underweight/normal-weight children; aOR: 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.79 for overweight/obese children). SSB intake was higher among underweight/normal-weight children whose mothers reported trying to keep the child from eating too much of their favorite foods (aOR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.25, 3.29). Mothers’ tendency to pressure their children to consume more food or to “clean the plate” was not associated with child’s SSB intake. Conclusions: SSBs were commonly consumed by young children. The odds of daily SSB intake were lower among children whose mothers set limits on sweets/junk foods regardless of child’s weight but were higher among underweight/normal-weight children whose mothers restricted the child’s favorite food intake. Future studies can investigate the impact of alternatives to restrictive feeding

  2. Subsurface intake systems: Green choice for improving feed water quality at SWRO desalination plants, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Dehwah, Abdullah H A; Missimer, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of three seawater reverse osmosis facilities located along the shoreline of the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia that use well intake systems showed that the pumping-induced flow of raw seawater through a coastal aquifer significantly improves feed water quality. A comparison between the surface seawater and the discharge from the wells shows that turbidity, algae, bacteria, total organic carbon, most fractions of natural organic matter (NOM), and particulate and colloidal transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have significant reductions in concentration. Nearly all of the algae, up to 99% of the bacteria, between 84 and 100% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and a high percentage of the TEP were removed during transport. The data suggest that the flowpath length and hydraulic retention time in the aquifer play the most important roles in removal of the organic matter. Since the collective concentrations of bacteria, biopolymers, and TEP in the intake seawater play important roles in the biofouling of SWRO membranes, the observed reductions suggest that the desalination facilities that use well intakes systems will have a potentially lower fouling rate compared to open-ocean intake systems. Furthermore, well intake system intakes also reduce the need for chemical usage during complex pretreatment systems required for operation of SWRO facilities using open-ocean intakes and reduce environmental impacts.

  3. Subsurface intake systems: Green choice for improving feed water quality at SWRO desalination plants, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Dehwah, Abdullah H A; Missimer, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of three seawater reverse osmosis facilities located along the shoreline of the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia that use well intake systems showed that the pumping-induced flow of raw seawater through a coastal aquifer significantly improves feed water quality. A comparison between the surface seawater and the discharge from the wells shows that turbidity, algae, bacteria, total organic carbon, most fractions of natural organic matter (NOM), and particulate and colloidal transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have significant reductions in concentration. Nearly all of the algae, up to 99% of the bacteria, between 84 and 100% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and a high percentage of the TEP were removed during transport. The data suggest that the flowpath length and hydraulic retention time in the aquifer play the most important roles in removal of the organic matter. Since the collective concentrations of bacteria, biopolymers, and TEP in the intake seawater play important roles in the biofouling of SWRO membranes, the observed reductions suggest that the desalination facilities that use well intakes systems will have a potentially lower fouling rate compared to open-ocean intake systems. Furthermore, well intake system intakes also reduce the need for chemical usage during complex pretreatment systems required for operation of SWRO facilities using open-ocean intakes and reduce environmental impacts. PMID:26497939

  4. Extruded soybean meal increased feed intake and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Giallongo, F; Oh, J; Frederick, T; Isenberg, B; Kniffen, D M; Fabin, R A; Hristov, A N

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of 2 extruded soybean meals (ESBM) processed at 2 extruder temperatures, 149°C (LTM) and 171°C (HTM), on performance, nutrient digestibility, milk fatty acid and plasma amino acid profiles, and rumen fermentation in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were included in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design experiment with three 28-d periods. The control diet contained 13% solvent-extracted soybean meal (SSBM; 53.5% crude protein with 74.1% ruminal degradability and 1.8% fat), which was replaced with equivalent amount (dry matter basis) of LTM (46.8%, 59.8%, and 10.0%) or HTM (46.9%, 41.1%, and 10.9%, respectively) ESBM in the 2 experimental diets (LTM and HTM, respectively). The diets met or exceeded the nutrient requirements of the cows for net energy of lactation and metabolizable protein. The 2 ESBM diets increased dry matter intake and milk yield compared with SSBM. Feed efficiency and milk composition were not affected by treatment. Milk protein yield tended to be increased by ESBM compared with SSBM. Milk urea N and urinary urea N excretions were increased by the ESBM diets compared with SSBM. Concentration of fatty acids with chain length of up to C17 and total saturated fatty acids in milk fat were generally decreased and that of C18 and total mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids was increased by the ESBM diets compared with SSBM. Blood plasma concentrations of His, Leu, and Val were increased by HTM compared with LTM and SSBM. Plasma concentration of Met was decreased, whereas that of carnosine was increased by the ESBM diets. Treatments had no effect on rumen fermentation, but the proportion of Fibrobacter spp. in whole ruminal contents was increased by HTM compared with SSBM and LTM. Overall, data from this crossover experiment suggest that substituting SSBM with ESBM in the diet has a positive effect on feed intake and milk yield in dairy cows.

  5. How well do specialist feeders regulate nutrient intake? Evidence from a gregarious tree-feeding caterpillar.

    PubMed

    Despland, Emma; Noseworthy, Meghan

    2006-04-01

    Nutritional regulation is a powerful mechanism used by generalist feeders to obtain the balance of nutrients they require from nutritionally diverse, perhaps unbalanced, foods. We examined nutritional regulation in a species with a narrow individual diet breadth: the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria. Fourth instar caterpillars were provided with artificial foods consisting of different ratios of protein to digestible carbohydrate in no-choice, choice and compensatory feeding experiments. In the no-choice test, caterpillars were confined to a single food source of varying protein/carbohydrate ratio for the duration of the fourth larval stadium. Caterpillars performed best on equal-ratio and slightly protein-biased diets. Significant reductions in performance were only observed on extremely protein- or carbohydrate-biased diets. Daily consumption of the three acceptable intermediate diets was consistent with volumetric regulation, but the timing of the moult to the next instar appeared linked instead to protein intake. In the choice test, caterpillars were provided with two complementary foods, one biased toward protein and the other toward carbohydrate, for the duration of the stadium. The caterpillars fed randomly from the two food sources presented to them, except for the extremely protein-biased diet (P:C ratio of 35:7), which they avoided. The compensatory feeding experiment tested whether forest tent caterpillars deprived of either protein or digestible carbohydrate would select a food containing the deficient nutrient. Insects were conditioned on either protein-only, carbohydrate-only, protein-and-carbohydrate or no-nutrient foods, then offered a choice between protein-only and carbohydrate-only foods. Unlike previously studied generalist feeders, our caterpillars did not compensate for protein deficiency and showed only very weak evidence of compensation for carbohydrate deficiency. Forest tent caterpillars are colonial trail-laying forest

  6. Seasonal variations in the diet and foraging behaviour of dunlins Calidris alpina in a south European estuary: improved feeding conditions for northward migrants.

    PubMed

    Martins, Ricardo C; Catry, Teresa; Santos, Carlos D; Palmeirim, Jorge M; Granadeiro, José P

    2013-01-01

    During the annual cycle, migratory waders may face strikingly different feeding conditions as they move between breeding areas and wintering grounds. Thus, it is of crucial importance that they rapidly adjust their behaviour and diet to benefit from peaks of prey abundance, in particular during migration, when they need to accumulate energy at a fast pace. In this study, we compared foraging behaviour and diet of wintering and northward migrating dunlins in the Tagus estuary, Portugal, by video-recording foraging birds and analysing their droppings. We also estimated energy intake rates and analysed variations in prey availability, including those that were active at the sediment surface. Wintering and northward migrating dunlins showed clearly different foraging behaviour and diet. In winter, birds predominantly adopted a tactile foraging technique (probing), mainly used to search for small buried bivalves, with some visual surface pecking to collect gastropods and crop bivalve siphons. Contrastingly, in spring dunlins generally used a visual foraging strategy, mostly to consume worms, but also bivalve siphons and shrimps. From winter to spring, we found a marked increase both in the biomass of invertebrate prey in the sediment and in the surface activity of worms and siphons. The combination of these two factors, together with the availability of shrimps in spring, most likely explains the changes in the diet and foraging behaviour of dunlins. Northward migrating birds took advantage from the improved feeding conditions in spring, achieving 65% higher energy intake rates as compared with wintering birds. Building on these results and on known daily activity budgets for this species, our results suggest that Tagus estuary provides high-quality feeding conditions for birds during their stopovers, enabling high fattening rates. These findings show that this large wetland plays a key role as a stopover site for migratory waders within the East Atlantic Flyway. PMID

  7. Seasonal Variations in the Diet and Foraging Behaviour of Dunlins Calidris alpina in a South European Estuary: Improved Feeding Conditions for Northward Migrants

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ricardo C.; Catry, Teresa; Santos, Carlos D.; Palmeirim, Jorge M.; Granadeiro, José P.

    2013-01-01

    During the annual cycle, migratory waders may face strikingly different feeding conditions as they move between breeding areas and wintering grounds. Thus, it is of crucial importance that they rapidly adjust their behaviour and diet to benefit from peaks of prey abundance, in particular during migration, when they need to accumulate energy at a fast pace. In this study, we compared foraging behaviour and diet of wintering and northward migrating dunlins in the Tagus estuary, Portugal, by video-recording foraging birds and analysing their droppings. We also estimated energy intake rates and analysed variations in prey availability, including those that were active at the sediment surface. Wintering and northward migrating dunlins showed clearly different foraging behaviour and diet. In winter, birds predominantly adopted a tactile foraging technique (probing), mainly used to search for small buried bivalves, with some visual surface pecking to collect gastropods and crop bivalve siphons. Contrastingly, in spring dunlins generally used a visual foraging strategy, mostly to consume worms, but also bivalve siphons and shrimps. From winter to spring, we found a marked increase both in the biomass of invertebrate prey in the sediment and in the surface activity of worms and siphons. The combination of these two factors, together with the availability of shrimps in spring, most likely explains the changes in the diet and foraging behaviour of dunlins. Northward migrating birds took advantage from the improved feeding conditions in spring, achieving 65% higher energy intake rates as compared with wintering birds. Building on these results and on known daily activity budgets for this species, our results suggest that Tagus estuary provides high-quality feeding conditions for birds during their stopovers, enabling high fattening rates. These findings show that this large wetland plays a key role as a stopover site for migratory waders within the East Atlantic Flyway. PMID

  8. Identification of genetic markers associated with residual feed intake and meat quality traits in the pig.

    PubMed

    Fan, B; Lkhagvadorj, S; Cai, W; Young, J; Smith, R M; Dekkers, J C M; Huff-Lonergan, E; Lonergan, S M; Rothschild, M F

    2010-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) has become increasingly important and is being considered as a more reasonable approach to evaluate feed efficiency in livestock. However, the cost and technical difficulties in measuring this trait restrict the extensive adoption of RFI selection, and this makes marker assisted selection (MAS) a feasible tool. In addition, the effects on meat quality caused by low RFI selection have yet to be clarified. In this study, 11 SNPs from eight candidate genes were evaluated in a Yorkshire pig experimental population (n=169) consisting of a low RFI selection line and a randomly selected control line. Associations of these SNPs with RFI, growth rate, carcass composition, and meat quality measures including water holding capacity, pH at 2d postmortem, meat color and sensory traits were analyzed. The SNPs FTO p.Ala198Ala and TCF7L2 c.646+514A>G showed significant (P<0.05) and suggestively significant (P<0.1) associations with RFI, respectively. The MC4R SNP p.Asp298Asn was associated with backfat but it was not with ADG and meat quality attributes. Both SNPs within HNF1A were associated with intramuscular lipid content and sensory juiciness. The SNPs ACC1 c(*)384C>T and TCF7L2 c.646+514A>G were significantly (P<0.05) associated with ADG. The SNPs CTSZ p.Arg64Lys and TCF7L2 c.646+514A>G were associated with both visual scoring of meat color and the objective L-value measure of meat color. This study has identified potential genetic markers suitable for MAS in improving RFI, ADG, and meat color traits, but these associations need to be validated in other larger populations. PMID:20374837

  9. Cranial biomechanics of Diplodocus (Dinosauria, Sauropoda): testing hypotheses of feeding behaviour in an extinct megaherbivore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Mark T.; Rayfield, Emily J.; Holliday, Casey M.; Witmer, Lawrence M.; Button, David J.; Upchurch, Paul; Barrett, Paul M.

    2012-08-01

    Sauropod dinosaurs were the largest terrestrial herbivores and pushed at the limits of vertebrate biomechanics and physiology. Sauropods exhibit high craniodental diversity in ecosystems where numerous species co-existed, leading to the hypothesis that this biodiversity is linked to niche subdivision driven by ecological specialisation. Here, we quantitatively investigate feeding behaviour hypotheses for the iconic sauropod Diplodocus. Biomechanical modelling, using finite element analysis, was used to examine the performance of the Diplodocus skull. Three feeding behaviours were modelled: muscle-driven static biting, branch stripping and bark stripping. The skull was found to be `over engineered' for static biting, overall experiencing low stress with only the dentition enduring high stress. When branch stripping, the skull, similarly, is under low stress, with little appreciable difference between those models. When simulated for bark stripping, the skull experiences far greater stresses, especially in the teeth and at the jaw joint. Therefore, we refute the bark-stripping hypothesis, while the hypotheses of branch stripping and/or precision biting are both consistent with our findings, showing that branch stripping is a biomechanically plausible feeding behaviour for diplodocids. Interestingly, in all simulations, peak stress is observed in the premaxillary-maxillary `lateral plates', supporting the hypothesis that these structures evolved to dissipate stress induced while feeding. These results lead us to conclude that the aberrant craniodental form of Diplodocus was adapted for food procurement rather than resisting high bite forces.

  10. Breast-feeding in preterm twins: Development of feeding behavior and milk intake during hospital stay and related caregiving practices.

    PubMed

    Nyqvist, Kerstin Hedberg

    2002-08-01

    In a prospective study of 13 preterm twins still in the hospital, 85% were breast-fed, of which 46% were breast-fed exclusively. Most mothers preferred simultaneous breast-feeding, using the football hold. Observations and maternal descriptions showed differences between the twins in their development of breast-feeding behavior, especially in sucking. The mothers' suggestions regarding special support for the breast-feeding mothers of preterm twins involved synchronizing feeding with the twins' behavioral states; twin cobedding; appropriate armchairs and breast-feeding pillows; experimenting with breast-feeding positions; information about breast milk production; nurses' spontaneous practical assistance, encouragement, and emotional support; the provision of privacy; the availability of parent rooms; and opportunities for fathers' presence in the hospital. PMID:12219324

  11. The impact of cafeteria diet feeding on physiology and anxiety-related behaviour in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages.

    PubMed

    Warneke, Wiebke; Klaus, Susanne; Fink, Heidrun; Langley-Evans, Simon C; Voigt, Jörg-Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging experimental evidence that hyper-energetic diets not only cause obesity but also impact on behaviour in rodents. A hyper-energetic comfort diet/cafeteria diet (CD) fed during early development programmes anxiety-related behaviour in adult age, but little is known how an obesogenic CD impacts on behaviour when fed at a later age. To this end we fed CD to Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes at either 6 weeks or 12 months old, for a period of 6 weeks. Anxiety-related behaviour was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the open field (OF). A glucose tolerance test was performed and metabolic indices, body weight and fat were measured. CD-fed young adult females, but not males, had a higher energy intake, due to an overconsumption of carbohydrates and fats. Only in adult CD-fed rats of both sexes did this overconsumption led to increased weight gain. Protein intake was reduced in all CD groups. Fat mass (subcutaneous, perirenal, gonadal) increased in most CD groups, whereas brown fat increased only in adults. Triacylglycerol, free fatty acid and total cholesterol concentrations increased predominantly in adult CD-fed rats. Glucose tolerance was only impaired in adult males. CD-fed adult males showed fewer entries into the aversive open arms and groomed more on the EPM, whereas adult females spent more time on these arms. In the OF, CD-fed females of both ages visited the inner zone more frequently and travelled a longer distance. The behavioural data suggests anxiolysis in CD-fed females and signs of increased anxiety in adult males. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that feeding CD leads to both obesity and behavioural changes in rats. Overall, these effects were more pronounced in older rats, with the behavioural effects being particularly gender dependent.

  12. The relationship between maternal feeding beliefs and practices and perceptions of infant eating behaviours at 4 months.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Sullivan, Serena E; de Jersey, Susan J; Daniels, Lynne A

    2016-10-01

    Parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviours are inter-related and both have been implicated in the development of childhood obesity. However, research on the parent-child feeding relationship during the first few months of life is limited. The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between maternal feeding beliefs and practices and infant eating behaviours in a community sample. Mothers (N = 413) of 4 month old infants recruited during pregnancy for the New Beginnings: Healthy Mothers and Babies study self-reported feeding beliefs/practices and eating behaviours of their infants on established tools. Data on a comprehensive range of maternal and infant characteristics were also collected. Multivariable regression models were used to assess the associations between five feeding beliefs and practices and four eating behaviours, adjusting for key maternal and infant covariates. Mothers concerned about their infant becoming underweight rated the infant higher on satiety responsiveness and lower on enjoyment of food. Higher awareness of infant feeding cues was associated with higher infant enjoyment of food. Mothers concerned about their infant becoming overweight and those who used food to calm their baby rated the infant as higher on food responsiveness. Feeding to a schedule (vs on demand) was not associated with any of the infant eating behaviours. A relationship between maternal feeding beliefs and practices and infant eating behaviours is apparent early in life, therefore longitudinal investigation to establish the directions of this relationship is warranted.

  13. Effects of dietary soy isoflavones on feed intake, growth performance and digestibility in juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Yanjiao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui; Zhang, Wenbing

    2012-12-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary soy isoflavones on feeding intake, growth performance, and digestion of juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Four isonitrogenous (49% crude protein) and isoenergetic (20.1 MJ kg-1) diets were formulated to contain four graded levels of soy isoflavones, namely, 0, 1, 4 and 8 g soy isoflavones in 1 kg of diet. Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate tanks of fish (Initial average weight: 2.58 g ± 0.01 g), and each tank was stocked with 35 fish. No significant difference was observed among diets with levels of 0, 1 and 4 g kg-1 soy isoflavones in feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency ratio (FER), proximate composition of fish whole body and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of nutrients and energy ( P>0.05). However, high dietary soy isoflavones level (8 g kg-1) significantly depressed weight gain, FER, whole-body crude lipid content of fish and ADC of nutrients ( P<0.05). These results indicate that high level of dietary soy isoflavones (above 4 g kg-1) significantly depresses growth responses and FER of Japanese flounder. However, as the content of soy isoflavones in soybean meal is around 1 to 3 g kg-1, the adverse effects might be neglected when soybean products are used as a fish feed ingredient.

  14. Restricted feed intake in lactating primiparous sows. I. Effects on sow metabolic state and subsequent reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Patterson, J L; Smit, M N; Novak, S; Wellen, A P; Foxcroft, G R

    2011-01-01

    The effects of feed restriction (60% of anticipated feed intake; Restrict; n=60) during the last week of a 21-day lactation in primiparous sows compared with feeding at 90% of anticipated feed intake (Control; n=60) on sow metabolic state, litter growth and sow reproductive performance after weaning were compared. Metabolisable energy (ME) derived from feed was lower, ME derived from body tissues was higher and litter growth rate was reduced (all P<0.05) in Restrict sows during the last week of lactation. Treatment did not affect weaning-to-oestrus interval, pregnancy rate, ovulation rate, embryonic survival or the number of live embryos (P>0.05) at Day 30 of gestation: However, embryo weight was greater (P<0.05) in Control than in Restrict sows (1.55±0.04vs 1.44±0.04g, respectively). These data suggest the biology of the commercial sow has changed and reproductive performance of contemporary primiparous sows is increasingly resistant to the negative effects of lactational catabolism. Overall, catabolism negatively affected litter weaning weight and embryonic development of the next litter, but the extent to which individual sows used tissue mobilisation to support these litter outcomes was highly variable.

  15. Purple grape juice as a protector against acute x-irradiation induced alterations on mobility, anxiety, and feeding behaviour in mice.

    PubMed

    Soares, Félix A A; Dalla Corte, Cristiane L; Andrade, Edson R; Marina, Raquel; González, Paquita; Barrio, Juan P

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that a moderate intake of organic purple grape juice shows a positive radiomodifier effect over early behavioural damage following acute X-irradiation in mice. Anxiety-, locomotion-, and feeding-related responses to 6 Gy total body X-irradiation (TBI) were studied via open field, Rotarod, and feeding/drinking recording. Thirty-two male mice weighing 25-30 g were grouped according grape juice (J) or water (W) ad libitum drinking and either non-irradiated (N) or irradiated (R). 24 h post-TBI the access frequency to the center and corners of the open field was decreased, and the total stay in the corners increased, in RW vs. NW mice. Anxiety-related parameters decreased in RJ vs. RW mice. Rotarod latency times increased 72 h post-TBI in RJ vs RW mice. No overall changes in food and drink intake were observed along the experimental period. On the irradiation day, bout number was increased and bout duration was decreased in RW mice. The changes were reversed by purple grape juice intake. Grape juice intake before and after TBI can overcome several radiation-induced changes in behaviour within 24-72 hours after sub-lethal X-irradiation. This beneficial effect on short-term anxiety and mobilityrelated activities could probably be included in the list of flavonoid bio-effects. The present findings could be relevant in designing preventive interventions aimed to enhance body defense mechanisms against short-term irradiation damage.

  16. Behaviour of food restricted broilers during rearing and lay--effects of an alternative feeding method.

    PubMed

    Sandilands, Victoria; Tolkamp, Bert J; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2005-06-01

    Broiler breeders are subjected to quantitative food restriction in order to control their growth, and this restriction is particularly severe during rearing. While such restriction improves some welfare problems associated with ad libitum feeding, it causes others: birds routinely show abnormal oral behaviours and have elevated plasma corticosterone concentration (PCC) and changes in white blood cell counts (WBCs). The aim of this study was to examine if feeding birds qualitatively restricted diets ad libitum during rearing could reduce signs of impaired welfare, as judged by behaviour and blood indices of stress, while also meeting commercially desired growth rates and uniformity. Furthermore, we examined what carry-over effects such a feeding method had on birds in the laying phase when all birds were fed on a conventional quantitative restriction regime. During rearing (1-20 weeks of age), pens of birds were either fed limited amounts of standard basal diets (Control, i.e. quantitative restriction), or ad libitum diets consisting of standard basal diets with gradually increasing levels of calcium propionate (CaP) and a constant level of oat hulls (OH), designated CaP+OH (i.e. qualitative restriction). Results showed that, during rearing, weights and weight uniformity were similar for the two groups. During feeding motivation tests, Control birds always consumed more food than CaP+OH birds. This suggests that Control birds were more highly motivated to feed than CaP+OH birds, although care has to be taken in interpreting these results. Treatment did not affect PCCs or WBCs, but there was a general decline in PCCs with bird age. All reported behaviours differed significantly between treatment groups during rearing, but disappeared during lay when all birds were fed a similar amount of food. Control birds spent up to 50% of time in object pecking during rearing periods, but this behaviour was virtually non-existent in birds in the qualitative feeding regime

  17. Effect of feeding duration and rumen fill on behaviour in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lindström; Redbo

    2000-12-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that oral manipulation of feed is a behavioural need in cattle, irrespective of actual rumen load. Twelve rumen fistulated cows were used and subjected to four different treatments: low rumen content+long duration of eating (A), high rumen content+short duration of eating (B), high rumen content+long duration of eating (=positive control) (C) and low rumen content+short duration of eating (=negative control) (D). To obtain treatment A and B, rumen content was transferred by hand from cow A to B through the rumen fistulaes. Each treatment lasted for 3 days with 2 weeks of recovery between each new treatment. The experiment was repeated twice during two consecutive years. All cows were fed the same mixture of silage, concentrate and hay. The cows were videotaped under normal conditions (24h), and on the third day of the experiment. From these videotapes, the behaviours (frequency and duration per 24h) have been analysed.Time spent eating differed between the four treatments (P<0.001), with shortest eating-times in B and D. The cows with low rumen content (A and D) spent shorter time ruminating (P<0.001) than the cows with filled rumen (B and C). The B and D cows (short duration of eating) spent longer time (P<0.001) with behaviours related to feed-searching than the cows with long duration of eating (A and C). The C cows had fewer (P<0.001) bouts of behaviours related to feed-searching than the A, B and D cows. Time spent with stereotypies (tongue-rolling) was longer (P<0.01) in D than in the other treatments. There was a difference (P<0.001) between treatments in eating bouts. The A cows had more (P<0.05) eating bouts than the cows in B, C and D. The cows with low rumen content (A and D) had fewer ruminating bouts (P<0.001) than the cows with filled rumens (B and C). The number of bouts with stereotypies differed (P<0.01), the cows in D having the highest figures compared with all the other treatments

  18. Growing pigs' drinking behaviour: number of visits, duration, water intake and diurnal variation.

    PubMed

    Andersen, H M-L; Dybkjær, L; Herskin, M S

    2014-11-01

    between P1 and P2 in N10. The results demonstrate that growing pigs at the two levels of competition maintained a comparable level of 24 h water intake by changing behavioural variables involved in drinking. This dynamic characteristic of drinking behaviour means that if individual drinking patterns are to be used as disease monitoring tools, it is important to consider effects of external factors and include data on period level to allow rapid detection of behavioural changes. PMID:25075605

  19. Growing pigs' drinking behaviour: number of visits, duration, water intake and diurnal variation.

    PubMed

    Andersen, H M-L; Dybkjær, L; Herskin, M S

    2014-11-01

    between P1 and P2 in N10. The results demonstrate that growing pigs at the two levels of competition maintained a comparable level of 24 h water intake by changing behavioural variables involved in drinking. This dynamic characteristic of drinking behaviour means that if individual drinking patterns are to be used as disease monitoring tools, it is important to consider effects of external factors and include data on period level to allow rapid detection of behavioural changes.

  20. Identifying determinants of effective complementary feeding behaviour change interventions in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Cecilia S; van Liere, Marti; Pelto, Gretel

    2014-10-01

    As stunting moves to the forefront of the global agenda, there is substantial evidence that behaviour change interventions (BCI) can improve infant feeding practices and growth. However, this evidence has not been translated into improved outcomes on a national level because we do not know enough about what makes these interventions work, for whom, when, why, at what cost and for how long. Our objective was to examine the design and implementation of complementary feeding BCI, from the peer-reviewed literature, to identify generalisable key determinants. We identified 29 studies that evaluated BCI efficacy or effectiveness, were conducted in developing countries, and reported outcomes on infant and young children aged 6-24 months. Two potential determinants emerged: (1) effective studies used formative research to identify cultural barriers and enablers to optimal feeding practices, to shape the intervention strategy, and to formulate appropriate messages and mediums for delivery; (2) effective studies delineated the programme impact pathway to the target behaviour change and assessed intermediary behaviour changes to learn what worked. We found that BCI that used these developmental and implementation processes could be effective despite heterogeneous approaches and design components. Our analysis was constrained, however, by the limited published data on how design and implementation were carried out, perhaps because of publishing space limits. Information on cost-effectiveness, sustainability and scalability was also very limited. We suggest a more comprehensive reporting process and a more strategic research agenda to enable generalisable evidence to accumulate.

  1. Identifying determinants of effective complementary feeding behaviour change interventions in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Cecilia S; van Liere, Marti; Pelto, Gretel

    2014-10-01

    As stunting moves to the forefront of the global agenda, there is substantial evidence that behaviour change interventions (BCI) can improve infant feeding practices and growth. However, this evidence has not been translated into improved outcomes on a national level because we do not know enough about what makes these interventions work, for whom, when, why, at what cost and for how long. Our objective was to examine the design and implementation of complementary feeding BCI, from the peer-reviewed literature, to identify generalisable key determinants. We identified 29 studies that evaluated BCI efficacy or effectiveness, were conducted in developing countries, and reported outcomes on infant and young children aged 6-24 months. Two potential determinants emerged: (1) effective studies used formative research to identify cultural barriers and enablers to optimal feeding practices, to shape the intervention strategy, and to formulate appropriate messages and mediums for delivery; (2) effective studies delineated the programme impact pathway to the target behaviour change and assessed intermediary behaviour changes to learn what worked. We found that BCI that used these developmental and implementation processes could be effective despite heterogeneous approaches and design components. Our analysis was constrained, however, by the limited published data on how design and implementation were carried out, perhaps because of publishing space limits. Information on cost-effectiveness, sustainability and scalability was also very limited. We suggest a more comprehensive reporting process and a more strategic research agenda to enable generalisable evidence to accumulate. PMID:24798264

  2. Identifying determinants of effective complementary feeding behaviour change interventions in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Fabrizio, Cecilia S; van Liere, Marti; Pelto, Gretel

    2014-01-01

    As stunting moves to the forefront of the global agenda, there is substantial evidence that behaviour change interventions (BCI) can improve infant feeding practices and growth. However, this evidence has not been translated into improved outcomes on a national level because we do not know enough about what makes these interventions work, for whom, when, why, at what cost and for how long. Our objective was to examine the design and implementation of complementary feeding BCI, from the peer-reviewed literature, to identify generalisable key determinants. We identified 29 studies that evaluated BCI efficacy or effectiveness, were conducted in developing countries, and reported outcomes on infant and young children aged 6–24 months. Two potential determinants emerged: (1) effective studies used formative research to identify cultural barriers and enablers to optimal feeding practices, to shape the intervention strategy, and to formulate appropriate messages and mediums for delivery; (2) effective studies delineated the programme impact pathway to the target behaviour change and assessed intermediary behaviour changes to learn what worked. We found that BCI that used these developmental and implementation processes could be effective despite heterogeneous approaches and design components. Our analysis was constrained, however, by the limited published data on how design and implementation were carried out, perhaps because of publishing space limits. Information on cost-effectiveness, sustainability and scalability was also very limited. We suggest a more comprehensive reporting process and a more strategic research agenda to enable generalisable evidence to accumulate. PMID:24798264

  3. Feeding behaviour in a 'basal' tortoise provides insights on the transitional feeding mode at the dawn of modern land turtle evolution.

    PubMed

    Natchev, Nikolay; Tzankov, Nikolay; Werneburg, Ingmar; Heiss, Egon

    2015-01-01

    Almost all extant testudinids are highly associated with terrestrial habitats and the few tortoises with high affinity to aquatic environments are found within the genus Manouria. Manouria belongs to a clade which forms a sister taxon to all remaining tortoises and is suitable as a model for studying evolutionary transitions within modern turtles. We analysed the feeding behaviour of Manouria emys and due to its phylogenetic position, we hypothesise that the species might have retained some ancestral features associated with an aquatic lifestyle. We tested whether M. emys is able to feed both in aquatic and terrestrial environments. In fact, M. emys repetitively tried to reach submerged food items in water, but always failed to grasp them-no suction feeding mechanism was applied. When feeding on land, M. emys showed another peculiar behaviour; it grasped food items by its jaws-a behaviour typical for aquatic or semiaquatic turtles-and not by the tongue as generally accepted as the typical feeding mode in all tortoises studied so far. In M. emys, the hyolingual complex remained retracted during all food uptake sequences, but the food transport was entirely lingual based. The kinematical profiles significantly differed from those described for other tortoises and from those proposed from the general models on the function of the feeding systems in lower tetrapods. We conclude that the feeding behaviour of M. emys might reflect a remnant of the primordial condition expected in the aquatic ancestor of the tortoises. PMID:26339550

  4. Feeding behaviour in a ‘basal’ tortoise provides insights on the transitional feeding mode at the dawn of modern land turtle evolution

    PubMed Central

    Tzankov, Nikolay; Werneburg, Ingmar; Heiss, Egon

    2015-01-01

    Almost all extant testudinids are highly associated with terrestrial habitats and the few tortoises with high affinity to aquatic environments are found within the genus Manouria. Manouria belongs to a clade which forms a sister taxon to all remaining tortoises and is suitable as a model for studying evolutionary transitions within modern turtles. We analysed the feeding behaviour of Manouria emys and due to its phylogenetic position, we hypothesise that the species might have retained some ancestral features associated with an aquatic lifestyle. We tested whether M. emys is able to feed both in aquatic and terrestrial environments. In fact, M. emys repetitively tried to reach submerged food items in water, but always failed to grasp them—no suction feeding mechanism was applied. When feeding on land, M. emys showed another peculiar behaviour; it grasped food items by its jaws—a behaviour typical for aquatic or semiaquatic turtles—and not by the tongue as generally accepted as the typical feeding mode in all tortoises studied so far. In M. emys, the hyolingual complex remained retracted during all food uptake sequences, but the food transport was entirely lingual based. The kinematical profiles significantly differed from those described for other tortoises and from those proposed from the general models on the function of the feeding systems in lower tetrapods. We conclude that the feeding behaviour of M. emys might reflect a remnant of the primordial condition expected in the aquatic ancestor of the tortoises. PMID:26339550

  5. Estimation of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake in a multibreed cattle population.

    PubMed

    Khansefid, M; Pryce, J E; Bolormaa, S; Miller, S P; Wang, Z; Li, C; Goddard, M E

    2014-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of the efficiency of animals in feed utilization. The accuracies of GEBV for RFI could be improved by increasing the size of the reference population. Combining RFI records of different breeds is a way to do that. The aims of this study were to 1) develop a method for calculating GEBV in a multibreed population and 2) improve the accuracies of GEBV by using SNP associated with RFI. An alternative method for calculating accuracies of GEBV using genomic BLUP (GBLUP) equations is also described and compared to cross-validation tests. The dataset included RFI records and 606,096 SNP genotypes for 5,614 Bos taurus animals including 842 Holstein heifers and 2,009 Australian and 2,763 Canadian beef cattle. A range of models were tested for combining genotype and phenotype information from different breeds and the best model included an overall effect of each SNP, an effect of each SNP specific to a breed, and a small residual polygenic effect defined by the pedigree. In this model, the Holsteins and some Angus cattle were combined into 1 "breed class" because they were the only cattle measured for RFI at an early age (6-9 mo of age) and were fed a similar diet. The average empirical accuracy (0.31), estimated by calculating the correlation between GEBV and actual phenotypes divided by the square root of estimated heritability in 5-fold cross-validation tests, was near to that expected using the GBLUP equations (0.34). The average empirical and expected accuracies were 0.30 and 0.31, respectively, when the GEBV were estimated for each breed separately. Therefore, the across-breed reference population increased the accuracy of GEBV slightly, although the gain was greater for breeds with smaller number of individuals in the reference population (0.08 in Murray Grey and 0.11 in Hereford for empirical accuracy). In a second approach, SNP that were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with RFI in the beef cattle genomewide association

  6. Effect of sow history features on growth and feed intake in grow-finish pigs.

    PubMed

    Sell-Kubiak, E; Knol, E F; Bijma, P

    2012-01-01

    The sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation and lactation. Certain features in the early life of the sow (sow history features) may affect her ability to deliver and feed a healthy litter. In genetic analyses of grow-finish traits, these effects are estimated as common litter or permanent sow effects. The objective of this research was to identify sow history features that affect the growth rate (GR) and feed intake (FI) of her offspring during the grow-finish stage. Data from 17,743 grow-finish pigs, coming from 604 sires and 681 crossbred sows, were recorded between May 2001 and February 2010 at the experimental farm of the Institute for Pig Genetics (Beilen, the Netherlands). The grow-finish stage was divided into 2 phases (phase 1: 26 to 75 kg; phase 2: 75 to 115 kg). The sow history features were birth litter size, birth year and season, birth farm, weaning age, age of transfer to the experimental farm, and age at first insemination. The sow features were added to the basic model one at a time to study their effect on the grow-finish traits of the pigs. Subsequently, significant sow features (P < 0.1) were fitted simultaneously in an animal model. With every extra piglet in the birth litter of the sow, the GR of her offspring decreased by 1 g/d and the FI decreased by 4 g/d. Every extra day to the first insemination increased the GR of grow-finish pigs by 0.1 g/d. The heritability estimates for GR and FI (only in phase 2 of the grow-finish stage) decreased after adding the sow features to the model. No differences were found in estimates of the common litter effects between the basic model and the model with all significant sow features. The estimates of the permanent sow effect changed for FI from 0.03 (basic model) to 0.00 (model with sow features), and for FI in phase 1, the permanent sow effect decreased from 0.03 (basic model) to 0.01 (model with sow features). In conclusion, selected sow features do affect the grow

  7. Estimation of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake in a multibreed cattle population.

    PubMed

    Khansefid, M; Pryce, J E; Bolormaa, S; Miller, S P; Wang, Z; Li, C; Goddard, M E

    2014-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of the efficiency of animals in feed utilization. The accuracies of GEBV for RFI could be improved by increasing the size of the reference population. Combining RFI records of different breeds is a way to do that. The aims of this study were to 1) develop a method for calculating GEBV in a multibreed population and 2) improve the accuracies of GEBV by using SNP associated with RFI. An alternative method for calculating accuracies of GEBV using genomic BLUP (GBLUP) equations is also described and compared to cross-validation tests. The dataset included RFI records and 606,096 SNP genotypes for 5,614 Bos taurus animals including 842 Holstein heifers and 2,009 Australian and 2,763 Canadian beef cattle. A range of models were tested for combining genotype and phenotype information from different breeds and the best model included an overall effect of each SNP, an effect of each SNP specific to a breed, and a small residual polygenic effect defined by the pedigree. In this model, the Holsteins and some Angus cattle were combined into 1 "breed class" because they were the only cattle measured for RFI at an early age (6-9 mo of age) and were fed a similar diet. The average empirical accuracy (0.31), estimated by calculating the correlation between GEBV and actual phenotypes divided by the square root of estimated heritability in 5-fold cross-validation tests, was near to that expected using the GBLUP equations (0.34). The average empirical and expected accuracies were 0.30 and 0.31, respectively, when the GEBV were estimated for each breed separately. Therefore, the across-breed reference population increased the accuracy of GEBV slightly, although the gain was greater for breeds with smaller number of individuals in the reference population (0.08 in Murray Grey and 0.11 in Hereford for empirical accuracy). In a second approach, SNP that were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with RFI in the beef cattle genomewide association

  8. Induced resistance in intertidal macroalgae modifies feeding behaviour of herbivorous snails.

    PubMed

    Borell, Esther M; Foggo, Andrew; Coleman, Ross A

    2004-07-01

    Herbivory in terrestrial and marine systems can induce changes in plant chemistry affecting the foraging behaviour of herbivores. A model based on terrestrial plant-herbivore interactions predicts herbivory-induced changes in leaf chemistry to be manifested in (1) increased herbivore mobility, (2) increased feeding dispersal and (3) reduced tissue consumption by herbivores. This study is the first to demonstrate that herbivory-induced changes in the tissue chemistry of the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum elicit the same response in the feeding behaviour of the gastropod Littorina obtusata as predicted for herbivorous insects, providing good evidence for the model's validity across different ecosystems. The potential benefit of increased feeding dispersal to terrestrial plants as suggested by the model is the prevention of concentrated damage to apical tissues thereby preserving the plant's ability to compete for light; A. nodosum does not conform to these predictions. Increased dispersal of feeding damage on A. nodosum away from primary frond tissues would reduce the likelihood of frond breakage implying a fitness benefit of induced resistance. PMID:15148602

  9. Fluid dynamics of feeding behaviour in white-spotted bamboo sharks.

    PubMed

    Nauwelaerts, Sandra; Wilga, Cheryl D; Lauder, George V; Sanford, Christopher P

    2008-10-01

    Although the motor control of feeding is presumed to be generally conserved, some fishes are capable of modulating the feeding behaviour in response to prey type and or prey size. This led to the 'feeding modulation hypothesis', which states that rapid suction strikes are pre-programmed stereotyped events that proceed to completion once initiated regardless of sensory input. If this hypothesis holds true, successful strikes should be indistinguishable from unsuccessful strikes owing to a lack of feedback control in specialized suction feeding fishes. The hydrodynamics of suction feeding in white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) was studied in three behaviours: successful strikes, intraoral transports of prey and unsuccessful strikes. The area of the fluid velocity region around the head of feeding sharks was quantified using time-resolved digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). The maximal size of the fluid velocity region is 56% larger in successful strikes than unsuccessful strikes (10.79 cm2 vs 6.90 cm2), but they do not differ in duration, indicating that strikes are modulated based on some aspect of the prey or simply as a result of decreased effort on the part of the predator. The hydrodynamic profiles of successful and unsuccessful strikes differ after 21 ms, a period probably too short to provide time to react through feedback control. The predator-to-prey distance is larger in missed strikes compared with successful strikes, indicating that insufficient suction is generated to compensate for the increased distance. An accuracy index distinguishes unsuccessful strikes (-0.26) from successful strikes (0.45 to 0.61). Successful strikes occur primarily between the horizontal axis of the mouth and the dorsal boundary of the ingested parcel of water, and missed prey are closer to the boundary or beyond. Suction transports are shorter in duration than suction strikes but have similar maximal fluid velocity areas to move the prey through the

  10. An increased feed intake during early pregnancy improves sow body weight recovery and increases litter size in young sows.

    PubMed

    Hoving, L L; Soede, N M; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; Graat, E A M; Feitsma, H; Kemp, B

    2011-11-01

    This study evaluated the effect of feeding level and protein content in feed in first- and second-parity sows during the first month of gestation on sow BW recovery, farrowing rate, and litter size during the first month of gestation. From d 3 to 32 after the first insemination, sows were fed either 2.5 kg/d of a standard gestation diet (control, n = 49), 3.25 kg/d (+30%) of a standard gestation diet (plus feed, n = 47), or 2.5 kg/d of a gestation diet with 30% greater ileal digestible AA (plus protein, n = 49). Feed intake during the experimental period was 29% greater for sows in the plus feed group compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (93 vs. 72 kg, P < 0.05). Sows in the plus feed group gained 10 kg more BW during the experimental period compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (24.2 ± 1.2 vs. 15.5 ± 1.2 and 16.9 ± 1.2 kg, respectively, P < 0.001). Backfat gain and loin muscle depth gain were not affected by treatment (P = 0.56 and P = 0.37, respectively). Farrowing rate was smaller, although not significantly, for sows in the plus feed group compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (76.6% vs. 89.8 and 89.8%, respectively, P = 0.16). Litter size, however, was larger for sows in the plus feed group (15.2 ± 0.5 total born) compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (13.2 ± 0.4 and 13.6 ± 0.4 total born, respectively, P = 0.006). Piglet birth weight was not different among treatments (P = 0.65). For both first- and second-parity sows, the plus feed treatment showed similar effects on BW gain, farrowing rate, and litter size. In conclusion, an increased feed intake (+30%) during the first month of gestation improved sow BW recovery and increased litter size, but did not significantly affect farrowing rate in the subsequent parity. Feeding a 30% greater level of ileal digestible AA during the same period did not improve sow recovery or reproductive performance in the subsequent parity.

  11. The effect of the gel-forming liquid fibre on feeding behaviour in man.

    PubMed

    Tomlin, J

    1995-09-01

    A novel substance called liquid fibre (LF) has been developed which gels in the stomach and dramatically delays gastric emptying. The prolonged stomach distension LF causes would be expected to reduce food intake. The present study tested whether LF affected psychological factors connected with eating behaviour and short-term food intake. Paired studies were carried out on seventeen healthy but overweight volunteers (ten male, seven female) with body mass indices of 24-34 kg/m2 who were non-restricted eaters. On one occasion (randomized) they took drinks of LF (300 ml each) at 09.05, 11.55 and 18.00 hours, and on the other they took placebo drinks. Subjective feelings were assessed by visual analogue scales. The amount of food consumed at an appetizing pre-selected meal presented at 12.15 hours was measured covertly. Food diaries were kept until 16.00 hours on the following day. The visual analogue scales indicated that LF reduced hunger and the amount of food desired, and increased fullness, all of which would be expected to cause a reduction in food intake. However, there were no differences in the amount or type of food eaten at the appetizing test-meal (6073 v. 5824 kJ, P = 0.41). Food eaten later in the day was significantly delayed by LF (7.0 v. 5.9 h, P = 0.030), and the amount tended to be reduced (4328 v. 5439 kJ, P = 0.088). The energy consumed on the following day also tended to be lower after LF (3802 v. 4737 kJ, P = 0.130). This suggests that gastric distension is a relatively unimportant influence on eating behaviour when non-restricted eaters are presented with an appetizing meal and that intestinal factors seem more important for prolonging satiety and reducing subsequent food intake. PMID:7547855

  12. Who’s feeding baby? Non-maternal involvement in feeding and its association with dietary intakes among infants and toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Wasser, Heather M.; Thompson, Amanda L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Adair, Linda S.; Hodges, Eric A.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined non-maternal involvement in feeding during the first two years of life and its association with breastfeeding duration, early introduction of complementary foods, and dietary intakes of selected foods and beverages. Data were from the Infant Care, Feeding and Risk of Obesity Study, a cohort of 217 low-income, African-American mother-infant dyads, followed from 3-18 months postpartum. Non-maternal caregivers (NMCs) were defined as persons involved in feeding an infant/toddler 50% or more of the total daily feedings. Use of any NMC and the type of NMC was tabulated for each study visit (3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months). At each time point, more than half of all households reported a NMC. Fathers, grandmothers, and licensed childcare providers were the most common types of NMCs. In longitudinal models adjusted for confounding variables, NMC use was associated with a decreased likelihood of continued breastfeeding, and an increased likelihood of infants and toddlers consuming juice or whole fruit. Given the high prevalence of non-maternal involvement in feeding, interventions targeting multiple family members are warranted as they are likely to be more effective than those targeting the mother alone. PMID:23856432

  13. Density-dependent changes in the feeding behaviour of Macrodon atricauda of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, L G; Haimovici, M

    2016-07-01

    Long-term density-dependent changes in the population dynamics of the king weakfish Macrodon atricauda of southern Brazil between 1976 and 2013 may be related to a change in diet and an increase in feeding intensity. The importance of the small crustacean, Artemesia longinaris, increased in the diet of adults, whereas the importance of teleosts decreased and the frequency of full stomachs increased. Macrodon atricauda currently benefits from a high availability of A. longinaris, which results in a higher energy intake per individual, which, in turn, induces faster body growth and an earlier onset of sexual maturation.

  14. Early problematic eating behaviours are associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake and less dietary variety at 4-5 years of age. A prospective analysis of three European birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A; Jones, L; de Lauzon-Guillain, B; Emmett, P; Moreira, P; Charles, M A; Lopes, C

    2015-09-14

    Problematic eating behaviours during early childhood could be mediators of poor dietary habits. This study aims to prospectively relate early eating behaviours with fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake and a healthy diet variety score of children aged between 4 and 5 years. Eating behaviours were assessed in three European birth cohorts (Generation XXI from Portugal, ALSPAC from the UK and EDEN from France) at 4-6, 12-15, 24 and 48-54 months of age, based on the child's feeding difficulties, mother's perception of child's poor eating (eating small quantities at each meal, not eating enough or needing to be stimulated to eat), food refusal and difficulties in the establishment of daily food routines. Daily servings of F&V (>1 v. ≤1 serving/d, except in Generation XXI: >3 v. ≤3) and the Healthy Plate Variety Score (categorised by the median score of each sample) were calculated using FFQ. Associations were tested by logistic regressions adjusted for maternal age, education, smoking during pregnancy, any breast-feeding and the child's z-score BMI at 4-5 years of age. Children with more feeding difficulties, poor eating, food refusal/neophobia and difficulties in establishing a daily routine at 12-15, 24 and 48-54 months of age had in general lower F&V intake at 4-5 years of age. The association with vegetables was slightly stronger than with fruits. These early feeding problems were also inversely associated with the variety score at 4-5 years of age, particularly when eating behaviours were reported after 12-15 months of age. A better understanding of these early feeding difficulties may help define strategies to increase the dietary quality in children. PMID:26195187

  15. Early problematic eating behaviours are associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake and less dietary variety at 4-5 years of age. A prospective analysis of three European birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A; Jones, L; de Lauzon-Guillain, B; Emmett, P; Moreira, P; Charles, M A; Lopes, C

    2015-09-14

    Problematic eating behaviours during early childhood could be mediators of poor dietary habits. This study aims to prospectively relate early eating behaviours with fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake and a healthy diet variety score of children aged between 4 and 5 years. Eating behaviours were assessed in three European birth cohorts (Generation XXI from Portugal, ALSPAC from the UK and EDEN from France) at 4-6, 12-15, 24 and 48-54 months of age, based on the child's feeding difficulties, mother's perception of child's poor eating (eating small quantities at each meal, not eating enough or needing to be stimulated to eat), food refusal and difficulties in the establishment of daily food routines. Daily servings of F&V (>1 v. ≤1 serving/d, except in Generation XXI: >3 v. ≤3) and the Healthy Plate Variety Score (categorised by the median score of each sample) were calculated using FFQ. Associations were tested by logistic regressions adjusted for maternal age, education, smoking during pregnancy, any breast-feeding and the child's z-score BMI at 4-5 years of age. Children with more feeding difficulties, poor eating, food refusal/neophobia and difficulties in establishing a daily routine at 12-15, 24 and 48-54 months of age had in general lower F&V intake at 4-5 years of age. The association with vegetables was slightly stronger than with fruits. These early feeding problems were also inversely associated with the variety score at 4-5 years of age, particularly when eating behaviours were reported after 12-15 months of age. A better understanding of these early feeding difficulties may help define strategies to increase the dietary quality in children.

  16. The importance of taste on dietary choice, behaviour and intake in a group of young adults.

    PubMed

    Kourouniotis, S; Keast, R S J; Riddell, L J; Lacy, K; Thorpe, M G; Cicerale, S

    2016-08-01

    The 'taste of food' plays an important role in food choice. Furthermore, foods high in fat, sugar and salt are highly palatable and associated with increased food consumption. Research exploring taste importance on dietary choice, behaviour and intake is limited, particularly in young adults. Therefore, in this study a total of 1306 Australian university students completed questionnaires assessing dietary behaviors (such as how important taste was on food choice) and frequency of food consumption over the prior month. Diet quality was also assessed using a dietary guideline index. Participants had a mean age of 20 ± 5 years, Body Mass Index (BMI) of 22 ± 3 kg/m(2), 79% were female and 84% Australian. Taste was rated as being a very or extremely important factor for food choice by 82% of participants. Participants who rated taste as highly important, had a poorer diet quality (p = 0.001) and were more likely to consume less fruit (p = 0.03) and vegetables (p = 0.05). Furthermore, they were significantly more likely to consume foods high in fat, sugar and salt, including chocolate and confectionary, cakes and puddings, sweet pastries, biscuits, meat pies, pizza, hot chips, potato chips, takeaway meals, soft drink, cordial and fruit juice (p = 0.001-0.02). They were also more likely to consider avoiding adding salt to cooking (p = 0.02) and adding sugar to tea or coffee (p = 0.01) as less important for health. These findings suggest that the importance individuals place on taste plays an important role in influencing food choice, dietary behaviors and intake.

  17. The importance of taste on dietary choice, behaviour and intake in a group of young adults.

    PubMed

    Kourouniotis, S; Keast, R S J; Riddell, L J; Lacy, K; Thorpe, M G; Cicerale, S

    2016-08-01

    The 'taste of food' plays an important role in food choice. Furthermore, foods high in fat, sugar and salt are highly palatable and associated with increased food consumption. Research exploring taste importance on dietary choice, behaviour and intake is limited, particularly in young adults. Therefore, in this study a total of 1306 Australian university students completed questionnaires assessing dietary behaviors (such as how important taste was on food choice) and frequency of food consumption over the prior month. Diet quality was also assessed using a dietary guideline index. Participants had a mean age of 20 ± 5 years, Body Mass Index (BMI) of 22 ± 3 kg/m(2), 79% were female and 84% Australian. Taste was rated as being a very or extremely important factor for food choice by 82% of participants. Participants who rated taste as highly important, had a poorer diet quality (p = 0.001) and were more likely to consume less fruit (p = 0.03) and vegetables (p = 0.05). Furthermore, they were significantly more likely to consume foods high in fat, sugar and salt, including chocolate and confectionary, cakes and puddings, sweet pastries, biscuits, meat pies, pizza, hot chips, potato chips, takeaway meals, soft drink, cordial and fruit juice (p = 0.001-0.02). They were also more likely to consider avoiding adding salt to cooking (p = 0.02) and adding sugar to tea or coffee (p = 0.01) as less important for health. These findings suggest that the importance individuals place on taste plays an important role in influencing food choice, dietary behaviors and intake. PMID:26972352

  18. Feed intake is related to changes in plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration and hepatic acetyl CoA content following feeding in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Piantoni, P; Ylioja, C M; Allen, M S

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between hepatic acetyl CoA (AcCoA) content and dry matter intake (DMI) was evaluated using 28 multiparous Holstein cows; 14 were early postpartum (PP; 12.6 ± 3.8 d in milk) and 14 were late-lactation cows (LL; 269 ± 30 d in milk). Cows were fed once daily, and DMI was determined for the first 4h after feeding. Liver and blood samples were collected before feeding and 4h after feeding. Feed intake over the 4-h period ranged from 3.7 to 9.6 kg of dry matter and was similar for the 2 stages of lactation. Before feeding, hepatic AcCoA content was greater for PP compared with LL cows (34.4 vs. 12.5 nmol/g), and decreased over the 4h after feeding for PP only (28.7 vs. 34.4 nmol/g). The range for change in AcCoA over the 4-h period was wide for both PP (-24.3 to 10.4 nmol/g) and LL (-5.7 to 16.1 nmol/g), and was related negatively to DMI at 4h for both PP (R(2) = 0.55) and LL (R(2) = 0.31). The reduction in plasma NEFA concentration over the 4-h period was greater for PP than LL cows (-681 vs. -47 µEq/L), and was related to DMI at 4h for both PP and LL (both R(2) = 0.38). Greater DMI among cows over the first 4h after feeding might have been from a sharper reduction in supply of AcCoA in the liver for oxidation during meals because of the reduction in plasma NEFA concentration. Consistent with this is that the change in AcCoA was positively related to the reduction in plasma NEFA concentration for PP cows (R(2) = 0.31). However, change in plasma NEFA concentration was not related to change in hepatic AcCoA in LL cows, indicating that the pool of AcCoA in LL cows is not as dependent on NEFA flux to the liver as that of PP cows. Further research is required to determine production and fate of AcCoA within the timeframe of meals and the effects of feeding on energy charge in hepatic tissue.

  19. A Review of Mycotoxins in Food and Feed Products in Portugal and Estimation of Probable Daily Intakes.

    PubMed

    Abrunhosa, Luís; Morales, Héctor; Soares, Célia; Calado, Thalita; Vila-Chã, Ana Sofia; Pereira, Martinha; Venâncio, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that occur naturally in agricultural commodities worldwide. Aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, fumonisins, zearalenone, trichothecenes, and ergot alkaloids are presently the most important for food and feed safety. These compounds are produced by several species that belong to the Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps genera and can be carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, cytotoxic, neurotoxic, nephrotoxic, estrogenic, and immunosuppressant. Human and animal exposure to mycotoxins is generally assessed by taking into account data on the occurrence of mycotoxins in food and feed as well as data on the consumption patterns of the concerned population. This evaluation is crucial to support measures to reduce consumer exposure to mycotoxins. This work reviews the occurrence and levels of mycotoxins in Portuguese food and feed to provide a global overview of this issue in Portugal. With the information collected, the exposure of the Portuguese population to those mycotoxins is assessed, and the estimated dietary intakes are presented.

  20. Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

    2014-10-01

    The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain, least (P < 0.05) hydrocyanide (HCN) intake and best (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio. Chicks fed with control and diet containing 100 g/kg peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) had the least (P < 0.05) feed cost per weight gain. Chicks fed with diet containing 100 g/kg cassava root meal had higher (P < 0.05) final liveweight and weight gain and reduced (P < 0.05) HCN intake than chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg cassava root meal. Dietary inclusion of peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) for broiler chicks resulted in increased final liveweight (P < 0.05), weight gain (P < 0.01) and feed intake (P < 0.01) when compared with birds fed with diet containing unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM). The least (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain and worst (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio were obtained with chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM. Increased dietary inclusion levels of cassava root resulted in significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC) count, heterophil count and serum thiocyanate concentration. In comparison with chicks fed with diet containing UCRM, dietary inclusion of PCRM resulted in increased (P < 0.05) red blood cell (RBC) count and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and reduced (P < 0.05) white blood cell (WBC) count and serum

  1. The effects of additives in napier grass silages on chemical composition, feed intake, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-09-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the others. In the feeding trial, the intake of silage increased (p<0.05) in the cow fed with the treated silage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass.

  2. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shikha; Singh, Mahendra; Roy, Ashwani Kumar; Thakur, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG]) or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]). DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body condition score (BCS) was recorded. Energy balance and gross feed efficiency (GFE) were calculated. DMI and BCS were recorded and milk yield (MY), fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat, energy balance were measured. The fat corrected milk yield was calculated. Results: The DMI was non-significant between groups and periods of study. BCS of buffaloes improved in the SG than CG (p<0.01). The energy intake in terms of total digestible nutrients (TDN%), TDN intake, digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy/kg of milk, DE of milk, net energy, and GFE were higher (p<0.01) in SG during post-partum period. Crude protein intake was statistically similar in both the groups. MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG than in CG during 95 days of early lactation. Milk fat, fat corrected MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG however protein, lactose and solid not fat content did not varied between the groups. The feed efficiency of the SG was higher (p<0.01) than the CG during the post-partum period. Conclusion: It was inferred that prilled fat supplementation augments energy balance and milk production in transition Murrah buffaloes. PMID:27057108

  3. Short communication: genetic parameters for feed intake, production, and extent of negative energy balance in Nordic Red dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Liinamo, A-E; Mäntysaari, P; Mäntysaari, E A

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the genetic parameters for feed intake, milk production, and energy balance in Nordic Red dairy cattle from an experimental data set. The data were collected at the MTT Agrifood Research Finland Rehtijärvi experimental farm in 4 feeding trials between 1998 and 2008, and included lactation wk 2 to 30 for 291 Nordic Red nucleus heifers descending from 72 different sires. The studied traits included weekly averages for energy-corrected milk yield (ECM, kg/d), dry matter intake (kg/d), body weight (BW, kg), body condition score (BCS, score 1 to 5), and energy balance (EB, MJ of metabolizable energy/d). The data were analyzed with both fixed and random regression models. The heritabilities of ECM and BCS were moderate to high and remained fairly constant over the entire lactation period, whereas the heritabilities of BW and EB were the highest in early lactation (0.47 and 0.37, respectively) and declined later on. The heritabilities of DMI were highest (0.33) around lactation wk 5 and again at lactation wk 30, and were somewhat lower at the beginning of the lactation and in the middle period. The genetic correlations between the traits differed considerably between early and later lactation periods, especially for the trait pairs ECM-dry matter intake, ECM-EB, BW-EB, and BCS-EB, being negative or close to zero in lactation wk 2 to 5 but turning moderate to strong and positive by lactation wk 10. The results suggest that the lactating cows express their genetic potential for feed intake and energy utilization most clearly between lactation wk 2 to 10. The best candidate trait for selection might be EB in lactation wk 2 to 5 because it has a moderate heritability and is not genetically correlated with BW or BCS in that period.

  4. The effect of concentrate feeding amount and feeding strategy on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy partitioning of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, D C; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the milk production, dry matter intake, and energy partitioning of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows offered a high or low amount of concentrate using 1 of 2 feeding strategies. One hundred and eight autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows were blocked based on milk production data from wk 3 and 4 of lactation, and were divided into low-, medium-, and high-milk yield subgroups. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n=27) in a 2×2 factorial design. Treatment factors were concentrate feeding amount, high concentrate=7.0 (Hi) or low concentrate=4.0kg of DM/cow per day (Lo), and concentrate feeding strategy, flat rate (FR) or group-fed to yield (GFY). In the GFY treatments, cows were allocated concentrate based on their milk yield in the third and fourth weeks of lactation. The lowest-yielding cows (n=9) received 5.3 and 2.3kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments respectively, the highest-yielding cows (n=9) received 8.7 and 5.7kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments respectively, and the average yield cows received the same amount of concentrate as the corresponding FR group (i.e., 7.0 and 4.0kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments, respectively). The proportion of forage in the diet was 63% of total dry matter intake (TDMI) for the Hi treatment and 75% of TDMI for the Lo treatment. No significant interaction was noted between concentrate feeding amount and concentrate feeding strategy for dry matter intake or milk yield. Cows on the Hi treatment had a higher TDMI (18.7±0.36kg/cow per day) compared with cows on the Lo treatment (15.8±0.36kg/cow per day). The milk yield of cows offered the Hi treatment was 1.3kg/cow per day higher than the milk yield of cows on the Lo treatment (23.8±0.31kg/cow per day). Milk solids yield was 0.10kg/cow per day higher on the Hi treatment than on the Lo treatment (1.83±0.03kg of DM/cow per day). Cows on the Hi treatment had an estimated net

  5. Costs of colour change in fish: food intake and behavioural decisions.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Gwendolen M; Gladman, Nicholas W; Corless, Hannah F; Morrell, Lesley J

    2013-07-15

    Many animals, particularly reptiles, amphibians, fish and cephalopods, have the ability to change their body colour, for functions including thermoregulation, signalling and predator avoidance. Many fish plastically darken their body colouration in response to dark visual backgrounds, and this functions to reduce predation risk. Here, we tested the hypotheses that colour change in fish (1) carries with it an energetic cost and (2) affects subsequent shoal and habitat choice decisions. We demonstrate that guppies (Poecilia reticulata) change colour in response to dark and light visual backgrounds, and that doing so carries an energetic cost in terms of food consumption. By increasing food intake, however, guppies are able to maintain growth rates and meet the energetic costs of changing colour. Following colour change, fish preferentially choose habitats and shoals that match their own body colouration, and maximise crypsis, thus avoiding the need for further colour change but also potentially paying an opportunity cost associated with restriction to particular habitats and social associates. Thus, colour change to match the background is complemented by behavioural strategies, which should act to maximise fitness in variable environments.

  6. Costs of colour change in fish: food intake and behavioural decisions.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Gwendolen M; Gladman, Nicholas W; Corless, Hannah F; Morrell, Lesley J

    2013-07-15

    Many animals, particularly reptiles, amphibians, fish and cephalopods, have the ability to change their body colour, for functions including thermoregulation, signalling and predator avoidance. Many fish plastically darken their body colouration in response to dark visual backgrounds, and this functions to reduce predation risk. Here, we tested the hypotheses that colour change in fish (1) carries with it an energetic cost and (2) affects subsequent shoal and habitat choice decisions. We demonstrate that guppies (Poecilia reticulata) change colour in response to dark and light visual backgrounds, and that doing so carries an energetic cost in terms of food consumption. By increasing food intake, however, guppies are able to maintain growth rates and meet the energetic costs of changing colour. Following colour change, fish preferentially choose habitats and shoals that match their own body colouration, and maximise crypsis, thus avoiding the need for further colour change but also potentially paying an opportunity cost associated with restriction to particular habitats and social associates. Thus, colour change to match the background is complemented by behavioural strategies, which should act to maximise fitness in variable environments. PMID:23619415

  7. Maternal Predictors of Preschool Child-Eating Behaviours, Food Intake and Body Mass Index: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Dell'Aquila, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eating behaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study. "International Journal of Pediatric Obesity", Early Online, 1-5.] McPhie et al. (2011)'s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and…

  8. Can prescription of sip-feed supplements increase energy intake in hospitalised older people with medical problems?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Margaret; Potter, Jan; McColl, John; Reilly, John

    2003-08-01

    A blinded randomised controlled trial of prescribed oral sip-feed supplements compared with routine hospital practice was undertaken in acute admissions to a geriatric medicine department. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they were admitted from home, were not obese (BMI>75th percentile), had no swallowing difficulties and were not deemed to be in the terminal stage of illness. On admission they were stratified by nutritional status (BMI<5th, >5th to <25th, >25th to <75th percentile) and randomised. The intervention group received 120 ml oral sip-feed supplement prescribed three times per d in the medicine prescription chart (22.5 g protein, 2260 kJ (540 kcal) energy/d) distributed at medication rounds for the duration of hospital stay. The control group received routine hospital care. Outcomes were patient compliance with supplement, total energy intake and nursing staff views of the method. Patients were randomised to receive supplements (n 186 of total n 381). Half had full compliance and three-quarters at least moderate compliance. Total energy intake was significantly increased, on average, in the intervention group (P=0.001). The proportion of patients meeting estimated minimum energy requirements was significantly increased (P=0.023), but was still <50 % for the sample of patients in the intervention group. The present study suggests this method is acceptable to patients and staff and improves total energy intake. However, the amount prescribed did not ensure minimum energy requirements were met in all cases.

  9. Nutrient utilisation, growth performance and blood metabolites in Murrah buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vijay K; Kundu, Shivlal S; Prusty, Sonali; Datt, Chander; Kumar, Muneendra

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilisation between buffalo calves with low and high residual feed intake (RFI) by comparing feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth traits and blood metabolites. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves (aged 4-6 months; 70 ± 1.0 kg body weight) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration for 120 d. Based on linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body size, calves were assigned into low and high RFI groups. The RFI varied from -0.33 to +0.28 kg DM/d with an average RFI of -0.14 and 0.14 kg DM/d in low and high RFI calves, respectively. Calves had a mean DMI of 1.9 and 2.4 kg/d and an ADG of 0.5 and 0.6 kg/d in low and high RFI groups, respectively. Low RFI calves ate 19.0% less DM each day and required significantly less metabolisable energy for maintenance compared with high RFI calves (12.5 vs. 16.7 MJ/d). Nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance did not differ among low and high RFI calves. In more efficient animals (low RFI calves) higher (p < 0.05) plasma level of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), triiodothyronine (T3) and lower concentration of thyroxin hormone were detected. No significant differences in levels of insulin, hydroxyproline, plasma and urine creatinine, total protein and albumin between high and low RFI groups were found. Blood metabolites showed significant (p < 0.05) differences at initial and final stages of study in both groups. At final stage of study, RFI showed negative correlations with growth hormone, IGF-1, T3, urine creatinine and albumin. Low RFI buffalo calves are more efficient in feed utilisation and the differences in blood metabolites are probably due to differences in feed intake and body metabolism. PMID:27666680

  10. Factors associated with maternal dietary intake, feeding and weaning practices, and the development of food hypersensitivity in the infant.

    PubMed

    Venter, Carina; Pereira, Brett; Voigt, Kerstin; Grundy, Jane; Clayton, C Bernie; Higgins, Bernie; Arshad, S Hasan; Dean, Taraneh

    2009-06-01

    Maternal diet during pregnancy and breastfeeding, as well as infant feeding and weaning practices, may play a role in the development of sensitization to food and food hypersensitivity (FHS) and need further investigation. Pregnant women were recruited at 12 wk pregnancy. Information regarding family history of allergy was obtained by means of a questionnaire. A food frequency questionnaire was completed at 36 wk gestation. Information regarding feeding practices and reported symptoms of atopy was obtained during the infants' first 3 yr of life. Children were also skin-prick tested at 1, 2 and 3 yr to a pre-defined panel of food allergens. Food challenges were conducted where possible. Maternal dietary intake during pregnancy, and breast-feeding duration did not influence the development of sensitization to food allergens or FHS, but weaning age (>or=16 wk) did for sensitization at 1 yr (p = 0.03), FHS by 1 yr (p = 0.02), sensitization at 3 yr (p = 0.01) and FHS by 3 yr (p = 0.02). In contrast, children who were not exposed to a certain food allergen before the age of 3-6 months were less likely to become sensitized or develop FHS. Women with a family history of allergic disease were more likely to breastfeed exclusively at 3 months (p = 0.008) and avoid peanuts from the infant's diet at 6 months (p = 0.03). Maternal dietary intake during pregnancy, and breast-feeding duration did not appear to influence the development of sensitization to food allergens or FHS. Weaning age may affect sensitization to foods and development of FHS. A history of allergic disease has very little impact on maternal dietary, feeding, and weaning practices.

  11. Alpha-tocopherol stereoisomer analysis as discriminant method for distinguishing Iberian pig feed intake during the fattening phase.

    PubMed

    Rey, A I; López-Bote, C J

    2014-01-01

    The use of stereoisomers of α-tocopherol to correctly classify Iberian pig fat samples according to their feeding system was investigated. Samples were obtained over two different seasons in controlled farms from the four categories of pigs described in the Industry Quality Policy (FREE-RANGE: pigs fed exclusively under free-range conditions; FREE-FEED: pigs fed free-range and supplemented with feed; FEED-OUT: pigs fed outdoors with access to grass and a mixed diet; and FEED: pigs fed exclusively a mixed diet). A higher presence of RRR-stereoisomer indicated a greater consumption of the natural form of tocopherol provided by acorns or grass, whereas a higher proportion of S forms were related to a higher mixed diet intake. Validation results showed 90% success in fat sample classification. Analysis of the RRR-stereoisomer together with γ- and α-tocopherol determination can be considered as a potent tool for distinguishing fat from pigs fed under free-range conditions or exclusively with acorns and grass from those receiving a supplemented diet at any time of their fattening phase. PMID:24001851

  12. Effect of dental correction on voluntary hay intake, apparent digestibility of feed and faecal particle size in horse.

    PubMed

    Zwirglmaier, S; Remler, H-P; Senckenberg, E; Fritz, J; Stelzer, P; Kienzle, E

    2013-02-01

    In nine adult Warmblood horses with mild to moderate dental findings (no signs of discomfort during chewing), voluntary hay intake before and after dental correction was examined. In a second experiment, digestibility of feed and faecal particle size were determined (3 days of total faecal collection) before and after dental correction. During both digestion trials including a 3-day adaptation period, the amount of hay and concentrate (mixture of oats, barley and maize) was kept constant in each individual horse before and after dental correction. Voluntary hay intake in individual horses ranged from 11 to 22 g DM/kg BW/day and did not differ before and after dental treatment. Apparent digestibility of DM, energy, crude fibre and Nfe increased significantly after dental correction (energy digestibility before dental correction 46.8 ± 7.4%, after dental correction 51.5 ± 8.5%). Apparent digestibility of feed was higher in horses eating more concentrates than in those eating less concentrates. Improvement of digestibility was more marked in horses eating larger amounts of grain. There was no relationship between severity or type of dental alterations and improvement of apparent feed digestibility. Dental correction had no effect on faecal particle size.

  13. Analysis of dioxins, furans and DL-PCBs in food and feed samples from Lithuania and estimation of human intake.

    PubMed

    Godliauskienė, R; Petraitis, J; Jarmalaitė, I; Naujalis, E

    2012-11-01

    The methods, validated for determination of dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin like-polychlorinated biphenyls were applied for investigation of food and feed matrixes. Validation criteria on repeatability and reproducibility conditions comply with the requirements of European Commission. Validated methods were successfully applied for determination of PCDD/F and DL-PCB in fish, meat and feed using HRGC-HRMS. Statistical data was evaluated. One focal point of this work was to determine a fit for dioxins, furans and DL-PCBs of fatty fish for human consumption from the Baltic Sea ICES 26. Daily intake was found to be in the range of 2-4 TEQ pg/kg body weight and it is in the range of recommended TDI of 1-4 TEQ pg/kg body weight. The range of Baltic cod liver was 2-4 pg TEQ kgbw(-1)d(-1) WHO-TEQ((1998)) PCDD/F, PCB and its consumption was forbidden in Lithuania in 2011. Baltic fish represents 97.9% of human daily intake. Other matrixes like meat, eggs and feed did not exceed the maximum limit set by EU during the period of 2005-2011.

  14. Effects of food origin and availability on sea urchin condition and feeding behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livore, Juan P.; Connell, Sean D.

    2012-02-01

    The origin of food is recognised to be an important trait for sedentary consumers that have little control over the source of their food. Elevated herbivory in sea urchins is often linked to poor gonad condition as provoked by reduced food availability, but there is little recognition of the possibility that the origin of food may contribute to their poor condition and elevated feeding. This study assesses the possibility that variation in food availability and origin may together affect urchin condition and feeding rates such that they account for more intensive grazing (by Heliocidaris erythrogramma) on sheltered than exposed coasts (South Australia). We experimentally tested the hypothesis that reduced food availability from sheltered coasts would result in poor gonad condition and greater feeding rate; whilst enhanced food availability from exposed coasts would result in better condition and reduced feeding rates. We found that reduced food had negative effects on condition and positive effects on feeding rates independently of coastal source. Greater food availability did not equate to better condition, rather it was the delivery of more food from exposed than sheltered coasts that translated into the better gonad condition and lower feeding rates. These results suggest that plant origin and availability could help explain the greater impacts of these urchins on sheltered coasts. Whilst other factors such as water energy and sea urchin density may contribute to variation in herbivory our results suggest that origin of food may also play a role in sea urchin condition and behaviour. Understanding how such traits link to large scale features of the environment may improve models that account for variation in strength of consumer effects across landscapes.

  15. Supplementary feeding affects the breeding behaviour of male European treefrogs (Hyla arborea)

    PubMed Central

    Meuche, Ivonne; Grafe, T Ulmar

    2009-01-01

    Background We investigated the effects of energetic constraints on the breeding behaviour of male European treefrogs Hyla arborea and how calling males allocated additional energy supplied by feeding experiments. Results Presence in the chorus was energetically costly indicated by both fed and unfed males losing weight. Males that were supplied with additional energy did not show longer chorus tenure. Instead, fed males returned sooner to the chorus. Additionally, fed males called more often than control males, a novel response for anurans. A significantly higher calling rate was noted from males even 31 nights after supplementary feeding. Conclusion This strategy of allocating additional energy reserves to increasing calling rate is beneficial given the preference of female hylids for males calling at high rates and a female's ability to detect small incremental increases in calling rate. PMID:19128468

  16. Effect of inflammation stimulation on energy and nutrient utilization in piglets selected for low and high residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Labussière, E; Dubois, S; Gilbert, H; Thibault, J N; Le Floc'h, N; Noblet, J; van Milgen, J

    2015-10-01

    Selection of animals for improved feed efficiency can affect sustainability of animal production because the most efficient animals may face difficulties coping with challenges. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an inflammatory challenge (using an intravenous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant - CFA) in piglets from two lines of pigs divergently selected during the fattening period for a low (RFI-) or a high (RFI+) residual feed intake (RFI; difference between actual feed intake and theoretical feed requirements). Nitrogen and energy balances (including heat production - HP - and its components: activity-related HP - AHP, thermic effect of feeding, and resting HP) were measured individually in thirteen 20-kg BW castrated male piglets (six and seven from RFI+ and RFI- line, respectively) fed at the same level (1.72 MJ ME/kg BW0.60 per day) from 3 days before to 3 days after CFA injection. Dynamics of dietary U-13C-glucose oxidation were estimated from measurements of 13CO2 production on the day before and 3 days after the CFA injection. Oxidation of dietary nutrients and lipogenesis were calculated based on HP and O2 consumption and CO2 production. The data were analyzed as repeated measurements within piglets in a mixed model. Before CFA injection, RFI- piglets had a lower resting energy expenditure than RFI+ piglets, which tended to increase energy retention because of a higher energy retention as fat. The CFA injection did not affect feed intake from the day following CFA injection onwards but it increased energy retention (P=0.04). Time to recover 50% of 13C from dietary glucose as expired 13CO2 was higher in RFI+ piglets before inducing inflammation but decreased after to the level of RFI- piglets (P<0.01). Oxidation of U-13C-glucose tended to slightly increased in RFI- piglets and to decreased in RFI+ piglets (P=0.10) because of CFA. Additionally, RFI- piglets had a lower respiratory quotient during the 1st day following the CFA

  17. Estimating daily methane production in individual cattle with irregular feed intake patterns from short-term methane emission measurements.

    PubMed

    Cottle, D J; Velazco, J; Hegarty, R S; Mayer, D G

    2015-12-01

    Spot measurements of methane emission rate (n = 18 700) by 24 Angus steers fed mixed rations from GrowSafe feeders were made over 3- to 6-min periods by a GreenFeed emission monitoring (GEM) unit. The data were analysed to estimate daily methane production (DMP; g/day) and derived methane yield (MY; g/kg dry matter intake (DMI)). A one-compartment dose model of spot emission rate v. time since the preceding meal was compared with the models of Wood (1967) and Dijkstra et al. (1997) and the average of spot measures. Fitted values for DMP were calculated from the area under the curves. Two methods of relating methane and feed intakes were then studied: the classical calculation of MY as DMP/DMI (kg/day); and a novel method of estimating DMP from time and size of preceding meals using either the data for only the two meals preceding a spot measurement, or all meals for 3 days prior. Two approaches were also used to estimate DMP from spot measurements: fitting of splines on a 'per-animal per-day' basis and an alternate approach of modelling DMP after each feed event by least squares (using Solver), summing (for each animal) the contributions from each feed event by best-fitting a one-compartment model. Time since the preceding meal was of limited value in estimating DMP. Even when the meal sizes and time intervals between a spot measurement and all feeding events in the previous 72 h were assessed, only 16.9% of the variance in spot emission rate measured by GEM was explained by this feeding information. While using the preceding meal alone gave a biased (underestimate) of DMP, allowing for a longer feed history removed this bias. A power analysis taking into account the sources of variation in DMP indicated that to obtain an estimate of DMP with a 95% confidence interval within 5% of the observed 64 days mean of spot measures would require 40 animals measured over 45 days (two spot measurements per day) or 30 animals measured over 55 days. These numbers suggest that

  18. Estimating daily methane production in individual cattle with irregular feed intake patterns from short-term methane emission measurements.

    PubMed

    Cottle, D J; Velazco, J; Hegarty, R S; Mayer, D G

    2015-12-01

    Spot measurements of methane emission rate (n = 18 700) by 24 Angus steers fed mixed rations from GrowSafe feeders were made over 3- to 6-min periods by a GreenFeed emission monitoring (GEM) unit. The data were analysed to estimate daily methane production (DMP; g/day) and derived methane yield (MY; g/kg dry matter intake (DMI)). A one-compartment dose model of spot emission rate v. time since the preceding meal was compared with the models of Wood (1967) and Dijkstra et al. (1997) and the average of spot measures. Fitted values for DMP were calculated from the area under the curves. Two methods of relating methane and feed intakes were then studied: the classical calculation of MY as DMP/DMI (kg/day); and a novel method of estimating DMP from time and size of preceding meals using either the data for only the two meals preceding a spot measurement, or all meals for 3 days prior. Two approaches were also used to estimate DMP from spot measurements: fitting of splines on a 'per-animal per-day' basis and an alternate approach of modelling DMP after each feed event by least squares (using Solver), summing (for each animal) the contributions from each feed event by best-fitting a one-compartment model. Time since the preceding meal was of limited value in estimating DMP. Even when the meal sizes and time intervals between a spot measurement and all feeding events in the previous 72 h were assessed, only 16.9% of the variance in spot emission rate measured by GEM was explained by this feeding information. While using the preceding meal alone gave a biased (underestimate) of DMP, allowing for a longer feed history removed this bias. A power analysis taking into account the sources of variation in DMP indicated that to obtain an estimate of DMP with a 95% confidence interval within 5% of the observed 64 days mean of spot measures would require 40 animals measured over 45 days (two spot measurements per day) or 30 animals measured over 55 days. These numbers suggest that

  19. Individual-to-Resource Landscape Interaction Strength Can Explain Different Collective Feeding Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Nikolai W. F.; Delcourt, Johann

    2013-01-01

    Taking in sufficient quantities of nutrients is vital for all living beings and in doing so, individuals interact with the local resource environment. Here, we focus explicitly on the interactions between feeding individuals and the resource landscape. In particular, we are interested in the emergent movement dynamics resulting from these interactions. We present an individual-based simulation model for the movement of populations in a resource landscape that allows us to vary the strength of the interactions mentioned above. The key assumption and novelty of our model is that individuals can cause the release of additional nutrients, as well as consuming them. Our model produces clear predictions. For example, we expect more tortuous individual movement paths and higher levels of aggregation in populations occupying homogeneous environments where individual movement makes more nutrients available. We also show how observed movement dynamics could change when local nutrient sources are depleted or when the population density increases. Our predictions are testable and qualitatively reproduce the different feeding behaviours observed in filter-feeding ducks, for example. We suggest that considering two-way interactions between feeding individuals and resource landscapes could help to explain fine-scale movement dynamics. PMID:24130748

  20. Grazing of heterotrophic flagellates on viruses is driven by feeding behaviour.

    PubMed

    Deng, Li; Krauss, Steffen; Feichtmayer, Judith; Hofmann, Roland; Arndt, Hartmut; Griebler, Christian

    2014-08-01

    The trophic interactions between viruses, bacteria and protists play a crucial role in structuring microbial communities and regulating nutrient and organic matter flux. Here, we show that the impact on viral density by heterotrophic flagellates is related to their feeding behaviour (feeding on sedimented particles - Thaumatomonas coloniensis, filter feeding of suspended particles - Salpingoeca sp., and actively searching raptorial feeding - Goniomonas truncata). Phage MS2 was co-incubated with flagellates and the natural bacterial and viral community originating from the same groundwater habitats where the flagellates were isolated. Three complementary assays, i.e. flow cytometry, qPCR and plaque assay, were used for enumeration of total viruses, total MS2 phages, and free and infectious MS2, respectively, to provide insights into the grazing mechanisms of the flagellates on viruses. Phage MS2 was actively removed by the suspension feeders T. coloniensis and Salpingoeca sp. in contrast with the actively raptoriale grazer G. truncata. The decline of viral titre was demonstrated to be caused by ingestion rather than random absorption by both qPCR and locating protein fluorescently labelled MS2 inside the flagellates. Further, we indicate that phages can be used as a minor carbon source for flagellates. Collectively, these data demonstrate that eliminating viruses can be an important function of protists in microbial food webs, carbon cycling and potentially water quality control.

  1. QTLs associated with dry matter intake, metabolic mid-test weight, growth and feed efficiency have little overlap across 4 beef cattle studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The identification of genetic markers associated with complex traits that are expensive to record such as feed intake or feed efficiency would allow these traits to be included in selection programs. To identify large-effect QTL, we performed a series of genome-wide association studies a...

  2. Sugar-feeding behaviour and longevity of European Culicoides biting midges.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, C; Mathis, A; Vorburger, C

    2015-03-01

    Most haematophagous insect vectors can also use sugar as an energy source; thus their sugar-feeding behaviour influences their longevity and blood-feeding rate and hence their vectorial capacity. Scant information is available on the sugar-feeding behaviour of Culicoides Latreille biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), which are vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses. The longevity of laboratory-reared Culicoides nubeculosus (Meigen) under fluctuating temperatures (16 and 28 °C) and with access to water or water and blood was on average 6.4 days and 8.9 days, respectively, which was around one third of the lifespan of siblings with access to sugar or sugar and blood (22.2 days and 27.1 days, respectively). Access to honeydew significantly increased the midge's longevity, whereas the provision of extrafloral nectaries had no impact. Females with access to sugar produced a significantly higher number of eggs (65.5 ± 5.2) than their starved sisters (45.4 ± 8.4). More than 80% of field-caught female Culicoides from the two most abundant European groups, Obsoletus (n = 2243) and Pulicaris (n = 805), were fructose-positive. Fructose-positivity was high in all physiological stages and no seasonal variability was noted. The high rate of natural sugar feeding of Culicoides offers opportunities for the development of novel control strategies using toxic sugar baits and for the monitoring of vector-borne diseases using sugar-treated FTA (nucleic acid preservation) cards in the field.

  3. Predicting mothers' decisions to introduce complementary feeding at 6 months. An investigation using an extended theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kyra; Daniels, Lynne; White, Katherine M; Murray, Nicole; Walsh, Anne

    2011-06-01

    In Australia and other developed countries there is poor adherence to guidelines recommending the introduction of complementary feeding to infants at 6 months of age. We aimed to investigate, via adopting a theory of planned behaviour framework and incorporating additional normative and demographic influences, mothers' complementary feeding intentions and behaviour. Participants were 375 primiparas who completed an initial questionnaire (infant age 13±3 weeks) that assessed the theory of planned behaviour constructs of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control, as well as group norm and additional maternal and infant variables of mothers' age, education level, weight status perception, current maternal feeding practices, and infant birth weight. Approximately, 3 months after completion of the main questionnaire, mothers completed a follow-up questionnaire that assessed the age in months at which the infant was first introduced to solids. The theory of planned behaviour variables of attitude and subjective norm, along with group norm, predicted intentions, with intention, mothers' age (older more likely), and weight status perception (overweight less likely) predicting behaviour. Overall, the results highlight the importance of attitudes, normative influences, and individual characteristics in complementary feeding decision-making which should be considered when designing interventions aimed at improving adherence to current maternal feeding guidelines.

  4. Context-dependent regulation of feeding behaviour by the insulin receptor, DAF-2, in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Dillon, James; Holden-Dye, Lindy; O'Connor, Vincent; Hopper, Neil A

    2016-06-01

    Insulin signalling plays a significant role in both developmental programmes and pathways modulating the neuronal signalling that controls adult behaviour. Here, we have investigated insulin signalling in food-associated behaviour in adult C. elegans by scoring locomotion and feeding on and off bacteria, the worm's food. This analysis used mutants (daf-2, daf-18) of the insulin signalling pathway, and we provide evidence for an acute role for insulin signalling in the adult nervous system distinct from its impact on developmental programmes. Insulin receptor daf-2 mutants move slower than wild type both on and off food and showed impaired locomotory responses to food deprivation. This latter behaviour is manifest as a failure to instigate dispersal following prolonged food deprivation and suggests a role for insulin signalling in this adaptive response. Insulin receptor daf-2 mutants are also deficient in pharyngeal pumping on food and off food. Pharmacological analysis showed the pharynx of daf-2 is selectively compromised in its response to 5-HT compared to the excitatory neuropeptide FLP-17. By comparing the adaptive pharyngeal behaviour in intact worms and isolated pharyngeal preparations, we determined that an insulin-dependent signal extrinsic to the pharyngeal system is involved in feeding adaptation. Hence, we suggest that reactive insulin signalling modulates both locomotory foraging and pharyngeal pumping as the animal adapts to the absence of food. We discuss this in the context of insulin signalling directing a shift in the sensitivity of neurotransmitter systems to regulate the worm's response to changes in food availability in the environment. PMID:27209024

  5. Limits to sustained energy intake XXIV: impact of suckling behaviour on the body temperatures of lactating female mice

    PubMed Central

    Gamo, Y.; Bernard, A.; Troup, C.; Munro, F.; Derrer, K.; Jeannesson, N.; Campbell, A.; Gray, H.; Miller, J.; Dixon, J.; Mitchell, S. E.; Hambly, C.; Vaanholt, L. M.; Speakman, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential causes of high body temperature (Tb) during lactation in mice as a putative limit on energy intake. In particular we explored whether or not offspring contributed to heat retention in mothers while suckling. Tb and physical activity were monitored in 26 female MF1 mice using intraperitoneally implanted transmitters. In addition, maternal behaviour was scored each minute for 8 h d−1 throughout lactation. Mothers that raised larger litters tended to have higher Tb while nursing inside nests (P < 0.05), suggesting that nursing offspring may have influenced heat retention. However, Tb during nursing was not higher than that recorded during other behaviours. In addition, the highest Tb during the observation period was not measured during nursing behaviour. Finally, there was no indication that mothers discontinued suckling because of a progressive rise in their Tb while suckling. Tb throughout lactation was correlated with daily increases in energy intake. Chronic hyperthermia during lactation was not caused by increased heat retention due to surrounding offspring. Other factors, like metabolic heat produced as a by-product of milk production or energy intake may be more important factors. Heat dissipation limits are probably not a phenomenon restricted to lactation. PMID:27157478

  6. The effects of increasing amounts of milk replacer powder added to whole milk on feed intake and performance in dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, R A; Machado, F S; Campos, M M; Furini, P M; Rufino, S R A; Pereira, L G R; Tomich, T R; Coelho, S G

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on feed intake, heifer performance, and health of increasing the total solids (TS) content of liquid feed (whole milk) by adding increasing amounts of milk replacer powder during the pre- and postweaning periods. Crossbred Holstein-Gyr heifers (n=60) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n=15 per group), which consisted of different TS concentrations: 12.5, 15.0, 17.5, and 20.0% of liquid feed. Heifers received 6 L of liquid feed per day, divided into 2 equal meals (0800 and 1600h) and provided in buckets, from 5 to 55d of age. From 56 to 59d of age, the total amount of liquid feed was reduced by half, maintaining only morning feedings. Heifers were weaned at 60d and monitored until 90d of age. Water and starter were provided ad libitum during the entire experiment. Corn silage was included in the diet during the postweaning period (70d of age). Feed intake and health scores were evaluated daily. Body weight and body frame development were recorded weekly. Starting at 14d, ruminal pH was measured every other week. Laboratory analysis determined that the actual TS contents of the liquid feed were 13.5, 16.1, 18.2, and 20.4%, for the proposed 12.5, 15.0, 17.5, and 20.0% TS treatments, respectively. The osmolality of liquid feed treatments was 265 to 533mOsm/L. Intake of liquid feed was similar among treatments from 4wk of age. During the preweaning period, starter intake, fecal score, and days with diarrhea were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH at weaning averaged 6.2 and was similar among treatments. Increasing concentrations of TS in the liquid feed were associated with linear increases in average daily gain, final body weight, and growth performance, but linear decreases in feed efficiency. During the postweaning period, intake of starter, corn silage, and water were similar among treatments, as well as average daily gain and feed efficiency. Final body weight and growth performance during the postweaning period

  7. Effects of γ-aminobutyric acid on feed intake, growth performance and expression of related genes in growing lambs.

    PubMed

    Wang, D M; Chacher, B; Liu, H Y; Wang, J K; Lin, J; Liu, J X

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of rumen-protected γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on feed intake, growth performance and expression of related genes in growing lambs. A total of 24 lambs weaned at age of 50 days were divided into four block of six based on their BW, six lambs within a block were allocated to three pairs, which were then assigned randomly to three treatments with addition of rumen-protected GABA at levels of 0, 70 or 140 mg/day for 6 weeks. Dry matter intake was recorded weekly in three consecutive days, and BW was recorded every two weeks. At the end of the trial, four lambs from each group were slaughtered, and duodenum and ileum mucosa were obtained for measurement of mRNA abundance of GABA receptor and cholecystokinin receptor. Dry matter intake was higher (P<0.01) in the lambs fed 140 mg/day GABA than that in the control or 70 mg GABA-fed lambs. Average daily gain and nutrients digestibility were not different (P>0.05) among treatments. Lambs fed 140 mg/day GABA had higher mRNA abundance of GABA-B receptor (P<0.01) and lower mRNA abundance of cholecystokinin-2 receptor (P<0.01) in duodenum mucosa. Serum CCK content was lower (P<0.01) in lambs fed 140 mg/day GABA than that in control. It is indicated that GABA may enhance feed intake by regulating GABA- and cholecystokinin-related genes.

  8. Animal models of programming: early life influences on appetite and feeding behaviour.

    PubMed

    Langley-Evans, Simon C; Bellinger, Leanne; McMullen, Sarah

    2005-07-01

    Epidemiological observations of associations between early life nutrition and long-term disease risk have prompted detailed experimental investigation of the biological basis of programming. Studies using rodent or large animal models have clearly established the biological plausibility of nutritional programming and are now yielding important information on underlying mechanisms. Nutritional interventions in pregnancy, including global food restriction, protein restriction, micronutrient restriction and excess fat feeding, determine a consistent cluster of disorders in the resulting offspring. The common association of such diverse nutritional disturbances with hypertension, glucose intolerance and adiposity suggests that a small number of simple common mechanisms are active in response to fetal nutrient imbalance. Studies of rodent models indicate that fetal undernutrition determines adult adiposity. It is unclear whether the increase in central adiposity is related to increased food intake or reduced energy expenditure, although evidence exists to suggest that both may act together. Rats subject to intrauterine protein restriction exhibit increased preference for high fat foods. Feeding of energy dense foods to rats that were undernourished in utero promotes a greater degree of obesity than is noted in animals subject to adequate nutrition in fetal life. There is evidence to suggest that programming of appetite may stem from remodelling of hypothalamic structures that control feeding and programming of the expression of genes involved in responses to orexogenic hormones. The early life programming of appetite and obesity is a complex phenomenon and our understanding of how maternal nutrition determines later energy balance is at a very early stage.

  9. Effects of konjac flour inclusion in gestation diets on the nutrient digestibility, lactation feed intake and reproductive performance of sows.

    PubMed

    Sun, H Q; Zhou, Y F; Tan, C Q; Zheng, L F; Peng, J; Jiang, S W

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of konjac flour (KF) inclusion in gestation diets of sows on nutrients digestibility, lactation feed intake, reproductive performance of sows and preweaning performance of piglets. Two isoenergetic and isonitrogenous gestation diets were formulated: a control diet and a 2.1% KF-supplemented diet (KF diet). Both diets had the same NDF and insoluble fiber (ISF) levels, but the KF diet had higher soluble fiber (SF) level. The day after breeding, 96 multiparous sows were assigned to the two dietary treatments. Restrict-fed during gestation, in contrast, all sows were offered the same lactation diet ad libitum. Response criteria included sow BW, backfat depth, lactation feed intake, weaning-to-estrus interval, litter size and piglet's weight at parturition and day 21 of lactation. On day 60 of gestation, 20 sows were used to measure nutrient digestibility. Results showed that the digestibility of dry matter, gross energy, crude fiber and ADF were not affected by the dietary treatments. The inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased NDF digestibility (P<0.05) and tended to increase the digestibility of CP (P=0.05) compared with the control diet group. In addition, dietary treatment during gestation did not affect litter size, BW and backfat gain during gestation, lactation weight, backfat loss or weaning-to-estrus interval of sows. However, sows fed the KF diet consumed more (P<0.05) lactation diet per day than sows in the control group. Accordingly, sows fed the KF diet showed greater average piglet weights on day 21 of lactation (P=0.09), and the litter weight of sows fed the KF diet on day 21 of lactation increased by 3.95 kg compared with sows fed the control diet (not significant). In conclusion, the inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased lactation feed intake of sows and tended to improve litter performance.

  10. Effects of vegetable fats versus lard in milk replacers on feed intake, digestibility, and growth in Finnish Ayrshire bull calves.

    PubMed

    Huuskonen, A; Khalili, H; Kiljala, J; Joki-Tokola, E; Nousiainen, J

    2005-10-01

    The aim was to study whether vegetable fat mixtures could be used instead of lard [15.2% in dry matter (DM)] in milk replacers without impairing the performance of Finnish Ayrshire bull calves (n = 58). The growth performance of the calves was measured before and after weaning from 14 d to 6 mo of age. The following 3 fat sources in a milk replacer were studied: 1) a mixture of palm, coconut, and rapeseed oil, 2) palm and coconut oil, and 3) lard. The calves were bucket-fed 2 L of milk replacer 3 times per day. The milk replacer contained 116 g of DM/L, resulting in an average DM intake of 4.8 g of DM/kg of body weight0.75 (BW0.75) during the 8-wk trial, after which the calves were weaned. All the calves had free access to water, commercial starter, and grass silage before weaning. The weaned calves had free access to water and grass silage and were given 3 kg/d (air-dry basis) of a commercial concentrate mixture. The concentrate was replaced by barley when the bulls were 4.5 mo old. There were no significant differences between the diets in feed intake and apparent diet digestibility. The health and BW of the calves were similar during the study. The feed conversion rate (kg of DM intake/kg of gain) before weaning was significantly greater for the lard diet compared with the 2 vegetable fat mixtures. After weaning, the feed conversion rate was slightly lower for the diet that included the palm, coconut, and rapeseed oil mixture than for the diet that included palm and coconut oil mixture. The study showed that the 2 mixtures consisting solely of vegetable oils were effective dietary components, thus providing 2 alternative fat mixtures of milk replacers, for use instead of lard in formulating commercial calf milk replacers. PMID:16162531

  11. Effects of vegetable fats versus lard in milk replacers on feed intake, digestibility, and growth in Finnish Ayrshire bull calves.

    PubMed

    Huuskonen, A; Khalili, H; Kiljala, J; Joki-Tokola, E; Nousiainen, J

    2005-10-01

    The aim was to study whether vegetable fat mixtures could be used instead of lard [15.2% in dry matter (DM)] in milk replacers without impairing the performance of Finnish Ayrshire bull calves (n = 58). The growth performance of the calves was measured before and after weaning from 14 d to 6 mo of age. The following 3 fat sources in a milk replacer were studied: 1) a mixture of palm, coconut, and rapeseed oil, 2) palm and coconut oil, and 3) lard. The calves were bucket-fed 2 L of milk replacer 3 times per day. The milk replacer contained 116 g of DM/L, resulting in an average DM intake of 4.8 g of DM/kg of body weight0.75 (BW0.75) during the 8-wk trial, after which the calves were weaned. All the calves had free access to water, commercial starter, and grass silage before weaning. The weaned calves had free access to water and grass silage and were given 3 kg/d (air-dry basis) of a commercial concentrate mixture. The concentrate was replaced by barley when the bulls were 4.5 mo old. There were no significant differences between the diets in feed intake and apparent diet digestibility. The health and BW of the calves were similar during the study. The feed conversion rate (kg of DM intake/kg of gain) before weaning was significantly greater for the lard diet compared with the 2 vegetable fat mixtures. After weaning, the feed conversion rate was slightly lower for the diet that included the palm, coconut, and rapeseed oil mixture than for the diet that included palm and coconut oil mixture. The study showed that the 2 mixtures consisting solely of vegetable oils were effective dietary components, thus providing 2 alternative fat mixtures of milk replacers, for use instead of lard in formulating commercial calf milk replacers.

  12. Iron intakes of Australian infants and toddlers: findings from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Linda A; McNaughton, Sarah A; Campbell, Karen J; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A

    2016-01-28

    Fe deficiency remains the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and young children are at particular risk. Preventative food-based strategies require knowledge of current intakes, sources of Fe, and factors associated with low Fe intakes; yet few data are available for Australian children under 2 years. This study's objectives were to determine intakes and food sources of Fe for Australian infants and toddlers and identify non-dietary factors associated with Fe intake. Dietary, anthropometric and socio-demographic data from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial Program were analysed for 485 infants (mean age: 9·1 (sd 1·2) months) and 423 toddlers (mean age: 19·6 (sd 2·6) months) and their mothers. Dietary intakes were assessed via 24-h recalls over 3 non-consecutive days. Prevalence of inadequate Fe intake was estimated using the full probability approach. Associations between potential non-dietary predictors (sex, breast-feeding status, age when introduced to solid foods, maternal age, maternal education, maternal employment status and mother's country of birth) and Fe intakes were assessed using linear regression. Mean Fe intakes were 9·1 (sd 4·3) mg/d for infants and 6·6 (sd 2·4) mg/d for toddlers. Our results showed that 32·6 % of infants and 18·6 % of toddlers had inadequate Fe intake. Main food sources of Fe were Fe-fortified infant formula and cereals for infants and toddlers, respectively. Female sex and current breast-feeding were negatively associated with infant Fe intakes. Introduction to solid foods at or later than 6 months was negatively associated with Fe intake in toddlers. These data may facilitate food-based interventions to improve Australian children's Fe intake levels.

  13. Iron intakes of Australian infants and toddlers: findings from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Linda A; McNaughton, Sarah A; Campbell, Karen J; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A

    2016-01-28

    Fe deficiency remains the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and young children are at particular risk. Preventative food-based strategies require knowledge of current intakes, sources of Fe, and factors associated with low Fe intakes; yet few data are available for Australian children under 2 years. This study's objectives were to determine intakes and food sources of Fe for Australian infants and toddlers and identify non-dietary factors associated with Fe intake. Dietary, anthropometric and socio-demographic data from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial Program were analysed for 485 infants (mean age: 9·1 (sd 1·2) months) and 423 toddlers (mean age: 19·6 (sd 2·6) months) and their mothers. Dietary intakes were assessed via 24-h recalls over 3 non-consecutive days. Prevalence of inadequate Fe intake was estimated using the full probability approach. Associations between potential non-dietary predictors (sex, breast-feeding status, age when introduced to solid foods, maternal age, maternal education, maternal employment status and mother's country of birth) and Fe intakes were assessed using linear regression. Mean Fe intakes were 9·1 (sd 4·3) mg/d for infants and 6·6 (sd 2·4) mg/d for toddlers. Our results showed that 32·6 % of infants and 18·6 % of toddlers had inadequate Fe intake. Main food sources of Fe were Fe-fortified infant formula and cereals for infants and toddlers, respectively. Female sex and current breast-feeding were negatively associated with infant Fe intakes. Introduction to solid foods at or later than 6 months was negatively associated with Fe intake in toddlers. These data may facilitate food-based interventions to improve Australian children's Fe intake levels. PMID:26571345

  14. A meta-analysis of the feed intake and growth performance of broiler chickens challenged by bacteria.

    PubMed

    Remus, A; Hauschild, L; Andretta, I; Kipper, M; Lehnen, C R; Sakomura, N K

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of a bacterial immune challenge (Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp.) on the ADFI, ADG, and nutrient partitioning (maintenance requirements and feed efficiency) of broiler chickens. The database used for the meta-analysis included 65 articles that were published between 1997 and 2012 concerning a total of 86,300 broilers and containing information on the feed intake, protein intake, methionine intake, and weight gain of broilers that were challenged with Clostridium spp., E. coli, or Salmonella spp. and were fed or not fed feed additives. The results of the ADFI and the ADG of the challenged broilers were transformed into values relative to those obtained in control broilers (ADG and ADFI). The meta-analysis involved 3 sequential analyses: graphical, correlation, and variance-covariance analysis. The results obtained for the birds that were challenged with Clostridium spp., E. coli, or Salmonella spp. indicated that the ADFI was reduced by 16, 7, and 9%, respectively, and the ADG was reduced by 40, 10, and 29%, respectively. When the results for the challenged birds that were treated or nontreated were compared, ADFI reductions of 26.0 and 26.5% and ADG reductions of 2.9 and 21.6% were observed, respectively. Regression analyses of the ADG as a function of the protein or methionine intake of the challenged birds suggested that nutrients were diverted to the immune system. The relationship between the ADG and the ADFI was quadratic in the challenged and nontreated or treated broilers, as well as for each disease. The intercept of the regression-based curves for the data from all of the challenges were different from zero and negative (-2.20, -0.70, and -3.37, respectively), indicating that all of the challenges increased the maintenance requirements. In general, this meta-analysis allowed for the quantification of the effects of bacteriological challenges on the maintenance and feed

  15. Transcriptome differences in the rumen of beef steers with variation in feed intake and gain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed efficiency is an economically important trait in beef production. The rumen wall interacts with feed, microbial populations and volatile fatty acids important to ruminant nutrition indicating it may play a critical role in the beef steer’s ability to utilize feedstuffs efficiently. To identif...

  16. Genetic parameters between feed-intake-related traits and conformation in 2 separate dairy populations--the Netherlands and United States.

    PubMed

    Manzanilla-Pech, C I V; Veerkamp, R F; Tempelman, R J; van Pelt, M L; Weigel, K A; VandeHaar, M; Lawlor, T J; Spurlock, D M; Armentano, L E; Staples, C R; Hanigan, M; De Haas, Y

    2016-01-01

    To include feed-intake-related traits in the breeding goal, accurate estimates of genetic parameters of feed intake, and its correlations with other related traits (i.e., production, conformation) are required to compare different options. However, the correlations between feed intake and conformation traits can vary depending on the population. Therefore, the objective was to estimate genetic correlations between 6 feed-intake-related traits and 7 conformation traits within dairy cattle from 2 countries, the Netherlands (NL) and the United States (US). The feed-intake-related traits were dry matter intake (DMI), residual feed intake (RFI), milk energy output (MilkE), milk yield (MY), body weight (BW), and metabolic body weight (MBW). The conformation traits were stature (ST), chest width (CW), body depth (BD), angularity (ANG), rump angle (RA), rump width (RW), and body condition score (BCS). Feed intake data were available for 1,665 cows in NL and for 1,920 cows in US, from 83 nutritional experiments (48 in NL and 35 in US) conducted between 1991 and 2011 in NL and between 2007 and 2013 in US. Additional conformation records from relatives of the animals with DMI records were added to the database, giving a total of 37,241 cows in NL and 28,809 in US with conformation trait information. Genetic parameters were estimated using bivariate animal model analyses. The model included the following fixed effects for feed-intake-related traits: location by experiment-ration, age of cow at calving modeled with a second order polynomial by parity class, location by year-season, and days in milk, and these fixed effects for the conformation traits: herd by classification date, age of cow at classification, and lactation stage at classification. Both models included additive genetic and residual random effects. The highest estimated genetic correlations involving DMI were with CW in both countries (NL=0.45 and US=0.61), followed by ST (NL=0.33 and US=0.57), BD (NL=0.26 and US

  17. Feed intake and growth performance of growing pigs fed on Acacia tortilis leaf meal treated with polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Hlatini, Vuyisa Andries; Khanyile, Mbongeni; Zindove, Titus Jairus; Chimonyo, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the response in feed intake and performance of pigs fed on incremental levels of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Forty-eighty male F1 hybrid pigs were randomly allotted to six diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 g/kg of PEG, respectively. Acacia tortilis leaf meal was included at a rate of 150 g/kg. Each diet was offered ad libitum to eight pigs in individual pens. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), scaled feed intake (SFI), average daily gain (ADG), and gain to feed ratio (G:F) were determined weekly. The ADG showed a linear response to PEG (p < 0.01). The linear regression equation was y = 0.0061x + 0.6052 (R(2) = 0.64). There was a quadratic response to PEG on ADFI, and SFI (p < 0.01) and G:F (p > 0.05). The regression equations and R(2) values were as follows: ADFI y = 0.0008x(2) - 00086x + 1.2339 (R(2) = 0.96), SFI y = 0.0147x(2) - 0.2349x + 40.096 (R(2) = 0.95), and G:F ratio y = 0.0002x(2) - 0.0017x + 0.5168 (R(2) = 0.56). The ADFI, SFI, and ADG increased as weeks of feeding progressed (p < 0.01), but the G:F ratio decreased as weeks increased. It can be concluded that the relationship between PEG inclusion and performance of growing pigs fed on A. tortilis is exponential, rather than linear. The economic benefit of using PEG depend on cost of labor, availability of Acacia, costs of harvesting together with processing, and acceptability of the pork.

  18. Addition of crude glycerin to pig diets: sow and litter performance, and metabolic and feed intake regulating hormones.

    PubMed

    Hernández, F; Orengo, J; Villodre, C; Martínez, S; López, M J; Madrid, J

    2016-06-01

    The continued growth in biofuel production has led to a search for alternative value-added applications of its main by-product, crude glycerin. The surplus glycerin production and a higher cost of feedstuffs have increased the emphasis on evaluating its nutritive value for animal feeding. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the dietary addition of crude glycerin on sow and litter performance, and to determine the serum concentrations of hormones related to energy metabolism and feed intake in sows during gestation and lactation. A total of 63 sows were assigned randomly to one of three dietary treatments, containing 0, 3 or 6% crude glycerin (G0, G3 and G6, respectively) added to a barley-soybean meal-based diet. During gestation, none of the dietary treatments had an effect on performance, while during lactation, glycerin-fed sows consumed less feed than those fed the control diet (3.8 v. 4.2kg DM/day; P=0.007). Although lactating sows fed the G3 diet had a higher BW loss than those fed the control diet (���20.6 v. ���8.7 kg; P=0.002), this difference was not reflected in litter performance. In gestation, the inclusion of glycerin did not affect blood concentrations of insulin or cortisol. However, pregnant sows fed diets supplemented with glycerin showed lower concentrations of acyl-ghrelin and higher concentrations of leptin (���55 and +68%, respectively; P<0.001). In lactating sows, there were no differences between dietary treatments for any of the hormones measured. Pre-prandial acyl-ghrelin concentrations were positively correlated with cortisol concentrations during gestation (r=0.81; P=0.001) and lactation (r=0.61; P=0.015). In conclusion, the inclusion of up to 6% crude glycerin did not affect the performance of sows during the gestation period; however it had a negative effect on the feed intake and weight loss of lactating sows. Moreover, further research is needed to elucidate the potential relationship between

  19. Feed intake and growth performance of growing pigs fed on Acacia tortilis leaf meal treated with polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Hlatini, Vuyisa Andries; Khanyile, Mbongeni; Zindove, Titus Jairus; Chimonyo, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the response in feed intake and performance of pigs fed on incremental levels of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Forty-eighty male F1 hybrid pigs were randomly allotted to six diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 g/kg of PEG, respectively. Acacia tortilis leaf meal was included at a rate of 150 g/kg. Each diet was offered ad libitum to eight pigs in individual pens. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), scaled feed intake (SFI), average daily gain (ADG), and gain to feed ratio (G:F) were determined weekly. The ADG showed a linear response to PEG (p < 0.01). The linear regression equation was y = 0.0061x + 0.6052 (R(2) = 0.64). There was a quadratic response to PEG on ADFI, and SFI (p < 0.01) and G:F (p > 0.05). The regression equations and R(2) values were as follows: ADFI y = 0.0008x(2) - 00086x + 1.2339 (R(2) = 0.96), SFI y = 0.0147x(2) - 0.2349x + 40.096 (R(2) = 0.95), and G:F ratio y = 0.0002x(2) - 0.0017x + 0.5168 (R(2) = 0.56). The ADFI, SFI, and ADG increased as weeks of feeding progressed (p < 0.01), but the G:F ratio decreased as weeks increased. It can be concluded that the relationship between PEG inclusion and performance of growing pigs fed on A. tortilis is exponential, rather than linear. The economic benefit of using PEG depend on cost of labor, availability of Acacia, costs of harvesting together with processing, and acceptability of the pork. PMID:26894498

  20. Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring

    PubMed Central

    George, Lindsey A.; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M.; Uthlaut, Adam B.; Smith, Derek T.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic “thriftiness” of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease. PMID:22277936

  1. Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring.

    PubMed

    George, Lindsey A; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M; Uthlaut, Adam B; Smith, Derek T; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P

    2012-04-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic "thriftiness" of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease. PMID:22277936

  2. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation activities in sheep-fed peanut hulls treated with Trichoderma viride or urea.

    PubMed

    Abo-Donia, Fawzy M; Abdel-Azim, Safa N; Elghandour, Mona M Y; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Buendía, Germán; Soliman, N A M

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess impacts of fungal treatment on the nutritional value of peanut hulls (PH) or urea at the rate of 5 kg/100 g of PH. Fermented sugar beet pulp inoculated with Trichoderma viride was supplemented to PH at rates of 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 g/100 g air dry of PH and mixed well before aerobic incubation for 21 days. Organic matter (OM) content of PH declined with increased levels of fermented sugar beet pulp inoculums, while crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), and ash increased. Fiber contents were decreased with both treatments of fermented sugar beet pulp and urea. Total N of PH increased with urea treatment, which reduced the true protein N to total protein N ratio. In sacco degradabilities of dry matter (DM), OM, and CP with urea treatment increased compared with fungal treatment. The DM intake of peanut hulls treated with fungus (PHF) was higher (P < 0.05) than with peanut hulls treated with urea (PHU). Digestibility of OM, CP, neutral detergent fiber, and non-fiber carbohydrate by native breed Ossimi sheep with PH were higher (P < 0.05) than with PH or urea treated PH. The intakes, losses, and balance of N increased (P < 0.01) with PHF versus PH feeding. Feeding PHF increased (P < 0.01) ruminal concentrations of NH3-N, acetic acid, butyric acid, and the acetic to propionic acid ratio. Bacterial and protozoal counts increased (P < 0.05) with feeding PHF or PHU versus PH. Overall, this fungal treatment of peanut hulls created a higher nutritive value feed for ruminants. PMID:24085418

  3. Effect of thermal heat stress on energy utilization in two lines of pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Renaudeau, D; Frances, G; Dubois, S; Gilbert, H; Noblet, J

    2013-03-01

    Castrated males from 2 lines of purebred French Large White obtained from a divergent selection experiment for their residual feed intake (RFI) over 7 generations were measured for their energy utilization during thermal acclimation to increased ambient temperature. The RFI(+) line consumed more feed than predicted from its performance, whereas the RFI- line consumed less feed. Each pig was exposed to 24°C for 7 d (P0) and thereafter to a constant temperature of 32°C for 3 consecutive periods of 7 d (P1, P2, P3). Feed intake, feeding behavior parameters, digestibility, components of heat production (HP; measured by indirect calorimetry in respiration chambers), and energy, nitrogen, fat, and water balance were measured in pigs offered feed and water ad libitum and individually housed in respiratory chambers. Two identical respiratory chambers were simultaneously used, and 5 pigs of each line were measured successively. Whatever the trait, the interaction between line and period was not significant (P > 0.10). On average, ADFI was greater in the RFI+ than in the RFI- line (1,945 vs. 1,639 g/d; P = 0.051) in relation to an increase of the mean size of each feeding bout (128 vs. 82 g/visit; P < 0.001). There was no line effect on nutrient and energy digestibility. Total HP tended to be greater in RFI+ than in RFI- lines (1,279 vs. 1,137 kJ·kg BW-0.60·d-1; P = 0.065), which tended to retain more energy (968 vs. 798 kJ·kg BW-0.60·d-1; P = 0.050). The sensible heat loss was greater in RFI+ compared with the RFI- line (644 vs. 560 kJ·kg BW-0.60·d-1; P = 0.020). The RFI+ pigs consumed more water (+981 vs. 657 g·kg BW-0.60·d-1; P = 0.085) and produced more urine (589 vs. 292 g·kg BW-0.60·d-1; P < 0.001) than RFI- pigs, whereas water evaporation was similar for both lines. On average, ME intake and HP declined by about 38% and 20%, respectively, from P0 to P1 (P < 0.001). In contrast to ME intake, HP gradually decreased (P < 0.05) from P1 to P3 in connection with

  4. Learn and live: predator experience and feeding history determines prey behaviour and survival

    PubMed Central

    Lönnstedt, Oona M.; McCormick, Mark I.; Meekan, Mark G.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.; Chivers, Douglas P.

    2012-01-01

    Determining how prey learn the identity of predators and match their vigilance with current levels of threat is central to understanding the dynamics of predator–prey systems and the determinants of fitness. Our study explores how feeding history influences the relative importance of olfactory and visual sensory modes of learning, and how the experience gained through these sensory modes influences behaviour and survival in the field for a juvenile coral reef damselfish. We collected young fish immediately prior to their settlement to benthic habitats. In the laboratory, these predator-naïve fish were exposed to a high- or low-food ration and then conditioned to recognize the olfactory cues (odours) and/or visual cues from two common benthic predators. Fish were then allowed to settle on reefs in the field, and their behaviour and survival over 70 h were recorded. Feeding history strongly influenced their willingness to take risks in the natural environment. Conditioning in the laboratory with visual, olfactory or both cues from predators led fish in the field to display risk-averse behaviour compared with fish conditioned with sea water alone. Well-fed fish that were conditioned with visual, chemical or a combination of predator cues survived eight times better over the first 48 h on reefs than those with no experience of benthic predator cues. This experiment highlights the importance of a flexible and rapid mechanism of learning the identity of predators for survival of young fish during the critical life-history transition between pelagic and benthic habitats. PMID:22237904

  5. Feeding behaviour of Caenorhabditis elegans is an indicator of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 virulence

    PubMed Central

    Charron-Mazenod, Laetitia; Giroux, Lauriane; Zamponi, Alexandra D.

    2014-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is commonly used as an infection model for pathogenesis studies in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The standard virulence assays rely on the slow and fast killing or paralysis of nematodes but here we developed a behaviour assay to monitor the preferred bacterial food sources of C. elegans. We monitored the food preferences of nematodes fed the wild type PAO1 and mutants in the type III secretion (T3S) system, which is a conserved mechanism to inject secreted effectors into the host cell cytosol. A ΔexsEΔpscD mutant defective for type III secretion served as a preferred food source, while an ΔexsE mutant that overexpresses the T3S effectors was avoided. Both food sources were ingested and observed in the gastrointestinal tract. Using the slow killing assay, we showed that the ΔexsEΔpscD had reduced virulence and thus confirmed that preferred food sources are less virulent than the wild type. Next we developed a high throughput feeding behaviour assay with 48 possible food colonies in order to screen a transposon mutant library and identify potential virulence genes. C. elegans identified and consumed preferred food colonies from a grid of 48 choices. The mutants identified as preferred food sources included known virulence genes, as well as novel genes not identified in previous C. elegans infection studies. Slow killing assays were performed and confirmed that several preferred food sources also showed reduced virulence. We propose that C. elegans feeding behaviour can be used as a sensitive indicator of virulence for P. aeruginosa PAO1. PMID:25165631

  6. Liparid and macrourid fishes of the hadal zone: in situ observations of activity and feeding behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, A.J.; Fujii, T.; Solan, M.; Matsumoto, A.K.; Bagley, P.M.; Priede, I.G.

    2008-01-01

    Using baited camera landers, the first images of living fishes were recorded in the hadal zone (6000–11 000 m) in the Pacific Ocean. The widespread abyssal macrourid Coryphaenoides yaquinae was observed at a new depth record of approximately 7000 m in the Japan Trench. Two endemic species of liparid were observed at similar depths: Pseudoliparis amblystomopsis in the Japan Trench and Notoliparis kermadecensis in the Kermadec Trench. From these observations, we have documented swimming and feeding behaviour of these species and derived the first estimates of hadal fish abundance. The liparids intercepted bait within 100–200 min but were observed to preferentially feed on scavenging amphipods. Notoliparis kermadecensis act as top predators in the hadal food web, exhibiting up to nine suction-feeding events per minute. Both species showed distinctive swimming gaits: P. amblystomopsis (mean length 22.5 cm) displayed a mean tail-beat frequency of 0.47 Hz and mean caudal : pectoral frequency ratio of 0.76, whereas N. kermadecensis (mean length 31.5 cm) displayed respective values of 1.04 and 2.08 Hz. Despite living at extreme depths, these endemic liparids exhibit similar activity levels compared with shallow-water liparids. PMID:19129104

  7. Liparid and macrourid fishes of the hadal zone: in situ observations of activity and feeding behaviour.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, A J; Fujii, T; Solan, M; Matsumoto, A K; Bagley, P M; Priede, I G

    2009-03-22

    Using baited camera landers, the first images of living fishes were recorded in the hadal zone (6000-11000 m) in the Pacific Ocean. The widespread abyssal macrourid Coryphaenoides yaquinae was observed at a new depth record of approximately 7000 m in the Japan Trench. Two endemic species of liparid were observed at similar depths: Pseudoliparis amblystomopsis in the Japan Trench and Notoliparis kermadecensis in the Kermadec Trench. From these observations, we have documented swimming and feeding behaviour of these species and derived the first estimates of hadal fish abundance. The liparids intercepted bait within 100-200 min but were observed to preferentially feed on scavenging amphipods. Notoliparis kermadecensis act as top predators in the hadal food web, exhibiting up to nine suction-feeding events per minute. Both species showed distinctive swimming gaits: P. amblystomopsis (mean length 22.5 cm) displayed a mean tail-beat frequency of 0.47 Hz and mean caudal:pectoral frequency ratio of 0.76, whereas N. kermadecensis (mean length 31.5 cm) displayed respective values of 1.04 and 2.08 Hz. Despite living at extreme depths, these endemic liparids exhibit similar activity levels compared with shallow-water liparids. PMID:19129104

  8. Liparid and macrourid fishes of the hadal zone: in situ observations of activity and feeding behaviour.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, A J; Fujii, T; Solan, M; Matsumoto, A K; Bagley, P M; Priede, I G

    2009-03-22

    Using baited camera landers, the first images of living fishes were recorded in the hadal zone (6000-11000 m) in the Pacific Ocean. The widespread abyssal macrourid Coryphaenoides yaquinae was observed at a new depth record of approximately 7000 m in the Japan Trench. Two endemic species of liparid were observed at similar depths: Pseudoliparis amblystomopsis in the Japan Trench and Notoliparis kermadecensis in the Kermadec Trench. From these observations, we have documented swimming and feeding behaviour of these species and derived the first estimates of hadal fish abundance. The liparids intercepted bait within 100-200 min but were observed to preferentially feed on scavenging amphipods. Notoliparis kermadecensis act as top predators in the hadal food web, exhibiting up to nine suction-feeding events per minute. Both species showed distinctive swimming gaits: P. amblystomopsis (mean length 22.5 cm) displayed a mean tail-beat frequency of 0.47 Hz and mean caudal:pectoral frequency ratio of 0.76, whereas N. kermadecensis (mean length 31.5 cm) displayed respective values of 1.04 and 2.08 Hz. Despite living at extreme depths, these endemic liparids exhibit similar activity levels compared with shallow-water liparids.

  9. Ghrelin and leptin modulate the feeding behaviour of the hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbricata during nesting season

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Daphne Wrobel; Leitão, Santiago Alonso Tobar; Godfrey, Matthew H.; Lopez, Gustave Gilles; Santos, Armando José Barsante; Neves, Fabiana Alves; de Souza, Érica Patrícia Garcia; Moura, Anibal Sanchez; Bastos, Jayme da Cunha; Bastos, Vera Lúcia Freire da Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Female sea turtles have rarely been observed foraging during the nesting season. This suggests that prior to their migration to nesting beaches the females must store sufficient energy and nutrients at their foraging grounds and must be physiologically capable of undergoing months without feeding. Leptin (an appetite-suppressing protein) and ghrelin (a hunger-stimulating peptide) affect body weight by influencing energy intake in all vertebrates. We investigated the levels of these hormones and other physiological and nutritional parameters in nesting hawksbill sea turtles in Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, by collecting consecutive blood samples from 41 turtles during the 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 reproductive seasons. We found that levels of serum leptin decreased over the nesting season, which potentially relaxed suppression of food intake and stimulated females to begin foraging either during or after the post-nesting migration. Concurrently, we recorded an increasing trend in ghrelin, which may have stimulated food intake towards the end of the nesting season. Both findings are consistent with the prediction that post-nesting females will begin to forage, either during or immediately after their post-nesting migration. We observed no seasonal trend for other physiological parameters (values of packed cell volume and serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein). The observed downward trends in general serum biochemistry levels were probably due to the physiological challenge of vitellogenesis and nesting in addition to limited energy resources and probable fasting. PMID:27293600

  10. Behaviour, feeding habits and ecology of the blind catfish Phreatobius sanguijuela (Ostariophysi: Siluriformes).

    PubMed

    Ohara, W M; Da Costa, I D; Fonseca, M L

    2016-08-01

    The subterranean fish Phreatobius sanguijuela, originally described from Bolivia, was captured in different wells near São Francisco do Guaporé, Rondônia State, Brazil. Thirty wells were investigated in April and July 2012, and September 2013. These surveys resulted in the capture of 58 individuals from eight wells and comprised three to 14 individuals per well. The capture of the individuals allowed a detailed evaluation of their colours in life, behaviour in the field and in captivity, aspects of their biology, confirmation of the species identification and provided new diagnostic characteristics to distinguish between P. sanguijuela and Phreatobius dracunculus. Cannibalism, territorialism, agonistic interactions and phototaxis behaviour were not observed. Phreatobius sanguijuela exhibited cryptobiotic habits and two behaviours under stressful conditions. The analysis of stomach contents reveals that this species apparently feeds on invertebrates, almost exclusively on earthworms. The sex ratio was 1:1. The absence of opercular movement during the resting period associated with intense blood irrigation of the skin indicates a possible cutaneous respiration as an alternative form of gas exchange. Local people often mistake P. sanguijuela for helminths and have the habit of releasing non-native fishes into the wells or to use chemicals to eliminate them. The consequence of this habit for the conservation of the species requires further evaluation. PMID:27329067

  11. Identification of Gene Networks for Residual Feed Intake in Angus Cattle Using Genomic Prediction and RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kristina L; Welly, Bryan T; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Young, Amy E; Porto-Neto, Laercio R; Reverter, Antonio; Rincon, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in feed conversion efficiency can improve the sustainability of beef cattle production, but genomic selection for feed efficiency affects many underlying molecular networks and physiological traits. This study describes the differences between steer progeny of two influential Angus bulls with divergent genomic predictions for residual feed intake (RFI). Eight steer progeny of each sire were phenotyped for growth and feed intake from 8 mo. of age (average BW 254 kg, with a mean difference between sire groups of 4.8 kg) until slaughter at 14-16 mo. of age (average BW 534 kg, sire group difference of 28.8 kg). Terminal samples from pituitary gland, skeletal muscle, liver, adipose, and duodenum were collected from each steer for transcriptome sequencing. Gene expression networks were derived using partial correlation and information theory (PCIT), including differentially expressed (DE) genes, tissue specific (TS) genes, transcription factors (TF), and genes associated with RFI from a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Relative to progeny of the high RFI sire, progeny of the low RFI sire had -0.56 kg/d finishing period RFI (P = 0.05), -1.08 finishing period feed conversion ratio (P = 0.01), +3.3 kg^0.75 finishing period metabolic mid-weight (MMW; P = 0.04), +28.8 kg final body weight (P = 0.01), -12.9 feed bunk visits per day (P = 0.02) with +0.60 min/visit duration (P = 0.01), and +0.0045 carcass specific gravity (weight in air/weight in air-weight in water, a predictor of carcass fat content; P = 0.03). RNA-seq identified 633 DE genes between sire groups among 17,016 expressed genes. PCIT analysis identified >115,000 significant co-expression correlations between genes and 25 TF hubs, i.e. controllers of clusters of DE, TS, and GWAS SNP genes. Pathway analysis suggests low RFI bull progeny possess heightened gut inflammation and reduced fat deposition. This multi-omics analysis shows how differences in RFI genomic breeding values can impact other

  12. Identification of Gene Networks for Residual Feed Intake in Angus Cattle Using Genomic Prediction and RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kristina L; Welly, Bryan T; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Young, Amy E; Porto-Neto, Laercio R; Reverter, Antonio; Rincon, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in feed conversion efficiency can improve the sustainability of beef cattle production, but genomic selection for feed efficiency affects many underlying molecular networks and physiological traits. This study describes the differences between steer progeny of two influential Angus bulls with divergent genomic predictions for residual feed intake (RFI). Eight steer progeny of each sire were phenotyped for growth and feed intake from 8 mo. of age (average BW 254 kg, with a mean difference between sire groups of 4.8 kg) until slaughter at 14-16 mo. of age (average BW 534 kg, sire group difference of 28.8 kg). Terminal samples from pituitary gland, skeletal muscle, liver, adipose, and duodenum were collected from each steer for transcriptome sequencing. Gene expression networks were derived using partial correlation and information theory (PCIT), including differentially expressed (DE) genes, tissue specific (TS) genes, transcription factors (TF), and genes associated with RFI from a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Relative to progeny of the high RFI sire, progeny of the low RFI sire had -0.56 kg/d finishing period RFI (P = 0.05), -1.08 finishing period feed conversion ratio (P = 0.01), +3.3 kg^0.75 finishing period metabolic mid-weight (MMW; P = 0.04), +28.8 kg final body weight (P = 0.01), -12.9 feed bunk visits per day (P = 0.02) with +0.60 min/visit duration (P = 0.01), and +0.0045 carcass specific gravity (weight in air/weight in air-weight in water, a predictor of carcass fat content; P = 0.03). RNA-seq identified 633 DE genes between sire groups among 17,016 expressed genes. PCIT analysis identified >115,000 significant co-expression correlations between genes and 25 TF hubs, i.e. controllers of clusters of DE, TS, and GWAS SNP genes. Pathway analysis suggests low RFI bull progeny possess heightened gut inflammation and reduced fat deposition. This multi-omics analysis shows how differences in RFI genomic breeding values can impact other

  13. Identification of Gene Networks for Residual Feed Intake in Angus Cattle Using Genomic Prediction and RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Kristina L.; Welly, Bryan T.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.; Young, Amy E.; Porto-Neto, Laercio R.; Reverter, Antonio; Rincon, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in feed conversion efficiency can improve the sustainability of beef cattle production, but genomic selection for feed efficiency affects many underlying molecular networks and physiological traits. This study describes the differences between steer progeny of two influential Angus bulls with divergent genomic predictions for residual feed intake (RFI). Eight steer progeny of each sire were phenotyped for growth and feed intake from 8 mo. of age (average BW 254 kg, with a mean difference between sire groups of 4.8 kg) until slaughter at 14–16 mo. of age (average BW 534 kg, sire group difference of 28.8 kg). Terminal samples from pituitary gland, skeletal muscle, liver, adipose, and duodenum were collected from each steer for transcriptome sequencing. Gene expression networks were derived using partial correlation and information theory (PCIT), including differentially expressed (DE) genes, tissue specific (TS) genes, transcription factors (TF), and genes associated with RFI from a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Relative to progeny of the high RFI sire, progeny of the low RFI sire had -0.56 kg/d finishing period RFI (P = 0.05), -1.08 finishing period feed conversion ratio (P = 0.01), +3.3 kg^0.75 finishing period metabolic mid-weight (MMW; P = 0.04), +28.8 kg final body weight (P = 0.01), -12.9 feed bunk visits per day (P = 0.02) with +0.60 min/visit duration (P = 0.01), and +0.0045 carcass specific gravity (weight in air/weight in air—weight in water, a predictor of carcass fat content; P = 0.03). RNA-seq identified 633 DE genes between sire groups among 17,016 expressed genes. PCIT analysis identified >115,000 significant co-expression correlations between genes and 25 TF hubs, i.e. controllers of clusters of DE, TS, and GWAS SNP genes. Pathway analysis suggests low RFI bull progeny possess heightened gut inflammation and reduced fat deposition. This multi-omics analysis shows how differences in RFI genomic breeding values can impact other

  14. Development and evaluation of equations for prediction of feed intake for lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Roseler, D K; Fox, D G; Chase, L E; Pell, A N; Stone, W C

    1997-05-01

    Improved prediction equations for dry matter intake (DMI) of Holstein cows that consume high energy diets were developed using regression techniques applied to a comprehensive database. The equations for predicting DMI, which were dependent on parity, accounted for the effects of milk yield, milk protein, body weight (BW), BW change, days pregnant, ambient temperature, relative humidity, and night cooling. A simplified prediction equation of DMI for farm application was developed and based on milk protein yield and BW at calving. An ambient temperature and a lag adjustment factor for early lactation were developed to improve accuracy of prediction of DMI of dairy cows in early lactation. The developed equations for DMI were evaluated against six independent data files. These equations accounted for 55 to 98% of the variation of the weekly group DMI of the independent validation data. The remainder of the variation in intake was attributed to diet, management, and undescribed animal factors. The equations developed in this study had a mean proportional bias of 5.6% and a mean square prediction error of 5.45 kg2/d. Predicted intake using the new equations was within 3 to 8% of actual intake. The new equations must be applied to situations in which Holstein dairy cows are fed highly digestible diets because dietary fill effects are not considered in these equations. The relationship of milk protein yield and DMI warrants further investigation.

  15. Aspects of digestive anatomy, feed intake and digestion in the Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla) at Taipei zoo.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei Fong; Chang, Chi-Yen; Yang, Ci Wen; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are considered difficult to maintain in zoos, often attributed to problems in feeding management. Taipei Zoo's designation as a wildlife rescue center for Chinese pangolins (Manis pentadactyla) has resulted in long term feeding experience with development of diets that support recovery, maintenance, and reproduction, as well as experimental opportunities to further understand digestive physiology to optimize nutrition. Opportunistic dissection of 10 animals revealed details of the tongue, salivary glands, stomach and gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including confirmation of anatomical differences between Asian and African pangolin species. Length of the total GIT relative to body length (∼ 9:1) was greater than found in domestic carnivores, more similar to omnivorous species. Intake and digestion trials conducted with 4 animals demonstrated that pangolins maintained body weights (BW; 6-9 kg) consuming diets containing 32-40% crude protein, 20-25% crude fat, and 13-28% crude fiber (DM basis). Daily DM intakes ranged from ∼40 to 70 g per animal, with digestible energy intake 51.5-87.5 kcal /kg BW(0.75) /day; pangolins consumed 9.4-15.2 g DM/kg BW(0.75) /day. Dietary energy data support observations of low metabolism and maintenance requirements for this species, similar to values reported for other myrmecophageous species. Addition of 5% ground chitin to diets improved fecal consistency, and decreased digestibility of DM, protein, and energy; addition of chitosan (chitin treated with NaOH) resulted in diet rejection. This information may assist in enhancement of captive diets, as well as in controlling obesity in pangolins. PMID:25914383

  16. The daily rhythm of milk synthesis is dependent on the timing of feed intake in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Rottman, L. Whitney; Ying, Yun; Zhou, Kan; Bartell, Paul A.; Harvatine, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Regulation of the daily rhythm of milk synthesis is important to production animals and breastfeeding, but is difficult to observe in nursing animals. The rate of food intake varies over the day and is expected to create a daily rhythm of nutrient absorption. The objective of this study was to determine if the timing of food intake entrains a daily pattern of milk synthesis. Seventeen Holstein cows were used in a crossover design. Treatments were ad libitum feeding of a total mixed ration once daily (1× fed) or fed in four equal meals every 6 h (4× fed). Cows were milked every 6 h the last 7 days of each period. There was a treatment by time of day interaction for milk and milk component yield and concentration. Milk fat and protein concentration and yield exhibited a daily rhythm and the amplitude of the rhythm was reduced in 4× fed. In addition, milk fat percent was higher in 4× fed than 1× fed at three of the four milking intervals (0.22–0.45% higher) and 4× fed increased daily milk fat yield. Treatment by time of day interactions were detected for plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen. These variables also fit a cosine function with a 24 h period and the amplitudes of plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen rhythms were decreased by 4× feeding. In conclusion, there is a circadian pattern of milk synthesis in the dairy cow that is responsive to the timing of food intake. PMID:24963033

  17. Aspects of digestive anatomy, feed intake and digestion in the Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla) at Taipei zoo.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei Fong; Chang, Chi-Yen; Yang, Ci Wen; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are considered difficult to maintain in zoos, often attributed to problems in feeding management. Taipei Zoo's designation as a wildlife rescue center for Chinese pangolins (Manis pentadactyla) has resulted in long term feeding experience with development of diets that support recovery, maintenance, and reproduction, as well as experimental opportunities to further understand digestive physiology to optimize nutrition. Opportunistic dissection of 10 animals revealed details of the tongue, salivary glands, stomach and gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including confirmation of anatomical differences between Asian and African pangolin species. Length of the total GIT relative to body length (∼ 9:1) was greater than found in domestic carnivores, more similar to omnivorous species. Intake and digestion trials conducted with 4 animals demonstrated that pangolins maintained body weights (BW; 6-9 kg) consuming diets containing 32-40% crude protein, 20-25% crude fat, and 13-28% crude fiber (DM basis). Daily DM intakes ranged from ∼40 to 70 g per animal, with digestible energy intake 51.5-87.5 kcal /kg BW(0.75) /day; pangolins consumed 9.4-15.2 g DM/kg BW(0.75) /day. Dietary energy data support observations of low metabolism and maintenance requirements for this species, similar to values reported for other myrmecophageous species. Addition of 5% ground chitin to diets improved fecal consistency, and decreased digestibility of DM, protein, and energy; addition of chitosan (chitin treated with NaOH) resulted in diet rejection. This information may assist in enhancement of captive diets, as well as in controlling obesity in pangolins.

  18. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of residual feed intake with performance and ultrasound carcass traits in Brangus heifers.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, P A; Carstens, G E; Crews, D H; Welsh, T H; Forbes, T D A; Forrest, D W; Tedeschi, L O; Randel, R D; Rouquette, F M

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize residual feed intake (RFI) and to estimate phenotypic and genetic correlations with performance and ultrasound carcass traits in growing heifers. Four postweaning feed efficiency trials were conducted using 468 Brangus heifers. The complete Brangus pedigree file from Camp Cooley Ranch (Franklin, TX), which included 31,215 animals, was used to generate genetic parameter estimates. The heifer progeny from 223 dams were sired by 36 bulls, whereas the complete pedigree file contained 1,710 sires and 8,191 dams. Heifers were individually fed a roughage-based diet (ME = 1.98 Mcal/kg of DM) using Calan gate feeders for 70 d. Heifer BW was recorded weekly and ultrasound measures of 12th- to 13th-rib fat thickness (BF) and LM area (LMA) obtained at d 0 and 70. Residual feed intake (RFIp) was computed as actual minus predicted DMI, with predicted DMI determined by linear regression of DMI on mid-test BW(0.75) (MBW) and ADG with trial, trial x MBW, and trial x ADG as random effects. Overall means for ADG, DMI, and RFI were 1.01 (SD = 0.15), 9.51 (SD = 1.02), and 0.00 (SD = 0.71) kg/d, respectively. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that inclusion of gain in BF and final LMA into the base model increased the R(2) (0.578 vs. 0.534) and accounted for 9% of the variation in DMI not explained by MBW and ADG (RFIp). Residual feed intake and carcass-adjusted RFI (RFIc) were strongly correlated phenotypically and genetically with DMI and FCR, but not with ADG or MBW. Gain in BF was phenotypically correlated (P < 0.05) with RFIp (0.22), but not with FCR or RFIc; however, final BF was genetically correlated (P < 0.05) with RFIp (0.36) and RFIc (0.39). Gain in LMA was weakly phenotypically correlated with FCR, but not with RFIp or RFIc; however, gain in LMA was strongly genetically correlated with RFIp (0.55) and RFIc (0.77). The Spearman rank correlation between RFIp and RFIc was high (0.96). These results suggest that adjusting RFI

  19. Liraglutide, leptin, and their combined effects on feeding: additive intake reduction through common intracellular signaling mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kanoski, Scott E.; Ong, Zhi Yi; Fortin, Samantha M.; Schlessinger, Elizabeth S.; Grill, Harvey J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Glucagon like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists and leptin each exert anorexigenic effects. In combination, the intake inhibitory and weight loss effects are greater than either treatment alone, however the mechanisms unclear. Materials and methods Effects of liraglutide (a long-acting GLP-1 analogue) and leptin co-treatment, delivered in low or moderate doses subcutaneously (SC) or to the 3rd ventricle respectively, on cumulative intake, meal patterns, and hypothalamic expression of intracellular signaling proteins [phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) and protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B)] were examined in lean rats. Results A low-dose combination of liraglutide (25μg/kg) and leptin (0.75μg) additively reduced cumulative food intake and body weight, a result mediated predominantly through a significant reduction in meal frequency that was not present with either drug alone. Liraglutide treatment alone also reduced meal size; an effect not enhanced with leptin co-administration. Moderate doses of liraglutide (75μg/kg) and leptin (4μg) examined separately each reduced meal frequency, cumulative food intake, and body weight; only liraglutide reduced meal size. In combination these doses did not further enhance the anorexigenic effects of either treatment alone. Ex vivo immunoblot showed elevated pSTAT3 in hypothalamic tissue following liraglutide-leptin co-treatment, an effect greater than leptin treatment alone. In addition, SC liraglutide reduced expression of PTP1B (a negative regulator of leptin receptor signaling), revealing a potential mechanism for the enhanced pSTAT3 response following liraglutide-leptin co-administration. Conclusions Collectively, these results provide novel behavioral and molecular mechanisms underlying the additive reduction in food intake and body weight following liraglutide-leptin combination treatment. PMID:25475828

  20. The effect of eating frequency on appetite control and food intake: brief synopsis of controlled feeding studies.

    PubMed

    Leidy, Heather J; Campbell, Wayne W

    2011-01-01

    Increased eating frequency is postulated to increase metabolism, reduce hunger, improve glucose and insulin control, and reduce body weight, making it an enticing dietary strategy for weight loss and/or the maintenance of a healthy body weight. Because past research has primarily focused on the effects of eating frequency on changes in energy expenditure and body weight, limited data exist surrounding the impact of eating frequency on appetite control and energy intake. We provide a brief review of the controlled-feeding studies that primarily targeted the appetitive, hormonal, and food intake responses potentially altered with eating frequency. The 3 meal/d pattern served as the reference for defining increased or reduced eating frequency. In general, increased eating frequency led to lower peaks (P < 0.05) in perceived appetite, satiety, glucose, insulin, ghrelin, and PYY responses compared with reduced eating frequency. However, when examining these responses over the course of the day (i.e. using area under the curve assessments), no differences in any of these outcomes were observed. The rate of gastric emptying also appears to be unaltered with increased eating frequency. Subsequent food intake was examined in several studies with conflicting results. Regarding the effect of reduced eating frequency, several studies indicate significant increases in perceived appetite and reductions in perceived satiety when 1 or 2 meals were eliminated from the daily diet. Taken together, these findings suggest that increased eating frequency (>3 eating occasions/d) has minimal, if any, impact on appetite control and food intake, whereas reduced eating frequency(<3 eating occasions/d) negatively effects appetite control.

  1. Antagonism of corticotrophin-releasing factor type 1 receptors attenuates caloric intake of free feeding subordinate female rhesus monkeys in a rich dietary environment.

    PubMed

    Moore, C J; Johnson, Z P; Higgins, M; Toufexis, D; Wilson, M E

    2015-01-01

    Social subordination in macaque females is a known chronic stressor and previous studies have shown that socially subordinate female rhesus monkeys consume fewer kilocalories than dominant animals when a typical laboratory chow diet is available. However, in a rich dietary environment that provides access to chow in combination with a more palatable diet (i.e. high in fat and refined sugar), subordinate animals consume significantly more daily kilocalories than dominant conspecifics. Substantial literature is available supporting the role of stress hormone signals in shaping dietary preferences and promoting the consumption of palatable, energy-dense foods. The present study was conducted using stable groups of adult female rhesus monkeys to test the hypothesis that pharmacological treatment with a brain penetrable corticotrophin-releasing factor type 1 receptor (CRF1) antagonist would attenuate the stress-induced consumption of a palatable diet among subordinate animals in a rich dietary environment but would be without effect in dominant females. The results show that administration of the CRF1 receptor antagonist significantly reduced daily caloric intake of both available diets among subordinate females compared to dominant females. Importantly, multiple regression analyses showed that the attenuation in caloric intake in response to Antalarmin (Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA) was significantly predicted by the frequency of submissive and aggressive behaviour emitted by females, independent of social status. Taken together, the findings support the involvement of activation of CRF1 receptors in the stress-induced consumption of excess calories in a rich dietary environment and also support the growing literature concerning the importance of CRF for sustaining emotional feeding.

  2. Antagonism of Corticotrophin-Releasing Factor Type 1 Receptors Attenuates Caloric Intake of Free Feeding Subordinate Female Rhesus Monkeys in a Rich Dietary Environment

    PubMed Central

    Moore, C J; Johnson, Z P; Higgins, M; Toufexis, D; Wilson, M E

    2015-01-01

    Social subordination in macaque females is a known chronic stressor and previous studies have shown that socially subordinate female rhesus monkeys consume fewer kilocalories than dominant animals when a typical laboratory chow diet is available. However, in a rich dietary environment that provides access to chow in combination with a more palatable diet (i.e. high in fat and refined sugar), subordinate animals consume significantly more daily kilocalories than dominant conspecifics. Substantial literature is available supporting the role of stress hormone signals in shaping dietary preferences and promoting the consumption of palatable, energy-dense foods. The present study was conducted using stable groups of adult female rhesus monkeys to test the hypothesis that pharmacological treatment with a brain penetrable corticotrophin-releasing factor type 1 receptor (CRF1) antagonist would attenuate the stress-induced consumption of a palatable diet among subordinate animals in a rich dietary environment but would be without effect in dominant females. The results show that administration of the CRF1 receptor antagonist significantly reduced daily caloric intake of both available diets among subordinate females compared to dominant females. Importantly, multiple regression analyses showed that the attenuation in caloric intake in response to Antalarmin (Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA) was significantly predicted by the frequency of submissive and aggressive behaviour emitted by females, independent of social status. Taken together, the findings support the involvement of activation of CRF1 receptors in the stress-induced consumption of excess calories in a rich dietary environment and also support the growing literature concerning the importance of CRF for sustaining emotional feeding. PMID:25674637

  3. Diel feeding patterns and daily food intake of juvenile stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, Takeshi; Katayama, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Shoji, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Pleuronectid flatfish are considered visual day feeders, but their ability to feed at night has not been examined in the field. Juvenile (age-0) stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus were collected, and their stomach contents were investigated in situ every 4 h over a 24-h period in an estuarine habitat to elucidate diel feeding periodicity. The weight of juvenile stomach contents was usually the highest around dusk and the main prey was bivalve siphons. To reveal whether juveniles feed only at particular times during the day or throughout a 24-h period, we conducted 24-h cage experiments in which 10 juveniles with empty stomachs were held in a cage for approximately 4 h (six trials). This experiment was carried out three times during different moon phases. Juveniles primarily ingested prey during the day, but 30% of fish that were caged at night also ingested prey. The number of successful captures by the caged fish was much greater during the day than that at night. These results indicate that stone flounder generally feed during the day and they may only feed at night under unusual situations, although they have the ability to capture prey at night. The mean daily ration estimated by diel changes in stomach content weight varied from 3.4% (95% confidence interval, 1.8-4.8%) to 13.2% (11.0-15.6%) of body weight between survey dates, indicating that daily food consumption by fish estimated from a single survey may be strongly biased.

  4. Achieving behaviour change at scale: Alive & Thrive's infant and young child feeding programme in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sanghvi, Tina; Haque, Raisul; Roy, Sumitro; Afsana, Kaosar; Seidel, Renata; Islam, Sanjeeda; Jimerson, Ann; Baker, Jean

    2016-05-01

    The Alive & Thrive programme scaled up infant and young child feeding interventions in Bangladesh from 2010 to 2014. In all, 8.5 million mothers benefited. Approaches - including improved counselling by frontline health workers during home visits; community mobilization; mass media campaigns reaching mothers, fathers and opinion leaders; and policy advocacy - led to rapid and significant improvements in key practices related to breastfeeding and complementary feeding. (Evaluation results are forthcoming.) Intervention design was based on extensive formative research and behaviour change theory and principles and was tailored to the local context. The programme focused on small, achievable actions for key audience segments identified through rigorous testing. Promotion strategies took into account underlying behavioural determinants and reached a high per cent of the priority groups through repeated contacts. Community volunteers received monetary incentives for mothers in their areas who practised recommended behaviours. Programme monitoring, midterm surveys and additional small studies to answer questions led to ongoing adjustments. Scale-up was achieved through streamlining of tools and strategies, government branding, phased expansion through BRAC - a local non-governmental implementing partner with an extensive community-based platform - and nationwide mainstreaming through multiple non-governmental organization and government programmes. Key messages Well-designed and well-implemented large-scale interventions that combine interpersonal counselling, community mobilization, advocacy, mass communication and strategic use of data have great potential to improve IYCF practices rapidly. Formative research and ongoing studies are essential to tailor strategies to the local context and to the perspectives of mothers, family members, influential community members and policymakers. Continued use of data to adjust programme elements is also central to the process. Scale

  5. Achieving behaviour change at scale: Alive & Thrive's infant and young child feeding programme in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sanghvi, Tina; Haque, Raisul; Roy, Sumitro; Afsana, Kaosar; Seidel, Renata; Islam, Sanjeeda; Jimerson, Ann; Baker, Jean

    2016-05-01

    The Alive & Thrive programme scaled up infant and young child feeding interventions in Bangladesh from 2010 to 2014. In all, 8.5 million mothers benefited. Approaches - including improved counselling by frontline health workers during home visits; community mobilization; mass media campaigns reaching mothers, fathers and opinion leaders; and policy advocacy - led to rapid and significant improvements in key practices related to breastfeeding and complementary feeding. (Evaluation results are forthcoming.) Intervention design was based on extensive formative research and behaviour change theory and principles and was tailored to the local context. The programme focused on small, achievable actions for key audience segments identified through rigorous testing. Promotion strategies took into account underlying behavioural determinants and reached a high per cent of the priority groups through repeated contacts. Community volunteers received monetary incentives for mothers in their areas who practised recommended behaviours. Programme monitoring, midterm surveys and additional small studies to answer questions led to ongoing adjustments. Scale-up was achieved through streamlining of tools and strategies, government branding, phased expansion through BRAC - a local non-governmental implementing partner with an extensive community-based platform - and nationwide mainstreaming through multiple non-governmental organization and government programmes. Key messages Well-designed and well-implemented large-scale interventions that combine interpersonal counselling, community mobilization, advocacy, mass communication and strategic use of data have great potential to improve IYCF practices rapidly. Formative research and ongoing studies are essential to tailor strategies to the local context and to the perspectives of mothers, family members, influential community members and policymakers. Continued use of data to adjust programme elements is also central to the process. Scale

  6. The effect of reduced feed intake on the efficacy of oxfendazole against benzimidazole resistant Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ali, D N; Hennessy, D R

    1995-01-01

    Within 12 h of reducing the daily intake of a 50:50 lucerne and wheaten hay ration from 800 to 400 g, there was an increase in digesta marker concentration indicating a reduction in the flow rate of digesta fluid and particulates through the abomasum of sheep. The efficacy of the recommended dose of oxfendazole (OFZ) was then tested against benzimidazole resistant Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Haemonchus contortus in sheep whose feed intake was halved 36 h before and after drug treatment. In animals fed the reduced ration there was a 60% reduction of T. colubriformis and 94% reduction of H. contortus compared with a 19% and 60% reduction respectively on the higher feed intake. It is therefore suggested that greater anthelmintic efficacy can be achieved in sheep by temporary feed reduction.

  7. Effect of gestating sow body condition, feed refusals, and group housing on growth and feed intake in grower-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Sell-Kubiak, E; van der Waaij, E H; Bijma, P

    2013-08-01

    The main focus of this study was to identify sow gestation features that affect growth rate (GR) and feed intake (FI) of their offspring during grower-finishing stage. Because the sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation, certain features (e.g., BW of the sow), feed refusals or gestation group, may affect her ability to deliver and feed a healthy litter. Data on 17,743 grower-finishing pigs, coming from 604 sires and 681 crossbred sows, were obtained from the Institute for Pigs Genetics. Sow gestation features were collected during multiple gestations and divided into 3 clusters describing i) sow body condition (i.e., BW, backfat, and gestation length), ii) sow feed refusals (FR), the difference between offered and eaten feed during 3 periods of gestation: 1 to 28, 25 to 50, 45 to 80 d, and iii) sow group features (i.e., number of sows, and average parity). Sow gestation features were added to the base model 1 at a time to study their effect on GR and FI. Significant gestation features (P < 0.1) were fitted simultaneously in animal model to investigate whether they could explain common litter and permanent sow effects. Gestation length had effect on GR [1.4 (g/d)/d; P = 0.04] and FI [6.8 (g/d)/d; P = 0.007]. Body weights of the sow at insemination [0.07 (g/d)/kg; P = 0.08], at farrowing [0.14 (g/d)/kg; P < 0.0001], and after lactation [0.1 (g/d)/kg; P = 0.003] had effect on GR. Sow parturition-lactation loss in backfat thickness and weight were not significant for GR and FI. Days with FR during 25 to 50 and 45 to 80 d of gestation and average FR during 45 to 80 d of gestation had negative effect on GR and when substantially increased had also a positive effect on FI. Sow FR from 1 to 28 d of gestation were not significant. Number of sows in gestation group had effect on FI [-9 (g/d)/group member; P = 0.04] and day sow entered group had an effect on GR [-0.9 (g/d)/day; P = 0.04]. Sow gestation features explained 1 to 3% of the total

  8. Feeding behaviour of an intertidal snail: Does past environmental stress affect predator choices and prey vulnerability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gestoso, Ignacio; Arenas, Francisco; Olabarria, Celia

    2015-03-01

    Predation is one of the most important factors in determining structure and dynamics of communities on intertidal rocky shores. Such regulatory role may be of special relevance in novel communities resulting from biological invasions. Non-indigenous species frequently escape natural predators that limit their distribution and abundance in the native range. However, biological interactions also can limit the establishment and spread of non-native populations. There is a growing concern that climate change might affect predator-prey interactions exacerbating the ecological impacts of non-indigenous species. However, mechanisms underlying such interactions are poorly understood in marine ecosystems. Here, we explored if past environmental stress, i.e., increasing temperature and decreasing pH, could affect the vulnerability of two mussel prey, the native Mytilus galloprovincialis and the non-indigenous Xenostrobus securis, to predation by the native dogwhelk Nucella lapillus. In addition, we evaluated the consequences on the feeding behaviour of N. lapillus. First, we exposed monospecific assemblages of each mussel species to combined experimental conditions of increasing temperature and decreasing pH in mesocosms for 3 weeks. Then assemblages were placed on a rocky shore and were enclosed in cages with dogwhelks where they remained for 3 weeks. Despite the lack of preference, consumption was much greater on the native than on the invasive mussels, which barely were consumed by dogwhelks. However, this trend was diverted when temperature increased. Thus, under a coastal warming scenario shifts in dogwhelks feeding behaviour may help to contain invader's populations, especially in estuarine areas where these predators are abundant.

  9. Effects of maize (Zea mays L.) silage feeding on dry matter intake and milk production of dairy buffalo and cattle in Tarai, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yoshiaki; Thapa, Bhim B; Sharma, Mohan P; Sapkota, Maheshwor; Kumagai, Hajime

    2009-08-01

    To identify the effects of whole crop maize silage (MS) as a substitute for rice straw (RS) on feed intake and milk production of mid-late lactating buffalo and cattle in Tarai, Nepal, eight Murrah and eight Jersey-Hariana were fed the basal diet, RS (ad libitum) with concentrate (0.68% of bodyweight [BW] on a dry matter [DM] basis). A 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment was conducted in each animal species with graded levels of MS substitution for RS (0%, T1; 33%, T2; 67%, T3 and 100%, T4). The MS had higher digestibility and total digestible nutrient (TDN) than RS. The DM intake per BW of the both species was highest in T3. The substitution of MS for RS increased the crude protein intake and the TDN intake in the both species. Although the buffalo showed the highest milking performance in T4, the cattle showed no significant differences in their milking performance among the treatments. The substitution of MS for RS improved the feed intake and milk production in the buffalo. On the other hand, the milk yield was not raised in the cattle, though the feed intake was increased by the substitution.

  10. The feeding behaviour of an abyssal echiuran revealed by in situ time-lapse photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bett, B. J.; Rice, A. L.

    1993-09-01

    A time-lapse camera (IOSDL "Bathysnap") deployed on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (48°50.1'N, 16°29.9'W, 4839 m), from 16 to 27 May 1991, recorded the sediment surface activity of what appeared to be an echiuran proboscis. The proboscis emerged from a hole formed during the period of observation to make seven sweeping, feeding excursions. These excursions, which occured over three consecutive days, averaged 73 min duration, with an average interval between excursions of 9 h, 22 min. The proboscis was not observed in the remaining eight days of the deployment. No change in the size or shape of near-by sediment mounds was observed at any time; there was no evidence of the return of material collected by the proboscis to the sediment surface. Proboscis activity appeared to occur preferentially at higher near-bottom current speeds, a possible advantage where phytodetritus is subject to redistribution by water currents (as was observed throughout the deployment). These observations are discussed in relation to the known behaviour of echiurans, particularly the mode of feeding, periodicity, quiescence, and sediment surface trace formation.

  11. Monitoring escape and feeding behaviours of cruiser fish by inertial and magnetic sensors.

    PubMed

    Noda, Takuji; Kawabata, Yuuki; Arai, Nobuaki; Mitamura, Hiromichi; Watanabe, Shun

    2013-01-01

    A method was developed and applied for monitoring two types of fast-start locomotion (feeding and escape) of a cruiser fish, Japanese amberjacks Seriola quinqueradiata. A data logger, which incorporated a 3-axis gyroscope, a 3-axis accelerometer and a 3-axis magnetometer, was attached to the five fish. The escape, feeding and routine movements of the fish, which were triggered in tank experiments, were then recorded by the data logger and video cameras. The locomotor variables, calculated based on the high resolution measurements by the data logger (500 Hz), were investigated to accurately detect and classify the types of fast-track behaviour. The results show that fast-start locomotion can be detected with a high precision (0.97) and recall rate (0.96) from the routine movements. Two types of fast-start movements were classified with high accuracy (0.84). Accuracy was greater if the data were obtained from the data logger, which combined an accelerometer, a gyroscope and a magnetometer, than if only an accelerometer (0.80) or a gyroscope (0.66) was used. PMID:24236126

  12. Effect of phenotypic residual feed intake and dietary forage content on the rumen microbial community of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Carberry, Ciara A; Kenny, David A; Han, Sukkyan; McCabe, Matthew S; Waters, Sinead M

    2012-07-01

    Feed-efficient animals have lower production costs and reduced environmental impact. Given that rumen microbial fermentation plays a pivotal role in host nutrition, the premise that rumen microbiota may contribute to host feed efficiency is gaining momentum. Since diet is a major factor in determining rumen community structure and fermentation patterns, we investigated the effect of divergence in phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) on ruminal community structure of beef cattle across two contrasting diets. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were performed to profile the rumen bacterial population and to quantify the ruminal populations of Entodinium spp., protozoa, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Ruminococcus albus, Prevotella brevis, the genus Prevotella, and fungi in 14 low (efficient)- and 14 high (inefficient)-RFI animals offered a low-energy, high-forage diet, followed by a high-energy, low-forage diet. Canonical correspondence and Spearman correlation analyses were used to investigate associations between physiological variables and rumen microbial structure and specific microbial populations, respectively. The effect of RFI on bacterial profiles was influenced by diet, with the association between RFI group and PCR-DGGE profiles stronger for the higher forage diet. qPCR showed that Prevotella abundance was higher (P < 0.0001) in inefficient animals. A higher (P < 0.0001) abundance of Entodinium and Prevotella spp. and a lower (P < 0.0001) abundance of Fibrobacter succinogenes were observed when animals were offered the low-forage diet. Thus, differences in the ruminal microflora may contribute to host feed efficiency, although this effect may also be modulated by the diet offered.

  13. A Polymorphism in the 5′-Untranslated Region of the Porcine Cholecystokinin Type A Receptor Gene Affects Feed Intake and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Houston, R. D.; Haley, C. S.; Archibald, A. L.; Cameron, N. D.; Plastow, G. S.; Rance, K. A.

    2006-01-01

    The location and utilization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and candidate genes with significant effects on economically important traits are becoming increasingly important in livestock breeding programs. The porcine cholecystokinin type A receptor (CCKAR) is a candidate gene for performance traits, due to its known role in the physiological control of feed intake, satiety, and obesity. We investigated the association of CCKAR polymorphisms with feeding, growth, and efficiency traits in an F2 population derived from a cross between Meishan and Large White founder animals and in lines of Large White pigs that had been divergently selected on the basis of lean growth efficiency traits. In the F2 population, CCKAR genotype was significantly associated with daily feed intake and average daily gain. The effects of the polymorphisms were then assessed in a larger-scale analysis of segregating commercial lines. A newly discovered single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) had highly significant effects on feed intake, average daily gain, and days to 110 kg, which were not seen for a previously reported SNP within the CCKAR gene. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the novel SNP disrupts the binding of the YY1 transcription factor, which raises the possibility that it is the causal variant. The 5′-UTR SNP could be utilized as a molecular genetic test for increased feed intake, faster lean growth, and reduced days to market weight in segregating commercial lines. PMID:16951077

  14. Heterogeneity in genetic and nongenetic variation and energy sink relationships for residual feed intake across research stations and countries.

    PubMed

    Tempelman, R J; Spurlock, D M; Coffey, M; Veerkamp, R F; Armentano, L E; Weigel, K A; de Haas, Y; Staples, C R; Connor, E E; Lu, Y; VandeHaar, M J

    2015-03-01

    Our long-term objective is to develop breeding strategies for improving feed efficiency in dairy cattle. In this study, phenotypic data were pooled across multiple research stations to facilitate investigation of the genetic and nongenetic components of feed efficiency in Holstein cattle. Specifically, the heritability of residual feed intake (RFI) was estimated and heterogeneous relationships between RFI and traits relating to energy utilization were characterized across research stations. Milk, fat, protein, and lactose production converted to megacalories (milk energy; MilkE), dry matter intakes (DMI), and body weights (BW) were collected on 6,824 lactations from 4,893 Holstein cows from research stations in Scotland, the Netherlands, and the United States. Weekly DMI, recorded between 50 to 200 d in milk, was fitted as a linear function of MilkE, BW0.75, and change in BW (ΔBW), along with parity, a fifth-order polynomial on days in milk (DIM), and the interaction between this polynomial and parity in a first-stage model. The residuals from this analysis were considered to be a phenotypic measure of RFI. Estimated partial regression coefficients of DMI on MilkE and on BW0.75 ranged from 0.29 to 0.47 kg/Mcal for MilkE across research stations, whereas estimated partial regression coefficients on BW0.75 ranged from 0.06 to 0.16 kg/kg0.75. Estimated partial regression coefficients on ΔBW ranged from 0.06 to 0.39 across stations. Heritabilities for country-specific RFI were based on fitting second-stage random regression models and ranged from 0.06 to 0.24 depending on DIM. The overall heritability estimate across all research stations and all DIM was 0.15±0.02, whereas an alternative analysis based on combining the first- and second-stage model as 1 model led to an overall heritability estimate of 0.18±0.02. Hence future genomic selection programs on feed efficiency appear to be promising; nevertheless, care should be taken to allow for potentially

  15. Longitudinal analysis of residual feed intake and BW in mink using random regression with heterogeneous residual variance.

    PubMed

    Shirali, M; Nielsen, V H; Møller, S H; Jensen, J

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the genetic background of longitudinal residual feed intake (RFI) and BW gain in farmed mink using random regression methods considering heterogeneous residual variances. The individual BW was measured every 3 weeks from 63 to 210 days of age for 2139 male+female pairs of juvenile mink during the growing-furring period. Cumulative feed intake was calculated six times with 3-week intervals based on daily feed consumption between weighing's from 105 to 210 days of age. Genetic parameters for RFI and BW gain in males and females were obtained using univariate random regression with Legendre polynomials containing an animal genetic effect and permanent environmental effect of litter along with heterogeneous residual variances. Heritability estimates for RFI increased with age from 0.18 (0.03, posterior standard deviation (PSD)) at 105 days of age to 0.49 (0.03, PSD) and 0.46 (0.03, PSD) at 210 days of age in male and female mink, respectively. The heritability estimates for BW gain increased with age and had moderate to high range for males (0.33 (0.02, PSD) to 0.84 (0.02, PSD)) and females (0.35 (0.03, PSD) to 0.85 (0.02, PSD)). RFI estimates during the growing period (105 to 126 days of age) showed high positive genetic correlations with the pelting RFI (210 days of age) in male (0.86 to 0.97) and female (0.92 to 0.98). However, phenotypic correlations were lower from 0.47 to 0.76 in males and 0.61 to 0.75 in females. Furthermore, BW records in the growing period (63 to 126 days of age) had moderate (male: 0.39, female: 0.53) to high (male: 0.87, female: 0.94) genetic correlations with pelting BW (210 days of age). The result of current study showed that RFI and BW in mink are highly heritable, especially at the late furring period, suggesting potential for large genetic gains for these traits. The genetic correlations suggested that substantial genetic gain can be obtained by only considering the RFI estimate and BW at pelting

  16. Correlates of parental feeding practices with pre-schoolers: Parental body image and eating knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Hart, Laura M; Paxton, Susan J

    2016-06-01

    Parental feeding practices have been linked to eating and weight status in young children; however, more research is needed to understand what influences these feeding practices. The aim of this study was to examine how parental feeding practices that are linked to unhealthy eating patterns in young children, are related to parental body image and eating knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours . Participants were 330 mothers of a 2- to 6-year-old child. Mothers completed measures of knowledge of child body image and eating patterns, overvaluation of weight and shape, internalization of general media and athletic ideals, dieting, and parental feeding practices. Higher maternal knowledge of strategies to promote positive child body image and eating patterns predicted lower weight restriction, instrumental, emotional, and pushing to eat feeding practices. Overvaluation of weight and shape predicted use of fat restriction. Maternal internalization of the athletic ideal predicted instrumental and pushing to eat feeding practices. As these feeding practices have been associated with long-term risk of children's weight gain and/or disordered eating, these findings highlight the need for prevention interventions to target knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours of parents of pre-schoolers. PMID:26952561

  17. Correlates of parental feeding practices with pre-schoolers: Parental body image and eating knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Hart, Laura M; Paxton, Susan J

    2016-06-01

    Parental feeding practices have been linked to eating and weight status in young children; however, more research is needed to understand what influences these feeding practices. The aim of this study was to examine how parental feeding practices that are linked to unhealthy eating patterns in young children, are related to parental body image and eating knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours . Participants were 330 mothers of a 2- to 6-year-old child. Mothers completed measures of knowledge of child body image and eating patterns, overvaluation of weight and shape, internalization of general media and athletic ideals, dieting, and parental feeding practices. Higher maternal knowledge of strategies to promote positive child body image and eating patterns predicted lower weight restriction, instrumental, emotional, and pushing to eat feeding practices. Overvaluation of weight and shape predicted use of fat restriction. Maternal internalization of the athletic ideal predicted instrumental and pushing to eat feeding practices. As these feeding practices have been associated with long-term risk of children's weight gain and/or disordered eating, these findings highlight the need for prevention interventions to target knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours of parents of pre-schoolers.

  18. Effects of Supplementation of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) Leaf Meal on Feed Intake and Rumen Fermentation Efficiency in Swamp Buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Thao, N. T.; Wanapat, M.; Kang, S.; Cherdthong, A.

    2015-01-01

    Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) leaf meal (ELM) supplementation as a rumen enhancer on feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = 0 g ELM/hd/d; T2 = 40 g ELM/hd/d; T3 = 80 g ELM/hd/d; T4 = 120 g ELM/hd/d, respectively. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate was offered at 0.3% BW while rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results revealed that voluntary feed intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH, temperature and blood urea nitrogen concentrations were not affected by ELM supplementation; however, ELM supplementation resulted in lower concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen. Total volatile fatty acids, propionate concentration increased with the increasing level of EML (p<0.05) while the proportion of acetate was decreased (p<0.05). Methane production was linearly decreased (p<0.05) with the increasing level of ELM supplementation. Protozoa count and proteolytic bacteria population were reduced (p<0.05) while fungal zoospores and total viable bacteria, amylolytic, cellulolytic bacteria were unchanged. In addition, nitrogen utilization and microbial protein synthesis tended to increase by the dietary treatments. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that ELM could modify the rumen fermentation and is potentially used as a rumen enhancer in methane mitigation and rumen fermentation efficiency. PMID:26104399

  19. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats.

    PubMed

    Chanjula, Pin; Pongprayoon, Sahutaya; Kongpan, Sirichai; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was evaluation of the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) in diets on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen balance of goats. Four crossbred male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 31.5 ± 1.90 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments contained 0, 2, 4, and 6 % of dietary dry matter (DM) of CGWVO. Based on this experiment, there were significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF), which goats receiving 6 % of CGWVO had lower daily DMI and nutrient intake than those fed on 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO supplementation, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (P < 0.05) than for the diets 0 % of CGWVO, while the differences between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. The amounts of N absorption and retention were similar among treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO which N absorption was lower (P < 0.05) than among treatments while the difference between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. Based on this study, CGWVO levels up to 4 % in total mixed ration could be efficiently utilized for goats. This study was a good approach in exploiting the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production. PMID:27026232

  20. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats.

    PubMed

    Chanjula, Pin; Pongprayoon, Sahutaya; Kongpan, Sirichai; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was evaluation of the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) in diets on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen balance of goats. Four crossbred male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 31.5 ± 1.90 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments contained 0, 2, 4, and 6 % of dietary dry matter (DM) of CGWVO. Based on this experiment, there were significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF), which goats receiving 6 % of CGWVO had lower daily DMI and nutrient intake than those fed on 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO supplementation, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (P < 0.05) than for the diets 0 % of CGWVO, while the differences between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. The amounts of N absorption and retention were similar among treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO which N absorption was lower (P < 0.05) than among treatments while the difference between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. Based on this study, CGWVO levels up to 4 % in total mixed ration could be efficiently utilized for goats. This study was a good approach in exploiting the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  1. Dietary behaviour, food and nutrient intake of pregnant women in a rural community in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Huybregts, Lieven Fernand; Roberfroid, Dominique Albert; Kolsteren, Patrick Wilfried; Van Camp, John Hendrik

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess potential changes in dietary habits during pregnancy in a rural community in Houndé district, Burkina Faso. In-depth interviews were performed on a random sample of 37 pregnant women in order to analyse specific perceptions and attitudes regarding food consumption during pregnancy. In addition to this, an interactive 24-h recall survey was used to compare the food intake of 218 pregnant and 176 non-pregnant women. The majority of interviewees reported dietary restrictions during pregnancy but no consistent pattern of avoided food types was found. Most of the mentioned 'forbidden' foods were in related to physical discomfort during gestation. Interviewees also admitted to ignoring culturally determined food prohibitions/prescriptions. No differences were observed in food intake, food choice and nutrient intake between the group of pregnant and non-pregnant women. During the third trimester of gestation women did not show any major differences in food and nutrient intake compared with women from the first/second trimester. The mean nutrient intakes were found to be insufficient compared with the recommended daily allowances, especially for pregnant women. In conclusion, pregnant women in this rural area of Burkina Faso do not seem to restrict their diet significantly during pregnancy. The additional nutritional requirements of pregnancy are not accounted for in their dietary practises.

  2. Dietary behaviour, food and nutrient intake of pregnant women in a rural community in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Huybregts, Lieven Fernand; Roberfroid, Dominique Albert; Kolsteren, Patrick Wilfried; Van Camp, John Hendrik

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess potential changes in dietary habits during pregnancy in a rural community in Houndé district, Burkina Faso. In-depth interviews were performed on a random sample of 37 pregnant women in order to analyse specific perceptions and attitudes regarding food consumption during pregnancy. In addition to this, an interactive 24-h recall survey was used to compare the food intake of 218 pregnant and 176 non-pregnant women. The majority of interviewees reported dietary restrictions during pregnancy but no consistent pattern of avoided food types was found. Most of the mentioned 'forbidden' foods were in related to physical discomfort during gestation. Interviewees also admitted to ignoring culturally determined food prohibitions/prescriptions. No differences were observed in food intake, food choice and nutrient intake between the group of pregnant and non-pregnant women. During the third trimester of gestation women did not show any major differences in food and nutrient intake compared with women from the first/second trimester. The mean nutrient intakes were found to be insufficient compared with the recommended daily allowances, especially for pregnant women. In conclusion, pregnant women in this rural area of Burkina Faso do not seem to restrict their diet significantly during pregnancy. The additional nutritional requirements of pregnancy are not accounted for in their dietary practises. PMID:20572925

  3. Severe Feeding Problems Secondary to Anatomical Disorders: Effectiveness of Behavioural Treatment in Three School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moor, Jan; Didden, Robert; Tolboom, Jules

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, behavioural treatment is described of three school-aged children with severe feeding problems caused by (surgically corrected) anatomical disorders of the digestive system. Two children showed food refusal and were tube-fed whereas the third child showed extreme food selectivity. During treatment, shaping, (non)verbal…

  4. Effects of heavy metals on the survival and feeding behaviour of the sandy shore scavenging gastropod Nassarius festivus (Powys).

    PubMed

    Cheung, S G; Tai, K K; Leung, C K; Siu, Y M

    2002-01-01

    The effects of Cu, Cd, Zn and Cr on the survival and feeding behaviour of the sandy shore scavenging gastropod Nassarius festivus were compared. The 96-h LC50 for Cu, Cd, Zn and Cr were 0.36, 1.52, 1.76 and 36.9 mg l(-1), respectively. Four sublethal concentrations of each metal plus a control were prepared and the snails were exposed to experimental solutions for 96 h. Feeding behaviour was studied after the snails were starved for five days. As compared with the control, the number of individuals feeding was significantly reduced by exposure to 0.05 mg l(-1) Cu, 0.2 mg l(-1) Zn, 0.5 mg l(-1) Cd and 5 mg l(-1) Cr. The time spent feeding was greater for individuals exposed to greater concentrations of Zn and Cd but no effect was found for Cu and Cr. Chemoreception of food was studied by placing the snails at a fixed distance of 15 cm from the bait. The success rate of reaching the bait was less for individuals exposed to Cr but no effect was found for Zn, Cu or Cd. The time required for an individual to reach the bait decreased as the concentration of Zn increased. In contrast, a longer time was required for individuals exposed to Cr whereas the effect of Cd and Cu was insignificant. The potential of using feeding behaviour and chemoreception in contaminant evaluations is discussed.

  5. Effects of direct-fed Bacillus pumilus 8G-134 on feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, feed conversion, and health condition of pre- and postpartum Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Luan, S; Duersteler, M; Galbraith, E A; Cardoso, F C

    2015-09-01

    The usage of direct-fed microbials (DFM) has become common in the dairy industry, but questions regarding choice of strain, mode of action, and efficacy remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a DFM (Bacillus pumilus 8G-134) on pre- and postpartum performance and incidence of subclinical ketosis in early lactation. Forty-three multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 2 treatments in a randomized complete block design; cows in the direct-fed microbial treatment (DFMt, n=21) received 5.0×10(9) cfu/cow of B. pumilus in 28 g of a maltodextrin carrier, whereas cows in the control treatment (CON, n=22) received 28 g of maltodextrin carrier alone. Treatments were top-dressed on the total mixed ration daily. Treatments were applied from 21 d before expected calving date to 154 d after calving. Cows on treatment DFMt tended to have lower serum haptoglobin concentration than CON cows on d 14. Cows on treatment DFMt had higher IgA concentrations in milk than CON cows during the first week after calving. Cows fed DFMt had higher yields of milk, fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, milk fat, and milk protein during the second week of lactation than CON; however, we found no differences between treatments on milk yield and milk components overall. Cows on DFMt tended to have higher feed conversion and to have lower prevalence of subclinical ketosis (beta-hydroxybutyrate >1.2 mmol/L) on d 5 than cows fed CON. Dry matter intake, body weight, and body condition score were not affected by DFMt supplementation. Milk production efficiencies (calculated based on fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk) were higher by 0.1 kg of milk per kilogram of dry matter intake in cows that received DFMt compared with cows that received CON. In conclusion, cows receiving DFMt tended to have lower incidence of subclinical ketosis than cows receiving CON. Cows fed DFMt tended to have higher feed conversion and evidence for greater immunity than CON

  6. Feeding patterns and dietary intake in a random sample of a Swedish population of insured-dogs.

    PubMed

    Sallander, Marie; Hedhammar, Ake; Rundgren, Margareta; Lindberg, Jan E

    2010-07-01

    We used a validated mail and telephone questionnaire to investigate baseline data on feeding patterns and dietary intake in a random sample of 460 Swedish dogs. In 1999, purebred individuals 1-3 years old in the largest insurance database of Sweden completed the study. Most dogs were fed restricted amounts twice a day, and the feeding patterns seldom were changed after the age of 6 months. Typically, the main constituent of the meals was dry food [representing 69% of dry matter (DM)]. Four out of five dogs also got foods that (in descending order of the amount of energy provided) consisted of vegetable oil, meat, sour milk, bread, potatoes, pasta, lard/tallow, sausage, cheese, rice and fish. The heavier the dog (kg), the more dry dog food was consumed (g DM/d). The dry-food intakes (g DM/d) increased linearly with body weight (BW, in kg): intake=-15.3+8.33 BW (P=0.0001; r=0.998), a clear relationship that was not observed for other commercial foods. The non-commercial part of the diet had higher fat (13 and 8 g/megajoule, MJ, respectively; P=0.00001) and lower protein (12 and 16 g/MJ, respectively; P=0.00001) compared to the commercial part of the diet. Six out of ten dogs were given treats, and one-fourth was given vitamin/mineral supplements (most commonly daily). Most dogs consumed diets that were nutritionally balanced. No dogs in the study consumed diets that supplied lower amounts of protein than recommended by the NRC (2006). Only two individuals (<1%) were given total diets that were lower than the nutrient profiles in fat. Few dogs consumed total diets that were lower than recommended by the NRC (2006) in calcium, phosphorus, and vitamins A, D and E (2, 1, 3, 5, and 3% of the individuals, respectively). A few individuals consumed higher levels of vitamins A and D (<1 and 4%, respectively) than recommended. Diets that deviated from recommended levels were those consisting of only table foods with no supplements (too-low in vitamins and minerals) or

  7. Quantitative analysis of ruminal methanogenic microbial populations in beef cattle divergent in phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) offered contrasting diets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Methane (CH4) emissions in cattle are an undesirable end product of rumen methanogenic fermentative activity as they are associated not only with negative environmental impacts but also with reduced host feed efficiency. The aim of this study was to quantify total and specific rumen microbial methanogenic populations in beef cattle divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) while offered (i) a low energy high forage (HF) diet followed by (ii) a high energy low forage (LF) diet. Ruminal fluid was collected from 14 high (H) and 14 low (L) RFI animals across both dietary periods. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis was conducted to quantify the abundance of total and specific rumen methanogenic microbes. Spearman correlation analysis was used to investigate the association between the relative abundance of methanogens and animal performance, rumen fermentation variables and diet digestibility. Results Abundance of methanogens, did not differ between RFI phenotypes. However, relative abundance of total and specific methanogen species was affected (P < 0.05) by diet type, with greater abundance observed while animals were offered the LF compared to the HF diet. Conclusions These findings suggest that differences in abundance of specific rumen methanogen species may not contribute to variation in CH4 emissions between efficient and inefficient animals, however dietary manipulation can influence the abundance of total and specific methanogen species. PMID:25276350

  8. Time-restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Hatori, Megumi; Vollmers, Christopher; Zarrinpar, Amir; DiTacchio, Luciano; Bushong, Eric A; Gill, Shubhroz; Leblanc, Mathias; Chaix, Amandine; Joens, Matthew; Fitzpatrick, James A J; Ellisman, Mark H; Panda, Satchidananda

    2012-06-01

    While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night, disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time-restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 hr per day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access yet are protected against obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, and inflammation and have improved motor coordination. The tRF regimen improved CREB, mTOR, and AMPK pathway function and oscillations of the circadian clock and their target genes' expression. These changes in catabolic and anabolic pathways altered liver metabolome and improved nutrient utilization and energy expenditure. We demonstrate in mice that tRF regimen is a nonpharmacological strategy against obesity and associated diseases.

  9. Feed intake alters immune cell functions and ovarian infiltration in broiler hens: implications for reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zu-Chen; Xie, Yi-Lun; Chang, Chai-Ju; Su, Chia-Ming; Chen, Yu-Hui; Huang, San-Yuan; Walzem, Rosemary L; Chen, Shuen-Ei

    2014-06-01

    Leukocytes are known to participate in ovarian activities in several species, but there is a surprising lack of information for the common chicken. Broiler hens consuming feed ad libitum (AL) exhibit a number of ovarian irregularities, but leukocyte functions are unstudied. In contrast to feed-restricted (R) hens, AL feeding for 7 wk significantly reduced egg production and clutch length while increasing pause length and atretic follicle numbers (P < 0.05). Granulosa cells from F1 follicles of AL hens contained less progesterone, and follicle walls were thicker with loose fibrous morphology and had less collagenase-3-like gelatinolytic activity but more IL-1beta (P < 0.05) production, suggestive of slower maturation in ovulatory process and inflamed necrosis. Interestingly, while highly infiltrated with immune cells, particularly heterophils, IL-1beta, MMP-22-like, and gelatinase A activities were reduced in AL hen peripheral heterophils and monocytes (P < 0.05); however, AL monocytes showed an increase in phagocytosis rate (P < 0.05). Generation of reactive oxygen intermediates was also suppressed in AL heterophils but increased in AL monocytes (P < 0.05). In contrast to leukocyte-free control, both AL and R heterophils and monocytes suppressed progesterone production and increased cell death in a dose-dependent manner when coincubated with granulosa cells at different ratios (P < 0.05). AL monocytes suppressed progesterone production more, but AL heterophils were less proapoptotic when compared to their R counterparts (P < 0.05). Alterations of cellular ceramide content (P < 0.05) corresponded to the discrepancy between heterophil and monocyte functionality. In conclusion, leukocyte dysfunction contributes to impaired ovarian activities of overfed broiler hens. PMID:24829031

  10. A meta-analysis of nutrient intake, feed efficiency and performance in cattle grazing on tropical grasslands.

    PubMed

    Boval, M; Edouard, N; Sauvant, D

    2015-06-01

    It is essential to quantify the potential of tropical grasslands to allow significant feed efficiency for grazing livestock in controlled conditions such as at pasture. We conducted a quantitative analysis of published studies reporting the experimental results of average daily gains (ADG) and diet characteristics obtained specifically under grazing conditions (17 publications and 41 experiments), which have been less studied compared with controlled conditions in stalls. The database was analyzed to determine the average and range of values obtained for ADG (g/kg BW), dry matter digestibility, intake (DMI) and digestible DMI (DDMI, g/kg BW) and feed conversion efficiencies (FCE), as well as to predict the response of these parameters to the main strategies investigated in the literature - that is, mainly the stocking rate (SR) and the concentrate intake (CI). The ADG reached 1.2 kg BW per day and was directly linked to DDMI (ADG=-1.63+0.42 DDMI -0.0084 DDMI2, n=90, r.m.s.e=0.584, R 2=0.93). The DDMI, which was representative of the nutrient input, was driven mainly by DMI rather than dry matter digestibility, whereas these two parameters did not correlate (r=0.068, P=0.56). The average global FCE (0.11 g ADG/g DDMI) showed a greater association with the metabolic FCE (0.17 g ADG/g DMI) than the digestive FCE (0.62). The CI (g DM/kg BW) increased ADG (ADG=2376+CI 56.1, n=16, r.m.s.e.=441, R 2=0.95). The SR expressed as kg BW/ha decreased the individual ADG by 1.19 g/kg BW per additional ton of BW/ha, whereas the global ADG calculated per ha increased by 0.57 per additional ton BW/ha. When the SR was expressed as kg BW/ton DM and per ha rather than as kg BW/ha, the impact on the individual ADG decreased by 0.18 or 0.86 g per additional ton BW/ha, depending on the initial BW of the cattle. These results provide a better view of the potential performance and feeding of cattle in tropical grasslands. The results provide an improved quantification of the relationships

  11. Feed intake, digestibility, body weight and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw supplemented with graded levels of concentrate mix.

    PubMed

    Hagos, Tesfay; Melaku, Solomon

    2009-04-01

    The experiment was conducted at Alamata Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia using 20 Afar rams with an initial body weight (BW) of 18.2 +/- 1.76 (mean +/- SD) kg. The objectives were to study the effect of supplementation with concentrate mix consisting of wheat bran (WB), noug seed cake (NSC) and sesame seed cake (SSC) at the ratio of 2:1:1 on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively on feed intake, digestibility, BW gain and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw basal diet. The experiment was arranged with four treatments and five replications in a randomized complete block design. The treatments included feeding sole tef straw (T1, control), and daily supplementation with the concentrate mix offered at 150 (T2, low), 250 (T3, medium) and 350 (T4, high) g DM per head. Total DM intake, crude protein (CP) digestibility, daily BW gain (P < 0.001), DM and organic matter (OM) digestibility, and carcass parameters (P < 0.05) were higher in the supplemented than in the control treatment. Intake of tef straw reduced as the level of supplementation increased, whereas the contrary was true for CP intake. Performance in carcass parameters was better for the medium compared to the low level of concentrate mix supplementation. Moreover, the medium level of supplementation did not substitute tef straw intake. Therefore, it is concluded that the medium level of concentrate mix supplement maintained the utilization of the roughage feed and resulted in better carcass parameters.

  12. Effect of fiber digestibility and conservation method on feed intake and the ruminal ecosystem of growing steers.

    PubMed

    Sousa, D O; Mesquita, B S; Diniz-Magalhães, J; Bueno, I C S; Mesquita, L G; Silva, L F P

    2014-12-01

    of R. albus was also greater (P=0.04) for diets containing the sugarcane genotype with high NDFD. Feeding diets containing the sugarcane genotype with high NDFD increased Fibrobacter succinogenes population but only when sugarcane was fed as freshly cut (P=0.02). Using sugarcane genotypes with high NDFD can increase intake and benefit fiber-degrading bacteria in the rumen.

  13. Effect of fiber digestibility and conservation method on feed intake and the ruminal ecosystem of growing steers.

    PubMed

    Sousa, D O; Mesquita, B S; Diniz-Magalhães, J; Bueno, I C S; Mesquita, L G; Silva, L F P

    2014-12-01

    of R. albus was also greater (P=0.04) for diets containing the sugarcane genotype with high NDFD. Feeding diets containing the sugarcane genotype with high NDFD increased Fibrobacter succinogenes population but only when sugarcane was fed as freshly cut (P=0.02). Using sugarcane genotypes with high NDFD can increase intake and benefit fiber-degrading bacteria in the rumen. PMID:25414108

  14. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption).

  15. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and temperament assessed in growing beef heifers and subsequently as 3-year-old, lactating beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy-four beef heifers were used to evaluate the relationships among performance, residual feed intake (RFI), and temperament measured as growing heifers (Phase 1) and subsequently as 3-year-old lactating beef cows (Phase 2) in the same cohort. In both phases, females were housed in a covered fac...

  16. Intake, milk production, ruminal, and feed efficiency responses to dietary cation-anion difference by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Iwaniuk, M E; Erdman, R A

    2015-12-01

    Previous meta-analyses of the effects of dietary cation anion difference (DCAD; mEq/kg; Na + K - Cl - S) in lactating dairy cow diets used studies conducted after the development of the DCAD concept. Dietary buffers, such as NaHCO3 and K2CO3, increase DCAD and have been used in lactating dairy cow diets for several decades. However, most published studies on buffer feeding were conducted before the development of the DCAD concept. Our objective was to determine the intake, milk production, ruminal, and feed efficiency responses to DCAD using previous studies with dietary buffer addition and more recent studies that focused on DCAD as dietary treatments. The database consisted of 43 articles that were published between 1965 and 2011. The studies included 196 dietary treatments and 89 treatment comparisons with a range in DCAD from -68 to 811mEq/kg of diet DM, with the vast majority between 0 and 500mEq/kg of diet DM. For studies that lacked analyses of one or more of the dietary strong ions (Na, K, Cl, or S), ion percentages were estimated from ingredient composition using the 2001 dairy National Research Council software. Two basic models were used to evaluate DCAD responses using the NLMIXED procedure in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC): (1) a simple linear model, Y=A + B × (DCAD), where A=intercept and B=the increment (slope) in performance per unit DCAD (mEq/kg of diet DM); and (2) a nonlinear model, Y=A + M[1 - e((K × DCAD))], where M=maximal increment in performance from DCAD and K=the rate constant. In both models, study was designated as the random effect. The DCAD effects best described by the linear model included milk fat percent, fat yield, ruminal pH, NDF digestibility, and feed efficiency [3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM; kg)/dry matter intake (DMI; kg)] where a 100mEq/kg increase in DCAD resulted in respective increases of 0.10%, 36g/d, 0.032 pH units, 1.5% NDF digestibility, and 0.013 FCM/DMI units. The DMI, milk yield, and 3.5% FCM were best

  17. Linking mercury exposure to habitat and feeding behaviour in Beaufort Sea beluga whales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loseto, L. L.; Stern, G. A.; Deibel, D.; Connelly, T. L.; Prokopowicz, A.; Lean, D. R. S.; Fortier, L.; Ferguson, S. H.

    2008-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) levels in the Beaufort Sea beluga population have been increasing since the 1990's. Ultimately, it is the Hg content of prey that determines beluga Hg levels. However, the Beaufort Sea beluga diet is not understood, and little is known about the diet Hg sources in their summer habitat. During the summer, they segregate into social groups based on habitat use leading to the hypothesis that they may feed in different food webs explaining Hg dietary sources. Methyl mercury (MeHg) and total mercury (THg) levels were measured in the estuarine-shelf, Amundsen Gulf and epibenthic food webs in the western Canadian Arctic collected during the Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchange Study (CASES) to assess their dietary Hg contribution. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report MeHg levels in estuarine fish and epibenthic invertebrates from the Arctic Ocean. Although the Mackenzie River is a large source of Hg, the estuarine-shelf prey items had the lowest MeHg levels, ranging from 0.1 to 0.27 μg/g dry weight (dw) in arctic cisco ( Coregonus autumnalis) and saffron cod ( Eleginus gracilis) respectively. Highest MeHg levels occurred in fourhorn sculpin ( Myoxocephalus quadricornis) (0.5 μg/g dw) from the epibenthic food web. Beluga hypothesized to feed in the epibenthic and Amundsen Gulf food webs had the highest Hg levels matching with high Hg levels in associated food webs, and estuarine-shelf belugas had the lowest Hg levels (2.6 μg/g dw), corresponding with the low food web Hg levels, supporting the variation in dietary Hg uptake. The trophic level transfer of Hg was similar among the food webs, highlighting the importance of Hg sources at the bottom of the food web as well as food web length. We propose that future biomagnification studies incorporate predator behaviour with food web structure to assist in the evaluation of dietary Hg sources.

  18. Effect of supplementing urea-treated barley straw with lucerne or vetch hays on feed intake, digestibility and growth of Arsi Bale sheep.

    PubMed

    Abate, Dawit; Melaku, Solomon

    2009-04-01

    The study was conducted at Sinana Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia to assess the supplementation of graded levels of vetch (Vicia dasycarpa 'lana') and lucerne (Medicago sativa,' Hunter river') hay on feed intake, digestibility and body weight (BW) change of Arsi-Bale sheep fed urea treated barley straw (UTBS). A 7 day- digestibility and a 90 day- feed intake trials were conducted using 28 and 35 sheep, respectively. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with seven dietary treatments that consisted of feeding UTBS (T1) as the control treatment, UTBS plus 150, 250 and 350 g dry matter (DM) per day of vetch for T2, T3, T4, respectively and UTBS plus 150, 250 and 350 g DM per day of lucerne for T5, T6 and T7, respectively. Intake of UTBS was not affected (P > 0.05) by inclusion of lucerne hay at 25-35% of daily DM intake. The supplements increased daily intake of total DM, organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and metabolizable energy (ME) (P < 0.001) as well as apparent digestibility of DM, OM (P < 0.001), NDF (P < 0.01), ADF, crude protein (CP) (P < 0.05) and daily BW gain (P < 0.001). Supplementation with lucerne than vetch hay promoted higher (P < 0.001) CP and ME intakes and daily BW gain. Feeding with the UTBS without supplementation was enough to meet the maintenance requirements of the sheep and allow small BW gain. The results of the study showed that urea treatment of barley straw in conjunction with supplementation of lucerne or vetch hay could serve as a useful strategy in improving smallholder sheep production in the tropics.

  19. Effects of voluntarily-ingested buprenorphine on plasma corticosterone levels, body weight, water intake, and behaviour in permanently catheterised rats.

    PubMed

    Goldkuhl, Renée; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas S P

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the peri- and postoperative effect of pre-emptive analgesia through voluntary ingestion of buprenorphine in Nutella, in male Sprague-Dawley rats. An arterial catheter was inserted and the rats were connected to an automated blood sampling device (AccuSampler). Blood samples were drawn up to 18 h after surgery and the plasma concentrations of corticosterone were quantified. Postoperative changes in water intake and body weight were recorded, and the behaviour of the rats was analysed during two 30-min periods. Pre-emptive oral buprenorphine treatment reduced the plasma corticosterone levels in the postoperative period, compared to controls treated with local anaesthetics. Buprenorphine-treated rats consumed more water and maintained body weight better. Behavioural observations indicated that buprenorphine changed the behaviour in non-operated rats but there was no difference in the operated rats. The present study strengthens the hypothesis that pre-emptive oral buprenorphine in Nutella is suitable for treatment of postoperative pain in rats. PMID:20363983

  20. Assessment of the effects of iodine value on fatty acid digestibility, feed intake, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Firkins, J L; Eastridge, M L

    1994-08-01

    Data were pooled from 11 studies evaluating supplemental fat sources differing primarily in degree of saturation (tallow, animal-vegetable fat, vegetable oil, and hydrogenated fats). Data were standardized as proportions of the respective controls to reduce variation among individual studies and were subjected to stepwise multiple regression against the iodine value of fats, the percentage increases of total fatty acids in diets above the respective controls, or the ratio of total C16 to C18 fatty acids in fats (only for hydrogenated fats). Increased iodine value (increasing unsaturation) of fats increased apparent fatty acid digestibility, especially as iodine value increased from 11 to 27. For partially hydrogenated fat sources, as the ratio of C16 to C18 fatty acids increased, digestibility also increased, especially with increasing iodine value (positive interaction). Beneficial effects of higher C16:C18 ratio were reduced as amount of added fat increased (negative interaction). Dry matter intake and FCM production decreased as iodine value increased, perhaps because of inhibition of fiber digestion or metabolic regulation of DMI. Milk protein percentage depression averaged .2 percentage units for most fats. However, as partially hydrogenated fat sources became more saturated, milk protein depression appeared to be less evident; increased ratio of C16:C18 of fatty acids appeared to increase milk protein percentage. Despite the lower apparent digestibility of fatty acids of hydrogenated fats, increased milk production and percentages of fat and protein appeared to make them more economical than more unsaturated fats.

  1. Ruminal nitrogen metabolism in steers as affected by feed intake and dietary urea concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Firkins, J.L.; Berger, L.L.; Merchen, N.R.; Fahey, G.C. Jr.; Mulvaney, R.L.

    1987-11-01

    Four multiple-cannulated steers (340 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Steers were fed a diet of 50% ground hay and 50% concentrate at two intakes (1.4 and 2.1% of BW), with urea and /sup 15/N-enriched ammonium sulfate infused continuously into the rumen at .4 or 1.2% of diet DM. Ratios of purines and diaminopimelic acid-N to N in fluid-associated and particulate-associated bacteria and in protozoa were similar among treatments but were lower for protozoa than for bacteria. Diaminopimelic acid-N:N was higher for fluid-associated vs. particulate-associated bacteria. Enrichment of /sup 15/N was similar between bacteria among treatments and was 30% lower for protozoa. Turnover rates of /sup 15/N in bacteria, NH/sub 3/N, and non-HN/sub 3/N pools were faster for steers infused with 1.2 than those infused with .4% urea, indicating less efficient usage of ammonia with higher urea. A method is described to estimate the proportion of duodenal nitrogen comprising bacterial and protozoal nitrogen.

  2. Perspectives and reflections on the practice of behaviour change communication for infant and young child feeding.

    PubMed

    Pelto, Gretel H; Martin, Stephanie L; van Liere, Marti J; Fabrizio, Cecilia S

    2016-04-01

    Behaviour change communication (BCC) is a critical component of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) interventions. In this study we asked BCC practitioners working in low- and middle-income countries to participate in an examination of BCC practice. We focus here on results of their personal reflections related to larger issues of practice. We used a combination of iterative triangulation and snowball sampling procedures to obtain a sample of 29 BCC professionals. Major themes include (1) participants using tools and guidelines to structure their work, and many consider their organisation's tools to be their most important contribution to the field; (2) they value research to facilitate programme design and implementation; (3) half felt research needed to increase; (4) they have a strong commitment to respecting cultural beliefs and culturally appropriate programming; (5) they are concerned about lack of a strong theoretical foundation for their work. Based on participants' perspectives and the authors' reflections, we identified the following needs: (1) conducting a systematic examination of the alternative theoretical structures that are available for nutrition BCC, followed by a review of the evidence base and suggestions for future programmatic research to fill the gaps in knowledge; (2) developing a checklist of common patterns to facilitate efficiency in formative research; (3) developing an analytic compendium of current IYCF BCC guidelines and tools; (4) developing tools and guidelines that cover the full programme process, including use of innovative channels to support 'scaling up nutrition'; and (5) continued support for programmes of proven effectiveness.

  3. A Pathological Late Pleistocene canid from San Sidero (Italy): implications for social- and feeding-behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iurino, Dawid Adam; Fico, Rosario; Petrucci, Mauro; Sardella, Raffaele

    2013-03-01

    Evidence of diseases on vertebrate fossil bones can provide detailed information on many aspects of extinct animals. This study focused on pathological craniodental remains (left maxilla and dentary) referred to the canid Cuon alpinus unearthed from a Late Pleistocene karst filling deposit at San Sidero (Apulia, southern Italy). These fossils show clear evidence of a chronic periodontitis that caused the animal's death. Clinical diagnosis of the disease and the timing of its development have been defined on the basis of a veterinary odontostomatology approach, in addition to radiographic and tomographic techniques. From the initiation of the infection until death, a time span of at least 6 months occurred, and three main steps have been defined: (1) the bacterial infections of the buccal cavity turning into severe periodontitis, (2) the fracture of the lower carnassial and (3) the loss of teeth due to the worsening infection that deformed and/or eroded maxillary and mandibular bones and enlarged alveoli. The analysis of the palaeopathology also provides information about the biomechanics of the bite, on the feeding behaviour and on the relationships of injured members in a pack of Late Pleistocene canids.

  4. Perspectives and reflections on the practice of behaviour change communication for infant and young child feeding.

    PubMed

    Pelto, Gretel H; Martin, Stephanie L; van Liere, Marti J; Fabrizio, Cecilia S

    2016-04-01

    Behaviour change communication (BCC) is a critical component of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) interventions. In this study we asked BCC practitioners working in low- and middle-income countries to participate in an examination of BCC practice. We focus here on results of their personal reflections related to larger issues of practice. We used a combination of iterative triangulation and snowball sampling procedures to obtain a sample of 29 BCC professionals. Major themes include (1) participants using tools and guidelines to structure their work, and many consider their organisation's tools to be their most important contribution to the field; (2) they value research to facilitate programme design and implementation; (3) half felt research needed to increase; (4) they have a strong commitment to respecting cultural beliefs and culturally appropriate programming; (5) they are concerned about lack of a strong theoretical foundation for their work. Based on participants' perspectives and the authors' reflections, we identified the following needs: (1) conducting a systematic examination of the alternative theoretical structures that are available for nutrition BCC, followed by a review of the evidence base and suggestions for future programmatic research to fill the gaps in knowledge; (2) developing a checklist of common patterns to facilitate efficiency in formative research; (3) developing an analytic compendium of current IYCF BCC guidelines and tools; (4) developing tools and guidelines that cover the full programme process, including use of innovative channels to support 'scaling up nutrition'; and (5) continued support for programmes of proven effectiveness. PMID:26194743

  5. Optimal dietary energy and amino acids for gilt development: Growth, body composition, feed intake, and carcass composition traits.

    PubMed

    Calderón Díaz, J A; Vallet, J L; Prince, T J; Phillips, C E; DeDecker, A E; Stalder, K J

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if body composition of developing gilts could be altered at the onset of estrus by ad libitum feeding diets differing in standard ileal digestible (SID) lysine and ME using levels that are within those used in practice by pig producers in the United States. Crossbred Large White × Landrace gilts ( = 1,221), housed in groups, were randomly allotted to 6 corn-soybean diets in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement formulated to provide 2 SID lysine and 3 ME levels. Gilts received grower diets formulated to provide 0.86 (low) or 1.02% (high) SID lysine and 2.94 (low), 3.25 (medium), or 3.57 (high) Mcal of ME/kg from 100 d of age until approximately 90 kg BW. Then, gilts were fed finisher diets containing 0.73 (low) or 0.85% (high) SID lysine and 2.94 (low), 3.26 (medium) or 3.59 (high) Mcal of ME/kg until 260 d of age. The medium SID lysine and medium-ME diets were based on an informal survey from the U.S. commercial swine industry to obtain average levels that are currently being formulated for developing gilts. Gilts were weighed and backfat thickness and loin area were recorded at the beginning of the trial and then every 28 d. Feed intake (FI) was recorded as feed disappearance within the pen at 2-wk intervals. Lysine (g) and ME (Mcal) consumed were calculated based on diet formulations. At approximately 260 d of age, gilts were slaughtered and warm carcass weight and fat thickness were recorded. There were no differences between lysine or ME levels for growth and body composition, except for backfat, which was slightly greater for gilts fed a high-ME diet. Gilts fed high-ME diets had a lower FI but a greater ME intake compared with gilts fed low ME ( < 0.05). Additionally, gilts fed the high-ME diet had lower FI and lysine intake per kilogram of BW gain when compared with gilts fed low- or medium-ME diets ( < 0.05). However, there was no difference in the megacalories consumed per kilogram of BW gain among treatments ( > 0

  6. Effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in the lactation diet on the feed intake and fertility of sows.

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    A diet contaminated with 2.8 mg deoxynivalenol (DON)/kg was fed at 6 kg per day to 32 mycotoxin-exposed pluriparous sows (M) during lactation. The 31 control sows (C) received 6 kg of an uncontaminated diet. Although more contaminated diet was refused (P = 0.05), DON exposure had no effect (P > 0.1) on body weight loss of the sows during lactation (M: 27.9 ± 12.3 kg; C: 29.7 ± 10.2 kg), the number of weaned piglets (M: 9.8 ± 1.4; C: 9.7 ± 1.6) and their daily weight gain (M: 266 ± 70 g; C: 272 ± 64 g). Several sows were culled after weaning for reasons unrelated to the experiment. Compared with the remaining 21 C sows, the remaining 26 M sows had an identical interval between weaning and the next farrowing (M: 120 ± 1 days; C: 120 ± 1 days) and a similar litter size (M: 14.5 ± 2.7; C: 14.9 ± 3.0; P > 0.10). The daily intake of 17 mg DON during lactation thus did not affect the reproductive performance of the sows.

  7. Parents' beliefs about appropriate infant size, growth and feeding behaviour: implications for the prevention of childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A number of risk factors are associated with the development of childhood obesity which can be identified during infancy. These include infant feeding practices, parental response to infant temperament and parental perception of infant growth and appetite. Parental beliefs and understanding are crucial determinants of infant feeding behaviour; therefore any intervention would need to take account of their views. This study aimed to explore UK parents' beliefs concerning their infant's size, growth and feeding behaviour and parental receptiveness to early intervention aimed at reducing the risk of childhood obesity. Method Six focus groups were undertaken in a range of different demographic localities, with parents of infants less than one year of age. The focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis applied using an interpretative, inductive approach. Results 38 parents (n = 36 female, n = 2 male), age range 19-45 years (mean 30.1 years, SD 6.28) participated in the focus groups. 12/38 were overweight (BMI 25-29.99) and 8/38 obese (BMI >30). Five main themes were identified. These were a) parental concern about breast milk, infant contentment and growth; b) the belief that the main cause of infant distress is hunger is widespread and drives inappropriate feeding; c) rationalisation for infants' larger size; d) parental uncertainty about identifying and managing infants at risk of obesity and e) intentions and behaviour in relation to a healthy lifestyle. Conclusions There are a number of barriers to early intervention with parents of infants at risk of developing obesity. Parents are receptive to prevention prior to weaning and need better support with best practice in infant feeding. In particular, this should focus on helping them understand the physiology of breast feeding, how to differentiate between infant distress caused by hunger and other causes and the timing of weaning. Some parents also need guidance about how

  8. Detection of feeding behaviour in common carp Cyprinus carpio by using an acceleration data logger to identify mandibular movement.

    PubMed

    Makiguchi, Y; Sugie, Y; Kojima, T; Naito, Y

    2012-05-01

    Miniaturized acceleration data loggers were attached to the lower mandible of common carp Cyprinus carpio to remotely identify feeding behaviour. Whether the acceleration signal could distinguish the quantity and quality of food was also investigated. The frequency and amplitude of the lower mandible stroke, calculated from surging acceleration determined by continuous wavelet transformation, significantly increased during the feeding period compared to that during the non-feeding period. These characteristic movement patterns were maintained for mean ±s.e. 187·3 ± 38·2 s when the fish were fed a single item of food and for mean ±s.e. 419·3 ± 28·6 s when they consumed multiple items. The dominant cycle and amplitude calculated according to feeding event duration, however, did not differ significantly between the two types of diets the fish consumed. Surging acceleration could detect mean ±s.e. 89·8 ± 13·5% of feeding events, although the false detection rate was mean ±s.e. 25·9 ± 10·9%. The results indicate that the mandible acceleration measurement method could be utilized to detect and record the feeding events in fishes that use a suction feeding mode similar to C. carpio.

  9. Detection of feeding behaviour in common carp Cyprinus carpio by using an acceleration data logger to identify mandibular movement.

    PubMed

    Makiguchi, Y; Sugie, Y; Kojima, T; Naito, Y

    2012-05-01

    Miniaturized acceleration data loggers were attached to the lower mandible of common carp Cyprinus carpio to remotely identify feeding behaviour. Whether the acceleration signal could distinguish the quantity and quality of food was also investigated. The frequency and amplitude of the lower mandible stroke, calculated from surging acceleration determined by continuous wavelet transformation, significantly increased during the feeding period compared to that during the non-feeding period. These characteristic movement patterns were maintained for mean ±s.e. 187·3 ± 38·2 s when the fish were fed a single item of food and for mean ±s.e. 419·3 ± 28·6 s when they consumed multiple items. The dominant cycle and amplitude calculated according to feeding event duration, however, did not differ significantly between the two types of diets the fish consumed. Surging acceleration could detect mean ±s.e. 89·8 ± 13·5% of feeding events, although the false detection rate was mean ±s.e. 25·9 ± 10·9%. The results indicate that the mandible acceleration measurement method could be utilized to detect and record the feeding events in fishes that use a suction feeding mode similar to C. carpio. PMID:22551186

  10. The evolutionary history of maternal plant-manipulation and larval feeding behaviours in attelabid weevils (Coleoptera; Curculionoidea).

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Chisato; Okuyama, Yudai; Kawazoe, Kazuhide; Kato, Makoto

    2012-08-01

    Attelabid weevils manipulate specific structures of their host plants in a species-specific manner, e.g., cutting a shoot, cutting a leaf, rolling a leaf, or constructing sophisticated wrapped leaf rolls, presumably to secure the survivorship of eggs or larvae. To depict the evolutionary history of maternal plant-manipulation behaviours and larval feeding strategies of the family Attelabidae, molecular phylogenetic analyses were conducted by sequencing the nuclear 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I genes. Our analyses indicated that the attelabid weevils form a monophyletic group, and that maternal plant-cutting behaviour originated in a common ancestor of Attelabidae, but was subsequently lost in several lineages. Monophyly of the subfamily Attelabinae was also recovered with high support, but the subfamily Rhynchitinae was not recovered as monophyletic. By employing maximum-likelihood-based ancestral state reconstructions, larval leaf-blade feeding was inferred to have evolved from boring of cut shoots/petioles. Moreover, maternal leaf-rolling behaviours likely originated independently in the Attelabinae and Byctiscini lineages, and in several Deporaini lineages. As the sophisticated behaviours constructing wrapped leaf rolls of Attelabinae originated only once and has not been lost from the lineage, these complex and innovative behaviours may have contributed to the success and diversification of the lineage.

  11. Muscle characteristics and meat quality traits are affected by divergent selection on residual feed intake in pigs.

    PubMed

    Lefaucheur, L; Lebret, B; Ecolan, P; Louveau, I; Damon, M; Prunier, A; Billon, Y; Sellier, P; Gilbert, H

    2011-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed feed intake and that expected based on requirements for maintenance and production. A divergent selection was conducted during 4 generations in Large White male pigs to produce low and high RFI lines. The present study aims at determining the influence of this selection on biochemical and histological traits of skeletal muscle, and relating these changes to correlated effects on growth, carcass composition, and meat quality traits. At 8 d preslaughter, biopsies from the LM were taken in the fed state on 14 females from each RFI line fed ad libitum. Animals were slaughtered at 107.8 ± 8.0 kg of BW without any previous fasting. Samples of LM, semimembranosus (SM), biceps femoris (BFM), and rhomboideus muscles were taken at both 30 min and 24 h postmortem. Myofiber typing was only assessed in LM. Low RFI pigs ("efficient") had leaner carcasses with greater muscle content (P < 0.001), less backfat thickness (P < 0.001), and less intramuscular fat content in all 4 muscles (P < 0.01 to P = 0.04). Their greater muscle content was associated with hypertrophy of all fast-twitch fibers. Glycogen content in all glycolytic muscles (i.e., LM, SM and BFM), was greater in low than high RFI pigs. The greater accumulation of glycogen in LM of low RFI pigs was specifically located in the fast-twitch glycolytic IIBW fibers, which correspond to fibers containing IIb, IIb + IIx, or IIx myosin heavy chains. The difference in muscle glycogen content between RFI line pigs was more significant in the living animals (P = 0.0003) than at 30 min postmortem (P = 0.08). This was associated with a decreased ultimate pH (P = 0.001), and greater lightness of color (P = 0.002) and drip loss (P = 0.04) in LM of low than high RFI line pigs, suggesting that selection for reduced RFI may impair some meat quality traits, such as water-holding capacity. Pigs from the low RFI line exhibited a greater (P = 0.02) percentage of

  12. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on feed intake, energy balance, milk production, and composition in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Yepes, F A Leal; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J; Lock, A L; Ryan, C M; Nydam, D V

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on the degree of ketonemia postpartum. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an association between elevated β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations in postpartum dairy cows and a decreased risk for reproductive success as well as increased risk for several diseases in early lactation, such as displacement of the abomasum and metritis. The plane of energy fed to cows in the prepartum period has been shown to influence ketogenesis and the degree of negative energy balance postpartum. Our hypothesis was that a high-fiber, controlled-energy diet (C) fed during the dry period would lead to a lower degree of hyperketonemia in the first weeks postpartum compared with either a high-energy diet (H), or a diet where an intermediate level of energy would only be fed in the close-up period (starting at 28d before expected parturition), following the same controlled-energy diet in the far-off period. Hyperketonemia in this study was defined as a blood BHBA concentration of ≥1.2mmol/L. Holstein cows (n=84) entering parity 2 or greater were enrolled using a randomized block design and housed in individual tiestalls. All treatment diets were fed for ad libitum intake and contained monensin. Cows received the same fresh cow ration after calving. Blood samples were obtained 3 times weekly before and after calving and analyzed for BHBA and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Milk components, production, and dry matter intake were recorded and energy balance was calculated. Repeated measures ANOVA was conducted for the outcomes dry matter intake, energy balance, BHBA and NEFA concentrations, milk and energy-corrected milk yield, as well as milk composition. Predicted energy balance tended to be less negative postpartum in group C and cows in this group had fewer episodes of hyperketonemia compared with both the intermediate group and group H in the first 3 wk after calving. Postpartum BHBA and

  13. Effect of daily feed intake in laying period on laying performance, egg quality and egg composition of genetically fat and lean lines of chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, F; Xu, L M; Shan, A S; Hu, J W; Zhang, Y Y; Li, Y H

    2011-04-01

    1. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feed intake on laying performance, egg quality and egg composition in a Fat line and a Lean line during the laying period (34 to 54 weeks of age). 2. The experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial design with two dietary intake levels (nutrition recommendation and 75% of recommendation) and two broiler genotypes (Fat line and Lean line). Hens (384 of each line) were randomly divided at 23 weeks of age into 4 treatments, with each treatment represented by 12 replicates of 16 birds each. The experiment started when the rate of lay reached 5% and continued until 54 weeks of age. 3. The results indicated that there was a significant interaction between daily feed intake and genotype on egg production, egg weight, percentage yolk, yolk/albumen ratio and yolk cholesterol content. Fat line hens produced significantly more eggs and had a lower incidence of cracked eggs than the Lean line hens. The reduction in feed intake decreased egg weight and increased egg production, egg-shape index and cholesterol content of yolk significantly. PMID:21491238

  14. Cluster-randomized trial on complementary and responsive feeding education to caregivers found improved dietary intake, growth and development among rural Indian toddlers.

    PubMed

    Vazir, Shahnaz; Engle, Patrice; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Griffiths, Paula L; Johnson, Susan L; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia; Shroff, Monal R; Bentley, Margaret E

    2013-01-01

    Inadequate feeding and care may contribute to high rates of stunting and underweight among children in rural families in India. This cluster-randomized trial tested the hypothesis that teaching caregivers appropriate complementary feeding and strategies for how to feed and play responsively through home-visits would increase children's dietary intake, growth and development compared with home-visit-complementary feeding education alone or routine care. Sixty villages in Andhra Pradesh were randomized into three groups of 20 villages with 200 mother-infant dyads in each group. The control group (CG) received routine Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS); the complementary feeding group (CFG) received the ICDS plus the World Health Organization recommendations on breastfeeding and complementary foods; and the responsive complementary feeding and play group (RCF&PG) received the same intervention as the CFG plus skills for responsive feeding and psychosocial stimulation. Both intervention groups received bi-weekly visits by trained village women. The groups did not differ at 3 months on socioeconomic status, maternal and child nutritional indices, and maternal depression. After controlling for potential confounding factors using the mixed models approach, the 12-month intervention to the CFG and RCF&PG significantly (P < 0.05) increased median intakes of energy, protein, Vitamin A, calcium (CFG), iron and zinc, reduced stunting [0.19, confidence interval (CI): 0.0-0.4] in the CFG (but not RCF&PG) and increased (P < 0.01) Bayley Mental Development scores (mean = 3.1, CI: 0.8-5.3) in the RCF&PG (but not CFG) compared with CG. Community-based educational interventions can improve dietary intake, length (CFG) and mental development (RCF&PG) for children under 2 years in food-secure rural Indian families.

  15. Cluster-randomized trial on complementary and responsive feeding education to caregivers found improved dietary intake, growth, and development among rural Indian toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Vazir, Shahnaz; Engle, Patrice; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Griffiths, Paula L.; Johnson, Susan L.; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Rao, Sylvia Fernandez; Shroff, Monal R.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Inadequate feeding and care may contribute to high rates of stunting and underweight among children in rural families in India. This cluster-randomized trial tested the hypothesis that teaching caregivers appropriate complementary feeding, and strategies for how to feed and play responsively through home-visits would increase children’s dietary intake, growth, and development compared to home-visit-complementary feeding education alone or routine care. Sixty villages in Andhra Pradesh were randomized into 3 groups1 of 20 villages with 200 mother-infant dyads in each group. The Control Group (CG), received routine Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS); the Complementary Feeding Group (CFG), received the ICDS plus the World Health Organization recommendations on breastfeeding and complementary foods; and the Responsive Complementary Feeding & Play Group (RCF&PG) received the same intervention as the CFG plus skills for responsive feeding and psychosocial stimulation. Both intervention groups received bi-weekly visits by trained village women. The groups did not differ at 3 months on socioeconomic status, maternal and child nutritional indices and maternal depression. After controlling for potential confounding factors using the mixed models approach, the twelve-month intervention to the CFG and RCF&PG significantly (p<0.05) increased median intakes of energy, protein, Vitamin-A, calcium (CFG), iron and zinc, reduced stunting (0.19, CI: 0.0–0.4) in the CFG (but not RCF&PG) and increased (p<0.01) Bayley Mental Development scores(Mean=3.1, CI: 0.8–5.3) in the RCF&PG (but not CFG) compared to CG. Community-based educational interventions can improve dietary intake, length (CFG), and mental development (RCF&PG) for children under two years in food-secure rural Indian families. PMID:22625182

  16. Effect of a long-term exposure to concentrated sucrose and maltodextrin solutions on the preference, appetence, feed intake and growth performance of post-weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Pino, Sergio A; Solà-Oriol, David; Figueroa, Jaime; Dwyer, Dominic M; Pérez, José F

    2015-03-15

    Commercial pigs display an innate attraction for sweet taste compounds. However, the impact of long-term availability to supplementary carbohydrate solutions on their general feeding behavior has not been examined. In this work we assess the effect of 12-days exposure to 16% sucrose and 16% maltodextrin solutions on the feed intake and growth performance of piglets, and on their preference and appetence for sweet or protein solutions. The innate preference of piglets was assessed by an initial choice test between 2% sucrose and 2% animal plasma solutions for a period of three minutes. Piglets showed higher intake and preference for 2% sucrose than for 2% animal plasma. In Experiment 1, piglets were then free-offered a 16% sucrose solution as a supplement to the diet, showing a higher intake of it than water and a reduction in feed intake and weight gain. A similar situation occurred during the last days of free-exposure to a 16% maltodextrin solution in Experiment 2. The choice test between 2% sucrose and 2% animal plasma solution was repeated after the exposure to the concentrated solutions. In both experiments, a reduction in the initial preference for 2% sucrose was observed. Similarly, piglets that had previous access to the 16% sucrose and 16% maltodextrin solutions showed a decrease in the appetence for 2% sucrose in comparison with that for 2% animal plasma, as measured by a one-pan test at the end of the experiments. It is concluded that long-term exposure to concentrated sucrose and maltodextrin solutions reduces feed intake and growth in weanling piglets, and also reverses their innate preference and appetence for dilute sweet over protein solutions.

  17. Health risks from lost awareness of cultural behaviours rooted in traditional medicine: An insight in geophagy and mineral intake.

    PubMed

    Frazzoli, Chiara; Pouokam, Guy Bertrand; Mantovani, Alberto; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2016-10-01

    The term geophagy is applied to the recurrent intentional eating of soil with multifactorial motivation. Geophagists are generally defined by gender (women), age (children), physical status (e.g. pregnancy, lactation, postpartum), social status (people exposed to significant nutritional deficiencies), and culture, but lost awareness of traditional medical meaning of this practice is changing these consumption patterns and increasing health risks. Moreover, although the holistic anthropological perspective recognizes soil consumption as mineral supplementation under certain circumstances, we should consider how the living environment has changed and is changing, along with diet, nutrition requirements, and habits. Therefore, benefits-to-risks ratio of cultural behaviours initiated centuries ago based on traditional medical practices requires deep revision and assessment. Knowledge on minerals metabolism, bioavailability and interactions is required to properly assess the role of geophagy in a balanced and safe intake of micronutrients. Most important, the risk of unbalanced intake of minerals may be serious since the mineralogy and chemistry of geophagic clays are uncontrolled, variable, and difficult to standardize. In addition, other factors (radioactive materials, organic chemicals and soil pathogens) complicate the risk assessment for population groups consuming soil. Since the geophagic practice is expected to persist despite economic development, the paper discusses the multifaceted spectrum of geophagy to highlight critical aspects for risk management.

  18. Health risks from lost awareness of cultural behaviours rooted in traditional medicine: An insight in geophagy and mineral intake.

    PubMed

    Frazzoli, Chiara; Pouokam, Guy Bertrand; Mantovani, Alberto; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2016-10-01

    The term geophagy is applied to the recurrent intentional eating of soil with multifactorial motivation. Geophagists are generally defined by gender (women), age (children), physical status (e.g. pregnancy, lactation, postpartum), social status (people exposed to significant nutritional deficiencies), and culture, but lost awareness of traditional medical meaning of this practice is changing these consumption patterns and increasing health risks. Moreover, although the holistic anthropological perspective recognizes soil consumption as mineral supplementation under certain circumstances, we should consider how the living environment has changed and is changing, along with diet, nutrition requirements, and habits. Therefore, benefits-to-risks ratio of cultural behaviours initiated centuries ago based on traditional medical practices requires deep revision and assessment. Knowledge on minerals metabolism, bioavailability and interactions is required to properly assess the role of geophagy in a balanced and safe intake of micronutrients. Most important, the risk of unbalanced intake of minerals may be serious since the mineralogy and chemistry of geophagic clays are uncontrolled, variable, and difficult to standardize. In addition, other factors (radioactive materials, organic chemicals and soil pathogens) complicate the risk assessment for population groups consuming soil. Since the geophagic practice is expected to persist despite economic development, the paper discusses the multifaceted spectrum of geophagy to highlight critical aspects for risk management. PMID:27342642

  19. Genetic parameters of a random regression model for daily feed intake of performance tested French Landrace and Large White growing pigs

    PubMed Central

    Schnyder, Urs; Hofer, Andreas; Labroue, Florence; Künzi, Niklaus

    2001-01-01

    Daily feed intake data of 1 279 French Landrace (FL, 1 039 boars and 240 castrates) and 2 417 Large White (LW, 2 032 boars and 385 castrates) growing pigs were recorded with electronic feed dispensers in three French central testing stations from 1992–1994. Male (35 to 95 kg live body weight) or castrated (100 kg live body weight) group housed, ad libitum fed pigs were performance tested. A quadratic polynomial in days on test with fixed regressions for sex and batch, random regressions for additive genetic, pen, litter and individual permanent environmental effects was used, with two different models for the residual variance: constant in model 1 and modelled with a quadratic polynomial depending on the day on test dm as follows in model 2: . Variance components were estimated from weekly means of daily feed intake by means of a Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling. Posterior means of (co)variances were calculated using 800 000 samples from four chains (200 000 each). Heritability estimates of regression coefficients were 0.30 (FL model 1), 0.21 (FL model 2), 0.14 (LW1) and 0.14 (LW2) for the intercept, 0.04 (FL1), 0.04 (FL2), 0.11 (LW1) and 0.06 (LW2) for the linear, 0.03 (FL1), 0.04 (FL2) 0.11 (LW1) and 0.06 (LW2) for the quadratic term. Heritability estimates for weekly means of daily feed intake were the lowest in week 4 (FL1: 0.11, FL2: 0.11) and week 1 (LW1: 0.09, LW2: 0.10), and the highest in week 11 (FL1: 0.25, FL2: 0.24) and week 8 (LW1: 0.19, LW2: 0.18), respectively. Genetic eigenfunctions revealed that altering the shape of the feed intake curve by selection is difficult. PMID:11742633

  20. Effect of Trypanosoma vivax infection on body temperature, feed intake, and metabolic rate of West African dwarf goats.

    PubMed

    Zwart, D; Brouwer, B O; van der Hel, W; van den Akker, H N; Verstegen, M W

    1991-09-01

    Thirty-two mature dwarf goats weighing between 16 and 30 kg (22.7 +/- 3.7, SD) were used to study the effect of Trypanosoma vivax infection on rectal temperature (RT), feed intake (DMI), and metabolic rate. Sixteen of the goats were infected intravenously with 14 X 10(6) T. vivax each; the 16 others served as controls. Animals were fed at about 1.1 times maintenance. Heat production was measured from 1 wk preinfection to 6 wk postinfection. From data on successive 9-min periods, heat production was calculated per 24-h period and separately for 0700 to 2000 (day period) and for 2000 to 0700 (night period). Rectal temperature was measured twice weekly. Compared with controls, animals infected with T. vivax developed and maintained a 1 degree C higher RT and a higher metabolic rate. After the prepatent period of 5 to 7 d, during which RT remained normal, all infected goats had a period of about 7 d with constant high temperatures. After that initial episode, RT fluctuated. Heat production of infected animals was increased by 15.6 kcal.d-1.kg-.75, or about 16%. This increase in heat production was greater during the night (22 kcal.d-1.kg-.75) than during the day (14 kcal.d-1.kg-.75). After T. vivax infection, large differences in DMI among animals were apparent. In four animals, a clear relation between DMI and RT was noted, but in 12 animals no such relationship was apparent.

  1. Improving residual feed intake of mule progeny of Muscovy ducks: genetic parameters and responses to selection with emphasis on carcass composition and fatty liver quality.

    PubMed

    Drouilhet, L; Basso, B; Bernadet, M-D; Cornuez, A; Bodin, L; David, I; Gilbert, H; Marie-Etancelin, C

    2014-10-01

    In France, about 95% of the fatty liver production comes from mule ducks, an infertile hybrid cross between female common ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and Muscovy drakes (Cairina moschata). As a hybrid, genetic improvement of the performance of mule ducks is achieved by selection of the parental populations. Feed represents two-thirds of the total costs of duck production; thus, the breeders' main concern is to improve the birds' feed efficiency without impairing their capacity to be overfed after the growing period. To obtain insight into this economically important trait, we designed a divergent selection experiment for Muscovy sires on the basis of the residual feed intake (RFI) of their male mule progeny. Residual feed intake represents the fraction of feed intake that cannot be explained by maintenance and production requirements. Data comprised records from generations 0 to 2 with 227 Muscovy sires of 2,016 mule ducks. Growth and fat deposition were measured individually for all mule ducks. Half-sib mule ducks were placed together in 1 small pen, and the feed consumption was recorded for each pen; all half-sibs therefore had the same feed intake estimates. Heritability of RFI was high (0.83 ± 0.42), and after 2 generations of selection, the differences between lines in terms of RFI (contrast of 9.13 g/d, representing 0.76 phenotypic standard deviation; P < 0.0001) and feed conversion ratio (contrast of 0.08, representing 0.28 phenotypic standard deviation; P = 0.0003) were marked. In regard to carcass traits, the low-RFI line (high-efficiency animals) had heavier legs (476 vs. 463 g; P < 0.0001) and magret muscles (268 vs. 262 g; P = 0.001) than the high-RFI line (low-efficiency animals). No differences were observed for either the liver weight or the melting rate between the 2 lines (P > 0.46). Selection on RFI thus improves the feed efficiency of animals without impairing their capacity to produce fatty liver.

  2. Diving behaviour of harbour seal Phoca vitulina pups from nursing to independent feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekkby, T.; Bjørge, A.

    2000-12-01

    To study the diving activity of harbour seal ( Phoca vitulina) from nursing to independent feeding, we VHF radio tagged and tracked seven pups. The pups gradually developed the diving skills necessary to obtain enough food after weaning and to avoid natural and man-made dangers. The maximum dive duration remained unchanged with pup age, indicating that pups have considerable breath-holding capacity already from an early age. However, mean dive duration increased with age, from 0.92 min in pups ≤25 days old to 2.55 min in 1-2 month olds, and 3.09 min in 2-3 month olds. The increase continued for weeks after the assumed weaning, and indicates that the capacity to perform long-lasting dives steadily increases as the pups grow older. Mean and maximum surface duration remained unchanged with pup age. Mean surface duration was 0.32 min with a maximum value of 6.10 min. An increase in mean surface duration with mean dive duration was found when the pups were ≤25 days old, but not when they were older. This may indicate that young pups need to rest more after diving than older ones. No relationship was found between dive duration and the subsequent surface interval. The proportion of time spent submerged increased with age, from 71% when the pups were ≤25 days old to 86% when they were older. The pups hauled-out less frequently as they grew older. The pups were never recorded outside the study area (defined by the 30-km station range). Time of day, tidal height and weather conditions seemed not to influence the diving behaviour of the pups.

  3. Feeding behaviour of potential vectors of West Nile virus in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background West Nile virus (WNV) is a widespread pathogen maintained in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and birds with occasional spill-over into dead-end hosts such as horses and humans. Migratory birds are believed to play an important role in its dissemination from and to the Palaearctic area, as well as its local dispersion between wintering sites. The Djoudj Park, located in Senegal, is a major wintering site for birds migrating from Europe during the study period (Sept. 2008- Jan. 2009). In this work, we studied the seasonal feeding behaviour dynamics of the potential WNV mosquito vectors at the border of the Djoudj Park, using a reference trapping method (CDC light CO2-baited traps) and two host-specific methods (horse- and pigeon-baited traps). Blood meals of engorged females were analysed to determine their origin. Results Results indicated that Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. neavei may play a key role in the WNV transmission dynamics, the latter being the best candidate bridging-vector species between mammals and birds. Moreover, the attractiveness of pigeon- and horse-baited traps for Cx. neavei and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus varied with time. Finally, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was only active when the night temperature was above 20°C, whereas Cx. neavei was active throughout the observation period. Conclusions Cx. neavei and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus are the main candidate vectors for the transmission of WNV in the area. The changes in host attractiveness might be related to variable densities of the migratory birds during the trapping period. We discuss the importance of these results on the risk of WNV transmission in horses and humans. PMID:21651763

  4. The Study of Association between Mother Weight Efficacy Life-style with Feeding Practices, Food Groups Intake and Body Mass Index in Children Aged 3-6 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gholamalizadeh, Maryam; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan; Paknahad, Zamzam; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Doaei, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nutrition in childhood has a significant role in current and adulthood health. Recent studies have shown that the mother's life-style has an important role in the methods used by mother to feed child, child's diet and body mass index (BMI). This study paper aimed to investigate the association between mother's weight efficacy life-style (WEL) with feeding practices and diet in children aged 3-6 years. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, which was carried out in 18 Primary Schools of Rasht (Iran) in 2012, 165 mothers with children aged 3-6 years were participated. Mothers reported their own and their child's demographics. Aspects of mother's WEL and mother's control practices were assessed using WEL questionnaire and Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire respectively. Height and weight of mothers participated in the study were measured. Child's dietary intake was measured using Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The role of mother's weight efficacy in predicting child's feeding practices and child's diet was assessed using the linear regression. Statistical significance for all P values was set at 0.003. Results: The results were showed that mother's weight efficacy was related to child feeding practices and child's dietary intake. The mothers with similar WEL applied similar methods in child nutrition. Mothers with better weight efficacy used more encourage balance and variety (β = 1.860), environmental control (β = 0.437), child involvement (β = 0.203) and less emotion regulation using foods (β = −0.213) and their children eat fewer snacks (β = −0.318) (PV= 0.003). Conclusions: The result of this study showed that maternal life-style was associated with feeding practices and child's intake. There was no significant relation between the maternal self-efficacy and child BMI. PMID:24554988

  5. Changes of Serum Calcium Concentration, Frequency of Ruminal Contraction and Feed Intake Soon after Parturition of Dairy Cows Fed Difructose Anhydride III

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, S.; Teramura, M.; Sato, T.; Hanada, M.

    2015-01-01

    Requirements to control the large decrease in serum calcium (Ca) due to parturition and to increase the feed intake soon after parturition have been well accepted in dairy cows. This study was aimed to investigate the feed intake affected by serum Ca concentration with difructose anhydride (DFA) III supplement in dairy cows soon after parturition. Fourteen transition Holstein cows were divided into DFA and control (CONT) groups within 1 to 5 parity variations in each group. Measurement schedule for an individual cow was from 14 d before parturition to 7 d following parturition. The cows in DFA group were supplied 0.2 kg/head/d of DFA III feed containing 40 g of pure DFA III while the cows in CONT group received no DFA III. Other feeding procedures were the same for all cows in both groups. At parturition (d 0), serum Ca concentration sharply declined in both groups (p<0.05). Time interval for recovery from decreased serum Ca to its normal range (>9.0 mg/dL) tended to be faster in DFA group (12 h) than in the CONT group (48 h), but the differences were not significant. Active ruminal contraction was observed in DFA group at following parturition of d 1 (p<0.05), d 3 (p<0.05), and d 5 (p<0.01). Dry matter (DM) intake did not differ between the groups. However, positive correlations were observed between serum Ca concentration and ruminal contraction (p<0.001), and between ruminal contraction and DM intake (p<0.001) during following parturition. According to multiple regression analysis (R2 = 0.824, p<0.001), the DM intake was positively affected by serum Ca concentration and ruminal contraction. These results suggest that feed intake soon after parturition in dairy cows can be increased by improvement of serum Ca concentration and active ruminal contraction, but DFA III supplementation in this study did not improve the lower serum Ca concentration due to parturition. PMID:25557676

  6. Changes of Serum Calcium Concentration, Frequency of Ruminal Contraction and Feed Intake Soon after Parturition of Dairy Cows Fed Difructose Anhydride III.

    PubMed

    Wynn, S; Teramura, M; Sato, T; Hanada, M

    2015-01-01

    Requirements to control the large decrease in serum calcium (Ca) due to parturition and to increase the feed intake soon after parturition have been well accepted in dairy cows. This study was aimed to investigate the feed intake affected by serum Ca concentration with difructose anhydride (DFA) III supplement in dairy cows soon after parturition. Fourteen transition Holstein cows were divided into DFA and control (CONT) groups within 1 to 5 parity variations in each group. Measurement schedule for an individual cow was from 14 d before parturition to 7 d following parturition. The cows in DFA group were supplied 0.2 kg/head/d of DFA III feed containing 40 g of pure DFA III while the cows in CONT group received no DFA III. Other feeding procedures were the same for all cows in both groups. At parturition (d 0), serum Ca concentration sharply declined in both groups (p<0.05). Time interval for recovery from decreased serum Ca to its normal range (>9.0 mg/dL) tended to be faster in DFA group (12 h) than in the CONT group (48 h), but the differences were not significant. Active ruminal contraction was observed in DFA group at following parturition of d 1 (p<0.05), d 3 (p<0.05), and d 5 (p<0.01). Dry matter (DM) intake did not differ between the groups. However, positive correlations were observed between serum Ca concentration and ruminal contraction (p<0.001), and between ruminal contraction and DM intake (p<0.001) during following parturition. According to multiple regression analysis (R(2) = 0.824, p<0.001), the DM intake was positively affected by serum Ca concentration and ruminal contraction. These results suggest that feed intake soon after parturition in dairy cows can be increased by improvement of serum Ca concentration and active ruminal contraction, but DFA III supplementation in this study did not improve the lower serum Ca concentration due to parturition.

  7. Effect of predictor traits on accuracy of genomic breeding values for feed intake based on a limited cow reference population.

    PubMed

    Pszczola, M; Veerkamp, R F; de Haas, Y; Wall, E; Strabel, T; Calus, M P L

    2013-11-01

    pedigree, and 0.63 for CV and 0.61 for PEV in genomic analyses). Recording predictor traits for only the reference population did not increase DMI breeding value accuracy. Recording predictor traits for both reference and evaluated animals significantly increased DMI breeding value accuracy and removed the bias observed when only reference animals had records. The benefit of using genomic instead of pedigree relationships was reduced when more predictor traits were used. Using predictor traits may be an inexpensive way to significantly increase the accuracy and remove the bias of (genomic) breeding values of scarcely recorded traits such as feed intake.

  8. More efficient mastication allows increasing intake without compromising digestibility or necessitating a larger gut: comparative feeding trials in banteng (Bos javanicus) and pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis).

    PubMed

    Schwarm, Angela; Ortmann, Sylvia; Wolf, Christian; Streich, W Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2009-04-01

    The digestion of plant material in mammalian herbivores basically depends on the chemical and structural composition of the diet, the mean particle size to which the forage is processed, and the ingesta retention time. These different factors can be influenced by the animal, and they can presumably compensate for each other. The pygmy hippopotamus, a non-ruminating foregut fermenter, has longer mean retention times than ruminants; however hippos do not achieve higher (fibre) digestibilities on comparable diets, which could be due to ineffective mastication. We performed feeding trials with six pygmy hippos (Hexaprotodon liberiensis) and six banteng cattle (Bos javanicus) on a grass diet. As predicted, both species achieved similar dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and gross energy digestibilities. However, neutral and acid detergent fibre digestibility was lower in pygmy hippos. Apparently, in these species, fibre digestibility was more influenced by particle size, which was larger in pygmy hippos compared to banteng, than by retention time. In spite of their higher relative food intake, the banteng in this study did not have greater relative gut fills than the hippos. Ruminants traditionally appear intake-limited when compared to equids, because feed particles above a certain size cannot leave the rumen. But when compared to nonruminating foregut fermenters, rumination seems to free foregut fermenters from an intrinsic food intake limitation. The higher energy intakes and metabolic rates in wild cattle compared to hippos could have life-history consequences, such as a higher relative reproductive rate.

  9. More efficient mastication allows increasing intake without compromising digestibility or necessitating a larger gut: comparative feeding trials in banteng (Bos javanicus) and pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis).

    PubMed

    Schwarm, Angela; Ortmann, Sylvia; Wolf, Christian; Streich, W Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2009-04-01

    The digestion of plant material in mammalian herbivores basically depends on the chemical and structural composition of the diet, the mean particle size to which the forage is processed, and the ingesta retention time. These different factors can be influenced by the animal, and they can presumably compensate for each other. The pygmy hippopotamus, a non-ruminating foregut fermenter, has longer mean retention times than ruminants; however hippos do not achieve higher (fibre) digestibilities on comparable diets, which could be due to ineffective mastication. We performed feeding trials with six pygmy hippos (Hexaprotodon liberiensis) and six banteng cattle (Bos javanicus) on a grass diet. As predicted, both species achieved similar dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and gross energy digestibilities. However, neutral and acid detergent fibre digestibility was lower in pygmy hippos. Apparently, in these species, fibre digestibility was more influenced by particle size, which was larger in pygmy hippos compared to banteng, than by retention time. In spite of their higher relative food intake, the banteng in this study did not have greater relative gut fills than the hippos. Ruminants traditionally appear intake-limited when compared to equids, because feed particles above a certain size cannot leave the rumen. But when compared to nonruminating foregut fermenters, rumination seems to free foregut fermenters from an intrinsic food intake limitation. The higher energy intakes and metabolic rates in wild cattle compared to hippos could have life-history consequences, such as a higher relative reproductive rate. PMID:19135544

  10. Effects of raw milk and starter feed on intake and body composition of Holstein × Gyr male calves up to 64 days of age.

    PubMed

    Silva, A L; Marcondes, M I; Detmann, E; Machado, F S; Valadares Filho, S C; Trece, A S; Dijkstra, J

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplying different levels of raw milk, alone or in combination, with access to a starter feed, on the intake, digestibility, daily gain, N balance, and body composition of Holstein × Gyr crossbred suckling calves until 64 d of age. Thirty-nine male calves aged 4 d with an average initial live weight of 36 ± 1.0 kg were used. Five calves were defined as a reference group and slaughtered at 4 d of age to estimate the initial body composition of the animals. The other calves were distributed according to a completely randomized design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of 3 levels of milk (2, 4, or 8 L/d) and 2 levels of starter feed (presence or absence in diet). At 15 and 45 d of age, 4 animals from each treatment were subjected to digestibility trials with total collection of feces and urine and sampling of feeds. At 64 d of age, all animals were slaughtered and their body tissues were sampled for analyses. Total dry matter and nutrient intake increased linearly and starter intake decreased linearly in response to the supply of increasing amounts of milk. The digestibility coefficient of organic matter was not affected by the inclusion of starter feed and increased linearly as milk supply was elevated. Daily gain was greater at increased milk supply levels and also greater when starter was supplied, without any interaction between milk supply level and the presence or absence of starter. Fecal N excretion and N retention were higher in the animals fed starter feed. Fecal N excretion was not affected by milk levels, whereas N retention was affected. Body protein and ash contents decreased linearly according to increased milk allowance. In contrast, fat body content increased linearly according to milk supply. The presence of starter feed in the diet was responsible for the increased body fat content, but had no effect on protein or ash content. In conclusion, weight gain and N retention in calves up to 64 d of

  11. The effects of supplementation with a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wall, Emma H; Doane, Perry H; Donkin, Shawn S; Bravo, David

    2014-09-01

    Plant extracts (PE) are naturally occurring chemicals in plants, and many of these molecules have been reported to influence production efficiency of dairy and beef animals. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a PE additive (CE; an encapsulated blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) on the milk production performance of lactating dairy cows across a range of doses. In experiment 1, 32 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows in mid-lactation were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (350mg/d; n=16 cows/treatment) for 6 wk. In experiment 2, 48 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (200, 400, or 600mg/d; n=12 animals/treatment) for 8 wk. A 1-wk covariate period was included in both experiments. In both experiments, individual dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk composition, and somatic cell count were recorded daily. In experiment 1, CE was associated with an increase in DMI in both parity groups but an increase in milk production of multiparous cows only. In experiment 2, milk yield of multiparous cows was decreased at the 2 highest doses, whereas milk yield of primiparous cows was increased at the low and high doses of CE. These responses were accompanied by similar changes in DMI; therefore, CE did not affect feed efficiency. We observed no effect of CE on SCC or milk composition; however, treatment by parity interactions were detected for each of these variables that have not been described previously. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol can increase DMI and milk production in lactating dairy cows. In addition, environmental factors appear to influence the response to CE, including dose and parity, and these should be explored further. PMID:25022677

  12. The effects of supplementation with a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wall, Emma H; Doane, Perry H; Donkin, Shawn S; Bravo, David

    2014-09-01

    Plant extracts (PE) are naturally occurring chemicals in plants, and many of these molecules have been reported to influence production efficiency of dairy and beef animals. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a PE additive (CE; an encapsulated blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) on the milk production performance of lactating dairy cows across a range of doses. In experiment 1, 32 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows in mid-lactation were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (350mg/d; n=16 cows/treatment) for 6 wk. In experiment 2, 48 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (200, 400, or 600mg/d; n=12 animals/treatment) for 8 wk. A 1-wk covariate period was included in both experiments. In both experiments, individual dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk composition, and somatic cell count were recorded daily. In experiment 1, CE was associated with an increase in DMI in both parity groups but an increase in milk production of multiparous cows only. In experiment 2, milk yield of multiparous cows was decreased at the 2 highest doses, whereas milk yield of primiparous cows was increased at the low and high doses of CE. These responses were accompanied by similar changes in DMI; therefore, CE did not affect feed efficiency. We observed no effect of CE on SCC or milk composition; however, treatment by parity interactions were detected for each of these variables that have not been described previously. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol can increase DMI and milk production in lactating dairy cows. In addition, environmental factors appear to influence the response to CE, including dose and parity, and these should be explored further.

  13. The influence of stocking density on body weight, egg weight, and feed intake of adult broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Mtileni, B J; Nephawe, K A; Nesamvuni, A E; Benyi, K

    2007-08-01

    The influence of stocking density on BW, egg weight (EW), and feed intake (FI) in Ross broiler breeder hens (n = 120) was investigated during the late medium egg production period (from 50 to 54 wk of age). Birds were randomly allocated to 6 pens in densities of 15, 20, and 25 birds/pen, giving rise to a floor space allowance of 5, 6.67, and 8.33 birds/m(2), respectively. Each density was replicated twice, and the order among the 6 pens was chosen at random. Data were analyzed using the repeated measures techniques of the Statistical Analysis System, considering the covariance structure of the observed data. There was a significant effect attributable to stocking density, time (in days), and their interaction for BW, EW, and FI. Birds in density of 6.67 per m(2) were lighter but had heavier eggs than birds in density of 5 per m(2); however, birds in density of 8.33 per m(2) had similar BW and EW with birds in the other 2 groups. The mean FI were statistically different among the 3 groups, with a reduction in FI as density increases. Total egg production within the 3 density groups and average egg production per bird were also analyzed using categorical data techniques. The results indicated that stocking density influenced egg production, with birds at higher density producing fewer eggs per bird. Although generous floor space allowances were allocated per bird in this experiment, stocking density influenced the performance of broiler breeder hens.

  14. A comparison of indirect measures of feeding behaviour based on ARGOS tracking data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. W.; Tremblay, Y.; Crocker, D. E.; Kappes, M. A.; Kuhn, C. E.; Shaffer, S. A.; Simmons, S. E.; Costa, D. P.

    2007-02-01

    ARGOS tracking data are frequently used to infer feeding locations of marine predators. Most track-based methods rely on the assumption that feeding takes place within regions of area-restricted search (ARS); however, it is unclear whether the spatial accuracy and temporal resolution of ARGOS-quality data are sufficient to extract the location of ARSs at the resolution of individual feeding bouts. Using ARGOS tracking data from northern elephant seals ( Mirounga angustirostris) and Laysan albatrosses ( Phoebastria immutabilis), we tested several track-based estimators of feeding locations against independent feeding proxies (dive type or shape and number of landing events). The track-based methods were: turn angle, transit rate, first-passage time, and fractal dimension. None of these methods provided a reliable estimate of putative feeding activity at the species level, as measured by dive-type analysis or landing events. At the individual level, variation in agreement between track-based estimates and feeding proxies highlighted the importance of considering the effect of spatial scale. Biological justification of track-based metrics should be more carefully assessed before assigning particular functions to individual tracks (feeding/foraging/searching/transit) or groups of tracks (biological hotspots).

  15. Tidal activity pattern and feeding behaviour of the ophiuroid Ophiocoma scolopendrina on a Kenyan reef flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oak, Tara; Scheibling, Robert E.

    2006-05-01

    Ophiocoma scolopendrina exhibits a distinctive pattern of feeding activity on intertidal reef platforms off Kenya. With the first wave of the flooding tide, dense aggregations of these ophiuroids (up to 320 m-2) engage in a 1-2 min burst of surface-film feeding, vigorously sweeping the air-water interface and associated sea foam with the ventral surface of 2-4 arms. Suspension feeding (with arms extended in the water column) is the primary feeding mode throughout the rest of the tidal cycle (involving 25-65% of the population at a time), while bottom feeding (with arms extended along the substratum) is infrequent (<10%). Field experiments showed that surface-film feeding is regulated by water depth and can be triggered by suspended particles. This feeding mode appears to be an adaptation to the intertidal habitat, enabling the ophiuroids to exploit a nutrient-rich surface film during a temporal refuge (low tide) from fish predation. Dense populations of O. scolopendrina may represent an important trophic link between producers of particulate organic material and higher-level consumers in coral reef environments.

  16. X-ray microtomography provides first data about the feeding behaviour of an endangered lizard, the Montserrat galliwasp (Diploglossus montisserrati)

    PubMed Central

    Bochaton, C.; Boistel, R.; Charles, L.

    2015-01-01

    Reporting the diet of recently extinct or very rare taxa, only known by a few museum specimens, is challenging. This study uses X-ray microtomography, a non-destructive investigation method, to obtain the first data about feeding behaviours in the Montserrat galliwasp (Diploglossus montisserrati) by scanning one of the two specimens known to date. The scans revealed the occurrence of shell fragments of a freshwater snail (Omalonyx matheroni) in the digestive tract of the specimen. This data combined with morphological evidence shows the occurrence of a durophagous feeding habit and a possible tendency of association with freshwater environments. This information could be crucial to save this critically endangered lizard endemic on Montserrat island. PMID:27019732

  17. Visceral organ weights, digestion and carcass characteristics of beef bulls differing in residual feed intake offered a high concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimons, C; Kenny, D A; McGee, M

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship of residual feed intake (RFI) with digestion, body composition, carcass traits and visceral organ weights in beef bulls offered a high concentrate diet. Individual dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and growth were measured in a total of 67 Simmental bulls (mean initial BW 431 kg (s.d.=63.7)) over 3 years. Bulls were offered concentrates (860 g/kg rolled barley, 60 g/kg soya bean meal, 60 g/kg molasses and 20 g/kg minerals per vitamins) ad libitum plus 0.8 kg grass silage DM daily for 105 days pre-slaughter. Ultrasonic muscle and fat depth, body condition score (BCS), muscularity score, skeletal measurements, blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and total tract digestibility (indigestible marker) were determined. After slaughter, carcasses and perinephric and retroperitoneal fat were weighed, carcasses were graded for conformation and fat score and weight of non-carcass organs, liver, heart, kidneys, lungs, gall bladder, spleen, reticulo-rumen full and empty and intestines full, were determined. The residuals of the regression of DMI on average daily gain (ADG), mid-test metabolic BW (BW0.75) and the fixed effect of year, using all animals, were used to compute individual RFI coefficients. Animals were ranked on RFI and assigned to high (inefficient), medium or low groupings. Overall mean ADG and daily DMI were 1.6 kg (s.d.=0.36) and 9.4 kg (s.d.=1.16), respectively. High RFI bulls consumed 7 and 14% more DM than medium and low RFI bulls, respectively (P<0.001). No differences between high and low RFI bulls were detected (P>0.05) for ADG, BW, BCS, skeletal measurements, muscularity scores, ultrasonic measurements, carcass weight, perinephric and retroperitoneal fat weight, kill-out proportion and carcass conformation and fat score. However, regression analysis indicated that a 1 kg DM/day increase in RFI was associated with a decrease in kill-out proportion of 20 g/kg (P<0.05) and a decrease in carcass conformation of 0.74 units (P<0

  18. Relationship between the Rumen Microbiome and Residual Feed Intake-Efficiency of Brahman Bulls Stocked on Bermudagrass Pastures

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Joshua C.; Wiley, Leanne M.; Forbes, T. David; Rouquette, Francis M.; Tedeschi, Luis O.

    2014-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) testing has increased selection pressure on biological efficiency in cattle. The objective of this study was to assess the association of the rumen microbiome in inefficient, positive RFI (p-RFI) and efficient, negative RFI (n-RFI) Brahman bulls grazing ‘Coastal’ bermudagrass [Cynodondactylon (L.) Pers.]under two levels of forage allowance (high and low stocking intensity). Sixteen Brahman bulls were previously fed in confinement for 70 d to determine the RFI phenotype. Bulls were then allotted 60 d stocking on bermudagrass pastures to estimate RFI using the n-alkane technique. At the conclusion of the grazing period, rumen liquid samples were collected from each bull by stomach tube to evaluate the rumen microbiome. Extraction of DNA, amplification of the V4-V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene, and 454 pyrosequencing were performed on each sample. After denoising the sequences, chimera checking, and quality trimming, 4,573 ± 1,287 sequences were generated per sample. Sequences were then assigned taxonomy from the Greengenes database using the RDP classifier. Overall, 67.5 and 22.9% of sequences were classified as Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, respectively. Within the phylum Bacteroidetes, Prevotella was the most predominant genus and was observed in greater relative abundance in p-RFI bulls compared with n-RFI bulls (P = 0.01). In contrast, an unidentified Bacteroidales family was greater in relative abundance for n-RFI bulls than p-RFI (26.7 vs. 19.1%; P = 0.03). Ruminococcaceae was the third most abundant family in our samples, but it was not affected by RFI phenotype. No effect of stocking intensity was observed for bacterial taxa, but there was a tendency for alpha diversity and operational taxonomic unit richness to increase with lower stocking intensity. Results suggested the rumen microbiome of p-RFI Brahman bulls has greater levels of Prevotella, but the bacterial community composition was unaffected by stocking intensity

  19. Relationship between the rumen microbiome and residual feed intake-efficiency of Brahman bulls stocked on bermudagrass pastures.

    PubMed

    McCann, Joshua C; Wiley, Leanne M; Forbes, T David; Rouquette, Francis M; Tedeschi, Luis O

    2014-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) testing has increased selection pressure on biological efficiency in cattle. The objective of this study was to assess the association of the rumen microbiome in inefficient, positive RFI (p-RFI) and efficient, negative RFI (n-RFI) Brahman bulls grazing 'Coastal' bermudagrass [Cynodondactylon (L.) Pers.]under two levels of forage allowance (high and low stocking intensity). Sixteen Brahman bulls were previously fed in confinement for 70 d to determine the RFI phenotype. Bulls were then allotted 60 d stocking on bermudagrass pastures to estimate RFI using the n-alkane technique. At the conclusion of the grazing period, rumen liquid samples were collected from each bull by stomach tube to evaluate the rumen microbiome. Extraction of DNA, amplification of the V4-V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene, and 454 pyrosequencing were performed on each sample. After denoising the sequences, chimera checking, and quality trimming, 4,573 ± 1,287 sequences were generated per sample. Sequences were then assigned taxonomy from the Greengenes database using the RDP classifier. Overall, 67.5 and 22.9% of sequences were classified as Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, respectively. Within the phylum Bacteroidetes, Prevotella was the most predominant genus and was observed in greater relative abundance in p-RFI bulls compared with n-RFI bulls (P = 0.01). In contrast, an unidentified Bacteroidales family was greater in relative abundance for n-RFI bulls than p-RFI (26.7 vs. 19.1%; P = 0.03). Ruminococcaceae was the third most abundant family in our samples, but it was not affected by RFI phenotype. No effect of stocking intensity was observed for bacterial taxa, but there was a tendency for alpha diversity and operational taxonomic unit richness to increase with lower stocking intensity. Results suggested the rumen microbiome of p-RFI Brahman bulls has greater levels of Prevotella, but the bacterial community composition was unaffected by stocking intensity

  20. Plasma ghrelin is positively associated with body fat, liver fat and milk fat content but not with feed intake of dairy cows after parturition.

    PubMed

    Börner, Sabina; Derno, Michael; Hacke, Sandra; Kautzsch, Ulrike; Schäff, Christine; Thanthan, Sint; Kuwayama, Hideto; Hammon, Harald M; Röntgen, Monika; Weikard, Rosemarie; Kühn, Christa; Tuchscherer, Armin; Kuhla, Björn

    2013-02-01

    Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal peptide hormone that is present in blood mostly in a non-posttranslationally modified form, with a minor proportion acylated at Ser(3). Both ghrelin forms were initially assigned a role in the control of food intake but there is accumulating evidence for their involvement in fat allocation and utilization. We investigated changes in the ghrelin system in dairy cows, exhibiting differences in body fat mobilization and fatty liver, from late pregnancy to early lactation. Sixteen dairy cows underwent liver biopsy and were retrospectively grouped based on high (H) or low (L) liver fat content post-partum. Both groups had a comparable feed intake in week -6 (before parturition) and week 2 (after parturition). Only before parturition was preprandial total ghrelin concentration higher in L than in H cows and only after parturition was the basal plasma concentration of non-esterified fatty acids higher in H than in L cows. Both before and after parturition, H cows had higher preprandial plasma concentrations of acyl ghrelin, a higher acyl:total ghrelin ratio, lower plasma triacylglyceride concentrations and a lower respiratory quotient compared with L cows. These group differences could not be attributed to an allelic variant of the acyl ghrelin receptor. Rather, the ratio of acyl:total ghrelin correlated with several aspects of fat metabolism and with respiratory quotient but not with feed intake. These results show that endogenous ghrelin forms are associated with fat allocation, fatty liver, and utilization of fat during the periparturient period.

  1. Genetic parameters of a random regression model for daily feed intake of performance tested French Landrace and Large White growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Schnyder, U; Hofer, A; Labroue, F; Künzi, N

    2001-01-01

    Daily feed intake data of 1 279 French Landrace (FL, 1 039 boars and 240 castrates) and 2 417 Large White (LW, 2 032 boars and 385 castrates) growing pigs were recorded with electronic feed dispensers in three French central testing stations from 1992-1994. Male (35 to 95 kg live body weight) or castrated (100 kg live body weight) group housed, ad libitum fed pigs were performance tested. A quadratic polynomial in days on test with fixed regressions for sex and batch, random regressions for additive genetic, pen, litter and individual permanent environmental effects was used, with two different models for the residual variance: constant in model 1 and modelled with a quadratic polynomial depending on the day on test d(m) as follows in model 2: sigma(epsilon(m))(2) = exp (gamma(0) + gamma(1) d(m) + gamma(2) d(m)(2)). Variance components were estimated from weekly means of daily feed intake by means of a Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling. Posterior means of (co)variances were calculated using 800 000 samples from four chains (200 000 each). Heritability estimates of regression coefficients were 0.30 (FL model 1), 0.21 (FL model 2), 0.14 (LW1) and 0.14 (LW2) for the intercept, 0.04 (FL1), 0.04 (FL2), 0.11 (LW1) and 0.06 (LW2) for the linear, 0.03 (FL1), 0.04 (FL2) 0.11 (LW1) and 0.06 (LW2) for the quadratic term. Heritability estimates for weekly means of daily feed intake were the lowest in week 4 (FL1: 0.11, FL2: 0.11) and week 1 (LW1: 0.09, LW2: 0.10), and the highest in week 11 (FL1: 0.25, FL2: 0.24) and week 8 (LW1: 0.19, LW2: 0.18), respectively. Genetic eigenfunctions revealed that altering the shape of the feed intake curve by selection is difficult.

  2. Can sacrificial feeding areas protect aquatic plants from herbivore grazing? Using behavioural ecology to inform wildlife management.

    PubMed

    Wood, Kevin A; Stillman, Richard A; Daunt, Francis; O'Hare, Matthew T

    2014-01-01

    Effective wildlife management is needed for conservation, economic and human well-being objectives. However, traditional population control methods are frequently ineffective, unpopular with stakeholders, may affect non-target species, and can be both expensive and impractical to implement. New methods which address these issues and offer effective wildlife management are required. We used an individual-based model to predict the efficacy of a sacrificial feeding area in preventing grazing damage by mute swans (Cygnus olor) to adjacent river vegetation of high conservation and economic value. The accuracy of model predictions was assessed by a comparison with observed field data, whilst prediction robustness was evaluated using a sensitivity analysis. We used repeated simulations to evaluate how the efficacy of the sacrificial feeding area was regulated by (i) food quantity, (ii) food quality, and (iii) the functional response of the forager. Our model gave accurate predictions of aquatic plant biomass, carrying capacity, swan mortality, swan foraging effort, and river use. Our model predicted that increased sacrificial feeding area food quantity and quality would prevent the depletion of aquatic plant biomass by swans. When the functional response for vegetation in the sacrificial feeding area was increased, the food quantity and quality in the sacrificial feeding area required to protect adjacent aquatic plants were reduced. Our study demonstrates how the insights of behavioural ecology can be used to inform wildlife management. The principles that underpin our model predictions are likely to be valid across a range of different resource-consumer interactions, emphasising the generality of our approach to the evaluation of strategies for resolving wildlife management problems.

  3. Can Sacrificial Feeding Areas Protect Aquatic Plants from Herbivore Grazing? Using Behavioural Ecology to Inform Wildlife Management

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kevin A.; Stillman, Richard A.; Daunt, Francis; O’Hare, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    Effective wildlife management is needed for conservation, economic and human well-being objectives. However, traditional population control methods are frequently ineffective, unpopular with stakeholders, may affect non-target species, and can be both expensive and impractical to implement. New methods which address these issues and offer effective wildlife management are required. We used an individual-based model to predict the efficacy of a sacrificial feeding area in preventing grazing damage by mute swans (Cygnus olor) to adjacent river vegetation of high conservation and economic value. The accuracy of model predictions was assessed by a comparison with observed field data, whilst prediction robustness was evaluated using a sensitivity analysis. We used repeated simulations to evaluate how the efficacy of the sacrificial feeding area was regulated by (i) food quantity, (ii) food quality, and (iii) the functional response of the forager. Our model gave accurate predictions of aquatic plant biomass, carrying capacity, swan mortality, swan foraging effort, and river use. Our model predicted that increased sacrificial feeding area food quantity and quality would prevent the depletion of aquatic plant biomass by swans. When the functional response for vegetation in the sacrificial feeding area was increased, the food quantity and quality in the sacrificial feeding area required to protect adjacent aquatic plants were reduced. Our study demonstrates how the insights of behavioural ecology can be used to inform wildlife management. The principles that underpin our model predictions are likely to be valid across a range of different resource-consumer interactions, emphasising the generality of our approach to the evaluation of strategies for resolving wildlife management problems. PMID:25077615

  4. The associations between feeding difficulties and behaviours and dietary patterns at 2 years of age: the ALSPAC cohort.

    PubMed

    Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of toddlers. This period of life is important for forming good dietary habits later in life. Using dietary data collected via food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at 2 years of age, we examined the dietary patterns of children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Principal component analysis was performed for 9599 children and three patterns were extracted: 'family foods' associated with traditional British family foods such as meat, fish, puddings, potatoes and vegetables; 'sweet and easy' associated with foods high in sugar (sweets, chocolate, fizzy drinks, flavoured milks) and foods requiring little preparation (crisps, potatoes, baked beans, peas, soup); 'health conscious' associated with fruit, vegetables, eggs, nuts and juices. We found clear associations between dietary pattern scores and socio-demographic variables, with maternal education being the most important. Higher levels of education were associated with higher scores on both the 'family foods' and the 'health conscious' patterns, and decreased scores on the 'sweet and easy' pattern. Relationships were evident between dietary pattern scores and various feeding difficulties and behaviours. Notably, children who were introduced late to lumpy (chewy) solids (after 9 months) scored lower on both the 'family foods' and the 'health conscious' patterns. Further analyses are required to determine the temporal relationship between perceived feeding difficulties and behaviours, and it will be important to assess the contribution of the age of introduction to lumpy solids to these relationships. PMID:22463762

  5. The associations between feeding difficulties and behaviours and dietary patterns at 2 years of age: the ALSPAC cohort.

    PubMed

    Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of toddlers. This period of life is important for forming good dietary habits later in life. Using dietary data collected via food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at 2 years of age, we examined the dietary patterns of children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Principal component analysis was performed for 9599 children and three patterns were extracted: 'family foods' associated with traditional British family foods such as meat, fish, puddings, potatoes and vegetables; 'sweet and easy' associated with foods high in sugar (sweets, chocolate, fizzy drinks, flavoured milks) and foods requiring little preparation (crisps, potatoes, baked beans, peas, soup); 'health conscious' associated with fruit, vegetables, eggs, nuts and juices. We found clear associations between dietary pattern scores and socio-demographic variables, with maternal education being the most important. Higher levels of education were associated with higher scores on both the 'family foods' and the 'health conscious' patterns, and decreased scores on the 'sweet and easy' pattern. Relationships were evident between dietary pattern scores and various feeding difficulties and behaviours. Notably, children who were introduced late to lumpy (chewy) solids (after 9 months) scored lower on both the 'family foods' and the 'health conscious' patterns. Further analyses are required to determine the temporal relationship between perceived feeding difficulties and behaviours, and it will be important to assess the contribution of the age of introduction to lumpy solids to these relationships.

  6. Evaluation of polymorphisms within the genes GSHR and SLC2A2 that are within a region on bovine chromosome 1 (BTA1) previously associated with feed intake and weight gain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cost of feed is the largest expense incurred by cattle producers. The ability to select for animals with beneficial production traits using genetic markers may reduce expenses for producers. A large region on bovine chromosome 1 was identified as significant for average daily feed intake (ADFI) and ...

  7. Voluntary feed intake, acid-base balance and partitioning of urinary nitrogen in lambs fed corn silage with added sodium bicarbonate or sodium sesquicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Phillip, L E; Hidalgo, V

    1989-08-01

    An experiment with growing lambs was designed to test the hypothesis that alterations in blood acid-base status would influence intake of corn silage. Six wethers (29 kg) were fed a diet of corn silage (36% DM, 8% CP) supplemented with 1.25% urea and .2% sulfur. At feeding time, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and sodium sesquicarbonate (NaSC) were added to the silage at levels of 0, 2% or 4% of diet DM. The treatments were arranged as a 2 x 3 factorial, and the study was conducted as a 6 x 4 incomplete latin square with four 17-d periods. Voluntary intake of OM was not different (P greater than .05) between NaHCO3 (1,008 g/d) and NaSC (1,041 g/d). There was no significant interaction between type of buffer (NaHCO3 or NaSC) and level of buffer on any of the variables measured. The progressive increase in buffer load did not alter feed intake (P greater than .05), although there was a quadratic response (P less than .05) in urine pH and a linear increase (P less than .01) in blood HCO3- 2 h after feeding. There was no evidence that lambs fed corn silage experienced metabolic acid stress. Urinary excretion of ammonia and urea were indicative of changes, although not pronounced, in ammoniuria and ureapoiesis in response to bicarbonate loading. This study implies that corn silage imposes no "acid stress" on lambs and, consequently, that there is no nutritional benefit in adding buffers to corn silage for sheep. PMID:2551870

  8. Feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization, and body weight change of sheep consuming wheat straw supplemented with local agricultural and agro-industrial by-products.

    PubMed

    Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2010-06-01

    Effects of supplementing sheep consuming wheat straw with local agro-industrial by-products on feed intake, growth, digestibility and nitrogen utilization were determined. Thirty 1-year-old local wethers, with a mean (+/-SD) live weight of 19.8 (+/-1.06) kg, were assigned to five treatments: wheat straw + atella (T1), wheat straw + atella + poultry litter (T2), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp (T3), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp + poultry litter (T4), hay + concentrate (T5). A 7-day digestibility experiment and a 112-day growth trial were conducted. Total dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake as well as body weight gain was similar for all treatments. The highest (P < 0.05) nitrogen (N) intake was in sheep fed T1 and T4 diets, while the lowest was in those fed T2 and T5 diets. Sheep fed T1 and T2 diets had greater (P < 0.05) DM and OM digestibility than those fed T4 and T5 diets. The highest (P < 0.05) digestibility of N was for the T2, T4, and T5 diets, while the lowest was for the T1 diet. The highest N retention was in T4 diet, whereas the lowest was in T3 diet. In conclusion, in urban and peri-urban areas where atella, poultry litter, or coffee pulp are available, smallholder farmers could feed the mixtures as a supplement to straw with a good performance without using concentrate feeds.

  9. Effect of Millettia ferruginea (Birbra) foliage supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, body weight change and carcass characterstics of Washera sheep fed natural pasture grass hay basal diet.

    PubMed

    Alemu, Berhanu; Animut, Getachew; Tolera, Adugna

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-four yearling male local Washera lambs with an average initial body weight of 18.14 ± 1.07 kg were used to assess the nutritional value of Millettia ferruginea. Experimental animals were grouped into six blocks of four animals, and each animal was randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatment feeds. The treatments used were; Sole natural pasture grass hay (T1), and 150, 300, 450 g DM Millettia ferruginea leaf hay with ad libitum natural pasture grass hay assigned for (T2), (T3) and (T4), respectively. The feeding trial was carried out for 80 days followed by a 10 days of digestibility trial. Carcasses of each experimental animal were evaluated at the end of the digestibility experiment. Millettia ferruginea leaf hay had 224.6, 556.6, 360.7and 127.4 g/kg crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL), respectively. The average intakes of Millettia ferruginea leaf hay were 0, 133, 263 and 253 g/day for T1, T2, T3 and T4, in that order. The proportions of Millettia ferruginea leaf hay intake from the total dry matter (DM) were 0, 23.5, 44.1, and 43.3% for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. The total DM intake was not significant but showed a trend of T1 > T3 > T4 > T2. CP intake was higher for T3 and T4 with the least intake for T1. Final body weight measurement was higher for T3 and T1 but lower and negative for T2 and T4. Generally, body weight measurements were not consistent in the supplemented groups throughout the trial period. The weight of heart, spleen, and liver were higher for the supplemented groups compared to the sole grass hay. From the results of the current study, it can be concluded that, Millettia ferruginea had some limiting factors, which prevented the animal from efficiently utilize it. Therefore, this study revealed the indispensable role of animal feeding experiments with target animals to examine such impacts. PMID:24567874

  10. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: A meta-analysis of research efforts aimed at reducing the impact of fescue toxicosis on cattle weight gain and feed intake.

    PubMed

    Gadberry, M S; Hawley, J; Beck, P A; Jennings, J A; Kegley, E B; Coffey, K P

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a systematic review and meta-analysis of research efforts aimed at recovering cattle production losses attributed to toxic endophyte-infected [ (Morgan-Jones & Gams.) Glenn, Bacon, & Hanlin comb. Nov.] tall fescue [ (Schreb.) Darbysh.]. The strategies presented include those 1) applied with forage systems, 2) based on pharmacological compounds and functional foods, and 3) based on supplemental dietary nutrients. Cattle BW gain and DM intake was the dependent response evaluated. Among the forage systems reviewed, studies with nontoxic, endophyte-infected tall fescue as a total replacement forage system demonstrated the greatest improvement in per-hectare (152 ± 27.5 kg/ha) and per-animal (0.29 ± 0.03 kg/d) BW gain. Studies with interseeded legumes have exhibited a small and highly variable BW gain effect size per hectare (52 ± 24.1 kg/ha) and per animal (0.11 ± 0.03 kg/d). The legume response was seasonal, with summer exhibiting the greatest benefit. Studies with chemicals that suppress plant growth demonstrated BW gain responses (0.17 ± 0.06 kg/d) equal to or greater than the response observed with legume studies. Cattle grazing toxic tall fescue responded well to anthelmentics, antimicrobial feed additives, and steroid implants, and the use of these technologies may additively help recover production losses. As a group, functional foods have not improved BW gain ( = 0.85). Studies with cattle supplemented with highly digestible fiber supplements observed a 0.15 kg greater BW gain compared with studies using starch- and sugar-based supplements ( < 0.05). Weight gain was positively impacted by the level of supplementation (0.06 kg/DM intake as percent BW). Supplement feed conversion was estimated at 6:1 for the highly digestible fiber supplements compared with 11:1 for starch-based supplements. Tall fescue forage DM intake was predicted to maximize at a supplemental feeding rate of 0.24% BW with a breakpoint at 0.5% BW

  11. Elevated CO2 impacts bell pepper growth with consequences to Myzus persicae life history, feeding behaviour and virus transmission ability

    PubMed Central

    Dáder, Beatriz; Fereres, Alberto; Moreno, Aránzazu; Trębicki, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) impacts plant growth and metabolism. Indirectly, the performance and feeding of insects is affected by plant nutritional quality and resistance traits. Life history and feeding behaviour of Myzus persicae were studied on pepper plants under ambient (aCO2, 400 ppm) or elevated CO2 (eCO2, 650 ppm), as well as the direct impact on plant growth and leaf chemistry. Plant parameters were significantly altered by eCO2 with a negative impact on aphid’s life history. Their pre-reproductive period was 11% longer and fecundity decreased by 37%. Peppers fixed significantly less nitrogen, which explains the poor aphid performance. Plants were taller and had higher biomass and canopy temperature. There was decreased aphid salivation into sieve elements, but no differences in phloem ingestion, indicating that the diminished fitness could be due to poorer tissue quality and unfavourable C:N balance, and that eCO2 was not a factor impeding feeding. Aphid ability to transmit Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was studied by exposing source and receptor plants to ambient (427 ppm) or elevated (612 ppm) CO2 before or after virus inoculation. A two-fold decrease on transmission was observed when receptor plants were exposed to eCO2 before aphid inoculation when compared to aCO2. PMID:26743585

  12. Elevated CO2 impacts bell pepper growth with consequences to Myzus persicae life history, feeding behaviour and virus transmission ability.

    PubMed

    Dáder, Beatriz; Fereres, Alberto; Moreno, Aránzazu; Trębicki, Piotr

    2016-01-08

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) impacts plant growth and metabolism. Indirectly, the performance and feeding of insects is affected by plant nutritional quality and resistance traits. Life history and feeding behaviour of Myzus persicae were studied on pepper plants under ambient (aCO2, 400 ppm) or elevated CO2 (eCO2, 650 ppm), as well as the direct impact on plant growth and leaf chemistry. Plant parameters were significantly altered by eCO2 with a negative impact on aphid's life history. Their pre-reproductive period was 11% longer and fecundity decreased by 37%. Peppers fixed significantly less nitrogen, which explains the poor aphid performance. Plants were taller and had higher biomass and canopy temperature. There was decreased aphid salivation into sieve elements, but no differences in phloem ingestion, indicating that the diminished fitness could be due to poorer tissue quality and unfavourable C:N balance, and that eCO2 was not a factor impeding feeding. Aphid ability to transmit Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was studied by exposing source and receptor plants to ambient (427 ppm) or elevated (612 ppm) CO2 before or after virus inoculation. A two-fold decrease on transmission was observed when receptor plants were exposed to eCO2 before aphid inoculation when compared to aCO2.

  13. Elevated CO2 impacts bell pepper growth with consequences to Myzus persicae life history, feeding behaviour and virus transmission ability.

    PubMed

    Dáder, Beatriz; Fereres, Alberto; Moreno, Aránzazu; Trębicki, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) impacts plant growth and metabolism. Indirectly, the performance and feeding of insects is affected by plant nutritional quality and resistance traits. Life history and feeding behaviour of Myzus persicae were studied on pepper plants under ambient (aCO2, 400 ppm) or elevated CO2 (eCO2, 650 ppm), as well as the direct impact on plant growth and leaf chemistry. Plant parameters were significantly altered by eCO2 with a negative impact on aphid's life history. Their pre-reproductive period was 11% longer and fecundity decreased by 37%. Peppers fixed significantly less nitrogen, which explains the poor aphid performance. Plants were taller and had higher biomass and canopy temperature. There was decreased aphid salivation into sieve elements, but no differences in phloem ingestion, indicating that the diminished fitness could be due to poorer tissue quality and unfavourable C:N balance, and that eCO2 was not a factor impeding feeding. Aphid ability to transmit Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was studied by exposing source and receptor plants to ambient (427 ppm) or elevated (612 ppm) CO2 before or after virus inoculation. A two-fold decrease on transmission was observed when receptor plants were exposed to eCO2 before aphid inoculation when compared to aCO2. PMID:26743585

  14. The effect of fermentation quality on the voluntary intake of grass silage by growing cattle fed silage as the sole feed.

    PubMed

    Krizsan, S J; Randby, A T

    2007-04-01

    This study was designed to separate the effect of fermentation quality on voluntary intake of grass silage from other feed factors affecting intake. Variations in DMI were quantified, and the impact on intake was modeled. The relationships between individual silage components and intake were examined. A partially balanced changeover experiment with 30 Norwegian Red steers (137 +/- 16.4 kg of BW) was carried out to determine the intake of 24 silages and of hay harvested from the same parent crop within 60 h. Five forages were fed at a time in each of five 3-wk periods. Every 3-wk period was preceded by 2 wk of feeding a standard silage. Silage DMI ranged from 1.79 to 2.65, with a mean of 2.38 kg x 100 kg of BW(-1) x d(-1). Hay DMI averaged 2.43 kg x 100 kg of BW(-1) x d(-1). Ranges (mean) for the composition of silages were as follows: DM, 166 to 237 (213) g/kg; water-soluble carbohydrates, 16.3 to 70.9 (33.0) g/kg of DM; acetic acid, 11.5 to 64.7 (28.6) g/kg of DM; propionic acid, 0 to 5.2 (1.0) g/kg of DM; butyric acid, 0 to 25.1 (6.0) g/kg of DM; lactic acid, 2.2 to 102 (49.3) g/kg of DM; and NH3-N (not corrected for additive-derived N), 89.3 to 255 (153) g/kg of total N. Silage DMI was closely (P < 0.05) related to DM, ADL, VFA, lactic acid, total acids, the lactic acid:total acids ratio, ADIN, NH3-N (not corrected), histamine, tryptamine, cadaverine, and the total sum of amines (the explained variation in intake ranged from 14 to 53%). The 2 best models describing silage DMI included concentrations in the silage of propionic acid, butyric acid, and lactic acid, and these models explained 75 and 84% of the variation in DMI. The strong correlation (r = 0.84, P < 0.05) between total NH3-N and butyric acid concentrations in silages indicates that these variables described the same variation pattern. The inclusion of NH3-N in the equations describing the effect of fermentation quality on DMI of low-DM grass silage was less useful than that of butyric acid. This was

  15. Effect of reduced ferulate-mediated lignin/arabinoxylan cross-linking in corn silage on feed intake, digestibility, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Jung, H G; Mertens, D R; Phillips, R L

    2011-10-01

    Cross-linking of lignin to arabinoxylan by ferulates limits in vitro rumen digestibility of grass cell walls. The effect of ferulate cross-linking on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and in vivo digestibility was investigated in ad libitum and restricted-intake digestion trials with lambs, and in a dairy cow performance trial using the low-ferulate sfe corn mutant. Silages of 5 inbred corn lines were fed: W23, 2 W23sfe lines (M04-4 and M04-21), B73, and B73bm3. As expected, the W23sfe silages contained fewer ferulate ether cross-links and B73bm3 silage had a lower lignin concentration than the respective genetic controls. Silages were fed as the sole ingredient to 4 lambs per silage treatment. Lambs were confined to metabolism crates and fed ad libitum for a 12-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d collection period of feed refusals and feces. Immediately following the ad libitum feeding trial, silage offered was limited to 2% of body weight. After a 2-d adaptation to restricted feeding, feed refusals and feces were collected for 5 d. Seventy Holstein cows were blocked by lactation, days in milk, body weight, and milk production and assigned to total mixed ration diets based on the 5 corn silages. Diets were fed for 28 d and data were collected on weekly DMI and milk production and composition. Fecal grab samples were collected during the last week of the lactation trial for estimation of feed digestibility using acid-insoluble ash as a marker. Silage, total mixed ration, feed refusals, and fecal samples were analyzed for crude protein, starch, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), cell wall polysaccharides, and lignin. The W23sfe silages resulted in lower DMI in the ad libitum trial than the W23 silage, but DMI did not differ in the restricted trial. No differences were observed for NDF or cell wall polysaccharide digestibility by lambs with restricted feeding, but the amount of NDF digested daily increased for lambs fed the M04-21 W23sfe silage ad libitum

  16. Parental Choice of Infant Feeding Behaviours in South West Sydney: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, A.; Gay, M.; Thirukumar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to test a research instrument that could possibly be used for longitudinal research on infant feeding and to report on the preliminary results from the data collected. Design: Mixed methods approach--cross-sectional survey and qualitative research. Setting: Mother-infant dyads in South West Sydney,…

  17. Differential gene expression in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum among crossbred beef steers with divergent gain and feed intake phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small intestine mass and cellularity have previously been associated with cattle feed efficiency. The small intestine is responsible for digestion of nutrients and absorption of fatty acids, amino acids and sugars and contributes to the overall feed efficiency of cattle. The objective of this study ...

  18. Effects of milk feeding, frequency and concentration on weaning and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calf growth, health and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Domenico; Di Palo, Rossella; De Carlo, Esterina; Esposito, Luigi; Presicce, Giorgio Antonio; Martucciello, Alessandra; Chiosi, Emilio; Rossi, Pasquale; Neglia, Gianluca; Campanile, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    Growth, weight at birth and daily weight gain (DWG) on 12 water buffalo calves, starting from 6 days of age until completion of weaning, was investigated in this study. Different feeding regimens were given to two groups of animals with regard to daily milk replacer: (1) group 1 (G1) received a double concentration in single administration; whereas (2) group 2 (G2) received the same amount of milk replacer split twice daily. Blood samples were collected from each calf on days 6, 30, 60 and 90 to evaluate acute phase proteins (haptoglobin), bactericide activity, lysozime, total protein content and biochemical parameters. No differences were observed between the two groups in terms of dry matter intake, feed efficiency and live body weight at the end of the study. Interestingly, a significantly (P < 0.05) reduced DWG was observed earlier in G1 (day 45) than in G2 (day 60). Gastrointestinal disorders were not recorded throughout the experimental period, and no significant differences were recorded between the two groups for all considered parameters. This study confirms the possibility of utilising one daily administration of milk replacer in water buffalo calf during weaning. This new approach facilitates calves management, without interfering with calves growing performances. PMID:23712396

  19. Effects of milk feeding, frequency and concentration on weaning and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calf growth, health and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Domenico; Di Palo, Rossella; De Carlo, Esterina; Esposito, Luigi; Presicce, Giorgio Antonio; Martucciello, Alessandra; Chiosi, Emilio; Rossi, Pasquale; Neglia, Gianluca; Campanile, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    Growth, weight at birth and daily weight gain (DWG) on 12 water buffalo calves, starting from 6 days of age until completion of weaning, was investigated in this study. Different feeding regimens were given to two groups of animals with regard to daily milk replacer: (1) group 1 (G1) received a double concentration in single administration; whereas (2) group 2 (G2) received the same amount of milk replacer split twice daily. Blood samples were collected from each calf on days 6, 30, 60 and 90 to evaluate acute phase proteins (haptoglobin), bactericide activity, lysozime, total protein content and biochemical parameters. No differences were observed between the two groups in terms of dry matter intake, feed efficiency and live body weight at the end of the study. Interestingly, a significantly (P < 0.05) reduced DWG was observed earlier in G1 (day 45) than in G2 (day 60). Gastrointestinal disorders were not recorded throughout the experimental period, and no significant differences were recorded between the two groups for all considered parameters. This study confirms the possibility of utilising one daily administration of milk replacer in water buffalo calf during weaning. This new approach facilitates calves management, without interfering with calves growing performances.

  20. Nutrient intake of infants and toddlers in the United Arab Emirates: the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study.

    PubMed

    Abdulrazzaq, Y M; Nagelkerke, N; Abdulla, S; Belhaj, G

    2016-05-01

    This descriptive study evaluated the nutrient adequacy of the diet of infants (aged 6-11.9 months) and toddlers (aged 12-24 months) in the United Arab Emirates. A random sample of 1000 infants and toddlers was recruited from 2 cities (Al Ain and Dubai) from March 2011 to February 2012 and their usual nutrient intake was determined using 24-hour recall. In all, 54.2% of infants and 25.2% of toddlers were breastfeeding. Mean energy intake of infant girls in Al Ain and Dubai was 747 (SD 189) kcal and 773 (SD 215) kcal respectively and 810.5 (SD 232.2) kcal and 821.9 (SD 262) kcal for boys. In toddlers, mean energy intake for girls in Al Ain and Dubai was 1032.8 (SD 252) kcal and 1013 (SD 339.1) kcal respectively and 1057.2 (SD 201.8) kcal and 1030.3 (SD 341.7) kcal for boys. Iron intake was low in both groups. Mean body mass index and body weight and height were similar to World Health Organization figures but significant numbers of infants and toddlers of both sexes were over- or underweight. Although mean energy and macronutrient intakes were comparable to the RDA, significant numbers were over- or underfed.

  1. Nutrient intake of infants and toddlers in the United Arab Emirates: the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study.

    PubMed

    Abdulrazzaq, Y M; Nagelkerke, N; Abdulla, S; Belhaj, G

    2016-05-01

    This descriptive study evaluated the nutrient adequacy of the diet of infants (aged 6-11.9 months) and toddlers (aged 12-24 months) in the United Arab Emirates. A random sample of 1000 infants and toddlers was recruited from 2 cities