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Sample records for intake levels biological

  1. Biological effects of tolerable level chronic boron intake on transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Orenay Boyacioglu, Seda; Korkmaz, Mehmet; Kahraman, Erkan; Yildirim, Hatice; Bora, Selin; Ataman, Osman Yavuz

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of boron effect on human transcription and translation has not been fully understood. In the current study it was aimed to reveal the role of boron on the expression of certain transcription factors that play key roles in many cellular pathways on human subjects chronically exposed to low amounts of boron. The boron concentrations in drinking water samples were 1.57±0.06mg/l for boron group while the corresponding value for the control group was 0.016±0.002mg/l. RNA isolation was performed using PAX gene RNA kit on the blood samples from the subjects. The RNA was then reverse transcribed into cDNA and analyzed using the Human Transcription Factors RT(2) Profiler™ PCR Arrays. While the boron amount in urine was detected as 3.56±1.47mg/day in the boron group, it was 0.72±0.30mg/day in the control group. Daily boron intake of the boron and control groups were calculated to be 6.98±3.39 and 1.18±0.41mg/day, respectively. The expression levels of the transcription factor genes were compared between the boron and control groups and no statistically significant difference was detected (P>0.05). The data suggest that boron intake at 6.98±3.39mg/day, which is the dose at which beneficial effects might be seen, does not result in toxicity at molecular level since the expression levels of transcription factors are not changed. Although boron intake over this level will seem to increase RNA synthesis, further examination of the topic is needed using new molecular epidemiological data.

  2. Trans fatty acids (tFA): sources and intake levels, biological effects and content in commercial Spanish food.

    PubMed

    Fernández-San Juan, P-M

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies of dietary habits in children and adolescents performed in Spain show that a high percentage of the daily energy intake corresponds to fat (42.0-43.0%). These findings show an excessive contribution of saturated fatty acids and also a considerable supply of trans fatty acids. These compounds are formed generally during partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, a process that converts vegetable oils into semisolid fats. Also, in some cases naturally occurring trans fatty acids in smaller amounts in meat and dairy products from ruminants (cows, sheep), these trans fatty acids are produced by the action of bacteria in the ruminant stomach by reactions of biohydrogenation. On the other hand, metabolic studies have clearly shown that trans fatty acids increase LDL cholesterol and reduce HDL cholesterol. Our results show that major sources of trans fatty acids in commercial Spanish foods are fast-food (hamburger, French fries), snacks, bakery products (cakes, donuts, biscuits), margarines and dehydrated soups.

  3. Mineral intake and blood levels in vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Levin, N; Rattan, J; Gilat, T

    1986-02-01

    Concern has been raised that a long-term high-fiber diet may lead to mineral deficiencies. In this study, mineral intake and blood levels were investigated in 92 ovolacto vegetarians and 113 omnivores. The intake of iron, zinc, calcium and magnesium was adequate in both groups. The intake of iron and magnesium was significantly higher in the vegetarians. Mean blood levels of iron, iron binding capacity, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, zinc and magnesium were within normal limits in both groups. Serum magnesium levels were significantly higher in male vegetarians. Iron binding capacity was significantly lower in vegetarians of both sexes. It is concluded that a long-term ovolacto vegetarian diet does not lead to mineral deficiencies.

  4. Sleep, brain energy levels, and food intake

    PubMed Central

    Dworak, M.; Kim, T.; McCarley, R.W.; Basheer, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The feeling of hunger and feeding, a wake–state-dependent behavior, is regulated by specific centers within the hypothalamus. While paraventricular nucleus (PVN), arcuate nucleus (ARC), and dorso- and ventromedial hypothalamus (DMH/VMH) regulate feeding, the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is associated both with feeding and wake/REM sleep regulation. In order to examine the effects of sleep and wakefulness on food intake and body weight, we also measured hypothalamic ATP concentrations, which are known to be involved in feeding behavior and sleep–wake regulation. Methods In rats, food intake and body weight was measured during a 24-h light–dark cycle and during 6 h of sleep deprivation (SD) performed by gentle handling. Tissue samples from the PVN, ARC/DMH/VMH, and LH were collected after 6 h of SD and from time-matched diurnal controls. ATP was measured by luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay. Results Across the 24-h light–dark period, rats consumed approximately 28.13±4.48 g of food and gained 5.22±1.65 g with a positive correlation between food intake and body weight. During SD, while food intake increased significantly +147.31±6.13%, they lost weight significantly (–93.29±13.64%) when compared to undisturbed controls. SD resulted in a significant decrease in ATP levels only in LH (–44.60±21.13%) with no change in PVN, ARC/DMH/VMH region when compared with undisturbed controls. Conclusion The results indicate a strong overall correlation between ATP concentrations in the LH and individual food intake and suggest a sleep–wake dependent neuronal control of food intake and body weight. PMID:23585726

  5. Associations between dietary acrylamide intake and plasma sex hormone levels

    PubMed Central

    Hogervorst, Janneke G.; Fortner, Renee T.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Hankinson, Susan E.; Wilson, Kathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The rodent carcinogen acrylamide was discovered in 2002 in commonly consumed foods. Epidemiological studies have observed positive associations between acrylamide intake and endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer risks, which suggests that acrylamide may have sex-hormonal effects. Methods We cross-sectionally investigated the relationship between acrylamide intake and plasma levels of sex hormones and SHBG among 687 postmenopausal and 1300 premenopausal controls from nested case-control studies within the Nurses’ Health Studies. Results There were no associations between acrylamide and sex hormones or SHBG among premenopausal women overall or among never-smokers. Among normal-weight premenopausal women, acrylamide intake was statistically significantly positively associated with luteal total and free estradiol levels. Among postmenopausal women overall and among never-smokers, acrylamide was borderline statistically significantly associated with lower estrone sulfate levels but not with other estrogens, androgens, prolactin or SHBG. Among normal weight women, (borderline) statistically significant inverse associations were noted for estrone, free estradiol, estrone sulfate, DHEA, and prolactin, while statistically significant positive associations for testosterone and androstenedione were observed among overweight women. Conclusions Overall, this study did not show conclusive associations between acrylamide intake and sex hormones that would lend unequivocal biological plausibility to the observed increased risks of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer. The association between acrylamide and sex hormones may differ by menopausal and overweight status. We recommend other studies investigate the relationship between acrylamide and sex hormones in women, specifically using acrylamide biomarkers. Impact The present study showed some interesting associations between acrylamide intake and sex hormones that urgently need confirmation. PMID:23983241

  6. 10. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER LEVEL OF INTAKE PIER SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER LEVEL OF INTAKE PIER SHOWING THE RIVER HEIGHT INDICATOR, ONE OF THE FIVE GATE OPENINGS, AND MOORINGS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  7. Intake Levels of Fish in the UK Paediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Sibylle; Jones, Nicholas R V; Monsivais, Pablo

    2017-04-16

    The United Kingdom (UK) is an island and its culture, including diet, is heavily influenced by the maritime resources. Dietary guidance in the UK recommends intake of fish, which provides important nutrients, such as long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA). This study was designed to describe the fish intake habits of UK children using a nationally representative sample. Dietary and socio-demographic data of children 2-18 (N = 2096) in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Program (NDNS) Years 1-4 (2008-2012) were extracted. Average nutrient and food intakes were estimated. Logistic regression models were used to predict the meeting of fish intake recommendations, controlling for age, sex, income, total energy intake, and survey year. All analyses were conducted using survey routines and dietary survey weights. In this nationally representative study, 4.7% of children met the fish and 4.5% the oily fish intake recommendations; only 1.3% of the population met both recommendations. Fish intake levels did not significantly change with children's increasing age. Higher vegetable but lower meat consumption predicted meeting the fish intake recommendations, indicating that children eating fish have better diet quality than non-consumers. Further research is needed to explore how intake behaviours can be changed to improve children's diet quality.

  8. Intake Levels of Fish in the UK Paediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, Sibylle; Jones, Nicholas R. V.; Monsivais, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) is an island and its culture, including diet, is heavily influenced by the maritime resources. Dietary guidance in the UK recommends intake of fish, which provides important nutrients, such as long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA). This study was designed to describe the fish intake habits of UK children using a nationally representative sample. Dietary and socio-demographic data of children 2–18 (N = 2096) in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Program (NDNS) Years 1–4 (2008–2012) were extracted. Average nutrient and food intakes were estimated. Logistic regression models were used to predict the meeting of fish intake recommendations, controlling for age, sex, income, total energy intake, and survey year. All analyses were conducted using survey routines and dietary survey weights. In this nationally representative study, 4.7% of children met the fish and 4.5% the oily fish intake recommendations; only 1.3% of the population met both recommendations. Fish intake levels did not significantly change with children’s increasing age. Higher vegetable but lower meat consumption predicted meeting the fish intake recommendations, indicating that children eating fish have better diet quality than non-consumers. Further research is needed to explore how intake behaviours can be changed to improve children’s diet quality. PMID:28420147

  9. Procedure for developing biological input for the design, location, or modification of water-intake structures

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1981-12-01

    To minimize adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems resulting from the operation of water intake structures, design engineers must have relevant information on the behavior, physiology and ecology of local fish and shellfish. Identification of stimulus/response relationships and the environmental factors that influence them is the first step in incorporating biological information in the design, location or modification of water intake structures. A procedure is presented in this document for providing biological input to engineers who are designing, locating or modifying a water intake structure. The authors discuss sources of stimuli at water intakes, historical approaches in assessing potential/actual impact and review biological information needed for intake design.

  10. Guidance manual for the input of biological information to water-intake-structure design

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Simmons, M.A.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1981-12-01

    This manual is intended to provide guidance to the biologist who is asked to provide biological input during the construction or subsequent alteration of a water intake structure. Examples of the types of biological information that might be included in intake design are presented. Procedures for quantifying biological information and defining specific tasks that will generate quantifiable data are discussed. Procedures described apply both to new and modified water intake structures.

  11. Glucose utilization rates regulate intake levels of artificial sweeteners

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Luis A; Ren, Xueying; Han, Wenfei; Medina, Sara; Ferreira, Jozélia G; Yeckel, Catherine W; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that animals including humans attribute greater reinforcing value to glucose-containing sugars compared to their non-caloric counterparts, generally termed ‘artificial sweeteners’. However, much remains to be determined regarding the physiological signals and brain systems mediating the attribution of greater reinforcing value to sweet solutions that contain glucose. Here we show that disruption of glucose utilization in mice produces an enduring inhibitory effect on artificial sweetener intake, an effect that did not depend on sweetness perception or aversion. Indeed, such an effect was not observed in mice presented with a less palatable, yet caloric, glucose solution. Consistently, hungry mice shifted their preferences away from artificial sweeteners and in favour of glucose after experiencing glucose in a hungry state. Glucose intake was found to produce significantly greater levels of dopamine efflux compared to artificial sweetener in dorsal striatum, whereas disrupting glucose oxidation suppressed dorsal striatum dopamine efflux. Conversely, inhibiting striatal dopamine receptor signalling during glucose intake in sweet-naïve animals resulted in reduced, artificial sweetener-like intake of glucose during subsequent gluco-deprivation. Our results demonstrate that glucose oxidation controls intake levels of sweet tastants by modulating extracellular dopamine levels in dorsal striatum, and suggest that glucose utilization is one critical physiological signal involved in the control of goal-directed sweetener intake. PMID:24060992

  12. Glucose utilization rates regulate intake levels of artificial sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Luis A; Ren, Xueying; Han, Wenfei; Medina, Sara; Ferreira, Jozélia G; Yeckel, Catherine W; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2013-11-15

    It is well established that animals including humans attribute greater reinforcing value to glucose-containing sugars compared to their non-caloric counterparts, generally termed 'artificial sweeteners'. However, much remains to be determined regarding the physiological signals and brain systems mediating the attribution of greater reinforcing value to sweet solutions that contain glucose. Here we show that disruption of glucose utilization in mice produces an enduring inhibitory effect on artificial sweetener intake, an effect that did not depend on sweetness perception or aversion. Indeed, such an effect was not observed in mice presented with a less palatable, yet caloric, glucose solution. Consistently, hungry mice shifted their preferences away from artificial sweeteners and in favour of glucose after experiencing glucose in a hungry state. Glucose intake was found to produce significantly greater levels of dopamine efflux compared to artificial sweetener in dorsal striatum, whereas disrupting glucose oxidation suppressed dorsal striatum dopamine efflux. Conversely, inhibiting striatal dopamine receptor signalling during glucose intake in sweet-naïve animals resulted in reduced, artificial sweetener-like intake of glucose during subsequent gluco-deprivation. Our results demonstrate that glucose oxidation controls intake levels of sweet tastants by modulating extracellular dopamine levels in dorsal striatum, and suggest that glucose utilization is one critical physiological signal involved in the control of goal-directed sweetener intake.

  13. Effect of Dietary Fiber Intake on Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels Independent of Estradiol in Healthy Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Sunni L.; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; VanderWeele, Tyler J.

    2011-01-01

    High-fiber diets are associated with improved lipid profiles. However, pre- and postmenopausal women respond differently to fiber intake, suggesting that endogenous estradiol mediates the effect. The authors' objective was to determine the direct effect of fiber intake on lipoprotein cholesterol levels independent of estradiol among premenopausal women. The BioCycle Study, a prospective cohort study conducted at the State University of New York at Buffalo from 2005 to 2007, followed 259 healthy women for up to 2 complete menstrual cycles. Serum lipoprotein and hormone levels were measured at 16 visits timed using fertility monitors. Fiber intake was assessed by 8 24-hour recalls. Marginal structural models with inverse probability weights for both lipoprotein and estradiol levels were used to estimate controlled direct effects of the highest category of fiber intake (≥22 g/day vs. <22 g/day) while accounting for age, body mass index, total energy, vitamin E intake, physical activity, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and progesterone. Reductions were observed in total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in women with higher fiber intakes. Direct effects were greater than total effects. These analyses suggested that estradiol mediates at least part of the association between fiber and cholesterol among premenopausal women. More research is needed to elucidate the biologic mechanisms driving these associations. PMID:21148240

  14. High dietary fiber intake prevents stroke at a population level.

    PubMed

    Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Caffi, Sandro; Boschetti, Giovanni; Grasselli, Carla; Saugo, Mario; Giordano, Nunzia; Rapisarda, Valentina; Spinella, Paolo; Palatini, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    This research was aimed at clarifying whether high dietary fiber intake has an impact on incidence and risk of stroke at a population level. In 1647 unselected subjects, dietary fiber intake (DFI) was detected in a 12-year population-based study, using other dietary variables, anagraphics, biometrics, blood pressure, heart rate, blood lipids, glucose, insulin, uricaemia, fibrinogenaemia, erytrosedimentation rate, diabetes, insulin resistance, smoking, pulmonary disease and left ventricular hypertrophy as covariables. In adjusted Cox models, high DFI reduced the risk of stroke. In analysis based on quintiles of fiber intake adjusted for confounders, HR for incidence of stroke was lower when the daily intake of soluble fiber was >25 g or that of insoluble fiber was >47 g. In multivariate analyses, using these values as cut-off of DFI, the risk of stroke was lower in those intaking more that the cut-off of soluble (HR 0.31, 0.17-0.55) or insoluble (HR 0.35, 0.19-0.63) fiber. Incidence of stroke was also lower (-50%, p < 0.003 and -46%, p < 0.01, respectively). Higher dietary DFI is inversely and independently associated to incidence and risk of stroke in general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of biological networks and biological pathways associated with residual feed intake in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Karisa, Brian; Moore, Stephen; Plastow, Graham

    2014-04-01

    In this study, biological networks were reconstructed from genes and metabolites significantly associated with residual feed intake (RFI) in beef cattle. The networks were then used to identify biological pathways associated with RFI. RFI is a measure of feed efficiency, which is independent of body size and growth; therefore selection for RFI is expected to result in cattle that consume less feed without adverse effects on growth rate and mature size. Although several studies have identified genes associated with RFI, the mechanisms of the biological processes are not well understood. In this study, we utilised the results obtained from two association studies, one using 24 genes and one using plasma metabolites to reconstruct biological networks associated with RFI using IPA software (Igenuity Systems). The results pointed to biological processes such as lipid and steroid biosynthesis, protein and carbohydrate metabolism and regulation of gene expression through DNA transcription, protein stability and degradation. The major canonical pathways included signaling of growth hormone, Oncostatin M, insulin-like growth factor and AMP activated protein kinase, and cholesterol biosynthesis. This study provides information on potential biological mechanisms, and genes and metabolites involved in feed efficiency in beef cattle. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Towards an improved estimation of the biological components of residual feed intake in growing cattle.

    PubMed

    Savietto, D; Berry, D P; Friggens, N C

    2014-02-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between observed and predicted feed intake. It is calculated as the residuals from a multiple regression model of DMI on the various energy expenditures (e.g., maintenance, growth, activity). Residual feed intake is often cited to be indicative of feed efficiency differences among animals. However, explaining a large proportion of the (phenotypic and genetic) interanimal variation in RFI remains difficult. Here we first describe a biological framework for RFI dwelling on similarities between RFI and energy balance. Alternative phenotypic and genetic statistical models are subsequently applied to a dataset of 1,963 growing bulls of 2 British and 3 Continental breeds. The novel aspect of this study was the use of a mixed model framework to quantify the heritable interanimal variation in the partial regression coefficients on the energy expenditure traits within the RFI equation. Heritable genetic variation in individual animal regression coefficients for metabolic live weight existed. No significant genetic variation in animal-level regression coefficients for growth or body fat level, however, existed in the study population. The presence of genetic variation in the partial regression coefficient of maintenance suggests the existence of interanimal variation in maintenance efficiency. However, it could also simply reflect interanimal genetic variation in correlated energy expenditure traits not included in the statistical model. Estimated breeding values for the random regression coefficient could be useful phenotypes in themselves for studies wishing to elucidate the underlying mechanisms governing differences among animals in RFI.

  17. Mercury content in Chilean fish and estimated intake levels.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Sandra; Fortt, Antonia

    2007-09-01

    The intake of fish products is a major public health concern due to possible methyl mercury exposure, which is especially toxic to the human nervous system. This pilot study (n = 46) was designed to determine mercury concentrations in fish products for national consumption (Chilean jack mackerel, hake, Chilean mussel, tuna) and for export (salmon, Patagonian toothfish, swordfish, southern hake), and to estimate the exposure of the general population. The fish products were collected from markets in Talcahuano, Puerto Montt and Santiago. Samples were analyzed at the National Environmental Center by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mercury levels in swordfish and one canned tuna sample exceeded levels prescribed by national and international standards. The remaining two export products (Patagonian toothfish, also known as Chilean sea bass, and salmon) complied with international limits, which are more demanding than Chilean regulations. Theoretical estimates of mercury intake varied from 0.08 to 3.8 microg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for high fish consumers, exceeding the provisional tolerable intake for tuna, Chilean seabass, Chilean jack mackerel and swordfish. This group appears to be at the greatest risk from mercury contamination among the Chilean population.

  18. Effect of diet energy level and genomic residual feed intake on pre-bred dairy heifer feed intake and growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine the growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency of pre-bred dairy heifers with different predicted genomic residual feed intakes as lactating cows (RFI), and offered diets with different energy levels. Pre-bred heifers (128, ages 4-9 months) were blocked by ...

  19. Dietary supplement intake in national-level Sri Lankan athletes.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Angela; Samarasinghe, Yasas; Senanayake, Dhammika; Lanerolle, Pulani

    2010-02-01

    Intake of dietary supplements is widespread among athletes in developed countries. This study evaluated the use of dietary supplements in athletes from a developing country. Dietary supplementation practices of 113 national-level athletes age 15-35 yr in Sri Lanka were assessed. All athletes from track-and-field, badminton, football, swimming, cycling, and karate squads who consented to participate in the study were administered an anonymous questionnaire by an interviewer. Information on number of supplements taken, frequency of use, nature of product, rationale, sources of advice, and reasons for taking supplements was obtained. Most athletes (94%) consumed dietary supplements. On average, 3.7 products/day were consumed. Footballers had significantly lower intake of supplements than other athletes (footballers 71%, others 98%; p < .05). They also consumed fewer products per day (footballers 0.7, others 3.5; p < .05). Popular supplements included multivitamins, vitamin E, calcium, energy foods and drinks, and creatine. Multiple supplement use was common, with 29% athletes taking 4 products/day. The athletes sought advice on supplement use from sports doctors (45%), team coaches (40%), or friends (15%). Most took supplements to improve performance (79%), and 19% claimed to take supplements to improve their overall health status. Dietary supplement use is widespread among national-level Sri Lankan athletes. The ad hoc use of supplements indicates that educational intervention in the sporting community is essential.

  20. EFFECTS OF GESTATIONAL DIETARY METABOLIZABLE PROTEIN LEVEL AND DRY MATTER INTAKE ON SUBSEQUENT PRODUCTION TRAITS IN PRIMIPAROUS HEIFERS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ABSTRACT: The objective of this experiment was to determine if feeding two levels of dietary metabolizable protein (102% vs. 119% of NRC requirements) and biological variation in feed intake during the second and third trimesters of gestation influenced subsequent production traits in primiparous h...

  1. Effects of gestational dietary metabolizable protein level and dry matter intake on subsequent production traits in primiparous heifers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this experiment was to determine if feeding two levels of dietary metabolizable protein (102% vs. 119% of NRC requirements) and biological variation in feed intake during the second and third trimesters of gestation influenced subsequent production traits in primiparous heifers. Tw...

  2. Lower levels of sodium intake and reduced cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Cook, Nancy R; Appel, Lawrence J; Whelton, Paul K

    2014-03-04

    Recent studies have raised the possibility of adverse effects of low sodium, particularly <2300 mg/d, on cardiovascular disease; however, these paradoxical findings might have resulted from suboptimal measurement of sodium and potential biases related to indication or reverse causation. Phases 1 and 2 of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP) collected multiple 24-hour urine specimens among prehypertensive individuals. During extended post-trial surveillance, 193 cardiovascular events or cardiovascular disease deaths occurred among 2275 participants not in a sodium reduction intervention with 10 (TOHP II) or 15 (TOHP I) years of post-trial follow-up. Median sodium excretion was 3630 mg/d, with 1.4% of the participants having intake <1500 mg/d and 10% <2300 mg/d, consistent with national levels. Compared with those with sodium excretion of 3600 to <4800 mg/d, risk for those with sodium <2300 mg/d was 32% lower after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-1.37; P for trend=0.13). There was a linear 17% increase in risk per 1000 mg/d increase in sodium (P=0.05). Spline curves supported a linear association of sodium with cardiovascular events, which continued to decrease from 3600 to 2300 and 1500 mg/d, although the data were sparse at the lowest levels. Controlling for creatinine levels had little effect on these results. Results from the TOHP studies, which overcome the major methodological challenges of prior studies, are consistent with overall health benefits of reducing sodium intake to the 1500 to 2300 mg/d range in the majority of the population, in agreement with current dietary guidelines.

  3. SNAB: A New Advanced Level Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Of all the sciences, biology has probably made the most rapid progress in recent years and the need for this to be reflected in a new Advanced Level biology course has long been recognised in the UK. After wide-ranging consultation and successful piloting in over 50 schools and colleges in England and Wales, the new Salters-Nuffield Advanced…

  4. SNAB: A New Advanced Level Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Of all the sciences, biology has probably made the most rapid progress in recent years and the need for this to be reflected in a new Advanced Level biology course has long been recognised in the UK. After wide-ranging consultation and successful piloting in over 50 schools and colleges in England and Wales, the new Salters-Nuffield Advanced…

  5. Structural Biology for A-Level Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the structure and function of proteins is an important area in biochemistry. Pupils studying A-level Biology are introduced to the four levels of protein structure (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary) and how these can be used to describe the progressive folding of a chain of amino acid residues to a final,…

  6. Structural Biology for A-Level Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the structure and function of proteins is an important area in biochemistry. Pupils studying A-level Biology are introduced to the four levels of protein structure (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary) and how these can be used to describe the progressive folding of a chain of amino acid residues to a final,…

  7. Oral intake and serum levels of ascorbic acid in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Lim, S L; Lee, E J; Myint, C C; Ong, K T; Tay, M E; Yusuf, N; Ong, C N

    2001-01-01

    Oral intake of ascorbic acid is essential for optimum health in human beings. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients have an increased need for ascorbic acid, because of increased loss through dialysate, reduced intake owing to nausea and loss of appetite, and increased oxidative stress. However, optimum intake is still controversial. We studied 50 clinically stable patients to determine the relationship between oral ascorbic acid intake and serum ascorbic acid (SAA) level. Total oral intake ranged from 28 mg daily to 412 mg daily. Only one patient had an oral intake of ascorbic acid below 60 mg per day. The SAA levels ranged from 1 mg/L to 36.17 mg/L. Although a strong correlation existed between intake and SAA (p < 0.001, R2 = 0.47), the variation in SAA at any given intake level was wide. Of the studied patients, 62% had an SAA < 8.7 mg/L, 40% had an SAA < 5.1 mg/L (below the level in a healthy population), and 12% had a level below 2 mg/L (scorbutic). None of the patients demonstrated clinical manifestations of scurvy. Our results show that, in CAPD patients, ascorbic acid deficiency can be reliably detected only with SAA measurements, and oral intake may influence SAA level. To maintain ascorbic acid in the normal range for healthy adults, daily oral intake needs to be increased above the U.S. recommended dietary allowance to 80-140 mg.

  8. High potassium intake blunts the effect of elevated sodium intake on blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Sérgio Lamêgo; Baldo, Marcelo Perim; Machado, Rebeca Caldeira; Forechi, Ludimila; Molina, Maria del Carmem Bisi; Mill, José Geraldo

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary potassium on the sodium effect on blood pressure (BP) in the general population and the adherence of current recommendations for sodium and potassium intake. An overnight (12-hour) urine sample was collected in a population-based study to investigate cardiovascular risk. A sub-sample of 1285 subjects (age range, 25-64 years) free from any medication interfering with BP or potassium excretion was studied. Of the participants, 86.0% consumed over 6 g of salt/day and 87.7% less than the recommended intake of potassium (4.7 g). Potassium excretion and the sodium to potassium ratio were significantly related to systolic and diastolic BP only in subjects consuming more than 6 g/day of salt. Subjects in the highest sodium to potassium ratio quartile (surrogate of unhealthy diet) presented 8 mm Hg and 7 mm Hg higher values of systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, when compared with the first quartile, while individuals in the fourth quartile of urinary potassium excretion (healthier diet) showed 6 mm Hg and 4 mm Hg lower systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, compared with the first quartile. Our data indicate that when people have an increased intake of potassium, high intake of sodium is not associated with higher BP.

  9. Nuffield A-level Biological Science Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, P. J.; Dowdeswell, W. H.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the objectives, intended outcomes, subject matter content, and methods of examining practical and theoretical work in Nuffield A-level biology. Outlines rationale for the organization of the materials produced, justifies using compulsory investigative student projects, suggests procedures for introducing the course and lists relevant…

  10. Zirconia nanocrystals as submicron level biological label

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smits, K.; Liepins, J.; Gavare, M.; Patmalnieks, A.; Gruduls, A.; Jankovica, D.

    2012-08-01

    Inorganic nanocrystals are of increasing interest for their usage in biology and pharmacology research. Our interest was to justify ZrO2 nanocrystal usage as submicron level biological label in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisia culture. For the first time (to our knowledge) images with sub micro up-conversion luminescent particles in biologic media were made. A set of undoped as well as Er and Yb doped ZrO2 samples at different concentrations were prepared by sol-gel method. The up-conversion luminescence for free standing and for nanocrystals with baker's yeast cells was studied and the differences in up-conversion luminescence spectra were analyzed. In vivo toxic effects of ZrO2 nanocrystals were tested by co-cultivation with baker's yeast.

  11. Biological Status and Dietary Intakes of Iron, Zinc and Vitamin A among Women and Preschool Children in Rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Prevel, Yves; Allemand, Pauline; Nikiema, Laetitia; Ayassou, Kossiwavi A.; Ouedraogo, Henri Gautier; Moursi, Mourad; De Moura, Fabiana F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-based approaches such as biofortification are meant to sustainably address micronutrient deficiencies in poor settings. Knowing more about micronutrient intakes and deficiencies is a prerequisite to designing and evaluating interventions. Objective The objectives of the study were to assess biological status and dietary intakes of iron, zinc and vitamin A among women and children aged 36–59 months in rural Burkina Faso and to study relationships between intake and status to better inform future food-based interventions. Design A cross-sectional survey was carried out in two rural provinces of Burkina Faso on a random cluster sample of 480 mother-child pairs. Dietary data was obtained by 24-hour recalls repeated on a random sub-selection of 37.5% of subjects to allow calculation of nutrient’s probability of adequacy (PA). Biomarkers were measured on a sub-sample of 180 mother-child pairs. Blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), C-reactive protein, alpha-1-glycoprotein, serum zinc concentration (SZnC) and retinol. For each micronutrient the relationship between biomarker and dietary intake was investigated by multiple linear regression models accounting for inflammatory biomarkers. Results Mean PA for iron, zinc and vitamin A was 0.49, 0.87 and 0.21 among women and 0.61, 0.95 and 0.33 among children, respectively. Prevalence of anemia, corrected low serum ferritin and high sTfR was 37.6%, 4.0% and 77.5% among women and 72.1%, 1.5% and 87.6% among children, respectively. Prevalence of low SZnC and corrected low serum retinol was 39.4% and 12.0% among women and 63.7% and 24.8% among children, respectively. There was a tendency for a positive relationship between vitamin A intakes and serum retinol among women (β = 0.0003, P = 0.06). Otherwise, no link was found between micronutrients biomarkers and intakes. Conclusion Our study depicted different images of micronutrient deficiencies when

  12. Dietary Fat, Fiber, and Carbohydrate Intake and Endogenous Hormone Levels in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiaohui; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the associations of fat, fiber and carbohydrate intake with endogenous estrogen, androgen, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) levels among 595 premenopausal women. Overall, no significant associations were found between dietary intake of these macronutrients and plasma sex steroid hormone levels. Dietary fat intake was inversely associated with IGF-I and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels. When substituting 5% of energy from total fat for the equivalent amount of energy from carbohydrate or protein intake, the plasma levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were 2.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3, 5.3) and 1.6% (95% CI 0.4, 2.8) lower, respectively. Animal fat, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat intakes also were inversely associated with IGFBP-3 levels (P < 0.05). Carbohydrates were positively associated with plasma IGF-I level. When substituting 5% of energy from carbohydrates for the equivalent amount of energy from fat or protein intake, the plasma IGF-I level was 2.0% (95% CI 0.1, 3.9%) higher. No independent associations between fiber intake and hormone levels were observed. The results suggest that a low-fat/high-fiber or carbohydrate diet is not associated with endogenous levels of sex steroid hormones, but it may modestly increase IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels among premenopausal women. PMID:21761370

  13. Roughage level and limited maximum intake regimens for feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Bartle, S J; Preston, R L

    1992-11-01

    Hereford steers (n = 280, BW = 371 +/- 29 kg; 40 pens) were used to evaluate two alternatives to ad libitum access to feed and constant roughage levels in finishing diets. The eight treatments were as follows: two treatments in which intake was limited to a multiple of the maintenance (MM) energy requirement (2.1, 2.3, 2.5, and 2.7, [2.7MM] and 2.3, 2.5, 2.7, and 2.9 [2.9MM] times maintenance for wk 1, 2, 3, and 4 and thereafter, respectively) and six roughage regimen and grain source treatments (10% roughage equivalent [RE] fed during the mid- and late-finishing periods [10/10], respectively, 2% RE followed by 10% RE [2/10], and 10% RE followed by 2% RE [10/2] fed with steam-flaked sorghum grain [SFSG] or whole-shelled corn [WSC]). The 2.7MM treatment tended to improve ADG (6%, P = .08) and gain efficiency (4%, P = .15) relative to ad libitum access to feed. The 2.9MM treatment was intermediate. Steers fed WSC diets consumed approximately 12% more DM (9.2 vs 8.2 kg/d) and gained 4% more (1.45 vs 1.39 kg/d, P < .05) but had lower gain efficiency (7%, 159 and 170 g/kg, P < .001) than steers fed SFSG diets. For SFSG diets, the 2/10 regimen resulted in similar gains, a 3.6% decrease (P = .10) in DMI, an 8.6% improvement (P < .01) in gain efficiency, and reduced roughage use (40 kg per steer) compared with the 10/10 regimen. With WSC diets, the 2/10 regimen did not (P > .2) affect gain efficiency but did reduce roughage use (48 kg) compared with the 10/10 regimen. The 10/2 regimen did not differ (P > .2) from the 10/10 regimen. Few differences in carcass characteristics were noted among treatments. Roughage use and cost of gain can be reduced by feeding 2% roughage during the mid-finishing period followed by a return to 10% roughage.

  14. Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements.The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake.Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes.Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes.

  15. Performance Level Affects the Dietary Supplement Intake of Both Individual and Team Sports Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points 37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements. The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake. Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes. Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes. PMID

  16. Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) intakes and serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin levels in Irish postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Collins, Aoife; Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Máiréad

    2006-05-01

    Low phylloquinone (vitamin K1) intakes have been associated with low bone mineral density in older adults. Phylloquinone intakes and serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) levels were assessed in ninety-seven apparently healthy, free-living Irish women aged 50-75 years. Phylloquinone intakes were estimated using a detailed dietary history, which measured habitual food intakes from a typical 14 d period, and recently published food composition data for phylloquinone. Fasting serum ucOC was measured using an enzyme immunoassay. The median daily intake of phylloquinone in the group from all sources was 108.8 microg and from food sources only was 106.6 microg, indicating that approximately 99 % of the phylloquinone came from food. Vegetables and vegetable dishes contributed 67 % of the total phylloquinone intake, but further analysis showed that broccoli, cabbage and lettuce were the primary sources, making a total contribution of 44 %. Twenty per cent of the women had a phylloquinone intake below the UK recommendation of 1 microg/kg body weight per day and 34 % failed to meet the US Adequate Intake value of 90 microg/day. Mean serum ucOC levels in the women were 6.2 (SD 1.7) ng/ml and were predicted by phylloquinone intake (beta -2.20, generated from log-transformed phylloquinone intake data; P=0.04). On the basis of comparisons with both UK recommendations and US Adequate Intakes for phylloquinone, the habitual intakes of phylloquinone in a high proportion of Irish postmenopausal women may not be adequate.

  17. Barriers and Facilitators to Intake of Dairy Products in Adolescent Males and Females With Different Levels of Habitual Intake

    PubMed Central

    Racey, Megan; Bransfield, Jeanette; Capello, Kathryn; Field, David; Kulak, Verena; Machmueller, David; Preyde, Michèle; Newton, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dairy products and alternatives can contribute to overall good health including positive body composition and decreased adiposity; however, these foods are grossly underconsumed by youth, and worldwide, almost 25% of children are overweight or obese. Objective: The study investigated the barriers and facilitators toward dairy consumption by Grade 7 youth. Methods: Thirty 50-minute, audio-recorded focus groups were conducted with 134 students in eight Grade 7 classes across 5 elementary schools. Focus groups were led by trained facilitators in the elementary schools and participants were separated based on dairy consumption and gender. Recorded data were transcribed and thematically analyzed using qualitative analysis software to identify themes related to barriers and facilitators to dairy product intake by each gender. Results: Factors considered important by males and females across different levels of habitual intake include personal knowledge about dairy products and misconceptions regarding dairy foods and their associated health benefits; food characteristics, including taste; personal behaviors such as habits or routines including dairy products; social environments including parental and peer influence; physical environments factors such as availability and skipping meals; and the convenience of dairy products. Interestingly, only males noted sports as a positive influence for dairy product intake. Also, there were differences in the way males and females perceived dining out as affecting their dairy intake. Conclusion: Results suggest several potential factors that nutrition education interventions aiming to increase dairy consumption could target. PMID:28540345

  18. Barriers and Facilitators to Intake of Dairy Products in Adolescent Males and Females With Different Levels of Habitual Intake.

    PubMed

    Racey, Megan; Bransfield, Jeanette; Capello, Kathryn; Field, David; Kulak, Verena; Machmueller, David; Preyde, Michèle; Newton, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dairy products and alternatives can contribute to overall good health including positive body composition and decreased adiposity; however, these foods are grossly underconsumed by youth, and worldwide, almost 25% of children are overweight or obese. Objective: The study investigated the barriers and facilitators toward dairy consumption by Grade 7 youth. Methods: Thirty 50-minute, audio-recorded focus groups were conducted with 134 students in eight Grade 7 classes across 5 elementary schools. Focus groups were led by trained facilitators in the elementary schools and participants were separated based on dairy consumption and gender. Recorded data were transcribed and thematically analyzed using qualitative analysis software to identify themes related to barriers and facilitators to dairy product intake by each gender. Results: Factors considered important by males and females across different levels of habitual intake include personal knowledge about dairy products and misconceptions regarding dairy foods and their associated health benefits; food characteristics, including taste; personal behaviors such as habits or routines including dairy products; social environments including parental and peer influence; physical environments factors such as availability and skipping meals; and the convenience of dairy products. Interestingly, only males noted sports as a positive influence for dairy product intake. Also, there were differences in the way males and females perceived dining out as affecting their dairy intake. Conclusion: Results suggest several potential factors that nutrition education interventions aiming to increase dairy consumption could target.

  19. Seaweed intake and urinary sex hormone levels in preschool Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Wada, Keiko; Nakamura, Kozue; Tamai, Yuya; Tsuji, Michiko; Watanabe, Kaori; Ando, Kyoko; Nagata, Chisato

    2012-02-01

    We investigated whether seaweed intake is associated with sex steroid levels in young Japanese children. The design of the study was cross-sectional and it was conducted in October-November 2006. Subjects were substantially healthy preschoolers, 230 boys and 198 girls, aged 3-6 years. Dietary data, including seaweed intake, were assessed using 3-day dietary records covering 2 consecutive weekdays and 1 weekend day. Urinary estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and 5-androstene-3β,17α diol levels were measured by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Urinary dehydroepiandrosterone level was measured with a radioimmunoassay. Steroid hormones were adjusted for urinary creatinine levels. Spearman's correlation coefficient between seaweed intake and estrone level was -0.144 (p = 0.030) in boys and -0.147 (p = 0.041) in girls after adjustments for age, BMI, and total energy intake. Seaweed intake was neither associated with estradiol, testosterone, 3β,17α-AED nor with DHEA among boys and girls. The negative association between seaweed intake and estrone level suggests that dietary seaweed intake might affect estrogen metabolism in childhood.

  20. Coffee Intake and Elevated Cholesterol and Apolipoprotein B Levels in Men

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paul T.; Wood, Peter D.; Vranizan, Karen M.; Albers, John J.; Garay, Susan C.; Taylor, C. Barr

    2010-01-01

    Coffee intake from three-day diet records was studied in association with plasma lipoprotein concentrations in a cross-sectional sample of 77 middle-aged American men to determine the significance and form of their interrelationships. The number of cups consumed per day correlated positively with levels of apolipoprotein B (r =.27, P ≤ 0.01) and became more strongly correlated when adjusted for age, cigarette use, adiposity, aerobic capacity, nutrient intake, and stress. Coffee intake also correlated with total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels when adjusted for these confounding factors. Graphic analyses revealed that plasma concentrations of apolipoprotein B and LDL-cholesterol were unrelated to intake of up to 2 cups of coffee per day and positively associated with intake exceeding 2 to 3 cups. These results suggest that male heavy coffee drinkers have lipoprotein profiles suggestive of increased cardiovascular disease risk, although the causality remains to be determined. PMID:3968770

  1. Caffeine levels in beverages from Argentina's market: application to caffeine dietary intake assessment.

    PubMed

    Olmos, V; Bardoni, N; Ridolfi, A S; Villaamil Lepori, E C

    2009-03-01

    The caffeine content of different beverages from Argentina's market was measured. Several brands of coffees, teas, mates, chocolate milks, soft and energy drinks were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection. The highest concentration level was found in short coffee (1.38 mg ml(-1)) and the highest amount per serving was found in instant coffee (95 mg per serving). A consumption study was also carried out among 471 people from 2 to 93 years of age to evaluate caffeine total dietary intake by age and to identify the sources of caffeine intake. The mean caffeine intake among adults was 288 mg day(-1) and mate was the main contributor to that intake. The mean caffeine intake among children of 10 years of age and under was 35 mg day(-1) and soft drinks were the major contributors to that intake. Children between 11 and 15 years old and teenagers (between 16 and 20 years) had caffeine mean intakes of 120 and 240 mg day(-1), respectively, and mate was the major contributor to those intakes. Drinking mate is a deep-rooted habit among Argentine people and it might be the reason for their elevated caffeine mean daily intake.

  2. The effect of grapefruit intake on endogenous serum estrogen levels in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Kristine R; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Besinque, Kathleen H; Pike, Malcolm C

    2013-01-01

    Although grapefruit intake leads to elevated serum estrogen levels when hormones are taken orally, there are no published data on the effect on endogenous levels. We conducted a pilot dietary intervention study among healthy postmenopausal volunteers to test whole grapefruit, 2 juices, and 1 grapefruit soda. Fifty-nine participants were recruited through the Love/Avon Army of Women. The study consisted of a 3-wk run-in, 2 wk of grapefruit intake, and a 1-wk wash-out. Eight fasting blood samples were collected. An additional 5 samples drawn at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 10 hr after grapefruit intake were collected during an acute-phase study for 10 women. Serum assays for estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estrone-3-sulfate (E1S), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and sex hormone-binding globulin were conducted. Whole grapefruit intake had significant effects on endogenous E1S. Peak effects were seen at 8 hr, increasing by 26% from baseline. No changes in mean E1 or E2 with whole fruit intake were observed. In contrast, fresh juice, bottled juice, and soda intake all had significant lowering effects on E2. The findings suggest an important interaction between grapefruit intake and endogenous estrogen levels. Because endogenous estrogen levels are associated with breast cancer risk, further research is warranted.

  3. Dietary intake based on physical activity level in Korean elementary school students

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeonsoo; Kim, Hyun A; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Yuri

    2010-01-01

    Prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing significantly worldwide due to energy imbalance perhaps stemming from undesirable dietary behavior and physical activity level. The objective of the study was to examine the effects of physical activity level on nutritional status in elementary school students. The subjects were comprised of 287 elementary school students between 4th and 6th grades in Seoul, Korea. The level of physical activity was scored with a modified Godin leisure-time exercise questionnaire and was categorized as active, moderately active, and sedentary. Dietary intakes were obtained using a 24-hour food recall method. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to test for global significant differences of nutrient intakes by physical activity level. Boys were more active than girls. Daily intakes of energy in moderately active boys were significantly higher than in the sedentary group, but intakes of calcium and iron in moderately active boys were lower than active boys. For girls, physical activity level did not affect nutrient density at all. Intakes of calcium, vitamin C, and folate for both boys and girls were below 50% of recommended intake. Physical activity did not affect nutrient density and our participants were exposed to nutritional imbalance. Therefore, the results suggest that nutrition education regarding balanced diet and optimum physical activity is required for children's health and growth. PMID:20827348

  4. Mediation of parental educational level on fruit and vegetable intake among schoolchildren in ten European countries.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Te Velde, Saskia; Petrova, Stefka; Duleva, Vesselka; Krawinkel, Michael; Behrendt, Isabel; Papadaki, Angeliki; Kristjansdottir, Asa; Thorsdottir, Inga; Yngve, Agneta; Lien, Nanna; Lynch, Christel; Ehrenblad, Bettina; Vaz de Almeida, Maria Daniel; Ribic, Cirila Hlastan; Simčic, Irena; Roos, Eva

    2015-01-01

    To examine which factors act as mediators between parental educational level and children's fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake in ten European countries. Cross-sectional data were collected in ten European countries participating in the PRO GREENS project (2009). Schoolchildren completed a validated FFQ about their daily F&V intake and filled in a questionnaire about availability of F&V at home, parental facilitation of F&V intake, knowledge of recommendations about F&V intake, self-efficacy to eat F&V and liking for F&V. Parental educational level was determined from a questionnaire given to parents. The associations were examined with multilevel mediation analyses. Schools in Bulgaria, Finland, Germany, Greece, Iceland, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. Eleven-year-old children (n 8159, response rate 72%) and their parents. In five of the ten countries, children with higher educated parents were more likely to report eating fruits daily. This association was mainly mediated by knowledge but self-efficacy, liking, availability and facilitation also acted as mediators in some countries. Parents' education was positively associated with their children's daily vegetable intake in seven countries, with knowledge and availability being the strongest mediators and self-efficacy and liking acting as mediators to some degree. Parental educational level correlated positively with children's daily F&V intake in most countries and the pattern of mediation varied among the participating countries. Future intervention studies that endeavour to decrease the educational-level differences in F&V intake should take into account country-specific features in the relevant determinants of F&V intake.

  5. Saturated fatty acid intake decreases serum adiponectin levels in subjects with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Eccel Prates, Raquel; Beretta, Mileni V; Nascimento, Filipe V; Bernaud, Fernanda R; de Almeira, Jussara Carnevale; Rodrigues, Ticiana C

    2016-06-01

    Adiponectin is a protein secreted by adipose tissue. It plays a key role in insulin resistance and has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic functions. Changes in diet can influence adiponectin levels. Different dietary interventions, especially those altering fatty acid intake, have been reported as possible mediators of adiponectin levels. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 122 subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Dietary intake was evaluated by 3-day weighed-diet records. Adiponectin levels were categorized into tertiles (T1, <10.260μg/mL; T2, 10.261-18.280μg/mL; T3, >18.281μg/mL). Mean age was 38±11years, and mean duration of diabetes was 17±9years. After multiple regression analysis, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (r=-0.19, p = 0.03), age (r=-0.22, p=0.01), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (r=-0.27, p=0.002), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (r=-0.19, p=0.30), total lipid intake (g) (r=-0.20, p=0.02), saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake (r=-0.25, p=0.004), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) intake (r=-0.21, p=0.02), cholesterol intake (mg) (r=-0.20, p=0.021), sodium intake (g) (r=-0.19, p=0.03), and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAE) (μg/24h) (r=0.26, p=0.02) correlated with adiponectin levels. Even after adjustment for age, SBP or DBP, UAE, and WHR in all models, inverse associations between adiponectin levels and intake of total SFA and MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acid fractions were observed. Subjects in the first and third tertiles of adiponectin exhibited the greatest differences between adiponectin levels, with a trend toward increasing levels with higher SFA intake. The present study suggests that high SFA intake may be associated with lower adiponectin levels in patients with T1DM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cruciferous Vegetable Intake Is Inversely Correlated with Circulating Levels of Proinflammatory Markers in Women

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu; Wu, Sheng-Hui; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Ji, Bu-Tian; Milne, Ginger L.; Cai, Qiuyin; Zhang, Xianglan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Yang, Gong

    2014-01-01

    Background Higher intakes of cruciferous vegetables or their constituents have been shown to lower inflammation in animal studies. However, evidence for this anti-inflammatory effect of cruciferous vegetable consumption in humans is scarce. Objective/Design In this cross-sectional analysis, we evaluated associations of vegetable intake with a panel of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers among 1,005 middle-aged Chinese women. Dietary intake of foods was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Results Multivariable-adjusted circulating concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interlukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 were lower among women with higher intakes of cruciferous vegetables. The differences in concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers between extreme quintiles of cruciferous vegetable intake were 12.66% for TNF-α (Ptrend=0.01), 18.18% for IL-1β (Ptrend=0.02), and 24.68% for IL-6 (Ptrend=0.02). A similar, but less apparent, inverse association was found for intakes of all vegetables combined but not for noncruciferous vegetables. Levels of the urinary oxidative stress markers F2-isoprostanes and their major metabolite, 2,3-dinor-5,6-dihydro-15-F2t-IsoP, were not associated with intakes of cruciferous vegetables or all vegetables combined. Conclusions This study suggests that the previously observed health benefits of cruciferous vegetable consumption may be partly associated with the anti-inflammatory effects of these vegetables. PMID:24630682

  7. Vitamin A intake and serum retinol levels in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Woestenenk, Janna W; Broos, Nancy; Stellato, Rebecca K; Arets, Hubertus G M; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Houwen, Roderick H J

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic insufficient cystic fibrosis (CF) patients receive vitamin A supplementation according to CF-specific recommendations to prevent deficiencies. Whether current recommendations are optimal for preventing both deficiency and toxicity is a subject of debate. We assessed the longitudinal relation between serum retinol levels and appropriate variables. We studied vitamin A intake, and the long-term effects of vitamin A intake, coefficient of fat absorption (CFA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) on serum retinol levels in 221 paediatrics CF patients during a seven-year follow up period. Total vitamin A intake, derived from 862 dietary assessments, exceeded the tolerable upper intake level in 30% of the assessments, mainly up to age six. Although CF patients failed to meet the CF-specific recommendations, serum retinol deficiency was found in only 17/862 (2%) of the measurements. Longitudinally, we observed no association to serum retinol levels for total vitamin A intake, CFA, gender or age but serum retinol levels were associated with serum IgG levels. Each g/L increase in serum IgG level would result in a 2.49% (95% CI -3.60 to -1.36%) reduction in serum retinol levels. In this large sample of children and adolescents with CF, serum retinol deficiency was rare despite lower than the CF-specific recommendations. However, the TUL was commonly exceeded. A reduction in CF-specific vitamin A supplementation recommendations should therefore be considered. Moreover, serum retinol levels were not associated with vitamin A intake, CFA, gender or age, although a decreased serum retinol was associated with an increased serum IgG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Endogenous estrogen levels and calcium intakes in postmenopausal women. Relationships with cortical bone measures.

    PubMed

    Cauley, J A; Gutai, J P; Kuller, L H; LeDonne, D; Sandler, R B; Sashin, D; Powell, J G

    1988-12-02

    To examine the interactions between hormone levels and calcium with cortical bone, we have attempted to combine risk factors for the development of peak skeletal mass with factors that may be related to the maintenance of bone integrity after menopause. A total of 174 postmenopausal women participated in our study. There was little relationship found between androgen hormones and radial bone density. Estrone levels were independently related to radial bone density. Examination of the relationship of calcium intake to bone revealed a protective effect solely in women who reported high "lifetime" calcium intakes. Taking calcium and estrone together revealed an additive relationship between the two factors, in that women with high estrone and high calcium levels had significantly greater bone density than women with less calcium and/or estrone. The results suggest that a lifetime of adequate calcium intake coupled with adequate levels of serum estrogens could maximize bone density after menopause.

  9. Vegetable and Fruit Intakes Are Associated with hs-CRP Levels in Pre-Pubertal Girls.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Pilar; de Dios, Olaya; Jois, Asha; Gavela-Pérez, Teresa; Gorgojo, Lydia; Martín-Moreno, José M; Soriano-Guillen, Leandro; Garcés, Carmen

    2017-03-02

    The influence of diet on inflammation in children remains unclear. We aimed to analyze the influence of diet on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in a pre-pubertal population free of other influences that may affect hs-CRP levels. We determined hs-CRP levels in 571 six- to eight-year-old children using an hs-CRP ELISA kit. Information on food and nutrient intake was obtained through a food-frequency questionnaire. Overall dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI). We found that girls in the highest tertile of hs-CRP levels had a higher intake of saturated fatty acid, and lower intakes of fiber and vitamin E and a lower HEI score when compared to those in tertiles 1 and 2. We also observed a significant decrease in fruit and vegetable intakes by hs-CRP tertile. Factor analysis showed that a dietary pattern that was loaded most strongly with vegetable, fruit, fiber and vitamin A and E intakes correlated negatively (-0.132, p < 0.05) with hs-CRP. No such association was found in boys. In conclusion, our data show that girls with a poorer quality diet show higher hs-CRP levels already at a pre-pubertal age.

  10. Vegetable and Fruit Intakes Are Associated with hs-CRP Levels in Pre-Pubertal Girls

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Pilar; de Dios, Olaya; Jois, Asha; Gavela-Pérez, Teresa; Gorgojo, Lydia; Martín-Moreno, José M.; Soriano-Guillen, Leandro; Garcés, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The influence of diet on inflammation in children remains unclear. We aimed to analyze the influence of diet on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in a pre-pubertal population free of other influences that may affect hs-CRP levels. We determined hs-CRP levels in 571 six- to eight-year-old children using an hs-CRP ELISA kit. Information on food and nutrient intake was obtained through a food-frequency questionnaire. Overall dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI). We found that girls in the highest tertile of hs-CRP levels had a higher intake of saturated fatty acid, and lower intakes of fiber and vitamin E and a lower HEI score when compared to those in tertiles 1 and 2. We also observed a significant decrease in fruit and vegetable intakes by hs-CRP tertile. Factor analysis showed that a dietary pattern that was loaded most strongly with vegetable, fruit, fiber and vitamin A and E intakes correlated negatively (−0.132, p < 0.05) with hs-CRP. No such association was found in boys. In conclusion, our data show that girls with a poorer quality diet show higher hs-CRP levels already at a pre-pubertal age. PMID:28257085

  11. Food preferences do not influence adolescent high-level athletes' dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; García-Rovés, Pablo M; García, Angela; Patterson, Angeles M

    2008-01-01

    To assess the influence of preferences on food and nutritional intake in a group of adolescent high-level athletes, 22 male soccer players (14-16 years) were recruited. Individuals were asked to fill in a specific questionnaire including 15 food groups that had to be ranked according to their preferences. Three categories were established: "Like" (ranked 1-5), "Indifferent" (6-10), and "Dislike" (11-15). Dietary intake was assessed using the weighed food method (for nutrient intake) and a quantitative open-ended food frequency questionnaire (for the number of standard portions of each food group ingested daily). The main preferences were Meat, poultry and derivates (ranked 1-5 in 83% of individuals) and Pasta (58%), while Vegetables (ranked 11-15 in 82%) and Fish (64%) were the main dislikes. The most frequently consumed food groups were Fruits and fruit juices (3.9 portions/day), Bread (3.0), and Biscuits, confectionery and sweets (3.0). No statistical differences were found in food consumption between preference groups, and no relation was found between preferences and nutritional intake, except for those individuals who especially like Bread, which had statistically higher energy and carbohydrate intake. Food preferences and food and nutritional intake of adolescent high-level soccer players were, effectively, unrelated.

  12. Nutrient intake and food group consumption of 10-year-olds by sugar intake level: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Farris, R P; Nicklas, T A; Myers, L; Berenson, G S

    1998-12-01

    The effect of total sugar intake on nutrient intake and food group consumption was examined in children. Twenty-four hour dietary recalls were collected on a sample of 568 ten-year-olds from two cross-sectional surveys. The population was stratified according to total sugar intake quartiles: < or = 25th (46 g/1000 kcal), 25-50th (67 g/1000 kcal), 50-75th (81 g/1000 kcal) and > or = 75th (106 g/1000 kcal). No significant difference was shown in energy intakes across the quartiles and no significant race or gender differences were observed in mean total sugar intakes. However, with increasing total sugar intake, there was a significant linear decrease in mean intakes of protein, fat, saturated fat, starch, cholesterol, sodium, vitamins B6 and E, thiamin, niacin, iron, and zinc; and a significant linear increase in mean intakes of carbohydrate, fructose, lactose, sucrose, vitamin D, and calcium. Eating patterns reflected the differing nutrient intakes, with high sugar consumers having significantly higher intakes of total g of candy, beverages and milk and lower intakes of total g of meats, and cheese than lower sugar consumers. The nutritional quality of children's diets high in total sugar appear to be adequate regarding vitamin and mineral intakes and are closer to meeting current dietary fat recommendations.

  13. Monosodium glutamate intake increases hemoglobin level over 5 years among Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zumin; Yuan, Baojun; Taylor, Anne W; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Wittert, Gary A

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this analysis was to determine the relationship between monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake and change in hemoglobin (Hb) levels and the risk of anemia over 5 years in 1197 Chinese men and women who participated in the Jiangsu Nutrition Study (JIN). MSG intake and Hb were quantitatively assessed in 2002 and followed up in 2007. Diet and lifestyle factors were assessed at both time points. There was a positive association between MSG intake and increase in Hb among men but not women. In the multivariate model adjusting for demographic and lifestyle factors as well as baseline dietary pattern, the beta values and 95% confidence interval for Hb changes across quartiles of MSG intake were 0, 0.67(0.04-1.29), 0.99(0.38-1.60), 0.73(0.13-1.34) among men (p for trend 0.091); 0, -0.01(-0.45-0.43), 0.23(-0.25-0.71), and -0.45(-0.96-0.05) among women (p for trend 0.087). Among anemic participants at baseline, there was a significant inverse association between MSG intake and the risk of anemia at follow-up. Comparing extreme quartiles of MSG intake among those anemic at baseline, the relative risk for persistent anemia at follow-up was 0.49 (95% CI: 0.28-0.86, p < 0.01). The association was independent of dietary patterns and lifestyle factors. A dose-response relationship between MSG intake and increase in Hb levels among anemic participants was seen. MSG intake may have independent Hb-increasing effects, especially among men and those anemic at baseline.

  14. Comparison of estimated daily intakes of flavouring substances with no-observed-effect levels.

    PubMed

    Munro, I C; Danielewska-Nikiel, B

    2006-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the margins of safety between no-observed-effect levels (NOELs) and estimates of daily intake for 809 flavouring substances evaluated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) between 2000 and 2004. Estimates of daily intake were calculated using two methods, the maximized survey-derived daily intake (MSDI) and the possible average daily intake (PADI). The MSDI estimates were based on the production volume of flavouring agents as reported by industry, whereas the higher more conservative PADI estimates were derived by multiplying the anticipated average use level of a flavouring substance in each of 33 food categories by the average amount of food consumed daily from that food category and summing the intake over all 33 food categories. These intake estimates were used to calculate the margins of safety for the flavouring agents to determine whether adequate margins of safety would still exist in the event that the MSDIs used by JECFA to evaluate the safety of flavouring substances underestimated daily intakes. Based on the calculation of the margins of safety using the MSDI values, 99.9% of the 809 flavouring substances evaluated by JECFA have margins of safety of greater than 100. In comparison, 98% of flavouring substances have margins of safety of greater than 100 when the margins of safety were calculated from PADI values. The results indicate that if the MSDI estimates used by JECFA for the evaluation of the safety of flavouring substances were underestimated, a wide margin of safety exists for all but a few of the flavouring substances even when intakes were estimated from PADI values.

  15. Alcohol intake in prairie voles is influenced by the drinking level of a peer

    PubMed Central

    Anacker, Allison M. J.; Loftis, Jennifer M.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Peer interactions can have important effects on alcohol drinking levels, in some cases increasing use, and in other cases preventing it. In a previous study we have established the prairie vole as a model animal for the effects of social relationships on alcohol intake, and have observed a correlation of alcohol intake between individual voles housed together as pairs. Here we investigated this correlated drinking behavior, hypothesizing that one animal alters its alcohol intake to match the drinking of its partner. Methods Adult prairie voles were tested for baseline drinking levels with continuous access to 10% alcohol and water for four days. In Experiment 1, high alcohol drinkers (>9g/kg/day) were paired with low alcohol drinkers (<5g/kg/day) of the same sex on either side of a mesh divider for four days with continuous access to the same two-bottle choice test. In Experiment 2, high drinkers were paired with high drinkers and low drinkers paired with low drinkers. In both experiments, animals were again separated following pairing and drinking was retested in isolation. In Experiment 3, alcohol-naïve animals were tested for saccharin consumption (0.05%) first in isolation and then in high saccharin drinkers paired with low saccharin drinkers, and then in another isolation period. Results In Experiment 1, high drinkers paired with low drinkers significantly decreased their alcohol intake and preference from baseline drinking in isolation, and drinking levels remained significantly lower during isolation following pairing. Interestingly, there was variability between pairs in whether the high drinker decreased or the low drinker increased intake. In Experiment 2, high drinkers paired with high drinkers did not significantly change their intake level or preference, nor did low drinkers paired with low drinkers, and no changes occurred during the subsequent isolation. In Experiment 3, there was no change in saccharin intake or preference when high

  16. An economic analysis of community-level fast food prices and individual-level fast food intake: longitudinal effects

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Guilkey, David K.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    Background While dietary intake is shaped by cost, there is minimal research on the association between community-level food prices and dietary intake. Methods We used nationally representative, longitudinal data to examine how community-level food price variation was associated with individual-level fast food intake by race/ethnicity and income across waves II (1996) and III (2001–02) of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=11,088) from 158 baseline and 363 follow-up US counties. Results Negative binomial regression models predicting the number of fast food meals per week show strong relationships between fast food consumption and prices of fast food and soda that varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We found relatively stronger association between food prices and fast food intake for males and relatively greater price sensitivity for soda versus burgers. In the group with strongest associations (black males), a 20% increase in price of soda was associated with a decrease of a 0.25 visits to a fast food restaurant per week. Conclusions Economic incentives may be an effective mechanism to address fast food intake in an age group at high risk for obesity. PMID:21852178

  17. Biological mechanisms related to differences in residual feed intake in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Xi, Y M; Wu, F; Zhao, D Q; Yang, Z; Li, L; Han, Z Y; Wang, G L

    Residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and expected feed intake over a specific period, is an inheritable character of feed conversion efficiency in dairy cows. Research has shown that a lower RFI could improve the profitability of milk production. This study explored variation in RFI by comparing the differences in body size, milk performance, feeding behavior, and serum metabolites in 29 Holstein cows in mid lactation. The cows were selected from a total of 84 animals based on their RFI following feedlot tests. Selected cows were ranked into high RFI (RFI >1 SD above the mean, n=14) and low RFI (RFI<1 SD below the mean, n=15). The low RFI cows (more efficient) consumed 1.59 kg/day less dry matter than the high RFI group (P<0.01), while they produced nearly equal 4% fat-corrected milk. The milk : feed ratio was higher for the low RFI group than for the high RFI group (P<0.05). The levels of milk protein (P<0.01), total solids (P<0.05), and nonfat solids (P<0.05) were also higher for the low RFI group, whereas milk urea nitrogen was lower (P<0.01). The daily feeding duration was shorter for the low RFI group than for the high RFI group (P<0.01). No significant differences were found in levels of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, prolactin, insulin, IGF-1, growth hormone or ghrelin, but the level of neuropeptide Y was higher (P<0.01) and levels of leptin and non-esterified fatty acid (P<0.05) were lower for the low RFI group than for the high RFI group. There were substantial differences between cows with different RFI, which might affect the efficiency of milk protein metabolism and fat mobilization.

  18. Characteristics of U.S. Adults with Usual Daily Folic Acid Intake above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Angela M; Yeung, Lorraine F; Guo, Jing; Carriquiry, Alicia; Berry, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration mandated that by 1998, all enriched cereal grain products (ECGP) be fortified with folic acid in order to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. The Institute of Medicine established the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid (1000 µg/day for adults) in 1998. We characterized U.S. adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL. Using NHANES 2003-2010 data, we estimated the percentage of 18,321 non-pregnant adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, and among them, we calculated the weighted percentage by sex, age, race/ethnicity, sources of folic acid intake, supplement use and median usual daily folic acid intakes. Overall, 2.7% (standard error 0.6%) of participants had usual daily intake exceeding the UL for folic acid; 62.2% were women; 86.3% were non-Hispanic whites; and 98.5% took supplements containing folic acid. When stratified by sex and age groups among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, 20.8% were women aged 19-39 years. Those with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL were more likely to be female, non-Hispanic white, supplement users or to have at least one chronic medical condition compared to those not exceeding the folic acid UL. Among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL who also took supplements, 86.6% took on average >400 µg of folic acid/day from supplements. Everyone with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL consumed folic acid from multiple sources. No one in our study population had usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL through consumption of mandatorily-fortified enriched cereal grain products alone. Voluntary consumption of supplements containing folic acid is the main factor associated with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL.

  19. Characteristics of U.S. Adults with Usual Daily Folic Acid Intake above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Orozco, Angela M.; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Guo, Jing; Carriquiry, Alicia; Berry, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration mandated that by 1998, all enriched cereal grain products (ECGP) be fortified with folic acid in order to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. The Institute of Medicine established the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid (1000 µg/day for adults) in 1998. We characterized U.S. adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL. Using NHANES 2003–2010 data, we estimated the percentage of 18,321 non-pregnant adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, and among them, we calculated the weighted percentage by sex, age, race/ethnicity, sources of folic acid intake, supplement use and median usual daily folic acid intakes. Overall, 2.7% (standard error 0.6%) of participants had usual daily intake exceeding the UL for folic acid; 62.2% were women; 86.3% were non-Hispanic whites; and 98.5% took supplements containing folic acid. When stratified by sex and age groups among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, 20.8% were women aged 19–39 years. Those with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL were more likely to be female, non-Hispanic white, supplement users or to have at least one chronic medical condition compared to those not exceeding the folic acid UL. Among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL who also took supplements, 86.6% took on average >400 µg of folic acid/day from supplements. Everyone with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL consumed folic acid from multiple sources. No one in our study population had usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL through consumption of mandatorily-fortified enriched cereal grain products alone. Voluntary consumption of supplements containing folic acid is the main factor associated with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL. PMID:27043623

  20. Nuclear reactor with low-level core coolant intake

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, Roy C.; Townsend, Harold E.

    1993-01-01

    A natural-circulation boiling-water reactor has skirts extending downward from control rod guide tubes to about 10 centimeters from the reactor vessel bottom. The skirts define annular channels about control rod drive housings that extend through the reactor vessel bottom. Recirculating water is forced in through the low-level entrances to these channels, sweeping bottom water into the channels in the process. The sweeping action prevents cooler water from accumulating at the bottom. This in turn minimizes thermal shock to bottom-dwelling components as would occur when accumulated cool water is swept away and suddenly replaced by warmer water.

  1. [Study on the dietary intake level for indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in China].

    PubMed

    Shao, Y; Yin, S X; Zhang, L; Li, J G; Zhao, Y F; Wang, J; Wu, Y N

    2016-06-01

    To obtain representative data on levels of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in foods consumed by the general population and to estimate the dietary intake of indicator PCBs in China. The food samples were collected during the fifth China Total Diet Study (2009-2013). Based on the geographical location and dietary habits, China was divided into the south area and the north area, and 10 province regions from each area were chosen. In each province region, one urban site and two rural sites were selected to collect food samples. Considering the food consumption level and the PCBs contaminate rule, a total of 160 samples including meat, eggs, fish, milk, cereals, beans, potatoes and vegetables were selected. The concentration of 7 indicator PCBs in food were determined by stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass, and combined with food consumption to calculate the dietary intake of indicator PCBs. The concentration of indicator PCBs in 8 categories of food were in the range of 0.8-1 300.1 pg/g. The levels of indicator PCBs were significantly higher in the aquatic products, averaging (307.8±302.4) pg/g, followed by eggs at (76.6±92.1) pg/g and meat at (63.0±54.9) pg/g. The daily dietary intake of indicator PCBs varied from province to province, ranging from 0.13 ng·kg(-1)·d(-1) to 3.58 ng·kg(-1)·d(-1), averaging (0.67±0.77) ng·kg(-1)·d(-1). Fujian had the highest level (3.58 ng·kg(-1)·d(-1)) , followed by Shanghai (1.48 ng·kg(-1)·d(-1)) and Zhejiang (1.09 ng·kg(-1)·d(-1)) . Compared with the minimum risk level (MRL) value (20 ng·kg(-1)·d(-1)) proposed by US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, the highest dietary intake level was only 17.9% MRL, the average dietary intake level was 3.4%MRL. Aquatic products was still the major contributor to the dietary intake of indicator PCBs in China, 48% of average dietary intake level (0.32 ng·kg(-1)·d(-1)/0.67 ng·kg(-1)·d(-1)) . The dietary intake of indicator PCBs in China was

  2. High glucose intake and glycaemic level in critically ill neonates with inherited metabolic disorders of intoxication.

    PubMed

    Grimaud, Marion; de Lonlay, Pascale; Dupic, Laurent; Arnoux, Jean-Baptiste; Brassier, Anais; Hubert, Philippe; Lesage, Fabrice; Oualha, Mehdi

    2016-06-01

    To investigate glycaemic levels in critically ill neonates with inherited metabolic disorders of intoxication. Thirty-nine neonates with a median age of 7 days (0-24) were retrospectively included (urea cycle disorders (n = 18), maple syrup disease (n = 13), organic acidemias (n = 8)). Twenty-seven neonates were intubated, 21 were haemodialysed and 6 died. During the first 3 days, median total and peak blood glucose (BG) levels were 7.1 mmol/L (0.9-50) and 10 mmol/L (5.1-50), respectively. The median glucose intake rate was 11 mg/kg/min (2.7-15.9). Fifteen and 23 neonates exhibited severe hyperglycaemia (≥2 BG levels >12 mmol/L) and mild hyperglycaemia (≥2 BG levels >7 and ≤12 mmol/L), respectively. Glycaemic levels and number of hyperglycaemic neonates decreased over the first 3 days (p < 0.001) while total glucose intake rate was stable (p = 0.11). Enteral route of glucose intake was associated with a lower number of hyperglycaemic neonates (p = 0.04) and glycaemic level (p = 0.02). Hyperglycaemia is common in critically ill neonates receiving high glucose intake with inherited metabolic disorders of intoxication. Physicians should decrease the rate of total glucose intake and begin enteral feeding as quickly as possible in cases of persistent hyperglycaemia. • The risk of hyperglycaemia in the acute phase of critical illness is high. What is New: • Hyperglycaemia is common in the initial management of critically ill neonates with inherited metabolic disorders of intoxication receiving high glucose intake.

  3. Recording of fluid, beverage and water intakes at the population level in Europe.

    PubMed

    Gandy, Joan; Le Bellego, Laurent; König, Jürgen; Piekarz, Ana; Tavoularis, Gabriel; Tennant, David R

    2016-08-01

    The European Food Safety Authority's 2010 scientific opinion on dietary reference values for total water intakes was partly based on observed intakes in population groups. Large variability was observed, and it is unlikely that these differences can be explained by differences in climate, activity level and/or culture. This suggests that there are uncertainties in the methodologies used to assess water intake from food and fluids, including all types of beverages. To determine current methods for recording and reporting total water, beverages and fluid intakes, twenty-one European countries were surveyed using an electronic questionnaire. In total, twelve countries responded and ten completed surveys were summarised. Countries reported that their survey was representative of the population in terms of age and socio-economic status. However, a variety of methods were used - that is, repeated 24-h recalls, estimated food diaries and FFQ. None of the methods were validated to assess water and fluid intakes. The methods used to record liquid foods - for example, soup and diluted drinks - were inconsistent. Clarity and consistency on definitions of categories of beverages to facilitate comparisons between countries are needed. Recommendations for a unified approach to surveying and quantifying intake of water from fluids and foods are proposed.

  4. Magnesium dietary intake modulates blood lipid levels and atherogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Altura, B T; Brust, M; Bloom, S; Barbour, R L; Stempak, J G; Altura, B M

    1990-01-01

    In this study, we have examined the effects of variation in dietary Mg on the atherogenic process. Oral supplementation of rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet (1% or 2%) with the Mg salt magnesium aspartate hydrochloride (Magnesiocard) (i) lowers the level of serum cholesterol and triglycerides in normal (25-35%) as well as atherosclerotic (20-40%) animals and (ii) attenuates the atherosclerotic process markedly. In addition, we found that dietary deficiency of Mg augments atherogenesis markedly and stimulates (or activates) macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system. Evidence is presented to indicate that the hypercholesterolemic state may cause the loss of Mg from soft tissues to the serum, thereby masking an underlying Mg deficiency. PMID:2308944

  5. Dietary Calcium Intake, Serum Calcium Level, and their Association with Preeclampsia in Rural North India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anant; Kant, Shashi; Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Rai, Sanjay K.; Misra, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia in pregnancy has been shown to be associated with low serum calcium level. Though the evidence is abundant, it is equivocal. Objectives: The study aimed to estimate the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status among pregnant women, and to document the association of the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status with incidence of preeclampsia in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site, Ballabgarh, Haryana, India. All pregnant women between 28 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation were interviewed. A semi-structured interview schedule and a 24-h dietary recall questionnaire were administered to assess the dietary calcium intake. AutoAnalyser (Biolis 24i) was used for measuring serum calcium. Results: We enrolled 217 pregnant women. The mean [standard deviation (SD)] dietary calcium intake was 858 (377) mg/day. The mean (SD) serum calcium level was 9.6 mg/dL (0.56). Incidence of preeclampsia was 13.4%. Preeclampsia was not associated with hypocalcemia [odds ratio (OR) = 1.2 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.27-3.98]. Conclusion: The majority of pregnant women had inadequate dietary calcium intake. The prevalence of hypocalcemia was low. Low serum calcium level was not associated with preeclampsia. Calcium supplementation may not reduce preeclampsia in this population. PMID:27385877

  6. Ghrelin and obestatin in human neuroendocrine tumors: expression and effect on obestatin levels after food intake.

    PubMed

    Grönberg, Malin; Tsolakis, Apostolos V; Holmbäck, Ulf; Stridsberg, Mats; Grimelius, Lars; Janson, Eva T

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin and obestatin are derived from the same peptide hormone precursor and are mainly produced by the gastric mucosa. Ghrelin is involved in many biological processes, whereas the physiological function of obestatin needs further investigation. The aims of the present study were to establish the incidence of ghrelin- and obestatin-immunoreactive cells in a comprehensive panel of human neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and to investigate if blood obestatin concentrations are influenced during a standardized meal stimulation test in healthy individuals and patients with NETs. The expression of ghrelin and obestatin was investigated in NETs (n = 149) and other endocrine-related disorders (n = 3) using immunohistochemistry with specific polyclonal antibodies. Coexpression of the peptides was evaluated by double immunofluorescence. Concentrations of obestatin in blood were measured during a meal test in 6 healthy individuals and 5 patients with pancreatic NETs. Ghrelin and obestatin were expressed in 14/152 and 19/152 tumor tissues, respectively, mainly representing NETs of foregut origin and in pancreatic tissue from a nesidioblastosis patient. Double immunofluorescence staining showed colocalization of the peptides. During the meal test, obestatin levels in blood were unchanged in all patients but decreased significantly in the healthy individuals. Only a minority of NETs express ghrelin and obestatin. However, analysis of patients with tumors originating from tissues that express the peptides in normal conditions could be of importance. The results from the meal test indicate that the hormone levels are affected by food intake in healthy individuals, whereas obestatin levels remained unchanged in pancreatic NET patients. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients are unable to increase dietary intake to recommended levels.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Debbie; Higgins, Bernie; Stevens, Judith M

    2007-09-01

    This study's objective was to determine whether offering dietary advice was effective in supporting patients in adjusting energy intake. We performed a prospective, randomized, controlled trial of dietary intervention involving 59 patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis over a 4-month follow-up period. The study involved outpatients on home-based renal replacement therapy. All participants were adult patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. All eligible patients were invited to take part. Subjects were randomized into two groups: control and intervention. Those with diabetes mellitus, malabsorption, malignancy, or eating disorders were excluded. Baseline measurements to assess current dietary intake and nutritional status were performed in all subjects. Measurements included a 5-day food diary, subjective global assessment (SGA), anthropometry, and serum biochemistry. After analysis of the food diaries, the participants in the control group were given follow-up dietary advice that would enable them to match intake with current dietary recommendations for this group of 1.2 g of protein per kilogram of ideal body weight, 25 cal/kg ideal body weight. Participants in the intervention group were given follow-up dietary advice that would encourage them to match energy intake with an estimate of total energy expenditure based on their calculated basal metabolic rate and physical activity level as designated using information from SGA, with a significantly lower protein intake of 0.8 to 1.0 g/kg ideal body weight and an emphasis on calories from carbohydrate and fat. Both groups completed further 5-day food diaries at 2 and 4 months to assess their ability to make the recommended changes. SGA, anthropometry, and biochemistry were all remeasured at the end of the study period. Differences in energy and protein intakes between and within the two groups from baseline to 4 months were assessed. Protein and energy intakes did not change during 4

  8. Comparison of dietary energy and macronutrient intake at different levels of glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li-Jun; Jiang, Sheng; Sun, Shi-An; Xie, Zi-Jing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate energy and glycolipid metabolism by determining the intake of energy and macronutrients in persons with differing glucose metabolisms. In total, 147 patients who were newly diagnosed with pre-diabetes, 177 patients with diabetes, 139 patients who were previously diagnosed with diabetes, and 140 patients with normal blood sugar were selected from the 103rd Regiment of Xinjiang. All patients had Han nationality and were over 30 years old. Their energy and macronutrient intakes were analyzed from data obtained from a 3-day food weighing household investigation. Compared to the normal group, the patients in the previously and newly diagnosed diabetic groups were older, less educated, and had a greater prevalence of hypertension (P<0.05). Compared to the normal group, patients with abnormal glucose metabolism had larger waist circumferences; higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure; higher postprandial glucose; higher total cholesterol; lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; P<0.05); higher intakes of energy, carbohydrates, and fat; and lower intakes of protein and fiber. In addition, the newly and previously diagnosed patients had higher fasting glucose levels (P<0.05). Compared to the normal group, patients with abnormal glucose metabolism in each sex subgroup also had larger waist circumferences, and more men had abdominal obesity (P<0.05). Diabetes or pre-diabetes patients had a higher intake of energy, carbohydrates, and fat, but a lower intake of proteins and fiber. They had severe abdominal obesity, a greater prevalence of hypertension, higher total cholesterol levels, lower HDL-C, and poor blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels, especially postprandial plasma glucose levels.

  9. Developmental neurotoxicants in human milk: Comparison of levels and intakes in three European countries.

    PubMed

    Čechová, Eliška; Scheringer, Martin; Seifertová, Marta; Mikeš, Ondřej; Kroupová, Kristýna; Kuta, Jan; Forns, Joan; Eggesbø, Merete; Quaak, Ilona; de Cock, Marijke; van de Bor, Margot; Patayová, Henrieta; Palkovičová Murínová, Ľubica; Kočan, Anton

    2017-02-01

    Developmental neurotoxicants (DNTs), such as methylmercury (MeHg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), have gained increasing interest recently due to their possible relation to developmental disorders in children, which are increasing worldwide. We analyzed levels of 14 developmental neurotoxicants in human milk samples from Slovakia (n=37), the Netherlands (n=120) and Norway (n=388). Positive identification for most target analytes was >95% in all samples. In all three countries MeHg was measured for the first time in mother milk. The highest MeHg levels were observed in Norway (39pgg(-1) ww) with the highest fish consumption. Levels of indicator PCBs (iPCBs, sum of PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180), HCB and DDE+DDT were 2-4 times higher in Slovakia compared to the Netherlands or Norway. The levels of MeHg and organochlorine compounds were used for calculations of weekly or daily intakes (top-down approach) by means of pharmacokinetic modeling. The intakes ranged from 0.014 to 0.142μgkgbw(-1)week(-1) for MeHg and from 0.043 to 17.4ngkgbw(-1)day(-1) for organochlorine compounds in all three countries. Intakes of iPCBs exceeded a tolerable daily intake of 10ngkgbw(-1)day(-1) in 16% of the Slovak participants. The top-down estimates were compared with bottom-up intakes based on national dietary estimates and the results showed good consistency between both approaches, with the bottom-up intakes exceeding the top-down by a factor of maximum 3.8 for iPCBs in the Netherlands and 3.9 for HCB in Slovakia. This confirms that food consumption in all three countries represents the dominant pathway of exposure to these developmental neurotoxicants.

  10. Fluctuating plasma phosphorus level by changes in dietary phosphorus intake induces endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Watari, Eriko; Taketani, Yutaka; Kitamura, Tomoyo; Tanaka, Terumi; Ohminami, Hirokazu; Abuduli, Maerjianghan; Harada, Nagakatsu; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Yamamoto, Hironori; Takeda, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    High serum phosphorus (P) impairs endothelial function by increasing oxidative stress and decreasing nitric oxide production. Serum P levels fluctuate due to circadian rhythms or dietary P intake in healthy people and due to dialysis in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Here we examined whether fluctuating plasma P caused by changes in dietary P intake may be involved in endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased cardiovascular risk. Rats were fed a diet containing 0.6% P for 16 days (control group), or a diet alternating between 0.02% P and 1.2% P (LH group) or between 1.2% P and 0.02% P (HL group) every 2 days; the total amount of P intake among the groups during the feeding period was similar. In the LH and HL groups, endothelial-dependent vasodilation significantly decreased plasma 8-(OH)dG level significantly increased, and the expression of inflammatory factors such as MCP-1 increased in the endothelium as compared with the control group. These data indicate that repetitive fluctuations of plasma P caused by varying dietary P intake can impair endothelial function via increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Taken together, these results suggest that habitual fluctuation of dietary P intake might be a cause of cardiovascular disease through endothelial dysfunction, especially in chronic kidney disease patients.

  11. Fluctuating plasma phosphorus level by changes in dietary phosphorus intake induces endothelial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Watari, Eriko; Taketani, Yutaka; Kitamura, Tomoyo; Tanaka, Terumi; Ohminami, Hirokazu; Abuduli, Maerjianghan; Harada, Nagakatsu; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Yamamoto, Hironori; Takeda, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    High serum phosphorus (P) impairs endothelial function by increasing oxidative stress and decreasing nitric oxide production. Serum P levels fluctuate due to circadian rhythms or dietary P intake in healthy people and due to dialysis in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Here we examined whether fluctuating plasma P caused by changes in dietary P intake may be involved in endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased cardiovascular risk. Rats were fed a diet containing 0.6% P for 16 days (control group), or a diet alternating between 0.02% P and 1.2% P (LH group) or between 1.2% P and 0.02% P (HL group) every 2 days; the total amount of P intake among the groups during the feeding period was similar. In the LH and HL groups, endothelial-dependent vasodilation significantly decreased plasma 8-(OH)dG level significantly increased, and the expression of inflammatory factors such as MCP-1 increased in the endothelium as compared with the control group. These data indicate that repetitive fluctuations of plasma P caused by varying dietary P intake can impair endothelial function via increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Taken together, these results suggest that habitual fluctuation of dietary P intake might be a cause of cardiovascular disease through endothelial dysfunction, especially in chronic kidney disease patients. PMID:25678749

  12. Serum potassium level and dietary potassium intake as risk factors for stroke.

    PubMed

    Green, D M; Ropper, A H; Kronmal, R A; Psaty, B M; Burke, G L

    2002-08-13

    Numerous studies have found that low potassium intake and low serum potassium are associated with increased stroke mortality, but data regarding stroke incidence have been limited. Serum potassium levels, dietary potassium intake, and diuretic use in relation to risk for stroke in a prospectively studied cohort were investigated. The study comprised 5,600 men and women older than 65 years who were free of stroke at enrollment. Baseline data included serum potassium level, dietary potassium intake, and diuretic use. Participants were followed for 4 to 8 years, and the incidence and types of strokes were recorded. Low serum potassium was defined as less than 4.1 mEq/L, and low potassium intake as less than 2.4 g/d. Among diuretic users, there was an increased risk for stroke associated with lower serum potassium (relative risk [RR]: 2.5, p < 0.0001). Among individuals not taking diuretics, there was an increased risk for stroke associated with low dietary potassium intake (RR: 1.5, p < 0.005). The small number of diuretic users with lower serum potassium and atrial fibrillation had a 10-fold greater risk for stroke compared with those with higher serum potassium and normal sinus rhythm. A lower serum potassium level in diuretic users, and low potassium intake in those not taking diuretics were associated with increased stroke incidence among older individuals. Lower serum potassium was associated with a particularly high risk for stroke in the small number of diuretic users with atrial fibrillation. Further study is required to determine if modification of these factors would prevent strokes.

  13. Seaweed intake and blood pressure levels in healthy pre-school Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Wada, Keiko; Nakamura, Kozue; Tamai, Yuya; Tsuji, Michiko; Sahashi, Yukari; Watanabe, Kaori; Ohtsuchi, Sakiko; Yamamoto, Keiko; Ando, Kyoko; Nagata, Chisato

    2011-08-10

    Few studies have examined whether dietary factors might affect blood pressure in children. We purposed to investigate whether seaweed intake is associated with blood pressure level among Japanese preschool children. The design of the study was cross-sectional and it was conducted in autumn 2006. Subjects were healthy preschoolers aged 3-6 years in Aichi, Japan. Blood pressure and pulse were measured once by an automated sphygmomanometer, which uses oscillometric methods. Dietary data, including seaweed intake, were assessed using 3-day dietary records covering 2 consecutive weekdays and 1 weekend day. Of a total of 533 children, 459 (86.1 percent) agreed to be enrolled in our study. Finally, blood pressure measurement, complete dietary records and parent-reported height and weight were obtained for 223 boys and 194 girls. When we examined Spearman's correlation coefficients, seaweed intake was significantly negatively related to systolic blood pressure in girls (P = 0.008). In the one-way analysis of covariance for blood pressure and pulse after adjustments for age and BMI, the boys with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake had diastolic blood pressure readings of 62.8, 59.3 and 59.6 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.11, trend P = 0.038). Girls with higher seaweed intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure readings (102.4, 99.2 and 96.9 mmHg for girls with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake, respectively; P = 0.037, trend P = 0.030). Our study showed that seaweed intake was negatively related to diastolic blood pressure in boys and to systolic blood pressure in girls. This suggests that seaweed might have beneficial effects on blood pressure among children.

  14. Seaweed intake and blood pressure levels in healthy pre-school Japanese children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined whether dietary factors might affect blood pressure in children. We purposed to investigate whether seaweed intake is associated with blood pressure level among Japanese preschool children. Methods The design of the study was cross-sectional and it was conducted in autumn 2006. Subjects were healthy preschoolers aged 3-6 years in Aichi, Japan. Blood pressure and pulse were measured once by an automated sphygmomanometer, which uses oscillometric methods. Dietary data, including seaweed intake, were assessed using 3-day dietary records covering 2 consecutive weekdays and 1 weekend day. Of a total of 533 children, 459 (86.1 percent) agreed to be enrolled in our study. Finally, blood pressure measurement, complete dietary records and parent-reported height and weight were obtained for 223 boys and 194 girls. Results When we examined Spearman's correlation coefficients, seaweed intake was significantly negatively related to systolic blood pressure in girls (P = 0.008). In the one-way analysis of covariance for blood pressure and pulse after adjustments for age and BMI, the boys with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake had diastolic blood pressure readings of 62.8, 59.3 and 59.6 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.11, trend P = 0.038). Girls with higher seaweed intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure readings (102.4, 99.2 and 96.9 mmHg for girls with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake, respectively; P = 0.037, trend P = 0.030). Conclusion Our study showed that seaweed intake was negatively related to diastolic blood pressure in boys and to systolic blood pressure in girls. This suggests that seaweed might have beneficial effects on blood pressure among children. PMID:21827710

  15. Intake of Lutein-Rich Vegetables Is Associated with Higher Levels of Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina; Elias, Merrill; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Buckley, Jonathon

    2015-09-18

    Levels of physical inactivity, a major contributor to burden of disease, are high in many countries. Some preliminary research suggests that circulating lutein concentrations are associated with high levels of physical activity (PA). We aimed to assess whether the intake of lutein-containing foods, including vegetables and eggs, is associated with levels of PA in two studies conducted in different countries. Dietary data and PA data collected from participants in two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS), conducted in Central New York, USA (n = 972), and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX) (n = 1331) were analyzed. Higher intakes of lutein containing foods, including green leafy vegetables, were associated with higher levels of PA in both study sites. Increasing the consumption of lutein-rich foods may have the potential to impact positively on levels of PA. This needs to be further explored in randomized controlled trials.

  16. Intake of Lutein-Rich Vegetables Is Associated with Higher Levels of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Georgina; Elias, Merrill; Alkerwi, Ala’a; Buckley, Jonathon

    2015-01-01

    Levels of physical inactivity, a major contributor to burden of disease, are high in many countries. Some preliminary research suggests that circulating lutein concentrations are associated with high levels of physical activity (PA). We aimed to assess whether the intake of lutein-containing foods, including vegetables and eggs, is associated with levels of PA in two studies conducted in different countries. Dietary data and PA data collected from participants in two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS), conducted in Central New York, USA (n = 972), and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX) (n = 1331) were analyzed. Higher intakes of lutein containing foods, including green leafy vegetables, were associated with higher levels of PA in both study sites. Increasing the consumption of lutein-rich foods may have the potential to impact positively on levels of PA. This needs to be further explored in randomized controlled trials. PMID:26393650

  17. Intake of saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame K and cyclamate in Italian teenagers: present levels and projections.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, C; Berardi, D; Sorbillo, M R; Lambe, J

    1999-03-01

    The intake of saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame K and cyclamate was assessed in 212 Italian teenagers aged 13-19 in 1996. Total daily intake of intense sweeteners was assessed on the basis of dietary records (14 consecutive days). The sweetener content of sugar-free products (soft drinks, candies, chewing gums, yoghurts, jam and table-top sweeteners) was provided by manufacturers. Sugar-free products were consumed by 77% of the subjects. Mean daily intake among consumers was 0.24 mg/kg body weight (bw) for cyclamate (13 subjects), 0.21 mg/kg bw for saccharin (9 subjects), 0.03 mg/kg bw for aspartame (162 subjects), and 0.02 mg/kg bw for acesulfame K (56 subjects). No subject exceeded the ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake) of an intense sweetener. Projections based on the present levels of use of intense sweeteners in sugar-free products and on the dietary pattern observed in the sample suggest that approaching the ADI could be possible only if subjects with high intakes of both soft drinks and table-top sugar substituted these items with respectively sugar-free beverages and table-top sweeteners containing either saccharin or cyclamate.

  18. Dietary Intake and Plasma Levels of Choline and Betaine in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hamlin, Joanna C.; Melnyk, Stepan; Pavliv, Oleksandra; Starrett, William; Crook, Tina A.; James, S. Jill

    2013-01-01

    Abnormalities in folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism have been reported in many children with autism. Because inadequate choline and betaine can negatively affect folate metabolism and in turn downstream methylation and antioxidant capacity, we sought to determine whether dietary intake of choline and betaine in children with autism was adequate to meet nutritional needs based on national recommendations. Three-day food records were analyzed for 288 children with autism (ASDs) who participated in the national Autism Intervention Research Network for Physical Health (AIR-P) Study on Diet and Nutrition in children with autism. Plasma concentrations of choline and betaine were measured in a subgroup of 35 children with ASDs and 32 age-matched control children. The results indicated that 60–93% of children with ASDs were consuming less than the recommended Adequate Intake (AI) for choline. Strong positive correlations were found between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of choline and betaine in autistic children as well as lower plasma concentrations compared to the control group. We conclude that choline and betaine intake is inadequate in a significant subgroup of children with ASDs and is reflected in lower plasma levels. Inadequate intake of choline and betaine may contribute to the metabolic abnormalities observed in many children with autism and warrants attention in nutritional counseling. PMID:24396597

  19. Hb level, iron intake and mortality in Chinese adults: a 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zumin; Zhen, Shiqi; Zhou, Yonglin; Taylor, Anne W

    2017-02-01

    Anaemia is prevalent in developing countries and is commonly Fe deficiency related. We aimed to assess the association between Fe status, Fe intake and mortality among Chinese adults. We prospectively studied 8291 adults aged 20-98 years with a mean follow-up of 9·9 years. All participants were measured for Hb at baseline in 2002. Food intake, measured by 3-d weighed food record (n 2832), and fasting serum ferritin were measured. We documented 491 deaths (including 192 CVD and 165 cancer deaths) during 81 527 person-years of follow-up. There was a U-shaped association between Hb levels and all-cause mortality. Compared with the second quartile of Hb (121 g/l), the first (105) and fourth quartile (144) had hazard ratios (HR) of 2·29 (95 % CI 1·51, 3·48) and 2·31 (95 % CI 1·46, 3·64) for all-cause mortality in women. In men, compared with third quartile of Hb (143 g/l), first (122) and fourth quartiles (154) had 61 and 65 % increased risk of all-cause mortality. Anaemia was associated with an increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality in men but not in women after adjusting for potential confounders. Low and high Fe intake as percentage of Chinese recommended nutrient intake (RNI) were positively associated with all-cause mortality in women but not in men. In women, across quartiles of relative Fe intake, HR for all-cause mortality were 2·55 (95 % CI 0·99, 6·57), 1·00, 3·12 (95 % CI 1·35, 7·18) and 2·78 (95 % CI 1·02, 7·58). Both low and high Hb levels are related to increased risk of all-cause mortality. Both low and high intake of Fe as percentage of RNI was positively associated with mortality in women.

  20. Chronic mild stress increases alcohol intake in mice with low dopamine D2 receptor levels.

    PubMed

    Delis, Foteini; Thanos, Panayotis K; Rombola, Christina; Rosko, Lauren; Grandy, David; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D

    2013-02-01

    Alcohol use disorders emerge from a complex interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Stress and dopamine D2 receptor levels (DRD2) have been shown to play a central role in alcoholism. To better understand the interactions between DRD2 and stress in ethanol intake behavior, we subjected Drd2 wild-type (+/+), heterozygous (+/-), and knockout (-/-) mice to 4 weeks of chronic mild stress (CMS) and to an ethanol two-bottle choice during CMS weeks 2-4. Prior to and at the end of the experiment, the animals were tested in the forced swim and open field tests. We measured ethanol intake and preference, immobility in the force swim test, and activity in the open field. We show that under no CMS, Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice had lower ethanol intake and preference compared with Drd2+/+. Exposure to CMS decreased ethanol intake and preference in Drd2+/+ and increased them in Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice. At baseline, Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice had significantly lower activity in the open field than Drd2+/+, whereas no genotype differences were observed in the forced swim test. Exposure to CMS increased immobility during the forced swim test in Drd2+/- mice, but not in Drd2+/+ or Drd2-/- mice, and ethanol intake reversed this behavior. No changes were observed in open field test measures. These findings suggest that in the presence of a stressful environment, low DRD2 levels are associated with increased ethanol intake and preference and that under this condition, increased ethanol consumption could be used as a strategy to alleviate negative mood.

  1. Designing and Implementing a New Advanced Level Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Angela; Reiss, Michael J.; Rowell, Cathy; Scott, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology is a new advanced level biology course, piloted from September 2002 in England with around 1200 students. This paper discusses the reasons for developing a new advanced biology course at this time, the philosophy of the project and how the materials are being written and the specification devised. The aim of the…

  2. Designing and Implementing a New Advanced Level Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Angela; Reiss, Michael J.; Rowell, Cathy; Scott, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology is a new advanced level biology course, piloted from September 2002 in England with around 1200 students. This paper discusses the reasons for developing a new advanced biology course at this time, the philosophy of the project and how the materials are being written and the specification devised. The aim of the…

  3. Levels of perfluorinated compounds in food and dietary intake of PFOS and PFOA in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Noorlander, Cornelle W; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Te Biesebeek, Jan Dirk; Mengelers, Marcel J B; Zeilmaker, Marco J

    2011-07-13

    This study presents concentrations of perfluorinated compounds in food and the dietary intake of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in The Netherlands. The concentrations of perfluorinated compounds in food were analyzed in pooled samples of foodstuffs randomly purchased in several Dutch retail store chains with nation-wide coverage. The concentrations analyzed for PFOS and PFOA were used to assess the exposure to these compounds in The Netherlands. As concentrations in drinking water in The Netherlands were missing for these compounds, conservative default concentrations of 7 pg/g for PFOS and 9 pg/g for PFOA, as reported by European Food Safety Authority, were used in the exposure assessment. In food, 6 out of 14 analyzed perfluorinated compounds could be quantified in the majority of the food categories (perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoro-1-hexanesulfonate (PFHxS), and PFOS). The highest concentration of the sum of these six compounds was found in crustaceans (825 pg/g product, PFOS: 582 pg/g product) and in lean fish (481 pg/g product, PFOS: 308 pg/g product). Lower concentrations were found in beef, fatty fish, flour, butter, eggs, and cheese (concentrations between 20 and 100 pg/g product; PFOS, 29-82 pg/g product) and milk, pork, bakery products, chicken, vegetable, and industrial oils (concentration lower than 10 pg/g product; PFOS not detected). The median long-term intake for PFOS was 0.3 ng/kg bw/day and for PFOA 0.2 ng/kg bw/day. The corresponding high level intakes (99th percentile) were 0.6 and 0.5 ng/kg bw/day, respectively. These intakes were well below the tolerable daily intake values of both compounds (PFOS, 150 ng/kg bw/day; PFOA, 1500 ng/kg bw/day). The intake calculations quantified the contribution of drinking water to the PFOS and PFOA intake in The Netherlands. Important contributors of PFOA intake were vegetables/fruit and flour. Milk

  4. The impact of salt, fat and sugar levels on toddler food intake.

    PubMed

    Bouhlal, Sofia; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2011-02-01

    Understanding the early determinants of food intake, in particular the role of food sensory quality, is a necessary step to improve the prevention of unhealthy food habits. However, the extent to which food intake varies according to salt, fat and sugar content is imperfectly known. The present study aimed at evaluating whether toddler food intake varied during lunches or snacks in which salt, fat or sugar contents had been modified in common foods. Seventy-four children (30 (se 0·5) months old) participated in the study in their usual day-care centres. Every other week, they were served lunches composed, among other items, of green beans and pasta with varying salt (0, 0·6 and 1·2 % added salt) or fat (0, 2·5 and 5 % added butter) levels and afternoon snacks composed of fruit purée varying in sugar level (0, 5 and 10 % added sugar). During each meal, children could eat as much as they wanted from the target foods. Each food was weighed before and after the meal. Salt level had a positive impact on the intake of the target foods. On the contrary, no impact of added fat or added sugar levels was observed. This implies that fat and sugar addition could be avoided in foods for children without having an impact on palatability, allowing the energy density of children's diet to be limited. Salt addition should be limited, but its suppression in vegetables, whose intake is to be promoted, should be considered cautiously.

  5. The biology of appetite control: Do resting metabolic rate and fat-free mass drive energy intake?

    PubMed

    Blundell, J E; Finlayson, G; Gibbons, C; Caudwell, P; Hopkins, M

    2015-12-01

    The prevailing model of homeostatic appetite control envisages two major inputs; signals from adipose tissue and from peptide hormones in the gastrointestinal tract. This model is based on the presumed major influence of adipose tissue on food intake. However, recent studies have indicated that in obese people fat-free mass (FFM) is strongly positively associated with daily energy intake and with meal size. This effect has been replicated in several independent groups varying in cultural and ethnic backgrounds, and appears to be a robust phenomenon. In contrast fat mass (FM) is weakly, or mildly negatively associated with food intake in obese people. In addition resting metabolic rate (RMR), a major component of total daily energy expenditure, is also associated with food intake. This effect has been replicated in different groups and is robust. This action is consistent with the proposal that energy requirements — reflected in RMR (and other aspects of energy expenditure) constitute a biological drive to eat. Consistent with its storage function, FM has a strong inhibitory effect on food intake in lean subjects, but this effect appears to weaken dramatically as adipose tissue increases. This formulation can account for several features of the development and maintenance of obesity and provides an alternative, and transparent, approach to the biology of appetite control.

  6. Predicting atrazine levels in water utility intake water for MCL compliance.

    PubMed

    Pappas, E A; Huang, C

    2008-10-01

    To protect human health, atrazine concentrations in finished municipal drinking water must not exceed a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 3 microg/L, as determined by a specific monitoring regime mandated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Atrazine levels were monitored along tile-fed drainage ditches draining to a major drinking water source and used to predict MCL exceedance frequencies of intake and finished drinking water. Water samples were collected daily at eight monitoring sites located at the outlets of subbasins draining 298-19 341 ha (736-47 794 ac). Flow-weighted average (FWA) atrazine concentrations ranged from 0.9 to 9.8 microg/L, and were above 3 microg/L for the majority of sites, including the largest site, which represents water quality at the intake of the local municipal water treatment plant. However, a relatively low percentage of samples near the water utility intake exceeding 3 microg/L atrazine (10.4%) made this problem difficult to detect. In order to have a 95% probability of detecting any intake sample exceeding 3 microg/L atrazine in a drainage system exceeding 3 microg/L atrazine on a FWA basis, sampling frequency would need to be every 7 days or more often during the second quarter when the potentials for field atrazine losses and temporal variability of atrazine concentrations are highest.

  7. Body mass changes and voluntary fluid intakes of elite level water polo players and swimmers.

    PubMed

    Cox, G R; Broad, E M; Riley, M D; Burke, L M

    2002-09-01

    Calculated sweat rates (measured by body mass changes) and voluntary fluid intakes were monitored in elite level water polo players and swimmers during normal exercise sessions to determine fluid requirements to maintain fluid balance, and the degree of fluid replacement of these athletes. Data were collected from training and competition sessions for male water polo players (n = 23) and training sessions only for swimmers (n = 20 females; n = 21 males). The calculated average sweat rate and fluid intake rate during training sessions for male water polo players was 287 ml/h and 142 ml/h, respectively, with a rate of 786 ml/h and 380 ml/h during matches. During training sessions for male swimmers, the calculated average sweat rate and fluid intake rate per kilometre was 138 ml/km and 155 ml/km, respectively; and for female swimmers, 107 ml/km and 95 ml/km. There was a wide individual variation in fluid intake and sweat loss of both water polo players and swimmers. Dehydration experienced by athletes in this study was less than typically reported for "land-based" athletes. Errors inherent in the technique used in this study are acknowledged and may be significant in the calculation of reported sweat losses and levels of fluid balance in aquatic athletes.

  8. Tolerable upper intake levels for trans fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Trumbo, Paula R; Shimakawa, Tomoko

    2011-05-01

    Tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) set by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) are important, in part because they are used for estimating the percentage of the population at potential risk of adverse effects from excessive nutrient intake. The IOM did not set ULs for trans fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol because any intake level above 0% of energy increased LDL cholesterol concentration and these three food components are unavoidable in ordinary diets. The purpose of the analysis presented in this review was to evaluate clinical trial and prospective observational data that were not previously considered for setting a UL with the aim of determining whether the current UL model could be used for saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol. The results of this analysis confirm the limitations of the risk assessment model for setting ULs because of its inability to identify a UL for food components, such as cholesterol, that lack an intake threshold associated with increased chronic disease risk. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  9. Asymmetry at the molecular level in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Louise N.

    2005-10-01

    Naturally occurring biological molecules are made of homochiral building blocks. Proteins are composed of L-amino acids (and not D-amino acids); nucleic acids such as DNA have D-ribose sugars (and not L-ribose sugars). It is not clear why nature selected a particular chirality. Selection could have occurred by chance or as a consequence of basic physical chemistry. Possible proposals, including the contribution of the parity violating the weak nuclear force, are discussed together with the mechanisms by which this very small contribution might be amplified. Homochirality of the amino acids has consequences for protein structure. Helices are right handed and beta sheets have a left-hand twist. When incorporated into the tertiary structure of a protein these chiralities limit the topologies of connections between helices and sheets. Polypeptides comprised of D-amino acids can be synthesized chemically and have been shown to adopt stable structures that are the mirror image of the naturally occurring L-amino acid polypeptides. Chirality is important in drug design. Three examples are discussed: penicillin; the CD4 antagonistic peptides; and thalidomide. The absolute hand of a biological structure can only be established by X-ray crystallographic methods using the technique of anomalous scattering.

  10. Intake of specific nutrients and foods and hearing level measured 13 years later.

    PubMed

    Péneau, Sandrine; Jeandel, Claude; Déjardin, Philippe; Andreeva, Valentina A; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2013-06-01

    Only a few studies have investigated the impact of nutrients and food groups on hearing level (HL) with a population-based approach. We examined the 13-year association between intake of specific nutrients and food groups and HL in a sample of French adults. A total of 1823 subjects, aged 45-60 years at baseline, participating in the Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals 2 cohort were selected. Nutrient and food intake was estimated at baseline among participants who had completed at least six 24 h dietary records. HL was assessed 13 years after baseline and was defined as the pure-tone air conduction of the worse ear at the following thresholds: 0·5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz. The relationship between quartiles of energy-adjusted nutrient and food intake and HL was assessed by multivariate linear regression analyses, in men and women separately. Intakes of retinol (P-trend ¼ 0·058) and vitamin B12 (P-trend=0·068) tended to be associated with better HL in women. Intakes of meat as a whole (P-trend=0·030), red meat (P-trend=0·014) and organ meat (P-trend=0·017) were associated with better HL in women. Higher intake of seafood as a whole (P-trend=0·07) and of shellfish (P-trend=0·097) tended to be associated with better HL in men. Consumption of meat is therefore associated with a better HL in women. Further research is required to better elucidate the mechanisms behind the associations between diet and hearing.

  11. Direction of associations between added sugar intake in early childhood and body mass index at age 7 years may depend on intake levels.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Antje; Diethelm, Katharina; Cheng, Guo; Alexy, Ute; Icks, Andrea; Buyken, Anette E

    2011-07-01

    Dietary factors, especially during early childhood, have been discussed as potentially critical for the development of childhood overweight. This study evaluated associations between added sugar intake during early childhood and BMI and body fat at age 7 y. Analysis was based on data from 216 participants of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study. Life-course plots were constructed to evaluate the association between added sugar intake at different ages (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 y) and BMI SD score (BMI-SDS) and % body fat (%BF) at age 7 y. Multivariable analyses were performed for the periods identified as critical for later BMI and body fat. Added sugar intake at age 1 y and the change in intake levels during the second year of life emerged as potentially critical. At age 1 y, a higher total added sugar intake was related to a lower BMI-SDS at age 7 y [adjusted β ± SE: -0.116 ± 0.057 BMI-SDS/percent energy (%En) added sugar; P = 0.04]. Conversely, an increase in total added sugar in the second year of life (Δ%En between age 1 and 2 y) tended to be associated with a higher BMI-SDS (adjusted β ± SE: 0.074 ± 0.043 BMI-SDS/Δ%En added sugar; P = 0.09). No associations were observed with %BF. In conclusion, added sugar intake at low intake levels during early childhood does not appear to be critical for BMI and body fat at age 7 y. However, detrimental effects on BMI development may emerge when added sugar intakes are increased to higher levels.

  12. Micronutrient levels and supplement intake in pregnancy after bariatric surgery: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Devlieger, Roland; Guelinckx, Isabelle; Jans, Goele; Voets, Willy; Vanholsbeke, Caroline; Vansant, Greet

    2014-01-01

    Studies report frequent micronutrient deficiencies after bariatric surgery, but less is known about micronutrient levels of pregnant women after bariatric surgery. To prospectively evaluate micronutrient levels and supplement intake in pregnancy following bariatric surgery. A multicenter prospective cohort study including women with restrictive or malabsorptive types of bariatric surgery. Nutritional deficiencies, together with supplement intake, were screened during pregnancy. The total population included 18 women in the restrictive and 31 in the malabsorptive group. Most micronutrients were depleted and declined significantly during pregnancy. The proportion of women with low vitamin A and B-1 levels increased to respectively 58 and 17% at delivery (P = 0.005 and 0.002). The proportion of women with vitamin D deficiency decreased from 14% at trimester 1 to 6% at delivery (P = 0.030). Mild anemia was found in respectively 22 and 40% of the women at trimester 1 and delivery. In the first trimester, most women took a multivitamin (57.1%). In the second and third trimester, the majority took additional supplements (69.4 and 73.5%). No associations were found between supplement intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Pregnant women with bariatric surgery show frequent low micronutrient levels. Supplementation partially normalizes low levels of micronutrients.

  13. Micronutrient Levels and Supplement Intake in Pregnancy after Bariatric Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Devlieger, Roland; Guelinckx, Isabelle; Jans, Goele; Voets, Willy; Vanholsbeke, Caroline; Vansant, Greet

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies report frequent micronutrient deficiencies after bariatric surgery, but less is known about micronutrient levels of pregnant women after bariatric surgery. Objective To prospectively evaluate micronutrient levels and supplement intake in pregnancy following bariatric surgery. Design A multicenter prospective cohort study including women with restrictive or malabsorptive types of bariatric surgery. Nutritional deficiencies, together with supplement intake, were screened during pregnancy. Results The total population included 18 women in the restrictive and 31 in the malabsorptive group. Most micronutrients were depleted and declined significantly during pregnancy. The proportion of women with low vitamin A and B-1 levels increased to respectively 58 and 17% at delivery (P = 0.005 and 0.002). The proportion of women with vitamin D deficiency decreased from 14% at trimester 1 to 6% at delivery (P = 0.030). Mild anemia was found in respectively 22 and 40% of the women at trimester 1 and delivery. In the first trimester, most women took a multivitamin (57.1%). In the second and third trimester, the majority took additional supplements (69.4 and 73.5%). No associations were found between supplement intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Conclusion Pregnant women with bariatric surgery show frequent low micronutrient levels. Supplementation partially normalizes low levels of micronutrients. PMID:25470614

  14. Nuffield A-Level Biology: Attitudes to Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selmes, C.

    1973-01-01

    Reports the results of research designed to compare the performance of two groups of high school seniors on an attitude scale towards science. One group followed the Nuffield A-Level Biology course, while the second group used other A-Level Biology courses. (JR)

  15. Hypercholesterolemia screening. Does knowledge of blood cholesterol level affect dietary fat intake?

    PubMed Central

    Aubin, M.; Godin, G.; Vézina, L.; Maziade, J.; Desharnais, R.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether knowing blood cholesterol test results influences people's intention to lower their dietary fat intake and to assess changes in diet after 3 months. DESIGN: Randomized clinical study. SETTING: Two hospital-based family medicine centres. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 526 patients aged 18 to 65, without prior knowledge of their blood cholesterol levels, were recruited. Seventy did not appear for their appointments, and 37 did not meet study criteria, leaving 419 participants. From that group, 391 completed the study. INTERVENTIONS: Patients submitted to cholesterol screening were randomly assigned to one of two groups, completing the study questionnaires either before (control group) or after (experimental group) being informed of their screening test results. All participants were called 3 months after transmission of test results to assess their dietary fat intake at that time. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences in intention to adopt a low-fat diet reported between the experimental and control groups and differences in dietary fat intake modification after 3 months between patients with normal and abnormal blood cholesterol test results. RESULTS: Knowledge of test results influenced patients' intentions to adopt low-fat diets (F1,417 = 5.4, P = .02). Patients reported lower mean dietary fat intake after 3 months than at baseline (P < .0001). The reduction was greater in patients with abnormal screening results (F2,388 = 3.6, P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Being informed of personal blood cholesterol levels effects an immediate change in eating habits that translates into reduced dietary fat intake. PMID:9640523

  16. The Association between Coffee Consumption and Bone Status in Young Adult Males according to Calcium Intake Level

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and bone status (bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers) according to calcium intake level in Korean young adult males. Healthy and nonsmoking males (19-26 years, n = 330) participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes were surveyed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Bone metabolism-related markers including serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (TALP), N-mid osteocalcin (OC), and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (1CTP) were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on daily calcium intake level: a calcium-sufficient group (calcium intake ≥ 75% RI, n = 171) and a calcium-deficient group (calcium intake < 75% RI, n = 159). Each group was then further divided into three subgroups based on daily average coffee consumption: no-coffee, less than one serving of coffee per day, and one or more servings of coffee per day. There were no significant differences in height, body weight, body mass index, energy intake, or calcium intake among the three coffee consumption subgroups. QUS parameters and serum 1CTP, TALP, and OC were not significantly different among either the two calcium-intake groups or the three coffee consumption subgroups. Our results may show that current coffee consumption level in Korean young men is not significantly associated with their bone status and metabolism according to the calcium intake level. PMID:27482522

  17. Effect of jaggery on the quality and intake levels of maize silage.

    PubMed

    Venkataramanan, Ragothaman; Sreekumar, Chirukandoth; Anilkumar, Rishipal; Selvaraj, P; Vidhya, Nainar M; Mathagowder, Iyue

    2010-06-01

    Silage, which is anaerobically fermented green fodder, is valued throughout the world as a source of animal feed during lean months. Several farms in India use carbohydrate sources like jaggery or molasses at 2% for preparation of silage, and this increases cost of production. The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of jaggery on quality and intake of maize silage, with an objective to find out whether additional carbohydrate source is essential in preparation of silage using green maize. Three silage types, one without jaggery (A), the second with 1% jaggery (B), and the third with 2% jaggery (C) were prepared in cylindrical bins under similar conditions. They were compared for colour, pH, lactic acid bacteria count, lactic acid content, proximate composition and silage intake by sheep. Silage type C with 2% jaggery was significantly different from the other two types with values of 3.98 and 805.66 g for pH and mean silage intake, respectively. Even though the values of pH and dry matter intake for all three silage types were within normal levels, silage type C was significantly superior in terms of fermentation and palatability. The method of preparation followed could be ideal for small holder farmers requiring less quantity of silage.

  18. Effect of level and source of dietary fiber on food intake in the dog.

    PubMed

    Butterwick, R F; Markwell, P J; Thorne, C J

    1994-12-01

    The effects of dietary fiber on challenge meal intake and on the perception of hunger in dogs were evaluated. A program of testing variants of a standard low energy diet, to which one of five fiber containing raw materials was added, was undertaken. Diets were fed to a group of six dogs for 12-d periods in a latin square design and in amounts that corresponded to the food allowance for weight reduction. Behavioral characteristics of dogs were recorded on videotape for 30-min periods after introduction of test diets. On two occasions during each 12-d feeding period dogs were presented with a challenge meal. At the end of each 12-d feeding period all dogs entered a 6-d washout period. There was no significant effect of diet on the intake of the challenge meal or on intake of food during the subsequent washout period. In addition, diet had no apparent effect on the perception of hunger, as represented by behavioral characteristics during the 30-min period after presentation of test diets. It was concluded that inclusion of moderate levels of raw materials, composed primarily of insoluble fiber, in a commercial low energy diet had no apparent beneficial effects on satiety, when fed to dogs on an energy intake corresponding to allowances for weight reduction.

  19. Intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) leaves by lambs using different levels of activated charcoal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A 24-day feeding trial was conducted to assess the effect of feeding four levels of activated charcoal (0.0, 0.33, 0.67 and 1.00 g/kg of body weight) on intake of honey mesquite leaves (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) by 20 wether lambs (36.6 ± 0.6 kg) that were randomly assigned to treatments. Lambs wer...

  20. Effect of fish oil intake on glucose levels in rat prefrontal cortex, as measured by microdialysis.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Isy F; de Souza, Adriana P; Andrade, Iracema S; Boldarine, Valter T; Nascimento, Claúdia M O; Oyama, Lila M; Telles, Mônica M; Ribeiro, Eliane B

    2013-12-26

    Brain glucose sensing may contribute to energy homeostasis control. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) participates in the hedonic component of feeding control. As high-fat diets may disrupt energy homeostasis, we evaluated in male Wistar rats whether intake of high-fat fish-oil diet modified cortical glucose extracellular levels and the feeding induced by intracerebroventricular glucose or PFC glucoprivation. Glucose levels in PFC microdialysates were measured before and after a 30-min meal. Food intake was measured in animals receiving intracerebroventricular glucose followed, 30-min. later, by 2-deoxy-D-glucose injected into the PFC. The fish-oil group showed normal body weight and serum insulin while fat pads weight and glucose levels were increased. Baseline PFC glucose and 30-min. carbohydrates intake were similar between the groups. Feeding-induced PFC glucose levels increased earlier and more pronouncedly in fish-oil than in control rats. Intracerebroventricular glucose inhibited feeding consistently in the control but not in the fish-oil group. Local PFC glucoprivation with 2-DG attenuated glucose-induced hypophagia. The present experiments have shown that, following food intake, more glucose reached the prefrontal cortex of the rats fed the high-fat fish-oil diet than of the rats fed the control diet. However, when administered directly into the lateral cerebral ventricle, glucose was able to consistently inhibit feeding only in the control rats. The findings indicate that, an impairment of glucose transport into the brain does not contribute to the disturbances induced by the high-fat fish-oil feeding.

  1. Effect of fish oil intake on glucose levels in rat prefrontal cortex, as measured by microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain glucose sensing may contribute to energy homeostasis control. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) participates in the hedonic component of feeding control. As high-fat diets may disrupt energy homeostasis, we evaluated in male Wistar rats whether intake of high-fat fish-oil diet modified cortical glucose extracellular levels and the feeding induced by intracerebroventricular glucose or PFC glucoprivation. Methods Glucose levels in PFC microdialysates were measured before and after a 30-min meal. Food intake was measured in animals receiving intracerebroventricular glucose followed, 30-min. later, by 2-deoxy-D-glucose injected into the PFC. Results The fish-oil group showed normal body weight and serum insulin while fat pads weight and glucose levels were increased. Baseline PFC glucose and 30-min. carbohydrates intake were similar between the groups. Feeding-induced PFC glucose levels increased earlier and more pronouncedly in fish-oil than in control rats. Intracerebroventricular glucose inhibited feeding consistently in the control but not in the fish-oil group. Local PFC glucoprivation with 2-DG attenuated glucose-induced hypophagia. Conclusions The present experiments have shown that, following food intake, more glucose reached the prefrontal cortex of the rats fed the high-fat fish-oil diet than of the rats fed the control diet. However, when administered directly into the lateral cerebral ventricle, glucose was able to consistently inhibit feeding only in the control rats. The findings indicate that, an impairment of glucose transport into the brain does not contribute to the disturbances induced by the high-fat fish-oil feeding. PMID:24369745

  2. A theory of biological relativity: no privileged level of causation.

    PubMed

    Noble, Denis

    2012-02-06

    Must higher level biological processes always be derivable from lower level data and mechanisms, as assumed by the idea that an organism is completely defined by its genome? Or are higher level properties necessarily also causes of lower level behaviour, involving actions and interactions both ways? This article uses modelling of the heart, and its experimental basis, to show that downward causation is necessary and that this form of causation can be represented as the influences of initial and boundary conditions on the solutions of the differential equations used to represent the lower level processes. These insights are then generalized. A priori, there is no privileged level of causation. The relations between this form of 'biological relativity' and forms of relativity in physics are discussed. Biological relativity can be seen as an extension of the relativity principle by avoiding the assumption that there is a privileged scale at which biological functions are determined.

  3. A theory of biological relativity: no privileged level of causation

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Must higher level biological processes always be derivable from lower level data and mechanisms, as assumed by the idea that an organism is completely defined by its genome? Or are higher level properties necessarily also causes of lower level behaviour, involving actions and interactions both ways? This article uses modelling of the heart, and its experimental basis, to show that downward causation is necessary and that this form of causation can be represented as the influences of initial and boundary conditions on the solutions of the differential equations used to represent the lower level processes. These insights are then generalized. A priori, there is no privileged level of causation. The relations between this form of ‘biological relativity’ and forms of relativity in physics are discussed. Biological relativity can be seen as an extension of the relativity principle by avoiding the assumption that there is a privileged scale at which biological functions are determined. PMID:23386960

  4. Intranasal insulin suppresses food intake via enhancement of brain energy levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Friedrich, Alexia; Rezmer, Magdalena; Melchert, Uwe H; G Scholand-Engler, Harald; Hallschmid, Manfred; Oltmanns, Kerstin M

    2012-09-01

    Cerebral insulin exerts anorexic effects in humans and animals. The underlying mechanisms, however, are not clear. Because insulin physiologically facilitates glucose uptake by most tissues of the body and thereby fosters intracellular energy supply, we hypothesized that intranasal insulin reduces food consumption via enhancement of the neuroenergetic level. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject comparison, 15 healthy men (BMI 22.2 ± 0.37 kg/m(2)) aged 22-28 years were intranasally administered insulin (40 IU) or placebo after an overnight fast. Cerebral energy metabolism was assessed by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. At 100 min after spray administration, participants consumed ad libitum from a test buffet. Our data show that intranasal insulin increases brain energy (i.e., adenosine triphosphate and phosphocreatine levels). Cerebral energy content correlates inversely with subsequent calorie intake in the control condition. Moreover, the neuroenergetic rise upon insulin administration correlates with the consecutive reduction in free-choice calorie consumption. Brain energy levels may therefore constitute a predictive value for food intake. Given that the brain synchronizes food intake behavior in dependence of its current energetic status, a future challenge in obesity treatment may be to therapeutically influence cerebral energy homeostasis. Intranasal insulin, after optimizing its application schema, seems a promising option in this regard.

  5. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in foods from Catalonia, Spain: estimated dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Llobet, Juan M; Bocio, Ana; Domingo, Jose L; Teixidó, Angel; Casas, Conrad; Müller, Lutz

    2003-03-01

    From June to August 2000, food samples were randomly acquired in seven cities in Catalonia, Spain. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were determined for 108 samples of vegetables, fruits, pulses, cereals, fish and shellfish, meats and meat products, eggs, milk and dairy products, and oils and fats. Levels of 11 PCB congeners (IUPAC 28, 52, 77, 101, 105, 118, 126, 138, 153, 169, and 180) were determined by high-resolution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. For toxic equivalent (TEQ) calculations, World Health Organization (WHO) toxicity equivalent factors (WHO-TEFs) were used. The highest levels of most congeners were found in fish and shellfish (11,864.18 ng/kg [wet weight]), and the next highest levels, which were substantially lower, were found in milk and dairy products (674.50 ng/kg [wet weight]). For the general population of Catalonia, the total dietary intake of PCBs was found to be 150.13 pg WHO-TEQ/day. The largest contribution to this intake came from fish and shellfish (82.87 pg WHO-TEQ/day) and dairy products (29.38 pg WHO-TEQ per day). A relatively large contribution was also noted for cereals (11.36 pg WHO-TEQ/day). Among the PCB congeners determined in this study, PCB 126 showed the largest contribution to total TEQ intake (50.56%). The data obtained in this study should be useful in risk assessment with regard to human PCB exposure through food in Catalonia.

  6. Soy Food Intake and Circulating Levels of Inflammatory Markers in Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sheng Hui; Shu, Xiao Ou; Chow, Wong-Ho; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zhang, Xianglan; Li, Hong-Lan; Cai, Qiuyin; Ji, Bu-Tian; Cai, Hui; Rothman, Nathaniel; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Yang, Gong

    2013-01-01

    Background Soy and some of its constituents, such as isoflavones, have been shown to affect the inflammatory process in animal studies. The association between soy food intake and inflammatory markers has not been evaluated adequately in humans. Objective Our aim was to evaluate whether higher intake of soy foods was inversely associated with inflammatory markers in 1,005 middle-aged Chinese women. Design In this cross-sectional study, dietary intake of soy foods was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire and by a 24-hour recall when biospecimens were procured. A general linear model was used to estimate the geometric means of selected inflammatory markers, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), soluble IL-6 receptor, soluble GP130, soluble TNF receptors 1 and 2, and C-reactive protein, across categories of soy food intake after adjusting for age, lifestyle and dietary factors, and history of infectious or inflammation-related diseases. Results We found that multivariable-adjusted geometric mean concentrations of IL-6 and TNFα were inversely associated with quintiles of soy food intake, with a difference between the highest and lowest quintiles of 25.5% for IL-6 (P for trend = 0.008) and 14% for TNFα (P for trend = 0.04). Similar inverse associations were found for TNFα (P for trend = 0.003), soluble TNF receptor 1 (P for trend=0.01), soluble TNF receptor 2 (P for trend=0.02), IL-1β (P for trend=0.05), and IL-6 (P for trend=0.04) when soy food consumption was assessed by the frequency of consumption in the preceding 24 hours. No significant associations were found for other markers studied. Conclusions This study suggests that soy food consumption is related to lower circulating levels of IL-6, TNFα, and soluble TNF receptors 1 and 2 in Chinese women. PMID:22889631

  7. Association between dietary antioxidant vitamins intake/blood level and risk of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiwei; Zhang, Honghe; Chen, Jiamin; Shi, Yu; Cai, Jianting; Yang, Jun; Wu, Yihua

    2014-09-15

    We aimed to systematically evaluate the association between dietary intake/blood levels of antioxidant vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene, and α-carotene) and gastric cancer risk. Systematic literature searches were conducted until April 2013 in Pubmed and Embase to identify relevant studies. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was adopted to estimate overall odds ratios (ORs). Dose-response, meta-regression, subgroup, and publication bias analyses were applied. Forty articles were finally included in the present study. Higher dietary intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene, and α-carotene was inversely associated with gastric cancer risk (for vitamin C, pooled OR=0.58, 95% CI 0.51-0.65; for vitamin E, pooled OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.57-0.74; for β-carotene, pooled OR=0.59, 95% CI 0.49-0.70; for α-carotene, pooled OR=0.69, 95% CI 0.52-0.93). Subgroup analyses suggested the effects of these antioxidant vitamins were different in gastric cancer subtypes. As indicated by dose-response analysis, a 100 mg/day increment of vitamin C intake conferred an OR of 0.78 (95% CI 0.67-0.90); a 15 mg/day increment of vitamin E intake conferred an OR of 0.79 (95% CI 0.66-0.94); and a 5 mg/day increment in β-carotene intake conferred an OR of 0.80 (95% CI 0.60-1.04). No significant association was observed between blood vitamin C, α-tocopherol, γ- tocopherol, β-carotene and α-carotene levels and gastric cancer risk. In conclusion, dietary intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene and α-carotene was inversely associated with gastric cancer risk while no such association was observed for blood levels of these antioxidant vitamins, thus the results should be interpreted cautiously.

  8. Kant on biological teleology: Towards a two-level interpretation.

    PubMed

    Quarfood, Marcel

    2006-12-01

    According to Kant's Critique of the power of judgment, teleological considerations are unavoidable for conceptualizing organisms. Does this mean that teleology is more than merely heuristic? Kant stresses the regulative status of teleological attributions, but sometimes he seems to treat teleology as a constitutive condition for biology. To clarify this issue, the concept of natural purpose and its role for biology are examined. I suggest that the concept serves an identificatory function: it singles out objects as natural purposes, whereby the special science of biology is constituted. This relative constitutivity of teleology is explicated by means of a distinction of levels: on the object level of biological science, teleology is taken as constitutive, though it is merely regulative on the philosophical meta level. This distinction also concerns the place of Aristotelian teleology in Kant: on the object level, the Aristotelian view is accepted, whereas on the meta level, an agnostic stance is taken concerning teleology.

  9. Intake of bean sprouts influences melatonin and antioxidant capacity biomarker levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Herrera, Teresa; Cayuelas, L Tábata; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Pilar; de Pablo, Ángel L López; Arribas, Silvia M; Martin-Cabrejas, María A

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous antioxidant hormone, which reduces with ageing and the low levels are associated with some chronic diseases. Germination of legumes increases the plant levels of melatonin, making sprouts a suitable food source of this hormone. However, information on its bioavailability after consumption is lacking. We aimed to evaluate in rats the effect of kidney bean sprout intake on the plasma levels of melatonin and metabolically related compounds (serotonin, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin), total phenolic compounds and total antioxidant capacity. In addition, we compared the plasma bioavailability derived from kidney bean sprouts versus synthetic melatonin intake. Kidney beans were germinated for 6 days and an extract was prepared in water. Male young Sprague Dawley rats were used; blood and urine samples were obtained before and after 90 min of administration of kidney bean sprout extract via a gavage. The plasmatic melatonin levels increased after sprout ingestion (16%, p < 0.05). This increment correlated with the urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin content, the principal biomarker of plasmatic melatonin levels (p < 0.01). Nevertheless, the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity levels did not exhibit any significant variation. The comparison of the bioavailability between the melatonin contained in the kidney bean sprouts and in a synthetic solution evidenced slightly higher levels of plasmatic melatonin (17%) in rats fed with the solution of synthetic melatonin. We conclude that kidney bean sprouts could be a good source of dietary melatonin and other bioactive compounds known to have health benefits.

  10. Beer promotes high levels of alcohol intake in adolescent and adult alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Garth A; Wang, Emyo Y J; Lawrence, Andrew J; McGregor, Iain S

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that high levels of alcohol consumption can be obtained in laboratory rats by using beer as a test solution. The present study extended these observations to examine the intake of beer and equivalent dilute ethanol solutions with an inbred line of alcohol-preferring P rats. In Experiment 1, male adolescent P rats and age-matched Wistar rats had access to either beer or equivalent ethanol solutions for 1h daily in a custom-built lickometer apparatus. In subsequent experiments, adolescent (Experiment 2) and adult (Experiment 3) male P rats were given continuous 24-h home cage access to beer or dilute ethanol solutions, with concomitant access to lab chow and water. In each experiment, the alcohol content of the beer and dilute ethanol solutions was gradually increased from 0.4, 1.4, 2.4, 3.4, 4.4, 5 to 10% EtOH (vol/vol). All three experiments showed a major augmentation of alcohol intake when rats were given beer compared with equivalent ethanol solutions. In Experiment 1, the overall intake of beer was higher in P rats compared with Wistar rats, but no strain difference was found during the 1-h sessions with plain ethanol consumption. Experiment 1 also showed that an alcohol deprivation effect was more readily obtained in rats with a history of consuming beer rather than plain ethanol solutions. In Experiments 2 and 3, voluntary beer intake in P rats represented ethanol intake of 10-15 g/kg/day, among the highest reported in any study with rats. This excessive consumption was most apparent in adolescent rats. Beer consumption markedly exceeded plain ethanol intake in these experiments except at the highest alcohol concentration (10%) tested. The advantage of using beer rather than dilute ethanol solutions in both selected and nonselected rat strains is therefore confirmed. Our findings encourage the use of beer with alcohol-preferring rats in future research that seeks to obtain high levels of alcohol self-administration.

  11. Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels.

    PubMed

    Anton, Stephen D; Martin, Corby K; Han, Hongmei; Coulon, Sandra; Cefalu, William T; Geiselman, Paula; Williamson, Donald A

    2010-08-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. 19 healthy lean (BMI=20.0-24.9) and 12 obese (BMI=30.0-39.9) individuals 18-50 years old completed three separate food test days during which they received preloads containing stevia (290kcal), aspartame (290kcal), or sucrose (493kcal) before the lunch and dinner meal. The preload order was balanced, and food intake (kcal) was directly calculated. Hunger and satiety levels were reported before and after meals, and every hour throughout the afternoon. Participants provided blood samples immediately before and 20min after the lunch preload. Despite the caloric difference in preloads (290kcal vs. 493kcal), participants did not compensate by eating more at their lunch and dinner meals when they consumed stevia and aspartame versus sucrose in preloads (mean differences in food intake over entire day between sucrose and stevia=301kcal, p<.01; aspartame=330kcal, p<.01). Self-reported hunger and satiety levels did not differ by condition. Stevia preloads significantly reduced postprandial glucose levels compared to sucrose preloads (p<.01), and postprandial insulin levels compared to both aspartame and sucrose preloads (p<.05). When consuming stevia and aspartame preloads, participants did not compensate by eating more at either their lunch or dinner meal and reported similar levels of satiety compared to when they consumed the higher calorie sucrose preload. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen D.; Martin, Corby K.; Han, Hongmei; Coulon, Sandra; Cefalu, William T.; Geiselman, Paula; Williamson, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low-calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Design: 19 healthy lean (BMI = 20.0 – 24.9) and 12 obese (BMI = 30.0 – 39.9) individuals 18 to 50 years old completed three separate food test days during which they received preloads containing stevia (290 kcal), aspartame (290 kcal), or sucrose (493 kcal) before the lunch and dinner meal. The preload order was balanced, and food intake (kcal) was directly calculated. Hunger and satiety levels were reported before and after meals, and every hour throughout the afternoon. Participants provided blood samples immediately before and 20 minutes after the lunch preload. Despite the caloric difference in preloads (290 vs. 493 kcals), participants did not compensate by eating more at their lunch and dinner meals when they consumed stevia and aspartame versus sucrose in preloads (mean differences in food intake over entire day between sucrose and stevia = 301 kcal, p < .01; aspartame = 330 kcal, p < .01). Self-reported hunger and satiety levels did not differ by condition. Stevia preloads significantly lowered postprandial glucose levels compared to sucrose preloads (p < .01), and postprandial insulin levels compared to both aspartame and sucrose preloads (p < .05). When consuming stevia and aspartame preloads, participants did not compensate by eating more at either their lunch or dinner meal and reported similar levels of satiety compared to when they consumed the higher calorie sucrose preload. PMID:20303371

  13. Dietary intake increases serum levels of carboxymethil-lysine (CML) in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Jara, N; Leal, M J; Bunout, D; Hirsch, S; Barrera, G; Leiva, L; de la Maza, M P

    2012-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products are produced endogenously, in association with hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. They can also be generated during cooking or food processing and, once absorbed, alter protein function and promote inflammation. We selected 40 healthy male subjects, 17 patients with type 2 diabetes of both sexes and 15 patients with type 1 diabetes of both sexes. Each participant underwent both a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour dietary recall specially adapted for measuring CML intake, anthropometry, measurement of blood pressure and biochemical parameters in blood and urine. Serum CML levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetes compared to healthy subjects (p 0.04), showing a direct relationship between dietary intake and serum levels of CML in T2D patients (r 0.53 p 0.03). sCML levels correlated positively with length of diabetes mellitus, and inversely with body mass index (BMI). The most important dietary factor contributing to raise CML levels in these patients with diabetes was the consumption of milk powder. Serum levels of CML were found to be higher among diabetic subjects, associated to length of diabetes as expected, but also with the ingestion of foods containing higher amounts of ML. The consumption of milk powder in this group is a major determinant of increased serum levels.

  14. Retention of Preservative Levels of Formaldehyde in Desiccated Biological Products

    PubMed Central

    Pemberton, John R.

    1975-01-01

    Concentrations ranging from 8 to 100% of the preservative level of formalin (37% formaldehyde solution) were retained by desiccated biologics, with most products retaining about 50% regardless of the amount originally present. PMID:972183

  15. Advanced-Level Biology--Is There a Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Roger

    1998-01-01

    Explores whether there are problems with A-level biology that are broadly shared by teachers. Addresses five major areas of concerns: (1) teaching and learning, (2) practical work, (3) subject content, (4) assessment, and (5) initial teacher training. (DDR)

  16. Systems biology markup language: Level 2 and beyond.

    PubMed

    Finney, A; Hucka, M

    2003-12-01

    The SBML (systems biology markup language) is a standard exchange format for computational models of biochemical networks. We continue developing SBML collaboratively with the modelling community to meet their evolving needs. The recently introduced SBML Level 2 includes several enhancements to the original Level 1, and features under development for SBML Level 3 include model composition, multistate chemical species and diagrams.

  17. Uranium in vitro bioassay action level used to screen workers for chronic inhalation intakes of uranium mill tailings.

    PubMed

    Reif, R H; Turner, J B; Carlson, D S

    1992-10-01

    A uranium in vitro bioassay (urinalysis) action level was derived for use at the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project sites to identify chronic inhalation intakes of uranium mill tailings causing 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) annual effective dose equivalent. All radionuclides in the 238U decay chain that contribute 1% or more to the annual effective dose equivalent from an inhalation intake of uranium mill tailings were included in the derivation of the urinalysis action level. Using a chronic inhalation intake model, the uranium urinalysis action level for a 24-h urine sample, collected on a quarterly schedule, was calculated to be 1.5 micrograms.

  18. Perfluorinated compounds: levels, trophic web enrichments and human dietary intakes in transitional water ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Renzi, Monia; Guerranti, Cristiana; Giovani, Andrea; Perra, Guido; Focardi, Silvano E

    2013-11-15

    The results of a study on levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), analyzed in terms of HPLC-ESI-MS in water, sediment, macrophyte, bivalve, crustacean and fish samples, are reported here. The aim of the research is to define, for the first time, PFOA/S levels in a heavily human-stressed transitional water ecosystem (Orbetello lagoon, Italy) and evaluate trophic web enrichments and human dietary intakes. The results obtained show that: (i) levels significantly higher than those reported in the literature were found in mussels, clams and crabs; (ii) the river is a significant pollution source; (iii) although absolute levels are relatively low, macroalgae proliferation contributes to redistribute pollutants from river-affected areas throughout the entire lagoon basin; (iv) to the best of our current knowledge, water-filtering species considered in this study are the most exposed to PFOA/S pollution; (v) human daily dietary intakes of PFOA/S through Slow Food-endorsed product consumption are below maximum tolerable levels suggested by the EFSA.

  19. Earlier Metabolizable Energy Intake Level Influences Heat Production during a Following 3-Day Fast in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Ning, D.; Guo, Y. M.; Wang, Y. W.; Peng, Y. Z.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to estimate energy requirements for maintenance in laying hens by using indirect calorimetry and energy balance. A total of 576 28-wk-old Nongda-3 laying hens with dwarf gene were randomly allocated into four ME intake levels (86.57, 124.45, 166.63 and 197.20 kcal/kg body weight (BW)0.75 per d) with four replicates each. After a 4 d adaptation period, 36 hens from one replicate were maintained in one of the two respiration chambers to measure the heat production (HP) for 3 d during the feeding period and subsequent 3 d fast. Metabolizable energy (ME) intake was partitioned between heat increment (HI), HP associated with activity, fasting HP (FHP) and retained energy (RE). The equilibrium FHP may provide an estimate of NE requirements for maintenance (NEm). Results showed that HP, HI and RE in the fed state increased with ME intake level (p<0.05). Based on the regression of HP on ME intake, the estimated ME requirements for maintenance (MEm) was 113.09 kcal/kg BW0.75 per d when ME intake equals HP. The FHP was decreased day by day with the lowest value on the third day of starvation. Except for lowest ME intake level, the FHP increased with ME intake level on the first day of starvation (p<0.05). The FHP at the two higher ME intake levels were greater than that at the two lower ME intake levels (p<0.05) but no difference was found between the two lower ME intake levels. Linear regression of HP from the fed state to zero ME intake yielded a value of 71.02 kcal/kg BW0·75 per d, which is higher than the extrapolated FHP at zero ME intake (60.78, 65.23 and 62.14 kcal/kg BW0.75 per d for the first, second and third day of fasting, respectively). Fasting time, lighting schedules, calculation methods and duration of adaptation of hens to changes in ME intake level should be properly established when using indirect calorimetry technique to estimate dietary NE content, MEm and NEm for laying hens. PMID:25049823

  20. Trans fatty acids: current contents in Canadian foods and estimated intake levels for the Canadian population.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, W M Nimal; L'Abbe, Mary R; Farnworth, Sara; Dumais, Lydia; Gagnon, Claude; Lampi, Brian; Casey, Valerie; Mohottalage, Dayani; Rondeau, Isabelle; Underhill, Lynne; Vigneault, Michele; Lillycrop, William; Meleta, Mary; Wong, Lynn Y; Ng, Tran; Gao, Yu; Kwong, Keri; Chalouh, Shirley; Pantazopoulos, Peter; Gunaratna, Hasantha; Rahardja, Adeline; Blagden, Richard; Roscoe, Veronica; Krakalovich, Thomas; Neumann, Gary; Lombaert, Gary A

    2009-01-01

    Research conducted in the mid-1990s indicated that the levels of trans fats in Canadian diets were among the highest in the world. The consumption of trans fats raises blood levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, while reducing levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. In June 2007, Health Canada called on the food industry to voluntarily reduce levels of trans fats in vegetable oils and soft (tub)-margarines to < 2% of total fat, and in all other foods, to < 5%. Industry must show satisfactory progress by June 2009, or Health Canada might have to introduce legislation to ensure that recommended limits are achieved. Since 2005, Health Canada has been performing a national assessment of prepackaged and restaurant foods that likely contain trans fats. From 2005 to 2009, 1120 samples were analyzed, of which 852 or approximately 76% met the recommended trans fat limits. As a result of reformulation, most of the products had decreased trans + saturated fat content. The estimated average intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) in Canada significantly dropped from the high value of 8.4 g/day in the mid-1990s to 3.4 g/day (or 1.4% food energy) in 2008. However, this TFA intake of 1.4% of energy is still above the World Health Organization recommended limit of TFA intake of < 1% of energy, which suggests that the Canadian food industry needs to put more effort into reducing the TFA content in its products, especially in tub-margarines, donuts, and bakery products.

  1. More than adequate iodine intake may increase subclinical hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis: a cross-sectional study based on two Chinese communities with different iodine intake levels.

    PubMed

    Teng, Xiaochun; Shan, Zhongyan; Chen, Yanyan; Lai, Yaxin; Yu, Jiashu; Shan, Ling; Bai, Xue; Li, Yuanbin; Li, Ningna; Li, Zhidan; Wang, Sen; Xing, Qian; Xue, Haibo; Zhu, Lin; Hou, Xin; Fan, Chenling; Teng, Weiping

    2011-06-01

    With the introduction of iodized salt worldwide, more and more people are exposed to more than adequate iodine intake levels with median urinary iodine excretion (MUI 200-300 μg/l) or excessive iodine intake levels (MUI >300 μg/l). The objective of this study was to explore the associations between more than adequate iodine intake levels and the development of thyroid diseases (e.g. thyroid dysfunction, thyroid autoimmunity, and thyroid structure) in two Chinese populations. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in two areas in which people are exposed to different levels of iodine intake (Rongxing, MUI 261 μg/l; Chengshan, MUI 145 μg/l). A total of 3813 individuals were recruited by random sampling. Thyroid hormones, thyroid autoantibodies in serum, and iodine levels in urine were measured. B-mode ultrasonography of the thyroid was also performed for each participant. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was significantly higher for subjects who live in Rongxing than those who live in Chengshan (5.03 vs 1.99%, P<0.001). The prevalence of positive anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and positive anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) was significantly higher for subjects in Rongxing than those in Chengshan (TPOAb: 10.64 vs 8.4%, P=0.02; TgAb: 10.27 vs 7.93%, P=0.01). The increase in thyroid antibodies was most pronounced in the high concentrations of TPOAb (TPOAb: ≥500 IU/ml) and low concentrations of TgAb (TgAb: 40-99 IU/ml) in Rongxing. More than adequate iodine intake could be a public health concern in terms of thyroid function and thyroid autoimmunity in the Chinese populations.

  2. Effect of Salt Intake and Potassium Supplementation on Serum Renalase Levels in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Wang, Dan; Mu, Jian-Jun; Ren, Ke-Yu; Guo, Tong-Shuai; Chu, Chao; Wang, Lan; Geng, Li-Ke; Yuan, Zu-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Renalase, a recently discovered enzyme released by the kidneys, breaks down blood-borne catecholamines and may thus regulate blood pressure (BP). Animal studies have suggested that high levels of dietary salt might reduce blood and kidney renalase levels. We conducted a randomized trial to assess the effects of altered salt and potassium intake on serum renalase levels and the relationship between serum renalase levels and BP in humans. Forty-two subjects (28–65 years of age) were selected from a rural community of northern China. All subjects were sequentially maintained on a low-salt diet for 7 days (3.0 g/day of NaCl), a high-salt diet for additional 7 days (18.0 g/day of NaCl), and a high-salt diet with potassium supplementation for final 7 days (18.0 g/day of NaCl + 4.5 g/day of KCl). Serum renalase levels were significantly higher than baseline levels during the low-salt diet intervention period. Renalase levels decreased with the change from the low-salt to high-salt diet, whereas dietary potassium prevented the decrease in serum renalase induced by the high-salt diet. There was a significant inverse correlation between the serum renalase level and 24-h urinary sodium excretion. No significant correlation was found between the renalase level and BP among the different dietary interventions. The present study indicates that variations in dietary salt intake and potassium supplementation affect the serum renalase concentration in Chinese subjects. PMID:25058146

  3. Dietary fiber intake and endogenous serum hormone levels in naturally postmenopausal Mexican American women: the Multiethnic Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Kristine R; Murphy, Suzanne P; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence N; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Adlercreutz, Herman; Pike, Malcolm C

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated dietary fiber intake in association with serum estrogen levels in naturally postmenopausal Latina women with a wide range of fiber intake. Estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in 242 women. Associations between estrogen levels and intake of dietary fiber, including insoluble and soluble fractions, quantified from a food frequency questionnaire, were examined. The biomarker enterolactone was also measured. After adjustment for age, weight, and other nondietary factors, dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with E1 and E2; there was a 22% and 17% decrease (2Ptrend=0.023 and 0.045) among subjects in the highest quintile of intake compared with the lowest. Fitting dietary fiber together with soluble and insoluble nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) showed a much greater decrease in E1 and E2 (47% and 41%, respectively) while increased soluble NSP intake showed increases in E1 and E2 (64% and 69%, respectively). Two foods, avocado and grapefruit, showed significant positive associations with E1 (2Ptrend=0.029 and 0.015, respectively). This study suggests that different components of dietary fiber may have very significant different effects on serum estrogen levels. The suggestive findings relating increased estrogen levels to avocado and grapefruit intakes need confirmation.

  4. Biological and economic optimum level of calcium in White Leghorn laying hens.

    PubMed

    Castillo, C; Cuca, M; Pro, A; González, M; Morales, E

    2004-06-01

    Calcium is important in eggshell formation; inadequate levels in the diet of laying hens may affect shell quality and egg production. An experiment with 250 Leghorn Hy-Line W-98 hens was conducted to evaluate 5 dietary Ca levels (2.96, 3.22, 3.83, 4.31, and 4.82%) in 3 laying periods. The evaluated variables were egg production (EP), egg mass (EM), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed conversion (FC), and specific gravity (SG). The biological optimum level (BOL) of Ca for maximum egg production and specific gravity, and the economic optimum level (EOL) to maximize profits were calculated. There was no interaction between Ca level and laying period. The results show that the Ca level of the diet (P < 0.05) affected the intake of this nutrient (3.34, 3.68, 4.26, 4.89, and 5.39 g bird/day), ADFI (113, 114, 111, 113, and 111 g bird/day), and SG (1.080, 1.081, 1.082, 1.083, and 1.083). As the hens aged, EP and SG diminished (P < 0.05). BOL for maximum EP and SG were 4.34 and 4.62%, and EOL was 4.38%.

  5. Leucine and lysine intakes are highly associated with serum adiponectin levels in asymptomatic adults.

    PubMed

    Mohorko, Nina; Jenko-Pražnika, Zala; Petelin, Ana

    2016-09-01

    Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory, antiatherosclerotic properties and it is involved in metabolic regulation, especially by sensitizing tissues for insulin. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been shown to have a positive effect on adiponectin levels. Therefore, our aim was to assess asymptomatic general population of the Mediterranean part of Slovenia and to evaluate the correlations between serum adiponectin levels (SALs) and diet components, dietary habits, lifestyle parameters, metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and inflammatory markers. Healthy adults aged 25-49 participated in the cross-sectional study. Linear correlation analyses were used to examine SALs on diet components, dietary habits, lifestyle parameters and all risk factors. A positive correlation between the ratio of leucine:lysine intake and adiponectin and a negative correlation between adiponectin and presence of already two components of MetS were found. Moreover, we confirmed the negative correlations between adiponectin and C-reactive protein (CRP), but found a negative correlation between adiponectin and visfatin. Furthermore, hierarchical multiple regression analyses confirmed that besides lower homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), CRP, homocysteine and BMI, also higher ratio of leucine:lysine contributes to the prediction of higher level of adiponectin. Our results indicate that high leucine:lysine intake ratio may promote the increase in SALs in clinically asymptomatic adults. On the other hand, lower SALs are due to obesity, inflammation and presence of already 2 components of metabolic syndrome.

  6. The relationship of maximum or intermediate coccidiostat levels to broiler chick water intake.

    PubMed

    Damron, B L

    1994-01-01

    Two experiments, each consisting of duplicate battery trials, were conducted utilizing day-old broiler chicks for a 21-d experimental period to study the effects of maximum or intermediate levels of several coccidiostats on water consumption and other performance variables. Drug levels given in Experiment 1 were: halofuginone, 2.97 mg/kg; amprolium and ethopabate, .025%; salinomycin, 66 mg/kg; monensin, 121 mg/kg; and lasalocid, 124 mg/kg. In Experiment 2, levels were: amprolium and ethopabate, .02%; salinomycin, 55 mg/kg; monensin, 99 mg/kg; and lasalocid, 110 mg/kg. Both experiments employed unmedicated control groups. Average final body weights, daily feed intake, and feed:body weight were not affected by treatment in either experiment. In Experiment 1, daily water consumption of birds receiving 124 mg/kg lasalocid was elevated significantly (P < .05) over consumption of control birds and those that received halofuginone. Water consumption to body weight and feed ratios were significantly greater for birds fed lasalocid than for any group other than those receiving amprolium. In Experiment 2, daily water intake of groups receiving 110 mg/kg lasalocid was significantly elevated over that of other coccidiostats and controls. This relationship was also present in calculations of water:body weight and water:feed ratios.

  7. Decreased training volume and increased carbohydrate intake increases oxidized LDL levels.

    PubMed

    Välimäki, I A; Vuorimaa, T; Ahotupa, M; Kekkonen, R; Korpela, R; Vasankari, T

    2012-04-01

    We studied effects of probiotics and training volume on oxidized LDL lipids (ox-LDL), serum antioxidant potential (s-TRAP) and serum antioxidants (s-α-tocopherol, s-γ-tocopherol, s-retinol, s-β-carotene and s-ubiquinone-10) in marathon runners during 3-months training period, 6-days preparation period and marathon run. Runners (n=127) were recruited for a randomized, double-blind intervention during which they received either Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG, probiotic group) or placebo drink (placebo group) during whole study. During the preparation period, subjects decreased training and increased carbohydrate intake. Blood samples were taken at baseline, before 6-days preparation, before and immediately after the marathon. Probiotics did not have any effect on ox-LDL, s-TRAP or serum antioxidants levels during the study. Interestingly, ox-LDL increased by 28% and 33% during the preparation period and decreased by 16% and 19% during the marathon run in the placebo and probiotic groups, respectively (in all, P<0.001). No changes were seen in s-TRAP before marathon, but during run s-TRAP raised by 16% in both groups (both, P<0.001). The increase of ox-LDL level during the preparative period after several months' training suggests that aerobic training may reduce the concentration of ox-LDL and that decrease of training together with increased energy intake, mainly carbohydrate, before marathon is capable of increasing the level of ox-LDL.

  8. Dietary Intake Estimates and Urinary Cadmium Levels in Danish Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Vacchi-Suzzi, Caterina; Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Levine, Keith; McElroy, Jane; Tjønneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Harrington, James M.; Meliker, Jaymie R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cadmium is a known carcinogen that can disrupt endocrine signalling. Cigarette smoking and food are the most common routes of non-occupational exposure to cadmium. Cadmium accumulates in the kidney and can be measured in urine, making urine cadmium (U-Cd) a biomarker of long-term exposure. However dietary-cadmium (D-Cd) intake estimates are often used as surrogate indicator of cadmium exposure in non-smoking subjects. It is therefore important to investigate the concordance between D-Cd estimates obtained with Food Frequency Questionnaires and U-Cd. Methods U-Cd levels were compared with estimated dietary-cadmium (D-Cd) intake in 1764 post-menopausal women from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. For each participant, a food frequency questionnaire, and measures of cadmium content in standard recipes were used to judge the daily intake of cadmium, normalized by daily caloric intake. Cadmium was measured by ICP-MS in spot urine sampled at baseline and normalized by urinary creatinine. Information on diet, socio-demographics and smoking were self-reported at baseline. Results Linear regressions between U-Cd and D-Cd alone revealed minimal but significant positive correlation in never smokers (R2 = 0.0076, β = 1.5% increase per 1 ng Cd kcal-1, p = 0.0085, n = 782), and negative correlation in current smokers (R2 = 0.0184, β = 7.1% decrease per 1 ng Cd kcal-1 change, p = 0.0006, n = 584). In the full study population, most of the variability in U-Cd was explained by smoking status (R2 = 0.2450, n = 1764). A forward selection model revealed that the strongest predictors of U-Cd were age in never smokers (Δ R2 = 0.04), smoking duration in former smokers (Δ R2 = 0.06) and pack-years in current smokers (Δ R2 = 0.07). Food items that contributed to U-Cd were leafy vegetables and soy-based products, but explained very little of the variance in U-Cd. Conclusions Dietary-Cd intake estimated from food frequency questionnaires correlates only minimally

  9. Sleep, brain energy levels, and food intake: Relationship between hypothalamic ATP concentrations, food intake, and body weight during sleep-wake and sleep deprivation in rats.

    PubMed

    Dworak, M; Kim, T; McCarley, R W; Basheer, R

    2011-06-01

    The feeling of hunger and feeding, a wake-state-dependent behavior, is regulated by specific centers within the hypothalamus. While paraventricular nucleus (PVN), arcuate nucleus (ARC), and dorso- and ventromedial hypothalamus (DMH/VMH) regulate feeding, the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is associated both with feeding and wake/REM sleep regulation. In order to examine the effects of sleep and wakefulness on food intake and body weight, we also measured hypothalamic ATP concentrations, which are known to be involved in feeding behavior and sleep-wake regulation. In rats, food intake and body weight was measured during a 24-h light-dark cycle and during 6 h of sleep deprivation (SD) performed by gentle handling. Tissue samples from the PVN, ARC/DMH/VMH, and LH were collected after 6 h of SD and from time-matched diurnal controls. ATP was measured by luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay. Across the 24-h light-dark period, rats consumed approximately 28.13±4.48 g of food and gained 5.22±1.65 g with a positive correlation between food intake and body weight. During SD, while food intake increased significantly +147.31±6.13%, they lost weight significantly (-93.29±13.64%) when compared to undisturbed controls. SD resulted in a significant decrease in ATP levels only in LH (-44.60±21.13%) with no change in PVN, ARC/DMH/VMH region when compared with undisturbed controls. The results indicate a strong overall correlation between ATP concentrations in the LH and individual food intake and suggest a sleep-wake dependent neuronal control of food intake and body weight.

  10. Level of Leucaena leucocephala silage feeding on intake, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy steers.

    PubMed

    Giang, Nguyen Thien Truong; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of Leucaena silage (LS) feeding on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and rumen fermentation in dairy steers. Four rumen fistulated dairy steers, 167 ± 12 kg body weight (BW), were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were as follows: T1 = 100 % untreated rice straw (RS), T2 = 70 % RS + 30 % LS, T3 = 40 % RS + 60 % LS, and T4 = 100 % LS, respectively. All animals were fed rice straw and LS ad libitum with concentrate mixture supplemented at 0.2 % BW. The results found that dry matter intake and nutrient digestibility were the highest in dairy steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05). Ruminal temperature and pH were not affected by LS feeding (P > 0.05) while ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen concentration were linearly increased with increasing levels of LS feeding (P < 0.01). On the other hand, total volatile fatty acids and propionate (C3) were improved by LS feeding especially in steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05) whereas acetate (C2) production and C2/C3 ratio were decreased. Moreover, methane production was reduced together with increasing LS feeding level (P < 0.05). Based on this study, it could be concluded that 60 % LS feeding could enhance feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation end-product while reducing methane production in dairy steers. This study suggested that LS could be used as high-quality roughage for ruminant feeding in the tropical region.

  11. Low levels of vitamin D in professional basketball players after wintertime: relationship with dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium.

    PubMed

    Bescós García, R; Rodríguez Guisado, F A

    2011-01-01

    Although vitamin D deficiency has a high worldwide prevalence among the general population, very little is known about vitamin status in athletes. To investigate serum vitamin D (25[OH]D) levels after wintertime in male elite basketball players, and to relate these levels to the dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Subjects were 21 players from the same professional Spanish team. Blood samples to assess 25(OH)D levels were collected after wintertime during the 2008/2009 (April) and 2009/2010 (March) seasons. In addition, athletes completed 4-day dietary records to estimate energy consumption and a food frequency questionnaire to determine dietary vitamin D and calcium intake. Serum 25(OH)D levels were 47.8±21.8 nmol/L, with twelve subjects (57%) being vitamin D deficient (<50 nmol/L). Vitamin D intake was 139±78 IU/day and calcium intake was 948±419 mg/day. Serum 25(OH)D levels correlated with the daily dietary intake of vitamin D (r=0.65; P=0.001) and calcium (r=0.82; P<0.001). Professional basketball players are at higher risk of hypovitaminosis D after wintertime. Adequate intake of dietary calcium and vitamin D is required if athletes are to avoid low serum 25(OH)D levels when exposure to sunlight is limited.

  12. Importance of ethnic foods as predictors of and contributors to nutrient intake levels in a minority population.

    PubMed

    Abu-Saad, K; Shahar, D R; Vardi, H; Fraser, D

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the role of ethnic foods as predictors of intake levels of selected nutrients that are important during pregnancy among the Bedouin Arab minority population in southern Israel, and to compare the main food predictors for Bedouin intakes of the selected nutrients with those for the region's Jewish majority population. Ethnic foods/recipes (n=122) reported in the Bedouin Nutrition Study (BNS) were added to a preexisting, validated Israeli food composition table using European Food Information Resource standard criteria. Food items reported by the 519 BNS participants were combined into 146 food groups that distinguished between existing foods and new ethnic recipes and were entered into a stepwise multiple regression model to identify the main predictors of intake levels of the selected nutrients. The results were compared with those of an identical analysis for the selected nutrients using 24 h recall data from the majority Jewish population. Over 80% of the BNS between-person variability in the intake of all selected nutrients was explained by 34 food groups, of which 13 (38.2%) were ethnic foods. Homemade whole wheat bread was a main predictor of intake levels for five of the eight selected nutrients, and other ethnic foods/recipes (for example, za'atar, leafy dark green vegetables and camel milk) emerged as predictors of iron, folate, calcium and ω-3 fatty acid intakes. Breads explained 60 and 44% of the between-person variation, and 38 and 36% of the total intakes of iron and zinc intakes in the BNS sample, respectively, whereas for the Jewish population, animal sources and fortified foods predominated as main predictors and contributors of these nutrients. The addition of ethnic foods to food composition databases is important, as some of these foods are main predictors of nutrient intake levels in ethnic minority populations. In turn, this should facilitate the development of more sensitive dietary assessment tools and more effective diet

  13. Brassica vegetable consumption reduces urinary F2-isoprostane levels independent of micronutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Fowke, Jay H; Morrow, Jason D; Motley, Saundra; Bostick, Roberd M; Ness, Reid M

    2006-10-01

    Isothiocyanates and indoles (e.g. indole-3-carbinol) from Brassica vegetables (e.g. broccoli) induce Phase I and Phase II enzymes responsible for the oxidation, reduction and metabolism of endogenous and exogenous carcinogens. Brassica vegetables also contain micronutrients that may provide additional DNA protection from reactive oxygen species. This randomized crossover trial (n = 20) compares the effects of a Brassica Vegetable (BV) intervention against a Micronutrient and Fiber Supplementation (M+F) intervention on urinary F2-isoprostane levels (F2-iP), a stable biomarker of systemic oxidative stress. Brassica intake was monitored by repeated 24 h recalls, urinary ITC levels and questionnaire. Urinary F2-iP levels were measured by mass spectrometry from first-morning urine samples collected at Baseline and after each intervention, and change in natural log transformed urinary F2-iP levels were analyzed using repeated measures regression. Brassica consumption increased from 2 grams/day (g/d) during the Baseline or M+F intervention periods to 218 g/d during the BV intervention, whereas exposure to most antioxidant vitamins and minerals was greatest during the M+F intervention. F2-iP levels significantly decreased by 22.0 or 21.8% during the BV intervention compared with Baseline or the M+F intervention (P = 0.05, P = 0.05, respectively). Urinary F2-iP levels did not significantly differ between Baseline and the M+F intervention (difference = 0.2%; P = 0.98). Brassica intake has been associated with reduced risk of colon, lung, bladder, breast, prostate and other cancers. Our results suggest that Brassica consumption reduces systemic oxidative stress independent of the vitamin and mineral content of these vegetables.

  14. Multi-level and hybrid modelling approaches for systems biology.

    PubMed

    Bardini, R; Politano, G; Benso, A; Di Carlo, S

    2017-01-01

    During the last decades, high-throughput techniques allowed for the extraction of a huge amount of data from biological systems, unveiling more of their underling complexity. Biological systems encompass a wide range of space and time scales, functioning according to flexible hierarchies of mechanisms making an intertwined and dynamic interplay of regulations. This becomes particularly evident in processes such as ontogenesis, where regulative assets change according to process context and timing, making structural phenotype and architectural complexities emerge from a single cell, through local interactions. The information collected from biological systems are naturally organized according to the functional levels composing the system itself. In systems biology, biological information often comes from overlapping but different scientific domains, each one having its own way of representing phenomena under study. That is, the different parts of the system to be modelled may be described with different formalisms. For a model to have improved accuracy and capability for making a good knowledge base, it is good to comprise different system levels, suitably handling the relative formalisms. Models which are both multi-level and hybrid satisfy both these requirements, making a very useful tool in computational systems biology. This paper reviews some of the main contributions in this field.

  15. Levodopa intake increases plasma levels of S-adenosylmethionine in treated patients with Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Fowler, Brian; Kuhn, Wilfried

    2005-01-01

    Metabolism of levodopa via the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase requires S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as a methyl donor. SAM caused Parkinson disease (PD)-like symptoms in rodents. Therefore, SAM could contribute to a decreased efficacy of levodopa in the long term. SAM levels were significantly reduced in levodopa-treated PD patients, but they showed increased enzyme methionine adenosyl transferase (MAT) activity, which induces SAM synthesis from methionine (MET). This may result from a rebound increase of SAM production. The objective of the study was to demonstrate an effect of acute levodopa intake on SAM synthesis in the plasma of treated PD patients. The authors measured SAM, MET, and levodopa plasma concentrations in 13 levodopa-treated PD patients before and after application of 125 mg levodopa/benserazide. Plasma levels of SAM and levodopa significantly increased, but MET concentrations did not significantly decrease. The SAM increase after levodopa intake may exert both a certain antidepressant and cognitive function improving effect. This is often observed in untreated PD patients who receive levodopa for the first time, or in more advanced, fluctuating PD patients, when they turn from the OFF to the ON phase. Because SAM in higher dosages may also counteract the antiparkinsonian efficacy of levodopa according to animal trials, this SAM increase may hypothetically contribute to the onset of wearing-off phenomena and other clinical signs of limited efficacy of levodopa during long-term treatment with levodopa in PD patients.

  16. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in mature human milk: influence of calcium intake, age and socioeconomic level.

    PubMed

    Vítolo, M R; Valente Soares, L M; Carvalho, E B; Cardoso, C B

    2004-03-01

    Concentrations of calcium and magnesium were measured in mature milk, collected between 30 and 90 days after childbirth, from a group of 90 mothers between 14 and 39 years of age, exclusively breastfeeding. The group was divided into three sub-groups: low socioeconomic-level adolescents (LSAd), low socioeconomic-level adults (LSA), and high socioeconomic-level adults (HSA). Each mother's nutritional status was determined using the body-mass index (BMI) and her eating habits, obtained on the basis of a 24-h dietary recall. Adolescent and adult mothers in the low socioeconomic-level group had lower average calcium intake (LSAd = 618.4 +/- 555.2 mg and LSA = 679.4 +/- 411.4 mg) than adult mothers in the higher socioeconomic-level group (853.6 +/- 415.5 mg). The average concentration of calcium in the adolescent mothers' milk (LSAd) was significantly lower (5.30 +/- 1.42 mmol Ca/L, P = 0.01) than that of the two adult groups (LSA = 5.82 +/- 1.55 mmol Ca/L and HSA = 6.40 mmol Ca/L). The average magnesium concentrations for all groups did not show significant differences (LSAd = 1.06 +/- 0.18, LSA = 1.16 +/- 0.23 and HSA = 1.11 +/- 0.23 mmol Mg/L, for P= 0.16). These results indicate that magnesium concentrations in mature human milk do not seem to depend on maternal nutritional status. The condition of adolescence, however, associated with lower calcium intake by the mother, resulted in lower calcium concentrations in the milk secreted when compared to that of adult mothers.

  17. Dietary intake and urinary level of cadmium and breast cancer risk: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jinbo; Zhang, Fang; Lei, Yixiong

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium, a human carcinogenic heavy metal, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer risk; however, the results from the epidemiological studies are not always consistent. The objective of this study was to quantitatively summarize the current evidence for the relationship between cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk using meta-analysis methods. Six studies determining the dietary cadmium intake level and five studies evaluating the urinary cadmium level were identified in a systematic search of MEDLINE and PubMed databases, and the associations between these levels and breast cancer risk were analysed. The pooled estimates under the random-effects model suggested that higher urinary cadmium levels were associated with an increased risk for breast cancer (highest versus lowest quantile, pooled odds ratio [OR]=2.24, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=1.49-3.35) and a 1μg/g creatinine increase in urinary cadmium led to a 1.02-fold increment of breast cancer (pooled OR=2.02, 95%CI=1.34-3.03); however, pooled estimates for dietary cadmium intake found no significant association between cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk (highest versus lowest quantile, pooled relative risk [RR]=1.01, 95%CI=0.89-1.15). These results suggest that cadmium exposure may lead to an increased risk of breast cancer, and urinary cadmium levels can serve as a reliable biomarker for long-term cadmium exposure and may predict the breast cancer risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Regional factors interact with educational and income tax levels to influence food intake in France.

    PubMed

    Wyndels, K; Dallongeville, J; Simon, C; Bongard, V; Wagner, A; Ruidavets, J-B; Arveiler, D; Ferrières, J; Amouyel, P; Dauchet, L

    2011-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to assess whether geographic factors affect the relationship between socioeconomic indicators and adherence to the French National Nutritional Health Programme (Programme National Nutrition Santé (PNNS)) guidelines. The MONA LISA-NUT study (2005-2007) is a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample from northern, northeastern and southwestern France. Educational level and household income tax were recorded by trained interviewers. Food intake was assessed with a 3-day food diary in 3188 subjects aged from 35-64 years. Adherence to the PNNS guidelines was assessed with a validated score (the French score of indicators of the PNNS objective (FSIPO)). Multivariate analyses were adjusted for gender, age, marital status, body mass index, energy intake and medically prescribed diets. The FSIPO score was higher in southwestern France than in the two other regions (P<0.0001). The FSIPO score was correlated with the educational level in northern and northeastern France (P<0.0001) but not in southwestern France (region-education interaction: P<0.001). This interaction was accounted for by fruit and vegetable (P<0.0001), calcium (P=0.03), saturated fatty acid (P<0.0001), and fibre (P=0.0001) components of the FSIPO score. In contrast, the income tax level and the FSIPO score were positively correlated (P<0.0001) to a similar extent in all three regions (region × income tax interaction: P=0.09). The relationship between educational level and adherence to the national nutritional health guidelines differs from one region of France to another, suggesting that nutrition education programmes should perhaps be adapted on a regional basis. In contrast, guideline adherence is correlated with income tax level independently of geographical factors, suggesting that financial constraints on food choices are uniform across France.

  19. Low level alcohol intake, cigarette smoking and risk of breast cancer in Asian-American women

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Linda Morris; Gridley, Gloria; Wu, Anna H.; Falk, Roni T.; Hauptmann, Michael; Kolonel, Laurence N.; West, Dee W.; Nomura, Abraham M. Y.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Hoover, Robert N.; Ziegler, Regina G.

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that breast cancer incidence rates among Asian migrants to the United States approach U.S. incidence rates over several generations, implicating potentially modifiable exposures such as moderate alcohol use that has been linked to excess breast cancer risk in other populations. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of alcohol intake, primarily low levels, on breast cancer risk in Asian-American women and explore whether smoking and alcohol contributed to the in breast cancer incidence rates observed among Asian migrants to the United States. Study subjects in this population-based case-control study included 597 incident cases of breast cancer of Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino ethnicity living in San Francisco-Oakland, Los Angeles, and Oahu, Hawaii and 966 population controls frequency matched on age, ethnicity, and area of residence. The fraction of smokers and drinkers was significantly higher in women born in Western compared with Eastern countries. However, breast cancer risk was not significantly associated with smoking (odds ratio (OR) = 1.2, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.9–1.6) or alcohol drinking (OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.7–1.1) in this population of low consumers of alcohol (median intake among drinkers in grams per day was 0.48 for cases and 0.40 for controls). These data suggest that low alcohol intake is not related to increased breast cancer risk in Asian-American women and that neither alcohol nor cigarette use contributed to the elevated risks in Asian-American women associated with migration patterns and Westernization. PMID:19597702

  20. Peripheral Signals of Food Intake in Response to Low Leptin Levels Induced by Centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, M. M.; Wade, Charles E.; Stein, T. P.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The focus of the study was to examine leptin and other peripheral signals of energy balance, following hypergravity. The study was conducted in two experiments. In experiment 1 rats were centrifuged at either 1.5, 2, or remained at 1 G. During days 8 to 14 of experiment 1, mean body mass of the 1.5 and 2 G groups was significantly (p<0.05) lower than controls. No differences were found in food intake (g/day/100 g body mass). Epididymal fat in the 2 G group was 21% lower than controls and 14% lower than the 1.5 G group. Plasma leptin was reduced from controls in the 1.5 and 2 G groups by 45 and 63%, respectively. A significant correlation was found between G load and urinary catecholamines. In experiment 2, rats were centrifuged at either 1.25, 1.5, or remained at 1 G. During days 8 to 14, body mass and food intake were similar between the 1, 1.25, and 1.5 G groups. Epididymal fat was reduced from controls in the 1.25 (14%) and 1.5 (19%) G groups. Leptin was reduced from controls in the 1.25 (45%) and 1.5 (46%) G groups. No differences were found in urinary epinephrine. Urinary norepinephrine levels were significantly higher than controls in each centrifuge group. During hypergravity exposure, food intake is the result of a complex relationship between multiple pathways, which abates the importance of leptin as a primary signal.

  1. Copper and zinc level in biological samples from healthy subjects of vegetarian food habit in reference to community environment.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, R D; Patel, T S; Pandya, C B

    1985-01-01

    Many epidemiologists have found a correlation between copper and zinc in the community environment and diseases, such as myocardial and vascular pathologies, and diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the total daily intake of these two metals in cooked food, drinking water and air and their respective levels in blood and urine. A chronobiological methodology has been adopted to establish the reference values of these two metals in biological samples. It has been observed that the daily intake of copper is within the recommended value, whereas its urinary excretion is high. The daily intake of zinc is below the recommended value and its urinary excretion is also high. Both the metals showed a temporal oscillation pattern in blood and urine. A possible chronic zinc deficiency has been anticipated in this particular ethnic group of vegetarian food habit.

  2. Vitamin K Intake and Plasma Desphospho-Uncarboxylated Matrix Gla-Protein Levels in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Laverman, Gozewijn D.; Schurgers, Leon J.; Vermeer, Cees; Kema, Ido P.; Muskiet, Frits A.; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; de Borst, Martin H.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin K is essential for activation of γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla)-proteins including the vascular calcification inhibitor matrix Gla-protein (MGP). Insufficient vitamin K intake leads to production of uncarboxylated, mostly inactive proteins and contributes to an increased cardiovascular risk. In kidney transplant recipients, cardiovascular risk is high but vitamin K intake and status have not been defined. We investigated dietary vitamin K intake, vascular vitamin K status and its determinants in kidney transplant recipients. We estimated vitamin K intake in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients (n = 60) with stable renal function (creatinine clearance 61 [42–77] (median [interquartile range]) ml/min), who were 75 [35–188] months after transplantation, using three-day food records and food frequency questionnaires. Vascular vitamin K status was assessed by measuring plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP). Total vitamin K intake was below the recommended level in 50% of patients. Lower vitamin K intake was associated with less consumption of green vegetables (33 vs 40 g/d, p = 0.06) and increased dp-ucMGP levels (621 vs 852 pmol/L, p<0.05). Accordingly, dp-ucMGP levels were elevated (>500 pmol/L) in 80% of patients. Multivariate regression identified creatinine clearance, coumarin use, body mass index, high sensitivity-CRP and sodium excretion as independent determinants of dp-ucMGP levels. In a considerable part of the kidney transplant population, vitamin K intake is too low for maximal carboxylation of vascular MGP. The high dp-ucMGP levels may result in an increased risk for arterial calcification. Whether increasing vitamin K intake may have health benefits for kidney transplant recipients should be addressed by future studies. PMID:23118917

  3. Vitamin k intake and plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein levels in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Boxma, Paul Y; van den Berg, Else; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Laverman, Gozewijn D; Schurgers, Leon J; Vermeer, Cees; Kema, Ido P; Muskiet, Frits A; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J L; de Borst, Martin H

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin K is essential for activation of γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla)-proteins including the vascular calcification inhibitor matrix Gla-protein (MGP). Insufficient vitamin K intake leads to production of uncarboxylated, mostly inactive proteins and contributes to an increased cardiovascular risk. In kidney transplant recipients, cardiovascular risk is high but vitamin K intake and status have not been defined. We investigated dietary vitamin K intake, vascular vitamin K status and its determinants in kidney transplant recipients. We estimated vitamin K intake in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients (n = 60) with stable renal function (creatinine clearance 61 [42-77] (median [interquartile range]) ml/min), who were 75 [35-188] months after transplantation, using three-day food records and food frequency questionnaires. Vascular vitamin K status was assessed by measuring plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP). Total vitamin K intake was below the recommended level in 50% of patients. Lower vitamin K intake was associated with less consumption of green vegetables (33 vs 40 g/d, p = 0.06) and increased dp-ucMGP levels (621 vs 852 pmol/L, p<0.05). Accordingly, dp-ucMGP levels were elevated (>500 pmol/L) in 80% of patients. Multivariate regression identified creatinine clearance, coumarin use, body mass index, high sensitivity-CRP and sodium excretion as independent determinants of dp-ucMGP levels. In a considerable part of the kidney transplant population, vitamin K intake is too low for maximal carboxylation of vascular MGP. The high dp-ucMGP levels may result in an increased risk for arterial calcification. Whether increasing vitamin K intake may have health benefits for kidney transplant recipients should be addressed by future studies.

  4. Effect of short-term and chronic caffeine intake on rats with various anxiety level.

    PubMed

    Sudakov, S K; Medvedeva, O F; Rusakova, I V; Figurina, I B

    2001-12-01

    Effect of one-day and chronic (3 week) drinking of 0.1% caffeine as a single source of fluid on anxiety in rats with different anxiety level (either genetically determined or individually acquired) was studied. When housed in groups, Fisher-344 rats had a significantly higher anxiety level than WAG/G rats. When the rats were housed individually, their anxiety gradually increased. The effect of short-term and chronic intake of caffeine in high doses depended on both genetically determined sensitivity to this agent and environmental factors (social isolation). It was concluded that chronic caffeine drinking does not induce persistent emotional changes similar to drug abuse, because caffeine withdrawal produced little effect on animal anxiety.

  5. Relationship between dietary carbohydrates intake and circulating sex hormone-binding globulin levels in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mengna; Liu, Jinjie; Lin, Xiaochen; Goto, Atsushi; Song, Yiqing; Tinker, Lesley F; Chan, Kei-Hang Katie; Liu, Simin

    2017-03-17

    Low circulating levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) have been shown to be a direct and strong risk factor for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and hormone-dependent cancers, although the relationship between various aspects of dietary carbohydrates and SHBG levels remains unexplored in population studies. Among postmenopausal women with available SHBG measurements at baseline (n = 11 159) in the Women's Health Initiative, a comprehensive assessment was conducted of total dietary carbohydrates, glycemic load (GL), glycemic index (GI), fiber, sugar, and various carbohydrate-abundant foods in relation to circulating SHBG levels using multiple linear regressions adjusting for potential covariates. Linear trend was tested across quartiles of dietary variables. Benjamini and Hochberg's procedure was used to calculate the false discovery rate for multiple comparisons. Higher dietary GL and GI (both based on total and available carbohydrates) and a higher intake of sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages were associated with lower circulating SHBG concentrations (all P trend  < 0.05; Q -values = 0.04,0.01, 0.07, 0.10, 0.01, and <0.0001, respectively). In contrast, women with a greater intake of dietary fiber tended to have elevated SHBG levels (P trend  = 0.01, Q -value = 0.04). There was no significant association between total carbohydrates or other carbohydrate-abundant foods and SHBG concentrations. The findings suggest that low GL or GI diets with low sugar and high fiber content may be associated with higher serum SHBG concentrations among postmenopausal women. Future studies investigating whether lower GL or GI diets increase SHBG concentrations are warranted. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Assessing level of development and successional stages in biological soil crusts with biological indicators.

    PubMed

    Lan, Shubin; Wu, Li; Zhang, Delu; Hu, Chunxiang

    2013-08-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) perform vital ecosystem services, but the difference in biological components or developmental level still affects the rate and type of these services. In order to differentiate crust successional stages in quantity and analyze the relationship between crust developmental level and successional stages, this work determined several biological indicators in a series of different developmental BSCs in the Shapotou region of China. The results showed that crust developmental level (level of development index) can be well indicated by crust biological indicators. Photosynthetic biomass was the most appropriate to differentiate crust successional stages, although both photosynthetic biomass and respiration intensity increased with the development and succession of BSCs. Based on of the different biological compositions, BSCs were quantificationally categorized into different successional stages including cyanobacterial crusts (lichen and moss coverages <20 %), lichen crusts (lichen coverage >20 % but moss coverage <20 %), semi-moss crusts (moss coverage >20 % but <75 %), and moss crusts (moss coverage >75 %). In addition, it was found that cyanobacterial and microalgal biomass first increased as cyanobacterial crusts formed, then decreased when lots of mosses emerged on the crust surface; however nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria and heterotrophic microbes increased in the later developmental BSCs. The structural adjustment of biological components in the different developmental BSCs may reflect the requirement of crust survival and material transition.

  7. Relationship of maternal grain intake and serum triglyceride levels with infant birth weight: Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J-Y; Choi, H I; Kim, H; Jang, W; Ha, E-H; Park, C; Chang, N

    2015-06-01

    Maternal serum triglyceride (TG) level is known to be associated with neonatal birth weight. Although Koreans traditionally consume relatively high amounts of grain and grain products, mainly in the form of white rice, and the consumption is positively associated with serum TG levels, no study has investigated the relationship between dietary grain intake, serum TG levels and neonatal birth weight in pregnant women. This study was conducted to identify the association between infant birth weight and maternal intake of grain, as well as serum TG levels. Subjects were 1011 pregnant women at 12-28 weeks' gestational age and their offspring. Maternal serum TG levels, dietary intake and infant birth weight were measured. Serum TG levels were positively related to neonatal birth weight both at mid-pregnancy (P=0.0015) and at late pregnancy (P<0.0001). Such an association only existed in subjects with the highest tertile of grain intake at mid-pregnancy (P=0.0055) but was observed in all tertiles at late pregnancy (1st P=0.0186, 2nd P=0.0146, 3rd P=0.0099). The relationship between maternal TG levels and infant birth weight may depend on dietary grain intake and stages of pregnancy in Korean pregnant women.

  8. Homocysteine levels after acute levodopa intake in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Kuhn, Wilfried

    2009-07-15

    Levodopa (L-dopa) administered with a dopadecarboxylase inhibitor (DDI) increases homocysteine plasma levels. This may support the onset of atherosclerosis-related disorders and neuropsychiatric complications in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This homocysteine elevation is considered as long-term effect of chronic L-dopa/DDI treatment. Little is known about the acute effects of L-dopa/DDI intake on homocysteine generation. The objective of this trial was to investigate the relations between L-dopa and homocysteine after acute L-dopa/DDI administration in PD patients with different L-dopa metabolism. Thirty PD patients were divided into groups with superior (I) and less (II) L-dopa absorption after standardized intake of 125 mg L-dopa/benserazide with determination of L-dopa, 3-O-methyl-dopa (3-OMD) and homocysteine in plasma at baseline, 30, 60, and 90 minutes. There was a homocysteine increase in Group I (F = 5; P = 0.005) and a moderate decrease in Group II (F = 4.27; P = 0.01). A rise of 3-OMD (F = 10.51; P < 0.0001) appeared in Group I, but not in Group II (F = 0.91; P = 0.44), accordingly L-dopa accumulation was better in Group I than in Group II. Thus, in conclusion, L-dopa metabolism is an important component for homocysteine elevation after one time L-dopa/DDI administration in PD patients.

  9. Plasma sodium levels and dietary sodium intake in manual workers in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Nicola A; Miller, Veronica S; Schneider, John; Hasan, Omer; Bates, Graham P

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that workers who consume a predominantly rice-based, low-sodium diet and perform long periods of manual work in the heat are at risk of chronic hyponatraemia due to inadequate replacement of sweat sodium losses. Plasma sodium levels were assessed at the end of both the summer and winter periods in 44 male dockyard workers in the Middle East. The dietary intake of these workers was recorded and analysed by an Accredited Practicing Dietitian to determine average daily sodium intake. 55% of workers were found to be clinically hyponatraemic during the summer period compared with only 8% during the winter period. Assessment of the daily diet of workers in the labour camp revealed it to be predominantly starch based with low total sodium content. The majority of the fluids provided to workers are also low in sodium content. Manual labourers working in the heat and eating a low-sodium starch-based diet are at risk of chronic hyponatraemia. Increasing the sodium content of fluid and food provided to workers is warranted and may reduce the incidence of work-related illness and accidents in this population. The results of this study identify a need for sodium replacement guidelines specific for prolonged work in the heat to be developed.

  10. Serum Tocopherol Levels and Vitamin E Intake are Associated with Lung Function in the Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Furtado, Jeremy; Campos, Hannia; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Litonjua, Augusto A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The results of studies assessing relationships between vitamin E intake and status and lung function are conflicting. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin E intake and serum levels of tocopherol isoforms on lung function in a cross-sectional sample of 580 men from the Normative Aging Study, a longitudinal aging study. Methods Regression models were used to look at associations of serum tocopherol isoform levels and vitamin E intake with lung function parameters after adjustment for confounders. Vitamin E intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire and serum levels of γ, α, and δ-tocopherol levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results After adjustment for potential confounders, serum γ-tocopherol had a significant inverse association with forced vital capacity (β=-0.10, p=0.05). Alpha and δ-tocopherol were not associated with any lung function parameter. After classifying COPD status according to Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage criteria, serum levels of δ-tocopherol were lower in participants with more severe COPD (p=0.01). Serum levels of δ-tocopherol were also lower in participants with greater levels of smoking (p=0.02). Both vitamin E intake (β=0.03, p=0.02; β=0.03, p=0.01) and use of vitamin E supplements (β=0.05, p=0.03; β=0.06. p=0.02) were positively associated with FEV1 and FVC, after adjusting for confounders. Subjects who took vitamin E supplements had significantly higher α-tocopherol levels (p<0.0001) and lower γ-tocopherol levels (p<0.0001) than non-users. Conclusion In this study, there is a positive association between dietary vitamin E intake and lung function, and evidence of an inverse relationship between serum levels of γ-tocopherol and lung function. PMID:25715694

  11. Habitual high intake of fatty fish is related to lower levels of F₂-isoprostane in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Patrik; Barregård, Lars; Halltorp, Melina; Sibthorpe, Sara; Svelander, Cecilia; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Basu, Samar; Hoppe, Michael R; Hulthén, Lena

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether habitual dietary intake of fatty fish, whole grains, fruits and vegetables, or a combination of them all, is associated with oxidative stress levels, measured as urine concentration of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) in healthy women. Eighty-one participants were included in this cross-sectional study. Mean age of the women was 26.1 ± 6.2 (mean ± SD) years and mean body mass index (BMI) was 22.4 ± 3.0 kg/m(2). The concentration of 8-iso-PGF2α was determined in urine, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were determined in blood. Participants' habitual fish, whole grain, fruit, and vegetable intake was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire. In the multivariate analysis, there was a significant inverse association between 8-iso-PGF2α and high fatty fish intake (P < 0.001). Fatty fish intake was positively correlated to serum phospholipid concentrations of EPA (P = 0.001) and DHA (P = 0.002). A borderline effect of DHA was seen on 8-iso-PGF2α, but higher serum phospholipid concentrations of fatty acids were generally not related to lower F2-isoprostane levels. No overall effect from whole grains or fruits and vegetables was seen. The results indicate that high intake of fatty fish is related to lower levels of oxidative stress, but high levels of ω-3 fatty acids in intake may not alone explain the effect. High habitual intake of whole grains or fruits and vegetables did not seem to affect the F2-isoprostane level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Teaching information literacy skills to sophomore-level biology majors.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Leigh; Blankinship, Lisa Ann

    2015-05-01

    Many undergraduate students lack a sound understanding of information literacy. The skills that comprise information literacy are particularly important when combined with scientific writing for biology majors as they are the foundation skills necessary to complete upper-division biology course assignments, better train students for research projects, and prepare students for graduate and professional education. To help undergraduate biology students develop and practice information literacy and scientific writing skills, a series of three one-hour hands-on library sessions, discussions, and homework assignments were developed for Biological Literature, a one-credit, one-hour-per-week, required sophomore-level course. The embedded course librarian developed a learning exercise that reviewed how to conduct database and web searches, the difference between primary and secondary sources, source credibility, and how to access articles through the university's databases. Students used the skills gained in the library training sessions for later writing assignments including a formal lab report and annotated bibliography. By focusing on improving information literacy skills as well as providing practice in scientific writing, Biological Literature students are better able to meet the rigors of upper-division biology courses and communicate research findings in a more professional manner.

  13. Teaching Information Literacy Skills to Sophomore-Level Biology Majors

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Leigh; Blankinship, Lisa Ann

    2015-01-01

    Many undergraduate students lack a sound understanding of information literacy. The skills that comprise information literacy are particularly important when combined with scientific writing for biology majors as they are the foundation skills necessary to complete upper-division biology course assignments, better train students for research projects, and prepare students for graduate and professional education. To help undergraduate biology students develop and practice information literacy and scientific writing skills, a series of three one-hour hands-on library sessions, discussions, and homework assignments were developed for Biological Literature, a one-credit, one-hour-per-week, required sophomore-level course. The embedded course librarian developed a learning exercise that reviewed how to conduct database and web searches, the difference between primary and secondary sources, source credibility, and how to access articles through the university’s databases. Students used the skills gained in the library training sessions for later writing assignments including a formal lab report and annotated bibliography. By focusing on improving information literacy skills as well as providing practice in scientific writing, Biological Literature students are better able to meet the rigors of upper-division biology courses and communicate research findings in a more professional manner. PMID:25949754

  14. Biological intrusion of low-level-waste trench covers

    SciTech Connect

    Hakonson, T.E.; Gladney, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    The long-term integrity of low-level waste shallow land burial sites is dependent on the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological factors that modify the waste containment system. Past research on low-level waste shallow land burial methods has emphasized physical (i.e., water infiltration, soil erosion) and chemical (radionuclide leaching) processes that can cause waste site failure and subsequent radionuclide transport. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the need to consider biological processes as being potentially important in reducing the integrity of waste burial site cover treatments. Plants and animals not only can transport radionuclides to the ground surface via root systems and soil excavated from the cover profile by animal burrowing activities, but they modify physical and chemical processes within the cover profile by changing the water infiltration rates, soil erosion rates and chemical composition of the soil. One approach to limiting biological intrusion through the waste cover is to apply a barrier within the profile to limit root and animal penetration with depth. Experiments in the Los Alamos Experimental Engineered Test Facility were initiated to develop and evaluate biological barriers that are effective in minimizing intrusion into waste trenches. The experiments that are described employ four different candidate barrier materials of geologic origin. Experimental variables that will be evaluated, in addition to barrier type, are barrier depth and soil overburden depth. The rate of biological intrusion through the various barrier materials is being evaluated through the use of activatable stable tracers.

  15. Biological Detection of Low-Level Electric Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Frank S.

    1996-03-01

    This paper will review sources of noise in biological systems including thermal noise, shot noise, 1/f noise, signals generated by the biological system, and the background environment. These noise signals will be examined for a model nerve cell and compared with estimates for the electrical and magnetic signals which are typically generated by our power distribution systems at 60 Hz. A number of mechanisms by which biological systems may be able to extract signals from noise will be described. All of these mechanism require biological system nonlinearities and repetitive signals. The results of computer simulation show that computer models of a neural network can be trained to identify a 60-Hz signal with 97% accuracy at signal-to-noise ratios from 1 to 0.001 using a back propagation algorithm. The number of training runs increases with decreasing signal-to-noise ratio. These results will be discussed in terms of biological results which show that sharks can detect electrical signal levels approaching 10-7 V/m and bees can detect changes in magnetic field levels of 10-9 T. Some recent results from our lab on the effects of ELF magnetic fields on the growth rate of pre T cells will also be presented.

  16. Impact of food and fluid intake on technical and biological measurement error in body composition assessment methods in athletes.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Ava; Slater, Gary J; Byrne, Nuala

    2017-02-01

    Two, three and four compartment (2C, 3C and 4C) models of body composition are popular methods to measure fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) in athletes. However, the impact of food and fluid intake on measurement error has not been established. The purpose of this study was to evaluate standardised (overnight fasted, rested and hydrated) v. non-standardised (afternoon and non-fasted) presentation on technical and biological error on surface anthropometry (SA), 2C, 3C and 4C models. In thirty-two athletic males, measures of SA, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) and air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD) were taken to establish 2C, 3C and 4C models. Tests were conducted after an overnight fast (duplicate), about 7 h later after ad libitum food and fluid intake, and repeated 24 h later before and after ingestion of a specified meal. Magnitudes of changes in the mean and typical errors of measurement were determined. Mean change scores for non-standardised presentation and post meal tests for FM were substantially large in BIS, SA, 3C and 4C models. For FFM, mean change scores for non-standardised conditions produced large changes for BIS, 3C and 4C models, small for DXA, trivial for BOD POD and SA. Models that included a total body water (TBW) value from BIS (3C and 4C) were more sensitive to TBW changes in non-standardised conditions than 2C models. Biological error is minimised in all models with standardised presentation but DXA and BOD POD are acceptable if acute food and fluid intake remains below 500 g.

  17. Assessment of consumers’ level of engagement in following recommendations for lowering sodium intake.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Julio Ernesto; Schram, Grietje Anna; Arcand, JoAnne; Henson, Spencer; L'Abbe, Mary

    2014-02-01

    Population-wide sodium reduction strategies encourage consumer participation in lowering dietary sodium. This study aims to measure and rank consumers’ level of engagement in following 23 recommendations to reduce dietary sodium and to compare variation in level of consumers’ engagement by sociodemographic sub-groups. The study included 869 randomly selected participants of an online food panel survey from Ontario during November and December 2010. Rasch modelling was used for the analysis. Consumers were less likely to be engaged in 9 out of the 23 recommendations, in particular those related to avoiding foods higher in sodium and implementing sodium reduction strategies while eating in restaurants. Higher level of consumers’ engagement was observed in relation to food preparation practices, including use of low sodium ingredients. In comparison to the relevant reference group, men, older individuals, with lower educational level, single, and those who do not prepare food from scratch showed an overall lower level of engagement in following recommendations to lowering dietary sodium, particularly related to avoiding processed foods. These data provide novel insights and can inform public education campaigns, and highlight the need for interventions and programs targeted at the food supply that can assist consumers in lowering their sodium intake.

  18. Maternal dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids modifies the relationship between lead levels in bone and breast milk.

    PubMed

    Arora, Manish; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Peterson, Karen E; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O

    2008-01-01

    Whereas dietary fats are known to influence bone mineral density, little is known about their effect on the skeletal stores of lead that are a pervasive source of fetal and infant lead exposure from heightened mobilization during pregnancy and lactation. This cross-sectional study examined the potential influence of maternal dietary intake of saturated and unsaturated fats on the relationship of lead levels in bone and breast milk during lactation. Lead was measured in blood, breast milk, and bone (patella and tibia) at 1 mo postpartum in 310 women in Mexico City. Dietary nutrient intake was assessed using a validated FFQ. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to study the influence of dietary saturated and unsaturated fats on the association between bone and breast milk lead. In multivariate models that included both the dietary intake of SFA and PUFA, an interquartile range increase in patella lead [approximately 20 microg/g (0.097 micromol/g)] was associated with a 24% (95% CI = 5-43) higher increase in breast milk lead in women in the lowest tertile of PUFA intake compared with those in the highest tertile of PUFA intake. Monounsaturated fatty acids did not modify the relationship between lead levels in patella and breast milk. In conclusion, higher maternal dietary intake of PUFA may limit the transfer of lead from bone to breast milk.

  19. Mouth-level intake of benzo[a]pyrene from reduced nicotine cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan S; Ward, Jennye; Hammond, David; Watson, Clifford H

    2014-11-18

    Cigarette smoke is a known source of exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Exposure to BaP in cigarette smoke is influenced by how a person smokes and factors, such as tobacco blend. To determine whether sustained use of reduced-nicotine cigarettes is associated with changes in exposure to nicotine and BaP, levels of BaP in spent cigarette filter butts were correlated with levels of BaP in cigarette smoke to estimate mouth-level intake (MLI) of BaP for 72 daily smokers given three progressively reduced nicotine content cigarettes. Urinary cotinine, a marker of nicotine exposure, and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP), a marker of PAH exposure, were measured throughout the study. Median daily BaP MLI and urine cotinine decreased in a similar manner as smokers switched to progressively lower nicotine cigarettes, despite relatively constant daily cigarette consumption. 1-HOP levels were less responsive to the use of reduced nicotine content cigarettes. We demonstrate that spent cigarette filter butt analysis is a promising tool to estimate MLI of harmful chemicals on a per cigarette or per-day basis, which partially addresses the concerns of the temporal influence of smoking behavior or differences in cigarette design on exposure.

  20. Mouth-Level Intake of Benzo[a]pyrene from Reduced Nicotine Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yan S.; Ward, Jennye; Hammond, David; Watson, Clifford H.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a known source of exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Exposure to BaP in cigarette smoke is influenced by how a person smokes and factors, such as tobacco blend. To determine whether sustained use of reduced-nicotine cigarettes is associated with changes in exposure to nicotine and BaP, levels of BaP in spent cigarette filter butts were correlated with levels of BaP in cigarette smoke to estimate mouth-level intake (MLI) of BaP for 72 daily smokers given three progressively reduced nicotine content cigarettes. Urinary cotinine, a marker of nicotine exposure, and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP), a marker of PAH exposure, were measured throughout the study. Median daily BaP MLI and urine cotinine decreased in a similar manner as smokers switched to progressively lower nicotine cigarettes, despite relatively constant daily cigarette consumption. 1-HOP levels were less responsive to the use of reduced nicotine content cigarettes. We demonstrate that spent cigarette filter butt analysis is a promising tool to estimate MLI of harmful chemicals on a per cigarette or per-day basis, which partially addresses the concerns of the temporal influence of smoking behavior or differences in cigarette design on exposure. PMID:25411724

  1. High levels of DDT in breast milk: intake, risk, lactation duration, and involvement of gender.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Kylin, Henrik; Sereda, Barbara; Bornman, Riana

    2012-11-01

    We investigated presence and levels of DDT in 163 breast milk samples from four South African villages where, in three of them, malaria is controlled with DDT-sprayed indoors. Mean ΣDDT levels in breast milk were 18, 11, and 9.5 mg/kg mf (milk fat) from the three DDT-sprayed villages, respectively, including the highest ΣDDT level ever reported for breast milk from South Africa (140 mg/kg mf). Understanding the causes for these differences would be informative for exposure reduction intervention. The Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT by infants, and the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) were significantly exceeded. DDT had no effect on duration of lactation. There were indications (not significant) from DDT-sprayed villages that first-born female infants drink milk with more ΣDDT than first-born male infants, and vice versa for multipara male and female infants, suggesting gender involvement on levels of DDT in breast milk - requiring further investigation.

  2. Vitamin D levels, dietary intake, and photoprotective behaviors among patients with skin cancer.

    PubMed

    DeLong, Laura K; Wetherington, Sarah; Hill, Nikki; Kumari, Meena; Gammon, Bryan; Dunbar, Scott; Tangpricha, Vin; Chen, Suephy C

    2010-09-01

    Photoprotection against ultraviolet light is an important part of our armamentarium against actinically derived skin cancers. However, there has been concern that adherence to photoprotection may lead to low vitamin D status, leading to negative effects on patients' health. In this work we discuss previous findings in this area, which do not give a clear picture as to the relationship between vitamin D levels and photoprotection measures, as well as research performed by the authors, who did not detect a relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels and adherence to photoprotection measures in subjects with skin cancer, as assessed by the use of sunscreen, clothing, hats, sunglasses, and umbrellas/shade through the Sun Protection Habits Index. Subjects who took vitamin D oral supplementation had greater serum 25(OH)D levels than those who did not, whereas dietary intake through foods did not predict 25(OH)D levels in the authors' study. However, there was a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in the authors' study population, highlighting the importance of assessing vitamin D status and recommending oral vitamin D supplementation when indicated.

  3. Nutrient Intake and Body Habitus After Spinal Cord Injury: An Analysis by Sex and Level of Injury

    PubMed Central

    Groah, Suzanne L; Nash, Mark S; Ljungberg, Inger H; Libin, Alexander; Hamm, Larry F; Ward, Emily; Burns, Patricia A; Enfield, Gwen

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To examine nutrient intake and body mass index (BMI) in the spinal cord injury (SCI) population according to level of injury and sex. Design: Cross-sectional study conducted at 2 SCI treatment centers. Participants/Methods: Seventy-three community-dwelling individuals with C5-T12 ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) A or B SCI. Subjects were divided into 4 groups: male tetraplegia (N = 24), male paraplegia (N = 37), female tetraplegia (N = 1), and female paraplegia (N = 11). Mean age was 38 years; 84% were male; 34% were white, 41% were African American, and 25% were Hispanic. Participants completed a 4-day food log examining habitual diet. Dietary composition was analyzed using Food Processor II v 7.6 software. Results: Excluding the 1 woman with tetraplegia, total calorie intake for the other 3 groups was below observed values for the general population. The female paraplegia group tended to have a lower total calorie intake than the other groups, although macronutrient intake was within the recommended range. The male tetraplegia group, male paraplegia group, and the 1 woman with tetraplegia all had higher than recommended fat intake. Intake of several vitamins, minerals, and macronutrients did not meet recommended levels or were excessively low, whereas sodium and alcohol intake were elevated. Using adjusted BMI tables, 74.0% of individuals with SCI were overweight or obese. Conclusions: Women with paraplegia tended to maintain healthier diets, reflected by lower caloric and fat intakes, fewer key nutrients falling outside recommended guidelines, and less overweight or obesity. Individuals with tetraplegia tended to take in more calories and had higher BMIs, and using adjusted BMI, the majority of the population was overweight or obese. The majority of people with SCI would benefit from nutritional counseling to prevent emerging secondary conditions as the population with SCI ages. PMID:19264046

  4. Hormonal modulation of food intake in response to low leptin levels induced by hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, M. M.; Stein, T. P.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    A loss in fat mass is a common response to centrifugation and it results in low circulating leptin concentrations. However, rats adapted to hypergravity are euphagic. The focus of this study was to examine leptin and other peripheral signals of energy balance in the presence of a hypergravity-induced loss of fat mass and euphagia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were centrifuged for 14 days at gravity levels of 1.25, 1.5, or 2 G, or they remained stationary at 1 G. Urinary catecholamines, urinary corticosterone, food intake, and body mass were measured on Days 11 to 14. Plasma hormones and epididymal fat pad mass were measured on Day 14. Mean body mass of the 1.25, 1.5, and 2 G groups were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than controls, and no differences were found in food intake (g/day/100 g body mass) between the hypergravity groups and controls. Epididymal fat mass was 14%, 14%, and 21% lower than controls in the 1.25, 1.5, and 2.0 G groups, respectively. Plasma leptin was significantly reduced from controls by 46%, 45%, and 65% in the 1.25, 1.5, and 2 G groups, respectively. Plasma insulin was significantly lower in the 1.25, 1.5, and 2.0 G groups than controls by 35%, 38%, and 33%. No differences were found between controls and hypergravity groups in urinary corticosterone. Mean urinary epinephrine was significantly higher in the 1.5 and 2.0 G groups than in controls. Mean urinary norepinephrine was significantly higher in the 1.25, 1.5 and 2.0 G groups than in controls. Significant correlations were found between G load and body mass, fat mass, leptin, urinary epinephrine, and norepinephrine. During hypergravity exposure, maintenance of food intake is the result of a complex relationship between multiple pathways, which abates the importance of leptin as a primary signal.

  5. Hormonal modulation of food intake in response to low leptin levels induced by hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, M. M.; Stein, T. P.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    A loss in fat mass is a common response to centrifugation and it results in low circulating leptin concentrations. However, rats adapted to hypergravity are euphagic. The focus of this study was to examine leptin and other peripheral signals of energy balance in the presence of a hypergravity-induced loss of fat mass and euphagia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were centrifuged for 14 days at gravity levels of 1.25, 1.5, or 2 G, or they remained stationary at 1 G. Urinary catecholamines, urinary corticosterone, food intake, and body mass were measured on Days 11 to 14. Plasma hormones and epididymal fat pad mass were measured on Day 14. Mean body mass of the 1.25, 1.5, and 2 G groups were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than controls, and no differences were found in food intake (g/day/100 g body mass) between the hypergravity groups and controls. Epididymal fat mass was 14%, 14%, and 21% lower than controls in the 1.25, 1.5, and 2.0 G groups, respectively. Plasma leptin was significantly reduced from controls by 46%, 45%, and 65% in the 1.25, 1.5, and 2 G groups, respectively. Plasma insulin was significantly lower in the 1.25, 1.5, and 2.0 G groups than controls by 35%, 38%, and 33%. No differences were found between controls and hypergravity groups in urinary corticosterone. Mean urinary epinephrine was significantly higher in the 1.5 and 2.0 G groups than in controls. Mean urinary norepinephrine was significantly higher in the 1.25, 1.5 and 2.0 G groups than in controls. Significant correlations were found between G load and body mass, fat mass, leptin, urinary epinephrine, and norepinephrine. During hypergravity exposure, maintenance of food intake is the result of a complex relationship between multiple pathways, which abates the importance of leptin as a primary signal.

  6. Changes in sleep, food intake, and activity levels during acute painful episodes in children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Eufemia; Miaskowski, Christine; Savedra, Marilyn; Beyer, Judith E; Treadwell, Marsha; Styles, Lori

    2006-02-01

    As part of a larger study that examined pain experience, pain management, and pain outcomes among children with sickle cell disease, functional status (sleep, food intake, and activity levels) was examined during hospitalization for acute painful episodes. Children were asked to rate the amount of pain they experienced as well as the amount of time they slept, the amount of food they ate, and the amount of activity they had everyday. Children reported high levels of pain, which showed only a small decrease throughout hospitalization, and had disrupted sleep and wake patterns, decreased food intake, and decreased activity levels. Nurses need to routinely monitor functional status during acute painful episodes so that strategies to promote adequate sleep, food intake, and activity may be incorporated to minimize long-term negative outcomes in children with sickle cell disease.

  7. Advanced biologically plausible algorithms for low-level image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusakova, Valentina I.; Podladchikova, Lubov N.; Shaposhnikov, Dmitry G.; Markin, Sergey N.; Golovan, Alexander V.; Lee, Seong-Whan

    1999-08-01

    At present, in computer vision, the approach based on modeling the biological vision mechanisms is extensively developed. However, up to now, real world image processing has no effective solution in frameworks of both biologically inspired and conventional approaches. Evidently, new algorithms and system architectures based on advanced biological motivation should be developed for solution of computational problems related to this visual task. Basic problems that should be solved for creation of effective artificial visual system to process real world imags are a search for new algorithms of low-level image processing that, in a great extent, determine system performance. In the present paper, the result of psychophysical experiments and several advanced biologically motivated algorithms for low-level processing are presented. These algorithms are based on local space-variant filter, context encoding visual information presented in the center of input window, and automatic detection of perceptually important image fragments. The core of latter algorithm are using local feature conjunctions such as noncolinear oriented segment and composite feature map formation. Developed algorithms were integrated into foveal active vision model, the MARR. It is supposed that proposed algorithms may significantly improve model performance while real world image processing during memorizing, search, and recognition.

  8. Student Perceived and Determined Knowledge of Biology Concepts in an Upper-Level Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Brittany; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Students who lack metacognitive skills can struggle with the learning process. To be effective learners, students should recognize what they know and what they do not know. This study examines the relationship between students' perception of their knowledge and determined knowledge in an upper-level biology course utilizing a pre/posttest…

  9. Exploration of the safe upper level of iodine intake in euthyroid Chinese adults: a randomized double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Sang, Zhongna; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Yao, Zhaixiao; Shen, Jun; Halfyard, Beth; Tan, Long; Zhao, Na; Wu, Yuntang; Gao, Shuo; Tan, Jian; Liu, Jiayu; Chen, Zupei; Zhang, Wanqi

    2012-02-01

    The beneficial health effects associated with Universal Salt Iodization are well known. Yet, little is known about the possible adverse health effects in people with high iodine intake and the safe daily intake upper limit in the Chinese population. The objective of this study was to explore the safe upper level of total daily iodine intake among adults in China. A 4-wk, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial was conducted in 256 euthyroid adults. Participants were randomly assigned to 12 intervention groups with various iodine supplement doses ranging from 0 to 2000 μg/d. Total iodine intake included iodine from both supplements and diet. Multiple outcome measures were used to evaluate possible adverse effects, including thyroid function, thyroid size, and urinary iodine. The mean iodine intake from the diets and salt intake of the participants were 105 ± 25 and 258 ± 101 μg/d, respectively. In comparison with the placebo group, all iodide-supplemented groups responded with significant increases in median urinary iodine concentrations (P < 0.05) and in thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration (P < 0.05). Thyroid volume decreased after 4 wk in the high-iodine intervention groups (1500-2000 μg). Subclinical hypothyroidism appeared in the groups that received 400 μg I (5%) and 500-2000 μg I (15-47%). This study showed that subclinical hypothyroidism appeared in the participants who took the 400-μg I supplement, which provided a total iodine intake of ∼800 μg/d. Thus, we caution against a total daily iodine intake that exceeds 800 μg/d in China and recommend further research to determine a safe daily upper limit.

  10. Dietary taurine and nutrient intake and dietary quality by alcohol consumption level in Korean male college students.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Kim, So Young; Park, So Yoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption is related to various negative healthy consequences. To investigate difference of taurine intake according to the alcohol consumption level, we studied body composition, intake of dietary nutrients including taurine, and dietary quality in Korean male college students that were divided according to their alcohol consumption level. Surveys were conducted using a questionnaire and a 3-day recall method for assessing dietary intake in 220 male college students residing in Incheon, Korea. The subjects were divided into two groups by alcohol consumption level: heavy drinking group (average drinking over 5 cans (355 ml) of beer or 7 shots (45 ml) of soju) and light drinking group (average drinking less than 5 cans of beer or 7 shots of soju or not drinking any alcohol at all at one time during the previous month). The average body mass index (BMI) in the heavy drinking group was significantly higher compared to the light drinking group (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in dietary taurine intake between heavy and light drinking group. With regard to the dietary quality evaluation of the subjects, the nutrient densities (ND) of carbohydrate, niacin, vitamin C, and zinc in the heavy drinking group were significantly lower than those of the light drinking group. Therefore, continuous nutrition education for heavy drinking Korean male college students may be needed to improve balanced nutritional status and further studies such as case-control study or taurine intervention study are required to know the relationship between dietary taurine intake and alcohol consumption.

  11. Adequate Vitamin D Intake but Low Serum Levels in Pediatric Asthma Patients: A Pilot Study, Alberta Children's Hospital.

    PubMed

    Howe McKenna, Sarah; Fenton, Tanis R; Noseworthy, Mary; Anselmo, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background. We assessed vitamin D intakes and serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels in pediatric asthma patients on moderate-to-high dose inhaled steroids and compared them to published findings of healthy children in our city. Methods. Parents and/or patients were interviewed to estimate the children's vitamin D intakes from foods and supplements (using an adapted validated food frequency questionnaire) and asthma duration and management. Vitamin D status: serum 25-hyroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was obtained from the medical records. Results. Vitamin D intakes from food and supplements of the asthma patients (n = 20, 742 ± 185 IU/day) were significantly higher compared to healthy Canadian children (n = 1442, 229 ± 121 IU/day). Despite higher vitamin D intakes, the children had nonsignificantly lower serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels compared to the comparison group. Serum 25(OH)D levels increased by 3.6 nmol/L with each 100 IU of vitamin D intake (95% Confidence interval = 2.0-4.0, R(2) = 0.931, and p = 0.001). Conclusion. Since adequate vitamin D status in asthma patients is necessary to support bone mineral accretion, it is important to achieve adequate vitamin D status by checking serum 25(OH)D status and supplement accordingly.

  12. Folate and Breast Cancer: Role of Intake, Blood Levels, and Metabolic Gene Polymorphisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    intake is associated with a decreased breast cancer risk particularly among those with MTHFR , MTR, and MTRR polymorphisms. The specific aims are 1...misincorporation in breast cancer risk. To date, the major results are the MTHFR 677TT genotype and low folate intake is associated with an increased risk of

  13. Effect of diet energy level and genomic residual feed intake on dairy heifer performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine the growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency of dairy heifers with different genomically predicted residual feed intakes (RFI), and offered diets differing in energy density. Post-bred Holstein heifers (N=128; ages 14-20 months) were blocked by initial we...

  14. Nutrient intake during an elite level three-day event competition is correlated to inflammatory markers and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Williams, C A; Burk, A O

    2010-11-01

    Dietary intake and feeding management practices could affect the degree of physiological stress and subsequent performance of high level 3-day event horses. To assess whether a relationship exists between dietary intake levels of selected nutrients and the inflammatory and antioxidant status in horses competing in a high level 3-day event. Riders competing in a CCI2*/CCI3* 3-day event (n = 35) answered a nutritional management survey conducted by the investigators at the competition. Actual and recommended intakes of vitamin E, potassium (K), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and magnesium (Mg) were calculated using the manufacturer or NRC values. Blood samples, bodyweight and body condition score of horses were taken precompetition, 30 min and 18-24 h after cross-country, but before stadium jumping. Data were analysed using a mixed model ANOVA with repeated measures and Pearson's product moment correlation. Estimated daily intakes of vitamin E, K, Ca, P and Mg for horses were higher than daily recommended levels (P < 0.05). In response to competition, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα; P = 0.0002), nitric oxide (NO; P = 0.013) and β-carotene (BC; P < 0.0001) decreased, creatine kinase (P < 0.0001) and aspartate aminotransferase (P = 0.001) increased, and α-tocopherol and retinol did not change. Intake of vitamin E, K, Ca, P and bodyweight were negatively correlated with TNFα (P < 0.05). Vitamin E and bodyweight were also negatively correlated with NO (P < 0.05). Pasture intake and BC were positively correlated (P < 0.0001). The decline in systemic inflammatory markers is probably due to increased utilisation or excretion and decreased production related to the increased oxidative stress experienced by horses during competition. High bodyweights could also predispose horses to a higher level of inflammation during 3-day event competition. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  15. Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Marc A.; Cockburn, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L. S.; Rae, Glen; Stevenson, Emma J.; Russell, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day−1 (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg−1 BM) carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day−1 (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg−1 BM) protein and 70 ± 7 g·day−1 (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg−1 BM) fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of −1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035) was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ) and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ). Match days (−2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012) and heavy training days (−2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016) elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players. PMID:26445059

  16. Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Marc A; Cockburn, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L S; Rae, Glen; Stevenson, Emma J; Russell, Mark

    2015-10-02

    This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day(-1) (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg(-1) BM) carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day(-1) (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg(-1) BM) protein and 70 ± 7 g·day(-1) (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg(-1) BM) fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of -1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035) was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ) and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ). Match days (-2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012) and heavy training days (-2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016) elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players.

  17. Sodium intake and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Karppanen, Heikki; Mervaala, Eero

    2006-01-01

    In current diets, the level of sodium is very high, whereas that of potassium, calcium, and magnesium is low compared with the level in diets composed of unprocessed, natural foods. We present the biologic rationale and scientific evidence that show that the current salt intake levels largely explain the high prevalence of hypertension. Comprehensive reduction of salt intake, both alone and particularly in combination with increases in intakes of potassium, calcium, and magnesium, is able to lower average blood pressure levels substantially. During the past 30 years, the one-third decrease in the average salt intake has been accompanied by a more than 10-mm Hg fall in the population average of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and a 75% to 80% decrease in both stroke and coronary heart disease mortality in Finland. There is no evidence of any harmful effects of salt reduction. Salt-reduction recommendations alone have a very small, if any, population impact. In the United States, for example, the per capita use of salt increased by approximately 55% from the mid-1980s to the late 1990s. We deal with factors that contribute toward increasing salt intakes and present examples of the methods that have contributed to the successful salt reduction in Finland.

  18. Evaluation of models for developing biological input for the design and location of water-intake structures

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.A.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1981-12-01

    An approach for assessing multiple stimulus/response relations between fish and water intake structures is presented in this report. The approach stresses stimulus/response relations influencing fish and shellfish distribution and is made up of two methods. The first places emphasis on spatial and temperal distributions of populations; information is presented in the form of a non-predictive model, which allows for organizing information and documenting review processes. The second approach encompasses functional relationships between environmental and biological stimuli and responses of organisms. By using the two methods together, functional relationships can be evaluated to define the distribution of a fish or shellfish species. This information can then be used to resolve questions relating to impingement and entrainment.

  19. Lead levels in retail samples of Spanish infant formulae and their contribution to dietary intake of infants.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Blasco, I; Alvarez-Galindo, J I

    2005-08-01

    Lead concentrations in 82 different types of infant formulae (cow's milk and soy based) marked in Spain were analysed by acid-microwave decomposition and anodic stripping voltammetry. Dietary lead intake from infant formula and tap water used for powder formula reconstitution were estimated in comparison with the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). Additionally, the influence of physical state (powder and ready-to-use formulae), the type of container used and the impact of the industrial process from different manufacturers on lead levels were evaluated. According to the results, lead exposure from drinking water was negligible with respect to formulae investigated; where soya formulae contributed the highest intake (58-73% PTWI), non-adapted starter and specialized formulae gave an moderate intake (31-42 and 26-37% PTWI, respectively), and, finally, pre-term, adapted starter and follow-up formulae provided the lowest lead intake (22-25, 22-26 and 16-22% PTWI, respectively). Based on the current state of knowledge about lead toxicity, manufacturers are called to make an additional effort in order to keep a maximum lead level at 20 microg l-1 for all infant formulae, although it is recommendable that these formulations supply the upper limit (5 microg l-1) of 'normal' human milk.

  20. Adequate iodine levels in healthy pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey of dietary intake in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kasap, Burcu; Akbaba, Gülhan; Yeniçeri, Emine N; Akın, Melike N; Akbaba, Eren; Öner, Gökalp; Turhan, Nilgün Ö; Duru, Mehmet E

    2016-06-01

    To assess current iodine levels and related factors among healthy pregnant women.  In this cross-sectional, hospital-based study, healthy pregnant women (n=135) were scanned for thyroid volume, provided urine samples for urinary iodine concentration and completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics and dietary habits targeted for iodine consumption at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine,Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Muğla, Turkey, between August 2014 and February 2015. Sociodemographic data were analyzed by simple descriptive statistics. Median urinary iodine concentration was 222.0 μg/L, indicating adequate iodine intake during pregnancy. According to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, 28.1% of subjects had iodine deficiency, 34.1% had adequate iodine intake, 34.8% had more than adequate iodine intake, and 3.0% had excessive iodine intake during pregnancy. Education level, higher monthly income, current employment, consuming iodized salt, and adding salt to food during, or after cooking were associated with higher urinary iodine concentration.   Iodine status of healthy pregnant women was adequate, although the percentage of women with more than adequate iodine intake was higher than the reported literature.

  1. Adequate iodine levels in healthy pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey of dietary intake in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kasap, Burcu; Akbaba, Gülhan; Yeniçeri, Emine N.; Akın, Melike N.; Akbaba, Eren; Öner, Gökalp; Turhan, Nilgün Ö.; Duru, Mehmet E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess current iodine levels and related factors among healthy pregnant women. Methods: In this cross-sectional, hospital-based study, healthy pregnant women (n=135) were scanned for thyroid volume, provided urine samples for urinary iodine concentration and completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics and dietary habits targeted for iodine consumption at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Muğla, Turkey, between August 2014 and February 2015. Sociodemographic data were analyzed by simple descriptive statistics. Results: Median urinary iodine concentration was 222.0 µg/L, indicating adequate iodine intake during pregnancy. According to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, 28.1% of subjects had iodine deficiency, 34.1% had adequate iodine intake, 34.8% had more than adequate iodine intake, and 3.0% had excessive iodine intake during pregnancy. Education level, higher monthly income, current employment, consuming iodized salt, and adding salt to food during, or after cooking were associated with higher urinary iodine concentration. Conclusion: Iodine status of healthy pregnant women was adequate, although the percentage of women with more than adequate iodine intake was higher than the reported literature. PMID:27279519

  2. Effects of sleeve gastrectomy surgery with modified jejunoileal bypass on body weight, food intake and metabolic hormone levels of rats.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lingling; Zhu, Zhanyong; Wu, Dan; Zhou, Qixing; Wu, Yiping

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the effects of a combined surgery of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and modified jejunoileal bypass (JIB) on the body weight, food intake, and the plasma levels of active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and total ghrelin of rats. Rats were divided into 3 groups in terms of different surgical protocol: SG-JIB (n=12), SG (n=12), JIB (n=12) and sham surgery groups (n=10). In SG-JIB group, rats was subjected to sleeve gastrectomy and end to side anastomosis of part of the jejunum (25 cm from the ligament of Treitz) to the ileum 25 cm proximal to the cecum. The body weight and food intake were evaluated during 10 consecutive weeks postoperatively. The levels of active GLP-1 and total ghrelin in the plasma of the rats were measured by ELISA assay. The results showed that the SG-JIB treated rats relative to SG- or JIB-treated ones produced a sustained reduction in food intake and weight gain. The level of active GLP-1 was elevated and total ghrelin level decreased in SG-JIB-treated rats as compared with SG- or JIB-treated ones. It was concluded that SG-JIB could efficiently reduce the body weight and food intake, alter obesity-related hormone levels of the rats, indicating that SG-JIB may be potentially used for the treatment of obesity.

  3. Dietary nutrient levels regulate protein and carbohydrate intake, gluconeogenic/glycolytic flux and blood trehalose level in the insect Manduca sexta L.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S N; Borchardt, D B; Wang, L-W

    2003-03-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary casein and sucrose levels on nutrient intake, and distinguished the effects of carbohydrate and protein consumption on growth, fat content, pyruvate metabolism and blood trehalose level of 5th instar Manduca sexta larvae. Growth increased with increasing casein consumption but was unaffected by carbohydrate intake. Fat content also increased with carbohydrate consumption, but on carbohydrate-free diets fat content increased with increased protein consumption. Blood trehalose level and pyruvate metabolism were examined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis of blood following administration of (3-(13)C)pyruvate. On diets containing sucrose, blood trehalose increased with increasing carbohydrate intake, and on most diets trehalose was synthesized entirely from dietary sucrose. Pyruvate cycling, indicated by the alanine C2/C3 (13)C enrichment ratio, increased with carbohydrate consumption reflecting increased glycolysis, and pyruvate decarboxylation exceeded carboxylation on all sucrose diets. Larvae that consumed <75 mg/day sucrose were gluconeogenic, based on the [2 (trehalose C6)(Glx C3/C2)]/alanine C2] (13)C enrichment ratio. On carbohydrate-free diets, blood trehalose levels were low and maintained entirely by gluconeogenesis. Blood trehalose level increased with increasing protein intake. Pyruvate cycling was very low, although many insects displayed higher levels of pyruvate decarboxylation than carboxylation. All gluconeogenic larvae displayed alanine (13)C enrichment ratios <0.35 and had blood trehalose levels <50 mM.

  4. The effects of changing dairy intake on trans and saturated fatty acid levels- results from a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dairy food is an important natural source of saturated and trans fatty acids in the human diet. This study evaluates the effect of dietary advice to change dairy food intake on plasma fatty acid levels known to be present in milk in healthy volunteers. Methods Twenty one samples of whole fat dairy milk were analyzed for fatty acids levels. Changes in levels of plasma phospholipid levels were evaluated in 180 healthy volunteers randomized to increase, not change or reduce dairy intake for one month. Fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and levels are normalized to d-4 alanine. Results The long chain fatty acids palmitic (13.4%), stearic (16.7%) and myristic (18.9%) acid were most common saturated fats in milk. Four trans fatty acids constituted 3.7% of the total milk fat content. Increased dairy food intake by 3.0 (± 1.2) serves/ day for 1 month was associated with small increases in plasma levels of myristic (+0.05, 95% confidence level-0.08 to 0.13, p = 0.07), pentadecanoic (+0.014, 95% confidence level -0.016 to 0.048, p = 0.02) and margaric acid (+0.02, -0.03 to 0.05, p = 0.03). There was no significant change in plasma levels of 4 saturated, 4 trans and 10 unsaturated fatty acids. Decreasing dairy food intake by 2.5 (± 1.2) serves per day was not associated with change in levels of any plasma fatty acid levels. Conclusion Dietary advice to change dairy food has a minor effect on plasma fatty acid levels. Trial registration ACTRN12612000574842. PMID:24708591

  5. [Association between food intake and the serum total cholesterol level among adults in 9 regions of China].

    PubMed

    Song, J; He, J J; Fang, A P; Li, H; Guo, M H; Shen, X; Li, K J

    2017-03-24

    Objective: To analyze the association between food intake and the serum total cholesterol(TC) level in adult Chinese population. Methods: This study included apparent healthy residents aged between 20 and 70 years who participated in the eighth round of China Health and Nutrition Study (CHNS) in 9 regions of China including Liaoning, Helongjiang, Shandong, Jiangsu, Henan, Hunan, Hubei, Guizhou provinces and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in 2009. The association between the serum TC level and the diet and other related factors were analyzed. Results: (1) Linear trend test showed that age, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were positively related with serum TC level in 20-45 and 46-70 years old male and female (all P<0.01), while physical activity level was negatively related with serum TC level in 20-45 and 46-70 years old male and 46-70 years old female (all P<0.01). (2) Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that livestock meat intake was positively related with serum TC level in following populations: 20-45 years old male, β=0.133, P<0.001; 46-70 years old male, β=0.102, P=0.001; 20-45 years old male, β=0.065, P=0.041; years old female, β=0.059, P=0.045. Vegetable oil intake was negatively related with serum TC level in 20-45 years old male (β=-0.071, P=0.021). Saturated fat intake was positively related with serum TC level in 46-70 years old female (β=0.084, P=0.019). Total dietary cholesterol intake was positively related with serum TC level in male (20-45 years old, β=0.067, P=0.021; 46-70 years old, β=0.070, P=0.012), but not in female (20-45 years old, β=0.007, P=0.809; 46-70 years old, β=0.038, P=0.144). Cholesterol intake from livestock meat was positively related with serum TC level in male (20-45 years old, β=0.156, P<0.001; 46-70 years old, β=0.099, P=0.001), and positively related with serum TC level in 46-70 years old female (β=0.063, P=0.028). Cholesterol intake from egg was positively

  6. Intake and digestibility of low-quality native grass hay by beef cows supplemented with graded levels of soybean hulls.

    PubMed

    Martin, S K; Hibberd, C A

    1990-12-01

    Twelve Hereford cows and four mature, ruminally cannulated Hereford x Angus heifers were fed supplements providing either 0 (control), 1, 2, or 3 kg/d of soybean hulls and including 440 g of protein/d (cottonseed meal was used to equalize protein intake) to determine the effects of supplementation on intake and utilization of low-quality native grass hay. Cattle were housed in individual pens and fed coarsely chopped (5-cm screen) native grass hay harvested in mid-November (4.1% CP, 76.9% NDF). Hay OM intake peaked (quadratic, P = .04) at 10.1 kg/d with 1 kg of soybean hulls and decreased when 2 kg (9.8 kg/d) or 3 kg (9.1 kg/d) of soybean hulls were fed. Although hay intake decreased when soybean hulls replaced cottonseed meal, feeding 3 kg soybean hulls decreased hay OM intake by only .64 kg. Total OM digestibility increased linearly (P = .009) with added increments of soybean hulls (45.8%, 46.2%, 46.6% and 48.6% for 0 through 3 kg soybean hulls/d, respectively), indicating that hulls were more digestible than the hay. Digestibility of NDF was not affected (P = .14) by level of soybean hull supplementation, although ADF digestibility increased (linear, P = .03). Increases in OM intake and digestibility with soybean hulls combined to increase digestible OM intake (linear, P = .0001). Soybean hull supplementation increased ruminal VFA concentrations (linear, P = .04) and the molar proportion of propionate (linear, P = .006).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Lactose intolerance and African Americans: implications for the consumption of appropriate intake levels of key nutrients.

    PubMed

    2009-10-01

    Lactose intolerance is a complex condition that is complicated by cultural beliefs and perceptions about the consumption of dairy products. These attitudes about dairy may contribute to inadequate intake of key nutrients that may impact conditions that contribute to health disparities in African Americans. While a complex health problem, lactose intolerance is easy to treat. However, no treatment can improve the body's ability to produce lactase. Yet, symptoms can be controlled through dietary strategies. This position paper emphasizes the importance of using patient and provider-level strategies in order to reduce the risks to the health of African Americans that may accrue as a result of dairy nutrient deficiency. Evaluation and assessment of interventions tested is critical so that evidence-based approaches to addressing dairy nutrient deficiency and lactose Intolerance can be created. Lastly, it is essential for physicians to communicate key messages to their patients. Since dairy nutrients address important health concerns, the amelioration of lactose intolerance is an investment in health. Lactose intolerance is common, is easy to treat, and can be managed. It is possible to consume dairy even in the face of a history of maldigestion or lactose intolerant issues. Gradually increasing lactose in the diet--drinking small milk portions with food, eating yogurt, and consuming cheese--are effective strategies for managing lactose intolerance and meeting optimal dairy needs.

  8. Salt intake of children and adolescents in South London: consumption levels and dietary sources.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Naomi M; He, Feng J; Whincup, Peter; Macgregor, Graham A

    2014-05-01

    Since 2003/2004, the United Kingdom has implemented a salt reduction campaign; however, there are no data on salt intake in children as assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium, the gold standard method, to inform this campaign. We performed a cross-sectional study, involving South London school children across 3 age tiers: young children (5- to 6-year olds), intermediate-aged children (8- to 9-year olds), and adolescents (13- to 17-year olds). Dietary salt intake was measured by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and compared with newly derived maximum salt intake recommendations. In addition, dietary sources of salt were assessed using a 24-hour photographic food diary. Valid urine collections were provided by 340 children (162 girls, 178 boys). The mean salt intakes were 3.75 g/d (95% confidence interval, 3.49-4.01), 4.72 g/d (4.33-5.11), and 7.55 g/d (6.88-8.22) for the 5- to 6-year olds, 8- to 9-year olds, and 13- to 17-year olds, respectively. Sixty-six percent of the 5- to 6-year olds, 73% of the 8- to 9-year olds, and 73% of 13- to 17-year olds had salt intake above their maximum daily intake recommendations. The major sources of dietary salt intake were cereal and cereal-based products (36%, which included bread 15%), meat products (19%), and milk and milk products (11%). This study demonstrates that salt intake in children in South London is high, with most of the salt coming from processed foods. Much further effort is required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods.

  9. Serum tocopherol levels and vitamin E intake are associated with lung function in the normative aging study.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Furtado, Jeremy; Campos, Hannia; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Litonjua, Augusto A

    2016-02-01

    The results of studies assessing relationships between vitamin E intake and status and lung function are conflicting. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin E intake and serum levels of tocopherol isoforms on lung function in a cross-sectional sample of 580 men from the Normative Aging Study, a longitudinal aging study. Regression models were used to look at associations of serum tocopherol isoform levels and vitamin E intake with lung function parameters after adjustment for confounders. Vitamin E intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire and serum levels of γ, α, and δ-tocopherol levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. After adjustment for potential confounders, serum γ-tocopherol had a significant inverse association with forced vital capacity (β = -0.10, p = 0.05). Alpha and δ-tocopherol were not associated with any lung function parameter. After classifying COPD status according to Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage criteria, serum levels of δ-tocopherol were lower in participants with more severe COPD (p = 0.01). Serum levels of δ-tocopherol were also lower in participants with greater levels of smoking (p = 0.02). Both vitamin E intake (β = 0.03, p = 0.02; β = 0.03, p = 0.01) and use of vitamin E supplements (β = 0.05, p = 0.03; β = 0.06. p = 0.02) were positively associated with FEV1 and FVC, after adjusting for confounders. Subjects who took vitamin E supplements had significantly higher α-tocopherol levels (p < 0.0001) and lower γ-tocopherol levels (p < 0.0001) than non-users. In this study, there is a positive association between dietary vitamin E intake and lung function, and evidence of an inverse relationship between serum levels of γ-tocopherol and lung function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. Insights into Monascus biology at the genetic level.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yanchun; Lei, Ming; Mao, Zejing; Zhou, Youxiang; Chen, Fusheng

    2014-05-01

    The genus of Monascus was nominated by van Tieghem in 1884, but its fermented product-red mold rice (RMR), namely red yeast rice, has been used as folk medicines, food colorants, and fermentation starters for more than thousands of years in oriental countries. Nowadays, RMR is widely developed as food supplements around the world due to its functional compounds such as monacolin K (MK, also called lovastatin) and γ-aminobutyric acid. But the usage of RMR also incurs controversy resulting from contamination of citrinin (a kind of mycotoxin) produced by some Monascus strains. In the past decade, it has made great progress to Monascus spp. at the genetic level with the application of molecular biology techniques to restrain the citrinin production and increase the yields of MK and pigment in RMR, as well as aid Monascus classification and phylogenesis. Up to now, hundreds of papers about Monascus molecular biology (MMB) have been published in the international primary journals. However, to our knowledge, there is no MMB review issued until now. In this review, current understanding of Monascus spp. from the view of molecular biology will be covered and insights into research areas that need to be further investigated will also be discussed.

  11. MSG intake suppresses weight gain, fat deposition, and plasma leptin levels in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, Takashi; Torii, Kunio

    2008-09-03

    Monosodium l-glutamate (MSG), an umami taste substance, may be a key molecule coupled to a food intake signaling pathway, possibly mediated through a specific l-glutamate (GLU) sensing mechanism in the gastrointestinal tract. Here we investigated the effect of the spontaneous ingestion of a 1% MSG solution and water on food intake and body weight in male Sprague-Dawley rats fed diets of varying caloric density, fat and carbohydrate contents. Fat mass and lean mass in the abdomen, blood pressure, and several blood metabolic markers were also measured. Rats given free access to MSG and water showed a high preference (93-97%) for the MSG solution, regardless of the diet they consumed. Rats ingesting MSG had a significantly smaller weight gain, reduced abdominal fat mass, and lower plasma leptin levels, compared to rats ingesting water alone. Naso-anal length, lean mass, food and energy intakes, blood pressure, blood glucose, and plasma levels of insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, albumin, and GLU were not influenced by the ingestion of the MSG solution. These same effects were observed in a study of adult rats. Together, these results suggest that MSG ingestion reduces weight gain, body fat mass, and plasma leptin levels. Moreover, these changes are likely to be mediated by increased energy expenditure, not reduced energy intake or delayed development. Conceivably, these effects of MSG might be mediated via gut GLU receptors functionally linked to afferent branches of the vagus nerve in the gut, or the afferent sensory nerves in the oral cavity.

  12. Relationship between plasma total homocysteine level and dietary caffeine and vitamin B6 intakes in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Ota, Erika; Murayama, Ryoko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Yeo, SeonAe; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2014-06-01

    A high total homocysteine (tHcy) level during pregnancy is a risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes, such as fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia. Caffeine is assumed to increase tHcy levels by acting as a vitamin B6 antagonist. The objective of this study was to examine a relationship between circulating tHcy levels and dietary caffeine and vitamin B6 intakes in pregnant Japanese women. A total of 321 healthy women with singleton pregnancies were recruited in metropolitan Tokyo, from June to December 2008, resulting in the final number included in the study as 254. Dietary caffeine intakes did not correlate with plasma tHcy levels. When we analyzed the data according to caffeinated beverages, caffeinated tea consumption was positively associated with plasma tHcy levels only among the women with a high intake of vitamin B6 , after controlling for confounding factors (P = 0.029). No correlation between coffee consumption and plasma tHcy levels was found. Pregnant Japanese women might need to cut down the consumption of caffeinated tea as well as take sufficient vitamin B6 in order to prevent the tHcy levels from increasing.

  13. Tannins: current knowledge of food sources, intake, bioavailability and biological effects.

    PubMed

    Serrano, José; Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta; Dauer, Andreas; Aura, Anna-Marja; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2009-09-01

    Tannins are a unique group of phenolic metabolites with molecular weights between 500 and 30 000 Da, which are widely distributed in almost all plant foods and beverages. Proanthocyanidins and hydrolysable tannins are the two major groups of these bioactive compounds, but complex tannins containing structural elements of both groups and specific tannins in marine brown algae have also been described. Most literature data on food tannins refer only to oligomeric compounds that are extracted with aqueous-organic solvents, but a significant number of non-extractable tannins are usually not mentioned in the literature. The biological effects of tannins usually depend on their grade of polymerisation and solubility. Highly polymerised tannins exhibit low bioaccessibility in the small intestine and low fermentability by colonic microflora. This review summarises a new approach to analysis of extractable and non-extractable tannins, major food sources, and effects of storage and processing on tannin content and bioavailability. Biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiviral effects are also described. In addition, the role of tannins in diabetes mellitus has been discussed.

  14. Folate intake, serum folate, serum total homocysteine levels and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Mami

    2004-08-01

    Various factors influence folate status and requirements. To investigate the folate status in young Japanese women (n=340, 20-22 y), I determined the serum folate and total homocysteine (tHcy), and examined the influence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism on folate status in a subgroup of 252 of the women. I calculated folate consumption based on records of food intake weighed over 3 d using the standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan (5th revised edition) and the US Food Composition Table based on the USDA nutrient database excluding fortification. Serum folate and total homocysteine (tHcy) levels were determined by chemiluminescent-competitive protein binding assay and HPLC, respectively. The mean intake of folate was 323+/-133 and 196+/-71 microg/d, and 86.5% and 42.1% of the participants consumed more than the RDA of 200 microg of folate, according to the Japanese and US tables, respectively. The main sources of dietary folate were vegetables, green tea and bread. Serum folate levels were significantly correlated with folate intake (r=0.249, p<0.001). Serum tHcy levels were above 15 micromol/L in four participants. I found significant negative correlations between serum tHcy and folate intake (r=-0.175, p<0.05), and between serum tHcy and serum folate (r=-0.297, p<0.0001). The frequencies of the CC, CT and TT genotypes of the MTHFR gene were 32.9, 51.6 and 15.5%, respectively. Among individuals with the TT genotype, serum folate and tHcy levels were lower and higher, respectively, than in those with the other genotypes, regardless of folate intake above RDA. These data suggest that the current RDA of folate estimated based on foreign data might not be sufficient for Japanese and that this value might require reassessment.

  15. Incorporating Allee effects into the potential biological removal level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hadier, Humza; Oldfield, Sarah; Tu, Tiffany; Moreno, Rosa; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Eager, Eric A.; Erickson, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Potential biological removal (PBR) is an approach used to calculate sustainable harvest and “take” limits for populations. PBR was originally derived assuming logistic growth while ignoring the effects of small population size (i.e., an Allee effect). We derived a version of PBR that includes an Allee effect (i.e., small population size or densities limiting population growth rates). We found that PBR becomes less conservative when it fails to consider an Allee effect. Specifically, sustainable harvest and take levels based upon PBR with an Allee effect were between approximately 51% and 66% of levels based upon PBR without an Allee effect. Managers and biologists using PBR may need to consider the limitations if an Allee effect may be present in the species being modeled.

  16. ``Physical Concepts in Cell Biology,'' an upper level interdisciplinary course in cell biophysics/mathematical biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2009-03-01

    I will describe my experience in developing an interdisciplinary biophysics course addressed to students at the upper undergraduate and graduate level, in collaboration with colleagues in physics and biology. The students had a background in physics, biology and engineering, and for many the course was their first exposure to interdisciplinary topics. The course did not depend on a formal knowledge of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Instead, the approach was based on dynamics. I used diffusion as a universal ``long time'' law to illustrate scaling concepts. The importance of statistics and proper counting of states/paths was introduced by calculating the maximum accuracy with which bacteria can measure the concentration of diffuse chemicals. The use of quantitative concepts and methods was introduced through specific biological examples, focusing on model organisms and extremes at the cell level. Examples included microtubule dynamic instability, the search and capture model, molecular motor cooperativity in muscle cells, mitotic spindle oscillations in C. elegans, polymerization forces and propulsion of pathogenic bacteria, Brownian ratchets, bacterial cell division and MinD oscillations.

  17. Low-Level Toxic Metal Exposure in Healthy Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Dietary Intake, and Iron Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jungil; Chang, Ju Young; Hong, Jeana; Shin, Sue; Park, Jeong Su; Oh, Sohee

    2017-04-06

    Even low levels of toxic metal exposure (As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) in infancy might be harmful to children's development. This study investigated toxic metal exposure on healthy weaning-age infants and its relationship with growth, diet, and iron/anemia status. The weight, height, head circumference, whole blood levels of four toxic metals, hemoglobin, and serum ferritin of healthy infants was measured. Among 210 infants with a median age of 11.4 months (interquartile range: 10.5-12.0), the median levels of As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were 1.2 μg/L, 0.05 μg/L, 0.8 μg/L, and 0.83 μg/dL, respectively. In adjusted linear regression models, post-birth weight gain (Pb) and current head circumference (As, Pb) were negatively associated with toxic metal levels. In multiple linear regression or logistic regression analysis, the duration of breastfeeding (all four metals), perceived adequacy of rice-based food intake (As), regular fish intake (As, Hg), and iron deficiency with/without anemia (Cd, Pb) were associated with increased toxic metal levels. Although levels of toxic metals may not usually be high in this population, individual exposure risk may need to be assessed after considering the type of feeding or intake of complementary foods and the iron/anemia status while evaluating growth status during late infancy.

  18. Folate intake, serum folate levels and esophageal cancer risk: an overall and dose-response meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Guo, Chenyang; Hu, Hongtao; Zheng, Lin; Ma, Junli; Jiang, Li; Zhao, Erjiang; Li, Hailiang

    2017-02-07

    Previously reported findings on the association between folate intake or serum folate levels and esophageal cancer risk have been inconsistent. This study aims to summarize the evidence regarding these relationships using a dose-response meta-analysis approach. We performed electronic searches of the Pubmed, Medline and Cochrane Library electronic databases to identify studies examining the effect of folate on the risk of esophageal cancer. Ultimately, 19 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Summary odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using a random effects model. A linear regression analysis of the natural logarithm of the OR was carried out to assess the possible dose-response relationship between folate intake and esophageal cancer risk. The pooled ORs for esophageal cancer in the highest vs. lowest levels of dietary folate intake and serum folate were 0.63 (95% CI: 0.56-0.71) and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.55-0.92), respectively. The dose-response meta-analysis indicated that a 100 μg/day increment in dietary folate intake reduced the estimate risk of esophageal cancer by 12%. These findings suggest that dietary and serum folate exert a protective effect against esophageal carcinogenesis.

  19. Effect of feeding varying levels of groundnut haulms on feed intake and growth performance in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ribadiya, N. K.; Savsani, H. H.; Patil, S. S.; Garg, D. D.; Gadariya, M. R.; Karangiya, V. K.; Gajera, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate groundnut haulms (GNH) as alternate feed source by its incorporation and assessment in terms of feed intake and growth performance in the diets of broilers. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 1-day-old Cobb-400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each with three replicates (n=60). Experimental Birds in group T1 were fed with conventional feed while birds in T2, T3, T4 were fed containing 2%, 4%, and 6% of GNH replacing maize and soyabean on iso-nitrogenous basis. Results: Feed intake increases significantly (p>0.05) with increasing level of GNH in the diets of experimental birds. Highest feed intake was recorded in T4 (6% GNH), followed by T3 (4% GNH) than T2 (2% GNH) and T1 (control). Birds fed GNH gained significantly (p<0.05) higher body weight than birds fed the control diet. Birds in T4 [6% GNH] gained highest body weight, followed by T3 (4% GNH) than T2 (2% GNH) and T1 (control). However, feed conversion ratio (FCR) remained non-significant for all treatment groups. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of this study, it is concluded that supplementation of GNH can successfully replace costly ingredients like maize and soybean meal in the diets of broiler birds up to the level of 6 percent of concentrate mixture without any harmful effects on feed intake, growth and FCR. PMID:27047062

  20. Antidepressant Use is Associated with Increased Energy Intake and Similar Levels of Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Otsu, Elsbeth; Austin, Gregory L

    2015-11-20

    Antidepressants have been associated with weight gain, but the causes are unclear. The aims of this study were to assess the association of antidepressant use with energy intake, macronutrient diet composition, and physical activity. We used data on medication use, energy intake, diet composition, and physical activity for 3073 eligible adults from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Potential confounding variables, including depression symptoms, were included in the models assessing energy intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Antidepressant users reported consuming an additional (mean ± S.E.) 215 ± 73 kcal/day compared to non-users (p = 0.01). There were no differences in percent calories from sugar, fat, or alcohol between the two groups. Antidepressant users had similar frequencies of walking or biking, engaging in muscle-strengthening activities, and engaging in moderate or vigorous physical activity. Antidepressant users were more likely to use a computer for ≥2 h/day (OR 1.77; 95% CI: 1.09-2.90), but TV watching was similar between the two groups. These results suggest increased energy intake and sedentary behavior may contribute to weight gain associated with antidepressant use. Focusing on limiting food intake and sedentary behaviors may be important in mitigating the weight gain associated with antidepressant use.

  1. Impact of the dietary fatty acid intake on C-reactive protein levels in US adults.

    PubMed

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Gao, Hong-Kai; Vatanparast, Hassan; Kengne, Andre Pascal

    2017-02-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the effects of diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) occur through mechanisms involving subclinical inflammation. We assessed whether reported dietary fatty acid intake correlates with a serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentration in a population-based sample of US men and women.In this cross-sectional analysis, participants were selected from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and restricted to those with available data on dietary intake, biochemical and anthropometric measurements from 2001 to 2010. All statistical analyses accounted for the survey design and sample weights by using SPSS Complex Samples v22.0 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY).Of the 17,689 participants analyzed, 8607 (48.3%) were men. The mean age was 45.8 years in the overall sample, 44.9 years in men, and 46.5 years in women (P = 0.047). The age-, race-, and sex-adjusted mean dietary intakes of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), PUFAs 18:2 (octadecadienoic), and PUFAs 18:3 (octadecatrienoic) monotonically decreased across hs-CRP quartiles (P < 0.001), whereas dietary cholesterol increased across hs-CRP quartiles (P < 0.001)This study provides further evidence of an association between fatty acid intake and subclinical inflammation markers. hs-CRP concentrations are likely modulated by dietary fatty acid intake. However, the causality of this association needs to be demonstrated in clinical trials.

  2. Impact of the dietary fatty acid intake on C-reactive protein levels in US adults

    PubMed Central

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Gao, Hong-Kai; Vatanparast, Hassan; Kengne, Andre Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Growing evidence suggests that the effects of diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) occur through mechanisms involving subclinical inflammation. We assessed whether reported dietary fatty acid intake correlates with a serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentration in a population-based sample of US men and women. In this cross-sectional analysis, participants were selected from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and restricted to those with available data on dietary intake, biochemical and anthropometric measurements from 2001 to 2010. All statistical analyses accounted for the survey design and sample weights by using SPSS Complex Samples v22.0 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY). Of the 17,689 participants analyzed, 8607 (48.3%) were men. The mean age was 45.8 years in the overall sample, 44.9 years in men, and 46.5 years in women (P = 0.047). The age-, race-, and sex-adjusted mean dietary intakes of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), PUFAs 18:2 (octadecadienoic), and PUFAs 18:3 (octadecatrienoic) monotonically decreased across hs-CRP quartiles (P < 0.001), whereas dietary cholesterol increased across hs-CRP quartiles (P < 0.001) This study provides further evidence of an association between fatty acid intake and subclinical inflammation markers. hs-CRP concentrations are likely modulated by dietary fatty acid intake. However, the causality of this association needs to be demonstrated in clinical trials. PMID:28207502

  3. Observations on Diseased Pigs with High Sulfate Intake and Normal Tissue Copper Levels

    PubMed Central

    Jericho, K. W. F.; Strausz, K. I.; Martin, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    Disease in a large pig herd reared intensively and kept on sulfate-rich drinking water is described. It is the first report of diseased progeny of sows with high sulfate intake. Results of two surveys are presented, one for water with sulfate in excess of 2000 ppm and one for water with less than 1000 ppm. The management practices are described in detail. Disease of Survey I was manifested by high morbidity and mortality (50% of 600) in piglets, incoordination in piglets and some adult stock and osteopathy in piglets and weaners. In Survey II disease was less severe and restricted to piglets. Detailed histopathological studies revealed myelin deficiency in brain and spinal cord of sows and piglets, interferred endochondreal ossification of long bones of piglets and weaners, fatty changes of livers and interstitial nephritis in piglets and weaners. The changes in the nervous tissue were considered due to delayed fixation as tissue was only immersed in fixative and not perfused with it immediately after death. Similar changes have been described for pigs deficient in copper. Copper content of tissue and body fluids of pigs of this study were normal, as were the serum inorganic phosphate and total calcium levels. The bone changes observed have also been reported for rats given dextran sulfate injections, for pigs on experimental low-copper sulfate-enriched diet and for pigs reported low in copper and fed a diet supplemented with sulfide. The cause of the locomotor disturbance and mortality in piglets was not established. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4270430

  4. Alcohol Intake and Serum Glucose Levels from the Perspective of a Mendelian Randomization Design: The KCPS-II Biobank

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Yon Ho; Lee, Sun Ju; Jee, Sun Ha

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that alcohol intake is associated with increased fasting serum glucose (FSG), but the nature of the relationship remains unknown. We used Mendelian randomization analysis to assess the causal effect of alcohol intake on FSG in a middle-aged Korean population. Methods Clinical data including FSG and alcohol intake were collected from 156,386 Koreans aged 20 years or older who took part in the Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II (KCPS-II) Biobank Cohort. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs671 in ALDH2 was genotyped among 2,993 men and 1,374 women in 2016. This was a randomly selected subcohort of KCPS-II Biobank participants. Results Alcohol consumption was positively associated with FSG level in men, but not in women. The rs671 major G allele was associated with increased alcohol intake (F-statistic = 302.62) and an increase in FSG in men. Using Mendelian randomization analysis, alcohol intake increased FSG by 1.78 mg/dL per alcohol unit (10 g ethanol) per day (95% CI: 0.97–2.59) in men. The associations became stronger when we excluded heavy drinkers and the elderly. However, in women, no significant association between rs671 and alcohol or serum glucose was found. Conclusion Using Mendelian randomization analysis, we suggest a causal relationship between alcohol intake and FSG among Korean men. Moreover, we found that the ALDH2 variant rs671 was not associated with FSG among Korean women. PMID:27632197

  5. The relation between dietary intake of vegetable oils and serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels in central Iran

    PubMed Central

    Boroujeni, Hossein Khosravi; Sarrsfzadegan, Nizal; Mohammadifard, Nooshin; Sajjadi, Firoozeh; Asgary, Sedigheh; Maghroon, Maryam; Alikhassi, Hassan; Esmailzaded, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The detrimental effects of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs) on apolipoproteins have been reported from several parts of the world. However, little data is available in this regard from the understudied region of the Middle East. The present study therefore tried to evaluate the association between type of vegetable oils and serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels among Iranians. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, data from 1772 people (795 men and 977 women) aged 19–81 years, who were selected with multistage cluster random sampling method from three cities of Isfahan, Najafabad and Arak in “Isfahan Healthy Heart Program” (IHHP) (Iran), was used. To assess participants' usual dietary intakes, a validated food frequency questionnaire was used. Hydrogenated vegetable oil (commonly consumed for cooking in Iran) and margarine were considered as the category of PHVOs. Soy, sunflower, corn, olive and canola oils were considered as non-HVOs. After an overnight fasting, serum cholesterol (total, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol) and triglyceride as well as apolipoproteins A and B were measured using standard methods. RESULTS: Participants with the highest intakes of non-HVOs and PHVOs were younger and had lower weight than those with lowest intakes. High consumption of non-HVOs and PHVOs was associated with lower intakes of energy, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, meat, milk and grains. No overall significant differences were found in serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels across the quartiles of non-HVOs and PHVOs after controlling for potential confounding. CONCLUSION: We did not find any significant associations between hydrogenated or nonhydrogenated vegetable oil and serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels. Thus, further studies are needed in this region to explore this association. PMID:23205051

  6. The relation between dietary intake of vegetable oils and serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels in central Iran.

    PubMed

    Boroujeni, Hossein Khosravi; Sarrsfzadegan, Nizal; Mohammadifard, Nooshin; Sajjadi, Firoozeh; Asgary, Sedigheh; Maghroon, Maryam; Alikhassi, Hassan; Esmailzaded, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The detrimental effects of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs) on apolipoproteins have been reported from several parts of the world. However, little data is available in this regard from the understudied region of the Middle East. The present study therefore tried to evaluate the association between type of vegetable oils and serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels among Iranians. In this cross-sectional study, data from 1772 people (795 men and 977 women) aged 19-81 years, who were selected with multistage cluster random sampling method from three cities of Isfahan, Najafabad and Arak in "Isfahan Healthy Heart Program" (IHHP) (Iran), was used. To assess participants' usual dietary intakes, a validated food frequency questionnaire was used. Hydrogenated vegetable oil (commonly consumed for cooking in Iran) and margarine were considered as the category of PHVOs. Soy, sunflower, corn, olive and canola oils were considered as non-HVOs. After an overnight fasting, serum cholesterol (total, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol) and triglyceride as well as apolipoproteins A and B were measured using standard methods. Participants with the highest intakes of non-HVOs and PHVOs were younger and had lower weight than those with lowest intakes. High consumption of non-HVOs and PHVOs was associated with lower intakes of energy, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, meat, milk and grains. No overall significant differences were found in serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels across the quartiles of non-HVOs and PHVOs after controlling for potential confounding. We did not find any significant associations between hydrogenated or nonhydrogenated vegetable oil and serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels. Thus, further studies are needed in this region to explore this association.

  7. Maternal fish intake during pregnancy, blood mercury levels, and child cognition at age 3 years in a US cohort.

    PubMed

    Oken, Emily; Radesky, Jenny S; Wright, Robert O; Bellinger, David C; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Kleinman, Ken P; Hu, Howard; Gillman, Matthew W

    2008-05-15

    The balance of contaminant risk and nutritional benefit from maternal prenatal fish consumption for child cognitive development is not known. Using data from a prospective cohort study of 341 mother-child pairs in Massachusetts enrolled in 1999-2002, the authors studied associations of maternal second-trimester fish intake and erythrocyte mercury levels with children's scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA) at age 3 years. Mean maternal total fish intake was 1.5 (standard deviation, 1.4) servings/week, and 40 (12%) mothers consumed >2 servings/week. Mean maternal mercury level was 3.8 (standard deviation, 3.8) ng/g. After adjustment using multivariable linear regression, higher fish intake was associated with better child cognitive test performance, and higher mercury levels with poorer test scores. Associations strengthened with inclusion of both fish and mercury: effect estimates for fish intake of >2 servings/week versus never were 2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.6, 7.0) for the PPVT and 6.4 (95% CI: 2.0, 10.8) for the WRAVMA; for mercury in the top decile, they were -4.5 (95% CI: -8.5, -0.4) for the PPVT and -4.6 (95% CI: -8.3, -0.9) for the WRAVMA. Fish consumption of < or =2 servings/week was not associated with a benefit. Dietary recommendations for pregnant women should incorporate the nutritional benefits as well as the risks of fish intake.

  8. Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Reveals Food Intake-Induced Neuropeptide Level Changes in Rat Brain: Functional Assessment of Selected Neuropeptides as Feeding Regulators.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hui; Wang, Jingxin; Tian, Zichuan; Ma, Fengfei; Dowell, James A; Bremer, Quentin; Lu, Gaoyuan; Baldo, Brian; Li, Lingjun

    2017-09-01

    Endogenous neuropeptides are important signaling molecules that function as regulators of food intake and body weight. Previous work has shown that neuropeptide gene expression levels in a forebrain reward site, the nucleus accumbens (NAc), were changed by feeding. In order to directly monitor feeding-induced changes in neuropeptide expression levels within the NAc, we employed a combination of cryostat dissection, heat stabilization, neuropeptide extraction and label-free quantitative neuropeptidomics via a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry platform. Using this methodology, we described the first neuropeptidome in NAc and discovered that feeding caused the expression level changes of multiple neuropeptides derived from different precursors, especially proSAAS-derived peptides such as Big LEN, PEN and little SAAS. We further investigated the regulatory functions of these neuropeptides derived from the ProSAAS family by performing an intra-NAc microinjection experiment using the identified ProSAAS neuropeptides, ‘Big-LEN’ and ‘PEN’. Big LEN significantly increased rats’ food and water intake, whereas both big LEN and PEN affected other behaviors including locomotion, drinking and grooming. In addition, we quantified the feeding-induced changes of peptides from hippocampus, hypothalamus and striatum to reveal the neuropeptide interplay among different anatomical regions. In summary, our study demonstrated neuropeptidomic changes in response to food intake in the rat NAc and other key brain regions. Importantly, the microinfusion of ProSAAS peptides into NAc revealed that they are behaviorally active in this brain site, suggesting the potential utility of these peptides as therapeutics for eating disorders. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  9. Biological effect of human serum collected before and after oral intake of Pygeum africanum on various benign prostate cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Larré, Stéphane; Camparo, Philippe; Comperat, Eva; Boulbés, Delphine; Haddoum, Mohammed; Baulande, Sylvain; Soularue, Pascal; Costa, Pierre; Cussenot, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Pygeum africanum (Tadenan) is a popular phytotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. The active compounds of the drug have not been identified, and determining the plasma concentration of the drug is, therefore, not possible. Because there are conflicting results on the efficacy of this drug, we aimed to investigate its effect on prostate cell growth in vitro using human serum collected before and after Pygeum africanum intake. We used primary and organotypic cultures of human prostatic stromal myofibroblast cell line WPMY and prostatic epithelial cell line PNT2. We also used fresh benign prostatic tissue. The serum of a treated man induced decreases in the proliferation of primary cells, organotypic cells and WPMY cells but not PNT2 cells. We also analysed the effect of treated serum on the gene expression profile of WPMY cells. The transcriptome analysis revealed an upregulation of genes involved in multiple tumour suppression pathways and a downregulation of genes involved in inflammation and oxidative-stress pathways. The oral intake of Pygeum africanum resulted in serum levels of active substances that were sufficient to inhibit the proliferation of cultured myofibroblasts prostatic cells. This inhibition was associated with changes in the transcriptome. PMID:22198631

  10. Higher levels of serum triglyceride and dietary carbohydrate intake are associated with smaller LDL particle size in healthy Korean women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Oh Yoen; Chung, Hye Kyung

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influencing factors that characterize low density lipoprotein (LDL) phenotype and the levels of LDL particle size in healthy Korean women. In 57 healthy Korean women (mean age, 57.4 ± 13.1 yrs), anthropometric and biochemical parameters such as lipid profiles and LDL particle size were measured. Dietary intake was estimated by a developed semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The study subjects were divided into two groups: LDL phenotype A (mean size: 269.7Å, n = 44) and LDL phenotype B (mean size: 248.2Å, n = 13). Basic characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. The phenotype B group had a higher body mass index, higher serum levels of triglyceride, total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo)B, and apoCIII but lower levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and LDL particle size than those of the phenotype A group. LDL particle size was negatively correlated with serum levels of triglyceride (r = -0.732, P < 0.001), total-cholesterol, apoB, and apoCIII, as well as carbohydrate intake (%En) and positively correlated with serum levels of HDL-cholesterol and ApoA1 and fat intake (%En). A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that carbohydrate intake (%En) and serum triglyceride levels were the primary factors influencing LDL particle size (P < 0.001, R2 = 0.577). This result confirmed that LDL particle size was closely correlated with circulating triglycerides and demonstrated that particle size is significantly associated with dietary carbohydrate in Korean women. PMID:22586500

  11. Antibiotic resistance shaping multi-level population biology of bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, Fernando; Tedim, Ana P.; Coque, Teresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics have natural functions, mostly involving cell-to-cell signaling networks. The anthropogenic production of antibiotics, and its release in the microbiosphere results in a disturbance of these networks, antibiotic resistance tending to preserve its integrity. The cost of such adaptation is the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes, and of all genetic and cellular vehicles in which these genes are located. Selection of the combinations of the different evolutionary units (genes, integrons, transposons, plasmids, cells, communities and microbiomes, hosts) is highly asymmetrical. Each unit of selection is a self-interested entity, exploiting the higher hierarchical unit for its own benefit, but in doing so the higher hierarchical unit might acquire critical traits for its spread because of the exploitation of the lower hierarchical unit. This interactive trade-off shapes the population biology of antibiotic resistance, a composed-complex array of the independent “population biologies.” Antibiotics modify the abundance and the interactive field of each of these units. Antibiotics increase the number and evolvability of “clinical” antibiotic resistance genes, but probably also many other genes with different primary functions but with a resistance phenotype present in the environmental resistome. Antibiotics influence the abundance, modularity, and spread of integrons, transposons, and plasmids, mostly acting on structures present before the antibiotic era. Antibiotics enrich particular bacterial lineages and clones and contribute to local clonalization processes. Antibiotics amplify particular genetic exchange communities sharing antibiotic resistance genes and platforms within microbiomes. In particular human or animal hosts, the microbiomic composition might facilitate the interactions between evolutionary units involved in antibiotic resistance. The understanding of antibiotic resistance implies expanding our knowledge on multi-level

  12. Antibiotic resistance shaping multi-level population biology of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Baquero, Fernando; Tedim, Ana P; Coque, Teresa M

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics have natural functions, mostly involving cell-to-cell signaling networks. The anthropogenic production of antibiotics, and its release in the microbiosphere results in a disturbance of these networks, antibiotic resistance tending to preserve its integrity. The cost of such adaptation is the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes, and of all genetic and cellular vehicles in which these genes are located. Selection of the combinations of the different evolutionary units (genes, integrons, transposons, plasmids, cells, communities and microbiomes, hosts) is highly asymmetrical. Each unit of selection is a self-interested entity, exploiting the higher hierarchical unit for its own benefit, but in doing so the higher hierarchical unit might acquire critical traits for its spread because of the exploitation of the lower hierarchical unit. This interactive trade-off shapes the population biology of antibiotic resistance, a composed-complex array of the independent "population biologies." Antibiotics modify the abundance and the interactive field of each of these units. Antibiotics increase the number and evolvability of "clinical" antibiotic resistance genes, but probably also many other genes with different primary functions but with a resistance phenotype present in the environmental resistome. Antibiotics influence the abundance, modularity, and spread of integrons, transposons, and plasmids, mostly acting on structures present before the antibiotic era. Antibiotics enrich particular bacterial lineages and clones and contribute to local clonalization processes. Antibiotics amplify particular genetic exchange communities sharing antibiotic resistance genes and platforms within microbiomes. In particular human or animal hosts, the microbiomic composition might facilitate the interactions between evolutionary units involved in antibiotic resistance. The understanding of antibiotic resistance implies expanding our knowledge on multi-level

  13. Associations Between Macronutrient Intake and Self-reported Appetite and Fasting Levels of Appetite Hormones: Results From the Optimal Macronutrient Intake Trial to Prevent Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ange, Brett A.; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.; Miller, Edgar R.; Erlinger, Thomas P.; Holbrook, Janet T.; Sacks, Frank M.; Appel, Lawrence J.

    2009-01-01

    The authors compared effects of macronutrients on self-reported appetite and selected fasting hormone levels. The Optimal Macronutrient Intake Trial to Prevent Heart Disease (OMNI-Heart) (2003–2005) was a randomized, 3-period, crossover feeding trial (n = 164) comparing the effects of 3 diets, each rich in a different macronutrient. Percentages of kilocalories of carbohydrate, fat, and protein were 48, 27, and 25, respectively, for the protein-rich diet; 58, 27, and 15, for the carbohydrate-rich diet; and 48, 37, and 15 for the diet rich in unsaturated fat. Food and drink were provided for each isocaloric 6-week period. Appetite was measured by visual analog scales. Pairwise differences between diets were estimated using generalized estimating equations. Compared with the protein diet, premeal appetite was 14% higher on the carbohydrate (P = 0.01) and unsaturated-fat (P = 0.003) diets. Geometric mean leptin was 8% lower on the protein diet than on the carbohydrate diet (P = 0.003). Obestatin levels were 7% and 6% lower on the protein diet than on the carbohydrate (P = 0.02) and unsaturated-fat (P = 0.004) diets, respectively. There were no between-diet differences for ghrelin. A diet rich in protein from lean meat and vegetables reduces self-reported appetite compared with diets rich in carbohydrate and unsaturated fat and can be recommended in a weight-stable setting. The observed pattern of hormone changes does not explain the inverse association between protein intake and appetite. PMID:19224977

  14. Validity of a Self-Administered Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Amino Acid Intake in Japan: Comparison With Intake From 4-Day Weighed Dietary Records and Plasma Levels

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Todoriki, Hidemi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Miyano, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Taiki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Interest in the physiological roles of amino acids and their impact on health outcomes is substantial and growing. This interest has prompted assessment of the habitual intake of amino acids for use in epidemiologic studies and in clarifying the association between habitual intake and plasma levels of amino acids. Here, we investigated the validity of ranking individuals according to dietary amino acid intake as estimated using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in comparison with intakes from dietary records (DRs) and plasma levels. Methods A total of 139 men and women selected from examinees of the cancer screening program at the Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, Japan, provided 4-day weighed DRs, a semi-quantitative FFQ, and plasma samples. Plasma levels of amino acids were measured using the UF-Amino Station system. Results Spearman rank correlation coefficients of energy-adjusted intake of amino acids from the DR and FFQ ranged from 0.40 to 0.65 for men and from 0.35 to 0.46 for women. Correlation coefficients of energy-adjusted intake from the DR and plasma levels ranged from −0.40 to 0.25 for men and from −0.16 to 0.11 for women. Similarly, no significant positive correlation coefficients were observed between intake from the FFQ and plasma levels for either men or women. Conclusions We confirmed that this FFQ has moderate validity in estimating amino acid intake when 4-day weighed DRs are used as a reference method, suggesting that it is suitable for ranking individuals living in urban areas in Japan by amino acid intake. PMID:26277881

  15. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-09-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001). The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79-5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77-5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure.

  16. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012–2014

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012–2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001). The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79–5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77–5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure. PMID:27598185

  17. Low Level Laser Therapy: laser radiation absorption in biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giacomo, Paola; Orlando, Stefano; Dell'Ariccia, Marco; Brandimarte, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we report the results of an experimental study in which we have measured the transmitted laser radiation through dead biological tissues of various animals (chicken, adult and young bovine, pig) in order to evaluate the maximum thickness through which the power density could still produce a reparative cellular effect. In our experiments we have utilized a pulsed laser IRL1 ISO model (based on an infrared diode GaAs, λ=904 nm) produced by BIOMEDICA s.r.l. commonly used in Low Level Laser Therapy. Some of the laser characteristics have been accurately studied and reported in this paper. The transmission results suggest that even with tissue thicknesses of several centimeters the power density is still sufficient to produce a cell reparative effect.

  18. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Ara; Kim, Hyesook; Chung, Hyewon; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30–49 years) females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile) in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP. PMID:27399734

  19. Folate and Breast Cancer: Role of Intake, Blood Levels and Metabolic Gene Polymorphisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    those with MTHFR , MTR, and MTRR polymorphisms. The specific aims of this postdoctoral training proposal are 1) further methodological training in the...analysis of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions by studying folate intake and folate metabolic gene polymorphisms ( MTHFR , MTR, MTRR) using data

  20. The effect of feed intake level on the pharmacokinetic disposition of closantel in sheep.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, D R; Ali, D N

    1997-09-01

    Closantel (CLS), containing a trace of [14C]CLS, was administered intraruminally to sheep whose feed intake was maintained at either 800 or 400 g day-1. The kinetic disposition of [14C]metabolites was determined in rumen and abomasal fluid and particulate digesta and of CLS per se in plasma. The slower digesta flow rate in the sheep on low, compared with high, feed intake resulted in the proportion of the dose passing through the abomasum being reduced from 60 to 45%. Increased absorption of CLS from the rumen of sheep on low feed intake resulted in both higher maximum CLS concentration and greater area under CLS plasma concentration versus time curve, although the elimination half-life was independent of feed intake. Not only are the higher plasma CLS concentrations likely to increase efficacy against Haemonchus contortus, the threshold concentrations that are considered to inhibit the establishment of ingested H. contortus larvae were extended by 10-14 days. The extended CLS presence after reduced feeding, when integrated with parasite treatment programmes, provides an opportunity to reduce the impact of H. contortus infection.

  1. Fish protein intake induces fast-muscle hypertrophy and reduces liver lipids and serum glucose levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type.

  2. Effects of nutrient intake level on mammary parenchyma growth and gene expression in crossbred (Holstein × Gyr) prepubertal heifers.

    PubMed

    Weller, M M D C A; Albino, Ronan L; Marcondes, M I; Silva, W; Daniels, K M; Campos, M M; Duarte, M S; Mescouto, M L; Silva, F F; Guimarães, S E F

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of increased nutrient intake levels on prepubertal mammary parenchyma development in crossbreed (Holstein × Gyr) dairy heifers. Eighteen heifers age 3 to 4 mo were fed 1 of 3 nutrient intake levels (n=6 per treatment) designed to sustain an average daily gain of 0.0kg/d (maintenance, MA), 0.5kg/d (low gain, LG), or 1.0kg/d (high gain, HG). Serum blood samples collected on d 42 and 84 after a 12-h fast were analyzed for triglycerides, leptin, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Liver and mammary parenchyma were biopsied on d 42 and harvested on d 84 for gene expression analysis. Parenchyma samples were also used for biochemical and histological analysis. Mammary parenchyma weight was lower in HG than in MA or LG heifers, but mammary extraparenchymal fat was greater in HG heifers than in other groups. Heifers fed the HG diet had a greater fraction of ether extract in their parenchyma than the others and a smaller fraction of crude protein in their parenchyma than MA heifers. Moreover, the HG and LG heifers had greater body fat mass than MA heifers. Nutrient intake level had no effect on the number of intraparenchymal adipocytes. Heifers fed the HG diet had greater serum IGF-1 than the others, and serum insulin was lower in the MA than the HG or LG heifers. Liver GHR, IGF1, and IGFBP3 mRNA expression was higher, but IGFBP2 mRNA was lower in HG heifers than in others. The parenchyma mRNA expression of lipogenic markers, such as CD36, ACCA, FASN, and ADIPOR1, was upregulated by nutrient intake level. Significant nutrient intake × time interactions for lipogenic genes during the experimental period indicated variable gene expression depending on the time point of prepubertal mammary gland development. Overall, our data suggest that enhancing nutrient intake increased body fat accumulation and lipogenesis in the mammary gland to the detriment of parenchyma growth. Moreover, increased lipogenesis in the parenchyma of HG

  3. Data on fluoride concentration level in villages of Asara (Alborz, Iran) and daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Giti; Dobaradaran, Sina; Borazjani, Jaleh Mohajeri

    2016-12-01

    In the present data article, fluoride concentration levels of drinking water (with spring or groundwater sources) in 10 villages of Asara area located in Alborz province were determined by the standard SPADNS method using a spectrophotometer (DR/2000 Spectrophotometer, USA). Daily fluoride intakes were also calculated based on daily drinking water consumption. The fluoride content were compared with EPA and WHO guidelines for drinking water.

  4. Toxaphene levels in retail food from the Pearl River Delta area of South China and an assessment of dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Jiang, YouSheng; Liu, ZhiBin; Wu, DongTing; Zhang, JianQing; Zhou, Jian; Li, ShengNong; Lu, LinGeng; Lin, XiaoShi; Lu, ShaoYou; Peng, JinLing

    2016-06-01

    Limited literature exists on toxaphene contamination in food worldwide, particularly in mainland China. In this study, three toxaphene congeners, Parlar 26 (B8-1413), Parlar 50 (B9-1679) and Parlar 62 (B9-1025), were analyzed in five different food categories from the Pearl River Delta Area in China using isotope dilution high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS), and toxaphene levels in food were reported and toxaphene dietary intake by local residents estimated. The results showed that fish contained the highest toxaphene level with a median of 12.87 pg/g wet weight (ww), followed by poultry meat, egg products, livestock meat and vegetable, which had median levels of 5.8, 2.2, 1.89 and 0.67 pg/g ww, respectively. Parlar 50 and Parlar 26 were the predominant characteristic congeners in fish, and Parlar 26 was the predominant congener not only in poultry products and eggs, but also in livestock and vegetable. The estimated average daily intake found by local residents was 35.57 pg/kg body weight/day. Overall toxaphene levels and estimated dietary intake in the Pearl River Delta Area of South China are far lower than the European Maximum Residue Limits (EU MRLs), the German MRL for fish, and other international literature data. Therefore, the risk of adverse health effects from dietary intakes of toxaphene for the local residents is not considerable at the current time, but follow-ups are warranted to study dynamic changes of toxaphene in food in this area.

  5. Butter blend containing fish oil improves the level of n-3 fatty acids in biological tissues of hamster.

    PubMed

    Porsgaard, Trine; Overgaard, Julie; Krogh, Anne Louise; Jensen, Mette Behrmann; Guo, Zheng; Mu, Huiling

    2007-09-05

    Many studies have shown beneficial effects of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on human health. Regardless of the positive effects of n-3 PUFA, the intake of these fatty acids remains low. An approach to increase the intake of n-3 PUFA in the population is to incorporate fish oil into food. In the present study, fish oil was incorporated into butter blends by enzymatic interesterification. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of this butter product in comparison with a commercial butter blend and a product produced by interesterification but without fish oil. Golden Syrian hamsters received hamster feed blended with one of the three butter products. After 6 weeks of feeding, the fatty acid compositions of plasma, erythrocytes, liver, brain, and visceral fat were determined. The intake of butter product with fish oil resulted in a higher level of n-3 PUFA in plasma, erythrocytes, and liver. The incorporation of n-3 PUFA was significantly higher in phospholipids than in triacylglycerols. The results suggest that enriching butter blends with small amounts of fish oil can be used as an alternative method for improving the level of n-3 PUFA in biological tissues.

  6. [Correlation of arsenic accumulative intake and its health effects to the residents in arsenic polluted area. Estimation of arsenic accumulative intake level of residents living in arsenic polluted area].

    PubMed

    Shang, Qi; Ren, Xiuqin; Li, Jinrong

    2002-08-01

    In order to evaluate arsenic accumulative intake level of residents living in an area with arsenic pollution in the air, the level of arsenic accumulative intake is measured by calculating residents' accumulative rice consumption and the measurement of the level via inhalation. The results show that ignoring the non-polluted time periods, the highest arsenic accumulative intake level (AAIL) appears in residents aged 50 and above who have the highest level of air inhalation and rice consumption in comparison with young residents after 32 years exposure, and their AAIL detected via inhalation are 591.4 mg for female and 612.9 for male respectively. There is 3488.74 mg arsenic obtained by their daily diet. Total AAIL are 4080.14 mg for female and 4101.66 mg for male respectively, being about 80% of estimation level reflected by daily exposure level multiplied by total exposure time (day).

  7. Level of acculturation, food intake, dietary changes, and health status of first-generation Filipino Americans in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Dela Cruz, Felicitas A; Lao, Brigette T; Heinlein, Catherine

    2013-11-01

    This exploratory descriptive study investigates the acculturation level, food intake, dietary changes and practices, health status perceptions, and diet-related health indicators-body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences, and waist-to-hip ratio-of first-generation Filipino Americans (FAs) in Southern California. Healthy FA adults-20 women and 10 men-were interviewed. Acculturation level was obtained using A Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans. A 24-h dietary recall elicited their food intake. Survey questions revealed dietary changes and practices, health status perceptions, and sociodemographic characteristics. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured. FAs consider themselves more Filipino than American, but their acculturation level reflects transitioning into biculturalism. FAs relinquish, maintain, and adapt elements of both Philippine and U.S. cultures in food intake, dietary changes, and practices. Although FAs perceive their health status as very good to excellent, many exceed the cut-off points for BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. This study underscores the importance of nurse practitioners and other healthcare givers conducting cultural dietary assessment as a basis for culturally appropriate dietary counseling. The inclusion of waist measurement to regularly monitor abdominal obesity-a predictor of cardiovascular disease and diabetes-is highly recommended. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  8. Plasma Vitamin D Level and Change in Albuminuria and eGFR According to Sodium Intake

    PubMed Central

    Keyzer, Charlotte A.; Lambers-Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Joosten, Michel M.; Deetman, Petronella E.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Navis, Gerjan; Kema, Ido P.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Bakker, Stephan J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and high sodium intake are both associated with progressive albuminuria and renal function loss in CKD. Both vitamin D and sodium intake interact with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. We investigated whether plasma 25(OH)D or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] is associated with developing increased albuminuria or reduced renal function and whether these associations depend on sodium intake. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Baseline plasma 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and sodium intake was assessed by 24-hour urine collections in the general population–based Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease cohort (n=5051). Two primary outcomes were development of urinary albumin excretion >30 mg/24 h and eGFR (creatinine/cystatin C–based CKD Epidemiology Collaboration) <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Participants with CKD at baseline were excluded. In Cox regression analyses, we assessed associations of vitamin D with developing increased albuminuria or reduced eGFR and potential interaction with sodium intake. Results During a median follow-up of 10.4 (6.2–11.4) years, 641 (13%) participants developed increased albuminuria, and 268 (5%) participants developed reduced eGFR. Plasma 25(OH)D was inversely associated with increased albuminuria (fully adjusted hazard ratio [HR] per SD higher, 0.86; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.78 to 0.95; P=0.003) but not reduced eGFR (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.12; P=0.85). There was interaction between 25(OH)D and sodium intake for risk of developing increased albuminuria (P interaction =0.03). In participants with high sodium intake, risk of developing increased albuminuria was inversely associated with 25(OH)D (lowest versus highest quartile: adjusted HR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.73, P<0.01), whereas this association was nonsignificant in participants with low sodium intake

  9. Vitamin D levels in children of asylum seekers in The Netherlands in relation to season and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Stellinga-Boelen, Annette A M; Wiegersma, P Auke; Storm, Huub; Bijleveld, Charles M A; Verkade, Henkjan J

    2007-03-01

    Low dietary intake and limited sun exposure during Dutch winters, in particular when combined with highly pigmented skin, could compromise the vitamin D status of asylum seekers' children in The Netherlands. We determined the vitamin D status of children living in The Netherlands, but originating from Africa, Central Asia, or Eastern Europe. In a subgroup, we reassessed the vitamin D status after the summer, during which the children had been assigned at random to remain unsupplemented or to receive vitamin D supplementation. In total 112 children (median age 7.1 yr, range 2-12 yr) were assessed for serum concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], intact parathyroid hormone (I-PTH) and plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and hypovitaminosis D were defined as 25(OH)D below 30 or 50 nmol/L, respectively. Dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium was estimated using a 24 h recall interview. In mid-spring, 13% of the children had VDD, and 42% had hypovitaminosis D. I-PTH and ALP levels were significantly higher in children with VDD. The dietary intake of vitamin D was below 80% of the recommended daily allowances (RDA) in 94% of the children, but the dietary calcium intake was not significantly related to the s-25(OH)D levels found. After the summer, median s-25(OH)D increased with +35 nmol/L (+85%) and +19 nmol/L (+42%) in children with or without supplementation, respectively. The effect of supplementation was most prominent among African children. VDD and hypovitaminosis D are highly prevalent in mid-spring among asylum seekers' children in The Netherlands. Although 25(OH)D levels increase in African children during Dutch summer months, this does not completely correct the compromised vitamin D status. Our data indicate that children from African origin would benefit from vitamin D supplementation.

  10. Bioactive nutrients - Time for tolerable upper intake levels to address safety.

    PubMed

    Yates, Allison A; Erdman, John W; Shao, Andrew; Dolan, Laurie C; Griffiths, James C

    2017-03-01

    There is increasing interest by consumers, researchers, and regulators into the roles that certain bioactive compounds, derived from plants and other natural sources, can play in health maintenance and promotion, and even prolonging a productive quality of life. Research has rapidly emerged suggesting that a wide range of compounds and mixtures in and from plants (such as fruits and vegetables, tea and cocoa) and animals (such as fish and probiotics) may exert substantial health benefits. There is interest in exploring the possibility of establishing recommended intakes or dietary guidance for certain bioactive substances to help educate consumers. A key aspect of establishing dietary guidance is the assessment of safety/toxicity of these substances. Toxicologists need to be involved in both the development of the safety framework and in the evaluation of the science to establish maximum intake/upper limits.

  11. Bioactive compounds in blood oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck): Level and intake.

    PubMed

    Fallico, Biagio; Ballistreri, Gabriele; Arena, Elena; Brighina, Selina; Rapisarda, Paolo

    2017-01-15

    Both the composition and the intake of antioxidants (anthocyanins, ascorbic acid and hydroxycinnamic acids) were reported for all blood oranges including the single cultivars (Moro, Tarocco and Sanguinello) and industrially produced juices. The mean values of the studied bioactive compounds in the edible part oranges were: 9.6mg/100g of orange edible part for the anthocyanins; 8.1, 0.7, 1.3, 3.8, 2.5mg/100g for total hydroxycinnamic acids, caffeic, sinapic, ferulic and coumaric acids, respectively and 59.1mg/100g for ascorbic acid. The consumption of blood oranges contributes to a daily intake of: 9.4mg/d (up to 55mg/d) of anthocyanins and 58.5mg/d (up to 340mg/d) of vitamin C, respectively. Data suggest that the 50% of consumers, males and females, receive more than the 70% and 90% of EAR value of vitamin C, respectively. The 25% of males and the 40% of females has an intake higher than the EAR.

  12. Comparative trace mineral nutritional balance of first-litter gilts under two dietary levels of copper intake.

    PubMed

    Cao, J; Chavez, E R

    1995-07-01

    Seven pairs of purebred Landrace first-litter gilts, housed in individual stainless-steel metabolic cages were used in this study. A low-Cu (LCu) basal diet containing only 2 mg/kg of Cu was compared to the control (CCu) diet, which was supplemented with cupric carbonate to provide 10 mg/kg of Cu. Both diets were fed at the rate of 2 kg per day to first-litter gilts during the entire pregnancy. The metabolic response under these two levels of dietary Cu intake was evaluated through nutritional balances conducted for 5 days starting at 30, 60 and 100 days of pregnancy. Total urine collection was done through teflon-coated catheters to the bladder while daily fecal collection was carried out continuously. Water consumption was measured and periodic samples were collected for analysis. Nutritional balances included DM digestibility, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. The LCh group consumed 4.26 mg of Cu per day while the CCu received 25 mg of Cu per day. This includes 1 mg per day in the drinking water in both groups. DM digestibility was significantly (P < 0.05) higher during early pregnancy in the LCu group compared to the CCu group, which showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in DM digestibility from early to late pregnancy period. Dietary Cu intake had a direct effect (p < 0.05) on Cu balance but also altered the Zn and Fe nutritional balance, leaving Mn balance almost unchanged. Feces represented the almost exclusive route of excretion of trace minerals. Regardless of the dietary Cu intake, it represents more than 99.9% of the Fe and Mn, 98% of the Zn and 97% of the Cu was excreted daily through feces plus urine. The nutritional balance of Cu, Zn and Fe, in absolute amounts as well as relative to the level of intake, improved significantly as pregnancy progressed. Although relative retention of the low-Cu group was significantly improved compared to the control group, the absolute amount was still much lower. The well recognized dietary and metabolic interactions of Cu with

  13. Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid Intake Levels during Pregnancy and Infant Performance on a Novel Object Search Task at 22 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Alison; Sirois, Sylvain; Wearden, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated maternal prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake and infant cognitive development at 22 months. Estimates for second- and third-trimester maternal DHA intake levels were obtained using a comprehensive Food Frequency Questionnaire. Infants (n = 67) were assessed at 22 months on a novel object search task. Mothers'…

  14. Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid Intake Levels during Pregnancy and Infant Performance on a Novel Object Search Task at 22 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Alison; Sirois, Sylvain; Wearden, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated maternal prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake and infant cognitive development at 22 months. Estimates for second- and third-trimester maternal DHA intake levels were obtained using a comprehensive Food Frequency Questionnaire. Infants (n = 67) were assessed at 22 months on a novel object search task. Mothers'…

  15. Public health economic evaluation of different European Union-level policy options aimed at reducing population dietary trans fat intake.

    PubMed

    Martin-Saborido, Carlos; Mouratidou, Theodora; Livaniou, Anastasia; Caldeira, Sandra; Wollgast, Jan

    2016-11-01

    The adverse relation between dietary trans fatty acid (TFA) intake and coronary artery disease risk is well established. Many countries in the European Union (EU) and worldwide have implemented different policies to reduce the TFA intake of their populations. The aim of this study was to assess the added value of EU-level action by estimating the cost-effectiveness of 3 possible EU-level policy measures to reduce population dietary TFA intake. This was calculated against a reference situation of not implementing any EU-level policy (i.e., by assuming only national or self-regulatory measures). We developed a mathematical model to compare different policy options at the EU level: 1) to do nothing beyond the current state (reference situation), 2) to impose mandatory TFA labeling of prepackaged foods, 3) to seek voluntary agreements toward further reducing industrially produced TFA (iTFA) content in foods, and 4) to impose a legislative limit for iTFA content in foods. The model indicated that to impose an EU-level legal limit or to make voluntary agreements may, over the course of a lifetime (85 y), avoid the loss of 3.73 and 2.19 million disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), respectively, and save >51 and 23 billion euros when compared with the reference situation. Implementing mandatory TFA labeling can also avoid the loss of 0.98 million DALYs, but this option incurs more costs than it saves compared with the reference option. The model indicates that there is added value of an EU-level action, either via a legal limit or through voluntary agreements, with the legal limit option producing the highest additional health benefits. Introducing mandatory TFA labeling for the EU common market may provide some additional health benefits; however, this would likely not be a cost-effective strategy.

  16. Dry matter intake and digestibility of rations replacing concentrates with graded levels of Enterolobium cyclocarpum in Pelibuey lambs.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro-Vázquez, Angel Trinidad; Ayala-Burgos, Armín Javier; Chay-Canul, Alfonso Juventino; Ku-Vera, Juan Carlos

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of graded levels of Enterolobium cyclocarpum pods in the ration on feed intake and digestibility by Pelibuey lambs. Five dietary treatments were imposed where ground pods replaced concentrate diet at 0, 20, 30, 40 and 50 % of dry matter (DM), respectively. The concentrate portion was composed of ground sorghum, soybean meal, cane molasses and minerals. Five entire Pelibuey lambs with initial bodyweight 34 ± 2 kg were allocated in the treatments in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Values of dry matter intake (DMI) and dry matter (DMD) and organic matter (OMD) digestibility were measured and metabolisable energy intake (MEI) estimated. Rumen degradation constants for E. cyclocarpum were also measured. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in average DMI (86.6 g/kg(0.75)) and OMI (81.2 g/kg(0.75)) among treatments. As the level of incorporation of E. cyclocarpum pods increased, voluntary DMI and OMI increased, whereas apparent DMD and OMD decreased linearly. Average digestible DM (65 g/kg(0.75)) and OM (61 g/kg(0.75)) intakes were similar (P > 0.05) among treatments. Similarly, MEI (0.976 MJ ME kg(0.75)/day) was not different (P > 0.05) among treatments. The potential rumen degradation (A + B) of ground pods of E. cyclocarpum was 866.4 g/kg DM. Ground pods of E. cyclocarpum can be employed for lamb feeding up to 50 % of the ration, without affecting DMI, DM apparent digestibility and MEI.

  17. Phthalate metabolites in obese individuals undergoing weight loss: Urinary levels and estimation of the phthalates daily intake.

    PubMed

    Dirtu, Alin C; Geens, Tinne; Dirinck, Eveline; Malarvannan, Govindan; Neels, Hugo; Van Gaal, Luc; Jorens, Philippe G; Covaci, Adrian

    2013-09-01

    Human exposure to chemicals commonly encountered in our environment, like phthalates, is routinely assessed through urinary measurement of their metabolites. A particular attention is given to the specific population groups, such as obese, for which the dietary intake of environmental chemicals is higher. To evaluate the exposure to phthalates, nine phthalate metabolites (PMs) were analyzed in urine collected from obese individuals and a control population. Obese individuals lost weight through either bariatric surgery or a conservative weight loss program with dietary and lifestyle counseling. Urine samples were also collected from the obese individuals after 3, 6 and 12months of weight loss. Individual daily intakes of the corresponding phthalate diesters were estimated based on the urinary PM concentrations. A high variability was recorded for the levels of each PM in both obese and control urine samples showing the exposure to high levels of PMs in specific subgroups. The most important PM metabolite as percentage contribution to the total PM levels was mono-ethyl phthalate followed by the metabolites of di-butyl phthalate and di 2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP). No differences in the PM levels and profiles between obese entering the program and controls were observed. Although paralleled by a significant decrease of their weight, an increase in the urinary PM levels after 3 to 6months loss was seen. Constant figures for the estimated phthalates daily intake were observed over the studied period, suggesting that besides food consumption, other human exposure sources to phthalates (e.g. air, dust) might be also important. The weight loss treatment method followed by obese individuals influenced the correlations between PM levels, suggesting a change of the intake sources with time. Except for few gender differences recorded between the urinary DEHP metabolites correlations, no other differences were observed for the urinary PM levels as a function of age, body

  18. Misreporting of Dietary Intake Affects Estimated Nutrient Intakes in Low-Income Spanish-Speaking Women

    PubMed Central

    Banna, Jinan C.; Fialkowski, Marie K.; Townsend, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue. PMID:25132121

  19. Misreporting of dietary intake affects estimated nutrient intakes in low-income Spanish-speaking women.

    PubMed

    Banna, Jinan C; Fialkowski, Marie K; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2015-07-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue.

  20. Feed Intake, Digestibility, and N Retention in Cattle Fed Rice Straw and Para Grass Combined with Different Levels of Protein Derived from Cassava Foliage

    PubMed Central

    Sath, K.; Sokun, K.; Pauly, T.; Holtenius, K.

    2012-01-01

    Eight male cattle of Local Yellow breed with an average live weight of 121 kg and an average age of 18 months were used to evaluate the effects of different levels of sun-dried cassava foliage supplementation (Manihot esculenta) on intake, digestibility and N retention. Rice straw ad libitum and para grass (Brachiaria mutica) at 1% DM of BW comprised the basal diet. The study was arranged as a 4×4 double Latin square design, with cassava foliage contributing 0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 g CP/kg BW. The cattle selected cassava leaves in preference to petioles. Petiole intake decreased from 64 to 48% of offered petioles when the cassava foliage proportion increased from the lowest to the highest level. The cattle consumed all the leaves at the two lower levels of cassava foliage inclusion and 91% at the highest level. Rice straw intake decreased significantly as the level of cassava foliage increased. Intake of DM, OM, NDF, and ADF increased significantly with increasing intake of cassava foliage. Daily DM intake per 100 kg BW increased from 2.7 to 3.2 kg with increasing cassava foliage intake. No effect on CP digestibility was detected when the level of cassava foliage increased. Digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and ADF was significantly higher in the group fed no cassava foliage than in the other groups. N retention increased from 16 to 28 g/d with the first level of cassava foliage inclusion, but levelled out at the two highest levels. N excretion increased in both faeces and urine as a response to higher intake of cassava foliage. Maximum N retention occurred when 40% of total N intake came from cassava foliage (equivalent to 1.3 g CP/kg BW). PMID:25049650

  1. Maternal intake of antioxidant vitamins in pregnancy in relation to maternal and fetal plasma levels at delivery.

    PubMed

    Scaife, Alison R; McNeill, Geraldine; Campbell, Doris M; Martindale, Sheelagh; Devereux, Graham; Seaton, Anthony

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that maternal intake of antioxidant vitamins is associated with maternal and cord plasma levels at delivery. Women were recruited in early pregnancy in Aberdeen Maternity Hospital and habitual diet during pregnancy was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire mailed at 34 weeks gestation. Blood samples were taken at recruitment (n 1149) and maternal (n 1149) and cord blood samples (n 747) taken at delivery for analyses of vitamins A, C, E and beta-carotene. Maternal plasma levels of vitamin E and beta-carotene at delivery were significantly higher than levels in early pregnancy while levels of vitamins A and C were significantly lower. Positive correlations were observed for maternal levels of all the vitamins between early pregnancy and delivery. At delivery, maternal plasma concentrations of vitamins A, E and beta-carotene were significantly higher than cord levels, while maternal levels of vitamin C were significantly lower. There were significant correlations between maternal and cord plasma concentrations for beta-carotene and vitamin C but not for vitamins A or E. Maternal dietary intakes were positively correlated with maternal plasma levels of vitamins C, E and beta-carotene in early pregnancy, with maternal plasma levels of beta-carotene and vitamin C at delivery and with cord plasma levels of beta-carotene and vitamin C. The results from the present study show that, in this population, maternal diet influences cord plasma levels of beta-carotene and vitamin C, but not vitamins A and E.

  2. Metals and PCB levels in some edible marine organisms from the Ionian Sea: dietary intake evaluation and risk for consumers.

    PubMed

    Giandomenico, Santina; Cardellicchio, Nicola; Spada, Lucia; Annicchiarico, Cristina; Di Leo, Antonella

    2016-07-01

    Concentrations of some metals (Cd, Cu, As, Hg, Pb) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in edible marine organisms from different trophic levels and feeding behaviour like bivalve molluscs (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Chlamys glabra), gastropod molluscs (Hexaplex trunculus) and some commercial species of fish (Trachurus trachurus, Boops boops, Sarpa salpa and Gobius niger). These species were collected in the first inlet of the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy), classified as 'Site of National Interest' established by National Law 426 (1998) and included in the 'National Environmental Remediation and Restoration Projects'. The aim of this work was to investigate contamination levels and public health risks, associated with consuming seafood harvested from these areas. Moreover, in this study, was also estimated the weekly intake in children and adults, both for metals and PCBs. In comparison with the permissible limits set by EC Regulations, Cd and Pb levels were over the limit in the H. trunculus (in all sampling stations) and in the fish T. trachurus respectively. PCBs were over the legal limit in all sampled species with the exception of M. galloprovincialis (station 1), C. glabra and the herbivorous fish S. salpa. In the fish T. trachurus, for example, the concentration of six target PCBs was about five times higher than the EC limit. The estimated intakes of those trace elements included in this study through seafood consumption by the population exceed the provisional tolerable weekly intake recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives for Cd and Hg in the H. trunculus and T. trachurus, especially in children. Moreover, hazard quotience (HQ) for Hg and Cd was >1 in the children for T. trachurus and H. trunculus consumption. As regard non-dioxin-like PCB (NDL-PCB), the estimated intake were always above the 'provisional guidance value' (70 ng/kg body weight) Arnich et al. (Regul Toxicol Pharm 54

  3. The Importance of Taxonomy in Biological Education at Advanced Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honey, John N.; Paxman, Heather M.

    1986-01-01

    Reports on the status of the teaching of taxonomy in advanced biology classes in the United Kingdom. Reviews findings related to examination requirements, the principles, terminology, and methods of taxonomy, the understanding and attitudes of teachers of taxonomy principles, and the position of the topic in the advanced biology syllabus. (ML)

  4. Comparative methane emission by ratites: Differences in food intake and digesta retention level out methane production.

    PubMed

    Frei, Samuel; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Ortmann, Sylvia; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-10-01

    Ratites differ in the anatomy of their digestive organs and their digesta excretion patterns. Ostriches (Struthio camelus) have large fermentation chambers and long digesta retention, emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) have a short gut and short retention times, and rheas (Rhea americana) are intermediate. A recent study showed that ostriches produce as much methane (CH4) as expected for a similar-sized, non-ruminant mammalian herbivore. We hypothesized that emus and rheas produce less CH4 than ostriches. We individually measured, by chamber respirometry, the amount of O2 consumed as well as CO2 and CH4 emitted from six adult rheas (body mass 23.4±8.3 kg) and two adult emus (33.5 and 32.0 kg) during 23-hour periods on a pelleted lucerne diet. In contrast to previous studies, which classified emus as non-producers, we measured CH4 emissions at 7.39 and 6.25 L/day for emus and 2.87±0.82 L/day for rheas, which is close to values expected for similar-sized non-ruminant mammals for both species. O2 consumption was of a similar magnitude as reported previously. Across ratites, CH4 yield (L/kg dry matter intake) was positively correlated with mean retention time of food particles in the gut, similar to findings within ruminant species. In ratites, this relationship leads to similar body mass-specific CH4 production for a high intake/short retention and a low intake/long retention strategy. Therefore, when investigating CH4 production in herbivorous birds, it is advisable to consider various CH4 measures, not only yield or absolute daily amount alone.

  5. [Estimation of arsenic accumulative intake and residents' health effects in an air pollution area--relationship between arsenic accumulative intake level and arsenicism prevalence].

    PubMed

    Shang, Qi; Ren, Xiuqin; Li, Jinrong

    2002-10-01

    This paper reports the results of epidemiological survey on health effects of residents exposed to arsenic in a pollution area and estimation of arsenic accumulative intake level (EAAIL) based on calculating accumulative rice consumption and via inhalation way. 795 persons were sampled randomly from the polluted area, among whom 674 persons and 83 persons were diagnosed with Chronic Arsenic Absorption (CAA) and Chronic Arsenicism (CA) according to the National Diagnose Standard respectively. There were 60.98% CAA in 30 years old and younger age-groups and 97.59% CA in 30 years old and older age-groups. The one youngest case of CA occurred in 15 years old age group, while its EAAIL was at 1846.47 mg. The highest EAAIL was at 8706.47 mg. The rate of CA had gone obviously up at 30 years old age group. Its EAAIL was at 3833.42 mg. One equation of relationship between the rate of CA (%) and EAAIL (mg) was fitted by means of curve fitting, its is followed: Y = X1.843/e12.694 -2.866, r2 = 0.945.

  6. Endogenous zinc excretion in relation to various levels of dietary zinc intake in the mink (Mustela vison)

    SciTech Connect

    Mejborn, H. )

    1990-08-01

    Endogenous zinc excretion was studied in adult male mink fed experimental diets for 73 d, including a collection period from d 69 to 73. Dietary zinc levels were 2.8, 26 or 121 mg/kg wet weight. In accordance with the results of a methodological study, also reported here, the animals had an intramuscular injection of 65ZnCl2 12 d before the start of the collection period. Total fecal (endogenous + unabsorbed) zinc excretion for d 69-73 in the three groups was 2.3, 20.4 and 91.0 mg. The endogenous zinc excretion was 1.3, 2.0 and 6.4 mg, corresponding to 80.8, 10.6 and 6.4% of the zinc intake. Thus, the endogenous excretion was mainly important for the zinc homeostasis at low zinc intake, whereas at high intake the homeostasis was regulated via absorption from the digestive tract. The overall conclusion of the experiment was that mink are comparable to other species (including man) in regard to mechanisms controlling zinc homeostasis.

  7. Overall multi-media persistence as an indicator of potential for population-level intake of environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.

    2003-06-01

    Although it is intuitively apparent that population-level exposure to contaminants dispersed in the environment must related to the persistence of the contaminant, there has been little effort to formally quantify this link. In this paper we investigate the relationship between overall persistence in a multimedia environment and the population-level exposure as expressed by intake fraction (iF), which is the cumulative fraction of chemical emitted to the environment that is taken up by members of the population. We first confirm that for any given chemical contaminant and emission scenario the definition of iF implies that it is directly proportional to the overall multi-media persistence, P{sub OV}. We show that the proportionality constant has dimensions of time and represents the characteristic time for population intake (CTI) of the chemical from the environment. We then apply the CalTOX fate and exposure model to explore how P{sub OV} and CTI combine to determine the magnitude of iF. We find that CTI has a narrow range of possible values relative to P{sub OV} across multiple chemicals and emissions scenarios. We use data from the Canadian Environmental Protection Act Priority Substance List (PSL1) Assessments to show that exposure assessments based on empirical observation are consistent with interpretations from the model. The characteristic time for intake along different dominant exposure pathways is discussed. Results indicate that P{sub OV} derived from screening-level assessments of persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity (PBT) is a useful indicator of the potential for population-level exposure.

  8. Amino acid and energy interrelationships in growing beef steers: I. The effect of level of feed intake on ruminal characteristics and intestinal amino acid flows.

    PubMed

    Ludden, P A; Kerley, M S

    1997-09-01

    Five cannulated Holstein steers (538 +/- 35 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment with extra observations to examine the influence of level of feed intake on postruminal flow and intestinal disappearance of N and amino acids (AA). Treatments consisted of a single diet fed at four levels of energy intake (1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 times NEm requirement). The diet was formulated on a DM basis to contain 13.25% CP using cracked corn (56.1%), soybean hulls (18%), cottonseed hulls (15%), soybean oil (4.25%), and corn gluten meal (5.6%). Increasing feed intake linearly increased (P < .0001) the quantity of OM truly digested in the stomach but tended to decrease (P = .11) OM digestion as a percentage of intake. Level of feed intake had no effect (P > .10) on ruminal pH, NH3 N, or peptide concentration or on particulate and fluid passage rates. However, total VFA concentration increased linearly (P < .0001) and the acetate: propionate ratio decreased linearly (P < .0001) as feed intake increased. Flows of microbial and nonmicrobial N at the duodenum linearly increased (P < .002) with increasing intake but did not differ (P > .10) as a percentage of intake. Level of feed intake did not affect (P > .10) microbial efficiency, N disappearance from the small intestine, or total tract N digestibility. With the exception of tryptophan, flows of all individual AA increased linearly (P < .01) with increasing intake. As a percentage of duodenal flow, AA digestion in the small intestine did not differ (P > .10), leading to a linear increase (P < .10) in the net quantity of individual (with the exception of tryptophan) and total AA disappearing from the small intestine as feed intake increased. Likewise, the profile of AA (except tryptophan) disappearing from the small intestine was unaffected (P > .10) by level of feed intake. When compared with predicted requirements for a 227-kg growing beef steer, Arg, Met, His, and Lys were suggested to be the most limiting AA for

  9. Relationship between level of forage intake, blood flow and oxygen consumption by splanchnic tissues of sheep fed a tropical grass forage.

    PubMed

    Hentz, F; Kozloski, G V; Zeni, D; Brun, M V; Stefanello, S

    2017-02-01

    Four Polwarth castrated male sheep (42 ± 4.4 kg live weight (LW) surgically implanted with chronic indwelling catheters into the mesenteric, portal and hepatic veins, housed in metabolism cages and offered Cynodon sp. hay at rates (g of dry matter (DM)/kg LW) of 7, 14, 21 or ad libitum, were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment to evaluate the effect of the level of forage intake on blood flow and oxygen consumption by the portal-drained viscera (PDV), liver and total splanchnic tissues (ST). The portal blood flow and the oxygen consumption by PDV linearly increased at increased organic matter (OM) intake. No effect of level of OM intake was obtained for the hepatic artery blood flow and oxygen consumption by liver. As a consequence, the level of OM intake only tended to directly affect hepatic blood flow and oxygen consumption by total ST. Oxygen consumption was linearly and positively related to blood flow across PDV, liver and total ST. The heat production by PDV and total ST, as proportion of metabolizable energy (ME) intake, decreased curvilinearly at increased ME intake. In conclusion, the oxygen consumption by PDV, but not by liver, was directly related to the level of forage intake by sheep. Moreover, when ingested at levels below maintenance, most of ME was spent as heat produced by ST. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Moderate intake of docosahexaenoic acid raises plasma and platelet vitamin E levels in cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Véricel, Evelyne; Mazur, Stéphane; Colas, Romain; Delaup, Véronique; Calzada, Catherine; Reix, Philippe; Durieu, Isabelle; Lagarde, Michel; Bellon, Gabriel

    2016-12-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis have increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant systems. Moderate intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may favor the lowering of oxidative stress. In this randomized, double-blind, cross-over study, DHA or placebo capsules, were given daily to 10 patients, 5mg/kg for 2 weeks then 10mg/kg DHA for the next 2 weeks (or placebo). After 9 weeks of wash-out, patients took placebo or DHA capsules. Biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and vitamin E were measured at baseline, and after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment in each phase. The proportions of DHA increased both in plasma and platelet lipids after DHA supplementations. The lipid peroxidation markers did not significantly decrease, in spite of a trend, after the first and/or the second dose of DHA but plasma and platelet vitamin E amounts increased significantly after DHA supplementation. Our findings reinforce the antioxidant potential of moderate DHA intake in subjects displaying increased oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in young men.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Y H; Afeiche, M C; Gaskins, A J; Williams, P L; Mendiola, J; Jørgensen, N; Swan, S H; Chavarro, J E

    2014-07-01

    Is consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) associated with semen quality? Higher consumption of SSB was associated with lower sperm motility among healthy, young men. The existing literature on the potential role of SSBs on male reproductive function is scarce and primarily focused on the relation between caffeinated beverages and semen quality. However, a rodent model suggests that SSBs may hamper male fertility. The Rochester Young Men's Study; a cross-sectional study of 189 healthy young men carried out at the University of Rochester during 2009-2010. Men aged 18-22 years provided semen and blood samples, underwent a physical examination and completed a previously validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Linear regression was used to analyze the association of SSBs with sperm parameters and reproductive hormone levels while adjusting for potential confounders. SSB intake was inversely related to progressive sperm motility. Men in the highest quartile of SSB intake (≥1.3 serving/day) had 9.8 (95% CI: 1.9,17.8) percentage units lower progressive sperm motility than men in the lowest quartile of intake (<0.2 serving/day) (P, trend = 0.03). This association was stronger among lean men (P, trend = 0.005) but absent among overweight or obese men (P, trend = 0.98). SSB intake was unrelated to other semen quality parameters or reproductive hormones levels. As in all cross-sectional studies, causal inference is limited. An additional problem is that only single semen sample was obtained from each subject. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the relation between SSB intake and low semen quality beyond the contribution of caffeinated beverages. While our findings are in agreement with recent experimental data in rodents, more studies are required to draw conclusions on the relation of SSB with semen quality or male infertility. Supported by the European Union Seventh Framework Program (Environment), 'Developmental Effects of Environment on

  12. Intake of Seafood in the US Varies by Age, Income, and Education Level but Not by Race-Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  13. Intake of seafood in the US varies by age, income, and education level but not by race-ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Picklo, Matthew J

    2014-12-22

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%-90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels.

  14. Effect of salt intake and potassium supplementation on serum renalase levels in Chinese adults: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Wang, Dan; Mu, Jian-Jun; Ren, Ke-Yu; Guo, Tong-Shuai; Chu, Chao; Wang, Lan; Geng, Li-Ke; Yuan, Zu-Yi

    2014-07-01

    Renalase, a recently discovered enzyme released by the kidneys, breaks down blood-borne catecholamines and may thus regulate blood pressure (BP). Animal studies have suggested that high levels of dietary salt might reduce blood and kidney renalase levels. We conducted a randomized trial to assess the effects of altered salt and potassium intake on serum renalase levels and the relationship between serum renalase levels and BP in humans.Forty-two subjects (28-65 years of age) were selected from a rural community of northern China. All subjects were sequentially maintained on a low-salt diet for 7 days (3.0 g/day of NaCl), a high-salt diet for additional 7 days (18.0 g/day of NaCl), and a high-salt diet with potassium supplementation for final 7 days (18.0 g/day of NaCl + 4.5 g/day of KCl).Serum renalase levels were significantly higher than baseline levels during the low-salt diet intervention period. Renalase levels decreased with the change from the low-salt to high-salt diet, whereas dietary potassium prevented the decrease in serum renalase induced by the high-salt diet. There was a significant inverse correlation between the serum renalase level and 24-h urinary sodium excretion. No significant correlation was found between the renalase level and BP among the different dietary interventions.The present study indicates that variations in dietary salt intake and potassium supplementation affect the serum renalase concentration in Chinese subjects.

  15. Association of dietary fiber intake with serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Urban Asian-Indian adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Shreya; Lakshmipriya, Nagarajan; Vaidya, Ruchi; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Sudha, Vasudevan; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2014-09-01

    There is little data correlating dietary fibre (DF) intake and cardiovascular risk in Asian Indians with diabetes. To assess the DF intake and its association with lipid profile (total serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein [LDL] - cholesterol levels) in urban Asian Indians with diabetes. Dietary assessment using validated Food Frequency Questionnaire was conducted in 1191 free-living adults with known diabetes in the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Subjects taking medication for dyslipidemia, and those with cardiovascular disease and implausible energy intake (n = 262) were excluded, leaving 929 participants. Anthropometric and relevant biochemical parameters were measured using standardized techniques. Diabetic individuals who consumed DF < median intake (29 g/day) had a higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (49.5% vs. 40.1% [P = 0.01]) and higher LDL cholesterol (46.2% vs. 35.5% [P = 0.001]) than those in the > median intake of DF group. The risk of hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR] =1.38 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.85], P = 0.04), and high LDL cholesterol (OR: 1.43 [95% CI: 1.06-1.94], P = 0.02) was higher among those whose DF intake was less than the median. Serum triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were not associated with DF intake. The main sources of DF were vegetables and legumes. In urban Asian Indians with diabetes, lower DF intake is positively related to total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels.

  16. A-level Biology in West Africa: A New Syllabus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewer, D. W.

    1969-01-01

    Describes a biology course developed for West African senior high school students. Ecology is used as an integrating theme, and the approach is problem centered. Discusses the proposed form of examinations in the course. (EB)

  17. Student Perceived and Determined Knowledge of Biology Concepts in an Upper-Level Biology Course.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Brittany; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Students who lack metacognitive skills can struggle with the learning process. To be effective learners, students should recognize what they know and what they do not know. This study examines the relationship between students' perception of their knowledge and determined knowledge in an upper-level biology course utilizing a pre/posttest approach. Significant differences in students' perception of their knowledge and their determined knowledge exist at the beginning (pretest) and end (posttest) of the course. Alignment between student perception and determined knowledge was significantly more accurate on the posttest compared with the pretest. Students whose determined knowledge was in the upper quartile had significantly better alignment between their perception and determined knowledge on the pre- and posttest than students in the lower quartile. No difference exists between how students perceived their knowledge between upper- and lower-quartile students. There was a significant difference in alignment of perception and determined knowledge between males and females on the posttest, with females being more accurate in their perception of knowledge. This study provides evidence of discrepancies that exist between what students perceive they know and what they actually know.

  18. Student Perceived and Determined Knowledge of Biology Concepts in an Upper-Level Biology Course

    PubMed Central

    Montplaisir, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Students who lack metacognitive skills can struggle with the learning process. To be effective learners, students should recognize what they know and what they do not know. This study examines the relationship between students’ perception of their knowledge and determined knowledge in an upper-level biology course utilizing a pre/posttest approach. Significant differences in students’ perception of their knowledge and their determined knowledge exist at the beginning (pretest) and end (posttest) of the course. Alignment between student perception and determined knowledge was significantly more accurate on the posttest compared with the pretest. Students whose determined knowledge was in the upper quartile had significantly better alignment between their perception and determined knowledge on the pre- and posttest than students in the lower quartile. No difference exists between how students perceived their knowledge between upper- and lower-quartile students. There was a significant difference in alignment of perception and determined knowledge between males and females on the posttest, with females being more accurate in their perception of knowledge. This study provides evidence of discrepancies that exist between what students perceive they know and what they actually know. PMID:26086662

  19. Association of Dietary Intake and Biomarker Levels of Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury among Asian Populations in the United States: NHANES 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Awata, Hiroshi; Linder, Stephen; Mitchell, Laura E.; Delclos, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We have recently shown that biomarker levels of selected metals are higher in Asians than in other U.S. ethnic groups, with important differences within selected Asian subgroups. Much of this difference may be dietary in origin; however, this is not well established. Objective: We evaluated dietary intake of toxic metals as a source of increased biomarker levels of metals among U.S. Asians. Methods: We estimated daily food consumption and dietary intake of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury by combining 24-hr dietary intake recall data from the 2011–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with data from the USDA Food Composition Intake Database and FDA Total Dietary Study. We analyzed associations between dietary metal intake and biomarker levels of the metals using linear regression. Further, estimated food consumption and metal intake levels were compared between Asians and other racial/ethnic groups (white, black, Mexican American, and other Hispanic) and within three Asian subgroups (Chinese, Indian Asian, and other Asians). Results: Significant associations (p < 0.05) were found between biomarker levels and estimated dietary metal intake for total and inorganic arsenic and mercury among Asians. Asians had the highest daily fish and rice consumption across the racial/ethnic groups. Fish was the major contributor to dietary mercury and total arsenic intake, whereas rice was the major contributor to inorganic arsenic dietary intake. Fish consumption across the Asian subgroups varied, with Asian Indians having lower fish consumption than the other Asian subgroups. Rice consumption was similar across the Asian subgroups. Conclusions: We confirmed that estimated dietary intake of arsenic (total and inorganic) and mercury is significantly associated with their corresponding biomarkers in U.S. Asians, using nationally representative data. In contrast, estimated dietary intake of cadmium and lead were not significantly associated

  20. Association of Dietary Intake and Biomarker Levels of Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury among Asian Populations in the United States: NHANES 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Awata, Hiroshi; Linder, Stephen; Mitchell, Laura E; Delclos, George L

    2017-03-01

    We have recently shown that biomarker levels of selected metals are higher in Asians than in other U.S. ethnic groups, with important differences within selected Asian subgroups. Much of this difference may be dietary in origin; however, this is not well established. We evaluated dietary intake of toxic metals as a source of increased biomarker levels of metals among U.S. Asians. We estimated daily food consumption and dietary intake of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury by combining 24-hr dietary intake recall data from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with data from the USDA Food Composition Intake Database and FDA Total Dietary Study. We analyzed associations between dietary metal intake and biomarker levels of the metals using linear regression. Further, estimated food consumption and metal intake levels were compared between Asians and other racial/ethnic groups (white, black, Mexican American, and other Hispanic) and within three Asian subgroups (Chinese, Indian Asian, and other Asians). Significant associations (p < 0.05) were found between biomarker levels and estimated dietary metal intake for total and inorganic arsenic and mercury among Asians. Asians had the highest daily fish and rice consumption across the racial/ethnic groups. Fish was the major contributor to dietary mercury and total arsenic intake, whereas rice was the major contributor to inorganic arsenic dietary intake. Fish consumption across the Asian subgroups varied, with Asian Indians having lower fish consumption than the other Asian subgroups. Rice consumption was similar across the Asian subgroups. We confirmed that estimated dietary intake of arsenic (total and inorganic) and mercury is significantly associated with their corresponding biomarkers in U.S. Asians, using nationally representative data. In contrast, estimated dietary intake of cadmium and lead were not significantly associated with their corresponding biomarker levels in U.S. Asians

  1. A preliminary assessment of vitamin K1 intakes and serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin levels in 11-13 year old Irish girls.

    PubMed

    Collins, Aoife; Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Máiréad

    2006-11-01

    Low vitamin K1 intakes have been associated with low bone mineral density in women and reduced bone turnover in girls. No European data exist on the relationship between vitamin K1 and serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), an indicator of K1 status in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to assess intakes of vitamin K1 in relation to serum ucOC status in Irish girls. A detailed dietary history method, which measured habitual intakes from a typical 14-day period, was used to estimate vitamin K1 intakes in 18 girls aged 11-13 years. Recently compiled and validated food composition data for vitamin K1 were used to determine vitamin K1 intakes. An enzyme immunoassay was used to measure ucOC in fasting serum samples. The mean (+/- SD) intake of vitamin K1 in the girls was 72.4 microg/day (SD 34.4). Vegetables (particularly broccoli, composite dishes, and lettuce) contributed 53% of total vitamin K1 intakes. Thirty-Seven percent of the girls failed to meet the current U.S. adequate intake for adolescents of 60 microg/day vitamin K1. Serum ucOC levels were inversely related to body weight-adjusted vitamin K1 intakes, controlling for energy intake (partial correlation r = -0.538; p = 0.026). The data indicate that large-scale studies to examine relationships between vitamin K1 (and green vegetable) intakes and bone growth and development in adolescents are warranted.

  2. Influence of oral health condition on swallowing and oral intake level for patients affected by chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Mituuti, Cláudia T; Bianco, Vinicius C; Bentim, Cláudia G; de Andrade, Eduardo C; Rubo, José H; Berretin-Felix, Giédre

    2015-01-01

    According to the literature, the occurrence of dysphagia is high in cases of stroke, and its severity can be enhanced by loss of teeth and the use of poorly fitting prostheses. To verify that the status of oral health influences the level of oral intake and the degree of swallowing dysfunction in elderly patients with stroke in chronic phase. Thirty elderly individuals affected by stroke in chronic phase participated. All subjects underwent assessment of their oral condition, with classification from the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) and nasoendoscopic swallowing assessment to classify the degree of dysphagia. The statistical analysis examined a heterogeneous group (HG, n=30) and two groups designated by the affected body part, right (RHG, n=8) and left (LHG, n=11), excluding totally dentate or edentulous individuals without rehabilitation with more than one episode of stroke. There was a negative correlation between the need for replacement prostheses and the FOIS scale for the HG (P=0.02) and RHG (P=0.01). Differences in FOIS between types of prostheses of the upper dental arch in the LHG (P=0.01) and lower dental arch in the RHG (P=0.04). A negative correlation was found between the number of teeth present and the degree of dysfunction in swallowing liquid in the LHG (P=0.05). There were differences in the performance in swallowing solids between individuals without prosthesis and those with partial prosthesis in the inferior dental arch (P=0.04) for the HG. The need for replacement prostheses, type of prostheses, and the number of teeth of elderly patients poststroke in chronic phase showed an association with the level of oral intake and the degree of oropharyngeal dysphagia.

  3. Influence of oral health condition on swallowing and oral intake level for patients affected by chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mituuti, Cláudia T; Bianco, Vinicius C; Bentim, Cláudia G; de Andrade, Eduardo C; Rubo, José H; Berretin-Felix, Giédre

    2015-01-01

    Background According to the literature, the occurrence of dysphagia is high in cases of stroke, and its severity can be enhanced by loss of teeth and the use of poorly fitting prostheses. Objective To verify that the status of oral health influences the level of oral intake and the degree of swallowing dysfunction in elderly patients with stroke in chronic phase. Methods Thirty elderly individuals affected by stroke in chronic phase participated. All subjects underwent assessment of their oral condition, with classification from the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) and nasoendoscopic swallowing assessment to classify the degree of dysphagia. The statistical analysis examined a heterogeneous group (HG, n=30) and two groups designated by the affected body part, right (RHG, n=8) and left (LHG, n=11), excluding totally dentate or edentulous individuals without rehabilitation with more than one episode of stroke. Results There was a negative correlation between the need for replacement prostheses and the FOIS scale for the HG (P=0.02) and RHG (P=0.01). Differences in FOIS between types of prostheses of the upper dental arch in the LHG (P=0.01) and lower dental arch in the RHG (P=0.04). A negative correlation was found between the number of teeth present and the degree of dysfunction in swallowing liquid in the LHG (P=0.05). There were differences in the performance in swallowing solids between individuals without prosthesis and those with partial prosthesis in the inferior dental arch (P=0.04) for the HG. Conclusion The need for replacement prostheses, type of prostheses, and the number of teeth of elderly patients poststroke in chronic phase showed an association with the level of oral intake and the degree of oropharyngeal dysphagia. PMID:25565784

  4. [Correlation analysis of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels between children and their mothers with respect to dietary intake].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kei; Mizoi, Miho; Adachi, Shuichi; Mori, Takuya; Yoshinaga, Jun; Kawahara, Junko

    2010-01-01

    Vulnerability of children to toxic substances is of great concern due to their susceptibility and specific exposure profiles. In this study, we examined urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) levels in 134 kindergarten children and their mothers in order to assess exposure profiles from foods. Mean concentration of 1-OHP in children (0.083 micromol/mol-creatinine) was 1.8-fold higher than that in mothers (0.046 micromol/mol-creatinine). Nonetheless, a significant correlation was observed between 1-OHP levels in the two groups, which presumably reflected the similarities of diet between child and mother on the day before urine sampling. Moreover, intake of foodstuff, such as meat and/or fish, elevated the urinary 1-OHP levels, apparently due to high cooking temperature. These results demonstrate the importance of exposure assessment of toxic substances (in children via the diet).

  5. Folate and Breast Cancer: Role of Intake, Blood Levels, and Metabolic Gene Polymorphisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    15. SUBJECT TERMS Epidemiology, Nutrition , Gene-Environment Interaction, Prevention , Gene-Gene 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The purpose is training in nutritional and molecular epidemiology to establish an independent investigator...3) nutrition and cancer biology coursework 4) field work of a breast cancer case-control study and 5) development of a grant proposal examining

  6. Biological implications of magnesium salts at the molecular level.

    PubMed

    Theophanides, T

    1996-12-01

    The interaction of Mg2+ cations in biological systems is studied by using nucleic acid bases as the biological system. Magnesium salts, such as, MgCl2 6H2O, MgSO4. 7H2O and Mg(ClO4). XH2O have been employed in order to compare their complexation with cytosine and 1-methyl cytosine crystallize in water solutions. The reaction of the above magnesium salts with the two bases has been followed by attempting to crystallization the complexes formed at constant temperature and variable times of crystallization. The water solutions with the above reagents have also been followed by Fourier Transform infrared.

  7. Prediction of portal and hepatic blood flow from intake level data in cattle.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J L; Reynolds, C K; Crompton, L A; Hanigan, M D; Bannink, A; France, J; Dijkstra, J

    2016-11-01

    Interest is growing in developing integrated postabsorptive metabolism models for dairy cattle. An integral part of linking a multi-organ postabsorptive model is the prediction of nutrient fluxes between organs, and thus blood flow. The purpose of this paper was to use a multivariate meta-analysis approach to model portal blood flow (PORBF) and hepatic venous blood flow (HEPBF) simultaneously, with evaluation of hepatic arterial blood flow (ARTBF; ARTBF=HEPBF - PORBF) and PORBF/HEPBF (%) as calculated values. The database used to develop equations consisted of 296 individual animal observations (lactating and dry dairy cows and beef cattle) and 55 treatments from 17 studies, and a separate evaluation database consisted of 34 treatment means (lactating dairy cows and beef cattle) from 9 studies obtained from the literature. Both databases had information on dry matter intake (DMI), metabolizable energy intake (MEI), body weight, and a basic description of the diet including crude protein intake and forage proportion of the diet (FP; %). Blood flow (L/h or L/kg of BW(0.75)/h) and either DMI or MEI (g or MJ/d or g or MJ/kg of BW(0.75)/d) were examined with linear and quadratic fits. Equations were developed using cow within experiment and experiment as random effects, and blood flow location as a repeated effect. Upon evaluation with the evaluation database, equations based on DMI typically resulted in lower root mean square prediction errors, expressed as a % of the observed mean (rMSPE%) and higher concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) values than equations based on MEI. Quadratic equation terms were frequently nonsignificant, and the quadratic equations did not outperform their linear counterparts. The best performing blood flow equations were PORBF (L/h)=202 (±45.6) + 83.6 (±3.11) × DMI (kg/d) and HEPBF (L/h)=186 (±45.4) + 103.8 (±3.10) × DMI (kg/d), with rMSPE% values of 17.5 and 16.6 and CCC values of 0.93 and 0.94, respectively. The residuals

  8. [Progress in determination of histamine levels in biological samples].

    PubMed

    Wu, Juan-li; Wang, Zhao-pin; Bao, Ai-min

    2012-11-01

    Neuronal histamine is crucially involved in a number of physiological functions as well as in neuropsychiatric diseases. Determination of histamine in biological samples is thus of importance in the clinical studies. The aim of this review is to summarize the progress or effort made in this field, with focus on the high-performance liquid chromatography.

  9. High school and college biology: A multi-level model of the effects of high school biology courses on student academic performance in introductory college biology courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loehr, John Francis

    The issue of student preparation for college study in science has been an ongoing concern for both college-bound students and educators of various levels. This study uses a national sample of college students enrolled in introductory biology courses to address the relationship between high school biology preparation and subsequent introductory college biology performance. Multi-Level Modeling was used to investigate the relationship between students' high school science and mathematics experiences and college biology performance. This analysis controls for student demographic and educational background factors along with factors associated with the college or university attended. The results indicated that high school course-taking and science instructional experiences have the largest impact on student achievement in the first introductory college biology course. In particular, enrollment in courses, such as high school Calculus and Advanced Placement (AP) Biology, along with biology course content that focuses on developing a deep understanding of the topics is found to be positively associated with student achievement in introductory college biology. On the other hand, experiencing high numbers of laboratory activities, demonstrations, and independent projects along with higher levels of laboratory freedom are associated with negative achievement. These findings are relevant to high school biology teachers, college students, their parents, and educators looking beyond the goal of high school graduation.

  10. Fluid Retention and Utility of Practical Hydration Markers to Detect Three Levels of Recovery Fluid Intake in Male Runners.

    PubMed

    Wilcoxson, Mary Caitlin Stevenson; Johnson, Samantha Louise; Pribyslavska, Veronika; Green, James Mathew; O'Neal, Eric Kyle

    2017-04-01

    Runners are unlikely to consume fluid during training bouts increasing the importance of recovery rehydration efforts. This study assessed urine specific gravity (USG) responses following runs in the heat with different recovery fluid intake volumes. Thirteen male runners completed 3 evening running sessions resulting in approximately 2,200 ± 300 ml of sweat loss (3.1 ± 0.4% body mass) followed by a standardized dinner and breakfast. Beverage fluid intake (pre/postbreakfast) equaled 1,565/2,093 ml (low; L), 2,065/2,593 ml (moderate; M) and 2,565/3,356 mL (high; H). Voids were collected in separate containers. Increased urine output resulted in no differences (p > .05) in absolute mean fluid retention for waking or first postbreakfast voids. Night void averages excluding the first void postrun (1.025 ± 0.008; 1.013 ± 0.008; 1.006 ± 0.003), first morning (1.024 ± 0.004; 1.015 ± 0.005; 1.014 ± 0.005), and postbreakfast (1.022 ± 0.007; 1.014 ± 0.007; 1.008 ± 0.003) USG were higher (p < .05) for L versus M and H respectively and more clearly differentiated fluid intake volume between L and M than color or thirst sensation. Waking (r = -0.66) and postbreakfast (r = -0.71) USG were both significantly correlated (p < .001) with fluid replacement percentage, but not absolute fluid retention. Fluid intake M was reported as most similar to normal consumption (5.6 ± 1.0 on 0-10 scale) after breakfast and equaled 122 ± 16% of sweat losses. Retention data suggests consumption above this level is not warranted or actually practiced by most runners drinking ad libitum, but that periodic prerun USG assessment may be useful for coaches to detect runners that habitually consume low levels of fluids between training bouts in warm seasons.

  11. Reported Dietary Intake, Disparity between the Reported Consumption and the Level Needed for Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study †

    PubMed Central

    Olza, Josune; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Gil, Ángel

    2017-01-01

    Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D have important biological roles in the body, especially in bone metabolism. We aimed to study the reported intake, the disparity between the reported consumption and the level needed for adequacy and food sources of these four nutrients in the Spanish population. We assessed the reported intake for both, general population and plausible reporters. Results were extracted from the ANIBES survey, n = 2009. Three-day dietary reported intake data were obtained and misreporting was assessed according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Mean ± SEM (range) total reported consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D for the whole population were 698 ± 7 mg/day (71–2551 mg/day), 1176 ± 8 mg/day, (331–4429 mg/day), 222 ± 2 mg/day (73–782 mg/day), and 4.4 ± 0.1 µg/day (0.0–74.2 µg/day), respectively. In the whole group, 76% and 66%; 79% and 72%; and 94% and 93% of the population had reported intakes below 80% of the national and European recommended daily intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D, respectively; these percentages were over 40% when the plausible reporters were analysed separately. The main food sources were milk and dairy products for calcium and phosphorus, cereals and grains for magnesium and fish for vitamin D. In conclusion, there is an important percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the recommended intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D. PMID:28230782

  12. Reported Dietary Intake, Disparity between the Reported Consumption and the Level Needed for Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study.

    PubMed

    Olza, Josune; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Gil, Ángel

    2017-02-21

    Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D have important biological roles in the body, especially in bone metabolism. We aimed to study the reported intake, the disparity between the reported consumption and the level needed for adequacy and food sources of these four nutrients in the Spanish population. We assessed the reported intake for both, general population and plausible reporters. Results were extracted from the ANIBES survey, n = 2009. Three-day dietary reported intake data were obtained and misreporting was assessed according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Mean ± SEM (range) total reported consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D for the whole population were 698 ± 7 mg/day (71-2551 mg/day), 1176 ± 8 mg/day, (331-4429 mg/day), 222 ± 2 mg/day (73-782 mg/day), and 4.4 ± 0.1 µg/day (0.0-74.2 µg/day), respectively. In the whole group, 76% and 66%; 79% and 72%; and 94% and 93% of the population had reported intakes below 80% of the national and European recommended daily intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D, respectively; these percentages were over 40% when the plausible reporters were analysed separately. The main food sources were milk and dairy products for calcium and phosphorus, cereals and grains for magnesium and fish for vitamin D. In conclusion, there is an important percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the recommended intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D.

  13. Caregiver's education level, not income, as determining factor of dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals cared for at home.

    PubMed

    Correa, B; Leandro Merhi, V A; Pagotto Fogaca, K; Marques de Oliveira, M R

    2009-08-01

    Home care should intervene in the nutritional status of the elderly. To analyze the nutritional status of the elderly assisted by a Home Care Program (PAD) and associate it with income and education level of the caregiver. Thirty-four individuals of both genders who received home care from PAD. The MNA (Mini Nutritional Assessment) was used along with arm circumference. Dietary intake assessment was done with three 24-hour recalls in non-consecutive days. We collected data on income, education level of the caregiver and user in years of formal education and autonomy of user. The differences between the proportions of the nominal variables were tested by the chi-square test. The continuous variables were tested for normality and if normal, the Student's t-test or ANOVA was applied. The adopted significance level was P < 0.05. The studied sample represented individuals older than 65 years, assisted by PAD and 100% dependent on the caregiver. MNA revealed that 38.2% of the users were malnourished and 61.8% were at risk for malnourishment. Energy, fiber, vitamin E, calcium and zinc intakes were inadequate. Education level of the caregivers was a determining factor (P=0.01) for the nutritional status of the elderly while no association was found with respect to income. These findings allows us to conclude that the nutritional status of this population is worrisome and that it may be associated with low quality of life influenced by the education level of the caregiver, but also by age, economic conditions and limited autonomy of this population.

  14. Tests of Level A Suits - Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents and Simulants: Executive Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    Tests of Level A Suits – Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents and Simulants: Executive Summary Richard B. Belmonte...AND SUBTITLE Test Results of Level A Suits – Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents and Simulants: Executive Summary 5. FUNDING...words) Twelve Level A protective suits were tested for GB and HD permeation swatch testing using modified procedures of TOP

  15. Low levels of physical activity are associated with dysregulation of energy intake and fat mass gain over 1 year12

    PubMed Central

    Shook, Robin P; Hand, Gregory A; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hebert, James R; Paluch, Amanda E; Blundell, John E; Hill, James O; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that appetite may be dysregulated at low levels of activity, creating an energy imbalance that results in weight gain. Objective: The aim was to examine the relation between energy intake, physical activity, appetite, and weight gain during a 1-y follow-up period in a large sample of adults. Design: Participants included 421 individuals (mean ± SD age: 27.6 ± 3.8 y). Measurements included the following: energy intake with the use of interviewer-administered dietary recalls and calculated by using changes in body composition and energy expenditure, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with the use of an arm-based monitor, body composition with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and questionnaire-derived perceptions of dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, and control of eating. Participants were grouped at baseline into quintiles of MVPA (min/d) by sex. Measurements were repeated every 3 mo for 1 y. Results: At baseline, an inverse relation existed between body weight and activity groups, with the least-active group (15.7 ± 9.9 min MVPA/d, 6062 ± 1778 steps/d) having the highest body weight (86.3 ± 13.2 kg) and the most-active group (174.5 ± 60.5 min MVPA/d, 10260 ± 3087 steps/d) having the lowest body weight (67.5 ± 11.0 kg). A positive relation was observed between calculated energy intake and activity group, except in the lowest quintile of activity. The lowest physical activity group reported higher levels of disinhibition (P = 0.07) and cravings for savory foods (P = 0.03) compared with the group with the highest level of physical activity. Over 1 y of follow-up, the lowest activity group gained the largest amount of fat mass (1.7 ± 0.3 kg) after adjustment for change in MVPA and baseline fat mass. The odds of gaining >3% of fat mass were between 1.8 and 3.8 times as high for individuals in the least-active group as for those in the middle activity group. Conclusions: These results suggest

  16. Congener-specific levels of dioxins and dibenzofurans in U.S. food and estimated daily dioxin toxic equivalent intake.

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, A; Startin, J; Wright, C; Kelly, M; Päpke, O; Lis, A; Ball, M; Olson, J R

    1994-01-01

    Food, especially meat, milk, and fish, is the immediate source of almost all polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxinlike compounds in the general population. To estimate intake of these highly toxic compounds, we performed congener-specific dioxin analyses for the first time on U.S. food for 18 dairy meat, and fish samples from a supermarket in upstate New York. 2,3,7,8 Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, "dioxin") toxic equivalents (TEqs) on a wet weight basis for the dairy products ranged for 0.04 to 0.7 ppt, meat TEqs ranged from 0.03 to 1.5 ppt, and fish TEqs ranged from 0.02 to 0.13 ppt. Previous human breast milk and infant formula analyses were used with the current preliminary food data to estimate a range of dioxin intake for Americans. Average daily food intake of TEqs for an adult weighing 65 kg was estimated to be between 0.3 and 3.0 pg/kg body weight, for a total of 18-192 pg TEq, using 1986 American consumption rates. Due to the relatively high level of PCDDs and PCDFs commonly found in human breast milk from American women and from women in other industrial countries, a nursing infant may consume an average of 35-53 pg TEq/kg body weight/day in its first year of life. This may be compared with the current U.S. EPA virtually safe dose of 0.006 pg TCDD/kg body weight per day over a 70-year lifetime based on an upper limit cancer risk of 10(-6), or the 10 pg/kg/day used by some European government agencies. PMID:9738211

  17. Defining and interpreting intakes of sugars.

    PubMed

    Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; Morita, Jaime

    2003-10-01

    This paper clarifies the myriad of terminologies used to describe intakes of sugars by American consumers. In addition, it carefully critiques information sources used to explain and interpret consumption levels. Sugars are incorporated into foods for their biological, sensory, physical, and chemical properties. By chemical definition, the sugars normally consumed are the monosaccharides and disaccharides: glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, and trehalose. US governmental agencies use 4 terms to describe sugars: added sugars, caloric sweeteners, sugar, and sugars. Different sources are included when measuring sugars. Knowledge regarding intakes of sugars relies on food intake surveys (primarily dietary recalls) and economic food availability estimates. Although intake data may underestimate actual consumption, availability data tend to overestimate it. Furthermore, the sugars contents of many foods appearing in composition databases are derived from the summation of recipe ingredients rather than from actual measurements. Intakes of sugars over time (trends) must be viewed within the context of varying definitions, changes in food composition, changes in dietary intake methods, and acknowledged increases in the underreporting of intake. Agreement is needed to identify one common definition to describe intakes of sugars. Convergence between intake data and economic availability data would more accurately depict consumption. Precise amounts of sugars within currently available foods should be measured, not calculated. Without a common language, accurate and precise measurements, and consensus among scientists, educators, regulatory agencies, and the public, conversations regarding any health effects of sugars may lead to continued misunderstandings.

  18. Examination of associations between chaos in the home environment, serum cortisol level, and dietary fat intake among parents of preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Laura M; Darlington, Gerarda; Haines, Jess; Ma, David W L

    2017-07-01

    This research investigated associations between home-environment chaos, fat intake, and morning serum cortisol level in 44 parents of preschool-age children. Chaos was measured using the Confusion, Hubbub, and Order Scale, and fat intake was quantified using the Block fat screener. Linear regression analyses demonstrated that chaos and cortisol were both associated with fat intake ([Formula: see text] = 0.53, p = 0.001; [Formula: see text] = 0.03, p = 0.0002), and there was a nonsignificant association between chaos and cortisol.

  19. Randomized Controlled Trials Evaluating Effect of Television Advertising on Food Intake in Children: Why Such a Sensitive Topic is Lacking Top-Level Evidence?

    PubMed

    Gregori, Dario; Ballali, Simonetta; Vecchio, Maria Gabriella; Sciré, Antonella Silvia; Foltran, Francesca; Berchialla, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of evidence coming from randomized controlled trials (RCT) aimed at assessing the effect of television advertising on food intake in children from 4 to 12 years old. Randomized controlled trials were searched in PubMed database and included if they assessed the effect of direct exposure to television food advertising over the actual energy intake of children. Seven studies out of 2166 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The association between television advertising and energy intake is based on a very limited set of randomized researches lacking a solid ground of first-level evidence.

  20. Reducing the public health burden from elevated blood pressure levels in the United States by lowering intake of dietary sodium.

    PubMed

    Havas, Stephen; Roccella, Edward J; Lenfant, Claude

    2004-01-01

    Elevated blood pressure levels are a major cause of heart disease and stroke. Healthy People 2010 established objectives to reduce mortality from these diseases by 20% and to reduce the major causal factors associated with these elevated levels, such as excess sodium intake. The American public consumes far more sodium than is needed, most of which is added by food manufacturers and restaurants. In November 2002, the American Public Health Association adopted a policy resolution calling for a 50% reduction in sodium in the nation's food supply over the next 10 years. Such a reduction would greatly enhance the chances of attaining the Healthy People 2010 objectives and would save at least 150 000 lives annually. This issue warrants public health intervention.

  1. Common SNP rs6564851 in the BCO1 Gene Affects the Circulating Levels of β-Carotene and the Daily Intake of Carotenoids in Healthy Japanese Women

    PubMed Central

    Yabuta, Suemi; Urata, Masanori; Wai Kun, Roseline Yap; Masaki, Motofumi; Shidoji, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The circulating levels of β-carotene are modulated not only by sex, but also by autosomal gene variations and fruit intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between β-carotene metabolism-related gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; genetic factors) and nutrient intake (environmental factors) relating to their effects on circulating β-carotene. The serum concentrations of β-carotene and the habitual food intake of 92 healthy Japanese adults were examined. All subjects were genotyped for three common SNPs: rs6564851 in the β-carotene 15,15′-oxygenase 1 (BCO1) gene, rs2278986 in the scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SCARB1) gene and rs362090 in the intestine-specific homeobox (ISX) gene. Univariate analysis revealed that the circulating β-carotene levels were significantly higher in rs6564851 GG homozygotes (p = 0.003). Additionally, the daily intake of β-cryptoxanthin was positively associated with the circulating β-carotene levels in female GG homozygotes of rs6564851 (p = 0.023), and the daily intake of α- and β-carotenes, and β-cryptoxanthin was significantly lower in female rs6564851 T allele carries than in female GG homozygotes (p = 0.009, 0.008, 0.009, respectively). The present study apparently indicates that higher circulating β-carotene levels in female rs6564851 GG homozygotes depend on carotenoid intake. PMID:28005968

  2. Cortisol, blood pressure, and heart rate responses to food intake were independent of physical fitness levels in women.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Sisitha U; Torres, Susan J; Fraser, Steve F; Turner, Anne I

    2015-11-01

    This research tested the hypothesis that women who had higher levels of physical fitness will have lower hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) and sympatho-adrenal medullary system (blood pressure and heart rate) responses to food intake compared with women who had low levels of physical fitness. Lower fitness (n = 22; maximal oxygen consumption = 27.4 ± 1.0 mL∙kg(-1)·min(-1)) and higher fitness (n = 22; maximal oxygen consumption = 41.9 ± 1.6 mL∙kg(-1)·min(-1)) women (aged 30-50 years; in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle) who participated in levels of physical activity that met (lower fitness = 2.7 ± 0.5 h/week) or considerably exceeded (higher fitness = 7.1 ± 1.4 h/week) physical activity guidelines made their own lunch using standardised ingredients at 1200 h. Concentrations of cortisol were measured in blood samples collected every 15 min from 1145-1400 h. Blood pressures and heart rate were also measured every 15 min between 1145 h and 1400 h. The meal consumed by the participants consisted of 20% protein, 61% carbohydrates, and 19% fat. There was a significant overall response to lunch in all of the parameters measured (time effect for all, p < 0.01). The cortisol response to lunch was not significantly different between the groups (time × treatment, p = 0.882). Overall, both groups showed the same pattern of cortisol secretion (treatment p = 0.839). Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, or heart rate responses (time × treatment, p = 0.726, 0.898, 0.713, and 0.620, respectively) were also similar between higher and lower fitness women. Results suggest that the physiological response to food intake in women is quite resistant to modification by elevated physical fitness levels.

  3. Effect of serum estradiol and leptin levels on thyroid function, food intake and body weight gain in female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Pantaleão, Thiago U; Mousovich, Felippe; Rosenthal, Doris; Padrón, Alvaro S; Carvalho, Denise P; da Costa, Vânia M Corrêa

    2010-10-01

    We evaluated the interplay among estrogen, leptin and thyroid function in the regulation of body mass in female rats. Adult female rats were divided into four groups: control (C, sham-operated), ovariectomized (OVX), ovariectomized treated with estradiol benzoate (Eb) 0.7 or 14microg/100gbw per day, during 21 days. OVX led to an increase in body mass, food intake and food efficiency (change in body mass as function of the amount of food ingested) which were normalized by the lower Eb dose, and decreased significantly when the higher dose was given. Serum leptin levels were increased more than two-fold in all ovariectomized groups. Serum T4 levels of the Eb treated OVX were significantly lower than in the controls. Serum T3 and TSH were unaffected by OVX or by Eb treatment. Uterine type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) activity changed in parallel with serum estradiol: decreased after OVX, returned to control levels after the lower E2 treatment, and increased significantly after the high Eb dosage. The hypothalamic D2 activity was reduced around 30% in all castrated groups, treated or not with estrogen, whereas in the brown adipose tissue the enzyme was not changed. Interestingly, although estrogen-treated OVX rats had lower body weight, serum leptin was high, suggesting that estrogen increases leptin secretion. Our results show that estradiol is necessary for the hypothalamic action of leptin, since the increase in leptin levels observed in all ovariectomized rats was associated with a decrease in food intake and food efficiency only in the rats treated with estrogen.

  4. Chronic high fructose intake reduces serum 1,25 (OH)2D3 levels in calcium-sufficient rodents.

    PubMed

    Douard, Veronique; Patel, Chirag; Lee, Jacklyn; Tharabenjasin, Phuntila; Williams, Edek; Fritton, J Christopher; Sabbagh, Yves; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

    2014-01-01

    Excessive fructose consumption inhibits adaptive increases in intestinal Ca2+ transport in lactating and weanling rats with increased Ca2+ requirements by preventing the increase in serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3. Here we tested the hypothesis that chronic fructose intake decreases 1,25(OH)2D3 levels independent of increases in Ca2+ requirements. Adult mice fed for five wk a high glucose-low Ca2+ diet displayed expected compensatory increases in intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter expression and activity, in renal CYP27B1 (coding for 1α-hydroxylase) expression as well as in serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels, compared with mice fed isocaloric glucose- or fructose-normal Ca2+ diets. Replacing glucose with fructose prevented these increases in Ca2+ transporter, CYP27B1, and 1,25(OH)2D3 levels induced by a low Ca2+ diet. In adult mice fed for three mo a normal Ca2+ diet, renal expression of CYP27B1 and of CYP24A1 (24-hydroxylase) decreased and increased, respectively, when the carbohydrate source was fructose instead of glucose or starch. Intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter activity and expression did not vary with dietary carbohydrate. To determine the time course of fructose effects, a high fructose or glucose diet with normal Ca2+ levels was fed to adult rats for three mo. Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 decreased and of FGF23 increased significantly over time. Renal expression of CYP27B1 and serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 still decreased in fructose- compared to those in glucose-fed rats after three mo. Serum parathyroid hormone, Ca2+ and phosphate levels were normal and independent of dietary sugar as well as time of feeding. Thus, chronically high fructose intakes can decrease serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 in adult rodents experiencing no Ca2+ stress and fed sufficient levels of dietary Ca2+. This finding is highly significant because fructose constitutes a substantial portion of the average diet of Americans already deficient in vitamin D.

  5. Chronic High Fructose Intake Reduces Serum 1,25 (OH)2D3 Levels in Calcium-Sufficient Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Douard, Veronique; Patel, Chirag; Lee, Jacklyn; Tharabenjasin, Phuntila; Williams, Edek; Fritton, J. Christopher; Sabbagh, Yves; Ferraris, Ronaldo P.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive fructose consumption inhibits adaptive increases in intestinal Ca2+ transport in lactating and weanling rats with increased Ca2+ requirements by preventing the increase in serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3. Here we tested the hypothesis that chronic fructose intake decreases 1,25(OH)2D3 levels independent of increases in Ca2+ requirements. Adult mice fed for five wk a high glucose-low Ca2+ diet displayed expected compensatory increases in intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter expression and activity, in renal CYP27B1 (coding for 1α-hydroxylase) expression as well as in serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels, compared with mice fed isocaloric glucose- or fructose-normal Ca2+ diets. Replacing glucose with fructose prevented these increases in Ca2+ transporter, CYP27B1, and 1,25(OH)2D3 levels induced by a low Ca2+ diet. In adult mice fed for three mo a normal Ca2+ diet, renal expression of CYP27B1 and of CYP24A1 (24-hydroxylase) decreased and increased, respectively, when the carbohydrate source was fructose instead of glucose or starch. Intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter activity and expression did not vary with dietary carbohydrate. To determine the time course of fructose effects, a high fructose or glucose diet with normal Ca2+ levels was fed to adult rats for three mo. Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 decreased and of FGF23 increased significantly over time. Renal expression of CYP27B1 and serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 still decreased in fructose- compared to those in glucose-fed rats after three mo. Serum parathyroid hormone, Ca2+ and phosphate levels were normal and independent of dietary sugar as well as time of feeding. Thus, chronically high fructose intakes can decrease serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 in adult rodents experiencing no Ca2+ stress and fed sufficient levels of dietary Ca2+. This finding is highly significant because fructose constitutes a substantial portion of the average diet of Americans already deficient in vitamin D. PMID:24718641

  6. Effect of level of whole cottonseed on intake, digestibility, and performance of growing male goats fed hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Luginbuhl, J M; Poore, M H; Conrad, A P

    2000-06-01

    Twenty-four purebred Boer (Capra hircus hircus) and 12 male kids of 1/2 Boer breeding (initial BW 21 +/- .5 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design to study the effects of increasing level of whole cottonseed (WCS) on ADG, serum urea N, plasma gossypol, live grades, and intake of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, ether extract, and free gossypol. A subgroup of 16 purebred goats was used to determine digestibility using a 5-d total fecal collection. Goats were blocked by BW and then assigned at random to one of four diets containing 0, 8, 16, or 24% WCS. All diets contained 71% chopped orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) hay and 29% concentrate; WCS replaced corn and soybean meal to maintain calculated TDN and CP concentrations at 68 and 15% of DM, respectively. Concentrations of NDF in diet DM were 52.4, 55.9, 59.3, and 62.1% with increasing WCS, and the Ca:P ratio was maintained at 2:0. Goats were given ad libitum access to feed and water. Over the 90-d performance phase, DMI (P < .05), CP intake (P < .02), and ADG (P < .01) decreased linearly with increasing WCS in the diet, whereas ether extract (EE) intake increased in a cubic fashion (P < .01). Gain:feed decreased linearly (P < .02) with increasing level of WCS. Addition of WCS resulted in linear decreases in apparent digestibility coefficients of DM (P < .02) and NDF (P < .05), a linear increase in total plasma gossypol (P < .01), and a quadratic increase in serum urea N (P < .04). Apparent digestibility of CP was not affected by WCS level. At the 16 and 24% WCS levels, EE constituted 4.2 and 4.8% of total DMI, respectively. Adding WCS to diets for growing goats had detrimental effects on animal performance, and, based on the possible negative effects of dietary EE and NDF rather than gossypol, economics should dictate whether to use WCS in feeding programs.

  7. Protein Requirement of Elderly Women: Nitrogen Balance Responses to Three Levels of Protein Intake

    PubMed Central

    Morse, M. Hannah; Haub, Mark D.; Evans, William J.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2008-01-01

    Background For elderly women, insufficient data exist to assess the accuracy of the assumed mean protein requirement of 0.6 g of protein · kg−1 · day−1, and the adequacy of the current Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 0.8 g of protein · kg−1 · day−1. The aims of this study were to assess the mean protein requirement and suggested safe and adequate protein intake (protein allowance) of elderly women using a shorter-term nitrogen balance protocol. Methods During three separate 18-day trials, 11 elderly women (age range, 70–81 years) were randomly fed eucaloric diets designed to provide either 0.50, 0.75, or 1.00 g of protein · kg−1 · day−1. Nitrogen balance was determined at Weeks 2 and 3 (Days 7–10 and 14–17, respectively) of each trial using data from total nitrogen analyses of duplicate food composites, 24-hour urine collections, and stool collections. The mean protein requirement was calculated using linear regression of individual women's data from all three trials and inverse prediction. Results At protein intakes of 0.53 ± 0.02, 0.76 ± 0.02, or 1.06 ± 0.05 g of protein · kg−1 · day−1, net nitrogen balances during Week 2 were −14.5 ± 3.1, 3.8 ± 2.5 and 23.4 ± 3.3 mg of nitrogen · kg−1 · day−1, respectively, for these body weight– and body composition–stable women. At Week 3, the net nitrogen balances were −0.1 ± 2.7, 8.5 ± 3.6 and 42.0 ± 3.0 mg of nitrogen · kg−1 · day−1. From Week 2 to Week 3, shifts to more positive nitrogen balances occurred due to decreases in urinary nitrogen excretion. The mean protein requirement at Week 2 was calculated to be 0.70 ± 0.09 g of protein · kg−1 · day−1 (coefficient of variation [CV] = 13%) and at Week 3 was calculated to be 0.56 ± 0.09 g of protein · kg−1 · day−1 (CV = 17%). From these data, an adequate protein allowance was estimated to be greater than the RDA at Week 2 (0.90 g of protein · kg−1 · day [d]−1), and not different than the RDA

  8. Determining median urinary iodine concentration that indicates adequate iodine intake at population level.

    PubMed Central

    Delange, François; de Benoist, Bruno; Burgi, Hans

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Urinary iodine concentration is the prime indicator of nutritional iodine status and is used to evaluate population-based iodine supplementation. In 1994, WHO, UNICEF and ICCIDD recommended median urinary iodine concentrations for populations of 100- 200 micro g/l, assuming the 100 micro g/l threshold would limit concentrations <50 micro g/l to 100 micro g/l. The total population was 55 892, including 35 661 (64%) schoolchildren. Median urinary iodine concentrations were 111-540 (median 201) micro g/l for all populations, 100-199 micro g/l in 23 (48%) populations and >/=200 micro g/l in 25 (52%). The frequencies of values <50 micro g/l were 0-20.8 (mean 4.8%) overall and 7.2% and 2.5% in populations with medians of 100-199 micro g/l and >200 micro g/l, respectively. The frequency reached 20% only in two places where iodine had been supplemented for <2 years. CONCLUSION: The frequency of urinary iodine concentrations <50 micro g/l in populations with median urinary iodine concentrations >/=100 micro g/l has been overestimated. The threshold of 100 micro g/l does not need to be increased. In populations, median urinary iodine concentrations of 100-200 micro g/l indicate adequate iodine intake and optimal iodine nutrition. PMID:12219154

  9. Intake of purine-rich foods, protein, and dairy products and relationship to serum levels of uric acid: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyon K; Liu, Simin; Curhan, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Various commonly consumed foods have long been suspected of affecting the serum uric acid level, but few data are available to support or refute this impression. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between dietary factors and serum uric acid levels in a nationally representative sample of men and women in the US. Using data from 14,809 participants (6,932 men and 7,877 women) ages 20 years and older in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (for the years 1988-1994), we examined the relationship between the intake of purine-rich foods, protein, and dairy products and serum levels of uric acid. Diet was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. We used multivariate linear regression to adjust for age, sex, total energy intake, body mass index, use of diuretics, beta-blockers, allopurinol, and uricosuric agents, self-reported hypertension and gout, serum creatinine level, and intake of alcohol. The serum uric acid level increased with increasing total meat or seafood intake and decreased with increasing dairy intake. After adjusting for age, the differences in uric acid levels between the extreme quintiles of intake were 0.48 mg/dl for total meat (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.34, 0.61; P < 0.001 for trend), 0.16 mg/dl for seafood (95% CI 0.06, 0.27; P = 0.005 for trend), and -0.21 mg/dl for total dairy intake (95% CI -0.37, -0.04; P = 0.02 for trend). After adjusting for other covariates, the differences between the extreme quintiles were attenuated but remained significant (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). The total protein intake was not associated with the serum uric acid level in multivariate analyses (P = 0.74 for trend). Those who consumed milk 1 or more times per day had a lower serum uric acid level than did those who did not drink milk (multivariate difference -0.25 [95% CI -0.40, -0.09]; P < 0.001 for trend). Similarly, those who consumed yogurt at least once every other day had a lower serum uric acid level than did

  10. Levels of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs in edible marine species and human intake: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L; Bocio, Ana

    2007-04-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs) are lipophilic organic compounds whose origin comes from many different sources. PCDD/Fs and PCBs are ubiquitous and persistent environmental pollutants with a well known potential toxicity, which were included at the 1998 UN-EC POP protocol. Although human exposure to PCDD/Fs and PCBs can occur by various routes, food is the primary source. A number of studies have shown that the major food sources of these organic pollutants are fat-containing animal products, including fish and other seafood. Because of the frequent health recommendations concerning fish consumption, to determine the contribution to the dietary intake of chemical contaminants such as PCDD/Fs and PCBs through fish and other seafood consumption is an issue of special interest. This paper reviews the state of the science regarding recent literature on PCDD/F and PCB levels in marine species and human intake through fish and seafood consumption. The concentrations of these pollutants depend basically on the environment in which the respective species are caught. It is concluded that some groups of population frequently consuming high quantities of certain species could be significantly increasing health risks due to PCDD/F and PCB exposure.

  11. Predicting Atrazine Levels in Water Utility Intake Water for MCL Compliance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To protect human health, atrazine concentrations in drinking water must not exceed its maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 3 ug/L. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) mandates that municipal water providers sample quarterly to determine MCL compliance. Atrazine levels were mon...

  12. Milk and Dairy Products Intake Is Associated with Low Levels of Lead (Pb) in Workers highly Exposed to the Metal.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Willian Robert; Devóz, Paula Pícoli; Araújo, Marília Ladeira; Batista, Bruno Lemos; Barbosa, Fernando; Barcelos, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron

    2016-12-17

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic metal, frequently associated with occupational exposure, due to its widespread use in industry and several studies have shown high Pb levels in workers occupationally exposed to the metal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of milk and dairy products (MDP) on Pb levels in blood (B-Pb), plasma (P-Pb), and urine (U-Pb), in workers from automotive battery industries in Brazil. The study included 237 male workers; information concerning diet and lifestyle were gathered through a questionnaire, and B-Pb, P-Pb, and U-Pb were determined by ICP-MS. Mean B-Pb, P-Pb, and U-Pb were 21 ± 12, 0.62 ± 0.73 μg/dL, and 39 ± 47 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Forty three percent of participants declared consuming ≤3 portions/week of MDP (classified as low-MDP intake), while 57% of individuals had >3portions/week of MDP (high-MDP intake). B-Pb and P-Pb were correlated with working time (r s  = 0.21; r s  = 0.20; p < 0.010). Multivariable linear regressions showed a significant influence of MDP intake on B-Pb (β = -0.10; p = 0.012) and P-Pb (β = -0.16; p < 0.010), while no significance was seen on U-Pb. Our results suggest that MDP consumption may modulate Pb levels in individuals highly exposed to the metal; these findings may be due to the Pb-Ca interactions, since the adverse effects of Pb are partially based on its interference with Ca metabolism and proper Ca supplementation may help to reduce the adverse health effects induced by Pb exposure.

  13. The Oral Intake of Organic Germanium, Ge-132, Elevates α-Tocopherol Levels in the Plas-ma and Modulates Hepatic Gene Expression Profiles to Promote Immune Activation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Takeda, Tomoya; Tokuji, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    The common water-soluble organic germanium compound poly-trans-[(2-carboxyethyl) germasesquioxane] (Ge-132) exhibits activities related to immune responses and antioxidant induction. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidative effect of dietary Ge-132 in the plasma of mice. Male ICR mice (seven mice per group) received an AIN-76 diet with 0.05% Ge-132; three groups received the Ge-132-containing diet for 0, 1 or 4 days. The plasma alpha-tocopherol (α-tocopherol) concentration increased from 6.85 to 9.60 μg/ml after 4 days of Ge-132 intake (p<0.05). We evaluated the changes in hepatic gene expression related to antioxidative activity as well as in the entire expression profile after one day of Ge-132 intake, using DNA microarray technology. We identified 1,220 genes with altered expression levels greater than 1.5-fold (increased or decreased) as a result of Ge-132 intake, and α-tocopherol transfer protein (Ttpa) gene expression was increased 1.62-fold. Immune activation was identified as the category with the most changes (containing 60 Gene Ontology (GO) term biological processes (BPs), 41 genes) via functional clustering analysis of altered gene expression. Ge-132 affected genes in clusters related to ATP production (22 GO term BPs, 21 genes), lipid metabolism (4 GO term BPs, 38 genes) and apoptosis (5 GO term BPs). Many GO term BPs containing these categories were significantly affected by the Ge-132 intake. Oral Ge-132 intake may therefore have increased plasma α-tocopherol levels by up-regulating α-tocopherol transfer protein (Ttpa) gene expression.

  14. Effect of a High Intake of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Lipoprotein Levels in Healthy Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Wanders, Anne J.; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.; Siebelink, Els; Katan, Martijn B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Trans fatty acids are produced either by industrial hydrogenation or by biohydrogenation in the rumens of cows and sheep. Industrial trans fatty acids lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, raise low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and increase the risk of coronary heart disease. The effects of trans fatty acids from ruminants are less clear. We investigated the effect on blood lipids of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a trans fatty acid largely restricted to ruminant fats. Methodology/Principal Findings Sixty-one healthy women and men were sequentially fed each of three diets for three weeks, in random order, for a total of nine weeks. Diets were identical except for 7% of energy (approximately 20 g/day), which was provided either by oleic acid, by industrial trans fatty acids, or by a mixture of 80% cis-9, trans-11 and 20% trans-10, cis-12 CLA. After the oleic acid diet, mean (± SD) serum LDL cholesterol was 2.68±0.62 mmol/L compared to 3.00±0.66 mmol/L after industrial trans fatty acids (p<0.001), and 2.92±0.70 mmol/L after CLA (p<0.001). Compared to oleic acid, HDL-cholesterol was 0.05±0.12 mmol/L lower after industrial trans fatty acids (p = 0.001) and 0.06±0.10 mmol/L lower after CLA (p<0.001). The total-to–HDL cholesterol ratio was 11.6% higher after industrial trans fatty acids (p<0.001) and 10.0% higher after CLA (p<0.001) relative to the oleic acid diet. Conclusions/Significance High intakes of an 80∶20 mixture of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA raise the total to HDL cholesterol ratio in healthy volunteers. The effect of CLA may be somewhat less than that of industrial trans fatty acids. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00529828 PMID:20140250

  15. Tg in Adults as a Sensitive Biomarker of Iodine Status: A 5-Year Follow up Population Study in Different Levels of Iodine Intake Regions

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Wei; Shi, Xiaoguang; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Xiaochun; Teng, Di; Guan, Haixia; Li, Yushu; Jin, Ying; Yu, Xiaohui; Fan, Chenling; Yang, Fan; Dai, Hong; Yu, Yang; Li, Jia; Chen, Yanyan; Zhao, Dong; Hu, Fengnan; Mao, Jinyuan; Gu, Xiaolan; Yang, Rong; Tong, Yajie; Wang, Weibo; Gao, Tianshu; Li, Chenyang; Teng, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the usefulness of serum thymoglobulin (Tg) in adults to assess iodine status through a 5-year cohort study which was conducted in three regions with different levels of iodine intake: mild deficiency, more than adequate, and excess, from 1999 to 2004 in China. A total of 3099 subjects over 14 years old with normal serum levels of Tg in 1999 were eligible, of whom 2448 were followed in 2004. Serum levels of thyroid hormones and thyroid autoantibodies as well as urine iodine were measured, and B-mode ultrasonography of the thyroid was performed. A general linear model was performed to determine the determinant factors of serum Tg. Among subjects with mildly deficient iodine intake, those with more than adequate intake, and those with excessive intake, the baseline levels of serum Tg were substantially different (7.5μg/L, 5.9μg/L, and 6.8μg/L respectively, P<0.01), which were associated with age, sex, the rate of positive TgAb, abnormal thyroid volume, abnormal TSH, and positive personal history of thyroid diseases. The data from 1856 subjects with normal range of thyroid parameters but no personal history of thyroid diseases were analyzed to clarify the effect of iodine intake on Tg. Among these three regions, the serum Tg levels were substantially different in both 1999 and 2004, with a similar pattern for increased Tg (ΔTg) (3.1μg/L, 2.5μg/L and 3.5μg/L respectively, P<0.01). The general linear model analysis revealed that age, Tg, and baseline TSH levels were the determinants of ΔTg besides iodine intake. In conclusion, serum Tg in adults, resulting from a time-accumulative effect of iodine exposure, is a useful biomarker of regional iodine intake. PMID:26266530

  16. Social Support, Assimilation and Biological Effective Blood Pressure Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Anthony; Walsh, Patricia Ann

    1987-01-01

    The twin processes of migration and assimilation are highly stressful. This stress can be manifested in elevated blood pressure. According to this study, immigrants receiving high levels of social support had significantly lower blood pressure levels than those receiving less social support. (VM)

  17. Daily intake of thiamine correlates with the circulating level of endothelial progenitor cells and the endothelial function in patients with type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ching-Yuen; Qiuwaxi, Jianati; Chen, Hua; Li, Sheung-Wai; Chan, Hiu-Ting; Tam, Sidney; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lau, Chu-Pak; Kwong, Yok-Lam; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2008-12-01

    Our objective was to determine the relationships between levels of different dietary nutrients intake with circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and vascular endothelial function in type II diabetic patients. We studied the daily dietary nutrients intake, the numbers of circulating CD34(+)/KDR(+) EPC and CD133(+)/KDR(+) EPC and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in 88 diabetic patients without prior cardiovascular diseases and 91 sex- and age-matched controls. Compared with controls, diabetic patients had lower CD133(+)/KDR(+) EPC count (48.3 +/- 5.2 vs. 84.6 +/- 7.6/microL, p < 0.001), CD34(+)/KDR(+) EPC count (311 +/- 41 vs. 412 +/- 36/microL, p = 0.045), and FMD (2.54 +/- 0.37% vs. 5.46 +/- 0.47%, p < 0.001). After adjusted for age, sex, smoking history, body weight, hemoglobin A1c level, total calorie intake, other dietary vitamin intake, use of antihypertensives, and lipid lowering agents, a higher intake of thiamine was significantly associated with a higher level of circulating CD34(+)/KDR(+) EPC (beta = 0.49, p = 0.028) and CD133(+)/KDR(+) EPC (beta = 0.45, p = 0.037) in diabetic patients, but not in controls. Furthermore, an increased intake of thiamine from 1st to 4th quartile in diabetic patients independently predicted an absolute increase in FMD by 1.29% (p = 0.026, relative increase = 63.5%). This study demonstrated that daily thiamine intake was positively correlated with the circulating number of EPCs and FMD in patients with type II diabetes, independent of other dietary nutrients intake.

  18. Interplay of atherogenic factors, protein intake and betatrophin levels in obese-metabolic syndrome patients treated with hypocaloric diets.

    PubMed

    Crujeiras, A B; Zulet, M A; Abete, I; Amil, M; Carreira, M C; Martínez, J A; Casanueva, F F

    2016-03-01

    The understanding of the potential role of betatrophin in human metabolic disorders is a current challenge. The present research evaluated circulating betatrophin levels in obese patients with metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) features under energy-restricted weight-loss programs and in normal weight in order to establish the putative interplay between the levels of this hormone, diet and metabolic risk factors linked to obesity and associated comorbidities. One hundred forty-three participants were enrolled in the study (95 obese-MetSyn; age 49.5±9.4 years; body mass index (BMI) 35.7±4.5 kg m(-2) and 48 normal weight; age 35.71±8.8 years; BMI 22.9±2.2 kg m(-2)). A nutritional therapy consisting in two hypocaloric strategies (control diet based on the AHA recommendations and the RESMENA (MEtabolic Syndrome REduction in Navarra) diet, a novel dietary program with changes in the macronutrient distribution) was only prescribed to obese-MetSyn participants who were randomly allocated to the dietary strategies. Dietary records, anthropometrical and biochemical variables as well as betatrophin levels were analyzed before (pre-intervention, week 0), at 8 weeks (post-intervention, week 8) and after 4 additional months of self-control period (follow-up, week 24). Betatrophin levels were higher in obese-MetSyn patients than normal-weight subjects (1.24±0.43 vs 0.97±0.69 ng ml(-1), respectively, P=0.012), and levels were positively associated with body composition, metabolic parameters, leptin and irisin in all participants at baseline. Notably, low pre-intervention (week 0) betatrophin levels in obese patients were significantly associated with higher dietary-induced changes in atherogenic risk factors after 8 weeks. Moreover, protein intake, especially proteins from animal sources, was an independent determinant of betatrophin levels after dietary treatment (B=-0.27; P=0.012). Betatrophin is elevated in obese patients with MetSyn features and is associated with

  19. Carnitine administration reduces cytokine levels, improves food intake, and ameliorates body composition in tumor-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Laviano, Alessandro; Molfino, Alessio; Seelaender, Marilia; Frascaria, Teresa; Bertini, Giuseppe; Ramaccini, Cesarina; Bollea, Maria Rosa; Citro, Gennaro; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo

    2011-12-01

    Increased cytokine expression contributes to the pathogenesis of cancer anorexia?cachexia syndrome. Carnitine may reduce inflammation in chronic diseases. We tested the effects of L-propionylcarnitine (PC group) or saline (C group) on food intake (FI), body composition, and inflammatory status of MCA-sarcoma-bearing rats. On tumor appearance, rats were randomly assigned to daily i.p. injection of L-propionylcarnitine (250 mg/kgBW/d; n = 8) or saline (equal volume; n = 8). FI and fat-free mass wasting improved in PC rats only (p < .01 vs. controls). Cytokines? levels decreased in PC rats vs. controls (p < .02). Results suggest that carnitine may ameliorate cancer anorexia?cachexia, via reduction of the inflammatory status.

  20. Just the Facts? Introductory Undergraduate Biology Courses Focus on Low-Level Cognitive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momsen, Jennifer L.; Long, Tammy M.; Wyse, Sara A.; Ebert-May, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Introductory biology courses are widely criticized for overemphasizing details and rote memorization of facts. Data to support such claims, however, are surprisingly scarce. We sought to determine whether this claim was evidence-based. To do so we quantified the cognitive level of learning targeted by faculty in introductory-level biology courses.…

  1. Maternal Dietary Intake of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Modifies the Relationship between Lead Levels in Bone and Breast Milk1,2

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Manish; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Peterson, Karen E.; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas dietary fats are known to influence bone mineral density, little is known about their effect on the skeletal stores of lead that are a pervasive source of fetal and infant lead exposure from heightened mobilization during pregnancy and lactation. This cross-sectional study examined the potential influence of maternal dietary intake of saturated and unsaturated fats on the relationship of lead levels in bone and breast milk during lactation. Lead was measured in blood, breast milk, and bone (patella and tibia) at 1 mo postpartum in 310 women in Mexico City. Dietary nutrient intake was assessed using a validated FFQ. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to study the influence of dietary saturated and unsaturated fats on the association between bone and breast milk lead. In multivariate models that included both the dietary intake of SFA and PUFA, an interquartile range increase in patella lead [~20 µg/g (0.097 µmol/g)] was associated with a 24% (95% CI = 5–43) higher increase in breast milk lead in women in the lowest tertile of PUFA intake compared with those in the highest tertile of PUFA intake. Monounsaturated fatty acids did not modify the relationship between lead levels in patella and breast milk. In conclusion, higher maternal dietary intake of PUFA may limit the transfer of lead from bone to breast milk. PMID:18156407

  2. Serum Retinol Levels in Pregnant Adolescents and Their Relationship with Habitual Food Intake, Infection and Obstetric, Nutritional and Socioeconomic Variables.

    PubMed

    Spíndola Garcêz, Laís; de Sousa Paz Lima, Geania; de Azevedo Paiva, Adriana; Maria Rebêlo Sampaio da Paz, Suzana; Lázaro Gomes, Erica Ivana; Nunes, Valéria Sutti; Cotta de Faria, Eliana; de Barros-Mazon, Sílvia

    2016-10-25

    Globally, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects about 19.1 million pregnant women. Its occurrence is classically associated with inadequate food intake and may also be associated with socioeconomic factors and the presence of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to serum retinol levels among pregnant teenagers. The sample consisted of 89 pregnant adolescents, from whom socioeconomic, obstetric, anthropometric, and food consumption data were collected. Serum concentrations of retinol and the supposed presence of infection were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and C-reactive protein quantification, respectively. The serum retinol concentrations were classified according to the criteria of the World Health Organization. We adopted a 5% significance level for all statistical tests. Serum retinol levels were significantly and positively associated with sanitation (p = 0.008) and pre-gestational nutritional status (p = 0.002), and negatively with the trimester (p = 0.001). The appropriate sanitation conditions and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were shown to have a protective effect against VAD. Conversely, serum retinol levels were reduced with trimester progression, favoring VAD occurrence.

  3. Serum Retinol Levels in Pregnant Adolescents and Their Relationship with Habitual Food Intake, Infection and Obstetric, Nutritional and Socioeconomic Variables

    PubMed Central

    Spíndola Garcêz, Laís; de Sousa Paz Lima, Geania; de Azevedo Paiva, Adriana; Maria Rebêlo Sampaio da Paz, Suzana; Lázaro Gomes, Erica Ivana; Nunes, Valéria Sutti; Cotta de Faria, Eliana; de Barros-Mazon, Sílvia

    2016-01-01

    Globally, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects about 19.1 million pregnant women. Its occurrence is classically associated with inadequate food intake and may also be associated with socioeconomic factors and the presence of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to serum retinol levels among pregnant teenagers. The sample consisted of 89 pregnant adolescents, from whom socioeconomic, obstetric, anthropometric, and food consumption data were collected. Serum concentrations of retinol and the supposed presence of infection were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and C-reactive protein quantification, respectively. The serum retinol concentrations were classified according to the criteria of the World Health Organization. We adopted a 5% significance level for all statistical tests. Serum retinol levels were significantly and positively associated with sanitation (p = 0.008) and pre-gestational nutritional status (p = 0.002), and negatively with the trimester (p = 0.001). The appropriate sanitation conditions and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were shown to have a protective effect against VAD. Conversely, serum retinol levels were reduced with trimester progression, favoring VAD occurrence. PMID:27792135

  4. Folic acid levels in some food staples in Ireland are on the decline: implications for passive folic acid intakes?

    PubMed

    Kelly, F; Gibney, E R; Boilson, A; Staines, A; Sweeney, M R

    2016-06-01

    Neural tube defects are largely preventable by the maternal periconceptual consumption of folic acid. The aim of this study was to examine the levels of synthetic folic acid in foods and the range of food stuffs with added folic acid available to consumers in Ireland at the current time. Three audits of fortified foods available in supermarkets in the Republic of Ireland were conducted. Researchers visited supermarkets and obtained folic acid levels from nutrition labels in 2004, 2008 and 2013/4. Levels were compared using MS Excel. The profile of foods fortified with folic acid in 2013/4 has changed since 2004. The percentage of foods fortified with folic acid has decreased as has the level of added folic acid in some food staples, such as fat/dairy spreads. Bread, milk and spreads no longer contain as much folic acid as previously (2004 and 2008). This may contribute to a decrease in folate intake and therefore may contribute to an increase in NTD rates. Research on current blood concentrations of folate status markers is now warranted. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Effect of sodium intake on gene expression and plasma levels of ANF in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lattion, A.L.; Aubert, J.F.; Flueckiger, J.P.; Nussberger, J.; Waeber, B.; Brunner, H.R. )

    1988-08-01

    The effect of short- and long-term sodium loading and sodium restriction on the gene expression as well as on circulating plasma levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) was evaluated in normotensive Wistar rats. These rats were fed either a low-, a regular-, or a high-sodium diet (regular diet and 1% saline as drinking fluid) and studied after 1 and 3 wk. The ANF mRNA was determined in pooled atria and ventricles of the different groups of rats, using the dot-blot technique. Plasma ANF levels were measured with a radioimmunoassay. After 1 wk on the high-sodium diet, ANF mRNA was increased in right atria and ventricles together with circulating ANF levels when compared with animals maintained for the same period on a low-sodium diet. After 3 wk on the various diets, the differences in cardiac ANF mRNA and in plasma ANF levels had disappeared. Gene expression of ANF was also looked for in different areas of the brain, lung, thyroid, adrenals, and the kidney; no hybridization was detected in any of these organs. These data suggest that in rats, the transcription of the ANF gene and peptide release is enhanced only during short-term adaptation to dietary sodium loading.

  6. Association of dietary fiber intake with serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Urban Asian-Indian adults with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Shreya; Lakshmipriya, Nagarajan; Vaidya, Ruchi; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Sudha, Vasudevan; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2014-01-01

    Context: There is little data correlating dietary fibre (DF) intake and cardiovascular risk in Asian Indians with diabetes. Aim: To assess the DF intake and its association with lipid profile (total serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein [LDL] - cholesterol levels) in urban Asian Indians with diabetes. Subjects and Methods: Dietary assessment using validated Food Frequency Questionnaire was conducted in 1191 free-living adults with known diabetes in the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Subjects taking medication for dyslipidemia, and those with cardiovascular disease and implausible energy intake (n = 262) were excluded, leaving 929 participants. Anthropometric and relevant biochemical parameters were measured using standardized techniques. Results: Diabetic individuals who consumed DF < median intake (29 g/day) had a higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (49.5% vs. 40.1% [P = 0.01]) and higher LDL cholesterol (46.2% vs. 35.5% [P = 0.001]) than those in the > median intake of DF group. The risk of hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR] =1.38 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.85], P = 0.04), and high LDL cholesterol (OR: 1.43 [95% CI: 1.06–1.94], P = 0.02) was higher among those whose DF intake was less than the median. Serum triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were not associated with DF intake. The main sources of DF were vegetables and legumes. Conclusion: In urban Asian Indians with diabetes, lower DF intake is positively related to total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. PMID:25285277

  7. PCDD/F, PCB, PBDE, HBCD and chlorinated pesticides in a Swedish market basket from 2005--levels and dietary intake estimations.

    PubMed

    Törnkvist, Anna; Glynn, Anders; Aune, Marie; Darnerud, Per Ola; Ankarberg, Emma Halldin

    2011-03-01

    Based on consumption data statistics, food items from four regions in Sweden were sampled in a so-called market basket study. Food items from five food groups, i.e. fish, meat, dairy products, eggs and fat/oils, were analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) followed by per capita intake calculations. The highest levels of PCDD/F, PCB, PBDE, HBCD and chlorinated pesticides were found in the fish/fish products. The estimated market basket per capita intake of PCDD/F and dl-PCB was 0.7pg WHO-TEQ kg bw(-1) d(-1) (TEFs from 1998). The intake of ∑PCB was estimated to 4.9 ng kg bw(-1) d(-1) and fish was found to be the major contributor with 64%. The intake of ∑PBDE was found to be 0.7 ng kg bw(-1) d(-1). Fish (38%) and dairy products (31%) were the largest contributors to the total PBDE intake. The intake of HBCD was estimated to 0.14 ng kg bw(-1) d(-1). HBCD mainly came from fish (65%), but also dairy products (24%) and meat (10%) contributed. Also regarding the chlorinated pesticides, fish was found to be the major contributor, with 51% of the ∑DDT coming from fish. The intake of ∑DDT, ∑HCH and HCB was 4.0, 1.0 and 1.1 ng kg bw(-1) d(-1), respectively. Most of the ∑HCH and HCB originate from dairy products (43% and 55%, respectively). This study shows that the levels, and intake, of different POPs from food of animal origin in the market basket of 2005 seem to have decreased since the market basket study in 1999.

  8. Monitoring programme on nitrates in vegetables and vegetable-based baby foods marketed in the Region of Valencia, Spain: levels and estimated daily intake.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Marín, O; Yusà-Pelechà, V; Villalba-Martín, P; Perez-Dasí, J A

    2010-04-01

    This study was carried out to determine the current levels of nitrates in vegetables and vegetable-based baby foods (a total of 1150 samples) marketed in the Region of Valencia, Spain, over the period 2000-2008, and to estimate the toxicological risk associated with their intake. Average (median) levels of nitrate in lettuce, iceberg-type lettuce and spinach (1156, 798 and 1410 mg kg(-1) w/w, respectively) were lower than the maximum limits established by European Union legislation. Thirteen fresh spinach samples exceeded the regulatory limits. Median nitrate values in other vegetables for which a maximum limit has not been fixed by the European Commission were 196, 203, 1597, 96, 4474 and 2572 mg kg(-1) w/w (for potato, carrot, chard, artichoke, rucola and lamb's lettuce, respectively). The estimated nitrate daily intakes through vegetables consumption for adult, extreme consumers and children were found to be about 29%, 79.8% and 15.1%, respectively, of the acceptable daily intake (3.7 mg kg(-1)). The levels (median = 60.4 mg kg(-1) w/w) found in vegetable-based baby foods were, in all cases, lower the maximum level proposed by European Union legislation. The estimated nitrate daily intake through baby foods for infants between 0-1 and 1-2 years of age were 13% and 18%, respectively, of the acceptable daily intake.

  9. Feed intake, digestibility, body weight and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw supplemented with graded levels of concentrate mix.

    PubMed

    Hagos, Tesfay; Melaku, Solomon

    2009-04-01

    The experiment was conducted at Alamata Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia using 20 Afar rams with an initial body weight (BW) of 18.2 +/- 1.76 (mean +/- SD) kg. The objectives were to study the effect of supplementation with concentrate mix consisting of wheat bran (WB), noug seed cake (NSC) and sesame seed cake (SSC) at the ratio of 2:1:1 on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively on feed intake, digestibility, BW gain and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw basal diet. The experiment was arranged with four treatments and five replications in a randomized complete block design. The treatments included feeding sole tef straw (T1, control), and daily supplementation with the concentrate mix offered at 150 (T2, low), 250 (T3, medium) and 350 (T4, high) g DM per head. Total DM intake, crude protein (CP) digestibility, daily BW gain (P < 0.001), DM and organic matter (OM) digestibility, and carcass parameters (P < 0.05) were higher in the supplemented than in the control treatment. Intake of tef straw reduced as the level of supplementation increased, whereas the contrary was true for CP intake. Performance in carcass parameters was better for the medium compared to the low level of concentrate mix supplementation. Moreover, the medium level of supplementation did not substitute tef straw intake. Therefore, it is concluded that the medium level of concentrate mix supplement maintained the utilization of the roughage feed and resulted in better carcass parameters.

  10. Changes in serum zinc levels associated with giardiasis and dietary zinc intake in mice.

    PubMed

    Quihui-Cota, Luis; Méndez Estrada, Rosa Olivia; Astiazarán-García, Humberto; Morales-Figueroa, Gloria Guadalupe; Moreno-Reyes, Mario Jesús; Cuadras-Romo, Denisse; Canett-Romero, Rafael

    2012-03-01

    The association of giardiasis with the malabsorption of zinc remains controversial. This study investigated changes in serum zinc levels in Giardia-infected mice subjected to different dietary zinc regimens. Thirty-five mice (strain C(3)H/H(e)J) were randomly categorized into two groups. The first group was inoculated with 5 × 10(6) Giardia trophozoites (n = 18), and the second group remained Giardia free (n = 17). Each group (Giardia infected and Giardia free) was randomly classified into three subgroups and given low (9 mg Zn/kg), normal (33 mg Zn/kg), and high levels (288 mg Zn/kg) of dietary zinc over a 2-week period for acclimation. Fourteen days post-Giardia infection, all of the mice were euthanized and blood samples were collected. The number of trophozoites was quantified (hematocytometer), and serum zinc levels were determined via atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Significant increases in the median weights were only found in the Giardia-free mice (p < 0.05). A higher final median weight was found in the Giardia-free group when compared with that of the Giardia-infected group given low dietary zinc (p = 0.013). In the Giardia-infected group with low dietary zinc, the geometric mean of trophozoites was 3,498 ± 101 (SE) per milliliter. The Giardia-infected group had lower serum zinc levels than did the Giardia-free group with the high dietary zinc regimens (p < 0.05). Our results are consistent with studies among human populations, but further studies are required to elucidate the actual mechanism governing the zinc-giardiasis interaction.

  11. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER (PBDE) LEVELS IN AN EXPANDED MARKET BASKET SURVEY OF UNITED STATES (U.S) FOOD AND ESTIMATED PBDE DIETARY INTAKE BY AGE AND SEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study enhances a previously reported U.S. market basket survey of food for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels with a larger sample size of 62 individual analyses for 13 congeners. In addition, it estimates levels of PBDE intake from food by gender and age for the U....

  12. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER (PBDE) LEVELS IN AN EXPANDED MARKET BASKET SURVEY OF UNITED STATES (U.S) FOOD AND ESTIMATED PBDE DIETARY INTAKE BY AGE AND SEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study enhances a previously reported U.S. market basket survey of food for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels with a larger sample size of 62 individual analyses for 13 congeners. In addition, it estimates levels of PBDE intake from food by gender and age for the U....

  13. Intervention effects on dietary intake among children by maternal education level: results of the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Britt W; von Kappelgaard, Lene M; Nielsen, Birgit M; Husby, Ida; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Andersen, Lars B; Trolle, Ellen; Heitmann, Berit L

    2015-03-28

    Dietary intake among Danish children, in general, does not comply with the official recommendations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the 3-year effect of a multi-component school-based intervention on nutrient intake in children, and to examine whether an intervention effect depended on maternal education level. A total of 307 children (intervention group: n 184; comparison group: n 123) were included in the present study. All had information on dietary intake pre- and post-intervention (mean age 6·8 and 9·5 years for intervention and comparison groups, respectively) assessed by a 7-d food record. Analyses were conducted based on the daily intake of macronutrients (energy percentage (E%)), fatty acids (E%), added sugar (E%) and dietary fibre (g/d and g/MJ). Analyses were stratified by maternal education level into three categories. Changes in nutrient intake were observed in the intervention group, mainly among children of mothers with a short education ( < 10 years). Here, intake of dietary fibre increased (β = 2·1 g/d, 95 % CI 0·5, 3·6, P= 0·01). Intake of protein tended to increase (β = 0·6 E%, 95 % CI -0·01, 1·2, P= 0·05), while intake of fat (β = -1·7 E%, 95 % CI -3·8, 0·3, P= 0·09) and SFA (β = -0·9, 95 % CI -2·0, 0·2, P= 0·10) tended to decrease. Also, a significant intervention effect was observed on the intake of SFA among children of mothers with a long education (β = -0·8, 95 % CI -1·5, -0·03, P= 0·04). This multi-component school-based intervention resulted in changes in the dietary intake, particularly among children of mothers with a short education. As the dietary intake of this subgroup generally differs most from the recommendations, the results of the present study are particularly encouraging.

  14. Biological response of children to low levels of inorganic lead

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalleri, A.; Baruffini, A.; Minoia, C.; Bianco, L.

    1981-08-01

    Blood lead level (Pb-B), erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D), zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), and free-erythrocyte porphyrin (FEP) were compared for groups of children of the nursery and primary school living near a lead smelter and in a village 4 km from the factory. A definite increase of Pb-B levels was found in the children living near the lead smelter, who proved to have average values about twice those of the control groups; 17.3 +- 6.9 ..mu..g/100 ml for the nursery school and 16.9 +- 5.5 ..mu..g/100 ml for the primary school children against 8.7 +- 2.8 and 7.6 +- 2.9 ..mu..g/100 ml for the respective controls. A significant decrease of ALA-D activity and an increase of FEP values were demonstrated among the children exposed. For FEP a graded response was evidenced at Pb-B levels ranging between 10 and 20 ..mu..g/100 ml blood so that the no-response level in children seems to be lower than 10 ..mu..g/100 ml of Pb-B.

  15. EVALUATING EFFECTS ACROSS BIOLOGICAL LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION: EDCS IN FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A challenge in ecological risk assessments is to obtain, in a resource-effective manner, information that provides insight both into chemical mode/mechanism of action (MOA) and adverse effects in individual animals, which are indicative of potential population-level responses. T...

  16. Lysine partitioning in broiler breeders is not affected by energy or protein intake when fed at current industry levels.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, R D; Salas, C; England, J; Cerrate, S; Coon, C N

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary energy and protein intake on the partitioning of lysine in broiler breeder hens. One hundred twenty-six broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 (390, 450 kcal/d) × 3 (22, 24, 26 g of CP/d) fashion. Thirty-six hens were administered a daily oral dose of 15 mg of (15)N-Lys for a period of 2 wk or until first egg. After the 2-wk enrichment period, no isotopes were given for 2 d. After 2 d, a daily oral dose of 15 mg of (2)D4-Lys was administered until the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th egg (saved) after the initial (2)D4-Lys was given, at which point pectoralis muscle was sampled. Weeks 25, 29, and 45 were assessed. Isotopic enrichment of pectoralis muscle, egg yolk, and albumen was determined via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The (15)N-Lys was intended to represent endogenous lysine, whereas the (2)D4-Lys was intended to represent dietary lysine. Greater than 78% of all labeled lysine ((15)N and (2)D4-Lys) was found in breast muscle. Endogenous muscle was the main source of lysine for yolk formation at wk 25 and 45. Diet was the main source of lysine for albumen formation at wk 25 and 29. A consistent decrease in the (15)N-Lys in breast muscle from the 2nd to the 3rd egg was observed, while also seeing an increase in the (15)N-Lys in the egg from the 3rd to the 4th egg. No difference in the partitioning of lysine was determined by energy or protein intake at levels typical for the current poultry industry. Rather, age, and possibly rate of production, appear to be the main drivers of lysine partitioning in the broiler breeder hen.

  17. Prospective associations among cereal intake in childhood and adiposity, lipid levels, and physical activity during late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Ann M; Thompson, Douglas; Franko, Debra L; Holschuh, Norton M; Bauserman, Robert; Barton, Bruce A

    2009-10-01

    Cereal consumption is a common dietary behavior that has been associated with positive health outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine prospective associations between cereal intake in childhood and percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, lipid levels, and physical activity during late adolescence. In this longitudinal investigation (data collected 1987-1997), data were analyzed for the 2,379 girls who participated in the 10-year National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. The cumulative percent of days that each girl consumed cereal during childhood (based on 3-day food diaries collected during six study visits between ages 11.5 and 18.6 years) was examined in relation to percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, lipid levels, and physical activity measured at age 18.6 years. Results indicated that nearly all girls (90.1%) reported eating cereal and 18.7% reported eating cereal on half or more of the days reported in the food diaries. Girls who ate cereal on a greater percentage of days during childhood had lower percent body fat and total cholesterol, and were more likely to exhibit high levels of physical activity and less television viewing during Study Year 10 (P values<0.05). Further research should explore lifestyle issues related to cereal consumption.

  18. Postprandial response of plasma ghrelin levels to various test meals in relation to food intake, plasma insulin, and glucose.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Johannes; Töpsch, Robert; Lippl, Florian; Gussmann, Philipp; Schusdziarra, Volker

    2004-06-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic gastric hormone that decreases in peripheral blood after carbohydrate-rich meals but increases after protein ingestion. In the present study plasma ghrelin was determined together with hunger and satiety ratings and with insulin and glucose concentrations after the ingestion of satiating quantities of carbohydrate-, fat-, protein-, fruit-, and vegetable-rich meals in 14 healthy subjects. Four hours later, standardized sandwiches were consumed. After carbohydrate, ghrelin decreased, whereas fat, protein, fruit, and vegetable ingestion significantly increased ghrelin levels. Considering all test meals, no significant correlation existed between changes of ghrelin levels and satiety ratings (r = 0.05; not significant), whereas a significant inverse relationship was observed between plasma ghrelin and insulin levels (r = -0.44; P < 0.001). During the second meal, sandwich consumption was significantly greater after the preceding fruit and vegetable meals, which was significantly correlated with the fourth-hour increase of ghrelin (r = 0.44; P < 0.001). In conclusion, after an overnight fast, ghrelin release depends on the ingested macronutrients and is most likely not a major regulator of acute food intake, although it is of greater importance for the recurrence of hunger and subsequent meal size.

  19. Blood aluminum levels as a function of aluminum intake from drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Turnquest, E.M.; Hallenbeck, W.H. )

    1991-04-01

    Questions regarding the health effects of aluminum are still unanswered. The speciation, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity of aluminum are not well understood. Furthermore, no animal or human studies of aluminum absorption have been reported using drinking water as the source of aluminum. The following experiment attempted to reach a better understanding of the bioavailability of aluminum from drinking water. Its objective was to determine whether or not increased aluminum ingestion from drinking water would be reflected in increased serum and whole blood aluminum levels in the baboon experimental model.

  20. Evaluating forensic biology results given source level propositions.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Duncan; Abarno, Damien; Hicks, Tacha; Champod, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    The evaluation of forensic evidence can occur at any level within the hierarchy of propositions depending on the question being asked and the amount and type of information that is taken into account within the evaluation. Commonly DNA evidence is reported given propositions that deal with the sub-source level in the hierarchy, which deals only with the possibility that a nominated individual is a source of DNA in a trace (or contributor to the DNA in the case of a mixed DNA trace). We explore the use of information obtained from examinations, presumptive and discriminating tests for body fluids, DNA concentrations and some case circumstances within a Bayesian network in order to provide assistance to the Courts that have to consider propositions at source level. We use a scenario in which the presence of blood is of interest as an exemplar and consider how DNA profiling results and the potential for laboratory error can be taken into account. We finish with examples of how the results of these reports could be presented in court using either numerical values or verbal descriptions of the results.

  1. Dietary Patterns, n-3 Fatty Acids Intake from Seafood and High Levels of Anxiety Symptoms during Pregnancy: Findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Juliana dos Santos; Kac, Gilberto; Emmett, Pauline; Davis, John M.; Golding, Jean; Hibbeln, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about relationships between dietary patterns, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake and excessive anxiety during pregnancy. Objective To examine whether dietary patterns and n-3 PUFA intake from seafood are associated with high levels of anxiety during pregnancy. Design Pregnant women enrolled from 1991–1992 in ALSPAC (n 9,530). Dietary patterns were established from a food frequency questionnaire using principal component analysis. Total intake of n-3 PUFA (grams/week) from seafood was also examined. Symptoms of anxiety were measured at 32 weeks of gestation with the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index; scores ≥9 corresponding to the 85th percentile was defined as high anxiety symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the OR and 95% CI, adjusted by socioeconomic and lifestyle variables. Results Multivariate results showed that women in the highest tertile of the health-conscious (OR 0.77; 0.65–0.93) and the traditional (OR 0.84; 0.73–0.97) pattern scores were less likely to report high levels of anxiety symptoms. Women in the highest tertile of the vegetarian pattern score (OR 1.25; 1.08–1.44) were more likely to have high levels of anxiety, as well as those with no n-3 PUFA intake from seafood (OR 1.53; 1.25–1.87) when compared with those with intake of >1.5 grams/week. Conclusions The present study provides evidence of a relationship between dietary patterns, fish intake or n-3 PUFA intake from seafood and symptoms of anxiety in pregnancy, and suggests that dietary interventions could be used to reduce high anxiety symptoms during pregnancy. PMID:23874437

  2. Tests of Level B Suits - Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents and Simulants: Executive Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    Tests of Level B Suits – Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents and Simulants: Executive Summary Robert S. Lindsay April...Final; Jan 98 – Jun 98 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Tests of Level B Suits – Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents and Simulants...Occupational Safety and Health Level B∗ suit designs were tested to assess their capability to protect in a chemical warfare agent

  3. An automated biological assay to determine levels of the trypanocidal drug melarsoprol in biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Onyango, J D; Burri, C; Brun, R

    2000-01-05

    For the investigation of the pharmacokinetic properties of a drug, methods for sensitive and precise quantification are a prerequisite. Only few functional methods exist for the determination of the trypanocidal drug melarsoprol in biological fluids: A bioassay which requires microscopical evaluation and two HPLC methods, which require sample extraction and are difficult to automatize due to the drug's properties. We report the development of an automated biological assay, based on the fluorescent dye Alamar blue. To validate the assay for melarsoprol, 108 serum and 37 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were spiked with melarsoprol at concentrations of 17-92 ng/ml for CSF and 17 ng/ml-2.2 microg/ml for serum. The precision (repeatability) expressed as the interday average coefficient of variation was 9.9% for serum and 18.8% for CSF samples over the respective concentration range. The accuracy (measurement for the systematic error) of the test was 99.4% for serum and 96.4% for CSF. The assay's limit of quantitation with the use of the trypanosome stock STI 704 BABA was 4 ng/ml for both serum and CSF samples.

  4. Neuregulin 1 affects leptin levels, food intake and weight gain in normal-weight, but not obese, db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Ennequin, G; Boisseau, N; Caillaud, K; Chavanelle, V; Etienne, M; Li, X; Montaurier, C; Sirvent, P

    2015-04-01

    Studies in vitro have highlighted the potential involvement of neuregulin 1 (NRG1) in the regulation of energy metabolism. This effect has also been suggested in vivo, as intracerebroventricular injection of NRG1 reduces food intakes and weight gain in rodents. Thus, it was hypothesised that NRG1 might affect serum leptin levels in mice. Weight, food intakes, energy expenditure, spontaneous physical activity and serum leptin levels were evaluated in normal-weight C57BL/6JRJ mice following intraperitoneal administration of NRG1 (50 μg/kg, three times/week) or saline for 8 weeks. Based on the results of this first experiment, leptin-resistant obese db/db mice were then given NRG1 for 8 weeks. Leptin serum concentrations were six times higher in C57BL/6JRJ mice treated with NRG1 than in the animals given saline. NRG1 treatment also reduced weight gain by 10% and food intakes by 15% compared with saline treatment, while energy expenditure remained unchanged. In db/db mice, serum leptin concentrations, weight gain, food intakes, energy expenditure and spontaneous physical activity were not altered by NRG1 treatment. The decrease in food intakes and weight gain associated with NRG1 treatment in C57BL/6JRJ mice may be partly explained by increased leptin levels, whereas db/db mice were not affected by the treatment, suggesting resistance to NRG1 in this pathological state. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Levels and congener distributions of PCDDs, PCDFs and non-ortho PCBs in Belgian foodstuffs--assessment of dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Focant, J F; Eppe, G; Pirard, C; Massart, A C; André, J E; De Pauw, E

    2002-07-01

    Congener-specific analyses of 7 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 10 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 4 non-ortho (coplanar) polychlorinated biphenyls (cPCBs) were performed on 197 foodstuffs samples of animal origin from Belgium during years 2000 and 2001. All investigated matrices (except horse) present background levels lower than the Belgian non-commercialization value of 5 pg TEQ/g fat. Pork was the meat containing the lowest concentration of both PCDD/Fs and cPCBs. The mean background concentration of 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxicity equivalent in milk was 1.1 pg/g of fat, with a congener distribution typical of non-contaminated milk. The relative contribution of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF to the PCDD/Fs TEQ was 85+/-7.9% for all investigated matrices. The cPCBs contribution to the total TEQ was 47+/-19.0% for products of terrestrial species and 69+/-20.0% for aquatic species. Once the contribution of cPCBs was added to the TEQ, few foodstuffs such as horse, sheep, beef, eggs and cheese presented levels above the future European guidelines that currently only include PCDD/Fs but will be re-evaluated later in order to include 'dioxin-like' PCBs. Based on levels measured in the samples, the estimation of the dietary intake was 65.3 pg WHO-TEQ/day for PCDD/Fs only (1.00 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, for a 65 kg person) and 132.9 pg WHO-TEQ/day if cPCBs were included (2.04 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, for a 65 kg person). Meat (mainly beef), dairy products, and fish each account for roughly one third of the intake.

  6. Interactomes to Biological Phase Space: a call to begin thinking at a new level in computational biology.

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, George S.; Brown, William Michael

    2007-09-01

    Techniques for high throughput determinations of interactomes, together with high resolution protein collocalizations maps within organelles and through membranes will soon create a vast resource. With these data, biological descriptions, akin to the high dimensional phase spaces familiar to physicists, will become possible. These descriptions will capture sufficient information to make possible realistic, system-level models of cells. The descriptions and the computational models they enable will require powerful computing techniques. This report is offered as a call to the computational biology community to begin thinking at this scale and as a challenge to develop the required algorithms and codes to make use of the new data.3

  7. Comparable effects of moderate intensity exercise on changes in anorectic gut hormone levels and energy intake to high intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shin-ya; Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Katsura, Yoshihiro; Usui, Tatsuya; Fujimoto, Shigeo

    2009-12-01

    There is growing interest in the effects of exercise on plasma gut hormone levels and subsequent energy intake (EI) but the effects of mode and exercise intensity on anorectic hormone profiles on subsequent EI remain to be elucidated. We aimed to investigate whether circulating peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 or GCG as listed in the HUGO Database) levels depend on exercise intensity, which could affect subsequent EI. Ten young male subjects (mean+/-s.d., age: 23.4+/-4.3 years, body mass index: 22.5+/-1.0 kg/m(2), and maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)): 45.9+/-8.5 ml/kg per min) received a standardized breakfast, which was followed by constant cycling exercise at 75% VO(2 max) (high intensity session), 50% VO(2 max) (moderate intensity session), or rest (resting session) for 30 min. At lunch, a test meal was presented, and EI was calculated. Blood samples were obtained during three sessions for measurements of glucose, insulin, PYY(3-36), and GLP-1, which includes GLP-1 (7-36) amide and GLP-1 (9-36) amide. Increases in blood PYY(3-36) levels were dependent on the exercise intensity (effect of session: P<0.001 by two-way ANOVA), whereas those in GLP-1 levels were similar between two different exercise sessions. Of note, increase in area under the curve values for GLP-1 levels was negatively correlated with decrease in the EI in each exercise session (high: P<0.001, moderate: P=0.002). The present findings raise the possibility that each gut hormone exhibits its specific blood kinetics in response to two different intensities of exercise stimuli and might play differential roles in regulation of EI after exercise.

  8. Effect of diet and exercise on body composition, energy intake and leptin levels in overweight women and men.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella L; Kobusingye, Hati; Bailur, Smita; Stanek, Edward

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the effect of diet alone (D), exercise alone (E), and a combination of diet and exercise (DE) on body weight, body composition, energy intake, blood pressure, serum lipid and leptin levels, and fitness levels in mildly obese sedentary women and men. The three interventions were compared in a randomized longitudinal study design. The exercise programs were supervised for six months, after which participants in E and DE were provided with exercise equipment to take home. 90 adult overweight women and men (age: 44.2 +/- 7.2 years; BMI = 30.5 +/- 2.7 kg/m(2)). Body weight, body composition, waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure, serum lipid levels, and fitness levels were evaluated at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Serum leptin concentrations were measured at 0 and 6 months only. At 6 and 9 months in women, and 9 months in men, DE demonstrated a significant loss of body weight compared to both D and E (p < 0.05). Serum leptin levels significantly decreased from baseline to 6 months in women in D (p = 0.05) and DE (p = 0.0003) and men in E (p = 0.038). At one year, no significant differences existed among groups in any of the measures. A combination of diet and exercise resulted in a significant decrease in body weight in women and men; but this decrease was not maintained at one year follow-up. Serum leptin concentrations showed significant within-group decreases, but were not different among groups. A supervised diet and exercise program is effective for weight loss; however, once intensive participant-investigator and participant-participant contact is discontinued, weight regain ensures.

  9. The level of carbonation of a sugar-sweetened beverage preload affects satiety and short-term energy and food intakes.

    PubMed

    Moorhead, S Anne; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Dunne, Adrian; Welch, Robert W

    2008-06-01

    The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with increased incidence of overweight and obesity, and a factor underlying this putative link could be the relatively low levels of satiety that may be induced by these beverages. Although many sugar-sweetened beverages are carbonated, little attention has been given to the potential effects of level of carbonation on satiety and subsequent intakes. We hypothesized that increasing the level of carbonation in a sugar-sweetened beverage would increase satiety and decrease intakes in the short term. Using a randomized, within-subject cross-over design, thirty non-obese subjects (fifteen women, fifteen men) participated on three occasions, 1 week apart. Following a standard breakfast, subjects consumed a beverage preload 10 min before consuming a lunch ad libitum. Preloads were the same sugar-sweetened beverage (400 ml, 639 kJ) with three levels of carbonation, which were low (1.7 volumes), medium (2.5 volumes) and high (3.7 volumes). Satiety was assessed using visual analogue scales and intakes were measured at the lunch and for the rest of the day. Compared with the beverage with low carbonation, consumption of the beverages with medium and high carbonation led to significantly (P < 0.05) higher satiety until lunch, when intakes of food and energy were significantly (P < 0.05) lower. There were no significant effects on satiety following lunch or on intakes for the rest of the day. This short-term study suggests that the level of carbonation may need to be taken into account when assessing potential effects of beverages on satiety and intake.

  10. Biological monitoring of low-level exposure to benzene.

    PubMed

    Campagna, M; Satta, Giannina; Campo, Laura; Flore, Valeria; Ibba, A; Meloni, M; Tocco, Maria Giuseppina; Avataneo, G; Flore, C; Fustinoni, Silvia; Cocco, P

    2012-01-01

    Conflicting opinions exist about the reliability of biomarkers of low-level exposure to benzene. We compared the ability of the urinary excretion of trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA), s-phenilmercapturic acid (s-PAMA) and urinary benzene (U-Benz) to detect low level occupational and environmental exposure to benzene. We monitored airborne benzene by personal air sampling, and U-Benz, s-PMAI, t,t-MA and cotinine (U-Cotinine) in spot urine samples, collected at 8 am and 8 pm, in 32 oil refinery workers and 65 subjects, randomly selected among the general population of urban and suburban Cagliari, Italy. Information on personal characteristics, diet and events during the sampling day was acquired through in person interviews. The median concentration of airborne benzene was 25.2 microg/m3 in oil refinery workers, and 8.5 microg/m3 in the general population subgroup. U-Benz in morning and evening samples was significantly more elevated among oil refinery workers than the general population subgroup (p = 0.012, and p = 7.4 x 10(-7), respectively) and among current smokers compared to non-smokers (p = 5.2 x 10(-8), and p = 5.2 x 10(-5) respectively). Benzene biomarkers and their readings in the two sampling phases were well correlated to each other. The Spearman's correlation coefficient with airborne benzene was significant for U-Benz in the evening sample, while no correlation was seen with t,t-MA and s-PMA readings in either samplings. The two benzene metabolites were frequently below limit of detection (LOD), particularly among the general population study subjects (17-9% and 39%, for t,t-MA and s-PMA respectively). Morning U-Cotinine excretion showed a good correlation with U-Benz in the morning and in the evening sampling (p < 0.001), and with s-PMA in the evening sample (p < 0.001), but not with t,t-MA in either samplings. t,t-MA in the evening sample was the only biomarker showing a moderate inverse correlation with BMI (p < 0.05). The multiple regression

  11. Systems-Level Synthetic Biology for Advanced Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffing, Anne; Jensen, Travis J.; Strickland, Lucas Marshall; Meserole, Stephen; Tallant, David

    2015-03-01

    Cyanobacteria have been shown to be capable of producing a variety of advanced biofuels; however, product yields remain well below those necessary for large scale production. New genetic tools and high throughput metabolic engineering techniques are needed to optimize cyanobacterial metabolisms for enhanced biofuel production. Towards this goal, this project advances the development of a multiple promoter replacement technique for systems-level optimization of gene expression in a model cyanobacterial host: Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. To realize this multiple-target approach, key capabilities were developed, including a high throughput detection method for advanced biofuels, enhanced transformation efficiency, and genetic tools for Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Moreover, several additional obstacles were identified for realization of this multiple promoter replacement technique. The techniques and tools developed in this project will help to enable future efforts in the advancement of cyanobacterial biofuels.

  12. Prenatal malnutrition and lead intake produce increased brain lipid peroxidation levels in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Cedillo, Brenda Gabriela; Díaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Montes, Sergio; Galván-Arzate, Sonia; Ríos, Camilo; Beltrán-Campos, Vicente; Alcaraz-Zubeldia, Mireya; Díaz-Cintra, Sofia

    2016-09-01

    Prenatal malnutrition (M) and lead intoxication (Pb) have adverse effects on neuronal development; one of the cellular mechanisms involved is a disruption of the pro- and anti-oxidant balance. In the developing brain, the vulnerability of neuronal membrane phospholipids is variable across the different brain areas. This study assesses the susceptibility of different brain regions to damage by quitar tissue oxidative stress and lead quitar concentrations to determine whether the combined effect of prenatal malnutrition (M) and lead (Pb) intoxication is worse than the effect of either of them individually. M was induced with an isocaloric and hypoproteinic (6% casein) diet 4 weeks before pregnancy. Intoxication was produced with lead acetate in drinking water, from the first gestational day. Both the M and Pb models were continued until the day of birth. Four brain regions (hippocampus, cortex, striatum, and cerebellum) were dissected out to analyze the lipid peroxidation (LP) levels in four groups: normally nourished (C); normally nourished but intoxicated with lead (CPb); malnourished (M); and M intoxicated with lead (MPb). Dam body and brain weights were significantly reduced in the fourth gestational week in the MPb group. Their pups had significantly lower body weights than those in the C and CPb groups. The PbM group exhibited significant increases of lead concentration and LP in all areas evaluated. A potentiation effect of Pb and M on LP was found in the cerebellum. This study provides information on how environmental conditions (intoxication and malnutrition) during the intrauterine period could differentially affect the development of neuronal plasticity and, in consequence, alter adult brain functions such as learning and memory.

  13. Marginal protein intake results in reduced plasma IGF-I levels and skeletal muscle fiber atrophy in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Castaneda, C; Gordon, P L; Fielding, R A; Evans, W J; Crim, M C

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary protein on plasma IGF-I levels and muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA). Twelve healthy elderly women were randomly assigned to a weight-maintaining diet containing either 1.47 (marginal) or 2.94 (adequate) g protein/kg body cell mass (BCM)/d, (0.45 and 0.92 g/kg body weight/d, respectively) for 10wks. Plasma IGF-I levels and muscle fiber areas and distributions were evaluated at baseline and 10wks. After 10wks, both IGF-I and type I fiber CSA had declined significantly in subjects fed the marginal diet (30.1+/-2.1% and 32.7+/-7.9%, respectively) while they increased in those fed the adequate diet (19.5+/-7.0% and 22.3+/-7.5%, for IGF-I and type I CSA, respectively). The change in IGF-I was the only significantly associated with the change in type I fiber CSA (r2=0.70; p<0.03). These findings show that marginal dietary protein intakes will result in losses of muscle mass in the elderly and suggest a role for plasma IGF-I as a biochemical marker for the histological changes in skeletal muscle.

  14. Oral Intake of Carboxymethyl-Glucan (CM-G) from Yeast (Saccharomyces uvarum) Reduces Malondialdehyde Levels in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Vilma Barbosa da Silva; de Melo, Adma Nadja Ferreira; de Souza, Neyrijane Targino; da Silva, Vânia Maria Barboza; Castro-Gomez, Raul H; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Magnani, Marciane

    2015-08-14

    Carboxymethyl-glucan (CM-G) is a water-soluble derivative of β(1 → 3)(1 → 6) glucan, a well-known immunostimulant and antioxidant compound. In this experimental, randomized and placebo-controlled study, the effects of oral CM-G intake over a 60-day period on the peripheral blood, cholesterol, glycemic index and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of healthy men was assessed. The CM-G was obtained from spent brewer's yeast (S. uvarum) with DS 0.8 and molecular weight of 2.2 × 10(5) Da. Following CM-G administration, no changes were observed in red and white blood cell, hematocrit, hemoglobin and platelet counts, or in cholesterol and glycemic indices. After 30 days of CM-G administration, the MDA levels decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) in men receiving CM-G. The results showed for the first time that CM-G may act as an adjuvant in preventing oxidative damage in healthy humans.

  15. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie S; Rippe, James M

    2015-10-23

    Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20-60 years old) were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US), one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ±13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p < 0.001), but the change in weight was comparable among groups (p > 0.05). There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L), insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L), or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05). These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others.

  16. Addressing the risk of inadequate and excessive micronutrient intakes: traditional versus new approaches to setting adequate and safe micronutrient levels in foods

    PubMed Central

    Bruins, Maaike J.; Mugambi, Gladys; Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Hoekstra, Jeljer; Kraemer, Klaus; Osendarp, Saskia; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Gallagher, Alison M.; Verhagen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Fortification of foods consumed by the general population or specific food products or supplements designed to be consumed by vulnerable target groups is amongst the strategies in developing countries to address micronutrient deficiencies. Any strategy aimed at dietary change needs careful consideration, ensuring the needs of at-risk subgroups are met whilst ensuring safety within the general population. This paper reviews the key principles of two main assessment approaches that may assist developing countries in deciding on effective and safe micronutrient levels in foods or special products designed to address micronutrient deficiencies, that is, the cut-point method and the stepwise approach to risk–benefit assessment. In the first approach, the goal is to shift population intake distributions such that intake prevalences below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) are both minimized. However, for some micronutrients like vitamin A and zinc, a narrow margin between the EAR and UL exists. Increasing their intakes through mass fortification may pose a dilemma; not permitting the UL to be exceeded provides assurance about the safety within the population but can potentially leave a proportion of the target population with unmet needs, or vice versa. Risk–benefit approaches assist in decision making at different micronutrient intake scenarios by balancing the magnitude of potential health benefits of reducing inadequate intakes against health risks of excessive intakes. Risk–benefit approaches consider different aspects of health risk including severity and number of people affected. This approach reduces the uncertainty for policy makers as compared to classic cut-point methods. PMID:25630617

  17. Effects of time of day and the wingate test on appetite perceptions, food intake and plasma levels of adipokines.

    PubMed

    Bilski, J; Jaworek, J; Pokorski, J; Nitecki, J; Nitecka, E; Pokorska, J; Mazur-Bialy, A; Szklarczyk, J

    2016-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that several aspects of adipose-related physiology including adipokine release, exhibit daily oscillations. Physical exercise exerts a strong influence on adipokine release and a possible reverse disruption of peripheral circadian clocks. The aim of this study was to establish the effects of time of day and the Wingate test on appetite perception, food intake and plasma levels of adipokines. Twenty-four moderately active non-smoking males (mean ± S.D. age: 27.1 ± 3.1 years; height: 1.79 ± 0.1 m; weight: 76.1 ± 11.7 kg) were recruited for this study and divided in two groups; one fed with an ad libitum test meal and another one without an ad libitum test meal. Each subject participated in the following studies performed at 11:00 and 23:00 hours on separate days: 1) Exercise study (ES): a 30-second Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT), and 2) sedentary study (SS). Subjects rated their appetite perceptions (hunger and prospective food consumption) on a 100-milimeter visual analogue scale (VAS) at baseline, after exercise, after test meal and during the postprandial/control period. At those time points blood samples were obtained for the measurement of plasma leptin, visfatin and apelin concentrations. Appetite perception and energy intake results at test meal decreased in response to WAnT in comparison with sedentary subjects. Time of day had no statistically significant effect on energy intake but the appetite perception score after test meal at 24:00 hours was statistically higher than that after test meal at 12:00 hours. No significant differences in the tested plasma adipokine concentrations between the trials existed at baseline, however, all plasma adipokine levels at 24:00 hours were higher than those at 12:00 hours. Plasma apelin concentrations after WAnT were significantly higher than its pre-exercise value at 12:00 hours, unlike those at 24:00 hours. Sedentary experiments showed a modest, yet significant, rise in plasma apelin levels

  18. Investigating pathogen biology at the level of the proteome.

    PubMed

    Cash, Phillip

    2011-08-01

    Bacterial infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. By extending our understanding of the process of bacterial pathogenesis at the molecular level new strategies for their treatment and prevention can be developed. Proteomic technologies, along with other methods for global gene expression analysis, play an important role in understanding the mechanism(s) of bacterial pathogenesis. This review highlights the use of proteomics to identify protein biomarkers for virulent bacterial isolates and how these biomarkers can be correlated with the outcome of bacterial infection. Biomarker identification typically looks at the proteomes of bacteria grown under laboratory conditions. It is, however, the characterisation of the bacterial proteome during in vivo infection of its host that will eventually provide the most significant insights into bacterial pathogenesis. Although this area of research has significant technical challenges, a number of complementary proteome analytical approaches are being developed to identify and characterise the bacterial genes specifically expressed in vivo. Ultimately, the development of newly targeted therapies and vaccines using specific protein targets identified through proteomic analyses will be one of the major practical benefits arising from the proteomic analysis of bacterial pathogens.

  19. A Diagnostic Evaluation of the Entering Competency Levels of University Introductory Biology Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souchek, Russell D.

    Results of a study that examined entry competency levels of 1,511 students enrolled in 12 sections of introductory biology at Texas A&M University are reported. A pretest was developed and administered to students which tested basic competencies over nine concept areas considered prerequisite to the introductory biology course. A questionnaire…

  20. Controversial Issues and the Teaching of A-Level Biology: Possibilities and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    This thesis focuses on the espoused beliefs, values, and attitudes of experienced A-Level Biology teachers in relation to the teaching of controversial biological issues. Of major interest is the thinking behind what the teachers in this study regard as the possibilities and problems for the teaching of controversial issues given the teaching…

  1. Coffee intake can promote activity of antioxidant enzymes with increasing MDA level and decreasing HDL-cholesterol in physically trained rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun-Young; Jang, Jin-Young

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of coffee intake and exercise on the antioxidative activity and plasma cholesterol profile of physically trained rats while they were exercising. Forty eight rats were under either the control diet with water (C) or control diet with coffee (CF) and at the same time they were given physical training for 4 weeks. In terms of physical training, the rats were exercised on a treadmill for 30 minutes everyday. At the end of 4 weeks, animals in each dietary group were subdivided into 3 groups: before-exercise (BE); during-exercise (DE); after-exercise (AE). Animals in the DE group were exercised on a treadmill for one hour, immediately before being sacrificed. Animals in the AE group were allowed to take a rest for one hour after exercise. TG levels were significantly high in coffee intake group than in control group. Also TG level of AE group was significantly higher than that of BE group. Exercise and coffee-exercise interaction effects were significant in total cholesterol (P = 0.0004, 0.0170). The AE of coffee intake group showed highest total cholesterol levels. HDL-cholesterol was significantly lower in coffee intake group than in control group. Coffee, exercise, and coffee-exercise interaction effects were significant in SOD (P = 0.0001, 0.0001, and 0.0001). The AE and BE of coffee intake group showed higher SOD levels than the other four groups. Catalase activities were significantly higher in coffee intake group than control group. No significant main effect was found in GSH/GSSG. Coffee, exercise, and coffee-exercise interaction effects were significant in MDA levels (P = 0.0464, 0.0016, and 0.0353). The DE and AE of coffee intake group and the DE of control group showed higher MDA levels than the BE of control group. Therefore, coffee intake can promote activities of antioxidant enzyme but it also increases MDA and decreases HDL-cholesterol in physically trained rats. PMID:20827343

  2. The relationship of dietary fish intake to level of pulmonary function in the first National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES I)

    PubMed

    Schwartz, J; Weiss, S T

    1994-10-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which predominates in marine fish, tends to counteract and inhibit the uptake and incorporation of arachidonic acid and membrane phospholipids and dilute arachidonic acid as a potential substrate for oxidation. Thus, fish intake may be protective for the occurrence of asthma and other pulmonary diseases. We wanted to examine the relationship between the effect of chronic dietary intake to fish and its relationship to level of pulmonary function. We performed this analysis using data from the First National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES I). A detailed subsample of 2,526 adults had a medical history questionnaire, that included a 24-hour dietary recall, and performed spirometric examination. Log of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) served as a dependent variable in regression analysis which included an adjustment for height, age, cigarette smoking and gender. When added to the regression model including the above variables dietary fish intake showed a protective association with FEV1 (beta = 0.008 +/- 0.004, p = 0.028). When smokers were excluded from the analysis, the effect of fish intake on pulmonary function appeared to increase slightly (beta = 0.0108 +/- 0.006, p = 0.61). These data suggest that chronic dietary intake of fish is associated with higher levels of pulmonary function and is consistent with the hypothesis of an effect of fish oil on arachidonic acid metabolism.

  3. Corn bran versus corn grain at 2 levels of forage: Intake, apparent digestibility, and production responses by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Arndt, C; Armentano, L E; Hall, M B

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of substituting corn bran (CB) for dried ground corn grain (CG) in the nonforage portion of high-forage (HF) and low-forage (LF) diets. Twelve multiparous and 12 primiparous Holsteins were assigned to 4 diets using six 4× Latin squares with 3-wk periods. Forage was 64 or 38% of the total mixed ration (% of dry matter). On a dry matter basis, the HFCG diet had 20% CG, the LFCG diet had 39% CG, the HFCB diet had 19% CB, and the LFCB diet had 38% CB. Digestible organic matter intake (OMI) and milk energy yield were lower for CB compared with CG within forage level. Digestible OMI was greater (1.9kg/d) for the LFCG compared with the HFCG treatment. When CB replaced forage (LFCB vs. HFCB), digestible OMI was not different but milk energy yield was greater with the LFCB diet. The LFCG diet supported the greatest milk, milk protein, and milk energy yield. Decreased concentration of milk protein and increased concentration of milk urea nitrogen when feeding CB compared with CG suggests that lack of fermentable energy in the CB diets may have limited rumen microbial protein synthesis. Total substitution of CG with CB in the nonforage portion did not support maximum milk production, even when forage was reduced at the same time (HFCG vs. LFCB). Predicted neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility at 1 times maintenance, based on chemical analysis of the individual feeds, was 22 percentage units greater for CB than for the forage mix (68.9 vs. 46.9%). In vitro NDF digestibility (30h) was 19.4 percentage units greater for CB than for the forage mix (68.9 vs. 49.5%). However, in vivo NDF digestibility of the diet when CB replaced forage (HFCB vs. LFCB) was similar (44.1 vs. 44.5%). Similarly, predicted total digestible nutrients at the production level of intake, based on chemical analysis, were greater for the CB treatments and lower for the CG treatments than those observed in vivo.

  4. Just the facts? Introductory undergraduate biology courses focus on low-level cognitive skills.

    PubMed

    Momsen, Jennifer L; Long, Tammy M; Wyse, Sara A; Ebert-May, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Introductory biology courses are widely criticized for overemphasizing details and rote memorization of facts. Data to support such claims, however, are surprisingly scarce. We sought to determine whether this claim was evidence-based. To do so we quantified the cognitive level of learning targeted by faculty in introductory-level biology courses. We used Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives to assign cognitive learning levels to course goals as articulated on syllabi and individual items on high-stakes assessments (i.e., exams and quizzes). Our investigation revealed the following: 1) assessment items overwhelmingly targeted lower cognitive levels, 2) the cognitive level of articulated course goals was not predictive of the cognitive level of assessment items, and 3) there was no influence of course size or institution type on the cognitive levels of assessments. These results support the claim that introductory biology courses emphasize facts more than higher-order thinking.

  5. Ceftriaxone treatment affects the levels of GLT1 and ENT1 as well as ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Sari, Youssef; Sreemantula, Sai N; Lee, Moonnoh R; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2013-11-01

    Studies have demonstrated that deletion of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) is associated with reduced glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) level, and consequently increased ethanol intake. In this study, we measured changes in GLT1 and ENT1 levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC), and nucleus accumbens (NAc) core and shell associated with alcohol drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) rats. We examined, then, whether ceftriaxone (CEF) would affect both GLT1 and ENT1 levels in these brain regions. P rats were given 24-h concurrent access to 15 and 30% ethanol, water, and food for 5 weeks. On Week 6, P rats received 100 mg/kg CEF (i.p.) or a saline vehicle for five consecutive days. Ethanol intake was measured daily for 8 days starting on the first day of injections. We found a significant reduction in daily ethanol intake in CEF-treated group, starting on Day 2 of injections. Western blot for GLT1 and binding assay for ENT1 revealed downregulation of GLT1 level, whereas ENT1 levels were increased in the NAc core and NAc shell, respectively, but not in the PFC in saline vehicle group. Importantly, CEF treatment reversed these effects in both NAc core and shell. These findings provide evidence for potential regulatory effects of CEF on both GLT1 and ENT1 expression in reducing ethanol intake.

  6. The impact of an introductory college-level biology class on biology self-efficacy and attitude towards science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Megan Elizabeth

    Self-efficacy theory was first introduced in a seminal article by Albert Bandura in 1977 entitled "Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change". Since its original introduction, self-efficacy has been a major focus of academic performance, anxiety, career development, and teacher retention research. Self-efficacy can be defined as the belief an individual possesses about their ability to perform a given task. Bandura proposed that self-efficacy should be measured at the highest level of specificity due to the fact that different people are efficacious in different areas. Interested in students' efficacy toward biology, Ebert-May, Baldwin, & Allred (1997) created and validated a survey to measure students' biology self-efficacy. Their survey was modeled after the guidelines for science literacy, and loaded to three sub-factors; methods of biology, generalization to other science courses, and application of the concepts. As self-efficacy theory has been related to effort expenditure and persistence (Bandura, 1977; 1997), one might think it would have some effect on students' attitudes toward the topic at hand. The current research investigated what changes in biology self-efficacy occurred after an introductory biology course with an inquiry based laboratory learning environment. In addition, changes in students' attitudes towards science were explored and how self-efficacy might affect them.

  7. Providing Vertical Coherence in Explanations and Promoting Reasoning across Levels of Biological Organization When Teaching Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jördens, Janina; Asshoff, Roman; Kullmann, Harald; Hammann, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Students' explanations of biological phenomena are frequently characterized by disconnects between levels and confusion of levels. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of a hands-on lab activity that aims at fostering the ability to reason across levels. A total of 197 students (18 years of age) participated in a randomized,…

  8. Providing Vertical Coherence in Explanations and Promoting Reasoning across Levels of Biological Organization When Teaching Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jördens, Janina; Asshoff, Roman; Kullmann, Harald; Hammann, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Students' explanations of biological phenomena are frequently characterized by disconnects between levels and confusion of levels. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of a hands-on lab activity that aims at fostering the ability to reason across levels. A total of 197 students (18 years of age) participated in a randomized,…

  9. Automatic compilation from high-level biologically-oriented programming language to genetic regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Beal, Jacob; Lu, Ting; Weiss, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology promises to revolutionize our ability to engineer biological systems, providing important benefits for a variety of applications. Recent advances in DNA synthesis and automated DNA assembly technologies suggest that it is now possible to construct synthetic systems of significant complexity. However, while a variety of novel genetic devices and small engineered gene networks have been successfully demonstrated, the regulatory complexity of synthetic systems that have been reported recently has somewhat plateaued due to a variety of factors, including the complexity of biology itself and the lag in our ability to design and optimize sophisticated biological circuitry. To address the gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities, we present a platform that enables synthetic biologists to express desired behavior using a convenient high-level biologically-oriented programming language, Proto. The high level specification is compiled, using a regulatory motif based mechanism, to a gene network, optimized, and then converted to a computational simulation for numerical verification. Through several example programs we illustrate the automated process of biological system design with our platform, and show that our compiler optimizations can yield significant reductions in the number of genes (~ 50%) and latency of the optimized engineered gene networks. Our platform provides a convenient and accessible tool for the automated design of sophisticated synthetic biological systems, bridging an important gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities. Our platform is user-friendly and features biologically relevant compiler optimizations, providing an important foundation for the development of sophisticated biological systems.

  10. The perinatal effects of maternal caffeine intake on fetal and neonatal brain levels of testosterone, estradiol, and dihydrotestosterone in rats.

    PubMed

    Karaismailoglu, S; Tuncer, M; Bayrak, S; Erdogan, G; Ergun, E L; Erdem, A

    2017-08-01

    Testosterone, estradiol, and dihydrotestosterone are the main sex steroid hormones responsible for the organization and sexual differentiation of brain structures during early development. The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, adrenal cells, and gonads play a key role in the production of sex steroids and express adenosine receptors. Caffeine is a non-selective adenosine antagonist; therefore, it can modulate metabolic pathways in these tissues. Besides, the proportion of pregnant women that consume caffeine is ∼60%. That is why the relationship between maternal caffeine consumption and fetal development is important. Therefore, we aimed to investigate this modulatory effect of maternal caffeine consumption on sex steroids in the fetal and neonatal brain tissues. Pregnant rats were treated with a low (0.3 g/L) or high (0.8 g/L) dose of caffeine in their drinking water during pregnancy and lactation. The testosterone, estradiol, and dihydrotestosterone levels in the frontal cortex and hypothalamus were measured using radioimmunoassay at embryonic day 19 (E19), birth (PN0), and postnatal day 4 (PN4). The administration of low-dose caffeine increased the body weight in PN4 male and female rats and anogenital index in PN4 males. The administration of high-dose caffeine decreased the adrenal weight in E19 male rats and increased testosterone levels in the frontal cortex of E19 female rats and the hypothalamus of PN0 male rats. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy affects sex steroid levels in the frontal cortex and hypothalamus of the offspring. This concentration changes of the sex steroids in the brain may influence behavioral and neuroendocrine functions at some point in adult life.

  11. The Effect of Salt Intake and Potassium Supplementation on Serum Gastrin Levels in Chinese Adults: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan-Yuan; He, Wen-Wen; Liu, Yan-Chun; Lin, Yi-Feng; Hong, Lu-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Excess dietary salt is strongly correlated with cardiovascular disease, morbidity, and mortality. Conversely, potassium likely elicits favorable effects against cardiovascular disorders. Gastrin, which is produced by the G-cells of the stomach and duodenum, can increase renal sodium excretion and regulate blood pressure by acting on the cholecystokinin B receptor. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of altered salt and potassium supplementation on serum gastrin levels in humans. A total of 44 subjects (38–65 years old) were selected from a rural community in northern China. All subjects were sequentially maintained on a relatively low-salt diet for 7 days (3.0 g/day of NaCl), a high-salt diet for 7 days (18.0 g/day of NaCl), and then a high-salt diet supplemented with potassium for another 7 days (18.0 g/day of NaCl + 4.5 g/day of KCl). The high-salt intake significantly increased serum gastrin levels (15.3 ± 0.3 vs. 17.6 ± 0.3 pmol/L). This phenomenon was alleviated through potassium supplementation (17.6 ± 0.3 vs. 16.5 ± 0.4 pmol/L). Further analyses revealed that serum gastrin was positively correlated with 24 h urinary sodium excretion (r = 0.476, p < 0.001). By contrast, gastrin level was negatively correlated with blood pressure in all dietary interventions (r = −0.188, p = 0.031). The present study indicated that variations in dietary salt and potassium supplementation affected the serum gastrin concentrations in the Chinese subjects. PMID:28420122

  12. HIF Prolyl-Hydoxylase-2 Senses High Salt Intake to Increase Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α Levels in the Renal Medulla

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengchao; Zhu, Qing; Xia, Min; Li, Pin-Lan; Hinton, Shante J.; Li, Ningjun

    2010-01-01

    High salt induces the expression of transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and its target genes in the renal medulla, which is an important renal adaptive mechanism to high salt intake. HIF prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing proteins (PHDs) have been identified as major enzymes to promote the degradation of HIF-1α. PHD2 is the predominant isoform of PHDs in the kidney and primarily expressed in the renal medulla. The present study tested the hypothesis that PHD2 responds to high salt and mediates high salt-induced increase in HIF-1α levels in the renal medulla. In normotensive rats, high salt intake (4% NaCl, 10 days) significantly inhibited PHD2 expressions and enzyme activities in the renal medulla. Renal medullary overexpression of PHD2 transgene significantly decreased HIF-1α levels. PHD2 transgene also blocked high salt-induced activation of HIF-1α target genes heme oxygenase-1 and nitric oxide synthase-2 in the renal medulla. In Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats, however, high salt intake did not inhibit the expression and activities of PHD2 in the renal medulla. Correspondingly, renal medullary HIF-1α levels were not up-regulated by high salt intake in these rats. After transfection of PHD2 shRNA, HIF-1α and its target genes were significantly up-regulated by high salt intake in Dahl S rats. Overexpression of PHD2 transgene in the renal medulla impaired renal sodium excretion after salt loading. These data suggest that high salt intake inhibits PHD2 in the renal medulla, thereby upregulating the HIF-1α expression. The lack of PHD-mediated response to high salt may represent a pathogenic mechanism producing salt sensitive hypertension. PMID:20308610

  13. Energy intake, growth rate and body composition of young Labrador Retrievers and Miniature Schnauzers fed different dietary levels of vitamin A.

    PubMed

    Brenten, Thomas; Morris, Penelope J; Salt, Carina; Raila, Jens; Kohn, Barbara; Brunnberg, Leo; Schweigert, Florian J; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-06-28

    Research in rodents has shown that dietary vitamin A reduces body fat by enhancing fat mobilisation and energy utilisation; however, their effects in growing dogs remain unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the development of body weight and body composition and compared observed energy intake with predicted energy intake in forty-nine puppies from two breeds (twenty-four Labrador Retriever (LAB) and twenty-five Miniature Schnauzer (MS)). A total of four different diets with increasing vitamin A content between 5·24 and 104·80 μmol retinol (5000-100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) metabolisable energy were fed from the age of 8 weeks up to 52 (MS) and 78 weeks (LAB). The daily energy intake was recorded throughout the experimental period. The body condition score was evaluated weekly using a seven-category system, and food allowances were adjusted to maintain optimal body condition. Body composition was assessed at the age of 26 and 52 weeks for both breeds and at the age of 78 weeks for the LAB breed only using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The growth curves of the dogs followed a breed-specific pattern. However, data on energy intake showed considerable variability between the two breeds as well as when compared with predicted energy intake. In conclusion, the data show that energy intakes of puppies particularly during early growth are highly variable; however, the growth pattern and body composition of the LAB and MS breeds are not affected by the intake of vitamin A at levels up to 104·80 μmol retinol (100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal).

  14. Short Communication: Glucose kinetics in dairy heifers limit-fed a low- or high-forage ration at four levels of nitrogen intake

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of level of forage and nitrogen (N) intake on glucose kinetics in growing dairy heifers. Eight Holstein heifers (beginning at 362 ± 7 kg body weight (BW) and 12.3 ± 0.4 months of age) were fed eight rations according to a split-plot, 4 x 4 La...

  15. Effect of ruminal fill on foraging behavior, intake rate, and plasma ghrelin, serum insulin and glucose levels of cattle grazing a vegetative micro-sward

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The impact of ruminal fill (RF) on foraging behavior, intake rate and levels of circulating ghrelin, insulin and glucose was measured with four rumen-cannulated lactating dairy cows foraging micro-swards of vegetative orchardgrass. The treatments compared were removal of 1.00 (RF0), 0.66 (RF33), 0....

  16. Plasma levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-18 after an acute physical exercise: relation with post-exercise energy intake in twins.

    PubMed

    Almada, C; Cataldo, L R; Smalley, S V; Diaz, E; Serrano, A; Hodgson, M I; Santos, J L

    2013-03-01

    Increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) plasma levels have been described to occur during physical exercise. A relative reduction in energy intake after physical activity has also been reported after exercise, indicating a possible involvement of IL-6 as an anorexigenic factor. Given the possible effect of interleukins on appetite, we assessed whether a controlled physical activity bout is related with changes in IL-6, IL-6 soluble receptor (IL-6sR), gp130 and interleukin-18 (IL-18) plasma levels, as well as their relation with post-exercise energy intake. A co-twin intervention study was carried out with five young male monozygotic twin pairs. One co-twin performed 45 min of submaximal exercise on a treadmill near the anaerobic threshold ending with 7 min at 90 % VO(2) max, while his co-twin remained non-active. Ad libitum energy intake was tested through a carbohydrate-rich meal test. Venous blood samples were drawn at baseline, immediately after exercise and after the meal ingestion. Plasma concentrations of IL-6, IL-6sR, gp130 and IL-18 were measured via ELISA. IL-6 plasma levels increased after physical activity bout (2.6-fold change; p = 0.04). A less marked trend, although still significant, was observed for plasma levels of IL-6sR and gp130. Plasma levels of IL-18 did not significantly change during exercise. The twins who exercised exhibited significantly lower energy intake (181 versus 1,195 kcal; p = 0.04), compared to the co-twins who remained resting. The present study in monozygotic twins shows increased IL-6 plasma levels after acute physical exercise with a significant reduction in energy intake, supporting a linkage between IL-6 and acute post-exercise eating behaviour.

  17. Drospirenone intake alters plasmatic steroid levels and cyp17a1 expression in gonads of juvenile sea bass.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Maria; Fernandes, Denise; Medina, Paula; Blázquez, Mercedes; Porte, Cinta

    2016-06-01

    Drospirenone (DRO) is one of the most widely used progestins in contraceptive treatments and hormone replacement therapies. The pharmacokinetics and potential toxicological effects of DRO were investigated in juvenile sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) exposed through the diet (0.01-10 μg DRO/g) for up to 31 days. DRO was detected in the blood (4-27 ng/mL) of fish exposed to the highest concentration, with no significant bioaccumulation over time and no alteration of hepatic metabolizing enzymes, namely, CYP1A and CYP3A-catalysed activities and UDP-glucuronyltransferase (UGT). Pregnenolone (P5), progesterone (P4), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17P4), 17α-hydroxypregnenolone (17P5), androstenedione (AD) and testosterone (T) were determined in plasma and gene expression of cyp17a1, cyp19a1a and cyp11β analysed by qRT-PCR in gonads. The significant increase in plasmatic levels of 17P5, 17P4 and AD detected after 31 days exposure to 10 ng DRO/g together with the increased expression of cyp17a1 in females evidence the ability of DRO to alter steroid synthesis at low intake concentrations (7 ng DRO/day). However, the potential consequences of this steroid shift for female reproduction remain to be investigated.

  18. Effect of programmed diurnal temperature cycles on plasma thyroxine level, body temperature, and feed intake of holstein dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, I. M.; Johnson, H. D.; Hahn, G. L.

    1983-03-01

    Holstein cows exposed to simulated summer diurnal ambient temperature cycles of Phoenix, Arizona and Atlanta, Georgia and diurnal modifications of these climates displayed daily cycles fluctuations in plasma thyroxine (T4) and rectal temperatures (Tre). There were daily diurnal changes in T4 and Tre under all simulated climate conditions. Maximal values generally occurred in the evening hours and minimum values in the morning. Although the diurnal rhythm was influenced by the various simulated climates (diurnal modifications) a diurnal rhythm was very evident even under constant conditions at thermoneutral (Tnc) and at cyclic thermoneutral conditions (TN). The major significance of the study is that the initiation of night cooling of the animals at a time when their Tre was highest was most beneficial to maintenance of a TN plasma T4 level. There was a highly significant negative relationship of average T4 and average Tre. There was also a significant negative relationship of feed consumption and average temperature-humidity index (THI). These data suggest that night cooling may be a most effective method to alleviate thermoregulatory limitations of a hot climate on optimal animal performance. Decreasing the night time air temperature (Ta) or THI or increasing the diurnal range allows the cows to more easily dissipate excess body heat accumulated during the day and minimize the thermal inhibition on feed intake, and alterations in plasma T4 and Tre.

  19. Oxidative costs of reproduction in mouse strains selected for different levels of food intake and which differ in reproductive performance

    PubMed Central

    Jothery, Aqeel H. Al; Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Mody, Nimesh; Arnous, Anis; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Bünger, Lutz; Hill, William G.; Mitchell, Sharon E.; Allison, David B.; Speakman, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species has been hypothesised to underpin the trade-off between reproduction and somatic maintenance, i.e., the life-history-oxidative stress theory. Previous tests of this hypothesis have proved equivocal, and it has been suggested that the variation in responses may be related to the tissues measured. Here, we measured oxidative damage (protein carbonyls, 8-OHdG) and antioxidant protection (enzymatic antioxidant activity and serum antioxidant capacity) in multiple tissues of reproductive (R) and non-reproductive (N) mice from two mouse strains selectively bred for high (H) or low (L) food intake, which differ in their reproductive performance, i.e., H mice have increased milk energy output (MEO) and wean larger pups. Levels of oxidative damage were unchanged (liver) or reduced (brain and serum) in R versus N mice, and no differences in multiple measures of oxidative protection were found between H and L mice in liver (except for Glutathione Peroxidase), brain or mammary glands. Also, there were no associations between an individual’s energetic investment (e.g., MEO) and most of the oxidative stress measures detected in various tissues. These data are inconsistent with the oxidative stress theory, but were more supportive of, but not completely consistent, with the ‘oxidative shielding’ hypothesis. PMID:27841266

  20. Effects of voluntarily-ingested buprenorphine on plasma corticosterone levels, body weight, water intake, and behaviour in permanently catheterised rats.

    PubMed

    Goldkuhl, Renée; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas S P

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the peri- and postoperative effect of pre-emptive analgesia through voluntary ingestion of buprenorphine in Nutella, in male Sprague-Dawley rats. An arterial catheter was inserted and the rats were connected to an automated blood sampling device (AccuSampler). Blood samples were drawn up to 18 h after surgery and the plasma concentrations of corticosterone were quantified. Postoperative changes in water intake and body weight were recorded, and the behaviour of the rats was analysed during two 30-min periods. Pre-emptive oral buprenorphine treatment reduced the plasma corticosterone levels in the postoperative period, compared to controls treated with local anaesthetics. Buprenorphine-treated rats consumed more water and maintained body weight better. Behavioural observations indicated that buprenorphine changed the behaviour in non-operated rats but there was no difference in the operated rats. The present study strengthens the hypothesis that pre-emptive oral buprenorphine in Nutella is suitable for treatment of postoperative pain in rats.

  1. Analysis of trans-fat levels in total diet and one-serving samples using the verified GC-method and estimation of the intake in Japan.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Maitani, Tamio; Matsuda, Rieko

    2011-01-01

    In Japan, discussions on the regulation and labeling of trans-fat (TF) have under way for several years in the Food Safety Commission and the Consumer Affairs Agency. However, administrative measures for TF have not yet been taken, partly because of the insufficiency of scientific data in Japan. To provide data about the TF intake by Japanese, we determined the levels of TF contained in total diet samples and in food samples that were served as individual meals (one-serving samples). We analyzed 5 groups of total diet samples prepared in 11 regions throughout Japan, and 5 categories of one-serving samples using the GC-method after verifying its performance. The estimated daily intake of TF based on the analytical results of the total diet samples was around 500 mg and no significant difference was observed in the intake of the TF among the 11 surveyed regions. On the other hand, many one-serving samples classified into "hamburger", "pizza" and "Western food" categories contained more than 500 mg of TF per serving, the standard value in the labeling regulation in the United States. If these one-serving meals are taken to represent one meal out of 3 in a day, the intake of TF can easily be expected to exceed the daily intake estimated through the analysis of the total diet samples.

  2. Plasma cortisol levels in response to a cold pressor test did not predict appetite or ad libitum test meal intake in obese women.

    PubMed

    Geliebter, Allan; Gibson, Charlisa D; Hernandez, Dominica B; Atalayer, Deniz; Kwon, Anne; Lee, Michelle I; Mehta, Nandini; Phair, Donna; Gluck, Marci E

    2012-12-01

    Heightened cortisol response to stress due to hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may stimulate appetite and food intake. In this study, we assessed cortisol responsivity to a cold pressor test (CPT) as well as appetite ratings and subsequent test meal intake (TMI) in obese women. Following an overnight fast on two counterbalanced days, 20 obese women immersed their non-dominant hand for 2min in ice water (CPT) or warm water (WW) as a control. Plasma cortisol (ng/ml), heart rate, and blood pressure, as well as ratings of stress, pain, and appetite, were serially acquired. An ad libitum liquid meal was offered at 45min and intake measured covertly. Fasting cortisol was higher at 15min (mean peak cortisol) following the CPT compared to WW. Higher stress was reported at 2 and 15min for the CPT compared to WW. Pain, an indirect marker of the acute stress, systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased following the CPT at 2min compared to WW. Hunger decreased after the CPT at 2 and 15min, and desire to eat ratings were lower following CPT compared to WW. Subjects did not have greater test meal intake (TMI) following CPT compared to WW. There was also no significant relationship between cortisol levels following stress and TMI, indicating that cortisol did not predict subsequent intake in obese women.

  3. Dietary intake and plasma lipid levels: lessons from a study of the diet of health conscious groups.

    PubMed Central

    Thorogood, M; Roe, L; McPherson, K; Mann, J

    1990-01-01

    AIM--To re-examine the contentious relation between diet and plasma lipids within a population. DESIGN--Cross sectional sample from a large prospective cohort study of people eating different diets in Britain. Blood samples and diet records collected from subjects. SUBJECTS--Volunteers eating one of four distinct diets--namely, vegans, vegetarians, fish eaters who do not eat meat, and meat eaters. 52 Subjects selected from each group. METHODS--Examination of the relation between nutritional intake recorded in a four day dietary record and plasma lipid concentrations of subjects measured in blood samples collected previously. RESULTS--After controlling for age, sex, and body mass index, the correlation between plasma total cholesterol and the Keys score (which includes dietary cholesterol and saturated and polyunsaturated fat) was 0.37 (p less than 0.001). The mean saturated fat intake in all groups was low (6-14% of energy), but polyunsaturated fat intake was high, so mean total fat intake was generally above that recommended. A high dietary fibre intake was not associated with high carbohydrate intake. Plasma high density lipoprotein values were not associated with any measure of fat intake, but there was a significant correlation of 0.24 between high density lipoprotein values and alcohol intake. CONCLUSIONS--The nature rather than quantity of dietary fat is an important determinant of cholesterol concentrations. Health conscious individuals select a fat modified, rather than a low fat--high carbohydrate diet. National cholesterol lowering dietary advice should be reconsidered. PMID:2369659

  4. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Entry to medical schools with 'A' level in mathematics rather than biology.

    PubMed

    Spurgin, C B

    1975-09-01

    The majority of British medical schools now accept for their shortest courses students who have mathematics at A level in place of the former requirement of biology A level. Only a small fraction of the entry, less than one-fifth, enters this way, in spite of statements by most medical schools that they make no distinction between those with mathematics and those with biology when making conditional offers of places. There is no evidence that those without biology are at a disadvantage in the courses. If the prospects of entry without A level biology were better publicized medical schools would have a wider field of possibly abler entrants, and pupils entering sixth forms could defer for a year a choice between a medical (or dental) career and one involving physical science, engineering, or other mathematics-based university education.

  6. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie S.; Rippe, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20–60 years old) were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US), one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ± 13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p < 0.001), but the change in weight was comparable among groups (p > 0.05). There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L), insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L), or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05). These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others. PMID:26512691

  7. High saturated fatty acid intake induces insulin secretion by elevating gastric inhibitory polypeptide levels in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kazue; Moriguchi, Ririko; Yamada, Yuichiro; Fujita, Misuzu; Yamato, Takako; Oumi, Masayo; Holst, Jens Juul; Seino, Yutaka

    2014-08-01

    Insulin resistance is central to the etiology of the metabolic syndrome cluster of diseases. Evidence suggests that a high-fat diet is associated with insulin resistance, which may be modulated by dietary fatty acid composition. We hypothesized that high saturated fatty acid intake increases insulin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) secretion. To clarify the effect of ingested fatty acid composition on glucose levels, we conducted an intervention study to investigate the insulin and plasma GIP responses in 11 healthy women, including a dietary control. Subjects were provided daily control meals (F-20; saturated fatty acids/monounsaturated fatty acids/polyunsaturated fatty acids [S/M/P] ratio, 3:4:3) with 20 energy (E) % fat, followed by 2 isoenergetic experimental meals for 7 days each. These meals comprised 60 E% carbohydrate, 15 E% protein, and 30 E% fat (FB-30; high saturated fatty acid meal; S/M/P, 5:4:1; F-30: reduced saturated fatty acid meal; S/M/P, 3:4:3). On the second day of the F-20 and the last day of F-30 and FB-30, blood samples were taken before and 30, 60, and 120 minutes after a meal tolerance test. The plasma glucose responses did not differ between F-20 and FB-30 or F-30. However, insulin levels were higher after the FB-30 than after the F-20 (P < .01). The GIP response after the FB-30 was higher than that after the F-30 (P < .05). In addition, the difference in the incremental GIP between FB-30 and F-30 correlated significantly and positively with that of the insulin. These results suggest that a high saturated fatty acid content stimulates postprandial insulin release via increased GIP secretion.

  8. Effects of peptide YY[3-36] on short-term food intake in mice are not affected by prevailing plasma ghrelin levels.

    PubMed

    Adams, Sean H; Won, Wesley B; Schonhoff, Susan E; Leiter, Andrew B; Paterniti, James R

    2004-11-01

    The gut-derived hormones peptide YY[3-36] (PYY[3-36]) and ghrelin are believed to influence similar hypothalamic circuits, albeit with opposing actions on energy balance. Thus, we carried out a series of studies to evaluate the interaction of these hormones on short-term food intake responses in mice. Intraperitoneal PYY[3-36] injection reduced short-term food intake by up to 50% in overnight-fasted mice and in postabsorptive animals during the early and late light cycle. This effect was not sensitive to the prevailing endogenous plasma acyl-ghrelin concentrations, which ranged from high physiological (overnight-fasted, 1252 +/- 108 pg/ml) to low levels (late light cycle, 402 +/- 33 pg/ml). PYY[3-36] administration did not reduce plasma total or acyl-ghrelin concentration in conjunction with its anorexigenic actions. Ghrelin increased short-term food intake by up to 1.8-fold in mice treated ip in the early light cycle, but was ineffective in animals treated after an overnight fast or during the late light cycle. Ghrelin did not increase food intake or GH secretion unless plasma levels were increased above high physiological fasting values. The anorexigenic effect of PYY[3-36] over a range of doses was not compromised by coinjection of ghrelin, and PYY[3-36] reduced food intake in agouti mice, which lack fully functional melanocortin signaling. These results in mice support a model in which 1) PYY[3-36] diminishes short-term food intake at least in part through mechanisms distinct from the neuropeptide Y/proopiomelanocortin neural circuits engaged by ghrelin; and 2) a reduction in circulating ghrelin is not requisite for the anorexigenic effects of PYY[3-36].

  9. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  10. A study on the relationship between the protein supplements intake satisfaction level and repurchase intention: Verification of mediation effects of word-of-mouth intention.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ill-Gwang

    2016-05-18

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the protein supplements intake satisfaction level and repurchase intention of university students majoring in physical education and verify the mediation effects of word-of-mouth intention. To achieve the purpose of this study, 700 university students majoring in physical education from 10 universities in Korea were selected from October 2013 to December 2013 as the target of this study through the cluster random sampling and data of 228 university students who had experience in the intake of protein supplements among them was analyzed. The composite reliability of each factor was in between 0.869 and 0.958, and the convergent validity and discriminant validity were verified. SPSS 18.0 and Amos 22.0 were utilized as data processing methods and the verification of significance on the medication effects and indirect effects of word-of-mouth intention was carried out using the frequency analysis, correlation analysis, CFA, SEM, and Amos bootstrapping. The result is as follows. The protein supplements intake satisfaction level had a positive effect on the word-of-mouth intention and the word-of-mouth intention had a positive effect on the repurchase intention. Also, it was shown that the word-of-mouth intention played a full mediation role between the intake satisfaction level and the repurchase intention.

  11. Zebrafish as a model for apolipoprotein biology: comprehensive expression analysis and a role for ApoA-IV in regulating food intake

    PubMed Central

    Otis, Jessica P.; Zeituni, Erin M.; Thierer, James H.; Anderson, Jennifer L.; Brown, Alexandria C.; Boehm, Erica D.; Cerchione, Derek M.; Ceasrine, Alexis M.; Avraham-Davidi, Inbal; Tempelhof, Hanoch; Yaniv, Karina; Farber, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Improved understanding of lipoproteins, particles that transport lipids throughout the circulation, is vital to developing new treatments for the dyslipidemias associated with metabolic syndrome. Apolipoproteins are a key component of lipoproteins. Apolipoproteins are proteins that structure lipoproteins and regulate lipid metabolism through control of cellular lipid exchange. Constraints of cell culture and mouse models mean that there is a need for a complementary model that can replicate the complex in vivo milieu that regulates apolipoprotein and lipoprotein biology. Here, we further establish the utility of the genetically tractable and optically clear larval zebrafish as a model of apolipoprotein biology. Gene ancestry analyses were implemented to determine the closest human orthologs of the zebrafish apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apoB, apoE and apoA-IV genes and therefore ensure that they have been correctly named. Their expression patterns throughout development were also analyzed, by whole-mount mRNA in situ hybridization (ISH). The ISH results emphasized the importance of apolipoproteins in transporting yolk and dietary lipids: mRNA expression of all apolipoproteins was observed in the yolk syncytial layer, and intestinal and liver expression was observed from 4–6 days post-fertilization (dpf). Furthermore, real-time PCR confirmed that transcription of three of the four zebrafish apoA-IV genes was increased 4 hours after the onset of a 1-hour high-fat feed. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that zebrafish ApoA-IV performs a conserved role to that in rat in the regulation of food intake by transiently overexpressing ApoA-IVb.1 in transgenic larvae and quantifying ingestion of co-fed fluorescently labeled fatty acid during a high-fat meal as an indicator of food intake. Indeed, ApoA-IVb.1 overexpression decreased food intake by approximately one-third. This study comprehensively describes the expression and function of eleven zebrafish apolipoproteins

  12. Zebrafish as a model for apolipoprotein biology: comprehensive expression analysis and a role for ApoA-IV in regulating food intake.

    PubMed

    Otis, Jessica P; Zeituni, Erin M; Thierer, James H; Anderson, Jennifer L; Brown, Alexandria C; Boehm, Erica D; Cerchione, Derek M; Ceasrine, Alexis M; Avraham-Davidi, Inbal; Tempelhof, Hanoch; Yaniv, Karina; Farber, Steven A

    2015-03-01

    Improved understanding of lipoproteins, particles that transport lipids throughout the circulation, is vital to developing new treatments for the dyslipidemias associated with metabolic syndrome. Apolipoproteins are a key component of lipoproteins. Apolipoproteins are proteins that structure lipoproteins and regulate lipid metabolism through control of cellular lipid exchange. Constraints of cell culture and mouse models mean that there is a need for a complementary model that can replicate the complex in vivo milieu that regulates apolipoprotein and lipoprotein biology. Here, we further establish the utility of the genetically tractable and optically clear larval zebrafish as a model of apolipoprotein biology. Gene ancestry analyses were implemented to determine the closest human orthologs of the zebrafish apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apoB, apoE and apoA-IV genes and therefore ensure that they have been correctly named. Their expression patterns throughout development were also analyzed, by whole-mount mRNA in situ hybridization (ISH). The ISH results emphasized the importance of apolipoproteins in transporting yolk and dietary lipids: mRNA expression of all apolipoproteins was observed in the yolk syncytial layer, and intestinal and liver expression was observed from 4-6 days post-fertilization (dpf). Furthermore, real-time PCR confirmed that transcription of three of the four zebrafish apoA-IV genes was increased 4 hours after the onset of a 1-hour high-fat feed. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that zebrafish ApoA-IV performs a conserved role to that in rat in the regulation of food intake by transiently overexpressing ApoA-IVb.1 in transgenic larvae and quantifying ingestion of co-fed fluorescently labeled fatty acid during a high-fat meal as an indicator of food intake. Indeed, ApoA-IVb.1 overexpression decreased food intake by approximately one-third. This study comprehensively describes the expression and function of eleven zebrafish apolipoproteins and

  13. [Salt intake in children].

    PubMed

    Girardet, J-P; Rieu, D; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M-L; Hankard, R; Goulet, O; Simeoni, U; Turck, D; Vidailhet, M

    2014-05-01

    Very early in life, sodium intake correlates with blood pressure level. This warrants limiting the consumption of sodium by children. However, evidence regarding exact sodium requirements in that age range is lacking. This article focuses on the desirable sodium intake according to age as suggested by various groups of experts, on the levels of sodium intake recorded in consumption surveys, and on the public health strategies implemented to reduce salt consumption in the pediatric population. Practical recommendations are given by the Committee on nutrition of the French Society of Pediatrics in order to limit salt intake in children.

  14. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Entity Relationship language Level 1 Version 2.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Anatoly; Le Novère, Nicolas; Luna, Augustin; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Mi, Huaiyu; Moodie, Stuart; Schreiber, Falk; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Entity Relationship language (ER) represents biological entities and their interactions and relationships within a network. SBGN ER focuses on all potential relationships between entities without considering temporal aspects. The nodes (elements) describe biological entities, such as proteins and complexes. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of interactions and relationships (or influences), e.g., complex formation, stimulation and inhibition. Among all three languages of SBGN, ER is the closest to protein interaction networks in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  15. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Process Description language Level 1 Version 1.3.

    PubMed

    Moodie, Stuart; Le Novère, Nicolas; Demir, Emek; Mi, Huaiyu; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Process Description language represents biological entities and processes between these entities within a network. SBGN PD focuses on the mechanistic description and temporal dependencies of biological interactions and transformations. The nodes (elements) are split into entity nodes describing, e.g., metabolites, proteins, genes and complexes, and process nodes describing, e.g., reactions and associations. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the nodes, such as consumption, production, stimulation and inhibition. Among all three languages of SBGN, PD is the closest to metabolic and regulatory pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  16. Life in the fat lane: seasonal regulation of insulin sensitivity, food intake, and adipose biology in brown bears.

    PubMed

    Rigano, K S; Gehring, J L; Evans Hutzenbiler, B D; Chen, A V; Nelson, O L; Vella, C A; Robbins, C T; Jansen, H T

    2017-05-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) have evolved remarkable metabolic adaptations including enormous fat accumulation during the active season followed by fasting during hibernation. However, these fluctuations in body mass do not cause the same harmful effects associated with obesity in humans. To better understand these seasonal transitions, we performed insulin and glucose tolerance tests in captive grizzly bears, characterized the annual profiles of circulating adipokines, and tested the anorectic effects of centrally administered leptin at different times of the year. We also used bear gluteal adipocyte cultures to test insulin and beta-adrenergic sensitivity in vitro. Bears were insulin resistant during hibernation but were sensitive during the spring and fall active periods. Hibernating bears remained euglycemic, possibly due to hyperinsulinemia and hyperglucagonemia. Adipokine concentrations were relatively low throughout the active season but peaked in mid-October prior to hibernation when fat content was greatest. Serum glycerol was highest during hibernation, indicating ongoing lipolysis. Centrally administered leptin reduced food intake in October, but not in August, revealing seasonal variation in the brain's sensitivity to its anorectic effects. This was supported by strong phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 labeling within the hypothalamus of hibernating bears; labeling virtually disappeared in active bears. Adipocytes collected during hibernation were insulin resistant when cultured with hibernation serum but became sensitive when cultured with active season serum. Heat treatment of active serum blocked much of this action. Clarifying the cellular mechanisms responsible for the physiology of hibernating bears may inform new treatments for metabolic disorders.

  17. The self-administration of rapidly delivered cocaine promotes increased motivation to take the drug: contributions of prior levels of operant responding and cocaine intake.

    PubMed

    Bouayad-Gervais, Karim; Minogianis, Ellie-Anna; Lévesque, Daniel; Samaha, Anne-Noël

    2014-10-01

    Rapid drug delivery to the brain might increase the risk for developing addiction. In rats, increasing the speed of intravenous cocaine delivery (5 vs. 90 s) increases drug intake and the subsequent motivation to self-administer cocaine. Increased motivation for cocaine could result not only from more extensive prior drug intake and operant responding for drug, but also from neuroplasticity evoked by rapid drug uptake. We determined the contributions of prior drug intake and operant responding to the increased motivation for cocaine evoked by rapid delivery. We also investigated the effects of cocaine delivery speed on corticostriatal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) mRNA. Rats self-administered cocaine (0.25 mg/kg/infusion) delivered over 5 or 90 s during short-access (1 h/session; ShA) or long-access (6 h; LgA) sessions. Motivation for cocaine was then assessed by measuring responding under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Next, BDNF and TrkB mRNA levels were measured in 5- and 90-s rats. Five-second ShA and 5-s-LgA rats were more motivated for cocaine than their 90-s counterparts. This effect was dissociable from previous levels of drug intake or of operant responding for cocaine. In parallel, only rats self-administering rapid cocaine injections had altered BDNF and TrkB mRNA levels in corticostriatal regions. Rapid drug delivery augments the motivation for cocaine independently of effects on the levels of drug intake or operant responding for drug. We suggest that rapid delivery might increase the motivation for drug by promoting neuroplasticity within reward pathways. This neuroplasticity could involve increased regulation of BDNF/TrkB.

  18. Effects of ceftriaxone on ethanol intake: a possible role for xCT and GLT-1 isoforms modulation of glutamate levels in P rats.

    PubMed

    Alhaddad, Hasan; Das, Sujan C; Sari, Youssef

    2014-10-01

    Evidence suggests that glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and cystine/glutamate exchanger transporter (xCT) are critical in maintaining glutamate homeostasis. We have recently demonstrated that ceftriaxone treatment induced upregulation of GLT1 levels and attenuated ethanol intake; however, less is known about the involvement of xCT on ethanol intake. In this study, we investigated the effects of ceftriaxone on the levels of xCT in both continuous and relapse-like ethanol drinking, as well as GLT-1 isoforms, and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) in relapse-like ethanol intake. P rats received free choice of 15 and 30 % ethanol and water for 5 weeks and then deprived of ethanol for 2 weeks. Rats were treated with ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline during the last 5 days of the 2-week deprivation period. After deprivation period, P rats were re-exposed to free choice of 15 and 30 % ethanol and water for nine consecutive days. A second group of P rats was given continuous ethanol access for 5 weeks, then ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline throughout the week 6. Ceftriaxone significantly attenuated relapse-like ethanol intake. Importantly, this effect of ceftriaxone was associated in part with upregulation of the levels of GLT-1a and GLT-1b isoforms and xCT in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc). There were no significant differences in GLAST expression among all groups. We also found that ceftriaxone treatment increased xCT levels in both PFC and NAc in continuous ethanol intake. These findings suggest that xCT and GLT-1 isoforms might be target proteins for the treatment of alcohol dependence.

  19. Levels of organization in biology: on the nature and nomenclature of ecology's fourth level.

    PubMed

    Lidicker, William Z

    2008-02-01

    Viewing the universe as being composed of hierarchically arranged systems is widely accepted as a useful model of reality. In ecology, three levels of organization are generally recognized: organisms, populations, and communities (biocoenoses). For half a century increasing numbers of ecologists have concluded that recognition of a fourth level would facilitate increased understanding of ecological phenomena. Sometimes the word "ecosystem" is used for this level, but this is arguably inappropriate. Since 1986, I and others have argued that the term "landscape" would be a suitable term for a level of organization defined as an ecological system containing more than one community type. However, "landscape" and "landscape level" continue to be used extensively by ecologists in the popular sense of a large expanse of space. I therefore now propose that the term "ecoscape" be used instead for this fourth level of organization. A clearly defined fourth level for ecology would focus attention on the emergent properties of this level, and maintain the spatial and temporal scale-free nature inherent in this hierarchy of organizational levels for living entities.

  20. Use of sediment serial dilution series to establish biological effect levels and clean-up goals

    SciTech Connect

    Timmer, E.; DeLong, T.; Millard, J.; Dobroski, C.

    1995-12-31

    A sediment serial dilution study was used to determine biological effect levels for two freshwater invertebrates, Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca. The sediments for the test were collected from a New England brook which contained elevated levels of lead and polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. The objective of the sediment dilution study was two-fold: (1 ) to provide a site-specific estimation of biological effect levels, thus reducing uncertainties associated with using literature-based values, and (2) to establish clean-up goals specific to this freshwater system.

  1. Nutrition knowledge, outcome expectations, self-efficacy, and eating behaviors by calcium intake level in Korean female college students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Ju; Kim, Kyung Won

    2015-10-01

    Calcium is important but deficient in diets of young adult women. This study aimed to examine if cognitive factors and eating behaviors differ according to calcium intake based on the Social Cognitive Theory. Subjects were female college students in Seoul, Korea. Three hundred students completed the questionnaire regarding calcium intake, nutrition knowledge, outcome expectations, self-efficacy and eating behaviors. Data on 240 students were analyzed using t-test or χ(2)-test. Subjects were categorized into two groups, high calcium intake (HC, ≥ 650 mg/day) and low calcium intake (LC, < 650 mg/day), according to recommended intakes of calcium for women aged 19-29 years. The LC group constituted 77.9% of total subjects. Nutrition knowledge was not different according to calcium intake. Three out of 12 outcome expectations items were significantly different between the HC and LC groups. Subjects in the HC group agreed more strongly with the practical benefits of consuming calcium-rich foods, including 'taste' (P < 0.01) and 'going well with other snacks' (P < 0.05), compared to those in the LC group. Negative expectations of 'indigestion' were stronger in the LC group than HC group (P < 0.001). Among self-efficacy items, perceived ability of 'eating dairy foods for snacks' (P < 0.001), 'eating dairy foods every day' (P < 0.01), and 'eating calcium-rich side dishes at meals' (P < 0.05) differed significantly between the HC and LC groups. Eating behaviors including more frequent consumption of dairy foods, fruits or fruit juice (P < 0.001), anchovy, seaweeds, green vegetables, protein-rich foods (P < 0.05), and less frequent consumption of sweets or soft drinks (P < 0.01) were significantly related to calcium intake. This study found that outcome expectations, self-efficacy in consuming calcium-rich foods, and eating behaviors are important in explaining calcium intake. Nutrition education needs to address practical benefits, reduce negative expectations of calcium

  2. Job Satisfaction Levels of Secondary School Physics, Chemistry and Biology Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maskan, A. Kadir

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the job satisfaction levels of the teachers participating in the study and to investigate whether their job satisfaction levels differ with respect to certain variables. The participants of the study were 297 science teachers (physics: 104, chemistry: 105, biology: 87 and 1 N/A) from secondary schools in…

  3. FROM ORGANISMS TO POPULATIONS: MODELING AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA ACROSS TWO LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical step in estimating the ecological effects of a toxicant is extrapolating organism-level response data across higher levels of biological organization. In the present study, the organism-to-population link is made for the mysid, Americamysis bahia, exposed to a range of...

  4. Job Satisfaction Levels of Secondary School Physics, Chemistry and Biology Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maskan, A. Kadir

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the job satisfaction levels of the teachers participating in the study and to investigate whether their job satisfaction levels differ with respect to certain variables. The participants of the study were 297 science teachers (physics: 104, chemistry: 105, biology: 87 and 1 N/A) from secondary schools in…

  5. FROM ORGANISMS TO POPULATIONS: MODELING AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA ACROSS TWO LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical step in estimating the ecological effects of a toxicant is extrapolating organism-level response data across higher levels of biological organization. In the present study, the organism-to-population link is made for the mysid, Americamysis bahia, exposed to a range of...

  6. Integrated Science as a Preparation for 'A' Level Physics, Chemistry and Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Peter J.

    1985-01-01

    Compared performance in A-level science examinations of students who took an integrated science course (SCISP) with students who studied the separate subjects of physics, chemistry, and biology to 0-level standard. Results show no significant differences between the performance of the two groups. (JN)

  7. Distribution of serum levels of persistent organic pollutants, heterocyclic aromatic amine theoretical intake and nutritional cofactors in a semi-rural island population.

    PubMed

    Carrizo, Daniel; Brennan, Sarah F; Chevallier, Olivier P; Woodside, Jayne; Cooper, Kevin M; Cantwell, Marie M; Cuskelly, Geraldine; Elliott, Christopher T

    2017-08-12

    Persistent organic pollutant (POP) exposure is strongly associated with negative health effects in humans. Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are formed during high temperature cooking of foods (i.e. meat and fish). Human exposure to HAA is through food consumption and from similar food groups to POPs. A study of serum samples for POPs in a non-occupational exposed population (n = 149, age range 18-80 years, recruited in 2012) and comparison with estimated HAA daily intake calculations based on food diaries were undertaken. Three different age groups (group 1, 18-29 years; group 2, 30-44 years; and group 3, 45-80 years) were used to explore possible relationships between POP levels present in blood, HAA intake and nutritional cofactors. Significant differences (p < 0.05) between groups (1 and 3) for POP levels were found for p,p'-DDE, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 153, PCB 138 and the sum of PCBs. A similar trend was found between groups 2 and 3 for PCB 153 and sum of PCBs. Significant differences were found between groups 1 and 3 and groups 2 and 3 for HAA intake., i.e. HAA intake was lowest in those of middle age, which may well reflect a different pathway of human exposure between HAA and POPs through the diet preferences.

  8. Effects of acute L-carnitine intake on metabolic and blood lactate levels of elite badminton players.

    PubMed

    Eroğlu, Hüseyin; Senel, Omer; Güzel, Nevin A

    2008-04-01

    Purpose of this study is to research the effects of acute L-Carnitine intake on badminton players' metabolic and blood lactate values. A total of 16 Turkish national badminton players (8 male, 8 female) were voluntarily participated into study. MaxVO2, MET, energy consumption, HR (heart rate), VE (minute ventilation), R (respiratory exchange ratio), AT (anaerobic threshold), oxygen pulse and blood lactate (LA) of subjects were measured by Sensormedics VmaxST and Accutrend Lactate Analyzer. The participants were subjected to the test protocol twice before and after 2g of L-Carnitine intake. The data were evaluated by the use of SPSS 13.0 for Windows. No significant differences were found between 1st. (without L-Carnitine intake) and 2nd. (with L-Carnitine intake) measurements of female participants as regards to all measured parameters. There was a significant difference in EMHR (exercise maximum heart rate) of males between two measurements (p<0.05). However the differences in other parameters were not significant. AT values of female subjects were not significant difference (p>0.05). Respiratory exchange ratio of males was significantly different at anaerobic threshold (p<0.05). Results of this study show that L-carnitine intake one hour prior to the exercise has no effect on the metabolic and blood lactate values of badminton players.

  9. Effect of Increased Water Intake on Urinary DNA Adduct Levels and Mutagenicity in Smokers: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Buendia Jimenez, Inmaculada; Richardot, Pascaline; Picard, Pascaline; Lepicard, Eve M.; De Meo, Michel; Talaska, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The association between fluid intake and bladder cancer risk remains controversial. Very little is known about to which extent the amount of water intake influences the action of excreting toxics upon the urinary system. This proof of concept trial investigates the effect of water intake on mutagenesis in smokers, a high risk population for bladder cancer. Methods. Monocentric randomized controlled trial. Inclusion Criteria. Male subjects aged 2045–45 y/o, smokers, and small drinkers (24-hour urinary volume <1 L and osmolality >700 mOsmol/kg). Outcomes. 4-ABP DNA adducts formation in exfoliated bladder cells in 24-hour urine collection and urinary mutagenicity in 24-hour urine. Test Group. Subjects consumed 1.5 L daily of the study product (EVIAN) on top of their usual water intake for 50 days. Control Group. Subjects continued their usual lifestyle habits. Results. 65 subjects were randomized. Mean age was 30 y/o and mean cigarettes per day were 20. A slight decrease in adducts formation was observed between baseline and last visit but no statistically significant difference was demonstrated between the groups. Urinary mutagenicity significantly decreased. The study shows that increasing water intake decreases urinary mutagenicity. It is not confirmed by urinary adducts formation. Further research would be necessary. PMID:26357419

  10. Areal and volumetric bone mineral density and geometry at two levels of protein intake during caloric restriction: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sukumar, Deeptha; Ambia-Sobhan, Hasina; Zurfluh, Robert; Schlussel, Yvette; Stahl, Theodore J; Gordon, Chris L; Shapses, Sue A

    2011-06-01

    Weight reduction induces bone loss by several factors, and the effect of higher protein (HP) intake during caloric restriction on bone mineral density (BMD) is not known. Previous study designs examining the longer-term effects of HP diets have not controlled for total calcium intake between groups and have not examined the relationship between bone and endocrine changes. In this randomized, controlled study, we examined how BMD (areal and volumetric), turnover markers, and hormones [insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and estradiol] respond to caloric restriction during a 1-year trial using two levels of protein intake. Forty-seven postmenopausal women (58.0 ± 4.4 years; body mass index of 32.1 ± 4.6 kg/m(2) ) completed the 1-year weight-loss trial and were on a higher (HP, 24%, n = 26) or normal protein (NP, 18%, n = 21) and fat intake (28%) with controlled calcium intake of 1.2 g/d. After 1 year, subjects lost 7.0% ± 4.5% of body weight, and protein intake was 86 and 60 g/d in the HP and NP groups, respectively. HP compared with NP diet attenuated loss of BMD at the ultradistal radius, lumbar spine, and total hip and trabecular volumetric BMD and bone mineral content of the tibia. This is consistent with the higher final values of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and lower bone-resorption marker (deoxypyridinoline) in the HP group than in the NP group (p < .05). These data show that a higher dietary protein during weight reduction increases serum IGF-1 and attenuates total and trabecular bone loss at certain sites in postmenopausal women.

  11. Areal and Volumetric Bone Mineral Density and Geometry at Two Levels of Protein Intake During Caloric Restriction: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sukumar, Deeptha; Ambia-Sobhan, Hasina; Zurfluh, Robert; Schlussel, Yvette; Stahl, Theodore J; Gordon, Chris L; Shapses, Sue A

    2011-01-01

    Weight reduction induces bone loss by several factors, and the effect of higher protein (HP) intake during caloric restriction on bone mineral density (BMD) is not known. Previous study designs examining the longer-term effects of HP diets have not controlled for total calcium intake between groups and have not examined the relationship between bone and endocrine changes. In this randomized, controlled study, we examined how BMD (areal and volumetric), turnover markers, and hormones [insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and estradiol] respond to caloric restriction during a 1-year trial using two levels of protein intake. Forty-seven postmenopausal women (58.0 ± 4.4 years; body mass index of 32.1 ± 4.6 kg/ m2) completed the 1-year weight-loss trial and were on a higher (HP, 24%, n =26) or normal protein (NP, 18%, n =21) and fat intake (28%) with controlled calcium intake of 1.2 g/d. After 1 year, subjects lost 7.0% ± 4.5% of body weight, and protein intake was 86 and 60 g/d in the HP and NP groups, respectively. HP compared with NP diet attenuated loss of BMD at the ultradistal radius, lumbar spine, and total hip and trabecular volumetric BMD and bone mineral content of the tibia. This is consistent with the higher final values of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and lower bone-resorption marker (deoxypyridinoline) in the HP group than in the NP group ( p <.05). These data show that a higher dietary protein during weight reduction increases serum IGF-1 and attenuates total and trabecular bone loss at certain sites in postmenopausal women. PMID:21611972

  12. Increasing doses of fiber do not influence short-term satiety or food intake and are inconsistently linked to gut hormone levels

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Holly J.; Thomas, William; Eldridge, Alison L.; Harkness, Laura; Green, Hilary; Slavin, Joanne L.

    2010-01-01

    Background People who eat more fiber often have a lower body weight than people who eat less fiber. The mechanism for this relationship has been explained, in part, by increased satiety, which may occur as a result of changes in appetite-suppressing gut hormone levels, and decreases in food intake at subsequent meals. Objective We hypothesized that increasing doses of mixed fiber, consumed in muffins for breakfast, would proportionally influence satiety, gut hormone levels, and subsequent food intake. Design This was a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Healthy men (n=10) and women (n=10) with a BMI of 24±2 (mean±SEM) participated in this study. Fasting subjects consumed a muffin with 0, 4, 8, or 12 g of mixed fibers and approximately 500 kcal. Visual analog scales rated hunger and satiety for 3 h; blood was drawn to measure ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY3–36 (PYY3–36) at various intervals; and food intake was measured at an ad libitum lunch. Results Responses to satiety-related questions did not differ among treatments. However, despite lack of differences in satiety, gut hormone levels differed among treatments. Ghrelin was higher after the 12 g fiber dose than after the 4 and 8 g fiber doses. GLP-1 was higher after the 0 g fiber dose than after the 12 and 4 g fiber doses, and PYY3–36 did not differ among fiber doses. Food intake was also indistinguishable among doses. Conclusion Satiety, gut hormone response, and food intake did not change in a dose-dependent manner after subjects consumed 0, 4, 8, and 12 g of mixed fiber in muffins for breakfast. PMID:20596303

  13. Increasing doses of fiber do not influence short-term satiety or food intake and are inconsistently linked to gut hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Willis, Holly J; Thomas, William; Eldridge, Alison L; Harkness, Laura; Green, Hilary; Slavin, Joanne L

    2010-06-29

    People who eat more fiber often have a lower body weight than people who eat less fiber. The mechanism for this relationship has been explained, in part, by increased satiety, which may occur as a result of changes in appetite-suppressing gut hormone levels, and decreases in food intake at subsequent meals. We hypothesized that increasing doses of mixed fiber, consumed in muffins for breakfast, would proportionally influence satiety, gut hormone levels, and subsequent food intake. This was a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Healthy men (n=10) and women (n=10) with a BMI of 24+/-2 (mean+/-SEM) participated in this study. Fasting subjects consumed a muffin with 0, 4, 8, or 12 g of mixed fibers and approximately 500 kcal. Visual analog scales rated hunger and satiety for 3 h; blood was drawn to measure ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)) at various intervals; and food intake was measured at an ad libitum lunch. Responses to satiety-related questions did not differ among treatments. However, despite lack of differences in satiety, gut hormone levels differed among treatments. Ghrelin was higher after the 12 g fiber dose than after the 4 and 8 g fiber doses. GLP-1 was higher after the 0 g fiber dose than after the 12 and 4 g fiber doses, and PYY(3-36) did not differ among fiber doses. Food intake was also indistinguishable among doses. Satiety, gut hormone response, and food intake did not change in a dose-dependent manner after subjects consumed 0, 4, 8, and 12 g of mixed fiber in muffins for breakfast.

  14. Consequences of radiotherapy on nutritional status, dietary intake, serum zinc and copper levels in patients with gastrointestinal tract and head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Reza; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad; Ghaeammaghami, Jamal; Jabbari, Morteza V

    2007-03-01

    Malnutrition occurs frequently in cancer patients and is multifactorial and can lead to negative outcomes. So we studied the effect of radiotherapy on nutritional status, weight changes, dietary intake, serum zinc and copper levels. During the period of October to March 2005, 45 cancer patients who referred to the Radiotherapy Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Iran were recruited. We assessed the nutritional status of patients using Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) questionnaire. Patients on the basis of location of radiotherapy classified to mediastinum, head and neck and pelvic groups. Changes in dietary intake (using 24-hour recall method) and body weight were evaluated prior to and during radiotherapy. At the onset and the end of radiotherapy, serum levels of zinc, copper and albumin were determined. After treatment malnutrition increased significantly in all patients (p=0.01) and in head and neck (p=0.007) and pelvic groups (p=0.04). The decreased body weight of patients was significant in the head and neck (p=0.02), and pelvic groups (p=0.005). The mean daily energy and protein intake of head and neck and pelvic groups decreased during radiotherapy while energy intake increased significantly in mediastinum group (p=0.01). After treatment, significant decreases also observed in mean serum zinc, copper and albumin levels (p<0.05). Because of the negative effect of radiotherapy on oral feeding, nutritional assessment and intervention should be an integral part of treatment. Also, it would be worthwhile studying the effect of zinc supplementation on dietary intake and nutritional status of patients.

  15. Quantum biology at the cellular level--elements of the research program.

    PubMed

    Bordonaro, Michael; Ogryzko, Vasily

    2013-04-01

    Quantum biology is emerging as a new field at the intersection between fundamental physics and biology, promising novel insights into the nature and origin of biological order. We discuss several elements of QBCL (quantum biology at cellular level) - a research program designed to extend the reach of quantum concepts to higher than molecular levels of biological organization. We propose a new general way to address the issue of environmentally induced decoherence and macroscopic superpositions in biological systems, emphasizing the 'basis-dependent' nature of these concepts. We introduce the notion of 'formal superposition' and distinguish it from that of Schroedinger's cat (i.e., a superposition of macroscopically distinct states). Whereas the latter notion presents a genuine foundational problem, the former one contradicts neither common sense nor observation, and may be used to describe cellular 'decision-making' and adaptation. We stress that the interpretation of the notion of 'formal superposition' should involve non-classical correlations between molecular events in a cell. Further, we describe how better understanding of the physics of Life can shed new light on the mechanism driving evolutionary adaptation (viz., 'Basis-Dependent Selection', BDS). Experimental tests of BDS and the potential role of synthetic biology in closing the 'evolvability mechanism' loophole are also discussed.

  16. The Main Biological Hazards in Animal Biosafety Level 2 Facilities and Strategies for Control.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao Yan; Xue, Kang Ning; Jiang, Jin Sheng; Lu, Xuan Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Concern about the biological hazards involved in microbiological research, especially research involving laboratory animals, has increased in recent years. Working in an animal biosafety level 2 facility (ABSL-2), commonly used for research on infectious diseases, poses various biological hazards. Here, the regulations and standards related to laboratory biosafety in China are introduced, the potential biological hazards present in ABSL-2 facilities are analyzed, and a series of strategies to control the hazards are presented. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  17. Applying a biomedical top-level ontology to encode biological taxa.

    PubMed

    Boeker, Martin; Stenzhorn, Holger; Schulz, Stefan

    2008-11-06

    Classifying biological entities in terms of species and taxa is an important endeavor in biology. But even though many statements within current biomedical ontologies are indeed taxon-dependent, no standard way exists to properly introduce taxon or species information into current ontological architectures. Therefore we discuss various practices to represent such information by applying a biomedical top-level ontology combined with other standard approaches like description logics or the OBO Foundry.

  18. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2.

    PubMed

    Mi, Huaiyu; Schreiber, Falk; Moodie, Stuart; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Luna, Augustin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Sorokin, Anatoly; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Activity Flow language represents the influences of activities among various entities within a network. Unlike SBGN PD and ER that focus on the entities and their relationships with others, SBGN AF puts the emphasis on the functions (or activities) performed by the entities, and their effects to the functions of the same or other entities. The nodes (elements) describe the biological activities of the entities, such as protein kinase activity, binding activity or receptor activity, which can be easily mapped to Gene Ontology molecular function terms. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the activities, e.g., positive influence and negative influence. Among all three languages of SBGN, AF is the closest to signaling pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  19. Dietary fiber intake is associated with HbA1c level among prevalent patients with type 2 diabetes in Pudong New Area of Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Junyi; Qiu, Hua; Zhao, Genming; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Zhijie; Zhang, Hong; Jiang, Qingwu; Sun, Qiao; Wu, Hongyan; Yang, Liming; Ruan, Xiaonan; Xu, Wang-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Dietary factors play an important role in glycemic control in diabetic patients. However, little is known about their effects among Chinese diabetic patients, whose diets are typically abundant in fiber and high in glycemic index (GI) values. 934 patients with type 2 diabetes and 918 healthy volunteers from Pudong New Area, Shanghai, China, were interviewed during the period of Oct-Dec, 2006 to elicit demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. Dietary habits were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements, bio-specimen collection and biochemical assays were conducted at the interview according to a standard protocol. In this population, diabetic patients consumed lower levels of energy and macronutrients but had higher levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycolated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), triglyceride and body mass index than healthy adults. While the average consumption levels of the nutrients among diabetic patients did not vary along duration of the disease, the average levels of FPG and HbA1c increased with increasing duration. Regardless of diabetes duration, HbA1c level was observed lower in patients having a higher fiber or lower GI intake. Compared with those with the lowest tertile intake of fiber, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for poor glycemic control reduced from 0.75 (95%CI: 0.54-1.06) to 0.51 (95%CI: 0.34-0.75) with increasing tertile intake (P for trend <0.001). Dietary fiber may play an important role in reducing HbA1c level. Increasing fiber intake may be an effective approach to improve glycemic control among Chinese diabetic patients.

  20. Automatic Compilation from High-Level Biologically-Oriented Programming Language to Genetic Regulatory Networks

    PubMed Central

    Beal, Jacob; Lu, Ting; Weiss, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Background The field of synthetic biology promises to revolutionize our ability to engineer biological systems, providing important benefits for a variety of applications. Recent advances in DNA synthesis and automated DNA assembly technologies suggest that it is now possible to construct synthetic systems of significant complexity. However, while a variety of novel genetic devices and small engineered gene networks have been successfully demonstrated, the regulatory complexity of synthetic systems that have been reported recently has somewhat plateaued due to a variety of factors, including the complexity of biology itself and the lag in our ability to design and optimize sophisticated biological circuitry. Methodology/Principal Findings To address the gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities, we present a platform that enables synthetic biologists to express desired behavior using a convenient high-level biologically-oriented programming language, Proto. The high level specification is compiled, using a regulatory motif based mechanism, to a gene network, optimized, and then converted to a computational simulation for numerical verification. Through several example programs we illustrate the automated process of biological system design with our platform, and show that our compiler optimizations can yield significant reductions in the number of genes () and latency of the optimized engineered gene networks. Conclusions/Significance Our platform provides a convenient and accessible tool for the automated design of sophisticated synthetic biological systems, bridging an important gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities. Our platform is user-friendly and features biologically relevant compiler optimizations, providing an important foundation for the development of sophisticated biological systems. PMID:21850228

  1. Ratio of fat to energy intake independently associated with the duration of diabetes and total cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Young-Seol; Cho, Mi-Ran; Choue, Ryowon

    2011-04-01

    The importance of dietary intake in the treatment of type 2 diabetes was emphasized. This study was performed to investigate the dietary intakes of Korean type 2 diabetes patients according to the treatment and duration of diabetes and to examine the relationships between their diet and serum lipid profiles. The subjects were 111 type 2 diabetic patients who were treated by medical nutrition therapy only, oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA), or insulin with medical nutrition therapy. Dietary intake was assessed by a registered dietitian using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. Comparisons according to treatment type were made using covariance analyses. General linear models identified the independent effects of the different treatments after covarying for age, duration of diabetes, and 2-way interactions. There were no significant differences in age and BMI but was in duration of diabetes according to treatment type in these subjects. Carbohydrate to energy ratio was higher in the OHA group (P < 0.05), whereas the fat to energy ratio was higher in the insulin group for males (P < 0.05). Carbohydrate (R(2) = 0.24, P = 0.005) and fat (R(2) = 0.26, P = 0.02) to energy ratios were independently associated with the duration of diabetes after covarying for age, sex, treatment, and 2-way interactions. The levels of triglyceride (TG; R(2) = 0.32, P = 0.02) and total cholesterol (TC) were associated independently with energy intake and the carbohydrate (R(2) = 0.15, P = 0.02) and fat (R(2) = 0.15, P = 0.01) to energy ratios, respectively. The concern that the independent association of dietary intake with either duration of diabetes or dietary factors affects blood lipid levels could suggest that specific dietary recommendations may work better for identifiable groups of diabetes patients.

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels in an expanded market basket survey of U.S. food and estimated PBDE dietary intake by age and sex.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Päpke, Olaf; Harris, T Robert; Tung, K C; Musumba, Alice; Olson, James; Birnbaum, Linda

    2006-10-01

    Our objectives in this study were to expand a previously reported U.S. market basket survey using a larger sample size and to estimate levels of PBDE intake from food for the U.S. general population by sex and age. We measured concentrations of 13 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in food in 62 food samples. In addition, we estimated levels of PBDE intake from food for the U.S. general population by age (birth through > or = 60 years of age) and sex. In food samples, concentrations of total PBDEs varied from 7.9 pg/g (parts per trillion) in milk to 3,726 pg/g in canned sardines. Fish were highest in PBDEs (mean, 1,120 pg/g; median, 616 pg/g; range, 11.14-3,726 pg/g). This was followed by meat (mean, 383 pg/g; median, 190 pg/g; range, 39-1,426 pg/g) and dairy products (mean, 116 pg/g; median, 32.2 pg/g; range, 7.9-683 pg/g). However, using estimates for food consumption (excluding nursing infants), meat accounted for the highest U.S. dietary PBDE intake, followed by dairy and fish, with almost equal contributions. Adult females had lower dietary intake of PBDEs than did adult males, based on body weight. We estimated PBDE intake from food to be 307 ng/kg/day for nursing infants and from 2 ng/kg/day at 2-5 years of age for both males and females to 0.9 ng/kg/day in adult females. Dietary exposure alone does not appear to account for the very high body burdens measured. The indoor environment (dust, air) may play an important role in PBDE body burdens in addition to food.

  3. Prolonged high iodine intake is associated with inhibition of type 2 deiodinase activity in pituitary and elevation of serum thyrotropin levels.

    PubMed

    Li, Ningna; Jiang, Yaqiu; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2012-03-01

    Our previous epidemiological study indicated that excessive intake of iodine could potentially lead to hypothyroidism. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the time and dose effect of iodine intake on serum thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) levels and to explore the non-autoimmune regulation of serum TSH by pituitary type 2 deiodinase (D2). A total of 360 Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups depending on administered iodine dosages (folds of physiological dose): normal iodine (NI), 3-fold iodine (3HI), 6-fold iodine (6HI), 10-fold iodine (10HI) and 50-fold iodine (50HI). At 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks after administration of sodium iodide, blood was collected for serum TSH measurement by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Pituitaries were also excised for measurement of TSHβ subunit expression, D2 expression and activity, monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) and thyroid hormone receptor β2 isoform (TRβ2) levels. The results showed that iodine intake of 10HI and 50HI significantly increased pituitary and serum TSH levels from 8 to 24 weeks (P < 0·05 v. NI). Excess iodine had no effect on D2 mRNA or protein expression; however, 10HI and 50HI administration significantly inhibited pituitary D2 activities from 8 to 24 weeks (P < 0·05 v. NI). Iodine had no effect on MCT8 or TRβ2 protein levels. We conclude that prolonged high iodine intake inhibits pituitary D2 activity and induces elevation of serum TSH levels. These findings may provide a potential mechanism of iodine excess-induced overt and subclinical hypothyroidism.

  4. Dietary intake and serum and hair concentrations of minerals and their relationship with serum lipids and glucose levels in hypertensive and obese patients with insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, Joanna; Bogdański, Paweł; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Krejpcio, Zbigniew

    2011-02-01

    Inadequate minerals intake, as well as disruption of some metabolic processes in which microelements are cofactors, are suggested to lead to the development of hypertension. The role of minerals in the pathogenesis of hypertension still remains to be explained. In the present study, we sought to determine associations between serum and hair mineral concentrations and serum lipids and glucose levels. Forty obese hypertensive subjects with insulin resistance and 40 healthy volunteers were recruited in the study. Blood pressure, BMI, and insulin resistance were recorded in all subjects. Levels of lipids, glucose, sodium and potassium, iron, copper, zinc, magnesium, and calcium were assessed in serum. Iron, copper, zinc, magnesium, and calcium were assessed in hair. Dietary intake of the analyzed minerals was estimated. We found distinctly higher concentrations of serum iron and serum and hair calcium as well as markedly lower levels of hair zinc in the hypertensive subjects. The study group manifested also significantly lower daily intake of calcium, magnesium, and iron. We observed a relationship between the concentrations of iron, zinc, and copper in serum and hair and high and low range of cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose serum levels in the studied patients. Moreover, this study demonstrated significant correlation between serum and hair concentrations of selected minerals and their dietary intake and levels of serum lipids and glucose and blood pressure in the study and the control groups. The obtained results seem to indicate the association between lipid and glucose metabolism and iron, copper, zinc, and calcium concentrations in blood and hair of hypertensive and obese patients with insulin resistance.

  5. Physical activity level, nutritional intake, functional status and quality of life of geriatric individuals in Lagos, South-West, Nigeria: a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Osho, O A; Abidoye, R O; Owoeye, O B A; Akinfeleye, A M; Akinbo, S R A

    2011-01-01

    Participation in physical activity (PA) and healthy nutrition are important factors that affects muscle and bone strength and the resultant functioning in the activities of daily living (ADL) skills including the overall quality of life (QoL) of geriatric individuals. However, the relationships between all these parameters are yet to be fully documented and studies from developing countries are lacking. This study was designed to investigate the relationships between PA level, frequency of nutritional intake of food rich in calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin D and the basic ADL, instrumental ADL and QoL of geriatric individuals in Lagos, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study involving 394 geriatric individuals. A combination of standardized questionnaires which assessed the socio-demographic parameters, PA level, frequency of intake of food rich in calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin D, ADL skills, and QoL of the geriatric individuals was used. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson's chi-square. The highest proportion (35.5%) of participating geriatric individuals was at the active PA level. PA level was statistically associated with QoL, basic and instrumental ADL, (X2 = 199.57, p = 0.001; X2 = 87.07, p = 0.000; and X2 = 164.53, p = 0.001 respectively). There was also an association between frequency of intake of food rich in calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin D and the basic ADL (X2 = 97.43, p = 0.001), instrumental ADL (X2 = 151.56, p = 0.001) and QoL (X2 = 250.21, p = 0.001) of the studied geriatric individuals. The study demonstrated that an increase in PA level and regular intake of food rich in calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin D were associated with optimal functional status and better QoL in geriatric individuals. Educational programmes on the importance of participation in regular PA and healthy nutrition are imperative and recommended for geriatric individuals.

  6. Effects of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Serum Leptin Levels, Appetite Sensations, and Intake of Energy and Macronutrients in Obese People: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Payahoo, L; Ostadrahimi, A; Farrin, N; Khaje-Bishak, Y

    2017-10-05

    Obesity is a common health problem. Appetite is one of the main obesity-controlling factors that can be influenced by leptin. Leptin reduces food intake and accelerates energy expenditure. Leptin levels can be affected by dietary factors such as fats, special amino acids, and fructose. This study aimed to determine the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (PUFA n-3) supplementation on serum leptin levels, appetite sensations, and dietary intakes in obese people. This study was performed on 60 obese individuals with body mass index (BMI) 30 (kg/m(2)) and above in 2012 in Tabriz, Iran. The participants were randomly allocated to the intervention (consumed two capsules containing 1 g/day n-3 fatty acids [180 mg EPA, 120 mg DHA] for 4 weeks) and control groups. Serum leptin levels were assessed by ELISA method, and visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaire was completed for evaluating appetite sensations. The mean caloric [before = 1,575.39 (600), after = 1,236.14 (448.40)] and macronutrient intakes were decreased significantly in the intervention group (p < .05). After adjusting for baseline serum leptin levels, age, and gender values, the fullness item significantly increased in the intervention group [before = 2 (1-5), after = 3 (1-5), p = .034]. In addition, BMI decreased and serum leptin levels increased nonsignificantly in the intervention group. According to the results, PUFA n-3 decreased energy and macronutrient intakes, probably through the modulating of satiety. The short period of study caused the nonsignificant changes in BMI and circulatory leptin. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.

  7. Effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate: IV. Feed intake, rumen fermentation and milk production in milking cows.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, Metha; Pilajun, Ruangyote; Rowlinson, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Four early-lactation crossbred cows (82.5 % Holstein) were selected to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on rumen fermentation and milk production. Cows were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin Square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source: cassava chip (CC) and CC + rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1), and factor B was variation in the level of cottonseed meal (CM): low (LCM) and high (HCM) in isonitrogenous diets (180 g CP/kg DM). It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, dry matter digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial population, milk yield and composition, or economic return (P > 0.05). However, cows fed with CC had a higher population of amylolytic bacteria than cows fed with CR3:1 (P < 0.05). Cows fed with HCM had a higher total feed intake, milk yield and composition, and milk income when compared with cows fed on LCM although the concentrate and roughage intakes, dry matter digestibility, rumen fermentation, and microbial populations were similar between treatments (P > 0.05). In addition, the carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level interactions were not significant for any parameter. It could be concluded that cassava chip and high level of cottonseed meal could usefully be incorporated into concentrates for dairy cows without impacting on rumen fermentation or milk production.

  8. Effect of increasing levels of undegradable intake protein on metabolic and endocrine factors in estrous cycling beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Kane, K K; Hawkins, D E; Pulsipher, G D; Denniston, D J; Krehbiel, C R; Thomas, M G; Petersen, M K; Hallford, D M; Remmenga, M D; Roberts, A J; Keisler, D H

    2004-01-01

    To determine the influence of three levels of undegradable intake protein (UIP) supplementation on metabolic and endocrine factors that influence reproduction, 23 yearling crossbred heifers (body condition score = 4.5 +/- 0.5; initial BW = 362 +/- 12 kg) were stratified by BW and assigned randomly to one of three supplements: 1) low UIP (1,135 g x heifer(-1) x d(-1); 30% CP, 115 g UIP, n = 7); 2) mid UIP (1,135 g x heifer(-1) x d(-1); 38% CP, 216 g UIP, n = 8); or 3) high UIP (1,135 g x heifer(-1) x d(-1); 46% CP, 321 g UIP, n = 8). Heifers were estrually synchronized before initiation of supplementation. Supplement was individually fed daily for 30 to 32 d, at which time heifers were slaughtered (d 12 to 14 of the estrous cycle) and tissues collected. Heifers were fed a basal diet of sudan grass hay (6.0% CP) ad libitum. On d 28 of supplementation (d 10 of the estrous cycle), no differences were observed (P > 0.10) in serum insulin or IGF-I among treatments. At slaughter (d 10 to 12 of the estrous cycle), treatments did not influence corpus luteum weight, cerebral spinal fluid leptin, or IGFBP; serum estradiol-17beta, progesterone, leptin, IGF-I, and IGFBP; or anterior pituitary content of IGFBP (P > 0.10). Follicular fluid IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-4 were greater in high-UIP heifers than low- or mid-UIP heifers on d 12 to 14 of the estrous cycle (P < 0.05). Basal serum LH concentrations and LH area under the curve (every 15 min for 240 min) did not differ (P > 0.10) following 28 d of supplementation (d 10 of the estrous cycle); however, basal serum FSH concentrations were greater (P = 0.06) in low- and mid- vs. high-UIP heifers (5.2 and 5.2 vs. 4.6 ng/mL, respectively), and FSH area under the curve was greater (P = 0.03) in low- vs. high-UIP heifers. At slaughter (d 12 to 14 of the estrous cycle), anterior pituitary LH and FSH content and steady-state mRNA encoding alpha, LHbeta, and GnRH receptor did not differ (P > 0.10) among treatments. However, FSHbeta mRNA was

  9. A comparison of levels of select minerals in scalp hair samples with estimated dietary intakes of these minerals in women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, J

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate daily intake of minerals and concentrations of minerals in hair in women of reproductive age. The study included 77 menstruating women, aged 35.9 ± 9.7 years. Subjects were divided into three groups according to age. All women were healthy. Hair samples were taken from several points of the occipital scalp. The content of minerals in hair samples was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Dietary intake of the analysed minerals was assayed on the basis of dietary intake interviews from three preceding days and evaluated using the dietetic computer programme. It was shown that calcium and iron daily intake by the women was below the recommended value. Only few women had low concentrations (below reference values) of magnesium, copper and zinc in hair. Statistically significant differences were shown between age groups. Generally, the concentrations of minerals in hair in the younger (19-30 years) and the older women (41-50 years) were higher than in hair of middle-aged women (31-40 years). The content of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc in daily diets of women correlated inversely with copper level in their hair. Food products with good bioavailability of iron and calcium should be recommended for women of childbearing age in all age groups.

  10. Association of Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Messenger RNA Level, Food Intake, and Growth in Channel Catfish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  11. Associations of food and nutrient intakes with serum IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, TGF-b1, total SOD activity and sFas levels among middle-aged Japanese: the Japan Collaborative Cohort study.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Koutatsu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Ito, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Inaba, Yutaka; Tajima, Kazuo; Nakachi, Kei; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2009-12-01

    No observational study has examined whether cancer-related biomarkers are associated with diet in Japanese. We therefore assessed sex-specific food and nutrient intakes according to serum IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, TGF-b1, total SOD activity and sFas levels, under a cross-sectional study of 10,350 control subjects who answered the food frequency questionnaire in the first-wave nested case-control study within the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. For both men and women, IGF-I levels were associated with higher intakes of milk, fruits, green tea, calcium and vitamin C. IGF-II levels were associated with higher intakes of milk, yogurt, fruits and miso soup, and lower intakes of rice, coffee and carbohydrate. IGFBP-3 levels were associated with higher intakes of milk, yogurt, fruits and vitamin C, and lower intakes of rice, energy, protein, carbohydrate, sodium and polyunsaturated fatty acids. TGF-b1 levels were associated with lower intakes of coffee intakes, and higher intakes of miso soup and sodium. Total SOD activity levels were associated with lower intakes of most nutrients other than energy, carbohydrate, iron, copper, manganese, retinol equivalents, vitamin A, B2, B12, niacin, folic acid, vitamin C and fish fat. sFas levels were associated with higher intakes of manganese and folic acids. The results of the present study should help to account for findings on those biomarkers regarding risks of cancer and other lifestyle-related diseases in terms of dietary confounding as causality.

  12. Patient care in a biological safety level-4 (BSL-4) environment.

    PubMed

    Marklund, LeRoy A

    2003-06-01

    The greatest threats to America's public health include accidental importation of deadly diseases by international travelers and the release of biologic weapons by our adversaries. The greatest failure is unpreparedness because international travel and dispersion of biologic agents by our enemies are inevitable. An effective medical defense program is the recommended deterrent against these threats. The United States has a federal response plan in place that includes patient care and patient transport by using the highest level of biologic containment: BSL-4. The DoD has the capability to provide intensive care for victims infected with highly infectious yet unknown biologic agents in an environment that protects the caregiver while allowing scientists to study the characteristics of these new agents and assess the effectiveness of treatment. Army critical care nurses are vital in the biologic medical defense against unidentified infectious diseases, accidental occupational exposures, or intentional dispersion of weaponized biologic agents. Research that carefully advances healthcare using BSL-4 technology addresses the challenges of the human element of BSL-4 containment patient care, and BSL-4 patient transport enhances our nation's ability to address the emerging biologic threats we confront in the future.

  13. Dietary Intake Ratios of Calcium-to-Phosphorus and Sodium-to-Potassium Are Associated with Serum Lipid Levels in Healthy Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Bu, So-Young; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Eun-Jin; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify food sources for major minerals such as calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na) and potassium (K), and to evaluate the relationship between dietary intake of these minerals and serum lipids in healthy Korean adults. A total of 132 healthy men and women completed a physical examination and dietary record and provided blood samples for lipid profile analysis. Results showed the following daily average mineral intakes: 373.4 mg of calcium, 806.0 mg of phosphorous, 3685.8 mg of sodium, and 1938.3 mg of potassium. The calcium-to-phosphorus and sodium-to-potassium ratio was about 0.5 and 2.0, respectively. The primary sources for each mineral were: vegetables (24.9%) and fishes (19.0%) for calcium, grains (31.4%) for phosphorus, seasonings (41.6%) and vegetables (27.0%) for sodium, and vegetables (30.6%) and grains (18.5%) for potassium. The correlation analysis, which has been adjusted for age, gender, total food consumption, and energy intake, showed significantly positive correlations between Ca/P and serum HDL cholesterol levels, between Na intake and the level of serum total cholesterol, and between Na/K and the level of serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Our data indicates that the level of mineral consumption partially contributes to serum lipid profiles and that a diet consisting of a low Ca/P ratio and a high Na/K ratio may have negative impacts on lipid metabolism.

  14. Dietary Intake Ratios of Calcium-to-Phosphorus and Sodium-to-Potassium Are Associated with Serum Lipid Levels in Healthy Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bu, So-Young; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Eun-Jin; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify food sources for major minerals such as calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na) and potassium (K), and to evaluate the relationship between dietary intake of these minerals and serum lipids in healthy Korean adults. A total of 132 healthy men and women completed a physical examination and dietary record and provided blood samples for lipid profile analysis. Results showed the following daily average mineral intakes: 373.4 mg of calcium, 806.0 mg of phosphorous, 3685.8 mg of sodium, and 1938.3 mg of potassium. The calcium-to-phosphorus and sodium-to-potassium ratio was about 0.5 and 2.0, respectively. The primary sources for each mineral were: vegetables (24.9%) and fishes (19.0%) for calcium, grains (31.4%) for phosphorus, seasonings (41.6%) and vegetables (27.0%) for sodium, and vegetables (30.6%) and grains (18.5%) for potassium. The correlation analysis, which has been adjusted for age, gender, total food consumption, and energy intake, showed significantly positive correlations between Ca/P and serum HDL cholesterol levels, between Na intake and the level of serum total cholesterol, and between Na/K and the level of serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Our data indicates that the level of mineral consumption partially contributes to serum lipid profiles and that a diet consisting of a low Ca/P ratio and a high Na/K ratio may have negative impacts on lipid metabolism. PMID:24471069

  15. Effect of changes in food groups intake on magnesium, zinc, copper, and selenium serum levels during 2 years of dietary intervention.

    PubMed

    Paz-Tal, Ofra; Canfi, Ayala; Marko, Rachel; Katorza, Esther; Karpas, Zeev; Shai, Iris; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Sheiner, Einat K

    2015-01-01

    Essential elements in serum are related to specific changes in food groups intake. To address the effect of 2-year food intake changes in an intervention study on serum concentrations of magnesium, zinc, copper, and selenium. Two hundred thirty-one participants, a subgroup of the Dietary Intervention Randomized Control Trial (DIRECT) study (age = 52 years; body mass index = 32.8 kg/m(2); 85% males) randomized to low-fat, Mediterranean, or low-carbohydrate diets in a 2-year dietary intervention trial were followed for serum concentrations determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Changes in the intake of 11 food groups were evaluated by food frequency questionnaires. Using multivariate regression models, adjusted for age, sex, baseline body weight (kg), and changes in intakes of 11 food groups (g/d), at 12 months, serum element elevations were observed mainly in the low-carbohydrate group: selenium, by increasing consumption of fats and oils (β = 0.415, p = 0.009) and legumes (β = 0.183, p = 0.010) and decreasing fruit intake (β = -0.438, p = 0.030); copper, by increasing consumption of legumes (β = 0.453, p = 0.018) and dairy products (β = 0.320, p = 0.039); magnesium by increasing fish consumption (β = 0.374, p = 0.042) in the low-carbohydrate group and in the entire study population (β = 0.237, p = 0.016); and zinc exclusively in the low-fat group by decreasing consumption of fats and oils (β = -0.575, p = 0.022). At 24 months, serum elements were elevated mainly in the low-fat diet group, mostly by decreasing intake of snacks, sweets, and cakes: zinc (β = -0.570, p = 0.027), copper (β = -0.649, p = 0.012), and selenium (β = -0.943, p < 0.001). Also in this group, magnesium levels were elevated by increasing vegetable intake (β = 0.395, p = 0.041), copper by increasing fruit intake (β = 0.375, p = 0.025), and selenium by increasing consumption of bread, pasta, and cereals (β = 0.751, p = 0.011). The entire group, further

  16. Higher habitual intake of dietary fat and carbohydrates are associated with lower leptin and higher ghrelin concentrations in overweight and obese postmenopausal women with elevated insulin levels

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Angela; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Xiao, Liren; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; McTiernan, Anne; Foster-Schubert, Karen E.

    2009-01-01

    A highly regulated homeostatic system governs body weight; however, it is possible that this system might be impaired by the sustained intake of highly palatable foods. Short-term feeding studies suggest that the appetite stimulating hormone ghrelin is suppressed less effectively by dietary fat intake, and diets high in sucrose decrease levels of the adipose hormone leptin. We hypothesized that higher habitual intake of dietary fat and carbohydrate (CHO) would be associated with elevated concentrations of circulating plasma ghrelin and lower circulating leptin in humans, a hormonal profile which could promote weight gain. To test our hypothesis, we examined the cross sectional associations of ghrelin and leptin with the habitual macronutrient intake of 165 healthy overweight and obese sedentary women and tested the modifying role of insulin in these associations. We observed a significant inverse association between leptin concentrations and percent calories from CHO independent of body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, age, and intra-abdominal fat (ß=−0.11 p=0.04). No significant associations were observed between ghrelin and macronutrients or their subtypes among the total cohort. Among women with insulin concentrations at or above the median, we found a statistically significant positive association between intake of saturated fat and ghrelin concentrations, as well as additional statistically significant associations between leptin concentrations and macronutrients not observed among the total cohort. Our results provide some evidence that diets higher in fat and CHO are associated with a hormonal profile (i.e. lower leptin and higher ghrelin concentrations), which could enhance weight gain; particularly among individuals with higher circulating insulin concentrations. PMID:19932865

  17. The challenges for molecular nutrition research 4: the "nutritional systems biology level".

    PubMed

    van Ommen, Ben; Cavallieri, Duccio; Roche, Helen M; Klein, Ulla I; Daniel, Hannelore

    2008-12-01

    Nutritional systems biology may be defined as the ultimate goal of molecular nutrition research, where all relevant aspects of regulation of metabolism in health and disease states at all levels of its complexity are taken into account to describe the molecular physiology of nutritional processes. The complexity spans from intracellular to inter-organ dynamics, and involves iterations between mathematical modelling and analysis employing all profiling methods and other biological read-outs. On the basis of such dynamic models we should be enabled to better understand how the nutritional status and nutritional challenges affect human metabolism and health. Although the achievement of this proposition may currently sound unrealistic, many initiatives in theoretical biology and biomedical sciences work on parts of the solution. This review provides examples and some recommendations for the molecular nutrition research arena to move onto the systems level.

  18. On the effects of Fusarium toxin-contaminated wheat and the feed intake level on the metabolism and carry over of zearalenone in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Seeling, K; Dänicke, S; Ueberschär, K H; Lebzien, P; Flachowsky, G

    2005-09-01

    The aim was to investigate the effect of feeding Fusarium toxin-contaminated wheat to dairy cows on the metabolism and carry over of zearalenone (ZON) and its metabolites at different feed intakes. Fourteen dairy cows equipped with rumen and duodenal fistulae were used. The experiment consisted of a control period in which the uncontaminated wheat was fed and a mycotoxin period in which the Fusarium toxin-contaminated wheat (8.21 mg deoxynivalenol (DON) and 91 microg ZON kg(-1) dry matter (DM)) was replaced by the control wheat (0.25 mg DON kg(-1) and 51 microg ZON kg(-1) DM). The wheat portion of the concentrate fed daily amounted to 55% on a DM basis. The ration was completed with maize and grass silage (50:50), whereby the maize silage contained 62 microg ZON kg(-1) DM. Feed intakes were adjusted to the current performance of the individual cows. The ZON metabolites alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZOL) and beta-zearalenol (beta-ZOL) were recovered at the duodenum beside the parent toxin ZON. The recovery of ingested ZON as ZON plus alpha-ZOL plus beta-ZOL at the duodenum ranged between 19 and 247%. The portion of ZON (ranging from 29 to 99%) of the ZON plus alpha-ZOL plus beta-ZOL flow at the duodenum increased significantly with increasing ZON feed intake, whereas the portion of beta-ZOL (up to 57%) decreased significantly. In contrast, portions of ZON in faeces (32-100%), alpha-ZOL (up to 39%) and beta-ZOL (up to 43%) of ZON plus alpha-ZOL plus beta-ZOL were independent of ZON intake. It seems that a lower retention time of the feed and the toxins in the rumen as an effect of the increased feed intake may limit the ruminal metabolization of ZON. The relatively steady recovery of ingested ZON as ZON, alpha-ZOL and beta-ZOL in faeces at the different levels of ZON intake would suggest a further reduction of ZON by intestinal microorganisms. Furthermore, ZON and its metabolites in the milk were lower than the detection limits at daily ZON and DM intakes between 75 and

  19. Effects of increasing level of corn distillers dried grains with solubles on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation in steers fed seventy percent concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Leupp, J L; Lardy, G P; Karges, K K; Gibson, M L; Caton, J S

    2009-09-01

    Five ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers (500 +/- 5 kg of initial BW) were used in a 5 x 5 Latin square to evaluate effects of increasing level of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in growing diets (70% concentrate) on OM intake, site of digestion, ruminal fermentation, and microbial efficiency. Diets consisted of 30% grass hay, 6% concentrated separator by-product, 4% supplement, and 60% dry-rolled corn, sunflower meal, urea, or DDGS (DM basis). Treatments consisted of increasing DDGS at 0, 15, 30, 45, or 60% of diet DM replacing a combination of dry-rolled corn, sunflower meal, and urea. Diets were balanced for growing steers gaining 1.22 kg/d and included 0.25% (DM basis) chromic oxide as a digesta flow marker. Diets were offered to the steers for ad libitum intake each day (10% above the intake of the previous day). Each period consisted of 14 d for adaptation and 7 d for collections. Intake of OM responded quadratically (P = 0.004) with greatest intakes at 15% DDGS and least at 60% DDGS. No differences (P >or= 0.14) were observed in CP intake or duodenal flow of OM, CP, and NDF. Apparent and true ruminal OM digestibilities decreased (linear; P or= 0.19). A cubic (P = 0.02) effect was observed for total ruminal fill (as is basis) with the greatest fill at 0% DDGS and the least fill at 45% inclusion. Replacing dry-rolled corn with up to 60% DDGS in 70% concentrate diets resulted in no adverse effects on

  20. Focus on Pivotal Role of Dietary Intake (Diet and Supplement) and Blood Levels of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols in Obtaining Successful Aging.

    PubMed

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Faliva, Milena Anna; Peroni, Gabriella; Moncaglieri, Francesca; Infantino, Vittoria; Naso, Maurizio; Perna, Simone

    2015-09-25

    Numerous specific age-related morbidities have been correlated with low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. We performed a review in order to evaluate the extant evidence regarding: (1) the association between intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols and age-related pathologies (osteoporosis, sarcopenia and cognitive impairment); and (2) the optimum diet therapy or supplementation with tocopherols and tocotrienols for the treatment of these abnormalities. This review included 51 eligible studies. The recent literature underlines that, given the detrimental effect of low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols on bone, muscle mass, and cognitive function, a change in the lifestyle must be the cornerstone in the prevention of these specific age-related pathologies related to vitamin E-deficient status. The optimum diet therapy in the elderly for avoiding vitamin E deficiency and its negative correlates, such as high inflammation and oxidation, must aim at achieving specific nutritional goals. These goals must be reached through: accession of the elderly subjects to specific personalized dietary programs aimed at achieving and/or maintaining body weight (avoid malnutrition); increase their intake of food rich in vitamin E, such as derivatives of oily seeds (in particular wheat germ oil), olive oil, hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and cereals rich in vitamin E (such as specific rice cultivar rich in tocotrienols) or take vitamin E supplements. In this case, vitamin E can be correctly used in a personalized way either for the outcome from the pathology or to achieve healthy aging and longevity without any adverse effects.

  1. Whole-tract digesta kinetics and comparison of techniques for the estimation of fecal output in steers fed coastal bermudagrass hay at four levels of intake.

    PubMed

    Luginbuhl, J M; Pond, K R; Burns, J C

    1994-01-01

    Coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers) hay was fed to four ruminally cannulated steers (380 +/- 14 kg BW) of evaluate the effects of intake level on digesta flow kinetics in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Forage intakes represented 50, 70, 88, and 99% of feed voluntarily consumed per animal during a pre-experimental period. Masticated boli and wet-sieved masticated leaves (ML) and stems (MS) retained by a 4.0-mm sieve and feces retained by a .063-mm sieve were mordanted with chromium or marked with erbium, ytterbium, or dysprosium, respectively. Particle markers and a solution of Co-EDTA were pulse-dosed via the ruminal cannula. A continuous infusion of Co-EDTA was later delivered with peristaltic pumps. Intake level had no effect (P > .10) on fluid and particle passage rate (PR; percentage/hour) of any fractions marked. For all particle fractions, increasing intake level caused linear decreases in mean retention time (MRT; P < .03 to P < .07) and linear increases in gastrointestinal tract fill (FILL; P < .003 to P < .02) and fecal output (FO; P < .001). Estimates of FO and DM digestibility from the pulse dose of Cr mordant and continuous infusion of Co-EDTA did not differ. Kinetic estimates differed in magnitude according to the characteristics of the particle fractions marked. Marked feces gave the shortest estimate of MRT and the smallest estimate of FILL and FO. Kinetics of ML and MS also differed (P < .001), the former having faster PR, shorter MRT, and smaller FILL and FO. Use of representative samples of ingested feed should give more realistic estimates of digesta kinetics than estimates derived from ingesta fractions because kinetics of separated leaf and stem fractions differed.

  2. Mushroom and dietary selenium intakes in relation to fasting glucose levels in a free-living Italian adult population: the Moli-sani Project.

    PubMed

    Pounis, G; Costanzo, S; Persichillo, M; de Curtis, A; Sieri, S; Vinceti, M; Zito, F; Di Castelnuovo, A F; Donati, M B; de Gaetano, G; Iacoviello, L

    2014-02-01

    Mushrooms are known to be a major food source of selenium, a mineral associated with diabetes prevalence. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between mushroom and dietary selenium intakes and blood glucose levels in a free-living adult Italian population. A total of 6879 men and 6891 women (aged 53.1±11.0years) with neither diabetes nor on special diets were analyzed from the population randomly recruited for the Moli-sani study. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) food frequency questionnaire was used for dietary assessment. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were measured from fasting serum samples, and diabetes prevalence was determined according to American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria. In men, an increase of one (30-g) portion/week in mushroom consumption was associated with a 0.43-0.55mmol/L increase in FBG at different levels of adjustment (P<0.05). In both men and women, dietary selenium was positively associated with blood glucose in both unadjusted and fully adjusted models (P<0.05 for all). Both mushroom and dietary selenium intakes were independently associated with blood glucose on multivariate analyses. In addition, high intakes of both were associated with higher diabetes prevalence in men and women (OR>1, P<0.05). The association of mushroom and selenium intakes with FBG suggests that mushroom and selenium might each independently increase the risk of diabetes. However, prospective studies are now necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Focus on Pivotal Role of Dietary Intake (Diet and Supplement) and Blood Levels of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols in Obtaining Successful Aging

    PubMed Central

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Faliva, Milena Anna; Peroni, Gabriella; Moncaglieri, Francesca; Infantino, Vittoria; Naso, Maurizio; Perna, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Numerous specific age-related morbidities have been correlated with low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. We performed a review in order to evaluate the extant evidence regarding: (1) the association between intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols and age-related pathologies (osteoporosis, sarcopenia and cognitive impairment); and (2) the optimum diet therapy or supplementation with tocopherols and tocotrienols for the treatment of these abnormalities. This review included 51 eligible studies. The recent literature underlines that, given the detrimental effect of low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols on bone, muscle mass, and cognitive function, a change in the lifestyle must be the cornerstone in the prevention of these specific age-related pathologies related to vitamin E-deficient status. The optimum diet therapy in the elderly for avoiding vitamin E deficiency and its negative correlates, such as high inflammation and oxidation, must aim at achieving specific nutritional goals. These goals must be reached through: accession of the elderly subjects to specific personalized dietary programs aimed at achieving and/or maintaining body weight (avoid malnutrition); increase their intake of food rich in vitamin E, such as derivatives of oily seeds (in particular wheat germ oil), olive oil, hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and cereals rich in vitamin E (such as specific rice cultivar rich in tocotrienols) or take vitamin E supplements. In this case, vitamin E can be correctly used in a personalized way either for the outcome from the pathology or to achieve healthy aging and longevity without any adverse effects. PMID:26404241

  4. Multiweek Cell Culture Project for Use in Upper-Level Biology Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Rebecca E.; Gardner, Grant E.; Parks, Lisa D.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a laboratory protocol for a multiweek project piloted in a new upper-level biology laboratory (BIO 426) using cell culture techniques. Human embryonic kidney-293 cells were used, and several culture media and supplements were identified for students to design their own experiments. Treatments included amino acids, EGF,…

  5. Multiweek Cell Culture Project for Use in Upper-Level Biology Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Rebecca E.; Gardner, Grant E.; Parks, Lisa D.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a laboratory protocol for a multiweek project piloted in a new upper-level biology laboratory (BIO 426) using cell culture techniques. Human embryonic kidney-293 cells were used, and several culture media and supplements were identified for students to design their own experiments. Treatments included amino acids, EGF,…

  6. FROM INDIVIDUALS TO POPULATIONS: MODELING TOXICITY DATA ACROSS LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Raimondo, Sandy and Charles L. McKenney, Jr. In press. From Individuals to Populations: Modeling Toxicity Data Across Levels of Biological Organization (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland, OR. 1 p. (ERL,GB R1012).

    ...

  7. Evaluation Studies of the Nuffield A-level Biology Trials - 5. Students after the Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    The final part of a five-part series reporting the results of the evaluation of the trial version of the Nuffield A-level Biology Project presents data from a follow-up study of students one year after they completed the trials. Student perception of the objectives of the course is reported, and employer or supervisor comments on strengths and…

  8. Evaluation Studies of the Nuffield A-Level Biology Trials - 4. School Characteristics and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    Teacher motivation, class size, type of school (administrative arrangement), and instructional facilities available had little differential influence on student achievement in the trials of the Nuffield A-Level Biology course. The mean achievement of the students in the schools tended to reflect the general calibre and aspirations of past and…

  9. The Teaching of Options in JMB A-Level Biology: Some Teachers' Views.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrick, Tessa

    1983-01-01

    Some aspects of the selection and teaching of options of the Joint Matriculation Board's Advanced Level Biology syllabus were investigated by means of a questionnaire. The teachers' opinions of the options and their aims in teaching them are considered. Options seem to be regarded favorably by most of the teachers. (Author/JN)

  10. Advanced Level Biology Teachers' Attitudes towards Assessment and Their Engagement in Assessment for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a Mixed Methods study involving an investigation into the attitudes of advanced level biology teachers towards assessment and describes the teachers' experiences while being engaged in Assessment for Learning (AfL) practices such as sharing of learning objectives and peer- and self-assessment. Quantitative data were collected…

  11. FROM INDIVIDUALS TO POPULATIONS: MODELING TOXICITY DATA ACROSS LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Raimondo, Sandy and Charles L. McKenney, Jr. In press. From Individuals to Populations: Modeling Toxicity Data Across Levels of Biological Organization (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland, OR. 1 p. (ERL,GB R1012).

    ...

  12. Household, psychosocial, and individual-level factors associated with fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake among low-income urban African American youth.

    PubMed

    Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Kharmats, Anna Yevgenyevna; Hurley, Kristen Marie; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-08-24

    and fiber intake (OR 1.26; 1.06-1.50; OR 1.28; 1.03-1.58, respectively). Also, youth with parents who shopped more frequently at fast-food stores had 7 % lower odds for higher vegetable intake (95 % CI: 0.88-0.99). In this study, both, youth and household factors were associated with youth FV and fiber intake, underscoring the need for a multi-level approach to increasing youths' diet quality. These results will inform and shape an effective intervention program for improving youth dietary intakes.

  13. Serum Zinc and Adiponectin Levels in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Adjusted for Anthropometric, Biochemical, Dietary Intake, and Physical Activity Measures.

    PubMed

    Mazloomi, Sahar; Alizadeh, Narges; Aminzare, Majid; Niroomand, Soudabeh; Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda

    2017-02-03

    Previous studies have shown that serum zinc and adiponectin levels are associated with insulin resistance in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. But there is no study to evaluate serum zinc and adiponectin levels as predictor markers of PCOS, adjusted for anthropometric, biochemical, dietary intake, and physical activity measures. Ninety-one new PCOS cases (based on the Rotterdam criteria) and 85 healthy control women participated and individually matched based on age. Food intake of all participants obtained by the food frequency and physical activity level was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaires. Serum glucose, lipid profile, androgens, insulin, adiponectin, and zinc concentrations were measured at the fasting state. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, and body fat, as well as serum levels of DHEAS, insulin, TG, LDL cholesterol (LDL.C), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and LH/FSH ratio, were significantly higher in the PCOS compared with those of the healthy control women. Serum levels of zinc and adiponectin were significantly lower in the PCOS than those of the healthy control women. Results of the logistic regression model showed significant effects of adiponectin, zinc, and LH/FSH ratio on the PCOS, adjusted for anthropometric and biochemical measures (p < 0.05). In the present study, serum level of zinc had significant correlation with adiponectin in the PCOS patients, and serum levels of zinc, adiponectin, and LH/FSH ratio had significant effects on the PCOS occurrence.

  14. Plant protein intake is associated with fibroblast growth factor 23 and serum bicarbonate levels in patients with chronic kidney disease: the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study.

    PubMed

    Scialla, Julia J; Appel, Lawrence J; Wolf, Myles; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Sozio, Stephen M; Miller, Edgar R; Bazzano, Lydia A; Cuevas, Magdalena; Glenn, Melanie J; Lustigova, Eva; Kallem, Radhakrishna R; Porter, Anna C; Townsend, Raymond R; Weir, Matthew R; Anderson, Cheryl A M

    2012-07-01

    Protein from plant, as opposed to animal, sources may be preferred in chronic kidney disease (CKD) because of the lower bioavailability of phosphate and lower nonvolatile acid load. Observational cross-sectional study. A total of 2,938 participants with CKD and information on their dietary intake at the baseline visit in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Percentage of total protein intake from plant sources (percent plant protein) was determined by scoring individual food items using the National Cancer Institute Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Metabolic parameters, including serum phosphate, bicarbonate (HCO₃), potassium, and albumin, plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), and parathyroid hormone (PTH), and hemoglobin levels. We modeled the association between percent plant protein and metabolic parameters using linear regression. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, diabetes status, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, income, smoking status, total energy intake, total protein intake, 24-hour urinary sodium concentration, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, and use of diuretics. Higher percent plant protein was associated with lower FGF-23 (P = .05) and higher HCO₃ (P = .01) levels, but not with serum phosphate or parathyroid hormone concentrations (P = .9 and P = .5, respectively). Higher percent plant protein was not associated with higher serum potassium (P = .2), lower serum albumin (P = .2), or lower hemoglobin (P = .3) levels. The associations of percent plant protein with FGF-23 and HCO₃ levels did not differ by diabetes status, sex, race, CKD stage (2/3 vs. 4/5), or total protein intake (≤0.8 g/kg/day vs. >0.8 g/kg/day; P-interaction >.10 for each). This is a cross-sectional study; determination of percent plant protein using the Diet History Questionnaire has not been validated. Consumption of a higher percentage of protein from plant sources may lower FGF-23 and

  15. The effect of prolonged breast-feeding on the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis in population with insufficient calcium intake and vitamin D level.

    PubMed

    Yun, B H; Chon, S J; Choi, Y S; Cho, S; Lee, B S; Seo, S K

    2016-09-01

    Breast-feeding affects bone metabolism and calcium homeostasis, and prolonged breast-feeding may influence the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis, particularly in highly susceptible populations. The study determined that breast-feeding may be a risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis, especially in people with low calcium intakes and vitamin D deficiencies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether breast-feeding is a risk factor in the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis, especially in highly susceptible population. The study was performed using data from the 2010 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and it included 1231 postmenopausal women who were aged between 45 and 70 years. Osteoporosis was defined using the World Health Organization's T-score criteria, namely, a T-score of ≤-2.5 at the femoral neck or the lumbar spine. The patients' ages, body mass indexes, daily calcium intakes, serum vitamin D levels, exercise levels, smoking histories, and reproductive factors relating to menarche, menopause, delivery, breast-feeding, hormone treatment, and oral contraceptive use were evaluated. Comparisons between the osteoporosis and non-osteoporosis groups were undertaken using Student's t test and the chi-square test, and logistic regression models were built. A significant increase in the risk of osteoporosis was apparent in postmenopausal women with prolonged breast-feeding histories (≥24 months) (model 1: odds ratio [OR] = 2.489; 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.111 to 5.578, p = 0.027; model 2: OR = 2.503; 95 % CI = 1.118 to 5.602, p = 0.026; model 3: OR = 2.825; 95 % CI = 1.056 to 7.56, p = 0.039), particularly in those with inadequate serum vitamin D levels and calcium intakes (<800 mg/day). Breast-feeding seems to increase the risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis; however, its impact may not be definitive in women with sufficient vitamin D levels and calcium

  16. Influence of level of deoxynivalenol in the diet of dairy cows on feed intake, milk production, and its composition.

    PubMed

    Charmley, E; Trenholm, H L; Thompson, B K; Vudathala, D; Nicholson, J W; Prelusky, D B; Charmley, L L

    1993-11-01

    Eighteen primiparous Holstein cows were used in a 10-wk lactation study, preceded by a 2-wk covariate period, to determine the effect of concentration of deoxynivalenol in the diet on cow performance and transfer of deoxynivalenol and its metabolite, deepoxydeoxynivalenol, to milk. Diets were formulated to contain deoxynivalenol at 0, 6, and 12 mg/kg of concentrate DM, and daily intake of deoxynivalenol was .59, 42, and 104 mg, respectively. Increasing deoxynivalenol in the diet did not affect intake of concentrate or forage. Total milk output was not affected; however, milk fat responded quadratically; cows given deoxynivalenol at 6 mg/kg of concentrate DM had the lowest milk fat content and fat output. Overall energetic efficiency was not influenced because reduced energy output in milk was compensated by increased BW gains. No transfer of deoxynivalenol or deepoxydeoxynivalenol to milk was observed; concentrations were below detectable limits (1 microgram/ml) using HPLC-mass spectroscopy. We concluded that diets containing deoxynivalenol up to 6 mg/kg of dietary DM did not reduce feed intake of cows in this study and that deoxynivalenol or deepoxydeoxynivalenol was not transferred to milk. Further studies are required to confirm the apparent lack of effect of deoxynivalenol on milk production.

  17. SERS of whole-cell bacteria and trace levels of biological molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzelian, Andrew A.; Sylvia, James M.; Janni, James A.; Clauson, Susan L.; Spencer, Kevin M.

    2002-02-01

    Through its several orders of magnitude signal enhancement over normal Raman, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) provides an opportunity to extend the benefits of vibrational spectroscopy to trace level detection. SERS in particular holds great potential for biological sensing due to the weak Raman bands of water and the reduction in fluorescence backgrounds from interactions of the analyte with the metal SERS substrate. This work examines the trace level detection of biological molecules and oligomers such as amino acids, peptides, and oligonucleotides as well as the detection of whole cell bacteria. The SERS substrates employed are electrochemically roughened gold. The biological molecules show well-resolved and intense bands that are an effective spectral signature; these bands also persist in corresponding oligomeric compounds. Spectra from whole cell bacteria have been obtained for several species, including gram-positive and gram-negative strains. Viable and nonviable cells have also been examined and significant spectral differences are observed. The results show the potential for using SERS as an analytical tool for the identification of biological molecules and microorganisms with applications in biological agent detection, food and water monitoring, and the search for signs of extraterrestrial life.

  18. Effects of estrogen on food intake, serum leptin levels and leptin mRNA expression in adipose tissue of female rats.

    PubMed

    Fungfuang, Wirasak; Terada, Misao; Komatsu, Noriyuki; Moon, Changjong; Saito, Toru R

    2013-09-01

    The integration of metabolism and reproduction involves complex interactions of hypothalamic neuropeptides with metabolic hormones, fuels, and sex steroids. Of these, estrogen influences food intake, body weight, and the accumulation and distribution of adipose tissue. In this study, the effects of estrogen on food intake, serum leptin levels, and leptin mRNA expression were evaluated in ovariectomized rats. Seven-week-old female Wistar-Imamichi rats were ovariectomized and divided into three treatment groups: group 1 (the control group) received sesame oil, group 2 was given 17β-estradiol benzoate, and group 3 received 17β-estradiol benzoate plus progesterone. The body weight and food consumption of each rat were determined daily. Serum leptin levels and leptin mRNA expression were measured by ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Food consumption in the control group was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that in groups 2 and 3, although body weight did not significantly differ among the three groups. The serum leptin concentration and leptin mRNA expression were significantly higher (P<0.05) in groups 2 and 3 than in group 1, but no significant difference existed between groups 2 and 3. In conclusion, estrogen influenced food intake via the modulation of leptin signaling pathway in ovariectomized rats.

  19. Associations of serum insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 levels with biomarker-calibrated protein, dairy product and milk intake in the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Jeannette M; Gunter, Marc J; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Prentice, Ross L; Neuhouser, Marian L; Tinker, Lesley F; Vitolins, Mara Z; Strickler, Howard D

    2014-03-14

    It is well established that protein-energy malnutrition decreases serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels, and supplementation of 30 g of whey protein daily has been shown to increase serum IGF-I levels by 8 % after 2 years in a clinical trial. Cohort studies provide the opportunity to assess associations between dietary protein intake and IGF axis protein levels under more typical eating conditions. In the present study, we assessed the associations of circulating IGF axis protein levels (ELISA, Diagnostic Systems Laboratories) with total biomarker-calibrated protein intake, as well as with dairy product and milk intake, among postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (n 747). Analyses were carried out using multivariate linear regression models that adjusted for age, BMI, race/ethnicity, education, biomarker-calibrated energy intake, alcohol intake, smoking, physical activity and hormone therapy use. There was a positive association between milk intake and free IGF-I levels. A three-serving increase in milk intake per d (approximately 30 g of protein) was associated with an estimated average 18·6 % higher increase in free IGF-I levels (95 % CI 0·9, 39·3 %). However, total IGF-I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels were not associated with milk consumption and nor were there associations between biomarker-calibrated protein intake, biomarker-calibrated energy intake, and free IGF-I, total IGF-I or IGFBP-3 levels. The findings of the present study carried out in postmenopausal women are consistent with clinical trial data suggesting a specific relationship between milk consumption and serum IGF-I levels, although in the present study this association was only statistically significant for free, but not total, IGF-I or IGFBP-3 levels.

  20. The impact of system level factors on treatment timeliness: utilizing the Toyota Production System to implement direct intake scheduling in a semi-rural community mental health clinic.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Addie; Greeno, Catherine G; Goughler, Donald H; Yarzebinski, Kathleen; Zimmerman, Tina; Anderson, Carol

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the effect of using the Toyota Production System (TPS) to change intake procedures on treatment timeliness within a semi-rural community mental health clinic. One hundred randomly selected cases opened the year before the change and 100 randomly selected cases opened the year after the change were reviewed. An analysis of covariance demonstrated that changing intake procedures significantly decreased the number of days consumers waited for appointments (F(1,160) = 4.9; p = .03) from an average of 11 to 8 days. The pattern of difference on treatment timeliness was significantly different between adult and child programs (F(1,160) = 4.2; p = .04), with children waiting an average of 4 days longer than adults for appointments. Findings suggest that small system level changes may elicit important changes and that TPS offers a valuable model to improve processes within community mental health settings. Results also indicate that different factors drive adult and children's treatment timeliness.

  1. Public health economic evaluation of different European Union–level policy options aimed at reducing population dietary trans fat intake12

    PubMed Central

    Mouratidou, Theodora; Livaniou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The adverse relation between dietary trans fatty acid (TFA) intake and coronary artery disease risk is well established. Many countries in the European Union (EU) and worldwide have implemented different policies to reduce the TFA intake of their populations. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the added value of EU-level action by estimating the cost-effectiveness of 3 possible EU-level policy measures to reduce population dietary TFA intake. This was calculated against a reference situation of not implementing any EU-level policy (i.e., by assuming only national or self-regulatory measures). Design: We developed a mathematical model to compare different policy options at the EU level: 1) to do nothing beyond the current state (reference situation), 2) to impose mandatory TFA labeling of prepackaged foods, 3) to seek voluntary agreements toward further reducing industrially produced TFA (iTFA) content in foods, a